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Sample records for ion composition measurements

  1. The GOES-16 Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) Ion Composition and Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) was built by the University of New Hampshire, subcontracted to Assurance Technology Corporation, as part of the Space Environmental In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the new GOES-16 satellite (formerly GOES-R) in Geostationary orbit. EHIS measures energetic ions over the range 10-200 MeV for protons, and energy ranges for heavy ions corresponding to the same stopping range (e.g., 19-207 MeV/u for carbon and 38-488 MeV/u for iron). EHIS uses the Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) technique to provide single-element charge resolution. Though on an operational mission for Space Weather monitoring, EHIS can thus provide a new source of high quality Solar Particle Event (SPE) data for science studies. With a high rate of on-board processing ( 2000 events/s), EHIS will provide exceptional statistics for ion composition measurements in large SPEs. For the GOES Level 1-B and Level 2 data products, heavy ions are distinguished in EHIS using pulse-height analysis with on-board processing producing charge histograms for five energy bands. Fits to these data are normalized to priority rate data on the ground. The instrumental cadence for histograms is 1 minute and the primary Level 1-B heavy ion data products are 1-minute and 5-minute averages. We discuss the preliminary EHIS heavy ion data results which show elemental peaks from H to Fe, with peaks for the isotopes D and 3He. (GOES-16 was launched in 19 November, 2016 and data has, though July 2017, been dominated by Galactic Cosmic Rays.) The EHIS instrument development project was funded by NASA under contract NNG06HX01C.

  2. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/e\\leqE/Q\\leq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies \\leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the magnetic field configuration and dynamic processes inside and close to the cusp.

  3. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/eleqE/Qleq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the

  4. Measurements of ion temperature and plasma hydrogenic composition by collective Thomson scattering in neutral beam heated discharges at TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Salewski, Mirko; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2013-01-01

    A method is developed to perform plasma composition and ion temperature measurements across the plasma minor radius in TEXTOR based on ion cyclotron structures in collective Thomson scattering spectra. By gradually moving the scattering volume, we obtain measurements across the outer midplane of ...

  5. Ion Composition of Comet 19P/Borrelly as Measured by the PEPE Ion Mass Spectrometer on DS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, J. E.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Gary, P.

    2002-12-01

    Cometary compositions are of great interest because they hold important clues to the formation of the outer solar system, and to the sources of volatiles in the solar system, including the terrestrial planets. In order to understand the primordial compositions of cometary nuclei, it is important to also understand their evolution, as many of the comets most accessible to spacecraft are highly evolved. It is also important to understand the ion and neutral chemistry that occurs in the coma surrounding the nucleus if the coma ion composition is to be used to determine the original composition of the nucleus. Deep Space One (DS1) was only the second spacecraft, after Giotto, to use an ion mass-resolving instrument to explore cometary coma compositions in-situ, which it did during the flyby of Comet Borrelly on September 22, 2001. Borrelly is significantly more evolved than Halley. In addition, the encounter occurred at a significantly greater distance from the sun (1.36 AU vs 0.9 AU for Giotto at Halley). The Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE) on board DS1 was capable of resolving electron and ion energy, angle of incidence, and ion mass composition. The PEPE ion data from the seven minutes surrounding closest approach (2171 km) have been extensively analyzed. The instrument response was modeled using SIMION and TRIM codes for all of the major species through 20 AMU plus CO (at its operating voltage PEPE was very insensitive to heavier molecules). Chi-squared minimization analysis is being carried out to determine the best fit and the uncertainties. Preliminary results for the predominant heavy ions are OH+ at (72 +/- 9)% of the total water-group ion density, H2O+ at (25 +/- 7)%, CH3+ at (5 +/- 3)%, and O+ at (4 +/- 5)%. Uncertainties are quoted at the 90% confidence level. Comparison with reported Halley compositions from Giotto shows that Borrelly clearly has a lower H3O+ abundance (< 9%), consistent with a more evolved comet. The presence of

  6. A high-resolution mass spectrometer to measure atmospheric ion composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Junninen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present recent achievements on developing and testing a tool to detect the composition of ambient ions in the mass/charge range up to 2000 Th. The instrument is an Atmospheric Pressure Interface Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (APi-TOF, Tofwerk AG. Its mass accuracy is better than 0.002%, and the mass resolving power is 3000 Th/Th. In the data analysis, a new efficient Matlab based set of programs (tofTools were developed, tested and used. The APi-TOF was tested both in laboratory conditions and applied to outdoor air sampling in Helsinki at the SMEAR III station. Transmission efficiency calibrations showed a throughput of 0.1–0.5% in the range 100–1300 Th for positive ions, and linearity over 3 orders of magnitude in concentration was determined. In the laboratory tests the APi-TOF detected sulphuric acid-ammonia clusters in high concentration from a nebulised sample illustrating the potential of the instrument in revealing the role of sulphuric acid clusters in atmospheric new particle formation. The APi-TOF features a high enough accuracy, resolution and sensitivity for the determination of the composition of atmospheric small ions although the total concentration of those ions is typically only 400–2000 cm−3. The atmospheric ions were identified based on their exact masses, utilizing Kendrick analysis and correlograms as well as narrowing down the potential candidates based on their proton affinities as well isotopic patterns. In Helsinki during day-time the main negative ambient small ions were inorganic acids and their clusters. The positive ions were more complex, the main compounds were (polyalkyl pyridines and – amines. The APi-TOF provides a near universal interface for atmospheric pressure sampling, and this key feature will be utilized in future laboratory and field studies.

  7. Mesospheric H2O and H2O2 densities inferred from in situ positive ion composition measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for production and loss of oxonium ions in the high-latitude D-region is developed, based on the observed excess of 34(+) which has been interpreted as H2O2(+). The loss mechanism suggested in the study is the attachment of N2 and/or CO2 in three-body reactions. Furthermore, mesospheric water vapor and H2O2 densities are inferred from measurements of four high-latitude ion compositions, based on the oxonium model. Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previous values were obtained. A number of reactions, reaction constants, and a block diagram of the oxonium ion chemistry in the D-region are given.

  8. Method to measure composition modifications in polyethylene terephthalate during ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdesselam, M.; Stoquert, J. P.; Chami, S.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Siad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Matter losses of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, Mylar) films induced by 1600 keV deuteron beams have been investigated in situ simultaneously by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), deuteron forward elastic scattering (DFES) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (HERD) in the fluence range from 1 × 10 14 to 9 × 10 16 cm -2. Volatile degradation products escape from the polymeric film, mostly as hydrogen-, oxygen- and carbon-containing molecules. Appropriate experimental conditions for observing the composition and thickness changes during irradiation are determined. 16O(d,p 0) 17O, 16O(d,p 1) 17O and 12C(d,p 0) 13C nuclear reactions were used to monitor the oxygen and carbon content as a function of deuteron fluence. Hydrogen release was determined simultaneously by H(d,d)H DFES and H(d,H)d HERD. Comparisons between NRA, DFES and HERD measurements show that the polymer carbonizes at high fluences because most of the oxygen and hydrogen depletion has already occured below a fluence of 3 × 10 16 cm -2. Release curves for each element are determined. Experimental results are consistent with the bulk molecular recombination (BMR) model.

  9. Compositional changes during ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.

    1988-09-01

    Ion irradiation initiates several processes that can alter the composition of the target. This presentation provides an overview of our current understanding of these kinetics processes, which include implantation, sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion, and radiation-induced segregation. The latter two effects can alter the target composition to depths that are substantially greater than the projected ion range. 45 refs., 8 figs

  10. Application of nondestructive ion beam analysis to measure variations in the elemental composition of armor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallone, Arthur. E-mail: art.pallone@murraystate.edu; Demaree, John; Adams, Jane. E-mail: jadams@arl.army.mil

    2004-06-01

    Lightweight, state-of-the-art armors rely on ceramics for their enhanced performance. One goal of the United States Army is to expand the industrial base of companies that provide the armors. A systematic study of armor performance as a function of ceramic stoichiometry will result in a better understanding of the fundamental relations between composition and mechanical performance. One ceramic of interest is aluminum oxynitride (AlON). The stoichiometries of representative samples of AlON were investigated with the nondestructive techniques of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and resonant nuclear reaction analysis. Future tests of the performance of the AlON samples are to be correlated with the stoichiometries, and hence will lead to optimum, standardized processes for the manufacture of the AlON.

  11. Ion composition and temperature in the topside ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, L. H.; Dunham, G. S.; Mayr, H. G.

    1967-01-01

    Particle and energy continuity equations derived and solved by computer method ion composition and plasma temperature measured by Explorer XXII PARTICLE and energy continuity equations derived and solved by computer method for ion composition and plasma temperature measured by Explorer XXII

  12. Neutron ion temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-11-01

    One important use of fusion product diagnostics is in the determination of the deuterium ion temperature from the magnitude of the 2.5 MeV d(d,n) 3 He neutron emission. The detectors, calibration methods, and limitations of this technique are reviewed here with emphasis on procedures used at PPPL. In most tokamaks, the ion temperature deduced from neutrons is in reasonable agreement with the ion temperature deduced by other techniques

  13. Composite anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Guzman, Rhet C.; Ng, K.Y. Simon; Salley, Steven O.

    2018-03-06

    A composite anode for a lithium-ion battery is manufactured from silicon nanoparticles having diameters mostly under 10 nm; providing an oxide layer on the silicon nanoparticles; dispersing the silicon nanoparticles in a polar liquid; providing a graphene oxide suspension; mixing the polar liquid containing the dispersed silicone nanoparticles with the graphene oxide suspension to obtain a composite mixture; probe-sonicating the mixture for a predetermined time; filtering the composite mixture to obtain a solid composite; drying the composite; and reducing the composite to obtain graphene and silicon.

  14. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    are indicative of a powerful ion-retentive mechanism in Tardigrada. Moreover, our data indicate that cryptobiotic tardigrades contain a large fraction of unidentified organic osmolytes, the identification of which is expected to provide increased insight into the phenomenon of cryptobiosis....

  15. Composite media for ion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nick R [Blackfoot, ID; Wood, Donald J [Peshastin, WA; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Sebesta, Ferdinand [Prague, CZ

    2009-12-08

    Composite media, systems, and devices for substantially removing, or otherwise processing, one or more constituents of a fluid stream. The composite media comprise a plurality of beads, each having a matrix substantially comprising polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and supporting one or more active components which are effective in removing, by various mechanisms, one or more constituents from a fluid stream. Due to the porosity and large surface area of the beads, a high level of contact is achieved between composite media of the present invention and the fluid stream being processed. Further, the homogeneity of the beads facilitates use of the beads in high volume applications where it is desired to effectively process a large volume of flow per unit of time.

  16. Metal hydride compositions and lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-24

    Heterogeneous metal hydride (MH) compositions comprising a main region comprising a first metal hydride and a secondary region comprising one or more additional components selected from the group consisting of second metal hydrides, metals, metal alloys and further metal compounds are suitable as anode materials for lithium ion cells. The first metal hydride is for example MgH.sub.2. Methods for preparing the composition include coating, mechanical grinding, sintering, heat treatment and quenching techniques.

  17. Analysis of Ion Composition Estimation Accuracy for Incoherent Scatter Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ledesma, M.; Diaz, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) is one of the most powerful sounding methods developed to estimate the Ionosphere. This radar system determines the plasma parameters by sending powerful electromagnetic pulses to the Ionosphere and analyzing the received backscatter. This analysis provides information about parameters such as electron and ion temperatures, electron densities, ion composition, and ion drift velocities. Nevertheless in some cases the ISR analysis has ambiguities in the determination of the plasma characteristics. It is of particular relevance the ion composition and temperature ambiguity obtained between the F1 and the lower F2 layers. In this case very similar signals are obtained with different mixtures of molecular ions (NO2+ and O2+) and atomic oxygen ions (O+), and consequently it is not possible to completely discriminate between them. The most common solution to solve this problem is the use of empirical or theoretical models of the ionosphere in the fitting of ambiguous data. More recent works take use of parameters estimated from the Plasma Line band of the radar to reduce the number of parameters to determine. In this work we propose to determine the error estimation of the ion composition ambiguity when using Plasma Line electron density measurements. The sensibility of the ion composition estimation has been also calculated depending on the accuracy of the ionospheric model, showing that the correct estimation is highly dependent on the capacity of the model to approximate the real values. Monte Carlo simulations of data fitting at different signal to noise (SNR) ratios have been done to obtain valid and invalid estimation probability curves. This analysis provides a method to determine the probability of erroneous estimation for different signal fluctuations. Also it can be used as an empirical method to compare the efficiency of the different algorithms and methods on when solving the ion composition ambiguity.

  18. Method for the elucidation of the elemental composition of low molecular mass chemicals using exact masses of product ions and neutral losses: application to environmental chemicals measured by liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Ishii, Tetsuko; Yasuhara, Akio; Sakai, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    A method for elucidating the elemental compositions of low molecular weight chemicals, based primarily on mass measurements made using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOFMS), was developed and tested for 113 chemicals of environmental interest with molecular masses up to approximately 400 Da. As the algorithm incorporating the method is not affected by differences in the instrument used, or by the ionization method and other ionization conditions, the method is useful not only for LC/TOFMS, but also for all kinds of mass spectra measured with higher accuracy and precision (uncertainties of a few mDa) employing all ionization methods and on-line separation techniques. The method involves calculating candidate compositions for intact ionized molecules (ionized forms of the sample molecule that have lost or gained no more than a proton, i.e., [M+H](+) or [M-H](-)) as well as for fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, and eliminating those atomic compositions for the molecules that are inconsistent with the corresponding candidate compositions of fragment ions and neutral losses. Candidate compositions were calculated for the measured masses of the intact ionized molecules and of the fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, using mass uncertainties of 2 and 5 mDa, respectively. Compositions proposed for the ionized molecule that did not correspond to the sum of the compositions of a candidate fragment ion and its corresponding neutral loss were discarded. One, 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, and >20 candidate compositions were found for 65%, 39%, 1%, 1%, and 0%, respectively, for the 124 ionized molecules formed from the 113 chemicals tested (both positive and negative ions were obtained from 11 of the chemicals). However, no candidate composition was found for 2% of the test cases (i.e., 3 chemicals), for each of which the measured mass of one of the product ions was in

  19. Ion detectors for isotopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, A.

    1978-12-15

    Detector development over the past two decades has been such that this is now the least likely part of the mass spectrometry equipment to give rise to the sort of measurement errors to cause concern. It is now possible to choose from a number of different types of device which can provide more or less 100% efficiency in ion beam detection under all conceivable experimental conditions required for isotopic analysis, from measurement of large samples using the traditional Faraday cage to measurement of exceedingly small ion currents by ion counting techniques. There are even methods of distinguishing one type of ionic species from another in the detector, thus improving the accuracy when unwanted isobaric species might otherwise grossly distort the measurement. Notable contributions to detector development for nuclear measurements have been made by Dietz at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, by Barnett at Oak Ridge and by Daly at Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (AWRE), Aldermaston. This paper describes the detection methods which are currently in use at AWRE for isotopic analysis of solid samples for routine applications as well as non-routine applications. Other methods are merely mentioned as a stimulus for discussion.

  20. Heavy ion measurement by chemical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.; Erzgraeber, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    1979-02-01

    In testing the applicability of the threshold system polyvinyl alcohol/methyl orange/chloral hydrate/sodium tetraborate to the quantitative detection of single particles, the chemical detector was irradiated with 4 He, 12 C, 18 O, 22 He ions of different LET. Detectors with 4 different borax concentrations (chloral hydrate concentration kept constant) have been irradiated. The dose causing the colour change increased linearly with the borax concentration. For equal borax concentrations this dose increases with increasing LET due to the decreasing G value of the HCl. The fluence ranges measurable with the various detector compositions are given. 4 He and 18 O ion ranges have been determined. The measured depth dose curves have been corrected because the dose is LET-dependent. The experimentally determined ranges are in good agreement with values calculated for the detector material

  1. Composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.Y.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of approximatelt 1 to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production

  2. Kinetic Rate Law Parameter Measurements on a Borosilicate Waste Glass: Effect of Temperature, pH, and Solution Composition on Alkali Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B PETER.; Icenhower, J P.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.; Baum, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of glass is controlled by matrix dissolution and ion exchange (IEX). Dissolution of an alkali-rich simulated borosilicate waste glass was investigated using single-pass flow-through (SPFT) experiments. Experiments were conducted as a function of temperature, pH, and solution composition by varying the SiO 2 (aq) activity in the influent solution. Results showed that under dilute conditions matrix dissolution increased with increasing pH and temperature, and decreased with increasing SiO 2 (aq) activity. IEX rates decreased with increasing pH and temperature, and increased with increasing SiO 2 (aq) activity. Over the solution composition range interrogated in this study the dominant dissolution mechanism changed from matrix dissolution to IEX. These results suggest that ''secondary'' reactions may become dominant under certain environmental conditions and emphasize the need to incorporate these reactions into dissolution rate models

  3. CRRES observations of stormtime ring current ion composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, J.L.; Fennell, J.F.; Chen, M.W.; Grande, M.; Livi, S.; Schulz, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Ion Composition Spectrometer onboard the CRRES spacecraft provided mass and charge state composition data for positive ions in the energy-per-charge range 1 endash 426 keV/e. The CRRES data is compared to the AMPTE/CCE observations during a moderately large geomagnetic storm on 4 June 1991. The results are compared to observations of large storms by CRRES and by the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft. The CRRES data show that oxygen ions formed 29% of the total measured ion energy density at L=3 endash 5 during the storm recovery phase. This result implies that domination of the plasma by oxygen ions may not be necessary to produce the observed rapid initial recovery of the Dst magnetic index. A preliminary test of the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation between the ion energy and the global magnetic perturbation shows that the observed particle fluxes during the 4 June 1991 storm could account for only 40 endash 70% of the variation of Dst. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The composition within individual SEP events may vary both with time and energy, and will in general be different from that in other SEP events. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events, however, are found to be roughly energy independent in the proportional1 to proportional20 MeV per nucleon range, and show a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs have revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He + along with heavy ions with typically coronal ionization states. High-resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events show these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP 22 Ne/ 20 Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of 3 He-rich, heavy-ion rich and carbon-poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provide essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production. (orig./HM)

  5. Investigation of the composition of an ion beam produced using a multi arc ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelko, V [Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giese, H; Schalk, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). INR; Mishin, M; Tsibin, O Y [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Complementing the diode and beam transport optimization studies currently performed at FZK Karlsruhe on the proton-beam-facility PROFA, supplementary investigations were run at the St. Petersburg State University, focusing on ion beam divergence and composition measurements using the TOF techniques. To ensure direct transferability of the results to the PROFA facility, these measurements were made on a scaled-down replica of the PROFA diode, comprising an array of small polyethylene flash-over plasma sources and a grid extraction system. Only the results of the beam composition measurements are presented, and the following conclusions are made: (i) The ion beam contains H and C ions and heavier constituents that remain to be identified. (ii) The beam composition changes significantly with the total number of shots: While H{sup +} ions predominated in the starting phase of the experiments, heavier components outweighed them later on, presumably due to hydrogen depletion of the surface layer of the anode polyethylene units. (iii) Reconditioning of the polyethylene units may be possible by running the diode at higher currents (self-cleaning) or by cutting off a surface layer. (author). 7 figs., 3 refs.

  6. Composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.Y.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of approximately 1 to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events was determined and current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations are outlined. The composition within individual SEP events may vary both with time and energy, and will in general be different from that in other SEP events. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events, however are found to be roughly energy independent in the approximately 1 to approximately 20 MeV per nucleon range, and show a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seem to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs have revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ions with typical coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events show these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP Ne-22 relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind

  7. Aspirated capacitor measurements of air conductivity and ion mobility spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aplin, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of ions in atmospheric air are used to investigate atmospheric electricity and particulate pollution. Commonly studied ion parameters are (1) air conductivity, related to the total ion number concentration, and (2) the ion mobility spectrum, which varies with atmospheric composition. The physical principles of air ion instrumentation are long established. A recent development is the computerized aspirated capacitor, which measures ions from (a) the current of charged particles at a sensing electrode, and (b) the rate of charge exchange with an electrode at a known initial potential, relaxing to a lower potential. As the voltage decays, only ions of higher and higher mobility are collected by the central electrode and contribute to the further decay of the voltage. This enables extension of the classical theory to calculate ion mobility spectra by inverting voltage decay time series. In indoor air, ion mobility spectra determined from both the voltage decay inversion, and an established voltage switching technique, were compared and shown to be of similar shape. Air conductivities calculated by integration were: 5.3±2.5 and 2.7±1.1 fSm -1 , respectively, with conductivity determined to be 3 fSm -1 by direct measurement at a constant voltage. Applications of the relaxation potential inversion method include air ion mobility spectrum retrieval from historical data, and computation of ion mobility spectra in planetary atmospheres

  8. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  9. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  10. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai [Nuclear Engineering Department Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngkyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated.

  11. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai; Kim, Youngkyun; Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated

  12. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H.J.; Greiner, L.; Kuo, C.

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed

  13. Ion Distribution Measurement In Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryadi; Sunardi; Usada, Widdi; Purwadi, Agus; Zaenuri, Akhmad

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of the Argon ion distribution in plasma focus by using Faraday cup has been done. The intensity of ion beam followed the I Rn rule, n=1,02. In the operation condition of 0,8 mbar and 12,5 kV the current sheath spen 2.2 to 2.4 μsecond in the rundown phase. Cu ion was also been observed in the Faraday cup

  14. Measurements of low energy auroral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes ion measurements in the energy range 0.1 to 30 keV observed during the campaigns 'Substorm Phenomena' and 'Porcupine'. For a clear survey of the physical processes during extraordinary events, sometimes ion measurements of higher energies are also taken into account. Generally, the pitch angle distributions were isotropic during all flights except some remarkable events. In general the ion and electron flux intensities correlated, but sometimes revealed a spectral anti-correlation. Acceleration of the ions by an electrostatic field aligned parallel to the magnetic field could be identified accompanied by intense electron precipitation. On the other hand deceleration of the ions was observed in other field-aligned current sheets which are indicated by the electron and magnetic field measurements. Temporal successive monoenergetic ion variations pointed to energy dispersion and to the location of the source region at 9 Rsub(E). Furthermore, ion fluxes higher than those of the electrons were measured at pitch angles parallel to the magnetic field. The integral down-going number and energy flux of the ions contributed to the total particle or energy influx between 65% and less than 7% and did not clearly characterize the geophysical launch conditions or auroral activities. (author)

  15. Composite inorganic ion-exchangers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Composite inorganic ion exchangers are described containing modified polyacrylonitrile as the binding polymer. An overview of existing composite ion exchangers is presented, and the universality and assets of the developed procedure of treatment of inorganic ion exchanger powders are highlighted. Examples of applicability of the ion exchangers to the separation and concentration of radionuclides include in particular: wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, contaminated surface waters and ground water, high level radioactive wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and wastewaters from uranium ore mining and milling. In addition, composite ion exchangers find use in the monitoring of contamination of the hydrosphere and the environment and in the investigation of radionuclide migration in surface waters and ground water

  16. Crystal field splitting and spin states of Co ions in cobalt ferrite with composition Co1.5Fe1.5O4 using magnetization and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A. K.; Singh, M. N.; Achary, S. N.; Sagdeo, A.; Shukla, D. K.; Phase, D. M.

    2017-08-01

    Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of partially inverted Cobalt Ferrite with composition Co1.5Fe1.5O4 is discussed in the present work. Single phase (SG: Fd3m) sample is synthesized by co-precipitation technique and subsequent air annealing. The values of saturation magnetization obtained from careful analysis of approach to saturation in initial M(H) curves are used to determine spin states of Co ions in tetrahedral (TH) and octahedral (OH) sites. Spin states of Co3+ ions in TH sites, which has not been reported in literature, were found to be in high spin state. Temperature variation of magnetic parameters has been studied. The sample shows magneto-crystalline anisotropy with two clearly distinct pinning centers. Oxygen K-edge and Fe as well as Co L2,3-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra have been used as complementary measurements to study crystal field splitting and core hole effects on transition metal (TM) 3d orbitals. The ratio of intensities of t2g and eg absorption bands in O-K edge XAS spectrum is used to estimate the spin states of Co ions at OH and TH sites. The results are in agreement with those obtained from magnetization data, and favors Co3+ ions in TH sites in high spin states. Normalized areas of the satellite peaks in TM L2,3-edge XAS spectra have been used to estimate 3dn+1L contribution in ground state wave function and the contributions were found to be significant.

  17. New Composite Sorbents for Caesium and Strontium Ions Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents derived from plant residues of agriculture and food industry, modified with ferrocyanides of d-metals and hydrated antimony pentoxide were prepared. Caesium and strontium ions removal from water was tested by radiotracer method. Sorption of heavy metal ions, methylene blue, gelatin, vitamin B12 was also studied.

  18. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

  19. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma

  20. Effect of ion composition on oblique magnetosonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yuichi; Toida, Mieko

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ion composition on oblique magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma are studied theoretically and numerically. First, it is analytically shown that the KdV equation for the low-frequency mode, the lower branch of magnetosonic waves, is valid for amplitudes ε max (l-) , where ε max (l-) is a measure of the upper limit of the amplitude of the rarefactive solitary pulse of the low-frequency mode and is given as a function of the propagation angle of the wave θ, the density ratio and cyclotron frequency ratio of two ion species. The value of ε max (l-) increases with decreasing θ. Next, with electromagnetic particle simulations, the nonlinear evolution of the low- and high-frequency modes is examined. It is demonstrated that shorter-wavelength low- and high-frequency-mode waves are generated from a long-wavelength low-frequency-mode pulse if its amplitude ε exceeds ε max (l-) . (author)

  1. Crystal field splitting and spin states of Co ions in cobalt ferrite with composition Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} using magnetization and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.K., E-mail: anil@rrcat.gov.in [HXAL, Synchrotrons Utilization Section, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India); Singh, M.N. [HXAL, Synchrotrons Utilization Section, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India); Achary, S.N. [Chemistry Division, BARC, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sagdeo, A. [HXAL, Synchrotrons Utilization Section, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India); Shukla, D.K.; Phase, D.M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452010 (India)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Co ions in Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} are found to be in high spin states. • XAS measurements have been used to estimate TM crystal field and core hole contributions to 3d orbital splitting. • The polycrystalline Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} sample show two pinning centers and large magneto crystalline anisotropy. - Abstract: Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of partially inverted Cobalt Ferrite with composition Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} is discussed in the present work. Single phase (SG: Fd3m) sample is synthesized by co-precipitation technique and subsequent air annealing. The values of saturation magnetization obtained from careful analysis of approach to saturation in initial M(H) curves are used to determine spin states of Co ions in tetrahedral (T{sub H}) and octahedral (O{sub H}) sites. Spin states of Co{sup 3+} ions in T{sub H} sites, which has not been reported in literature, were found to be in high spin state. Temperature variation of magnetic parameters has been studied. The sample shows magneto-crystalline anisotropy with two clearly distinct pinning centers. Oxygen K-edge and Fe as well as Co L{sub 2,3}-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra have been used as complementary measurements to study crystal field splitting and core hole effects on transition metal (TM) 3d orbitals. The ratio of intensities of t{sub 2g} and e{sub g} absorption bands in O-K edge XAS spectrum is used to estimate the spin states of Co ions at O{sub H} and T{sub H} sites. The results are in agreement with those obtained from magnetization data, and favors Co{sup 3+} ions in T{sub H} sites in high spin states. Normalized areas of the satellite peaks in TM L{sub 2},{sub 3}-edge XAS spectra have been used to estimate 3d{sub n+1}L contribution in ground state wave function and the contributions were found to be significant.

  2. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvreau, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP's and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 μs, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity

  3. Fluorescence lifetime measurement of radical ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Nobuyuki; Kinugasa, Jun-ichiro; Hagiri, Masahide; Nakayama, Toshihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Maki; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    One-photonic excitation of a charge transfer complex of hexamethoxybenzene (HMB) and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate (NO + BF 4 - ) in acetonitrile afforded fluorescences emission from excited radical cation of HMB (HMB + *). Lifetime of the excited radical ion species was measured to be 7 ps by the pump-probe transient absorption technique. The lifetime was much shorter than that of free radical ion (63 ps), indicating the presence of an interaction between HMB + * and NO in the excited complex. (author)

  4. Radioactive ion implantation as a tool for wear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, C.; Soerensen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with ion implantation of radioactive krypton ions in surfaces with aim of measuring wear of different magnetic materials in sound-heads. The technique is especially suited for a relatively fast comparison of wear-characteristics of materials of varying composition in small inaccessible areas. In the present case utilisation of a 60 KeV accelerator allows determination of a total wear as small as 0.05 μm with an accuracy of 10%. Further the technique yields information of the time dependence of the wear process with an accuracy less than 0.001 μm. (author)

  5. Gaseous ion-composition measurements in the young exhaust plume of jet aircraft at cruising altitudes. Implications for aerosols and gaseous sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.; Wohlfrom, K.H.; Klemm, M.; Schneider, J.; Gollinger, K. [Max-Planck-Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schumann, U.; Busen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Mass spectrometric measurements were made in the young exhaust plume of an Airbus (A310) at cruising altitudes at distances between 400 and 800 m behind the Airbus (averaged plume age: 3.4 sec). The measurements indicate that gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) number densities were less than 1.3 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3} which is smaller than the expected total sulfuric acid. Hence the missing sulfuric acid must have been in the aerosol phase. These measurements also indicate a total aerosol surface area density A{sub T} {<=} 5.4 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} per cm{sup 3} which is consistent with simultaneously measured soot and water contrail particles. However, homogeneous nucleation leading to (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub y}-clusters can not be ruled out. (author) 16 refs.

  6. Gaseous ion-composition measurements in the young exhaust plume of jet aircraft at cruising altitudes. Implications for aerosols and gaseous sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F; Wohlfrom, K H; Klemm, M; Schneider, J; Gollinger, K [Max-Planck-Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schumann, U; Busen, R [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    Mass spectrometric measurements were made in the young exhaust plume of an Airbus (A310) at cruising altitudes at distances between 400 and 800 m behind the Airbus (averaged plume age: 3.4 sec). The measurements indicate that gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) number densities were less than 1.3 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3} which is smaller than the expected total sulfuric acid. Hence the missing sulfuric acid must have been in the aerosol phase. These measurements also indicate a total aerosol surface area density A{sub T} {<=} 5.4 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} per cm{sup 3} which is consistent with simultaneously measured soot and water contrail particles. However, homogeneous nucleation leading to (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub y}-clusters can not be ruled out. (author) 16 refs.

  7. Surface composition of biomedical components by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Baxter, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Materials used for replacement body parts must satisfy a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and mechanical ability to handle the task with regard to strength, wear and durability. When using a CVD coated carbon fibre reinforced carbon ball, the surface must be ion implanted with uniform dose of nitrogen ions in order to make it wear resistant. The mechanism by which the wear resistance is improved is one of radiation damage and the required dose of about 10 16 cm -2 can have a tolerance of about 20%. To implant a spherical surface requires manipulation of the sample within the beam and control system (either computer or manually operated) to enable uniform dose all the way from polar to equatorial regions on the surface. A manipulator has been designed and built for this purpose. In order to establish whether the dose is uniform, nuclear reaction analysis using the reaction 14 N(d,α) 12 C is an ideal method of profiling. By taking measurements at a number of points on the surface, the uniformity of nitrogen dose can be ascertained. It is concluded that both Rutherford Backscattering and Nuclear Reaction Analysis can be used for rapid analysis of surface composition of carbon based materials used for replacement body components. 2 refs., 2 figs

  8. Principles of fuel ion ratio measurements in fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    ratio. Measurements of the fuel ion ratio will be important for plasma control and machine protection in future experiments with burning fusion plasmas. Here we examine the theoretical basis for fuel ion ratio measurements by CTS. We show that the sensitivity to plasma composition is enhanced......For certain scattering geometries collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements are sensitive to the composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. CTS therefore holds the potential to become a new diagnostic for measurements of the fuel ion ratio—i.e. the tritium to deuterium density...... by the signatures of ion cyclotron motion and ion Bernstein waves which appear for scattering geometries with resolved wave vectors near perpendicular to the magnetic field. We investigate the origin and properties of these features in CTS spectra and give estimates of their relative importance for fuel ion ratio...

  9. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-01-27

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate 'weak links' where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  10. HBT measurements in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajc, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The correlations in relative momentum between identical bosons are determined, in part, by the geometrical properties of the boson source. This fact was first exploited in hadron physics by Goldhaber, Goldhaber, Lee and Pais (GGLP) in 1960. In the intervening three decades, this approach has been applied to lepton-lepton, lepton-hadron, hadron-hadron, and heavy-ion collisions. A word about nomenclature: The correlations in relative momentum between identical mesons arise from Bose statistics. Even previous to GGLP, this fact was applied by Hanbury-Brown and Twiss to measure stellar radii via two-photon interferometry. Thus an alternative name for the GGLP effect is the HBT effect. An informal introduction to Hanbury-Brown-Twiss measurements in heavy ion collisions is presented. The systematic effects in interpreting such data are emphasized, rather than the implications of any single experiment

  11. High current density ion beam measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.

    1976-01-01

    High ion beam current measurements are difficult due to the presence of the secondary particles and beam neutralization. For long Faraday cages, true current can be obtained only by negative bias on the target and by summing the cage wall and target currents; otherwise, the beam will be greatly distorted. For short Faraday cages, a combination of small magnetic field and the negative target bias results in correct beam current. Either component alone does not give true current

  12. Tuning of wettability of PANI-GNP composites using keV energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, G.B.V.S., E-mail: lakshmigbvs@gmail.com [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 67 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity University, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-07-15

    Polyaniline nanofiber composites with various nanomaterials have several applications in electrochemical biosensors. The surface properties of these composites coated electrodes play crucial role in enzyme absorption and analyte detection process. In the present study, Polyaniline-Graphene nanopowder (PANI-GNP) composites were prepared by rapid-mixing polymerization method. The films were prepared on ITO coated glass substrates and irradiated with 42 keV He{sup +} ions produced by indigenously fabricated accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi. The films were characterized before and after irradiation by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The as-prepared films show superhydrophilic nature and after irradiation the films show highly hydrophobic nature with water contact angle (135°). The surface morphology was studied by SEM and structural changes were studied by Raman spectra. The surface morphological modifications induced by keV energy ions helps in tuning the wettability at different ion fluences.

  13. The prospect for fuel ion ratio measurements in ITER by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    We show that collective Thomson scattering (CTS) holds the potential to become a new diagnostic principle for measurements of the fuel ion ratio, nT/nD, in ITER. Fuel ion ratio measurements will be important for plasma control and machine protection in ITER. Measurements of ion cyclotron structures...... in CTS spectra have been suggested as the basis for a new fuel ion ratio diagnostic which would be well suited for reactor environments and capable of providing spatially resolved measurements in the plasma core. Such measurements were demonstrated in recent experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak. Here we...... conduct a sensitivity study to investigate the potential measurement accuracy of a CTS fuel ion ratio diagnostic on ITER. The study identifies regions of parameter space in which CTS can be expected to provide useful information on plasma composition, and we find that a CTS fuel ion ratio diagnostic could...

  14. Implementation schemes for unsharp measurements with trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Choudhary, SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available trapped ion. The schemes rely on introducing weak entanglement between the state of a target ion and that of an auxiliary ion, using standard ion-trap quantum logic operations, and then realizing an unsharp measurement through projective measurement...

  15. Composition dependent thermal annealing behaviour of ion tracks in apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadzri, A., E-mail: allina.nadzri@anu.edu.au [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Schauries, D.; Mota-Santiago, P.; Muradoglu, S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gleadow, A.J.W. [School of Earth Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Hawley, A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Kluth, P. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2016-07-15

    Natural apatite samples with different F/Cl content from a variety of geological locations (Durango, Mexico; Mud Tank, Australia; and Snarum, Norway) were irradiated with swift heavy ions to simulate fission tracks. The annealing kinetics of the resulting ion tracks was investigated using synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combined with ex situ annealing. The activation energies for track recrystallization were extracted and consistent with previous studies using track-etching, tracks in the chlorine-rich Snarum apatite are more resistant to annealing than in the other compositions.

  16. Evaluation of the ion-density measurements by the Indian satellite SROSS-C2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, P.; Jain, A. R.; Maini, H. K.; Bahl, M.; Das, Rupesh M.; Garg, S. C.; Niranjan, K.

    2010-12-01

    The ion and electron F region plasma measurements made by the ion and electron Retarding Potential Analyzers (RPAs) onboard the Indian satellite SROSS-C2, have yielded excellent data set over the Indian region for more than half a solar cycle, after the SROSS-C2 launch in May 1994. The absolute ion density, ion temperature, and ion composition parameters are derived from these in situ measurements and used by many workers. In this paper the absolute values of ion density derived from the ion RPA measurements are compared and evaluated with the measurements made by ground-based ionosondes located in the Indian region and close to the SROSS-C2 orbital path. It is shown that a slight adjustment in efficiency factor of the ion RPA sensor brings the in situ measurements much closer to those obtained from the ground-based ionosonde measurements taking into account the model calculations. It may be mentioned that this is a correction to the ion density measurement by SROSS-C2 by a fixed proportion (14-11.4%). The effect of change in efficiency factor on the ion current, which is used to deduce the ion number density, is demonstrated and discussed.

  17. Composite gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Roya

    Composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) films, consisting of poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) as the membrane, DMF and PC as solvent and plasticizing agent, mixture of charge modified TiO2 and SiO 2 nano particles as ionic conductors, and LiClO4+LiPF 6 as lithium salts were fabricated. Following the work done by Li et al., CGPE was coated on an O2-plasma treated trilayer polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene membrane separator using solution casting technique in order to improve the adhesive properties of gel polymer electrolyte to the separator membrane and its respective ionic conductivity due to decreasing the bulk resistance. In acidic CGPE with, the mixture of acid treated TiO2 and neutral SiO2 nano particles played the role of the charge modified nano fillers with enhanced hydroxyl groups. Likely, the mixture of neutral TiO 2 nano particles with basic SiO2 prepared through the hydrolization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) provided a more basic environment due to the residues of NH4OH (Ammonium hydroxide) catalyst. The O2 plasma treated separator was coated with the solution of PVDF-HFP: modified nano fillers: Organic solvents with the mixture ratio of 0.1:0.01:1. After the evaporation of the organic solvents, the dried coated separator was soaked in PC-LiClO4+LiPF6 in EC: DMC:DEC (4:2:4 in volume) solution (300% wt. of PVDF-HFP) to form the final CGPE. Lim et al. has reported the enhanced ionic conductivity of 9.78*10-5 Scm-1 in an acidic composite polystyrene-Al2O3 solid electrolyte system with compared to that of basic and neutral in which the ionic conductivity undergoes an ion hopping process in solid interface rather than a segmental movement of ions through the plasticized polymer chain . Half-cells with graphite anode and Li metal as reference electrode were then assembled and the electrochemical measurements and morphology examinations were successfully carried out. Half cells demonstrated a considerable change in their

  18. Ion beam studies. Part 5 - the computer simulation of composite ion implantation profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Booker, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The computer simulation of composite ion implantation profiles produced by continuous energy programming and by discrete multiple dose doping is described. It is shown that precise matching of the computed profile to various uniform and power-law distributions can be achieved. (author)

  19. Heavy ion measurements by use of chemical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.; Erzgraeber, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    1980-01-01

    In order to test whether the threshold system polyvinyl alcohol/methyl organe/chloral hydrate/sodium tetraborate permits quantitative detection of individual particles, the chemical detector was irradiated at the JINR U-200 cyclotron with 4 He, 12 C, 18 O, 22 Ne ions having different LET. Irradiations were performed with detectors of four different borax concentrations (the chloral hydrate concentration being constant). The colour change dose Dsub(u) increases linearly with increasing borax concentration and at constant borax concentration with increasing LET. Hence it follows that the G value of dehydrochlorination decreases with increasing LET. Fluence ranges measurable with detectors of different composition are given for the heavy ions studied. (author)

  20. Sensor platform for gas composition measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, G.; Bakker, F.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    The gas sensor research presented here has a focus on the measurement of the composition of natural gas and gases from sustainable resources, such as biogas. For efficient and safe combustion, new sensor systems need to be developed to measure the composition of these new gases. In general about 6

  1. Ion beam modifications of near-surface compositions in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.; Tang, S.; Yacout, A.M.; Rehn, L.E.; Stubbins, J.F.

    1990-11-01

    Changes in the surface and subsurface compositions of ternary alloys during elevated-temperature sputtering with inert-gas ions were investigated. Theoretically, a comprehensive kinetic model which includes all the basic processes, such as preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, Gibbsian segregation, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation, was developed. This phenomenological approach enabled to predict the effects of each individual process or of a combination of processes on the compositional modification in model alloys. Experimentally, measurements of compositional changes at the surface of a Ag-40at%Au -- 20at%Cu alloy during 3-keV Ne + bombardment at various temperatures were made, using ion scattering spectroscopy. These measurements were interpreted on the basis of the results of theoretical modeling. 8 refs., 2 figs

  2. Measurement of stopping power of light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Naoki

    1981-01-01

    The stopping power of light ions penetrating various materials has been measured. The data of proton stopping power and the mean ionization potentials are presented. The experiments were made by using the 6.75 MeV protons from a cyclotron and the protons in the energy range from 3 to 9 MeV from a tandem Van de Graaff. The windows with and without sample-foils were rotated in front of a semiconductor detector, and the measured energy loss and the thickness of the sample foils were used to estimate the energy loss at the mean energy of protons in the samples. The analyses were made by considering the inner shell correction, Z 1 3 correction and the Bloch correction. The mean ionization potentials were derived from the data. (Kato, T.)

  3. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  4. Recent progress in understanding of the ion composition in the magnetosphere and some major question mark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1981-06-01

    The observations of the energetic ion composition in the magnetosphere are reviewed with the emphasis on the recent measurements by means of GEOS-1 and -2, ISEE-1 and 2, PROGNOZ-7 and SCATHA. The observations are compared with the predictions of the open magnetosphere model. One of the major conclusions is that there are processes in the magnetosphere which play a much larger part than the model, as hitherto presented, predicts. Direct ejection of ionospheric ions, in combination with acceleration, along closed as well as open field lines may even be the dominating source process for the ring current/inner plasma sheet in magnetic storms. In very disturbed conditions this ejection mechanism must work over most of the hemispheres poleward of say 50degrees. Circulation of the ionospheric ions through the tail of the magnetosphere is not likely to be of primary importance for the energization of these ions in very disturbed conditions. (author)

  5. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  6. Ion measurements in premixed methane-oxygen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad; Hourani, Nadim; Chahine, May; Selim, Hatem; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Mass Spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane-oxygen-argon burner-stabilized flames. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames at atmospheric pressure are used to study the dependence of ion chemistry

  7. First multispacecraft ion measurements in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere with the identical Cluster ion spectrometry (CIS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rème

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available On board the four Cluster spacecraft, the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS experiment measures the full, three-dimensional ion distribution of the major magnetospheric ions (H+, He+, He++, and O+ from the thermal energies to about 40 keV/e. The experiment consists of two different instruments: a COmposition and DIstribution Function analyser (CIS1/CODIF, giving the mass per charge composition with medium (22.5° angular resolution, and a Hot Ion Analyser (CIS2/HIA, which does not offer mass resolution but has a better angular resolution (5.6° that is adequate for ion beam and solar wind measurements. Each analyser has two different sensitivities in order to increase the dynamic range. First tests of the instruments (commissioning activities were achieved from early September 2000 to mid January 2001, and the operation phase began on 1 February 2001. In this paper, first results of the CIS instruments are presented showing the high level performances and capabilities of the instruments. Good examples of data were obtained in the central plasma sheet, magnetopause crossings, magnetosheath, solar wind and cusp measurements. Observations in the auroral regions could also be obtained with the Cluster spacecraft at radial distances of 4–6 Earth radii. These results show the tremendous interest of multispacecraft measurements with identical instruments and open a new area in magnetospheric and solar wind-magnetosphere interaction physics.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetopheric configuration and dynamics; solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

  8. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  9. Heavy ion composition in the inner heliosphere: Predictions for Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, S. T.; Livi, S. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Raines, J. M.; Allegrini, F.; Collier, M. R.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Heavy Ion Sensor (HIS) on SO, with its high time resolution, will provide the first ever solar wind and surpathermal heavy ion composition and 3D velocity distribution function measurements inside the orbit of Mercury. These measurements will provide us the most in depth examination of the origin, structure and evolution of the solar wind. The near co-rotation phases of the orbiter will enable the most accurate mapping of in-situ structures back to their solar sources. Measurements of solar wind composition and heavy ion kinetic properties enable characterization of the sources, transport mechanisms and acceleration processes of the solar wind. This presentation will focus on the current state of in-situ studies of heavy ions in the solar wind and their implications for the sources of the solar wind, the nature of structure and variability in the solar wind, and the acceleration of particles. Additionally, we will also discuss opportunities for coordinated measurements across the payloads of Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe in order to answer key outstanding science questions of central interest to the Solar and Heliophysics communities.

  10. Microwave Measurements of Ferrite Polymer Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Dosoudil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the microwave measurements performed on the nickel-zinc sintered ferrite with the chemical formula Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 produced by the ceramic technique and composite materials based on this ferrite and a non-magnetic polymer (polyvinyl chloride matrix. The prepared composite samples had the same particle size distribution 0-250um but different ferrite particle concentrations between 23 vol% and 80 vol%. The apparatus for measurement of the signal proportional to the absolute value of scattering parameter S11 (reflexion coefficient is described and the dependence of measured reflected signal on a bias magnetic field has been studied. By means of experiments, the resonances to be connected with the geometry of microwave experimental set-up were distinguished from ferromagnetic resonance arising in ferrite particles of composite structure. The role of local interaction fields of ferrite particles in composite material has been discussed.

  11. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  12. In-flight calibration of satellite ion composition data using artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemark, J.

    1995-11-01

    The scope of this report is to evaluate some of the cognitive analyzing techniques that are available and that might be useful for calibration, validation and data analysis of a satellite measurement system. As an example, these cognitive techniques are used to perform a post launch calibration of the three-dimensional ion composition, TICS, on the Freja satellite. 17 refs, 28 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Influence of both ion bombardment and chemical treatment processes on the electrical conductivity of PVC/poly aniline composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, E.A.M.; Ashour, A.H.; Abdel-Hamid, H.M.; Sayed, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this article the changes in the electrical conductivity of PVC/poly aniline composites, as temperature consecutively increases, have been measured. The measurement were taken with correspondence to a control series of the composites under two processes:A. Composite samples bombarded with Ar + ions with fluence 2.44 x 10 13 beam ions /cm 2 ., sec 4 of 4 ke V beam energy where argon atoms can induce defects in the surface layer take place. Composite samples treated chemically with concentrated H 2 SO 4 as dopant which reacts with nitrogen atom in aniline. The measurements were also, done with the composites as the ratio of poly(aniline) stepped upward

  14. Applications of air ion measurement in environmental diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper is dealing with the methods employing the measuring of naturally created air ions. The amount and mobility distribution of these ions offer hidden information about air pollution. On the other hand, the natural air ions are active in some environmental processes and they should be considered as an immediate environmental factor

  15. Measurement of few-electron uranium ions on a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    The high-energy electron beam ion trap, dubbed Super-EBIT, was used to produce, trap, and excite uranium ions as highly charged as fully stripped U 92+ . The production of such highly charged ions was indicated by the x-ray emission observed with high-purity Ge detectors. Moreover, high-resolution Bragg crystal spectromters were used to analyze the x-ray emission, including a detailed measurement of both the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole transitions. Unlike in ion accelerators, where the uranium ions move at relativistic speeds, the ions in this trap are stationary. Thus very precise measurements of the transition energies could be made, and the QED contribution to the transition energies could be measured within less than 1 %. Details of the production of these highly charged ions and their measurement is given

  16. Technique for increasing dynamic range of space-borne ion composition instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, J.L.; Miller, G.P.; Santos, A. de los; Pollock, C.J.; Pope, S.E.; Valek, P. W.; Young, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic range of ion composition spectrometers is limited by several factors, including saturation of particle counters and spillover of signals from highly dominant species into channels tuned to minor species. Instruments designed for composition measurements of hot plasmas in space can suffer greatly from both of these problems because of the wide energy range required and the wide disparity in fluxes encountered in various regions of interest. In order to detect minor ions in regions of very weak fluxes, geometry factors need to be as large as possible within the mass and volume resources available. As a result, problems with saturation by the dominant fluxes and spillover to minor-ion channels in plasma regions with intense fluxes become especially acute. This article reports on a technique for solving the dynamic-range problem in the few eV to several keV energy/charge range that is of central importance for space physics research where the dominant ion is of low mass/charge (typically H + ), and the minor ions are of higher mass/charge (typically O + ). The technique involves employing a radio-frequency modulation of the deflection electric field in the back section of an electrostatic analyzer in a time-of-flight instrument. This technique is shown to reduce H + counts by a controllable amount of up to factors of 1000 while reducing O + counts by only a few percent that can be calibrated

  17. Cassini CAPS Identification of Pickup Ion Compositions at Rhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, R. T.; Taylor, S. A.; Regoli, L. H.; Coates, A. J.; Nordheim, T. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Teolis, B. D.; Thomsen, M. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Jones, G. H.; Cowee, M. M.; Waite, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    Saturn's largest icy moon, Rhea, hosts a tenuous surface-sputtered exosphere composed primarily of molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In this Letter, we examine Cassini Plasma Spectrometer velocity space distributions near Rhea and confirm that Cassini detected nongyrotropic fluxes of outflowing CO2+ during both the R1 and R1.5 encounters. Accounting for this nongyrotropy, we show that these possess comparable along-track densities of ˜2 × 10-3 cm-3. Negatively charged pickup ions, also detected during R1, are surprisingly shown as consistent with mass 26 ± 3 u which we suggest are carbon-based compounds, such as CN-, C2H-, C2-, or HCO-, sputtered from carbonaceous material on the moon's surface. The negative ions are calculated to possess along-track densities of ˜5 × 10-4 cm-3 and are suggested to derive from exogenic compounds, a finding consistent with the existence of Rhea's dynamic CO2 exosphere and surprisingly low O2 sputtering yields. These pickup ions provide important context for understanding the exospheric and surface ice composition of Rhea and of other icy moons which exhibit similar characteristics.

  18. Generation of H-, D- ions on composite surfaces with application to surface/plasma ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.; Wimmer, E.; Freeman, A.J.; Chubb, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    We review some salient features of the experimental and theoretical data pertaining to hydrogen negative ion generation on minimum-work-function composite surfaces consisting of Cs/transition metal substrates. Cesium or hydrogen ion bombardment of a cesium-activated negatively-biased electrode exposed to a cesium-hydrogen discharge results in the release of hydrogen negative ions. These ions originate through desorbtion of hydrogen particles by incident cesium ions, desorbtion by incident hydrogen ions, and by backscattering of incident hydrogen. Each process is characterized by a specific energy and angular distribution. The calculation of ion formation in the crystal selvage region is discussed for different approximations to the surface potential. An ab initio, all-electron, local density functional model for the composite surface electronics is discussed

  19. Measurement of the force on microparticles in a beam of energetic ions and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottenberg, Thomas; Schneider, Viktor; Kersten, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The force on microparticles in an energetic ion beam is investigated experimentally. Hollow glass microspheres are injected into the vertically upward directed beam and their trajectories are recorded with a charge-coupled device camera. The net force on the particles is determined by means of the measured vertical acceleration. The resulting beam pressures are compared with Faraday cup measurements of the ion current density and calorimetric measurements of the beam power density. Due to the neutral gas background, the beam consists, besides the ions, of energetic neutral atoms produced by charge-exchange collisions. It is found that the measured composition of the drag force by an ion and a neutral atom component agrees with a beam model that takes charge-exchange collisions into account. Special attention is paid to the momentum contribution from sputtered atoms, which is shown to be negligible in this experiment, but should become measurable in case of materials with high sputtering yields.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Ion Exchange Properties of a New Composite of Inorganic Ion Exchanger: Polyacrylonitrile Cerium(IV) Molybdophosphate%Synthesis, Characterization and Ion Exchange Properties of a New Composite of Inorganic Ion Exchanger: Polyacrylonitrile Cerium(IV) Molybdophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Yavari, Ramin; Ashtari, Parviz'; Gholipour, Vanik; Kamel, Leila; Rakhshandehru, Farokh

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of the composite of cerium(IV) molybdophosphate (CMP) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was reported (CMP-PAN). The material has been characterized by elemental and spectral (FT-IR), X-ray and thermal (TGA) analysis. Also the size analysis of the composite was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its chemical stability in acidic, basic and saline solutions and radiation stability up to 100 kGy total expose dose were assessed. Whereas the synthesized composite has ion exchange properties, its ion exchange capacity and behavior toward several metal ions were also investigated. Further, the distribution coefficients of the metal ions were calculated. Finally, the ability of the synthesized CMP-PAN composite for the decontamination of low level liquid waste (LLLW) was investigated.

  1. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  2. The Effects of Changing Membrane Compositions and Internal Electrolytes on the Respon of Potassium Ion Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ulianas, Alizar; Heng, Lee Yook

    2015-01-01

    A study on the changing of membrane compositions and internal solution towards the response potassium ion sensor was carried out. Potassium ion sensor based on photocured cross linking poly(n-butyl acrylate) membranes with varying composition of valinomycin (val), sodium tetrakis [3.5-bis(trifluoro-methyl) phenyl] borat (NaTFPB), types ion of internal solution were investigated. Effects of varying composition of val, NaTFPB, types and concentration of internal solution were observed on potass...

  3. Measurement of opalescence of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lu, Huan; Powers, John M

    2005-11-01

    Opalescence is an optical property, where there is light scattering of the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum, giving the material a bluish appearance under reflected light and an orange/brown appearance under transmitted light. The objective of this study was to determine the opalescence of resin composites with a color measuring spectrophotometer. Colors of A2 and enamel or translucent shades of four resin composites and of an unfilled resin measured in the reflectance and transmittance modes were compared, and the opalescence parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in blue-yellow coordinate (Deltab*) and red-green parameter (Deltaa*) between the reflected and transmitted colors of 1-mm thick specimens. The masking effect was calculated as the color difference between the color of a black background and the color of specimen over the black background. The range of OP in resin composites was 5.7-23.7, which was higher than that of the unfilled resin. However, there were significant differences among the brands and shades of the resin composites. Opalescence varied by brand and shade of the resin composites, and contributed to the masking of background color along with translucency parameter. Some of the resin composites actually displayed opalescence.

  4. Morphology variation, composition alteration and microstructure changes in ion-irradiated 1060 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Si, Naichao; Wang, Quan; Zhao, Zhenjiang

    2018-02-01

    Morphology variation, composition alteration and microstructure changes in 1060 aluminum irradiated with 50 keV helium ions were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with x-ray elemental scanning, 3D measuring laser microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that, helium ions irradiation induced surface damage and Si-rich aggregates in the surfaces of irradiated samples. Increasing the dose of irradiation, more damages and Si-rich aggregates would be produced. Besides, defects such as dislocations, dislocation loops and dislocation walls were the primary defects in the ion implanted layer. The forming of surface damages were related with preferentially sputtering of Al component. While irradiation-enhanced diffusion and irradiation-induced segregation resulted in the aggregation of impurity atoms. And the aggregation ability of impurity atoms were discussed based on the atomic radius, displacement energy, lattice binding energy and surface binding energy.

  5. Experiments of Accuracy Air Ion Field Measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Fiala, P.; Jirků, T.; Kadlecová, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2007), s. 1330-1333 ISSN 1931-7360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : air ion field * gerdien condenser * picoampermeter Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Collectivity in composite fragment emission from relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Schmidt, H.R.; Doss, K.G.R.; Harris, J.W.; Kristiansson, P.; Lefebres, F.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tincknell, M.; Weiss, S.; Ferguson, R.L.; Gavron, I.; Jacak, B.V.; Wilhelmy, J.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Kampert, K.H.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Wieman, H.

    1987-05-01

    Composite fragments of 2< Z<10 have been measured in the Plastic Ball Spectrometer in 200 MeV/nucleon Au+Au and Au+Fe collisions. Strong azimuthal alignment of the fragments reveal the collective behaviour of the reaction. (orig.)

  7. Correlation of shear and dielectric ion viscosity of dental resins - Influence of composition, temperature and filler content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Selig, Daniela; Duvenbeck, Fabian; Moeginger, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    Shear viscosity and ion viscosity of uncured visible light-curing (VLC) resins and resin based composites (RBC) are correlated with respect to the resin composition, temperature and filler content to check where Dielectric Analysis (DEA) investigations of VLC RBC generate similar results as viscosity measurements. Mixtures of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) as well as the pure resins were investigated and compared with two commercial VLC dental resins and RBCs (VOCO, Arabesk Top and Grandio). Shear viscosity data was obtained using a Haake Mars III, Thermo Scientific. Ion viscosity measurements performed by a dielectric cure analyzer (DEA 231/1 Epsilon with Mini IDEX-Sensor, Netzsch-Gerätebau). Shear viscosity depends reciprocally on the mobility of molecules, whereas the ion viscosity also depends on the ion concentration as it is affected by both ion concentration and mixture viscosity. Except of pure TEGDMA, shear and ion viscosities depend on the resin composition qualitatively in a similar manner. Furthermore, shear and ion viscosities of the commercial VLC dental resins and composites exhibited the same temperature dependency regardless of filler content. Application of typical rheological models (Kitano and Quemada) revealed that ion viscosity measurements can be described with respect to filler contents of up to 30vol.%. Rheological behavior of a VLC RBC can be characterized by DEA under the condition that the ion concentration is kept constant. Both methods address the same physical phenomenon - motion of molecules. The proposed relations allows for calculating the viscosity of any Bis-GMA-TEGDMA mixture on the base of the viscosities of the pure components. This study demonstrated the applicability of DEA investigations of VLC RBCs with respect to quality assurance purposes. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-resolution measurements of x rays from ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    High resolution measurements of K x-ray spectra produced by ion-atom collisions at MeV energies are presented. These measurements indicate that a distribution of L-shell vacancies accompanies K-shell excitation. The variation of these spectra as a function of incident ion energy and atomic number is discussed. Difficulties in the analysis of these spectra due to rearrangement of vacancies between the time of the collision and the time of x-ray emission are considered. The use of high resolution x-ray measurements to obtain information on projectile ion vacancy configurations is demonstrated by data for Ar ions in KCl. X-ray spectra from Al projectiles in a variety of targets were measured and the effect of target composition on these spectra is discussed

  9. Atomic physics measurements in an electron Beam Ion Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bennett, C.

    1989-01-01

    An electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged ions (q ≤ 70/+/) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of transition energies and electron excitation cross sections for x-ray line emission are summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs

  10. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D.S.; Isobe, M.; Kondo, Takashi; Sasao, M.

    2010-01-01

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  11. Composite materials. From gammas to weight measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    A gamma photons backscattering gauge called 'Filbor 2' has been designed by the CEA/DAMRI (Saclay, France) and allows to measure the resin content of fiber wicks (boron, carbon, kevlar, glass..) devoted to the manufacturing of elements made of composite materials. (J.S.)

  12. Experimental measurements of negative hydrogen ion production from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.G.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the production of H - from surfaces bombarded with hydrogen are reviewed. Some measurements of H + and H 0 production from surfaces are also discussed with particular emphasis on work which might be relevant to ion source applications

  13. Complete Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements With PING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument will measure the complete bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of Mars as well as any other solid planetary body. PING can thus be a highly effective tool for both detailed local geochemistry science investigations and precision measurements of Mars subsurface reSOurces in preparation for future human exploration. As such, PING is thus fully capable of meeting a majority of both ncar and far term elements in Challenge #1 presented for this conference. Measuring the ncar subsurface composition of Mars will enable many of the MEPAG science goals and will be key to filling an important Strategic Knowledge Gap with regard to In situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) needs for human exploration. [1, 2] PING will thus fill an important niche in the Mars Exploration Program.

  14. Heavy ion measurements at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chapon, Emilien

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of recent results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on heavy ion physics. Using data from proton-proton, proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the LHC, these results help to shed light on the properties of nuclear matter.

  15. Electrical shielding box measurement of the negative hydrogen beam from Penning ion gauge ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Yang, Z; Dong, P; long, J D; He, X Z; Wang, X; Zhang, K Z; Zhang, L W

    2012-06-01

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gauge (PIG) type ion source has been used for generation of negative hydrogen (H(-)) ions as the internal ion source of a compact cyclotron. A novel method called electrical shielding box dc beam measurement is described in this paper, and the beam intensity was measured under dc extraction inside an electrical shielding box. The results of the trajectory simulation and dc H(-) beam extraction measurement were presented. The effect of gas flow rate, magnetic field strength, arc current, and extraction voltage were also discussed. In conclusion, the dc H(-) beam current of about 4 mA from the PIG ion source with the puller voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.31 A was extrapolated from the measurement at low extraction dc voltages.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance sensing detection of mercury and lead ions based on conducting polymer composite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz M Abdi

    Full Text Available A new sensing area for a sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury and lead ions. The gold surface used for SPR measurements were modified with polypyrrole-chitosan (PPy-CHI conducting polymer composite. The polymer layer was deposited on the gold surface by electrodeposition. This optical sensor was used for monitoring toxic metal ions with and without sensitivity enhancement by chitosan in water samples. The higher amounts of resonance angle unit (ΔRU were obtained for PPy-CHI film due to a specific binding of chitosan with Pb(2+ and Hg(2+ ions. The Pb(2+ ion bind to the polymer films most strongly, and the sensor was more sensitive to Pb(2+ compared to Hg(2+. The concentrations of ions in the parts per million range produced the changes in the SPR angle minimum in the region of 0.03 to 0.07. Data analysis was done by Matlab software using Fresnel formula for multilayer system.

  17. Application of Some Synthesized Polymeric Composite Resins for Removal of Some Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhhar, A.A.; Abdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ion-exchange and sorption characteristic of new polymeric composite resins, prepared by gamma radiation were experimentally studied. The composite resins shows high uptake for Co(II) and Eu(III) ions in aqueous solutions in wide range of ph. The selectivity of the resins to Co (II) or Eu (III) species in the presence of some competing ions and complexing agents (as Na + , Fe 3+ , EDTA Na 2 , etc.) was compared. Various factors that could affect the sorption behaviors of metal ions (Co (II) and Eu (III)) on the prepared polymeric composite resins were studied such as ionic strength, Contact time, volume mass ratio

  18. Scintillation screen applications in a vacuum arc ion source with composite hydride cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Tuo, X. G.; Yang, Z.; Peng, Y. F.; Li, J.; Lv, H. Y.; Li, J. H.; Long, J. D.

    2018-05-01

    Vacuum arc ion source with composite hydride cathode was developed to produce intense ion beams which can be applied in particle accelerator injections. Beam profile and beam composition are two fundamental parameters of the beam for the vacuum arc ion source in such specific applications. An aluminum-coated scintillation screen with an ICCD camera readout was used to show the space-time distribution of the beam directly. A simple magnetic analysis assembly with the scintillation screen shows the beam composition information of this kind ion source. Some physical and technical issues are discussed and analyzed in the text.

  19. Measurement of ion energy by a calorimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Bunak, Suwat

    1996-12-01

    In calorimetric method, ion energy is determined based on the temperature changes during radiation of an absorbing material, radiation current and heat capacity of the calorimeter. This method is convenient and its measuring procedures are simple as well as the measuring apparatus. Here, the temperature changes of the calorimeter during {sup 14}N ion beam radiation were determined. The temperature increased linearly when irradiated with {sup 14}N{sup 3+}, 8.3 MeV or {sup 14}N{sup 2+}, 6 MeV, but not linearly for {sup 14}N{sup 1+}, 3.6 MeV, resulting in a comparatively large error. Thus, the measurement of ion energy by calorimetric method was found available as a convenient method for an accelerator having an energy stability less than 10{sup -3}. Especially this method seems to be useful for low-energy ion accelerator or ion injecting apparatus. (M.N.)

  20. Measurement of stopping power of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    The stopping power of heavy ions is discussed. In the low energy region, heavy ions keep some of their orbital electrons, and have equilibrium electron charge. The stopping power of penetrating particles depends on this effective charge. At present, it is hard to estimate this effective charge theoretically, accordingly, the estimation is made experimentally. Another difficulty in this estimation is that the Born approximation is not effective for heavy ions. In the low energy region, electronic stopping and nuclear stopping contribute to the stopping power. For the electronic stopping, a formula for the stopping power was given by Lindhard et al. The experimental values were obtained at GSI, and are inconsistent with the estimation by the Lindhard's formula. In the high energy region, where the Born approximation can be used, the Bethe's formula is applied, but the experimental data are scarce. Oscillations are seen in the Z dependence graph of the experimental stopping cross sections. Experimental works on the stopping power have been done. The differential and the integral methods were carried out. (Kato, T.)

  1. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  2. Compositional changes of human hair melanin resulting from bleach treatment investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Isobe, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Aoki, Dan; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    It is important to understand the influence of bleach treatment on human hair because it is one of the most important chemical treatments in hair cosmetic processes. A comparison of the elemental composition of melanin between virgin hair and bleached hair would provide important information about the structural changes of melanin. To investigate the elemental composition of melanin granules in virgin black hair and bleached hair, these hair cross-sections are analyzed by using a nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The virgin black hair and bleached hair samples were embedded in resin and smooth hair cross-sections were obtained using an ultramicrotome. NanoSIMS measurements were performed using a Cs(+) primary ion beam to detect negative secondary ions. More intensive (16) O(-) ions were detected from the melanin granules of bleached hair than from those of virgin black hair in NanoSIMS (16) O(-) ion image. In addition, it was indicated that (16) O(-) ion intensity and (16) O(-) /(12) C(14) N(-) ion intensity ratio of melanin granules in bleached hair were higher than those in virgin black hair. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the cross-sections of virgin black hair and bleached hair indicated that the oxygen content in melanin granules was increased by bleach treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Determination of isotopic composition of uranium in microparticles by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veniaminov, N.N.; Kolesnikov, O.N.; Stebel'kov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Aerosol particles including uranium in their composition are specific atmospheric polutants. Uranium is used as nuclear fuel in atomic power stations and in spacecraft power units, and also as a component of nuclear warheads. In order to monitor the discharge of uranium-containing aerosol particles to the atmosphere, they must first be identified. As an example, one may cite an investigation of the elemental composition and radioactivity of particles formed in the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. One of the most informative indicators of the origin of uranium-containing aerosol particles is the isotopic composition of the uranium. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) offers unique possibilities for the measurement of isotope ratios in individual microscopic objects. At the same time, a measurement of isotope ratios of sulfur in microsection of galenite PbS 2 has shown that the application of SIMS for these purposes is seriously limited by the difference in yield of secondary ions for isotopes with different masses. These discrimination effects, in the case of light elements such as boron, may result in distortion of the isotope ratios by several percent. In the case of heavy elements, however, the effect is less significant, amounting to about 0.5% for lead isotopes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Measurements of plasma composition in the TEXTOR tokamak by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of collective Thomson scattering (CTS) for spatially localized measurements of the isotopic composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The experiments were conducted in the TEXTOR tokamak by scattering millimeter-wave probe radiation off plasma fluctuations...... with wave vector components nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. Under such conditions the sensitivity of the CTS spectrum to plasma composition is enhanced by the spectral signatures of the ion cyclotron motion and of weakly damped ion Bernstein waves. Recent experiments on TEXTOR demonstrated...... the ability to resolve these signatures in the CTS spectrum as well as their sensitivity to the ion species mix in the plasma. This paper shows that the plasma composition can be inferred from the measurements through forward modeling of the CTS spectrum. We demonstrate that spectra measured in plasmas...

  5. Spectroscopic measurements of anode plasma with cryogenic pulsed ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, H.; Urata, T.; Ohbayashi, K.; Kim, Y.; Horioka, K.; Kasuya, K.

    1987-01-01

    In ion beam diodes, electromagnetic wave is coupled to ion beam. Ion is extracted from anode plasma, which is produced early in the power pulse. However, exact mechanism of anode plasma production, expansion and ion extraction process is unknown. In particularly, anode plasma expansion is seemed to be one of the reasons of rapid impedance collapse of the diode, which is serious problem in high power experiments. Some experimental results showed that anode plasma expansion velocity was about 5 times larger than that inferred from simple thermal velocity. Several explanations for these results were proposed; for example, electron collisionarity in anode plasma, fast neutral gas particle, diamagnetism. To solve this question, it is necessary to measure the characteristic of anode plasma with space and time resolution. The authors made spectroscopic measurements to investigate variety of electron temperature, electron density, expansion velocity of anode plasma with various ion sources

  6. Measurement of acetates in air using differential ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Zajiczek, Żaneta; Maziejuk, Mirosław

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds are one of the most important group of air pollutants. Potential health and environmental problems resulting from their emission prompted the requirement for monitoring these species. It motivates development of new measurement techniques which are fast, cost effective, reliable and field deployable. One of novel approaches is ion mobility spectrometry. It dwells on ion separation in electric field, based on differences in ion mobility. Many variants of this method are developed. In this wok, differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) was considered in respect of acetate measurements in air. It was demonstrated that DMS offers linear response to methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl acetate in concentration range from 0.3 ppm to 7 ppm. Positive ions spectrum has to be utilised for this purpose. We showed that fragments of DMS spectrum which secure linearity are compound-specific. The obtained results are promising from the application point of view.

  7. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  8. Measuring the sensitivity of a boron-lined ion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    Boron-lined ion chambers are used to monitor external neutron flux from fissionable materials assembled at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Experiment Facility. The sensitivity of these chambers must be measured periodically in order to detect changes in filling gas and to evaluate other factors that may affect chamber performance. We delineate a procedure to measure ion chamber response using a particular neutron source ( 239 PuBe) in a particular moderating geometry of polyethylene. We also discuss use of the amplifier, high-voltage power supply, recorders, and scram circuits that comprise the complete ion chamber monitoring system

  9. Chemical composition of waterfall-induced air ions: Spectrometry vs. simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parts, T.-E.; Luts, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental Physics; Laakso, L.; Hirsikko, A.; Groenholm, T.; Kulmala, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Sciences

    2007-07-01

    Our measurements of ion size distributions near a waterfall provided new evidence for a waterfall-induced modification of air ion sizes. The ion size spectrum near a waterfall permanently differs from that in ordinary tropospheric air. In this paper we investigated the near-waterfall air ions chemical nature in detail. We carried out a simulation series of air small negative ion evolution, proposing that falling water, as a new environmental component, increases the concentration of OH{sup -} cluster ions. The produced OH{sup -} ions were employed as an extra input for our ion evolution model. The presence of additional OH{sup -} ions resulted in a decrease of typically model-provided NO{sub 3}{sup -} and/or HSO{sub 4}{sup -} cluster ion concentrations and an increase of the abundance of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} cluster ions. Near the waterfall the latter ions became dominant in our simulations. (orig.)

  10. Adsorption behaviour and kinetics of exchange of Zn2+ and Eu3+ ions on a composite ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibria and kinetics of exchange of both Zn2+ and Eu3+ ions on a composite ion-exchanger, cobalt hexacyanocobaltate (III) (CoHCC) incorporated in polyacrylonitrile (PAN), has been studied. The apparent capacity of CoHCC-PAN for Zn2+ and Eu3+ was determined and found to be 0.353 and 0.69 meq/g, respectively. The higher capacity for Eu3+ ions than that for Zn2+ ions is due to the higher electrostatic interaction strength of the higher charge ion with the surface. Freundlich and Langmiur adsorption isotherms were used to investigate solute (Zn2+ or Eu3+) exchange phenomenon at the liquid/solid interface. The results indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fit well for both Zn2+ and Eu3+. Sorption data have been also treated with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. The kinetics of Zn2+ or Eu3+ sorption on the composite seems to show that the reaction was proceed via two steps. The first one was fast and probably due to adsorption followed by a slow exchange reaction. In view of the data obtained on the effect of particle size and metal ion concentrations on the rate of exchange reaction, it is concluded that the mechanism for both ions was chemical control. Generally, it seems that there are two exchange sites chemically equivalent but present in pores of different sizes which lead to different degrees of dehydration of the ions sorbed on the two sites

  11. Effects of dual-ion irradiation on the swelling of SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Hirotatsu; Kohyama, Akira; Ozawa, Kazumi; Kondo, Sosuke

    2005-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) matrix composites reinforced by SiC fibers is a candidate structural material of fusion gas-cooled blanket system. From the viewpoint of material designs, it is important to investigate the swelling by irradiation, which results from the accumulation of displacement damages. In the fusion environment, (n, α) nuclear reactions are considered to produce helium gas in SiC. For the microstructural evolution, a dual-ion irradiation method is able to simulate the effects of helium. In the present research, 1.7 MeV tandem and 1 MeV single-end accelerators were used for Si self-ion irradiation and helium implantation, respectively. The average helium over displacement per atom (dpa) ratio in SiC was adjusted to 60 appm/dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from room temperature to 1400degC. The irradiation-induced swelling was measured by the step height method. Helium that was implanted simultaneously with displacement damages in dual-ion irradiated SiC increased the swelling that was larger than that by single-ion irradiated SiC below 800degC. Since this increase was not observed above 1000degC, the interaction of helium and displacement damages was considered to change above 800degC. In this paper, the microstructural behavior and dimensional stability of SiC materials under the fusion relevant environment are discussed. (author)

  12. Measurements of fog composition at a rural site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Derek J.; Hutchings, James W.; Herckes, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Studies that focus on fog chemistry in the United States have been limited to relatively few locations. Apart from measurements along the East and West coasts and extensive analysis of radiation fog in the Central Valley of California, fog composition has been characterized in only a handful of other locations. To complement and expand the existing fog chemistry data that are currently available, a new field campaign was established at a rural location in Central Pennsylvania to produce a unique, long term record of fog composition. From 2007 to 2010, 41 fog events were sampled with an automated Caltech Heated Rod Cloudwater Collector (CHRCC). The collected samples were analyzed primarily for pH and major inorganic ions. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trace metals were analyzed in selected samples and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was quantified in two samples. Sample composition varied widely during the study period. Sulfate concentrations ranged from 15 to 955 (median = 123) μN and pH varied between 3.08 and 7.41 (median = 5.77). In terms of volume weighted averages, ammonium was the most abundant ionic species followed by sulfate, calcium, and nitrate. For the subset of samples in which DOC was analyzed, concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 22.6 mgC l -1. Comparisons with regional precipitation chemistry measurements reveal the influence of local agricultural and soil sources on fog composition. The sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium measured in the present study is considerably lower than the majority of radiation, precipitation, and coastal fogs collected in the United States although the ammonium/(nitrate + sulfate) ratio is similar to those found in the Central Valley of California.

  13. Spatially-Resolved Ion Trajectory Measurements During Cl2 Reactive Ion Beam Etching and Ar Ion Beam Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vawter, G. Allen; Woodworth, Joseph R.; Zubrzycki, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    The angle of ion incidence at the etched wafer location during RIBE and IBE using Cl 2 , Ar and O 2 ion beams has been characterized using an ion energy and angle analyzer. Effects of beam current and accelerator grid bias on beam divergence and the spatial uniformity of the spread of incident angles are measured. It is observed that increased total beam current can lead to reduced current density at the sample stage due to enhanced beam divergence at high currents. Results are related to preferred etch system design for uniform high-aspect-ratio etching across semiconductor wafers

  14. Compositions of nuclear maps with vector measures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of the compositions of nuclear maps, between two locally convex spaces, with vector measures and measurable functions are investigated. The composition with a vector measure has improved variational properties and a precompact range. The measurability and integrability properties of the composition of ...

  15. Composition and temporal behavior of ambient ions in the boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ehn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed atmospheric pressure interface mass spectrometer (APi-TOF measured the negative and positive ambient ion composition at a boreal forest site. As observed in previous studies, the negative ions were dominated by strong organic and inorganic acids (e.g. malonic, nitric and sulfuric acid, whereas the positive ions consisted of strong bases (e.g. alkyl pyridines and quinolines. Several new ions and clusters of ions were identified based on their exact masses, made possible by the high resolution, mass accuracy and sensitivity of the APi-TOF. Time series correlograms aided in peak identification and assigning the atomic compositions to molecules. Quantum chemical calculations of proton affinities and cluster stabilities were also used to confirm the plausibility of the assignments. Acids in the gas phase are predominantly formed by oxidation in the gas phase, and thus the concentrations are expected to vary strongly between day and night. This was also the case in this study, where the negative ions showed strong diurnal behavior, whereas the daily changes in the positive ions were considerably smaller. A special focus in this work was the changes in the ion distributions occurring during new particle formation events. We found that sulfuric acid, together with its clusters, dominated the negative ion spectrum during these events. The monomer (HSO4 was the largest peak, together with the dimer (H2SO4 · HSO4 and trimer ((H2SO42 · HSO4. SO5 also tracked HSO4 at around 20% of the HSO4 concentration at all times. During the strongest events, the tetramer and a cluster with the tetramer and ammonia were also detected. Quantum chemical calculations predict that sulfuric acid clusters containing ammonia are much more stable when

  16. E parallel B energy-mass spectrograph for measurement of ions and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Real-time measurement of plasma composition and energy is an important diagnostic in fusion experiments. The Thomson parabola spectrograph described here utilizes an electric field parallel to a magnetic field (E parallel B) and a two-dimensional imaging detector to uniquely identify the energy-per-charge and mass-per-charge distributions of plasma ions. An ultrathin foil can be inserted in front of the E parallel B filter to convert neutral atoms to ions, which are subsequently analyzed using the E parallel B filter. Since helium exiting an ultrathin foil does not form a negative ion and hydrogen isotopes do, this spectrograph allows unique identification of tritium ions and neutrals even in the presence of a large background of 3 He. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Ion measurements in premixed methane-oxygen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2014-07-25

    Ions are formed as a result of chemi-ionization processes in combustion systems. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in understanding flame ion chemistry due to the possible application of external electric fields to reduce emissions and improve combustion efficiency by active control of combustion process. In order to predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasma, it is critical to gain a good understanding of the flame ion chemistry. In this work, a Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane-oxygen-argon burner-stabilized flames. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames at atmospheric pressure are used to study the dependence of ion chemistry on equivalence ratio of premixed flames. The relative ion concentration profiles are compared qualitatively with previous methane-oxygen studies and show good agreement. The relative ion concentration data obtained in the present study can be used to validate and improve ion chemistry models for methane-oxygen flames.

  18. GEOS-2 measurements of cold ions in the magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.; Sojka, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Suprathermal Plasma Analysers on GEOS-2 are able to make differential energy measurements of plasma particles down to sub-eV energies because the entire sensor package can be biased relative to the spacecraft. When the package is biased negatively with respect to space potential, low energy positive ions are sucked in and are more easily detected against the background. Large fluxes of ions with temperatures of the order of 1 eV or less were consistently detected at space potential when the spacecraft was in the magnetosheath though not when it was in the nearby magnetosphere. This apparent geophysical correlation, suggesting that the ions were part of the magnetosheath ion population, was contradicted by the fact that the ions showed no signs of the large drift velocity associated with the electric field in the magnetosheath. It is concluded, after further investigation, that the observed ions were probably sputtered as neutrals from the spacecraft surface by the impact of solar wind ions and subsequently ionized by sunlight or electron impact. The effect of sputtering by solar wind ions has not been previously observed, although it could have consequences for the long-term stability of spacecraft surfaces. (author)

  19. Materials Compositions for Lithium Ion Batteries with Extended Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaga, Kaushik

    Advancements in portable electronics have generated a pronounced demand for rechargeable energy storage devices with superior capacity and reliability. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have evolved as the primary choice of portable power for several such applications. While multiple variations have been developed, safety concerns of commercial technologies limit them to atmospheric temperature operability. With several niche markets such as aerospace, defense and oil & gas demanding energy storage at elevated temperatures, there is a renewed interest in developing rechargeable batteries that could survive temperatures beyond 100°C. Instability of critical battery components towards extreme thermal and electrochemical conditions limit their usability at high temperatures. This study deals with developing material configurations for LIB components to stabilize them at such temperatures. Flammable organic solvent based electrolytes and low melting polymer based separators have been identified as the primary bottleneck for LIBs to survive increasing temperature. Furthermore, thermally activated degradation processes in oxide based electrodes have been identified as the reason for their limited lifetime. A quasi-solid composite comprising of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and Clay was developed as an electrolyte/separator hybrid and tested to be stable up to 120°C. These composites facilitate complete reversible Li intercalation in lithium titanate (LTO) with a stable capacity of 120 mAh g-1 for several cycles of charge and discharge while simultaneously resisting severe thermal conditions. Modified phosphate based electrodes were introduced as a reliable alternative for operability at high temperatures in this study. These systems were shown to deliver stable reversible capacity for numerous charge/discharge cycles at elevated temperatures. Higher lithium intercalation potential of the developed cathode materials makes them interesting candidates for high voltage

  20. Measurement of electron emission due to energetic ion bombardment in plasma source ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, M. M.; Scheuer, J. T.; Fetherston, R. P.; Conrad, J. R.

    1991-11-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to measure electron emission due to energetic ion bombardment during plasma source ion implantation. Spherical targets of copper, stainless steel, graphite, titanium alloy, and aluminum alloy were biased negatively to 20, 30, and 40 kV in argon and nitrogen plasmas. A Langmuir probe was used to detect the propagating sheath edge and a Rogowski transformer was used to measure the current to the target. The measurements of electron emission coefficients compare well with those measured under similar conditions.

  1. Fast-ionmeasurements of the fast-ion distribution (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    The fast-ion Dα (FIDA) diagnostic is an application of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Fast ions that neutralize in an injected neutral beam emit Balmer-α light with a large Doppler shift. The spectral shift is exploited to distinguish the FIDA emission from other bright sources of Dα light. Background subtraction is the main technical challenge. A spectroscopic diagnostic typically achieves temporal, energy, and transverse spatial resolution of ∼1 ms, ∼10 keV, and ∼2 cm, respectively. Installations that use narrow-band filters achieve high spatial and temporal resolution at the expense of spectral information. For high temporal resolution, the bandpass-filtered light goes directly to a photomultiplier, allowing detection of ∼50 kHz oscillations in FIDA signal. For two-dimensional spatial profiles, the bandpass-filtered light goes to a charge-coupled device camera; detailed images of fast-ion redistribution at instabilities are obtained. Qualitative and quantitative models relate the measured FIDA signals to the fast-ion distribution function. The first quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment found excellent agreement in beam-heated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-quiescent plasmas. FIDA diagnostics are now in operation at magnetic-fusion facilities worldwide. They are used to study fast-ion acceleration by ion cyclotron heating, to detect fast-ion transport by MHD modes and microturbulence, and to study fast-ion driven instabilities.

  2. Direct measurement of the plasma response to electrostatic ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfaty, M.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Skiff, F.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma wave-wave and wave-particle interactions are studied in a linear magnetized plasma. The relatively quiet plasma is produced by an argon gas-discharge. The plasma density is n e ≅ 10 9 cm -3 and the electron/ion temperatures are T e ≅ 5eV and T i = 0.05eV. A grid and a four ring antenna, both mounted on a scanning carriage, are used to launch electrostatic ion waves in the plasma. Laser Induced Fluorescence measurements of both the linear and the nonlinear plasma response to the wave fields are presented. The Vlasov-Poisson equations are used to explain the measured zero, first and second order terms of the ion distribution function in the presence of wave fields. In addition to the broadening (heating) of the ion distribution as the authors increase the wave amplitudes, induced plasma flows are observed both along and across the magnetic field

  3. A method to measure depth distributions of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnesen, A.; Noreland, T.

    1977-04-01

    A new variant of the radiotracer method for depth distribution determinations has been tested. Depth distributions of radioactive implanted ions are determined by dissolving thin, uniform layers of evaporated material from the surface of a backing and by measuring the activity before and after the layer removal. The method has been used to determine depth distributions for 25 keV and 50 keV 57 Co ions in aluminium and gold. (Auth.)

  4. High mass-resolution electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core-excited organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tokushima, T; Senba, Y; Yoshida, H; Hiraya, A

    2001-01-01

    Total electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core excited organic molecules have been carried out with high mass resolution by using multimode (reflectron/linear) time-of-flight mass analyzer. From the ion correlation spectra of core excited CH sub 3 OH and CD sub 3 OH, the reaction pathway to form H sub 3 sup + (D sub 3 sup +) is identified as the elimination of three H (D) atoms from the methyl group, not as the inter-group (-CH sub 3 and -OH) interactions. In a PEPIPICO spectrum of acetylacetone (CH sub 3 COCH sub 2 COCH sub 3) measured by using a reflectron TOF, correlations between ions up to mass number 70 with one-mass resolution was recorded.

  5. Measurement of ion profiles in TFTR neutral beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-02-01

    A technique is described whereby the ion dumps inside the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand were used to measure thermal profiles of the full-, half-, and third-energy ions. 136 thermocouples were installed on the full-energy ion dump, allowing full beam contours. Additional linear arrays across the widths of the half- and third-energy ion dumps provided a measure of the shape, in the direction parallel to the grid rails, of the half- and third-energy ions, and, hence, of the molecular ions extracted from the source. As a result of these measurements it was found that the magnet was more weakly focusing, by a factor of two, than expected, explaining past overheating of the full-energy ion dump. Hollow profiles on the half- and third-energy ion dumps were observed, suggesting that extraction of D 2 + and D 3 + are primarily from the edge of the ion source. If extraction of half-energy ions is from the edge of the accelerator, a divergence parallel to the grid rails of 0.6 degrees ±0.1 degrees results. It is postulated that a nonuniform gas profile near the accelerator is the cause of the hollow partial-energy ion profiles; the pressure being depressed over the accelerator by particles passing through this highly transparent structure. Primary electrons reaching the accelerator produce nonuniform densities of D 2 + through the ionization of this across the full-energy dump was examined as a means of reducing the power density. By unbalancing the current in the two coils of the magnet, on a shot by shot basis, by up to 2:1 ratio, it was possible to move the centerline of the full-energy ion beam sideways by ∼12.5 cm. The adoption of such a technique, with a ramp of the coil imbalance from 2:1 to 1:2 over a beam pulse, could reduce the power density by a factor of ≥1.5

  6. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

    2009-02-21

    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  7. Removal of Cu 2+ Ions from Aqueous Medium Using Clinoptilolite/Emeraldine Base Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya I. Lavrova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the removal efficiency of in situ synthesized composites consisted of emeraldine base and clinoptilolite on copper ions removal from aqueous medium. Two composite materials (Composite I and Composite II with different quantity of clinoptilolite were synthesised. The influence of the composite dosage, the contact time and the initial copper ions concentration has been studied. The results show that the significant removal of the copper ions becomes at the first minute of the contact between the composite material and the aqueous medium and the longer contact time leads to increasing of the copper ions removal. The removal efficiency at the 1st minute was 57.5% and 77.3% using Composite Iand Composite II, respectively. Maximum removal efficiency of 87.3% and 96.8% was achieved at the same dosage of Composite I and Composite II, respectively, at contact time of 360 minutes and temperature of 24 °C.

  8. Development of a simple, low cost, indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion implanters, accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K.; Balaji, S.; Saravanan, K.; Navas, J.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2018-02-01

    We developed a simple, low cost user-friendly automated indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion irradiation and analysis experiments requiring indirect beam fluence measurements unperturbed by sample conditions like low temperature, high temperature, sample biasing as well as in regular ion implantation experiments in the ion implanters and electrostatic accelerators with continuous beam. The system, which uses simple, low cost, off-the-shelf components/systems and two distinct layers of in-house built softwarenot only eliminates the need for costly data acquisition systems but also overcomes difficulties in using properietry software. The hardware of the system is centered around a personal computer, a PIC16F887 based embedded system, a Faraday cup drive cum monitor circuit, a pair of Faraday Cups and a beam current integrator and the in-house developed software include C based microcontroller firmware and LABVIEW based virtual instrument automation software. The automatic fluence measurement involves two important phases, a current sampling phase lasting over 20-30 seconds during which the ion beam current is continuously measured by intercepting the ion beam and the averaged beam current value is computed. A subsequent charge computation phase lasting 700-900 seconds is executed making the ion beam to irradiate the samples and the incremental fluence received by the sampleis estimated usingthe latest averaged beam current value from the ion beam current sampling phase. The cycle of current sampling-charge computation is repeated till the required fluence is reached. Besides simplicity and cost-effectiveness, other important advantages of the developed system include easy reconfiguration of the system to suit customisation of experiments, scalability, easy debug and maintenance of the hardware/software, ability to work as a standalone system. The system was tested with different set of samples and ion fluences and the results were verified using

  9. Preparation and characterization of flake graphite/silicon/carbon spherical composite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Jun; Guo Huajun; Wang Zhixing; Li Xinhai; Zhang Xiaoping; Wu Feixiang; Yue Peng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Flake graphite/silicon/carbon composite is synthesized via spray drying. ► Flake graphite of ∼0.5 μm and glucose are used to prepare the composite. ► The as-prepared composite shows spherical and porous appearance. ► The composite shows nearly the same cycleability as commercial graphite in 20 cycles. ► The composite shows a reversible capacity of 552 mAh/g at the 20th cycle. - Abstract: Using nano-Si, glucose and flake graphite of ∼0.5 μm as raw materials, flake graphite/silicon/carbon composite is successfully synthesized via spray drying and subsequent pyrolysis. The samples are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The composite is composed of flake graphite, nano-Si and amorphous glucose-pyrolyzed carbon and presents good spherical appearance. Some micron pores arising from the decomposition of glucose exist on the surface of the composite particles. The composite has a high reversible capacity of 602.7 mAh/g with an initial coulombic efficiency of 69.71%, and shows nearly the same cycleability as the commercial graphite in 20 cycles. Both the glucose-pyrolyzed carbon and the micron pores play important roles in improving the cycleability of the composite. The flake graphite/silicon/carbon composite electrode is a potential alternative to graphite for high energy-density lithium ion batteries.

  10. Composition and energy spectrum variations of auroral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, J.; Leach, R.; Pulliam, D.; Scherb, F.

    1977-01-01

    We have detected H + ,O + , and He ++ ions with E/q up to 20 keV/charge in a hydrogen aurora over Churchill, Manitoba, during the flight of a Javelin sounding rocket on February 11, 1975, We observed several examples of different types of ion events. One type consisted of bursts of H + and O + ions which arrived simultaneously at all energies within the range of the E/q analyzer. These events were apparently of local origin (distance + ions (O + /H + approximately-greater-than30%). A second type of event consisted of bursts of enhanced H + counting rates but no O + ions. The dispersion in time of the energy spectrum was consistent with an injection and acceleration site located at about 20 R/sub E/ from the earth. An enhancement of the He ++ counting rates was associated with these events, but the He ++ data are of limited statistical significance. A third type of event, consisting of short bursts of H + ions with wide energy spreads, was observed in association with an event in which the energy of the H + ions showed time dispersion. We interpret these short H + bursts as due to ions trapped in traveling waves generated by an explosive injection of plasma in the earth's magnetotail

  11. In-situ measurement of the lithium distribution in Li-ion batteries using micro-IBA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, A., E-mail: yamazaki@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Orikasa, Y.; Chen, K.; Uchimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-nihonmatsucho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Koka, M.; Satoh, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233, Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Mima, K.; Kato, Y.; Fujita, K. [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1, Kurematsu, NIshi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Direct observation of lithium concentration distribution in lithium-ion battery composite electrodes has been performed for the first time. Lithium-ion battery model cells for particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) measurements were designed and fabricated. Two dimensional images of lithium concentration in LiFePO{sub 4} composite electrodes were obtained with PIXE and PIGE by scanning the proton microbeam for various charged states of the electrodes. Lithium concentration in LiFePO{sub 4} composite electrodes was decreased from the contact interface between LiFePO{sub 4} electrode and liquid electrolyte during the charge reaction.

  12. In-situ measurement of the lithium distribution in Li-ion batteries using micro-IBA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, A.; Orikasa, Y.; Chen, K.; Uchimoto, Y.; Kamiya, T.; Koka, M.; Satoh, T.; Mima, K.; Kato, Y.; Fujita, K.

    2016-01-01

    Direct observation of lithium concentration distribution in lithium-ion battery composite electrodes has been performed for the first time. Lithium-ion battery model cells for particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) measurements were designed and fabricated. Two dimensional images of lithium concentration in LiFePO_4 composite electrodes were obtained with PIXE and PIGE by scanning the proton microbeam for various charged states of the electrodes. Lithium concentration in LiFePO_4 composite electrodes was decreased from the contact interface between LiFePO_4 electrode and liquid electrolyte during the charge reaction.

  13. Characterization behavior of some polymeric composite ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A; Ahdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric composite resins were prepared by template polymerization process in aqueous solution. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) were performed to evaluate the physico chemical properties of the different polymeric composite resins. The TGA and DTA clarify high thermal stability of prepared polymeric composite resins. XRD of prepared polymeric composite shows that there is crystalline structure of some resins while other are amorphous one

  14. Survey of 0.1- to 16-keV/e plasma sheet ion composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartsson, W.; Shelley, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    A large statistical survey of the 0.1- to 16-keV/e plasma sheet ion composition has been carried out using data obtained by the Plasma Composition Experiment on ISEE 1 between 10 and 23 R/sub E/ during 1978 and 1979. This survey includes more than 10 times the quantity of data used in earlier studies of the same topic and makes it possible to investigate in finer detail the relationship between the ion composition and the substorm activity. The larger data base also makes it possible for the first time to study the spatial distribution of the principal ion species. As found in previous studies, the ion composition has a large variance at any given value of the AE index, but a number of distinct trends emerge when the data are averaged at each activity level. During quiet conditions the plasma sheet is dominated by ions of solar origin (H + and He ++ ), as found in earlier studies, and these ions are most numerous during extended periods of very low activity (AE< or approx. =30 γ). The quiet time density of these ions is particularly large in the flanks of the plasma sheet (GSM Yapprox. +- 10 R/sub E/), where it is about twice as large as it is near the central axis of the plasma sheet (Y = Z = 0). In contrast, the energy of these ions peaks near the central axis

  15. Changes in the composition of brain interstitial ions control the sleep-wake cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Fengfei; O'Donnell, John; Xu, Qiwu

    2016-01-01

    , and [H+]e as well as the extracellular volume. Local cortical activity of sleeping mice could be readily converted to the stereotypical electroencephalography pattern of wakefulness by simply imposing a change in the extracellular ion composition. Thus, extracellular ions control the state...

  16. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigoto, J. M. C.; Cortez, A. F. V.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors. In the present work, the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Xe-CH4 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of two distinct groups of ions. The nature of the ions depend on the mixture ratio since they are originated by both Xe and CH4. The results here presented were obtained for low reduced electric fields, E/N, 10-25 Td (2.4-6.1 kV ṡ cm-1 ṡ bar-1), at low pressure (8 Torr) (10.6 mbar), and at room temperature.

  17. MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian-Gan; Yang, Ying; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-01-01

    MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites are fabricated by electrospinning polyimide/manganese acetylacetonate precursor and a subsequent carbonization process. The composition, phase structure and morphology of the composites are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicate that the composites exhibit good nanofibrous morphology with MnO nanoparticles uniformly encapsulated by carbon nanofibers. The hybrid nanofiber composites are used directly as freestanding anodes for lithium-ion batteries to evaluate their electrochemical properties. It is found that the optimized MnO-carbon nanofiber composite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 663 mAh g −1 , along with excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. The superior performance enables the composites to be promising candidates as an anode alternative for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

  18. Mass and Charge Measurements on Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between mass and charge has been a crucial topic in mass spectrometry (MS) because the mass itself is typically evaluated based on the m/z ratio. Despite the fact that this measurement is indirect, a precise mass can be obtained from the m/z value with a high m/z resolution up to 105 for samples in the low mass and low charge region under 10,000 Da and 20 e, respectively. However, the target of MS has recently been expanded to the very heavy region of Mega or Giga Da, which includes large particles and biocomplexes, with very large and widely distributed charge from kilo to Mega range. In this region, it is necessary to evaluate charge and mass simultaneously. Recent studies for simultaneous mass and charge observation and related phenomena are discussed in this review. PMID:29302406

  19. Remote sensing of electron density and ion composition using nonducted whistler observations on OGO 1 and Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Butler, J.; Reddy, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method to remotely measure magnetospheric electron density and ion composition using lightning generated nonducted whistlers observed on a satellite. Electron and ion densities play important roles in magnetospheric processes such as wave-particle interactions in the equatorial region and ion-neutral dynamics in the ionosphere, and are important for calculating space weather effects such as particle precipitation, GPS scintillations, and satellite drag. The nonducted whistler resulting from a single lightning appears on a spectrogram as a series of magnetospherically reflected traces with characteristic dispersion (time delay versus frequency) and upper and lower cut off frequencies. Ray tracing simulations show that these observed characteristics depend on the magnetospheric electron density and ion composition. The cut off frequencies depend on both electron density and ion composition. The dispersion depends strongly on electron density, but weakly on ion composition. Using an iterative process to fit the measured dispersion and cutoff frequencies to those obtained from ray tracing simulations, it is possible to construct the electron and ion density profiles of the magnetosphere. We demonstrate our method by applying it to nonducted whistlers observed on OGO 1 and Van Allen probe satellites. In one instance (08 Nov 1965), whistler traces observed on OGO 1 (L = 2.4, λm = -6°) displayed a few seconds of dispersion and cutoff frequencies in the 1-10 kHz range. Ray tracing analysis showed that a diffusive equilibrium density model with the following parameters can reproduce the observed characteristics of the whistler traces: 1900 el/cc at L=2.4 and the equator, 358,000 el/cc at F2 peak (hmF2 = 220 km), the relative ion concentrations αH+ = 0.2, αHe+ = 0.2, and αO+ = 0.6 at 1000 km, and temperature 1600 K. The method developed here can be applied to whistlers observed on the past, current, and future magnetospheric satellite missions carrying

  20. Composition variations of low energy heavy ions during large solar energetic particle events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, George C., E-mail: George.Ho@jhuapl.edu; Mason, Glenn M., E-mail: Glenn.Mason@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The time-intensity profile of large solar energetic particle (SEP) event is well organized by solar longitude as observed at Earth orbit. This is mostly due to different magnetic connection to the shock that is associated with large SEP event propagates from the Sun to the heliosphere. Earlier studies have shown event averaged heavy ion abundance ratios can also vary as a function of solar longitude. It was found that the Fe/O ratio for high energy particle (>10 MeV/nucleon) is higher for those western magnetically well connected events compare to the eastern events as observed at L1 by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. In this paper, we examined the low energy (∼1 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions in 110 isolated SEP events from 2009 to the end of 2014. In addition, the optical and radio signatures for all of our events are identified and when data are available we also located the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) data. Our survey shows a higher Fe/O ratio at events in the well-connected region, while there are no corrections between the event averaged elemental composition with the associated coronal mass ejection speed. This is inconsistent with the higher energy results, but inline with other recent low-energy measurements.

  1. Measuring the electron-ion ring parameters by bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkin, V.D.; Mozelev, A.A.; Sarantsev, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A system is described for measuring the number of electrons and ions in the electron-ion rings of a collective heavy ion accelerator. The system operation is based on detecting gamma quanta of bremsstrahlung following the ring electron interaction with the nuclei of neutral atoms and ions at different stages of filling the ring with ions. The radiation detector is a scintillation block - a photomultiplier operating for counting with NaI(Tl) crystal sized 30x30 mm and ensuring the detection efficiency close to unity. The system apparatus is made in the CAMAC standard and rems on-line with the TRA/i miniature computer. The block-diagrams of the system and algorithm of data processing are presented. A conclusion is drawn that the results of measuring the ring parameters with the use of the diagnostics system described are in good agreement within the range of measuring errors with those obtained by means of the diagnostics system employing synchrotron radiation and induction sensors

  2. Recent ion measurements within the modified DPF-1000U facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiatkowski Roch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe measurements of ion beams emitted along the z-axis of the DPF-1000U facility operated at 23 kV, 334 kJ, and with the initial deuterium pressure of 1.6–2 hPa. The DPF-1000U device was recently renewed and equipped with a dynamic gas-puff valve placed inside the inner electrode. The investigated ions were recorded by means of ion pinhole cameras equipped with solid state nuclear track detectors of the PM-355® (PADC type. The energy spectra of ions were determined using a Thomson spectrometer placed on the symmetry axis at a distance of 160 cm from the electrodes outlets. The ion images recorded during discharges performed under different experimental conditions show that the ion beams have a complex structure, usually in the form of a central bunch and an annular stream composed of many micro-beams. Energies of the registered deuterons have been in the range of 30–700 keV, while the fast protons (which originated from the hydrogen remnants had energies in the range of 300–850 keV.

  3. Energetic ion diagnostics using neutron flux measurements during pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron measurements during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that the fractional increase in neutron emission about 0.5 msec after pellet injection is proportional to the fraction of beam-plasma reactions to total fusion reactions in the unperturbed plasma. These observations suggest three diagnostic applications of neutron measurements during pellet injection: (1) measurement of the beam-plasma reaction rate in deuterium plasmas for use in determining the fusion Q in an equivalent deuterium-tritium plasma, (2) measurement of the radial profile of energetic beam ions by varying the pellet size and velocity, and (3) measurement of the ''temperature'' of ions accelerated during wave heating. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Energetic ion diagnostics using neutron flux measurements during pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron measurements during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that the fractional increase in neutron emission about 0.5 msec after pellet injection is proportional to the fraction of beam-plasma reactions to total fusion reactions in the unperturbed plasma. These observations suggest three diagnostic applications of neutron measurements during pellet injection: (1) measurement of the beam-plasma reaction rate in deuterium plasmas for use in determining the fusion Q in an equivalent deuterium-tritium plasma, (2) measurement of the radial profile of energetic beam ions by varying the pellet size and velocity, and (3) measurement of the ''temperature'' of ions accelerated during wave heating. 18 refs., 3 figs

  5. Helicon plasma ion temperature measurements and observed ion cyclotron heating in proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, C. J.; Goulding, R. H.; Isler, R. C.; Martin, E. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caneses, J. F.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Kafle, N.; Rapp, J.

    2018-01-01

    The Prototype-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) linear plasma device is a test bed for exploring and developing plasma source concepts to be employed in the future steady-state linear device Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) that will study plasma-material interactions for the nuclear fusion program. The concept foresees using a helicon plasma source supplemented with electron and ion heating systems to reach necessary plasma conditions. In this paper, we discuss ion temperature measurements obtained from Doppler broadening of spectral lines from argon ion test particles. Plasmas produced with helicon heating alone have average ion temperatures downstream of the Helicon antenna in the range of 3 ± 1 eV; ion temperature increases to 10 ± 3 eV are observed with the addition of ion cyclotron heating (ICH). The temperatures are higher at the edge than the center of the plasma either with or without ICH. This type of profile is observed with electrons as well. A one-dimensional RF antenna model is used to show where heating of the plasma is expected.

  6. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S.; Bolte, N.; Marsili, P.; Roche, T.; Wessel, F.

    2010-01-01

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  7. Review of intense-ion-beam propagation with a view toward measuring ion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this review is intense ion beam propagation and the possibilities of measuring time dependent ion energy in the beam. Propagation effects discussed include charge separation, charge and current autoneutralization, electron thermalization and current neutralization decay. The interaction of a plasma beam with material obstacles, like collimators, and with transverse magnetic fields is also described. Depending on beam energy, density and pulse length, these interactions can include material ablation with plasmadynamic flow and undeflected propagation across transverse magnetic fields by a polarization drift. On the basis of this review I conclude that three diagnostics: a single floating potential probe, net current probes (Faraday cups) and a Rutherford scattering spectrometer appear capable of giving prompt, time dependent ion energy measurements

  8. Magnetic composite beads for sorption of cesium ions from aqueous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Rakesh N.; Pandey, A.K.; Acharya, R.; Rajurkar, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic separation of metal ions is one of the promising methods due to simple, fast, efficient and cost effective technology. Highly selective magnetic sorbents can be designed by immobilizing functional groups in magnetic carrier which binds to the target specific ions. In the present work chitosan-(3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS)- copperferrocyanide (CFC) composite beads have been synthesized for sorption of 137 Cs ions from aqueous streams. Physical characterization of the best resulted polymer beads was carried out by SEM-EDX and VSM technique. Sorption of Cs ions in the various magnetic polymer beads were studied in different aqueous condition by 137 Cs (662 KeV) radiotracer assay

  9. Enhanced Laser Cooling of Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Composite Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You-Hua, Jia; Biao, Zhong; Xian-Ming, Ji; Jian-Ping, Yin

    2008-01-01

    We predict enhanced laser cooling performance of rare-earth-ions-doped glasses containing nanometre-sized ul-traBne particles, which can be achieved by the enhancement of local Geld around rare earth ions, owing to the surface plasma resonance of small metallic particles. The influence of energy transfer between ions and the particle is theoretically discussed. Depending on the particle size and the ion emission quantum efficiency, the enhancement of the absorption is predicted. It is concluded that the absorption are greatly enhanced in these composite materials, the cooling power is increased as compared to the bulk material

  10. Fabrication of submicron structures in nanoparticle/polymer composite by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. Ping; He, Sailing; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Burzynski, Ryszard; Samoc, Marek; Prasad, Paras N.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of nanoparticle/polymer submicron structures by combining holographic lithography and reactive ion etching. Silica nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a (SU8) polymer matrix at a high concentration, and in situ polymerization (cross-linking) is used to form a nanoparticle/polymer composite. Another photosensitive SU8 layer cast upon the nanoparticle/SU8 composite layer is structured through holographic lithography, whose pattern is finally transferred to the nanoparticle/SU8 layer by the reactive ion etching process. Honeycomb structures in a submicron scale are experimentally realized in the nanoparticle/SU8 composite.

  11. Measurements of isomers at the FRS ion catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, Christine [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: FRS Ion Catcher-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Projectile fragmentation and fission reactions at in-flight facilities are important production mechanisms to access short-lived exotic nuclei. It is a challenge to describe the angular momentum distribution after the collision of relativistic nuclei. This can be experimentally accessed by measuring the population of isomeric states. Isomeric ratios and excitation energies of isomers of short-lived exotic nuclei can be determined at the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI. At the FRS, projectile and fission fragments are produced at relativistic energies, separated in-flight and range-focused. They are slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell. In a multi-purpose RFQ beamline alpha spectroscopy can be performed. Alternatively the ions can be transported to a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS), where masses of the ground and isomeric states can be measured simultaneously with high resolving power. The MR-TOF-MS can also be used to spatially separate the ions in order to provide isomerically clean ion beams. During a recent experiment isomer-to-ground state ratios and excitation energies of uranium projectile and fission fragments produced at 1 GeV/u were measured. The ratios, measured with the MR-TOF-MS, were verified by alpha spectroscopy. Furthermore the ratios were compared to calculations based on an abrasion-ablation model of fragmentation.

  12. Helicon plasma potential measurements using a heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Schoch; K. Connor; J. Si

    2005-01-01

    A Heavy Ion Beam Probe, HIBP, has been installed on a helicon plasma device. The objective was to measure plasma fluctuations at the 13.55MHz RF frequency. This offers a unique challenge for the HIBP, because the transit time of the probing ion is long compared to the fluctuations of interest. For previous HIBPs, the transit time has been short compared to the period of the fluctuations which permits one to assume that the magnetic and electric fields are static. Modeling has shown that the diagnostic will still accurately measure the average potential. The fluctuating potential was to be detected but the absolute magnitude is difficult to determine with signal from a single point. However, modeling indicates multipoint measurements will allow one to resolve the absolute fluctuation magnitude. Work supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-99ER5452985 During the funding of this grant, a helicon plasma discharge device was built and operated. A Heavy Ion Beam Probe primary system was installed and operated. A primary beam detector was installed and primary beam was detected both with and without plasma. Attempts were made to detect secondary ions using the primary beam detector, without success. Given the lack of a detectable signal, the energy analyzer of the HIBP system was never installed. It is available for installation if there is a reason to do so in the future. Analysis of the system indicated that the plasma electron temperature, estimated to be a few eV, was the likely reason for the lack of detectable secondary ions. A change of ion species to either Boron or Magnesium would greatly increase the signal, but neither of these ions have been used in a HIBP system. The ion source used in this system is made by using a charge exchange process to create a zeolite loaded with the desired ion. Attempts were made to use charge exchange to load Magnesium into a zeolite, and were not successful. It is felt that Magnesium and/or Boron zeolite sources could be created, but

  13. Target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by method of stable ion beam implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Fedorov, D.V; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M

    The ionization efficiency is one of the most important parameters of an on-line used target-ion source system exploited for production of exotic radioactive beams. The ionization efficiency value determination as a characteristic of a target-ion source unit in the stage of its normalizing before on-line use is a very important step in the course of the preparation for an on-line experiment. At the IRIS facility (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina) a reliable and rather precise method of the target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by the method of stable beam implantation has been developed. The method worked out exploits an off-line mass-separator for the implantation of the ion beams of selected stable isotopes of different elements into a tantalum foil placed inside the Faraday cup in the focal plane of the mass-separator. The amount of implanted ions has been measured with a high accuracy by the current integrator connected to the Faraday cup. After the implantation of needed a...

  14. Comet 73P Measurements of Solar Wind Interactions, Cometary Ion Pickup, and Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Several fragments of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 passed near the Earth following a 2006 disintegration episode. Unique measurements regarding the charge state composition and the elemental abundances of both cometary and heliospheric plasma were made during this time by both the ACE/SWICS and Wind/STICS sensors. As the solar wind passed through the neutral cometary coma, it experienced charge exchange that was observed as an increase in the ratio of He+/He++. In addition, particles originating from fragments trailing the major cometary objects were ionized and picked up by the solar wind. The cometary material can be identified by the concentrations of water-group pickup ions having a mass-per-charge ratio of 16-18 amu/e, indicating that these are actively sublimating fragments. Here we present an analysis of cometary composition, spatial distribution, directionality, and heliospheric interactions with a focus on Helium, Carbon (C/O), and water-group ions.

  15. Bremsstrahlung and Ion Beam Current Measurements with SuSI ECR Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropponen, T.

    2012-01-01

    This series of slides presents: the Superconducting Source for Ions (SuSI), the X-ray measurement setup, the different collimation schemes, the flat B operation versus B(min) operation, and the impact of tuning ∇B while keeping fixed field profile

  16. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Ne-N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, A.F.V.; Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Santos, F.P.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors, such as the ALICE TPC or in the NEXT experiment. In the present work the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Ne-N 2 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of two peaks for different gas ratios of Ne-N 2 , low reduced electric fields, E / N , 10–20 Td (2.4–4.8 kV·cm −1 ·bar −1 ), low pressures 6–8 Torr (8–10.6 mbar) and at room temperature.

  17. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A. F. V.; Santos, M. A. G.; Veenhof, R.; Patra, R. N.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors. In the present work the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Xe-CO2 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of only one peak for all gas ratios of Xe-CO2, low reduced electric fields, E/N, 10-25 Td (2.4-6.1 kV·cm-1·bar-1), low pressures 6-8 Torr (8-10.6 mbar), at room temperature.

  18. Dose measurement of ion implanted silicon by RBS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamawanna, Teerasak; Intarasiri, Saweat; Prapunsri, Chowunchun; Thongleurm, Chome; Maleepatra, Saenee; Singkarat, Somsorn

    2003-10-01

    Surface modification can be achieved by ion implantation. This study used a 1 mm thick silicon wafer as a target which was implanted with Ar+ at 80 keV. The degree of the modification depends on both the ion energy and the implanted dose. The distribution of argon in the silicon substrate and the absolute implanted dose can be measured by using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). These investigations utilized a 1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator system at Chiang Mai University. The dose determination by a direct calculation is in agreement with the simulation by the SIMNRA code

  19. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.

    2005-03-01

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross sections for five different sizes of the solid angles in steps from 99.1 to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  20. Study of ion cyclotron fluctuations. Application to the measurement of the ion temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, T.

    1982-02-01

    A diagnostic technique for measuring the ion temperature of tokamak-type plasmas was developed. A theoretical study was made of the form factor associated with the ion cyclotron waves; the influence of Te/Ti on the frequency of the extrema of the dispersion relations was demonstrated. The different effects able to modify the spectral density (in particular the drift velocity and the impurities) were investigated. The mechanisms of suprathermal excitation of cylotron waves in tokamaks were reviewed together with the various effects stabilizing the spectrum: collisions, shear of the magnetic field lines. The experimental realization of the diagnostic technique is based on Thomson scattering by the electron density fluctuations [fr

  1. High voltage cathode compositions for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhonghua; Eberman, Kevin W

    2017-03-21

    A lithium transition metal oxide composition. The composition has the formula Li.sub.a[Li.sub.bNi.sub.cMn.sub.dCo.sub.e]O.sub.2, where a.gtoreq.0.9, b.gtoreq.0, c>0, d>0, e>0, b+c+d+e=1, 1.05.ltoreq.c/d.ltoreq.1.4, 0.05.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.0.30, 0.9.ltoreq.(a+b)/M.ltoreq.1.06, and M=c+d+e. The composition has an O3 type structure.

  2. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongxuan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  3. Simulation studies on measures to mitigate ion clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu Ganta, Prasanth; Masood, Ahmed; Rienen, Ursula van [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik (Germany); Sauerland, Dennis; Hillert, Wolfgang [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, ELSA (Germany); Meseck, Atoosa [HZB, Institut Beschleunigerphysik, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For future Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL), parasitic ions, which are generated by collisions of the beam and the rest gas in the vacuum chamber, present a limiting factor for the high current-low emittance electron beams. Clearing gaps, clearing electrodes and appropriate filling patterns are a remedy to keep the ion density in the accelerator at a level that allows for a minimum stability of the beam parameters. The MOEVE PIC Tracking code, which employs a 2D wake matrix, enables tracking simulations of the ion distribution over a relatively long period of up to thousands of interactions with the passing bunches. It enables to develop a deeper understanding of the ion-cloud behavior in order to design appropriate measures for their mitigation. For certain cases, it is sufficient to study the problem in 2D. Therefore, an additional 2D solver shall be implemented into MOEVE PIC Tracking in order to reduce the computation times. Numerical studies of ion cloud dynamics in beam guiding magnets and drift sections of electron machines will be shown and compared with experimental results obtained at the ELSA facility.

  4. EISCAT measurements of ion temperatures which indicate non-isotropic ion velocity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraut, S.; Brekke, A.; Hubert, D.

    1984-01-01

    Substantial increases of the ion temperature can be observed at high latitudes as a consequence of strong convection electric fields. We have measured, with EISCAT, three independent components of the ion velocity vector and temperature in the same scattering volume, at about 300 km. During periods of strong variations in ion velocity (consequently of the E-field), the ion temperatures derived at the 3 sites are different. This difference, which appears to be systematic for the two experiments studied, can be interpreted in terms of different ion temperature perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field, i.e. Tsub(i perpendicular) greater than Tsub(i parallel). Assuming that a bi-Maxwellian distribution is present for convection electric field strengths as large as 50 mV m -1 , one obtains an anisotropy factor of approximately 1.5. It also appears that resonant charge exchange is the dominant collision process. During the evening sector events studied, the electron density was decreasing, whereas the electron temperature was generally increasing. Such events are strongly related to variations in the magnetic H component detected on the ground. (author)

  5. Time-resolved measurements of highly-polymerised negative ions in rf silane plasma deposition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howling, A.A.; Sansonnens, L.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.

    1993-07-01

    The time-resolved fluxes of negative polysilicon hydride ions from a power-modulated rf silane plasma have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry and modeled using a simple polymerisation scheme. Experiments were performed with plasma parameters suitable for high-quality amorphous silicon deposition. Polysilicon hydride anions diffuse from the plasma with low energy (approximately 0.5 eV) during the afterglow after the electron density has decayed and the sheath fields have collapsed. The mass-dependence of the temporal behavior of the anion loss flux demonstrates that the plasma composition is influenced by the modulation frequency. The negative species attain much higher masses than the positive or neutral species, and anions containing as many as sixteen silicon atoms have been observed, corresponding to the 500 amu limit of the mass spectrometer. This suggests that negative ions could be the precursors to particle formation. Ion-molecule and ion-ion reactions are discussed and a simple negative ion polymerisation scheme is proposed which qualitatively reproduces the experimental results. The model shows that the densities of high mass negative ions in the plasma are strongly reduced by modulation frequencies near 1 kHz. Each plasma period is then too short for the polymerisation chain to propagate to high masses before the elementary anions are lost in each subsequent afterglow period. This explains why modulation of the rf power can reduce particle contamination. We conclude that, for the case of silane rf plasmas, the initiation steps which ultimately lead to particle contamination proceed by negative ion polymerisation. (author) 15 figs., 72 refs

  6. Newer polyanionic bio-composite anode for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Saravanan; Vellingiri, Suganya; Nallathamby, Kalaiselvi

    2017-02-01

    NASICON frame work Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP), wrapped by nitrogen and sulfur doped bio-carbon matrix derived from human hair (HHC) has been investigated for its anode behavior in SIBs. Basically, NVP is bestowed with a crystal structure of 3D open framework and a moderate theoretical capacity of 118 mAh g-1, which are the twin advantages and motivation behind the selection of this material. Prepared through a simple, scalable and facile method, the key problems associated with pristine NVP electrode material, such as inferior conductivity and severe volume change have been mitigated to a great extent through the formation of a composite containing HHC. Herein, HHC is a cheap and eco-friendly composite additive, obtained from a universal bio-waste, viz., human hair and hence NVP/HHC qualifies itself as a green composite. Interestingly, NVP/HHC-10 (in-situ) and NVP/HHC-20 (ex-situ) anodes show excellent electrochemical performance in terms of cycling stability up to 500 cycles and rate capability @ 2 A g-1, which are superior than similar category NVP anodes reported in the literature. Further, post cycling structure and morphology of NVP/HHC composite anodes evidence the appreciable stability bestowed with the select composition, which is found to get maintained upon extended cycles and even after rate capability test.

  7. Structural and compositional characterization of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals implanted with high energy iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sada, C., E-mail: cinzia.sada@unipd.i [Universita di Padova and CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Ciampolillo, M.V.; Zaltron, A.M.; Mazzoldi, P. [Universita di Padova and CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Agarwal, D.C.; Avastshi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Post Box-10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2010-10-01

    Iron ions were implanted with a total fluence of 6 x 10{sup 17} ions/m{sup 2} into lithium niobate crystals by way of a sequential implantation at different energies of 95, 100 and 105 MeV respectively through an energy retarder Fe foil to get a uniform Fe doping of about few microns from the surface. The implanted crystals were then annealed in air in the range 200-400 {sup o}C for different durations to promote the crystalline quality that was damaged by implantation. In order to understand the basic phenomena underlying the implantation process, compositional in-depth profiles obtained by the secondary ion mass spectrometry were correlated to the structural properties of the implanted region measured by the high resolution X-ray diffraction depending on the process parameters. The optimised preparation conditions are outlined in order to recover the crystalline quality, essential for integrated photorefractive applications.

  8. Positron emission medical measurements with accelerated radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llacer, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews in some detail the process by which a heavy ion accelerator can be used to inject positron emitting radioactive particles into a human body for a range of possible medical measurements. The process of radioactive beam generation and injection is described, followed by a study of the relationship between activity that can be injected versus dose to the patient as a function of which of the positron emitting ions is used. It is found that 6 C 10 and 10 Ne 19 are the two isotopes that appear more promising for injection into humans. The design considerations for a non-tomographic instrument to obtain images from beam injections are outlined and the results of 10 Ne 19 preliminary measurements with human phantoms and actual patients for the determination of end-of-range of cancer therapy ion beams is reported. Accuracies in the order of ±1 mm in the measurements of stopping point of a therapy beam with safe doses to the patient are reported. The paper concludes with a simple analysis of requirements to extend the technique to on-line verification of cancer treatment and to nuclear medicine research and diagnostics measurements. 17 refs.; 16 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. The major-ion composition of Carboniferous seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nora M.; García-Veigas, Javier; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Giles, Peter S.; Williams-Stroud, Sherilyn

    2014-06-01

    The major-ion chemistry (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, SO42-, and Cl-) of Carboniferous seawater was determined from chemical analyses of fluid inclusions in marine halites, using the cryo scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) technique. Fluid inclusions in halite from the Mississippian Windsor and Mabou Groups, Shubenacadie Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada (Asbian and Pendleian Substages, 335.5-330 Ma), and from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, Utah, USA, (Desmoinesian Stage 309-305 Ma) contain Na+-Mg2+-K+-Ca2+-Cl- brines, with no measurable SO42-, which shows that the Carboniferous ocean was a “CaCl2 sea”, relatively enriched in Ca2+ and low in SO42- with equivalents Ca2+ > SO42- + HCO3-. δ34S values from anhydrite in the Mississippian Shubenacadie Basin (13.2-14.0 ‰) and the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation (11.2-12.6 ‰) support seawater sources. Br in halite from the Shubenacadie Basin (53-111 ppm) and the Paradox Basin (68-147 ppm) also indicate seawater parentages. Carboniferous seawater, modeled from fluid inclusions, contained ∼22 mmol Ca2+/kg H2O (Mississippian) and ∼24 mmol Ca2+/kg H2O (Pennsylvanian). Estimated sulfate concentrations are ∼14 mmol SO42-/kg H2O (Mississippian), and ∼12 mmol SO42-/kg H2O (Pennsylvanian). Calculated Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios are 2.5 (Mississippian) and 2.3 (Pennsylvanian), with an estimated range of 2.0-3.2. The fluid inclusion record of seawater chemistry shows a long period of CaCl2 seas in the Paleozoic, from the Early Cambrian through the Carboniferous, when seawater was enriched in Ca2+ and relatively depleted in SO42-. During this ∼200 Myr interval, Ca2+ decreased and SO42- increased, but did not cross the Ca2+-SO42- chemical divide to become a MgSO4 sea (when SO42- in seawater became greater than Ca2+) until the latest Pennsylvanian or earliest Permian (∼309-295 Ma). Seawater remained a MgSO4 sea during the Permian and Triassic, for ∼100 Myr. Fluid inclusions also record

  10. Application of ion chemistry to tropospheric VOC measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Graus, M.; Grabmer, W.

    2002-01-01

    The main interest in tropospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from biogenic sources such as forests and anthropogenic sources such as cities is because these reactive trace gases can have a significant impact on levels of oxidants such as ozone (O 3 ) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). The proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) technique developed by Werner Lindingers Laboratory, utilizes positive ion chemistry to measure trace neutral concentrations in air. It has been applied in food research, medicine and environmental studies to gain gas phase information about VOCs at parts per trillion (pptv) levels.The real-time method relies on proton transfer reactions between H 3 O + primary ions and VOCs which have a higher proton affinity than water molecules. Organic trace gases such as hydrocarbons, carbonyls, alcohols, acetonitrile, and others can be monitored on-line.Results on tropospheric VOCs measurements in tropical regions and in cities are discussed. (nevyjel)

  11. Measurements of sputtering yields for low-energy plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, M.; Yamada, M.; Suckewer, S.; Rosengaus, E.

    1979-04-01

    Sputtering yields of various wall/limiter materials of fusion devices have been extensively measured in the relevant plasma environment for low-energy light ions (E 14 cm -3 and electron temperature up to 10eV. Target materials used were C (graphite), Ti, Mo, Ta, W, and Fe (stainless steel). In order to study the dependence of the sputtering yields on the incident energy of ions, the target samples were held at negative bias voltage up to 300V. The sputtering yields were determined by a weight-loss method and by spectral line intensity measurements. The data obtained in the present experiment agree well with those previously obtained at the higher energies (E greater than or equal to 200eV) by other authors using different schemes; the present data also extend to substantially lower energies (E approx. > 30eV) than hitherto

  12. Active ion temperature measurement with heating neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Shin

    1987-03-01

    When the heating neutral-beam (hydrogen beam) is injected into a deuterium plasma, the density of neutral particles is increased locally. By using this increased neutral particles, the local ion temperature is measured by the active charge-exchange method. The analyzer is the E//B type mass-separated neutral particle energy analyzer and the measured position is about one third outside of the plasma radius. The deuterium energy spectrum is Maxwellian, and the temperature is increased from 350 eV to 900 eV during heating. Since the local hydrogen to deuterium density concentration and the density of the heating neutral-beam as well as the ion temperature can be obtained good S/N ratio, the usefulness of this method during neutral-beam heating is confirmed by this experiment. (author)

  13. Alumina/Phenolphthalein Polyetherketone Ceramic Composite Polypropylene Separator Film for Lithium Ion Power Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Zhiyu; Yin, Xiunan; Li, Yunchao; Huo, Hong; Zhou, Jianjun; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PEK-C (T g : ∼230 °C) was used as binder to prepare ceramic coated composite PP separator. • The composite PP separator was stable and showed low thermal shrinkage in the electrolyte solvent. • The composite PP separator was helpful for high current density discharge. • The composite PP separator improved the safety performance of the coin cells. - Abstract: One way to obtain the lithium ion power battery with better safety performance was to increase the thermal shrinkage resistance of the separator at higher temperature. Phenolphthalein polyetherketone (PEK-C) is a polymer that can withstand high temperature to about 230 °C. Here, we developed a new Al 2 O 3 coated composite polypropylene (PP) separator with PEK-C as binder. The coating layer was formed on the surface of the PP separator and both ceramic particles and binder did not infiltrated into the separator along the thickness direction. The composite separator with 4 μm coating layer provided balanced permeability and thermal shrinkage properties. The composite separator was stable at the electrochemical window for lithium ion battery. The coin cells with composite separator showed better charge/discharge performance than that of the cells with the PP separator. It seemed that the composite separator was helpful for high current density discharge. Also, the battery safety performance test had verified that the Al 2 O 3 coated composite separator with PEK-C as binder had truly improved the safety performance of the coin cells. So, the newly developed Al 2 O 3 coated composite PP separator was a promising safety product for lithium ion power batteries with high energy density

  14. A Combined Thermodynamics & Computational Method to Assess Lithium Composition in Anode and Cathode of Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenyu; Jiang, Lianlian; Van Durmen, Pauline; Saadat, Somaye; Yazami, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    With aim to address the open question of accurate determination of lithium composition in anode and cathode at a defined state of charge (SOC) of lithium ion batteries (LIB), we developed a method combining electrochemical thermodynamic measurements (ETM) and computational data fitting protocol. It is a common knowledge that in a lithium ion battery the SOC of anode and cathode differ from the SOC of the full-cell. Differences are in large part due to irreversible lithium losses within cell and to electrode mass unbalance. This implies that the lithium composition range in anode and in cathode during full charge and discharge cycle in full-cell is different from the composition range achieved in lithium half-cells of anode and cathode over their respective full SOC ranges. To the authors knowledge there is no unequivocal and practical method to determine the actual lithium composition of electrodes in a LIB, hence their SOC. Yet, accurate lithium composition assessment is fundamental not only for understanding the physics of electrodes but also for optimizing cell performances, particularly energy density and cycle life.

  15. Measurement of the ion temperature in a diffuse theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koichi; Watanabe, Yukio; Ogi, Sukeomi; Sumikawa, Toshio; Akazaki, Masanori

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of helium ion spectra was observed, and the ion temperature of theta pinch plasma was obtained. The apparatus for the measurement consists of a spectroscope, a photomultiplier and an oscilloscope. The time variation of initial plasma density was obtained. The doppler broadening of the spectra was observed in case of the plasma density of 2 x 10 13 /cm 3 and 3 x 10 12 /cm 3 . The analyses of the spectra gave the ion temperature. The double temperature distribution was seen. The temperature of the low temperature part was 5 to 9 electron-volt, and that of the high temperature part several hundred electron-volt. The high temperature is caused by the thermalization of particles accelerated by the magnetic piston. The decay of high temperature ions is due to the charge exchange with the neutral particles. The time of the highest temperature corresponds to the time at which the luminescent layer reaches to the central axis. (Kato, T.)

  16. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K W; Prawer, S; Weiser, P S; Dooley, S P [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include: elastic scattering,single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H - is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements in progress will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion-atom collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility and the initial ion beam was accelerated through the apparatus in April 1991

  19. Dependence of secondary ion emission current on the composition of beryllium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistryak, V.M.; Kozlov, V.F.; Tikhinskij, G.F.; Fogel', Ya.M.

    1976-01-01

    The dependence is studied of the secondary ions emission current on the composition of beryllium-nickel alloys. It is established that appearance of intermetallide phases in the Be-Ni alloys has no effect on the linear character of the secondary ions Ni + and Be + of emission current. The phase transformation from the solid solution to the compound Ni 5 Be 21 with a change in the alloys concentration is fixed by appearance of the secondary ion NiBe + emission. The limited solubility of nickel in solid beryllium at a temperature close to room temperature is determined to be equal to 1.3+-0.27 at%

  20. Development of composite ion exchangers and their use in treatment of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1997-01-01

    Composite inorganic-organic absorbers represent a group of inorganic ion exchangers modified by using binding organic material for preparation of larger size particles having higher granular strength. Such modification of originally powdered or microcrystalline inorganic ion exchangers makes their application in packed beds possible. Modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been used as a universal binding polymer for a number of inorganic ion exchangers. The kinetics of ion exchange and sorption capacity of such composite absorbers is not influenced by the binding polymer mentioned above. The contents of active component in composite absorber can be varied over a very broad range (5-95% of the dry weight of the composite absorber). These composite absorbers have been tested for separation and concentration of various contaminants from aqueous solutions. Their high selectivity and sorption efficiency are advantageous for treatment of various radioactive and/or industrial waste waters, removal of natural and/or artificial radionuclides and heavy or toxic metals from underground water, determination of radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 60 Co, U, Ra) in the environment, etc. Examples of some of these applications are presented in this report. (author). 21 refs, 9 figs, 10 tabs

  1. Anion Effects on the Ion Exchange Process and the Deformation Property of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Aoyagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC actuator composed of a thin perfluorinated ionomer membrane with electrodes plated on both surfaces undergoes a large bending motion when a low electric field is applied across its thickness. Such actuators are soft, lightweight, and able to operate in solutions and thus show promise with regard to a wide range of applications, including MEMS sensors, artificial muscles, biomimetic systems, and medical devices. However, the variations induced by changing the type of anion on the device deformation properties are not well understood; therefore, the present study investigated the effects of different anions on the ion exchange process and the deformation behavior of IPMC actuators with palladium electrodes. Ion exchange was carried out in solutions incorporating various anions and the actuator tip displacement in deionized water was subsequently measured while applying a step voltage. In the step voltage response measurements, larger anions such as nitrate or sulfate led to a more pronounced tip displacement compared to that obtained with smaller anions such as hydroxide or chloride. In AC impedance measurements, larger anions generated greater ion conductivity and a larger double-layer capacitance at the cathode. Based on these mechanical and electrochemical measurements, it is concluded that the presence of larger anions in the ion exchange solution induces a greater degree of double-layer capacitance at the cathode and results in enhanced tip deformation of the IPMC actuators.

  2. Integrated ion imprinted polymers-paper composites for selective and sensitive detection of Cd(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Chen, Ying [Hubei Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 6 ZhuoDao Quan North Road, 430079, Wuhan (China); Zhou, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Zhao, Xiaoya [Hubei Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of PRC, No.588 Qingtaidadao Road, Hubei, 430022, Wuhan (China); Liu, Jiafa [Hubei Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 6 ZhuoDao Quan North Road, 430079, Wuhan (China); Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Jing, Tao, E-mail: jingtao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China)

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • IIPs are first grafted on the low-cost A4 print paper to develop an integrated paper-based device. • As an imprinted composite, the adsorption capacity is 155.2 mg g{sup –1} and the imprinted factor is more than 3.0. • As an analytical method, the limit of detection is 0.4 ng mL{sup –1}. • Based on the water quality standards, it could be used to determine Cd(II) ions in drinking water. - Abstract: Paper-based sensor is a new alternative technology to develop a portable, low-cost, and rapid analysis system in environmental chemistry. In this study, ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) using cadmium ions as the template were directly grafted on the surface of low-cost print paper based on the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. It can be applied as a recognition element to selectively capture the target ions in the complex samples. The maximum adsorption capacity of IIPs composites was 155.2 mg g{sup –1} and the imprinted factor was more than 3.0. Then, IIPs-paper platform could be also applied as a detection element for highly selective and sensitive detection of Cd(II) ions without complex sample pretreatment and expensive instrument, due to the selective recognition, formation of dithizone-cadmium complexes and light transmission ability. Under the optimized condition, the linear range was changed from 1 to 100 ng mL{sup –1} and the limit of detection was 0.4 ng mL{sup –1}. The results were in good agreement with the classic ICP-MS method. Furthermore, the proposed method can also be developed for detection of other heavy metals by designing of new IIPs.

  3. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  4. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  5. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lee, Taek Seung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive 60 Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  6. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taek Seung, E-mail: tslee@cnu.ac.kr [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive {sup 60}Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  7. Preparation and characterization of flake graphite/silicon/carbon spherical composite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Jun [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo Huajun, E-mail: Lai_jun_@126.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang Zhixing; Li Xinhai; Zhang Xiaoping; Wu Feixiang; Yue Peng [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flake graphite/silicon/carbon composite is synthesized via spray drying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flake graphite of {approx}0.5 {mu}m and glucose are used to prepare the composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-prepared composite shows spherical and porous appearance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite shows nearly the same cycleability as commercial graphite in 20 cycles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite shows a reversible capacity of 552 mAh/g at the 20th cycle. - Abstract: Using nano-Si, glucose and flake graphite of {approx}0.5 {mu}m as raw materials, flake graphite/silicon/carbon composite is successfully synthesized via spray drying and subsequent pyrolysis. The samples are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The composite is composed of flake graphite, nano-Si and amorphous glucose-pyrolyzed carbon and presents good spherical appearance. Some micron pores arising from the decomposition of glucose exist on the surface of the composite particles. The composite has a high reversible capacity of 602.7 mAh/g with an initial coulombic efficiency of 69.71%, and shows nearly the same cycleability as the commercial graphite in 20 cycles. Both the glucose-pyrolyzed carbon and the micron pores play important roles in improving the cycleability of the composite. The flake graphite/silicon/carbon composite electrode is a potential alternative to graphite for high energy-density lithium ion batteries.

  8. Measurement of energy deposition near heavy ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metting, N.F.; Brady, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Rapkin, M.

    1985-01-01

    In November of 1982 work was begun in collaboration with Columbia University and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to use microdosimetric methods to measure energy deposition of heavy ions produced at LBL's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. Last year the authors reported preliminary results indicating that secondary charged particle equilibrium was probably obtained using this experimental setup, but that there seemed to be poor spatial resolution in the solid state position-sensitive detector. Further analysis of the measurements taken in August 1983 shows that because of this electronic noise in the position-sensitive detector, only the 56 Fe data yielded useful microdosimetric spectra

  9. Development of negative heavy ion sources for plasma potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, M.; Okabe, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Fujita, J.; Yamaoka, H.; Wada, M.

    1991-10-01

    A plasma sputter negative ion source was studied for its applicability to the potential measurement of a fusion plasma. Both the beam current density and the beam energy spread are key issues. Energy spectra of a self extracted Au - beam from the source were measured under the condition of a constant work function of the production surface. The full width of half maximum (FWHM) increases from 3 eV to 9 eV monotonically as the target voltage increases from 50 V to 300 V, independently from the target surface work function of 2.2 - 3 eV. (author)

  10. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.; Arendse, G.J.; Auce, A.; Cox, A.J.; Foertsch, S.V.; Jacobs, N.M.; Johansson, R.; Nyberg, J.; Peavy, J.; Renberg, P.-U.; Sundberg, O.; Stander, J.A.; Steyn, G.F.; Tibell, G.; Zorro, R.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross-sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross-sections for five different sizes of the solid angle in steps from 99.1% to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross-section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  11. Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite prepared by spray drying technique for lithium ion batteries anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Libao; Xie Xiaohua; Wang Baofeng; Wang Ke; Xie Jingying

    2006-01-01

    Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite was prepared by spray drying technique, followed by heat treatment, in which nanosized silicon and fine graphite particles were homogeneously embedded in carbon matrix pyrolyzed by phenol formaldehyde resin. Cyclic voltammetry tests showed two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to lithiation and delithiation of Si/C composite. The Si/C composite exhibited a reversible capacity of 635 mAh g -1 and good cycle performance used in lithium ion batteries. To improve cycle performance of this Si/C composite further, the carbon-coated Si/C composite was synthesized by the second spray drying and heat treatment processing. The cycle performance of carbon-coated Si/C composite was improved significantly, which was attributed to the formation of stable SEI passivation layers on the outer surface of carbon shell which protected the bared silicon from exposing to electrolyte directly

  12. Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite prepared by spray drying technique for lithium ion batteries anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Libao [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie Xiaohua [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Baofeng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Ke [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xie Jingying [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China) and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)]. E-mail: jyxie@mail.sim.ac.cn

    2006-07-15

    Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite was prepared by spray drying technique, followed by heat treatment, in which nanosized silicon and fine graphite particles were homogeneously embedded in carbon matrix pyrolyzed by phenol formaldehyde resin. Cyclic voltammetry tests showed two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to lithiation and delithiation of Si/C composite. The Si/C composite exhibited a reversible capacity of 635 mAh g{sup -1} and good cycle performance used in lithium ion batteries. To improve cycle performance of this Si/C composite further, the carbon-coated Si/C composite was synthesized by the second spray drying and heat treatment processing. The cycle performance of carbon-coated Si/C composite was improved significantly, which was attributed to the formation of stable SEI passivation layers on the outer surface of carbon shell which protected the bared silicon from exposing to electrolyte directly.

  13. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani,; Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang, E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  14. Phase selection controlled by sodium ions in the synthesis of FAU/LTA composite zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyan Hu, Sujuan Xie, Qingxia Wang, Shenglin Liu and Longya Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite faujasite (FAU, Linde type A (LTA and FAU/LTA composite have been synthesized using tetramethylammonium cation (TMA + as template, by adjusting only the concentration of Na + ions in the initial solution (1.00 Al2 O3 4.36 SiO2 : 2.39 (TMA2 O : β Na2 O : 249.00H2 O. Na + ions alter the phase composition of the product more than TMA+ or OH− ions. When Na2 O concentration [Na2 O] increases from 0.024 to 0.168, the product gradually changes from pure FAU to pure LTA via the formation of FAU/LTA composite with increasing LTA fraction. Interestingly, the induction periods of FAU and LTA in the FAU/LTA composite zeolite ([Na2 O] is 0.072 are both 13 h, quite different from the induction periods of their individual pure phases—45 h for FAU and 4 h for LTA. During the crystallization, the LTA/(FAU + LTA fraction in the composite zeolite decreases in a nearly linear fashion. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicate some difference between the properties of the FAU/LTA composite zeolite and of the mechanical mixture.

  15. Measurements of the sensitivity of radiochromic film using ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidle, J. A.; Shortino, J. P.; Ellison, D. M.; Freeman, C. G.; Sangster, T. C.

    2013-10-01

    Radiochromic film (RCF) is used in several diagnostics as a dosimeter that chromatically responds to incident particles. This response depends on the fluence, energy, and species of the incident particles. A 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator is used to create a monoenergetic ion beam which is scattered off a thin gold target onto a strip of RCF. A surface barrier detector is positioned behind a small hole in the film to measure the ion fluence on the nearby film. Once the film develops, it is scanned to examine its optical density. A response curve is acquired by fitting a three parameter formula to optical density and dose. These calibration curves can be used to help determine incident doses in a variety of situations.

  16. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CF4 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A. F. V.; Kaja, M. A.; Escada, J.; Santos, M. A. G.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ion mobility measurements made in gaseous mixtures of xenon with carbon tetrafluoride (Xe-CF4) for pressures ranging from 6 to 10 Torr (8-10.6 mbar) and for low reduced electric fields in the 10 to 25 Td range (2.4-6.1 kVṡcm‑1ṡbar‑1), at room temperature. The time-of-arrival spectra revealed one or two peaks depending on the gas relative abundances, which were attributed to CF3+ and to Xe2+ ions. However, for Xe concentrations above 60%, only one peak remains (Xe2+). The reduced mobilities obtained from the peak centroid of the time-of-arrival spectra are presented for Xe concentrations in the 5%-95% range.

  17. Network measurements at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossbeck, P.; Pschorn, I.; Gebhard, Moritz

    1999-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Synchrotron SIS forms together with the Linear Accelerator UNILAC and the Storage Ring ESR the accelerator complex of the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. It accelerates heavy ions up to Uranium to 1 GeV/amu. The accelerators and beamlines have been surveyed and aligned using the TASA method. For SIS a network was established in order to survey the synchrotron with the TASA method. Goal of a diploma thesis was to establish an alternative network for a Laser Tracker instrument and to reach error ellipsoids below 30 μm. In this paper a comparison of the two methods is given. Since the Tracker measurements are done automatically only one person is needed. That reduces the man power. Time consumption for both methods is about the same, although much more network points were used with the Laser Tracker method. As a consequence of the larger number of network points the homogeneity of the results is better. (authors)

  18. Magnetized retarding field energy analyzer measuring the particle flux and ion energy distribution of both positive and negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane; Dudin, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field energy analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative ion analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic ion energy barrier allowing both positive and negative ions to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for ion-ion beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the ion energy resolution below 5 eV. The effective ion transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the ion energy. It is found that the ion transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing ion energy in the low-energy range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high ion energies. The ion transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate ion flux and ion energy distribution measurements in various experimental setups with ion beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with ion energies above 10 eV

  19. Composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix. Methods of modification of properties of inorganic ion-exchangers for application in column packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of preparation of granules of inorganic ion exchangers as well as methods for improvement of granular strength of these materials are reviewed. The resulting ion exchangers are classified in three groups - 'intrinsic', supported and composite ion exchangers. Their properties are compared and possibilities of their technological application are evaluated. A new method of preparation of inorganic-organic composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix is described, advantages and disadvantages of such sorbents are discussed. Proposed fields of application include tratment of liquid radioactive and/or hazardous wastes, decontamination of natural water as well as analytical applications. (author)

  20. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2010-10-01

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  1. Simulation studies of acceleration of heavy ions and their elemental compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toida, Mieko; Ohsawa, Yukiharu

    1996-07-01

    By using a one-dimensional, electromagnetic particle simulation code with full ion and electron dynamics, we have studied the acceleration of heavy ions by a nonlinear magnetosonic wave in a multi-ion-species plasma. First, we describe the mechanism of heavy ion acceleration by magnetosonic waves. We then investigate this by particle simulations. The simulation plasma contains four ion species: H, He, O, and Fe. The number density of He is taken to be 10% of that of H, and those of O and Fe are much lower. Simulations confirm that, as in a single-ion-species plasma, some of the hydrogens can be accelerated by the longitudinal electric field formed in the wave. Furthermore, they show that magnetosonic waves can accelerate all the particles of all the heavy species (He, O, and Fe) by a different mechanism, i.e., by the transverse electric field. The maximum speeds of the heavy species are about the same, of the order of the wave propagation speed. These are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. These results indicate that, if high-energy ions are produced in the solar corona through these mechanisms, the elemental compositions of these heavy ions can be similar to that of the background plasma, i.e., the corona

  2. Facile Synthesis of Graphene/ZnO Composite as an Anode with Enhanced Performance for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene/ZnO composites with different contents of ZnO have been successfully synthesized via a liquid phase route. The structure, morphology, and electrochemical performances of the composites are investigated by XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM, AFM, and electrochemical measurement. The results reveal that ZnO nanoparticles wedged on the surface of the graphene nanosheets. The initial capacity of graphene/ZnO (1 : 1 reached 1155.27 mAh g−1, which increased 162.87 mAh g−1 compared with the initial capacity of graphene. This could be attributed to the unique structure of the prepared composite and synergies of graphene and ZnO in the lithium ion storage.

  3. Spectroscopic techniques for measuring ion diode space-charge distributions and ion source properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filuk, A B; Bailey, J E; Adams, R G [Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    The authors are using time- and space-resolved visible spectroscopy to measure applied-B ion diode dynamics on the 20 TW Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. Doppler broadening of fast Li atoms, as viewed parallel to the anode, is used in a charge-exchange model to obtain the Li{sup +} ion divergence within 100 {mu}m of the anode surface. The characteristic Stark/Zeeman shifts in spectra of alkali neutrals or singly-ionized alkaline-earths are used to measure the strong electric (10{sup 9} V/m) an magnetic ({approx} 6 T) fields in the diode gap. Large Stark shifts within 0.5 mm of the anode indicate the LiF emits with a finite field threshold rather than with Child-Langmuir-type emission, and the small slope in the electric field indicates an unexpected build-up of electrons near the anode. In the diode gap, the authors aim to unfold fields to quantify the time-dependent ion and electron space-charge distributions that determine the ion beam properties. Observed electric field non-uniformities give local beam deflections that can be comparable to the total beam microdivergence. The authors are implementing active laser absorption and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy on low-density Na atoms injected into the diode gap prior to the power pulse. The small Doppler broadening in the Na spectra should allow simultaneous electric and magnetic field mapping with improved spatial resolution. (author). 4 figs., 13 refs.

  4. Probing the Martian Exosphere and Neutral Escape Using Pickup Ions Measured by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, A.; Larson, D. E.; Cravens, T.; Halekas, J. S.; Lillis, R. J.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Thiemann, E.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Dunn, P.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Espley, J. R.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Soon after the MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft started orbiting Mars in September 2014, the SEP (Solar Energetic Particle), SWIA (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer), and STATIC (Supra-Thermal and Thermal Ion Composition) instruments onboard the spacecraft started detecting planetary pickup ions. SEP can measure energetic (>50 keV) oxygen pickup ions, the source of which is the extended hot oxygen exosphere of Mars. Model results show that these pickup ions originate from tens of Martian radii upstream of Mars and are energized by the solar wind motional electric field as they gyrate back towards Mars. SEP is blind to pickup hydrogen, as the low energy threshold for detection of hydrogen in SEP is 20 keV; well above the maximum pickup hydrogen energy, which is four times the solar wind proton energy. SWIA and STATIC, on the other hand, can detect both pickup oxygen and pickup hydrogen with energies below 30 keV and created closer to Mars. During the times when MAVEN is outside the Martian bow shock and in the upstream undisturbed solar wind, the solar wind velocity measured by SWIA and the solar wind (or interplanetary) magnetic field measured by the MAG (magnetometer) instrument can be used to model pickup oxygen and hydrogen fluxes near Mars. Solar wind flux measurements of the SWIA instrument are used in calculating charge-exchange frequencies, and data from the EUVM (Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor) and SWEA (Solar Wind Electron Analyzer) instruments are also used in calculating photo-ionization and electron impact frequencies of neutral species in the Martian exosphere. By comparing SEP, SWIA, and STATIC measured pickup ion fluxes with model results, the Martian thermal hydrogen and hot oxygen neutral densities can be probed outside the bow shock, which would place constraints on estimates of oxygen and hydrogen neutral escape rates. We will present model-data comparisons of pickup ions measured outside the Martian bow shock. Our analysis reveals an

  5. The effect of correlations on the entropy and hadrochemical composition in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, H.-W.; Biro, T.S.; Lukacs, B.; Zimanyi, J.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that spatial correlations between the constituent particles of a gas lead to roughly excluded volume type corrections in the equation of state. These corrections will appreciably change the hadrochemical composition of fireballs formed in heavy ion reactions. (author) 29 refs.; 3 figs

  6. Measurements of the fast ion distribution during neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron heating in ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Kwon, M.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; England, A.C.; Gossett, J.M.; Horton, L.D.; Isler, R.C.; Lyon, J.F.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rayburn, T.M.; Shepard, T.D.; Bell, G.L.; Fowler, R.H.; Morris, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    A neutral particle analyzer (NPA) with horizontal and vertical scanning capability has been used to make initial measurements of the fast ion distribution during neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron heating (ICH) on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These measurements are presented and compared with the results of modeling codes that predict the analyzer signals during these heating processes. 6 refs., 5 figs

  7. Near Earth Inner-Source and Interstellar Pickup Ions Observed with the Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission Mms-Hpca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, R. G.; Fuselier, S. A.; Mukherjee, J.; Gonzalez, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Pickup ions found near the earth are generally picked up in the rest frame of the solar wind, and propagate radially outward from their point of origin. While propagating, they simultaneously gyrate about the magnetic field. Pickup ions come in two general populations; interstellar and inner source ions. Interstellar ions originate in the interstellar medium, enter the solar system in a neutral charge state, are gravitationally focused on the side of the sun opposite their arrival direction and, are ionized when they travel near the sun. Inner-source ions originate at a location within the solar system and between the sun and the observation point. Both pickup ion populations share similarities in composition and charge states, so measuring of their dynamics, using their velocity distribution functions, f(v)'s, is absolutely essential to distinguishing them, and to determining their spatial and temporal origins. Presented here will be the results of studies conducted with the four Hot Plasma Composition Analyzers of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS-HPCA). These instruments measure the full sky (4π steradians) distribution functions of near earth plasmas at a 10 second cadence in an energy-to-charge range 0.001-40 keV/e. The instruments are also capable of parsing this combined energy-solid angle phase space with 22.5° resolution polar angle, and 11.25° in azimuthal angle, allowing for clear measurement of the pitch angle scattering of the ions.

  8. Use of Composite Sorbents for the Removal of Copper (II ions from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Oyedoyin Adeeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite adsorbents are synthesized from two or more materials with different chemical and physical properties in order to increase their selectivity and the reusability. Researchers have developed and applied several novel composite materials for enhancing the removal of heavy metal. In this review, extensive list of composites developed via advanced technologies with specified characteristics for the removal of Cu (II ion are discussed. Emphases on their adsorption capacities, reusability, desorption and regeneration with improved mechanical strengths are presented. Conclusively, prospects and other challenges to be checked and addressed in future are outlined.

  9. Lifetime measurements in an electrostatic ion beam trap using image charge monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahinov, Igor; Toker, Yoni; Heber, Oded; Rappaport, Michael; Zajfman, Daniel; Strasser, Daniel; Schwalm, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    A technique for mass-selective lifetime measurements of keV ions in a linear electrostatic ion beam trap is presented. The technique is based on bunching the ions using a weak RF potential and non-destructive ion detection by a pick-up electrode. This method has no mass-limitation, possesses the advantage of inherent mass-selectivity, and offers a possibility of measuring simultaneously the lifetimes of different ion species with no need for prior mass-selection.

  10. Ion-conductive properties of polyether-based composite electrolytes filled with mesoporous silica, alumina and titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Yoichi; Endo, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Composite polymer electrolytes were prepared consisting of amorphous polyether, Li salt and mesoporous inorganic filler, and we investigated their ion-conductive properties. We synthesized three types of filler, mesoporous silica, alumina and titania (MP-Si, Al, Ti), and characterized their structural and physicochemical properties using SEM, TEM, SAXS and BET surface area measurements. From these measurements, we confirmed that MP fillers have well-defined arrays of mesoporous and hexagonal structures. Dependence on the MP filler content of the glass transition temperature (T g ) revealed that the addition of filler to original polyether-salt electrolyte causes T g decrease, to due to the dissociation of aggregated ions such as triples or crystalline complex domains. The MP-Ti composites had the greatest ionic conductivity (1.4 × 10 −5 S/cm, 7.5 wt% at 30 °C) of all samples, and the values were more than double that of the original. The addition of MP-Ti also increased the lithium transference number, because the electrolyte/filler interface provided active sites that increase mobile Li ions and conducting paths so as to enhance the mobility

  11. Towards polarization measurements of laser-accelerated helium-3 ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Ilhan

    2015-08-28

    In the framework of this thesis, preparatory investigations for the spin-polarization measurement of {sup 3}He ions from laser-induced plasmas have been performed. Therefore, experiments aiming at an efficient laser-induced ion acceleration out of a {sup 4}He gas target were carried out at two high-intensity laser facilities: the Arcturus laser at Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf as well as PHELIX at GSI Darmstadt. The scientific goal of both experiments was to investigate the ion-acceleration process in underdense plasmas by measuring the ion energy spectra and the angular distribution of the ion signal around the gas-jet target. Laser-accelerated MeV-He-ions could successfully be detected. The main acceleration direction at large angles with regard to the laser propagation direction was determined. In a second step, unpolarized {sup 3}He gas was attached in order to cross-check the experimental results with those of {sup 4}He. With the help of the achieved ion yield data, the expected rates of the fusion reaction D({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He in the polarized case have been estimated: the information regarding the fusion proton yield from this nuclear reaction allows an experimentally based estimation for future experiments with pre-polarized {sup 3}He gas as plasma target. The experimental data is in line with supporting Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations performed on the Juelich supercomputers. For this purpose, the simulated target was defined as a neutral gas. The use of pre-polarized {sup 3}He gas demands a special preparation of a polarized {sup 3}He target for laser-acceleration experiments. This layout includes an (external) homogeneous magnetic holding field (field strength of ∝1.4 mT) for storing the pre-polarized gas for long time durations inside the PHELIX target chamber. For this purpose, a precise Halbach array consisting of horizontally arranged rings with built-in permanent magnets had to be designed, optimized, and constructed to deliver high

  12. Energy-loss measurements with heavy ions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, B.; Gaimard, J.J.; Geissel, H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schmidt, K.H.; Stelzer, H.; Suemmerer; Clerc, H.G.; Hanelt, E.; Steiner, M.; Voss, B.

    1990-03-01

    Using the magnetic spectrometer SPES I at SATURNE, energy-loss measurements have been performed for projectiles of 40 Ar (401 MeV/u), 36 P (362 MeV/u), 15 N (149 MeV/u), 11 Li (131 MeV/u) and 8 Li, 9 Li (130 MeV/u) in carbon, aluminum and lead targets. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on a modified relativistic Bethe formula and to a semi-empirical formula using a Z 2 scaling law for the stopping power and an effective charge parametrization for the heavy ions. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of extent of intense ion beam charge neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelko, V [Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giese, H; Schalk, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). INR

    1997-12-31

    Various diagnostic tools were employed to study and optimize the extent of space charge neutralization in the pulsed intense proton beam facility PROFA, comprising Langmuir probes, capacitive probes, and a novel type of the three electrode collector. The latter does not only allow us to measure ion and electron beam current densities in a high magnetic field environment, but also to deduce the density spectrum of the beam electrons. Appropriate operating conditions were identified to attain a complete space charge neutralisation. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Carbon nanotube/carbon nanotube composite AFM probes prepared using ion flux molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesmore, Grace; Roque, Carrollyn; Barber, Richard

    The performance of carbon nanotube-carbon nanotube composite (CNT/CNT composite) atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes is compared to that of conventional Si probes in AFM tapping mode. The ion flux molding (IFM) process, aiming an ion beam at the CNT probe, aligns the tip to a desired angle. The result is a relatively rigid tip that is oriented to offset the cantilever angle. Scans using these probes reveal an improvement in image accuracy over conventional tips, while allowing higher aspect ratio imaging of 3D surface features. Furthermore, the lifetimes of CNT-CNT composite tips are observed to be longer than both conventional tips and those claimed for other CNT technologies. Novel applications include the imaging of embiid silk. Supported by the Clare Boothe Luce Research Scholars Award and Carbon Design Innovations.

  15. STM and transport measurements of highly charged ion modified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, J.M.; Grube, H.; Perrella, A.C.; Gillaspy, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Careful measurements of highly charged ions (HCIs) colliding with gases and surfaces have provided glimpses of intense electronic interactions, but a comprehensive model for the interaction mechanisms, time scales, and resultant nano-features that bridges materials systems is yet to be realized. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, new apparatus is now connected to the HCI beamline to allow preparation of clean, atomically flat surfaces of single crystals, e.g. gold, tungsten and silicon, and deposition and patterning of thin films, e.g. high resistivity oxides, ferromagnetic metals, normal metals and superconductors. Experiments reported here focus on the electronic and morphological structure of HCI induced nano-features. Current activities are focused on using in situ scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on Au(1 1 1) and (separately) ex situ transport measurements to study electronic properties within HCI modified magnetic multilayer systems. Specifically, we are fabricating magnetic multilayers similar to magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) (important in advanced magnetic field sensors and superconducting Josephson junction devices) and using HCIs to adjust critical electronic properties. The electrical response of the tunnel junction to HCIs provides a novel approach to performing HCI-induced nanostructure ensemble measurements

  16. Junction Potentials Bias Measurements of Ion Exchange Membrane Permselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Flotron, Sophie; Zhu, Shan; Call, Douglas F; Coronell, Orlando

    2018-04-17

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are versatile materials relevant to a variety of water and waste treatment, energy production, and industrial separation processes. The defining characteristic of IEMs is their ability to selectively allow positive or negative ions to permeate, which is referred to as permselectivity. Measured values of permselectivity that equal unity (corresponding to a perfectly selective membrane) or exceed unity (theoretically impossible) have been reported for cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Such nonphysical results call into question our ability to correctly measure this crucial membrane property. Because weighing errors, temperature, and measurement uncertainty have been shown to not explain these anomalous permselectivity results, we hypothesized that a possible explanation are junction potentials that occur at the tips of reference electrodes. In this work, we tested this hypothesis by comparing permselectivity values obtained from bare Ag/AgCl wire electrodes (which have no junction) to values obtained from single-junction reference electrodes containing two different electrolytes. We show that permselectivity values obtained using reference electrodes with junctions were greater than unity for CEMs. In contrast, electrodes without junctions always produced permselectivities lower than unity. Electrodes with junctions also resulted in artificially low permselectivity values for AEMs compared to electrodes without junctions. Thus, we conclude that junctions in reference electrodes introduce two biases into results in the IEM literature: (i) permselectivity values larger than unity for CEMs and (ii) lower permselectivity values for AEMs compared to those for CEMs. These biases can be avoided by using electrodes without a junction.

  17. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic targets at intermediate energies. The immediate goal is to study elastic scattering, single electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization in H - scattering from noble gas targets. For the target inelastic processes, these cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The present measurements will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility, and significant progress toward its operation has been realized during this period. The proposed research is described in this report. The progress on and the status of the apparatus is also detailed in this report

  18. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  19. Kinetics and equilibrium studies for sorption of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) ions onto polymeric composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhhar, A.A.; Abdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    The sorption behavior of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions was studied using polymeric composite resins. Batch sorption experiments were performed as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, complexing agent concentration, resin weight and ionic strength. Kinetic parameters as a function of initial ion concentration were determined to predict the sorption behavior of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) onto polymeric composite resins. The equilibrium data could be fitted by the frendlich adsorption isotherm equation

  20. Effect of simultaneous ion irradiation on microstructural change of SiC/SiC composites at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, T.; Wakai, E.; Igawa, N.; Nogami, S.; Snead, L.L.; Hasegawa, A.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous triple ion irradiation of He, H and Si on microstructural evolution of two kinds of SiC/SiC composites (HNS composite (using Hi-Nicalon type S SiC fiber) and TSA composite (using Tyranno SA SiC fiber)) at 1000 deg. C has been investigated. The microstructure observations of SiC/SiC composites irradiated to 10 dpa were examined by transmission electron microscopy. He bubbles were hardly formed in matrix of TSA composite, but many helium bubbles and some cracks were observed at grain boundaries of matrix of HNS composite. He bubbles and cracks were not, on the other hand, observed in the both fiber fabrics of HNS and TSA composites. Debonding between fiber and carbon layer following irradiation region was not observed in the both composites. Under these irradiation conditions, TSA composite showed the better microstructural stability against ion beams irradiation than one of HNS composite

  1. CREAM for high energy composition measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, E S; Allison, P S; Beatty, J J; Choi, M J; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; DuVernois, M A; Ganel, O; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S A; Min, K W; Mognet, S I; Nutter, S; Park, H; Schindhelm, E; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J

    2003-01-01

    Ground-based indirect measurements have shown that the cosmic-ray allparticle spectrum extends many orders of magnitude beyond the energy thought possible for supernova acceleration. Our balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is capable of extending direct measurements of cosmic-rays to the supernova energy scale of 1015 eV in a series of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. Identification of Z = 1 - 26 particles will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector. Energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector and a tungsten/scintillating fiber calorimeter. The instrument has been tested with various particles in accelerated beams at the CERN SPS. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004.

  2. Note on measuring electronic stopping of slow ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2017-11-01

    Extracting stopping cross sections from energy-loss measurements requires careful consideration of the experimental geometry. Standard procedures for separating nuclear from electronic stopping treat electronic energy loss as a friction force, ignoring its dependence on impact parameter. In the present study we find that incorporating this dependence has a major effect on measured stopping cross sections, in particular for light ions at low beam energies. Calculations have been made for transmission geometry, nuclear interactions being quantified by Bohr-Williams theory of multiple scattering on the basis of a Thomas-Fermi-Molière potential, whereas electronic interactions are characterized by Firsov theory or PASS code. Differences between the full and the restricted stopping cross section depend on target thickness and opening angle of the detector and need to be taken into account in comparisons with theory as well as in applications of stopping data. It follows that the reciprocity principle can be violated when checked on restricted instead of full electronic stopping cross sections. Finally, we assert that a seeming gas-solid difference in stopping of low-energy ions is actually a metal-insulator difference. In comparisons with experimental results we mostly consider proton data, where nuclear stopping is only a minor perturbation.

  3. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  4. Composition of hot ions /0.1-16 keV/e/ as observed by the GEOS and ISEE mass spectrometers and inferences for the origin and circulation of magnetospheric plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsiger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of hot magnetospheric plasma through different regions of the magnetosphere is described on the basis of mass spectrometer measurements by the GEOS 1, GEOS 2, and ISEE-1 spacecraft. Coordinated composition measurements on the different spacecraft also provide information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the plasma during storms. Data on ion origins are also provided.

  5. Boron oxide–tin oxide/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Lina; Qin, Xue; Meng, Wei; Cao, Ning; Song, Zhonghai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B_2O_3–SnO_2/G anode material is prepared by chemical heat solvent method for LIBs. • B_2O_3–SnO_2/G shows much improved cycling performance and rate capability. • B_2O_3 plays an important role in improving the performance. - Abstract: B_2O_3–SnO_2/graphene (B_2O_3–SnO_2/G) composite is fabricated via a chemical heat solvent method and utilized as anode material for lithium ion batteries. The added B_2O_3 dramatically improves the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries compared to the SnO_2/G composite. The B_2O_3–SnO_2/G composites as anode show an outstanding discharge capacity of 1404.9 mAh g"−"1 at 500 mA g"−"1 after 200 cycles and an excellent rate capacity, which apparently outperforms the previously reported SnO_2-based anode material. These improved electrochemical performance characteristics are due to the B_2O_3 played a buffering role, which are easily beneficial for accommodating the volume change during the lithium ions insertion/extraction processes. Furthermore, boron atoms can accept electrons for its electron-deficient nature and boron ions could release electrons, which lead to electrons' increased density and conductivity are increased. The results indicate that the B_2O_3–SnO_2/G composite is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  6. Boron oxide–tin oxide/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Lina [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin, Xue, E-mail: qinxue@tju.edu.cn [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Meng, Wei; Cao, Ning; Song, Zhonghai [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G anode material is prepared by chemical heat solvent method for LIBs. • B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G shows much improved cycling performance and rate capability. • B{sub 2}O{sub 3} plays an important role in improving the performance. - Abstract: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/graphene (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G) composite is fabricated via a chemical heat solvent method and utilized as anode material for lithium ion batteries. The added B{sub 2}O{sub 3} dramatically improves the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries compared to the SnO{sub 2}/G composite. The B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G composites as anode show an outstanding discharge capacity of 1404.9 mAh g{sup −1} at 500 mA g{sup −1} after 200 cycles and an excellent rate capacity, which apparently outperforms the previously reported SnO{sub 2}-based anode material. These improved electrochemical performance characteristics are due to the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} played a buffering role, which are easily beneficial for accommodating the volume change during the lithium ions insertion/extraction processes. Furthermore, boron atoms can accept electrons for its electron-deficient nature and boron ions could release electrons, which lead to electrons' increased density and conductivity are increased. The results indicate that the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G composite is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Measuring Compositions in Organic Depth Profiling: Results from a VAMAS Interlaboratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shard, A. G.; Havelund, Rasmus; Spencer, Steve J.; Gilmore, I. S.; Alexander, Morgan R.; Angerer, Tina B.; Aoyagi, Satoka; Barnes, Jean P.; Benayad, Anass; Bernasik, Andrzej; Ceccone, Giacomo; Counsell, Jonathan D.; Deeks, Christopher; Fletcher, John S.; Graham, Daniel J.; Heuser, Christian; Lee, Tae G.; Marie, Camille; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Mishra, Gautam; Rading, Derk; Renault, Oliver; Scurr, David J.; Shon, Hyun K.; Spampinato, Valentina; Tian, Hua; Wang, Fuyi; Winograd, Nicholas; Wu, Kui; Wucher, Andreas; Zhou, Yufan; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-07-23

    We report the results of a VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) interlaboratory study on the measurement of composition in organic depth profiling. Layered samples with known binary compositions of Irganox 1010 and either Irganox 1098 or Fmoc-pentafluoro-L-phenylalanine in each layer were manufactured in a single batch and distributed to more than 20 participating laboratories. The samples were analyzed using argon cluster ion sputtering and either X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) or Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to generate depth profiles. Participants were asked to estimate the volume fractions in two of the layers and were provided with the compositions of all other layers. Participants using XPS provided volume fractions within 0.03 of the nominal values. Participants using ToF-SIMS either made no attempt, or used various methods that gave results ranging in error from 0.02 to over 0.10 in volume fraction, the latter representing a 50% relative error for a nominal volume fraction of 0.2. Error was predominantly caused by inadequacy in the ability to compensate for primary ion intensity variations and the matrix effect in SIMS. Matrix effects in these materials appear to be more pronounced as the number of atoms in both the primary analytical ion and the secondary ion increase. Using the participants’ data we show that organic SIMS matrix effects can be measured and are remarkably consistent between instruments. We provide recommendations for identifying and compensating for matrix effects. Finally we demonstrate, using a simple normalization method, that virtually all ToF-SIMS participants could have obtained estimates of volume fraction that were at least as accurate and consistent as XPS.

  8. Fitting phase shifts to electron-ion elastic scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per, M.C.; Dickinson, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    We have derived non-Coulomb phase shifts from measured differential cross sections for electron scattering by the ions Na + , Cs + , N 3+ , Ar 8+ and Xe 6+ at energies below the inelastic threshold. Values of the scaled squared deviation between the observed and fitted differential cross sections, χ 2 , for the best-fit phase shifts were typically in the range 3-6 per degree of freedom. Generally good agreement with experiment is obtained, except for wide-angle scattering by Ar 8+ and Xe 6+ . Current measurements do not define phase shifts to better than approx. 0.1 rad even in the most favourable circumstances and uncertainties can be much larger. (author)

  9. Emittance measurements in low energy ion storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Carli, C.; Resta-López, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2018-07-01

    The development of the next generation of ultra-low energy antiproton and ion facilities requires precise information about the beam emittance to guarantee optimum performance. In the Extra-Low ENergy Antiproton storage ring (ELENA) the transverse emittances will be measured by scraping. However, this diagnostic measurement faces several challenges: non-zero dispersion, non-Gaussian beam distributions due to effects of the electron cooler and various systematic errors such as closed orbit offsets and inaccurate rms momentum spread estimation. In addition, diffusion processes, such as intra-beam scattering might lead to emittance overestimates. Here, we present algorithms to efficiently address the emittance reconstruction in presence of the above effects, and present simulation results for the case of ELENA.

  10. Mini biased collimated faraday cups for measurement of intense pulsed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoping; Shi Lei; Zhang Jiasheng; Qiu Aici

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of principle of a biased Faraday cup for measuring ion beams density and the main reasons related to the measuring accuracy were presented. An array of mini biased collimated Faraday cups was manufactured for the measurement of ion beam density of a compact 200 keV high power ion beam source. In the experiments the maximum density of ion beam was in the center of the beam, and it was about 170 A/cm 2

  11. Ion release from a composite resin after exposure to different 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Plá Rizzolo Bueno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the influence of two 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents - a commercial product (Opalescence PF; Ultradent Products, Inc. and a bleaching agent prepared in a compounding pharmacy - on the chemical degradation of a light-activated composite resin by determining its release of ions before and after exposure to the agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty composite resin (Filtek Z250; 3M/ESPE samples were divided into three groups: group I (exposed to Opalescence PF commercial bleaching agent, group II (exposed to a compounded bleaching agent and group III (control - Milli-Q water. After 14 days of exposure, with a protocol of 8 h of daily exposure to the bleaching agents and 16 h of immersion in Milli-Q water, the analysis of ion release was carried out using a HP 8453 spectrophotometer. The values were analyzed statistically by ANOVA, Tukey's test and the paired t-tests. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: After 14 days of the experiment, statistically significant difference was found between group II and groups I and III, with greater ion release from the composite resin in group II. CONCLUSIONS: The compounded bleaching agent had a more aggressive effect on the composite resin after 14 days of exposure than the commercial product and the control (no bleaching.

  12. A Supra-Thermal Energetic Particle detector (STEP) for composition measurements in the range approximately 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectral and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are discussed.

  13. A supra-thermal energetic particle detector /STEP/ for composition measurements in the range of about 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A novel detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectra and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are also discussed.

  14. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Sampling technique. Use of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egner, H; Eriksson, E; Emanuelsson, A

    1947-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of atmospheric precipitations in Sweden, a technique using ion exchange resins has been developed. The possibilities of nitrate reduction, and ammonia losses, when the precipitation is collected in zinc gauges is stressed. Glass funnels are used, and they are effectively protected from bird droppings. The ion exchange resins so far available are quite serviceable but show some deficiencies as to stability, and activity in alkaline solutions. New resins, which are not yet available, seem to offer definite advantages.

  15. Low energy ion scattering as a tool for surface structure and composition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering is finding increasing application in the study of areas such as gas adsorption, thin film deposition and surface damage creation and annealing during ion irradiation where structural and compositional changes occurring in only the outermost atomic layer need to be monitored. The capabilities of the technique and the ways in which it has been developed for different types of analysis depend strongly on the fundamental atomic collision processes taking place at the surface and it is these processes, together with examples of their role in analysis applications, that form the subject of this paper. (author)

  16. Measurement of complex permittivity of composite materials using waveguide method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Complex dielectric permittivity of 4 different composite materials has been measured using the transmissionline method. A waveguide fixture in L, S, C and X band was used for the measurements. Measurement accuracy is influenced by air gaps between test fixtures and the materials tested. One of the

  17. Breast composition: Measurement and clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekpo, E.U.; Hogg, P.; Highnam, R.; McEntee, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast density is a measure of the extent of radiodense fibroglandular tissue in the breast. The risk of developing breast cancer and the risk of missing cancer at screening rise with higher breast density. In this paper, the historical background to breast density measurement is outlined and current evidence based practice is explained. The relevance of breast density knowledge to mammographic practice and image interpretation is considered in the light of clinical assessment and notification of mammographic breast density (MBD). The current work also discusses risk stratification for decision-making regarding screening frequency and better modalities for earlier detection of breast cancer in the dense breast. Automated volumetric approaches are explained while ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging are introduced as valuable adjuncts to digital mammography for imaging the dense breast. The work concludes on the important note that screened women should be notified of their breast density, and such notification should be accompanied with clear and adequate information about breast density and cancer risk, strategies associated with lower MBD, as well as best screening intervals and pathways for women with dense breasts. Adoption of these strategies may be crucial to early detection and treatment of cancer and improving survival from the disease. - Highlights: • Breast density is associated with breast cancer risk and interval breast cancer. • Breast density can be measured manually or automatically. • Radiographic exposure factors impact on breast density measurements. • Dense breast often require imaging with three-dimensional modalities. • National breast density data could enable breast cancer risk stratification.

  18. Effect of ion clouds micromotion on measured signal in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: Computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kharybin, Oleg; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Particle-in-cell-based realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments could be used to generate ion trajectories and a signal induced on the detection electrodes. It has been shown recently that there is a modulation of "reduced" cyclotron frequencies in ion cyclotron resonance signal caused by Coulomb interaction of ion clouds. In this work it was proposed to use this modulation in order to determine frequency difference between an ion of known m/z and all other ions generating signal in ion cyclotron resonance cell. It is shown that with an increase of number of ions in ion cyclotron resonance trap, the modulation index increases, which lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determination of peak intensities by super Fourier transform resolution methods such as filter diagonalization method.

  19. Utilize the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ion to measure the ion temperature of tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaodong

    2000-01-01

    Making use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer driven by a piezoelectric crystal and selecting the suitable separation of plates, the ion temperature is defined by measuring the superimposed profile of the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ions in Tokamak. The advantage of this method is to higher spectral resolution and wider spectral range select

  20. Synthesis and characterization of CrCN–DLC composite coatings by cathodic arc ion-plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.Y. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, L.L. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, H.D. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yan, S.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Y.M. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Fu, D.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, B., E-mail: toyangbing@163.com [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2013-07-15

    CrCN–DLC composite coatings were deposited onto silicon (1 0 0) and cemented carbides substrates using pure Cr targets under C{sub 2}H{sub 2} ambient by cathodic arc ion plating system. The influence of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate on the structure and mechanical properties of the coatings was investigated systemically. The coatings structure and bonding state were characterized by XRD, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical composition was measured by EDS. The mechanical performance and tribological behaviour of the coatings were studied by a hardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester. The results showed that with increasing C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate from 50 to 100 sccm, the corresponding hardness of coatings increased firstly and then decreased with further addition of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate. The coatings deposited at lower C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate (less than 200 sccm) exhibited a relatively higher hardness value (more than HV{sub 0.025}2000) and then the hardness decrease with increasing C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate. The friction coefficient also exhibited similar variation trend, when the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate was higher than 100 sccm, the friction coefficient decreased and then maintained in a relatively lower value from 0.18 to 0.24, which may be attribute to the increasing carbon content and the coating exhibited more diamond-like structure.

  1. Progress on precision measurements of inner shell transitions in highly charged ions at an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Csilla I.; Indelicato, Paul; LeBigot, Eric-Olivier; Vallette, Alexandre; Amaro, Pedro; Guerra, Mauro; Gumberidze, Alex [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie- Paris 6, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Centro de Fisica Atomica, CFA, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie- Paris 6, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2012-05-25

    Inner shell transitions of highly charged ions produced in the plasma of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) were observed the first time by a Double Crystal Spectrometer (DCS). The DCS is a well-used tool in precision x-ray spectroscopy due to its ability of precision wavelength measurement traced back to a relative angle measurement. Because of its requirement for a bright x-ray source the DCS has not been used before in direct measurements of highly charged ions (HCI). Our new precision measurement of inner shell transitions in HCI is not just going to provide new x-ray standards for quantum metrology but can also give information about the plasma in which the ions reside. Ionic temperatures and with that the electron density can be determined by thorough examination of line widths measured with great accuracy.

  2. Electron density measurements during ion beam transport on Gamble II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    High-sensitivity laser interferometry was used to measure the electron density created when an intense proton beam (100 kA, 1 MeV, 50 ns) from the Gamble II generator was transported through low-pressure gas as part of a project investigating Self-Pinched Transport (SPT) of intense ion beams. This measurement is non-perturbing and sufficiently quantitative to allow benchmarking of codes (particularly IPROP) used to model beam-gas interaction and ion-beam transport. Very high phase sensitivity is required for this measurement. For example, a 100-kA, 1-MeV, 10-cm-radius proton beam with uniform current density has a line-integrated proton density equal to n b L = 3 x 10 13 cm -2 . An equal electron line-density, n e L = n b L, (expected for transport in vacuum) will be detected as a phase shift of the 1.064 microm laser beam of only 0.05degree, or an optical path change of 1.4 x 10 -4 waves (about the size of a hydrogen atom). The time-history of the line-integrated electron density, measured across a diameter of the transport chamber at 43 cm from the input aperture, starts with the proton arrival time and decays differently depending on the gas pressure. The gas conditions included vacuum (10 -4 Torr air), 30 to 220 mTorr He, and 1 Torr air. The measured densities vary by three orders of magnitude, from 10 13 to 10 16 cm -2 for the range of gas pressures investigated. In vacuum, the measured electron densities indicate only co-moving electrons (n e L approximately n b L). In He, when the gas pressure is sufficient for ionization by beam particles and SPT is observed, n e L increases to about 10 n b L. At even higher pressures where electrons contribute to ionization, even higher electron densities are observed with an ionization fraction of about 2%. The diagnostic technique as used on the SPT experiment will be described and a summary of the results will be given. The measurements are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions from the IPROP code

  3. Dynamics of fast ions during sawtooth oscillations in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillation...

  4. Diffraction measurements of residual stress in titanium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.R.; Bourke, M.A.; Goldstone, J.A.; Lawson, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Metal matrix composites develop residual strains after consolidation due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the reinforcement fiber and the matrix. X-ray and neutron diffraction measured values for the longitudinal residual stress in the matrix of four titanium MMCs are reported. For thick composites (> 6 plies) the surface stress measured by x-ray diffraction matches that determined by neutron diffraction and therefore represents the stress in the bulk region consisting of the fibers and matrix. For thin sheet composites, the surface values are lower than in the interior and increase as the outer rows of fibers are approached. While a rationale for the behavior in the thin sheet has yet to be developed, accounting for composite thickness is important when using x-ray measured values to validate analytic and finite element calculations of the residual stress state

  5. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  6. Sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Menglu; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Xiaojun; Guan, Shiyou

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal self-assembly using silicon nanoparticles, graphene oxide and amino modified carbon nanotubes to develop high-performance anode materials of lithium ion batteries. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the structure of composites that Silicon nanoparticles are coated with reduced graphene oxide while amino modified carbon nanotubes wrap around the reduced graphene oxide in the composites. When applied to lithium ion battery, these composites exhibit high initial specific capacity of 2552 mA h/g at a current density of 0.05 A/g. In addition, reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites also have better cycle stability than bare Silicon nanoparticles electrode with the specific capacity of 1215 mA h/g after 100 cycles. The three-dimension sponge-like structure not only ensures the electrical conductivity but also buffers the huge volume change, which has broad potential application in the field of battery.

  7. Polymer-derived-SiCN ceramic/graphite composite as anode material with enhanced rate capability for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2011-08-01

    We report on a new composite material in view of its application as a negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries. A commercial preceramic polysilazane mixed with graphite in 1:1 weight ratio was transformed into a SiCN/graphite composite material through a pyrolytic polymer-to-ceramic conversion at three different temperatures, namely 950 °C, 1100 °C and 1300 °C. By means of Raman spectroscopy we found successive ordering of carbon clusters into nano-crystalline graphitic regions with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The reversible capacity of about 350 mAh g-1 was measured with constant current charging/discharging for the composite prepared at 1300 °C. For comparison pure graphite and pure polysilazane-derived SiCN ceramic were examined as reference materials. During fast charging and discharging the composite material demonstrates enhanced capacity and stability. Charging and discharging in half an hour lead to about 200 and 10 mAh g-1, for the composite annealed at 1300 °C and pure graphite, respectively. A clear dependence between the final material capacity and pyrolysis temperature is found and discussed with respect to possible application in batteries, i.e. practical discharging potential limit. The best results in terms of capacity recovered under 1 V and high rate capability were also obtained for samples synthesized at 1300 °C.

  8. Media ion composition controls regulatory and virulence response of Salmonella in spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wilson

    Full Text Available The spaceflight environment is relevant to conditions encountered by pathogens during the course of infection and induces novel changes in microbial pathogenesis not observed using conventional methods. It is unclear how microbial cells sense spaceflight-associated changes to their growth environment and orchestrate corresponding changes in molecular and physiological phenotypes relevant to the infection process. Here we report that spaceflight-induced increases in Salmonella virulence are regulated by media ion composition, and that phosphate ion is sufficient to alter related pathogenesis responses in a spaceflight analogue model. Using whole genome microarray and proteomic analyses from two independent Space Shuttle missions, we identified evolutionarily conserved molecular pathways in Salmonella that respond to spaceflight under all media compositions tested. Identification of conserved regulatory paradigms opens new avenues to control microbial responses during the infection process and holds promise to provide an improved understanding of human health and disease on Earth.

  9. Dielectronic recombination measurements using the Electron Beam Ion Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    We have used the Electron Beam Ion Trap at LLNL to study dielectronic recombination in highly charged ions. Our technique is unique because we observe the x-rays from dielectronic recombination at the same time we see x-rays from all other electron-ion interactions. We have recently taken high-resolution, state-selective data that resolves individual resonances

  10. Heavy ion beam measurement of the hydration of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.; Spillane, T.; Zickefoose, J.; Rolfs, C.; Becker, H.-W.; Kubsky, S.; Castellote, M.; Viedma, P.G. de; Cheung, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The setting and development of strength of Portland cement concrete depends upon the reaction of water with various phases in the Portland cement including dicalcium silicate (C 2 S), tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) and tricalcium aluminate (C 3 A). The early age hydration reaction and setting time are determined by surface layers on the cement grains that form a region that is only a few 100 nm thick. This has been difficult to observe with conventional methods. Ion beam techniques have been used to investigate these layers in detail at the Tandem Accelerator facility of the University of the Ruhr in Bochum, Germany. The primary method has been Nuclear Resonance Reaction Analysis (NRRA) involving the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C reaction to measure the hydrogen depth profile. This technique has an H detection sensitivity of about 10 ppm and an H-depth resolution of a few nm at the surface.. Freshly cleaved mica is used as a calibration standard for conversion of gamma-ray counts to H concentration. The beam energy to depth conversion factor is obtained by numerical simulation using the Monte Carlo code TRIM. NRRA with the 1 H( 19 F, αγ) 16 O reaction has also been used to measure the hydrogen depth profile. Some samples were implanted with a 131 Xe layer in order to measure the depth profile of other significant elements such as calcium with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), and also to measure the erosion of the surface layers

  11. Apparatus for the measurement of ion activety caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, S.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a linear amplifier for the monitoring of very small currents from a high pressure ionization chamber. In the traditional design of an ionization chamber current amplifier, selected semiconductors and resistors are chosen to measure the very small currents in question. As the leakage currents in these semiconductors are larger than the smallest currents to be measured, very sophisticated electronics must be employed to succeed with the design. In order to overcome this disadvantage, the invention is based on the following basic features: A capacitor is charged by the chamber ion current during a fixed time period, without loading the amplifier input. The use of a peak detector makes bouncing of the time-lag relay contacts unimportant, and allows an anlog-to-digital converter to store the voltage build-up in the capacitor as a digital value. The measuring range of the amplifier, 0.001 pA to 1000 pA, makes it suitable for measuring gamma radiation in the air, both under normal and abnormal conditions. 1 fig

  12. Solar Ion Processing of Major Element Surface Compositions of Mature Mare Soils: Insights from Combined XPS and Analytical TEM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Keller, L. P.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind ions are capable of altering the sur-face chemistry of the lunar regolith by a number of mechanisms including preferential sputtering, radiation-enhanced diffusion and sputter erosion of space weathered surfaces containing pre-existing compositional profiles. We have previously reported in-situ ion irradiation experiments supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytical TEM that show how solar ions potentially drive Fe and Ti reduction at the monolayer scale as well as the 10-100 nm depth scale in lunar soils [1]. Here we report experimental data on the effect of ion irradiation on the major element surface composition in a mature mare soil.

  13. Effect of elemental composition of ion beam on the phase formation and surface strengthening of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdienko, K.I.; Avdienko, A.A.; Kovalenko, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation results are reported on the influence of ion beam element composition on phase formation, wear resistance and microhardness of surface layers of titanium alloys VT-4 and VT-16 as well as stainless steel 12Kh18N10T implanted with nitrogen, oxygen and boron. It is stated that ion implantation into structural materials results in surface hardening and is directly dependent on element composition of implanted ion beam. The presence of oxygen in boron or nitrogen ion beams prevents the formation of boride and nitride phases thus decreasing a hardening effect [ru

  14. Development of plasma-treated polypropylene nonwoven-based composites for high-performance lithium-ion battery separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaofei; He, Jinlin; Wu, Dazhao; Zhang, Mingzu; Meng, Juwen; Ni, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A composite separator based on plasma-treated fluorinated polypropylene (PP) nonwoven, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and SiO 2 nanoparticles exhibiting enhanced thermal stability, ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Fluorinated segments are introduced on the surface of PP nonwoven through plasma treatment. •The obtained composite separators exhibit better physical and electrochemical properties. •The capacity of half-cell with composite separator keeps above 150 mA h g −1 after 100 charge–discharge cycles. -- Abstract: Separators have drawn substantial attention because of their important role in achieving the safety and good electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this study, we report a new type of composite membrane prepared by a combination of fluorinated polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fabric, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and SiO 2 nanoparticles. 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5-Octafluoropentyl methacrylate (OFPMA) is first grafted on the surface of PP nonwoven by plasma treatment to improve the nonwoven’s adhesion with PVdF-HFP. Two kinds of composite separators have been prepared by using the different PP nonwovens together with PVdF-HFP and SiO 2 nanoparticles. They were separately designated as PHS for commercially raw PP nonwoven system and PHS-n for OFPMA-modified PP nonwoven systems (n means plasma treatment time). The morphology, electrolyte uptake, ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of the composite separators have been analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, impedance measurement, charge-discharge cycle and C-rate tests, respectively. The results indicate that PHS-10 composite separator using the modified PP nonwoven treated by plasma for 10 min exhibits much better properties than PHS separator, including an improved mechanical property, thermal stability, electrolyte uptake

  15. Measurement of line overlap for resonant photopumping of transitions in neonlike ions by nickel-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Nilsen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement is made of the 3d-4f transition energies in the Ni-like ions Re 47+ , Ir 49+ , Pt 50+ , Au 51+ , and Bi 55+ and the 2p-4d transition energies in the Ne-like ions Br 25+ , Kr 26+ , Rb 27+ , and Y 29+ using the Livermore electron-beam ion trap. The ions studied are candidates for an x-ray laser scheme based on resonant photopumping which predicts lasing among the 3p-3s transitions in a Ne-like ion. The results of the measurements are compared to multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations and systematic differences are found. The best resonance is found for the Pt-Rb pair at 2512 eV, whose energies differ by 0.4±0.1 eV, that is, by only 160 ppm

  16. Complete strangeness measurements in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Kolomeitsev, Evgeni E. [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia)

    2016-08-15

    We discuss strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions within and around the energy range of the planned NICA facility. We describe a minimal statistical model, in which the total strangeness yield is fixed by the observed or calculated K{sup +} multiplicity. We show how the exact strangeness conservation can be taken into account on event-by-event basis in such a model. We argue that from strange particle yields one can reveal information about the collision dynamics and about possible modifications of particle properties in medium. This can be best achieved if the complete strangeness measurement is performed, i.e. kaons, antikaons, hyperons and multistrange hyperons are registered in the same experimental setup. In particular, production of hadrons containing two and more strange quarks, like Ξ and Ω baryons could be of interest. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of a new global empirical ion composition model with available satellite data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Třísková, Ludmila; Šmilauer, Jan; Iwamoto, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2003), s. 665-675 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/02/P037; GA AV ČR IAA3042201; GA AV ČR IAB3042104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : satellite data * ion composition model * outer ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2003

  18. Towards better description of solar activity variation in the International Reference Ionosphere topside ion composition model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Bilitza, D.; Třísková, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 8 (2015), s. 2099-2105 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11123 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ion composition * topside ionosphere * solar activity * empirical model * International Reference Ionosphere Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.409, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027311771400489X

  19. Mechanical characterization and ion release of bioactive dental composites containing calcium phosphate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Livia C; Rodrigues, Marcela C; Alania, Yvette; Chiari, Marina D S; Boaro, Leticia C C; Cotrim, Marycel; Vega, Oscar; Braga, Roberto R

    2018-08-01

    to verify the effect of the addition of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) particles functionalized with di- or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA or TEGDMA) on the degree of conversion (DC), post-gel shrinkage (PS), mechanical properties, and ion release of experimental composites. Four composites were prepared containing a BisGMA/TEGDMA matrix and 60 vol% of fillers. The positive control contained only barium glass fillers, while in the other composites 15 vol% of the barium was replaced by DCPD. Besides the functionalized particles, non-functionalized DCPD was also tested. DC after 24 h (n = 3) was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. The strain gage method was used to obtain PS 5 min after photoactivation (n = 5). Flexural strength and modulus (n = 10) were calculated based on the biaxial flexural test results, after specimen storage for 24 h or 60 days in water. The same storage times were used for fracture toughness testing (FT, n = 10). Calcium and phosphate release up to 60 days was quantified by ICP-OES (n = 3). Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey test (alpha: 5%). Composites containing functionalized DCPD presented higher DC than the control (p composites (p composite with DEGDMA-functionalized DCPD presented fracture strength similar to the control, while for flexural modulus only the composite with TEGDMA-functionalized particles was lower than the control (p composites containing DCPD was higher than the control after 60 days (p composite with non-functionalized DCPD at 15 days and no significant reductions were observed for composites with functionalized DCPD during the observation period (p composites, phosphate release was higher at 15 days than in the subsequent periods, and no difference among them was recorded at 45 and 60 days (p composite with DEGDMA-functionalized particles was the only material with strength similar to the control after 60 days in water; however, it also presented the highest

  20. Composite measures for profiling hospitals on bariatric surgery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Justin B.; Birkmeyer, Nancy J.; Finks, Jonathan F.; Share, David A.; English, Wayne J.; Carlin, Arthur M.; Birkmeyer, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a novel composite measure for profiling hospital performance with bariatric surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Using clinical registry data from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative (MBSC), we studied all patients undergoing bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2010. For gastric bypass surgery, we used empirical Bayes techniques to create a composite measure by combining several measures, including serious complications, reoperations, and readmissions; hospital and surgeon volume; and outcomes with other, related procedures. Hospitals were ranked based on 2008-09 and placed in one of 3 groups: 3-star (top third), 2-star (middle third), and 1-star (bottom third). We assessed how well these ratings predicted outcomes in the next year (2010), compared to other widely used measures. Main Outcome Measures Risk-adjusted serious complications. Results Composite measures explained a larger proportion of hospital-level variation in serious complication rates with gastric bypass than other measures. For example, the composite measure explained 89% of the variation compared to only 28% for risk-adjusted complication rates alone. Composite measures also appeared better at predicting future performance compared to individual measures. When ranked on the composite measure, 1-star hospitals (bottom 20%), had 2-fold higher serious complication rates (4.6% vs. 2.4%; OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.5) compared to 3-star (top 20%) hospitals. Differences in serious complications rates between 1-star and 3-star hospitals were much smaller when hospitals were ranked using serious complications (4.0% vs. 2.7%; OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-2.9) and hospital volume (3.3% vs. 3.2%; OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.4 to 1.7) Conclusions Composite measures are much better at explaining hospital-level variation in serious complications and predicting future performance than other approaches. In this preliminary study, it appears that such composite measures may be better than existing

  1. Cryogenic current comparators for precise ion beam current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurian, Febin

    2015-01-01

    The planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI has to cope with a wide range of beam intensities in its high-energy beam transport systems and in the storage rings. To meet the requirements of a non-intercepting intensity measurement down to nA range, it is planned to install a number of Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) units at different locations in the FAIR beamlines. In this work, the first CCC system for intensity measurement of heavy ion beams, which was developed at GSI, was re-commissioned and upgraded to be used as a 'GSI - CCC prototype' for extensive optimization and development of an improved CCC for FAIR. After installation of a new SQUID sensor and related electronics, as well as implementation of improved data acquisition components, successful beam current measurements were performed at a SIS18 extraction line. The measured intensity values were compared with those of a Secondary Electron Monitor (SEM). Furthermore, the spill-structure of a slowly extracted beam was measured and analyzed, investigating its improvement due to bunching during the slow-extraction process. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the superconducting sensor, the determined intensity values as well as the adjustment of the system for optimal performance are strongly influenced by the numerous noise sources of the accelerators environment. For this reason, detailed studies of different effects caused by noise have been carried out, which are presented together with proposals to reduce them. Similarly, studies were performed to increase the dynamic range and overcome slew rate limitations, the results of which are illustrated and discussed as well. By combining the various optimizations and characterizations of the GSI CCC prototype with the experiences made during beam operation, criteria for a more efficient CCC System could be worked out, which are presented in this work. The details of this new design are worked out with respect to the

  2. Adsorption of Cadmium Ions from Water on Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Iron Oxide Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Seffah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new material (DWCNT/iron oxide for heavy metals removal was developed by combining the adsorption features of double-walled carbon nanotubes with the magnetic properties of iron oxides. Batch experiments were applied in order to evaluate adsorption capacity of the DWCNT/iron oxide composite for cadmium ions. The influence of operating parameters such as pH value, amount of adsorbent, initial adsorbate concentration and agitation speed was studied. The adsorption capacity of the DWCNT/iron oxide adsorbent for Cd2+ ions was 20.8 mg g-1, which is at the state of the art. The obtained results revealed that DWCNT/iron oxide composite is a very promising adsorbent for removal of Cd2+ ions from water under natural conditions. The advantage of the magnetic composite is that it can be used as adsorbent for contaminants in water and can be subsequently controlled and removed from the medium by a simple magnetic process.

  3. Measurements of visible forbidden lines and ion distributions of tungsten highly charged ions at the LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2013-01-01

    Visible lines, which are presumably associated with forbidden lines from tungsten highly charged ions, were clearly observed in a spectrum of 370 - 410 nm recorded shortly after a tungsten pellet injection at the LHD. One of the measured lines has been assigned to a magnetic-dipole (M1) line of the ground-term fine-structure transition of W 26+ . Photon emission was observed at 44 lines of sight divided along the vertical direction of a horizontally elongated poloidal cross section of the LHD plasma. The line-integrated intensity of the lines along each line of sight indicates peaked profiles near the plasma center, while visible line emissions of neutral hydrogen and helium recoded in the same sampling time have a maximum located in the peripheral region of the poloidal cross section. (author)

  4. Electrochemical characteristics of nc-Si/SiC composite for anode electrode of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances and coulombic efficiencies of the nc-Si/SiC composite anodes at different CH 4 /SiH 4 mole ratios. -- Highlights: • Our work has focused on irreversible discharge capacity and capacity retention of nc-Si/SiC composite particles. • Particles comprised a mixed construction of nc-Si/SiC structure with dual phases. • The SiC phase acted as retarding media, leading to enhanced cycle stability. -- Abstract: nc-Si/SiC composite particles were prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries using a plasma jet with DC arc discharge. The composition of the nc-Si/SiC composite particles was controlled by setting the mole ratio of CH 4 and SiH 4 precursor gases. X-ray diffraction, TEM images, and Raman shift analyses revealed that the synthesized nc-Si/SiC composite particles comprised a construction of nano-nocaled structure with crystalline phases of active silicon, highly disordered amorphous carbon of graphite and crystalline phases of β-SiC. In the experimental range examined, the nc-Si/SiC composite particles showed good coulombic efficiency in comparison with particles high Si–Si bonding content due to the interplay of particles with a small proportion of carbon and the buffering effect against volume expansion by structural stabilization, and played a role as retarding media for the rapid electrochemical reactions of the SiC crystal against lithium

  5. Electrochemical characteristics of nc-Si/SiC composite for anode electrode of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bup Ju [Department of Energy Resources, Shinhan University, 233-1, Sangpae-dong, Dongducheon, Gyeonggi-do, 483-777 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Advanced Energy Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-25

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances and coulombic efficiencies of the nc-Si/SiC composite anodes at different CH{sub 4}/SiH{sub 4} mole ratios. -- Highlights: • Our work has focused on irreversible discharge capacity and capacity retention of nc-Si/SiC composite particles. • Particles comprised a mixed construction of nc-Si/SiC structure with dual phases. • The SiC phase acted as retarding media, leading to enhanced cycle stability. -- Abstract: nc-Si/SiC composite particles were prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries using a plasma jet with DC arc discharge. The composition of the nc-Si/SiC composite particles was controlled by setting the mole ratio of CH{sub 4} and SiH{sub 4} precursor gases. X-ray diffraction, TEM images, and Raman shift analyses revealed that the synthesized nc-Si/SiC composite particles comprised a construction of nano-nocaled structure with crystalline phases of active silicon, highly disordered amorphous carbon of graphite and crystalline phases of β-SiC. In the experimental range examined, the nc-Si/SiC composite particles showed good coulombic efficiency in comparison with particles high Si–Si bonding content due to the interplay of particles with a small proportion of carbon and the buffering effect against volume expansion by structural stabilization, and played a role as retarding media for the rapid electrochemical reactions of the SiC crystal against lithium.

  6. Experimental composite guidance conduits for peripheral nerve repair: An evaluation of ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.F. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Coughlan, A. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); O' Shea, H. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); Kehoe, S., E-mail: sharonkehoe@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Boyd, D., E-mail: d.boyd@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - Pluronic F127 - glass composites have demonstrated excellent potential, from the perspective of controlled mechanical properties and cytocompatibility, for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to controlling the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity for such composite devices, the glass component may mediate specific responses upon implantation via degradation in the physiological environment and release of constituent elements. However, research focused on quantifying the release levels of such therapeutic ions from these experimental medical devices has been limited. To redress the balance, this paper explores the ion release profiles for Si{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ce{sup 4+} from experimental composite nerve guidance conduits (CNGC) comprising PLGA (at 12.5, and 20 wt.%), F127 (at 0, 2.5 and 5 wt.%) and various loadings of Si-Ca-Na-Zn-Ce glass (at 20 and 40 wt.%) for incubation periods of up to 28 days. The concentration of each ion, at various time points, was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Perkin Elmer Optima 3000). It was observed that the Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} release from CNGCs in this study ranged from 0.22 to 6.477 ppm, 2.307 to 3.277 ppm, 40 to 119 ppm, and 45 to 51 ppm, respectively. The Ce{sup 4+} concentrations were under the minimum detection limits for the ICP instrument utilized. The results indicate that the ion release levels may be appropriate to mediate therapeutic effects with respect to peripheral nerve regeneration. The data generated in this paper provides requisite evidence to optimize composition for pre-clinical evaluation of the experimental composite. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time-dependent degradation studies of PLGA/glass composite nerve guidance conduits (NGCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} release levels for the

  7. Testing electric field models using ring current ion energy spectra from the Equator-S ion composition (ESIC instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kistler

    Full Text Available During the main and early recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm on February 18, 1998, the Equator-S ion composition instrument (ESIC observed spectral features which typically represent the differences in loss along the drift path in the energy range (5–15 keV/e where the drift changes from being E × B dominated to being gradient and curvature drift dominated. We compare the expected energy spectra modeled using a Volland-Stern electric field and a Weimer electric field, assuming charge exchange along the drift path, with the observed energy spectra for H+ and O+. We find that using the Weimer electric field gives much better agreement with the spectral features, and with the observed losses. Neither model, however, accurately predicts the energies of the observed minima.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles trapped; plasma convection; storms and substorms

  8. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, A.W.; Whalen, B.A.; Harris, F.R.; Gattinger, R.L.; Pongratz, M.B.; Bernhardt, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an ionospheric depletion experiment where chemically reactive vapors such as H 2 O and CO 2 are injected into the O + dominant F region to accelerate the plasma recombination rate and to reduce the plasma density, the ion composition in the depleted region is modified, and photometric emissions are produced. We compare in situ ion composition, density, and photometric measurements from two ionospheric depletion experiments with predictions from chemical modeling. The two injections, Waterhole I and III, were part of an auroral perturbation experiment and occurred in different ambient conditions. In both injections a core region of greater than fivefold plasma depletion was observed over roughly-equal5-km diameter within seconds of the injection, surrounded by an outer region of less drastic and slower depletion. In Waterhole I the plasma density was depleted tenfold over a 30-km diamter region after 2 min. The ambient O + density was drastically reduced, and the molecular O + 2 abundance was enhanced fivehold in the depletion region. OH airglow emission associated with the depletion was observed with a peak emission intensity of roughly-equal1 kR. In Waterhole III the ambient density was a decade lower, and the plasma depletion was less drastic, being twofold over 30 km after 2 min. The airglow emissions were also much less intense and below measurement sensitivity (30 R for the OH 306.4-nm emission; 50 R for the 630.0-nm emission)

  9. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, J; Weigand, B

    2007-04-10

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.

  10. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, J.; Weigand, B.

    2007-01-01

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model

  11. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of argon and xenon ion velocities near the sheath boundary in 3 ion species plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Severn, Greg [Department of Physics, University of San Diego, San Diego, California 92110 (United States); Baalrud, Scott D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The Bohm sheath criterion is studied with laser-induced fluorescence in three ion species plasmas using two tunable diode lasers. Krypton is added to a low pressure unmagnetized DC hot filament discharge in a mixture of argon and xenon gas confined by surface multi-dipole magnetic fields. The argon and xenon ion velocity distribution functions are measured at the sheath-presheath boundary near a negatively biased boundary plate. The potential structures of the plasma sheath and presheath are measured by an emissive probe. Results are compared with previous experiments with Ar–Xe plasmas, where the two ion species were observed to reach the sheath edge at nearly the same speed. This speed was the ion sound speed of the system, which is consistent with the generalized Bohm criterion. In such two ion species plasmas, instability enhanced collisional friction was demonstrated [Hershkowitz et al., Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 057102 (2011).] to exist which accounted for the observed results. When three ion species are present, it is demonstrated under most circumstances the ions do not fall out of the plasma at their individual Bohm velocities. It is also shown that under most circumstances the ions do not fall out of the plasma at the system sound speed. These observations are also consistent with the presence of the instabilities.

  12. Measurement of negative ion mobility in O2 at high pressures using a point plate gap as an ion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Y; Kimura, T; Suzuki, S; Itoh, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for negative ion mobility in O 2 at 0.5-2.0 atm. The ion mobility is observed using a high-pressure ion drift tube with a positive corona gap (Geiger counter), which is constructed from a point plate gap and acts as a negative ion detector. The variation of waveforms in the burst pulse is observed by varying the voltage applied to the ion detector to find the optimum voltage that must be applied across the ion detector in O 2 . This is investigated carefully to ensure the precise determination of mobility. The distortion of the electric field near the mesh electrode, which operates as the cathode of the ion detector and as the anode of the ion drift gap, is then examined to determine the optimum applied voltage to suppress its effect on the measurement of mobility. The mobility is subsequently measured at a reduced electric field intensity of 2.83 × 10 -3 to 2.83. The observed mobility of 2.31 ± 0.03 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in O 2 is concluded to be that of O 2 - . This value is also obtained in experiments over a wide range of gas pressures (0.5-2.0 atm) and drift lengths (1.00-9.00 cm). The mobilities of O 3 - and O - are also obtained experimentally. (paper)

  13. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D. H. J.; Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  14. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.; Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  15. Real-time detection of metal ions using conjugated polymer composite papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Kwon, Oh Seok; Huh, Yang-Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2014-09-21

    Cellulose, a natural polymeric material, has widespread technical applications because of its inherent structural rigidity and high surface area. As a conjugated polymer, polypyrrole shows practical potential for a diverse and promising range of future technologies. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the real-time detection and removal of metal ions with polypyrrole/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers in solution. Simply, the conjugated polymer papers had different chemical/physical properties by applying different potentials to them, which resulted in differentiable response patterns and adsorption efficiencies for individual metal ions. First, large-area PPCL papers with a diameter of 5 cm were readily obtained via vapor deposition polymerization. The papers exhibited both mechanical flexibility and robustness, in which polypyrrole retained its redox property perfectly. The ability of the PPCL papers to recognize metal ions was examined in static and flow cells, in which real-time current change was monitored at five different applied potentials (+1, +0.5, 0, -0.5, and -1 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Distinguishable signals in the PPCL paper responses were observed for individual metal ions through principal component analysis. Particularly, the PPCL papers yielded unique signatures for three metal ions, Hg(ii), Ag(i), and Cr(iii), even in a real sample, groundwater. The sorption of metal ions by PPCL papers was examined in the flow system. The PPCL papers had a greatly superior adsorption efficiency for Hg(ii) compared to that of the other metal ions. With the strong demand for the development of inexpensive, flexible, light-weight, and environmentally friendly devices, the fascinating characteristics of these PPCL papers are likely to provide good opportunities for low-cost paper-based flexible or wearable devices.

  16. High Performance Li4Ti5O12/Si Composite Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy capacity of spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO is very important to utilize it as a high-performance Li-ion battery (LIB electrode. In this work, LTO/Si composites with different weight ratios were prepared and tested as anodes. The anodic and cathodic peaks from both LTO and silicon were apparent in the composites, indicating that each component was active upon Li+ insertion and extraction. The composites with higher Si contents (LTO:Si = 35:35 exhibited superior specific capacity (1004 mAh·g−1 at lower current densities (0.22 A·g−1 but the capacity deteriorated at higher current densities. On the other hand, the electrodes with moderate Si contents (LTO:Si = 50:20 were able to deliver stable capacity (100 mAh·g−1 with good cycling performance, even at a very high current density of 7 A·g−1. The improvement in specific capacity and rate performance was a direct result of the synergy between LTO and Si; the former can alleviate the stresses from volumetric changes in Si upon cycling, while Si can add to the capacity of the composite. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the addition of Si and concentration optimization is an easy yet an effective way to produce high performance LTO-based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  18. Ion plasma deposition of oxide films with graded-stoichiometry composition: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpyas, V. A.; Tumarkin, A. V.; Mikhailov, A. K.; Kozyrev, A. B.; Platonov, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    A method of ion plasma deposition is proposed for obtaining thin multicomponent films with continuously graded composition in depth of the film. The desired composition-depth profile is obtained by varying the working gas pressure during deposition in the presence of an additional adsorbing screen in the drift space between a sputtered target and substrate. Efficiency of the proposed method is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation of the deposition of thin films of Ba x Sr1- x TiO3 (BSTO) solid solution. It is demonstrated that, during sputtering of a Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 target, the parameter of composition stoichiometry in the growing BSTO film varies in the interval of x = 0.3-0.65 when the gas pressure is changed within 2-60 Pa.

  19. Fabrication and modification of metal nanocluster composites using ion and laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Osborne, D.H. Jr.; Magruder, R.H. III; White, C.W.; Zuhr, R.A.; Townsend, P.D.; Hole, D.E.; Leuchtner, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Metal nanocluster composites have attractive properties for applications in nonlinear optics. However, traditional fabrication techniques -- using melt-glass substrates -- are severely constrained by equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics. This paper describes the fabrication of metal nanoclusters in both crystalline and glassy hosts by ion implantation and pulsed laser deposition. The size and size distribution of the metal nanoclusters can be modified by controlling substrate temperature during implantation, by subsequent thermal annealing, or by laser irradiation. The authors have characterized the optical response of the composites by absorption and third-order nonlinear-optical spectroscopies; electron and scanning-probe microscopies have been used to benchmark the physical characteristics of the composites. The outlook for controlling the structure and nonlinear optical response properties of these nanophase materials appears increasingly promising

  20. Spatial profile measurements of ion-confining potentials using novel position-sensitive ion-energy spectrometer arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Cho, T.; Hirata, M.; Ito, H.; Kohagura, J.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The first experimental demonstration of simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved ion-confining potentials phi c and end-loss-ion fluxes I ELA has been carried out during a single plasma discharge alone by the use of newly designed ion-energy-spectrometer arrays installed in both end regions of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. This position-sensitive ion-detector structure is proposed to obtain precise ion-energy spectra without any perturbations from simultaneously incident energetic electrons into the arrays. The relation between phi c and I ELA is physically interpreted in terms of Pastukhov's potential confinement theory. In particular, the importance of axisymmetric phi c formation is found for the plasma confinement

  1. Novel Faraday cup for the simultaneous observation and measurement of ion-beam currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.; Seidman, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    A novel Faraday cup is described which allows the simultaneous observation and measurement of ion-beam currents. The Faraday cup is constructed around a Galileo channel electron multiplier array (CEMA), which serves as the basis of an internal image intensification system (a gain of >10 4 ) for the observation of the ion beam; the CEMA also acts as a collector for the ion current which is measured by a Keithley 602 electrometer. The ion current is integrated by a simple and inexpensive dosimeter; the electronic circuit for the dosimeter is described. The application of the Faraday cup to the observation and measurement of a 30-keV Ar + ion beam is presented as an illustrative example. We have also employed this Faraday cup to observe and measure 30-keV Cr + , Mo + , or W + , and 18-keV Au + ion beams employed for the in situ irradiation of field-ion microscope specimens

  2. Ra+ ion trapping : toward an atomic parity violation measurement and an optical clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portela, M. Nunez; Dijck, E. A.; Mohanty, A.; Bekker, H.; van den Berg, Joost E.; Giri, G. S.; Hoekstra, S.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Schlesser, S.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O. O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.; Jungmann, K.

    2014-01-01

    A single Ra+ ion stored in a Paul radio frequency ion trap has excellent potential for a precision measurement of the electroweak mixing angle at low momentum transfer and as the most stable optical clock. The effective transport and cooling of singly charged ions of the isotopes Ra-209 to Ra-214 in

  3. Fusion product measurements of the local ion thermal diffusivity in the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Lovberg, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Measurement of the gradient of the d-d fusion rate profile in an ohmic PLT plasma is used to deduce the gradient of the ion temperature and, thus, the local ion thermal diffusivity through an energy balance analysis. The inferred ion diffusivity is consistent with neoclassical theory

  4. Ion Mass Spectrometer for Heliospheric Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing and IMS that can be used to measure the solar wind ion composition and measure interstellar pick up ions. This instrument will support a future...

  5. Normalization of natural gas composition data measured by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, Martin J T; Harris, Peter M; Brown, Andrew S; Cowper, Chris J

    2009-01-01

    The composition of natural gas determined by gas chromatography is routinely used as the basis for calculating physico-chemical properties of the gas. Since the data measured by gas chromatography have particular statistical properties, the methods used to determine the composition can make use of a priori assumptions about the statistical model for the data. We discuss a generalized approach to determining the composition, and show that there are particular statistical models for the data for which the generalized approach reduces to the widely used method of post-normalization. We also show that the post-normalization approach provides reasonable estimates of the composition for cases where it cannot be shown to arise rigorously from the statistical structure of the data

  6. Interweaved Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hou, Xianhua, E-mail: houxh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Jie; Li, Min [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Shao, Zongping [Nanjing University of Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Xiang [Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Graphical abstract: In summary, a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequent chemical vapor deposition methods were introduced successfully to fabricated novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres interweaved with carbon coated silicon spherical composites as superior anodes in lithium-ion batteries. The core-shell structure of Si@C composites can accommodate the volume change of electrode during charge and discharge. Meanwhile, the citric acid pyrolyzed carbon was coated on the surface of the silicon perfectly and constructs the connection network of nano silicon particles. Moreover, the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres, which is interweaved with nano-silicon, also allows high electrical conductivity, improved solid–electrolyte interface formation and structural integrity. Compared with pure silicon and Si@C composites, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites had the best combination of reversible capacity and cycleablity, and this anode materials exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The Si/C composite had a fairly high initial discharge capacity of 2168.7 mA h g{sup −1} with an efficiency of 73%, and the discharge capacity of the 50th cycle maintained surprisingly of 1194.9 mA h g{sup −1}. Meanwhile, spray drying and chemical vapor deposition are environmentally friendly, economical, and relatively high-yield method for the production of the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites in large quantities. Consequently, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composite electrodes may be a potential alternative to graphite for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Highlights: • The core/shell structured silicon/carbon composites were prepared by a facile way. • The as-prepared Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. • The structure benefited electronic transfer and

  7. Microwave Derived Facile Approach to Sn/Graphene Composite Anodes for, Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Faith R.; Epur, Rigved; Hong, Daeho; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Tin particles embedded in graphene (G) sheet have been synthesized by microwave reduction of tin halide (SnCl 2 ) and graphite oxide (GO) followed by annealing in argon. The microwave reaction resulted in the formation of tin oxide embedded in graphene sheets. Annealing in argon at elevated temperatures initiated carbothermal reduction culminating in the formation of tin decorated graphene sheet composites that were employed as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. X-ray diffraction analysis of the final composite showed the presence of crystalline tin combined with a very small diffraction peak corresponding to (002) plane of graphite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed decorated graphene layers with tin droplets. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of graphene and graphene oxide in the composite. Electrochemical cycling response indicated that the tin/graphene composite exhibited initial discharge capacities varying from 790 mAh/g to 850 mAh/g depending on the composition, while a stable reversible capacity of ∼500 mAh/g was achieved for optimized compositions when cycled at a current density of ∼100 mA/g in the voltage window of 0.02 to 1.2 V vs. Li + /Li. Carbon coating of the Sn/G composite ultimately achieved by decomposition of dextrose using microwave heating significantly improved the electrochemical cycling stability. - Highlights: • Tin embedded graphene sheets have been synthesized by microwave reduction. • Tin oxide and graphene formed was carbothermally reduced to Sn/graphene. • XPS confirmed presence of graphene and graphene oxide in the composite. • Electrochemical response indicated capacities in 790 mAh/g to 850 mAh/g range. • Carbon coated composite yielded stable reversible capacity ∼500 mAh/g. - Abstract: Tin particles embedded in graphene (G) sheets have been synthesized by microwave reduction of tin halide (SnCl 2 .2H 2 O) and graphite oxide (GO) followed by annealing in argon

  8. Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; W.W. Heidbrink; A. Alekseyev; F.E. Cecil; J. Egedal; V.Ya. Goloborod' ko; N.N. Gorelenkov; M. Isobe; S. Kaye; M. Miah; F. Paoletti; M.H. Redi; S.N. Reznik; A. Rosenberg; R. White; D. Wyatt; V.A. Yavorskij

    2002-10-15

    A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.

  9. A measurement of the local ion temperature gradient in the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovberg, J.A.; Strachan, J.D.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1989-12-01

    Local ion temperature gradients were measured at two radial positions in the PLT tokamak by counting escaping d(d,p)t protons on orbits at closely spaced intervals. A single surface barrier detector was used to make each gradient measurement, eliminating relative calibration uncertainties. The ion thermal diffusivities inferred through ion energy balance with the measured temperature gradients are within a factor of two of Chang-Hinton neoclassical values for the 3 He-minority ICRH plasmas. 12 refs., 8 figs

  10. Adsorption behavior of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal—polyethyleneimine composite for removal of Cr(VI) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chao; Jin, Ru-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-kun, E-mail: xkouyang@zjou.edu.cn; Wang, Yang-Guang

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • A carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal-polyethyleneimine composite (CCN-PEI) was prepared. • The as-prepared CCN-PEI was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS. • Results suggested that the reusable CCN-PEI could remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions with a high adsorption capacity. • The adsorption isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetics of the adsorption process are also discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a composite adsorbent (CCN-PEI) composed of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CCN) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) was prepared through an amidation reaction between the carboxyl groups of the CCN and the amine groups of the PEI. The adsorption performance of the CCN-PEI was tested by removing Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The physicochemical properties of the CCN and the Cr(VI) ion-loaded CCN-PEI were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To investigate the adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto this newly developed CCN-PEI, we performed experiments under different adsorption conditions, by varying the contact time, solution pH, initial Cr(VI) ion concentration, and adsorption temperature. The prepared CCN-PEI exhibited an encouraging uptake capacity of 358.42 mg × g{sup −1}. The adsorption process was fast: within the first 100 min, Cr(VI) ion adsorption onto the CCN-PEI was about 65%, and the adsorption equilibrium was reached within 250 min. Kinetics experiments indicated that the adsorption process could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, our adsorption equilibrium data fit the Langmuir isotherms well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, such as the free energy change (ΔG = −2.93 kJ × mol{sup −1}), enthalpy change (ΔH = −5.69 kJ × mol{sup −1}), and entropy change (ΔS = −9.14 kJ × mol{sup −1}), indicate that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto CCN

  11. A facile strategy for fabrication of nano-ZnO/yeast composites and their adsorption mechanism towards lead (II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Meng, Lingyin [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Mu, Guiqin [Maize Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130 (China); Zhao, Maojun; Zou, Ping [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang, Yunsong, E-mail: yaanyunsong@126.com [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nano-ZnO/yeast composites were fabricated by alkali hydrothermal method. • Nano-ZnO was in-situ achieved and anchored on the yeast surface. • Alkali and hydrothermal process cause more exposed funcitional groups on yeast. • Nano-ZnO/yeast composites show higher Pb{sup 2+} adsorption ability than pristine yeast. • Nano-ZnO and exposed functional groups synergistically participate in adsorption. - Abstract: Nano-ZnO/yeast composites were successfully fabricated by one-step alkali hydrothermal method, and their adsorption properties for Pb{sup 2+} ions were also evaluated. Various influencing parameters of nano-ZnO/yeast composites, such as initial pH, contact time and initial Pb{sup 2+} concentration were investigated, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of nano-ZnO/yeast composites for Pb{sup 2+} (31.72 mg g{sup −1}) is 2.03 times higher than that of pristine yeast (15.63 mg g{sup −1}). The adsorption mechanism of nano-ZnO/yeast composites was studied by a series of techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that nano-ZnO is evenly deposited on yeast surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis exhibited that the yeast surface is rougher than that of pristine yeast. Energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the existence of nano-ZnO on yeast surface. Additionally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further illustrated that alkali hydrothermal method causes not only the generation and anchorage of nano-ZnO on yeast surface but also the exposure of more functional groups (such as amino, carboxyl groups etc.) on yeast surface, both of which could adsorb Pb{sup 2+} via synergistic effect.

  12. A facile strategy for fabrication of nano-ZnO/yeast composites and their adsorption mechanism towards lead (II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Meng, Lingyin; Mu, Guiqin; Zhao, Maojun; Zou, Ping; Zhang, Yunsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-ZnO/yeast composites were fabricated by alkali hydrothermal method. • Nano-ZnO was in-situ achieved and anchored on the yeast surface. • Alkali and hydrothermal process cause more exposed funcitional groups on yeast. • Nano-ZnO/yeast composites show higher Pb"2"+ adsorption ability than pristine yeast. • Nano-ZnO and exposed functional groups synergistically participate in adsorption. - Abstract: Nano-ZnO/yeast composites were successfully fabricated by one-step alkali hydrothermal method, and their adsorption properties for Pb"2"+ ions were also evaluated. Various influencing parameters of nano-ZnO/yeast composites, such as initial pH, contact time and initial Pb"2"+ concentration were investigated, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of nano-ZnO/yeast composites for Pb"2"+ (31.72 mg g"−"1) is 2.03 times higher than that of pristine yeast (15.63 mg g"−"1). The adsorption mechanism of nano-ZnO/yeast composites was studied by a series of techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that nano-ZnO is evenly deposited on yeast surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis exhibited that the yeast surface is rougher than that of pristine yeast. Energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the existence of nano-ZnO on yeast surface. Additionally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further illustrated that alkali hydrothermal method causes not only the generation and anchorage of nano-ZnO on yeast surface but also the exposure of more functional groups (such as amino, carboxyl groups etc.) on yeast surface, both of which could adsorb Pb"2"+ via synergistic effect.

  13. Ion current prediction model considering columnar recombination in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Susumu; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We present a reinforced ion current prediction model in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation. Although our previous model explained the qualitative trend of the measured ion current values, the absolute values of the theoretical curves were about two times as large as the measured values. In order to accurately predict the measured values, we reinforced our model by considering columnar recombination and turbulent diffusion, which affects columnar recombination. Our new model explained the considerable ion loss in the early stage of ion diffusion and narrowed the gap between the theoretical and measured values. The model also predicted suppression of ion loss due to columnar recombination by spraying a high-speed air flow near a contaminated surface. This suppression was experimentally investigated and confirmed. In conclusion, we quantitatively clarified the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and ion current in laminar flow and turbulent pipe flow. (author)

  14. Constituent Ion Temperatures Measured in the Topside Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C. T.; Heelis, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma temperatures in the ionosphere are associated with both the dynamics and structure of the neutral and charge particles. The temperatures are determined by solar energy inputs and energy exchange between charged particles and neutrals. Previous observations show that during daytime the O+ temperature is generally higher when the fractional contribution of H+ to the plasma is high. Further simulations confirm that the daytime heat balance between the H+ and O+ always keeps the H+ at a temperature higher than the O+. In addition the plasma transport parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field influences the plasma temperature through adiabatic heating and cooling effects. These processes are also important during the nighttime, when the source of photoionization is absent. In this work we examine a more sophisticated analysis procedure to extract individual mass dependent ion temperature and apply it on the DMSP F15 RPA measurements. The result shows that the daytime TH+ is a few hundred degrees higher than the TO+ and the nighttime temperature difference between TH+ and TO+ is indicative of mass dependent adiabatic heating and cooling processes across the equatorial region.

  15. Characterization of silicon- and carbon-based composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, Volodymyr G.; Barsukov, Viacheslav Z.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years development of active materials for negative electrodes has been of great interest. Special attention has been focused on the active materials possessing higher reversible capacity than that of conventional graphite. In the present work the electrochemical performance of some carbon/silicon-based materials has been analyzed. For this purpose various silicon-based composites were prepared using such carbon materials as graphite, hard carbon and graphitized carbon black. An analysis of charging-discharging processes at electrodes based on different carbon materials has shown that graphite modified with silicon is the most promising anode material. It has also been revealed that the irreversible capacity mainly depends on the content of Si. An optimum content of Si has been determined with taking into account that high irreversible capacity is not suitable for practical application in lithium-ion batteries. This content falls within the range of 8-10 wt%. The reversible capacity of graphite modified with 8 wt% carbon-coated Si was as high as 604 mAh g -1 . The irreversible capacity loss with this material was as low as 8.1%. The small irreversible capacity of the material allowed developing full lithium-ion rechargeable cells in the 2016 coin cell configuration. Lithium-ion batteries based on graphite modified with silicon show gravimetric and volumetric specific energy densities which are higher by approximately 20% than those for a lithium-ion battery based on natural graphite

  16. Non-isothermal electrochemical model for lithium-ion cells with composite cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Suman; Patil, Rajkumar S.; Ramachandran, Sanoop; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2015-06-01

    Transition metal oxide cathodes for Li-ion batteries offer high energy density and high voltage. Composites of these materials have shown excellent life expectancy and improved thermal performance. In the present work, a comprehensive non-isothermal electrochemical model for a Lithium ion cell with a composite cathode is developed. The present work builds on lithium concentration-dependent diffusivity and thermal gradient of cathode potential, obtained from experiments. The model validation is performed for a wide range of temperature and discharge rates. Excellent agreement is found for high and room temperature with moderate success at low temperatures, which can be attributed to the low fidelity of material properties at low temperature. Although the cell operation is limited by electronic conductivity of NCA at room temperature, at low temperatures a shift in controlling process is seen, and operation is limited by electrolyte transport. At room temperature, the lithium transport in Cathode appears to be the main source of heat generation with entropic heat as the primary contributor at low discharge rates and ohmic heat at high discharge rates respectively. Improvement in electronic conductivity of the cathode is expected to improve the performance of these composite cathodes and pave way for its wider commercialization.

  17. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane composite nanofibrous separator with electrochemical performance for high power lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainab, Ghazala [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Xianfeng, E-mail: wxf@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Yu, Jianyong [Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Zhai, Yunyun; Ahmed Babar, Aijaz; Xiao, Ke [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Bin, E-mail: binding@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for high performance require separators with auspicious reliability and safety. Keeping LIBs reliability and safety in view, microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polyurethane (PU) nonwoven composite separator have been developed by electrospinning technique. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN/PU separator were characterized. Improved ionic conductivity up to 2.07 S cm{sup −1}, high mechanical strength (10.38 MPa) and good anodic stability up to 5.10 V are key outcomes of resultant membranes. Additionally, high thermal stability displaying only 4% dimensional change after 0.5 h long exposure to 170 °C in an oven, which could be valuable addition towards the safety of LIBs. Comparing to commercialized polypropylene based separators, resulting membranes offered improved internal short-circuit protection function, offering better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention under same observation conditions. These fascinating characteristics endow these renewable composite nonwovens as promising separators for high power LIBs battery. - Highlights: • The PAN/PU based separators were prepared by multi-needle electrospinning technique. • The electrospun separators displays good mechanical properties and thermal stability. • These separators exhibit good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection. • Nanofibrous composite nonwoven possesses stable cyclic performance which give rise to acceptable battery performances.

  18. One-Pot Synthesis of CoSex -rGO Composite Powders by Spray Pyrolysis and Their Application as Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Dae; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-03-14

    A simple one-pot synthesis of metal selenide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders for application as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries was developed. The detailed mechanism of formation of the CoSe(x)-rGO composite powders that were selected as the first target material in the spray pyrolysis process was studied. The crumple-structured CoSe(x)-rGO composite powders prepared by spray pyrolysis at 800 °C had a crystal structure consisting mainly of Co0.85 Se with a minor phase of CoSe2. The bare CoSe(x) powders prepared for comparison had a spherical shape and hollow structure. The discharge capacities of the CoSe(x)-rGO composite and bare CoSe(x) powders in the 50th cycle at a constant current density of 0.3 A g(-1) were 420 and 215 mA h g(-1), respectively, and their capacity retentions measured from the second cycle were 80 and 46%, respectively. The high structural stability of the CoSe(x)-rGO composite powders for repeated sodium-ion charge and discharge processes resulted in superior sodium-ion storage properties compared to those of the bare CoSe(x) powders. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nanostructured Si/TiC composite anode for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Z.Y.; Tu, J.P.; Yang, Y.Z.; Xiang, J.Y.; Huang, X.H.; Mao, F.; Ma, M.

    2008-01-01

    Si/TiC nanocomposite anode was synthesized by a surface sol-gel method in combination with a following heat-treatment process. Through this process, nanosized Si was homogeneously distributed in a titanium carbide matrix. The electrochemically less active TiC working as a buffer matrix successfully prevented Si from cracking/crumbling during the charging/discharging process. The interspaces in the Si/TiC nanocomposite could offer convenient channels for Li ions to react with active Si. The Si/TiC composite exhibited a reversible charge/discharge capacity of about 1000 mAh g -1 with average discharge capacity fading of 1.8 mAh g -1 (0.18%) from 2nd to 100th cycle, indicating its excellent cyclability when used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  20. Structural and compositional characterization of X-cut LiNbO3 crystals implanted with high energy oxygen and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentini, G.G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Sada, C.; Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Mazzoldi, P.; Guzzi, R.

    2005-01-01

    High energy implantation of medium-light elements such as oxygen and carbon was performed in X-cut LiNbO 3 single crystals in order to prepare high quality optical waveguides. The compositional and damage profiles, obtained by exploiting the secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford back-scattering techniques respectively, were correlated to the structural properties measured by the high resolution X-ray diffraction. This study evidences the development of tensile strain induced by the ion implantation that can contribute to the decrease of the ordinary refractive index variation through the photo-elastic effect

  1. Measurements of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrstroem, N.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The galactic cosmic-ray boron and carbon isotopic composition has been measured. The boron measurement is the first ever made in nuclear emulsion. The carbon measurement has substantially improved the statistical assuracy in the determination of the 13 C abundance as compared to an earlier measurement using the same technique. Mass-spectra of cosmic-ray carbon and oxygen in different zenith angle intervals have been compared with calculated spectra. The method makes it possible to study experimentally the atmospheric influence on the primary cosmic-ray isotopic composition. Photometric measurements on fragments from oxygen-induced interactions in nuclear emulsion have been made. Accurate charge assignments have been made on all heavy fragments which has made it possible to study the interaction exclusively event-by-event. Measurements on the isotopic composition of primary cosmic-ray neom have been made. The data are from the Danish-French instrument on the HEAO-3 satellite. The rigidity dependent filtering of the cosmic rays by the Earth's magnetic field has been used. The energy dependence of the 22 Ne/ 20 Ne-ratio and its astrophysical implications are discussed. (Author)

  2. The structural and compositional analysis of single crystal surfaces using low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.; Van der Berg, J.A.; Verheij, IL.K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of ion scattering for surface composition and structure analysis has been reviewed. The extreme surface specificity of this technique has been widely used to obtain quitative information in a straightforward way, but the/aolc/currence of charge exchange processes, thermal lattice vibrations and multiple scattering have precluded quantitative analysis of experimental data. Examples are quoted to illustrate the progress that has been made in understanding these fundamental processes and in applying this knowledge to the development of the analytical capabilities of the technique. (author)

  3. Measurement of residual stress in plasma-sprayed composite coatings with graded and uniform compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, O.; Suresh, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Matejicek, J.; Sampath, S.

    1999-10-01

    Residual stresses in plasma sprayed composite coatings were studied experimentally by both curvature and neutron diffraction measurements. Graded and uniform composite coatings, consisting of nickel + alumina and NiCrAlY + yttria-stabilized zirconia, were investigated. This paper briefly summarizes our recent work dealing with the effects of coating thickness, composition, and material properties on the evolution of residual stresses in coatings. Analysis of the results allowed in some cases the separation of the quenching stress and thermal stress contributions to the final residual stress, as well as the determination of the through-thickness stress profile from measurements of different thickness specimens. In the ceramic-metal composites, it was found that the thermal mismatch stress plays a dominant role in the ceramic phase, whereas the stress in the metallic phase is mostly dominated by quenching stress. The residual stress measurement methods employed here were found to be complementary, in that each can provide unique information about the stress state. Through-thickness stress profiles in graded coatings were determined with high spatial resolution by the curvature method, and determination of the stress in each separate phase of a composite was made by neutron diffraction. (orig.) 14 refs.

  4. Compositional and structural studies of ion-beam modified AlN/TiN multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amati, M., E-mail: matteo.amati@elettra.eu [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA,Area Science Park, 34149, Trieste (Italy); Gregoratti, L.; Sezen, H. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA,Area Science Park, 34149, Trieste (Italy); Grce, A.; Milosavljević, M. [VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade University, P.O. Box 522, 11001, Belgrade (Serbia); Homewood, K.P. [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Inter-layer mixing, atomic redistribution, structural change, and phase transformation on AlN/TiN multilayers via argon ion irradiation. • Severe modifications are observed with TEM studies on highly immiscible alternating layers without any side effects such as beam heating. • The original TiN layers appear to grow in thickness by consuming the adjacent AlN layers, while obtaining a better TiAlN fcc crystalline structure. • Photoemission spectroscopy/microscopy indicates a transformation into Al deficient ternary and highly homogeneous compounds on both layers. • These results can be interesting towards further development of radiation tolerant materials based on immiscible ceramic nanocomposites. - Abstract: This paper reports on compositional and structural modifications induced in coated AlN/TiN multilayers by argon ion irradiation. The initial structure consisting of totally 30 alternate AlN (8 nm thick) and TiN (9.3 nm thick) layers was deposited on Si (100) wafers, by reactive sputtering. Irradiation was done with 180 keV Ar{sup +} to a high dose of 8 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, which introduces up to ∼10 at.% of argon species, and generates a maximum displacement per atom of 92 for AlN and 127 for TiN, around the projected ion range (109 ± 34 nm). Characterizations were performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, spatially resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained results reveal that this highly immiscible and thermally stable system suffered a severe modification upon the applied ion irradiation, although it was performed at room temperature. They illustrate a thorough inter-layer mixing, atomic redistribution, structural change and phase transformation within the affected depth. The original TiN layers appear to grow in thickness, consuming the adjacent AlN layers, while retaining the fcc crystalline structure. In the mostly affected region, the interaction proceeds

  5. Chemical Composition Measurements of LAWA44 Glass Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-15

    DOE is building the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Both low-activity and high-level wastes will then be vitrified into borosilicate glass using Joule-heated ceramic melters. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in the glass. One area of work is enhancing waste glass composition/property models and broadening the compositional regions over which those models are applicable. In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for several samples of a simulated low-activity waste glass, LAWA44, provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 97.9 to 102.6 wt %, indicating acceptable recovery of the glass components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. It was noted that the measured B2O3 concentrations are somewhat above the targeted values for the study glasses. No obvious trends were observed with regard to the multiple melting steps used to prepare the study glasses, indicating that any potential effects of volatility were below measurable thresholds.

  6. Possible mechanisms for the interaction of polymeric composite resins with Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhhar, A.A.; Abdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between the active groups of polymeric composite resins such as Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)-ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid disodium salt P(AM-AA)EDTANa 2 , Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)- montmorillonite P(AM-AA)-montmorillonite, and Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)-potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate P(AM-AA)-KNiHCF, with copper sulfate as a test ion has been studied. The spectroscopic studies show that the mechanism of interaction between polymeric composite resins and copper sulfate is a bond formation between the active groups of polymeric chains and copper ion. The bond formation depends on nature of polymeric chains. It was also found that the amide groups form complexes with hydrated cations, while carboxylate group interact by ion exchange mechanism through complex formation. Montmorillonite and hexacyanoferrate of the resins interact with metal ions by ion exchange mechanism

  7. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...... a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......-border regions....

  8. Geotail observations of plasma sheet ion composition over 16 years: On variations of average plasma ion mass and O+ triggering substorm model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosé, M.; Ieda, A.; Christon, S. P.

    2009-07-01

    We examined long-term variations of ion composition in the plasma sheet, using energetic (9.4-212.1 keV/e) ion flux data obtained by the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS) sensor of the energetic particle and ion composition (EPIC) instrument on board the Geotail spacecraft. EPIC/STICS observations are available from 17 October 1992 for more than 16 years, covering the declining phase of solar cycle 22, all of solar cycle 23, and the early phase of solar cycle 24. This unprecedented long-term data set revealed that (1) the He+/H+ and O+/H+ flux ratios in the plasma sheet were dependent on the F10.7 index; (2) the F10.7 index dependence is stronger for O+/H+ than He+/H+; (3) the O+/H+ flux ratio is also weakly correlated with the ΣKp index; and (4) the He2+/H+ flux ratio in the plasma sheet appeared to show no long-term trend. From these results, we derived empirical equations related to plasma sheet ion composition and the F10.7 index and estimated that the average plasma ion mass changes from ˜1.1 amu during solar minimum to ˜2.8 amu during solar maximum. In such a case, the Alfvén velocity during solar maximum decreases to ˜60% of the solar minimum value. Thus, physical processes in the plasma sheet are considered to be much different between solar minimum and solar maximum. We also compared long-term variation of the plasma sheet ion composition with that of the substorm occurrence rate, which is evaluated by the number of Pi2 pulsations. No correlation or negative correlation was found between them. This result contradicts the O+ triggering substorm model, in which heavy ions in the plasma sheet increase the growth rate of the linear ion tearing mode and play an important role in localization and initiation of substorms. In contrast, O+ ions in the plasma sheet may prevent occurrence of substorms.

  9. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of 2s l/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U 82+ through U 89+ have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer -39.21 ± 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 transition energy of lithiumlike U 89+ . A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell

  10. Measurements of diameters of selectively etchable tracks produced in polymer by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The process of pore formation in polyethyleneterephtalate films irradiated by the 136 Xe, 84 Kr, 40 Ar ions was investigated by measuring the conductivity of the samples during etching. The diameters of the damaged tracks within which the local etching rate was larger than etching rate for non-destroyed polymer were determined. In the case of the 136 Xe ions measurements have been carried out at different ion energies [ru

  11. The Magnetic Properties of Metal-Alloy Glass Composites Prepared by Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian Fernandez, Cesar de; Mattei, Giovanni; Sada, Cinzia; Maurizio, Chiara; Padovani, Sara; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Gatteschi, Dante

    2003-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co-Ni, Co-Fe and Ni-Cu alloy nanoparticles formed in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation are presented. These nanoparticles show crystal structure similar to the corresponding bulk alloys. In the Co-Ni and Co-Fe, magnetization saturation and coercive field depend on the the alloy composition, crystal structure and size effects. Ferromagnetic resonance studies show that collective magnetic processes are present and these are determined by the film-like morphology of the implanted region. The temperature dependence of the magnetization of the NixCu100-x samples indicates that their Curie Temperatures are larger than the corresponding bulk ones. This feature is discussed considering the composition of the nanoparticles and the size effects

  12. Cyclic performance tests of Sn/MWCNT composite lithium ion battery anodes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocoglu, U., E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cevher, O.; Akbulut, H. [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus 54187 (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    In this study tin-multi walled carbon nanotube (Sn-MWCNT) lithium ion battery anodes were produced and their electrochemical galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were conducted at various (25 °C, 35 °C, 50 °C) temperatures to determine the cyclic behaviors of anode at different temperatures. Anodes were produced via vacuum filtration and DC magnetron sputtering technique. Tin was sputtered onto buckypapers to form composite structure of anodes. SEM analysis was conducted to determine morphology of buckypapers and Sn-MWCNT composite anodes. Structural and phase analyses were conducted via X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy technique. CR2016 coin cells were assembled for electrochemical tests. Cyclic voltammetry test were carried out to determine the reversibility of reactions between anodes and reference electrode between 0.01-2.0 V potential window. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were performed to determine cycle performance of anodes at different temperatures.

  13. Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Carbon Cryogels and Carbon Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nanofoams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  14. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  15. Composite materials obtained by the ion-plasma sputtering of metal compound coatings on polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikov, Nikolai; Polyakov, Evgenii; Borisov, Sergei; Barashev, Nikolai; Biramov, Emir; Maltceva, Anastasia; Vereshchagin, Artem; Khartov, Stas; Voronin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the principle and examples composite materials obtained by deposition of metal compound coatings on polymer film substrates by the ion-plasma sputtering method are presented. A synergistic effect is to obtain the materials with structural properties of the polymer substrate and the surface properties of the metal deposited coatings. The technology of sputtering of TiN coatings of various thicknesses on polyethylene terephthalate films is discussed. The obtained composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is shown. The examples of application of this method, such as receiving nanocomposite track membranes and flexible transparent electrodes, are considered.

  16. Neutron diffraction measurements of microstress and macrostress in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    For accurate stress measurements, precise values of the diffraction elastic constant (DEC) is required. The theoretical prediction of DEC of engineering materials on the basis of the self-consistent model agreed well with the experimental results of sintered alumina with various porosities. From the experimental results of DEC of sintered silicon nitride, the elastic anisotropy of single crystals of β-silicon nitride was estimated with the simplex method. The phase stress measured in the matrix and SiC particles of composite subjected to the applied stress agreed well with the theoretical prediction. The macrostress calculated from the phase stress by using the rule of mixture was equal to the applied stress. The measured values of the thermal residual stress in ceramic composites of alumina mixed with various volume fractions of zirconia agreed well with the theoretical prediction based on Eshelby's inclusion model. (author)

  17. A bedside measure of body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-01-01

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields (∝ 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H - )=1.10 17 1/m 3 , which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  19. Electrodeposited Germanium/Carbon Composite as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Wan; Ngo, Duc Tung; Heo, Jaeyeong; Park, Choong-Nyeon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposition was applied for the synthesis of Ge/C composite. • High coulombic efficiency of ∼85% in the first cycle was attained for Ge/C composite. • Full cell of Ge/C-LiCoO 2 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, without pre-lithiation of Ge/C. - Abstract: We demonstrate the synthesis of nano Ge/C composite using a facile and cost-effective electrochemical deposition method, and its application as an anode material in Li-ion batteries. Nano Ge/C composite is electrodeposited directly on Cu foil in ethylene glycol containing GeCl 4 and carbon black. The Ge particles with an average size of ∼20 nm are uniformly covered with carbon. Compared with the pure Ge electrode, the Ge/C electrode exhibits a higher first reversible capacity of 1224 mA g −1 , and maintains a capacity of 1095 mAh g −1 at 0.1C over 50 cycles. Even at the high rate of 2C, the capacity of the Ge/C electrode is still high at 972 mAh g −1 . The presence of carbon black and pores in the Ge/C electrode improves the conductivity of the electrode, and mitigates the stress inside the electrode by supplying buffer volume, leading to the enhanced electrochemical characteristics of the electrode. Further, the full Li-ion cell composed of Ge/C anode and LiCoO 2 cathode exhibits good cyclability, rate capability, and coulombic efficiency.

  20. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Nielsen, S.K.; Porte, L.

    2006-01-01

    Here we present the first measurements by collective Thomson scattering of the evolution of fast-ion populations in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. 150 kW and 110 Ghz radiation from a gyrotron were scattered in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma with energetic ions generated by neutral beam injection...... and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The temporal behavior of the spatially resolved fast-ion velocity distribution is inferred from the received scattered radiation. The fast-ion dynamics at sawteeth and the slowdown after switch off of auxiliary heating is resolved in time. The latter is shown...

  1. Product ion isotopologue pattern: A tool to improve the reliability of elemental composition elucidations of unknown compounds in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Walker, S; Mol, G

    2016-04-15

    Elucidation of the elemental compositions of unknown compounds (e.g., in metabolomics) generally relies on the availability of accurate masses and isotopic ratios. This study focuses on the information provided by the abundance ratio within a product ion pair (monoisotopic versus the first isotopic peak) when isolating and fragmenting the first isotopic ion (first isotopic mass spectrum) of the precursor. This process relies on the capability of the quadrupole within the Q Orbitrap instrument to isolate a very narrow mass window. Selecting only the first isotopic peak (first isotopic mass spectrum) leads to the observation of a unique product ion pair. The lighter ion within such an isotopologue pair is monoisotopic, while the heavier ion contains a single carbon isotope. The observed abundance ratio is governed by the percentage of carbon atoms lost during the fragmentation and can be described by a hypergeometric distribution. The observed carbon isotopologue abundance ratio (product ion isotopologue pattern) gives reliable information regarding the percentage of carbon atoms lost in the fragmentation process. It therefore facilitates the elucidation of the involved precursor and product ions. Unlike conventional isotopic abundances, the product ion isotopologue pattern is hardly affected by isobaric interferences. Furthermore, the appearance of these pairs greatly aids in cleaning up a 'matrix-contaminated' product ion spectrum. The product ion isotopologue pattern is a valuable tool for structural elucidation. It increases confidence in results and permits structural elucidations for heavier ions. This tool is also very useful in elucidating the elemental composition of product ions. Such information is highly valued in the field of multi-residue analysis, where the accurate mass of product ions is required for the confirmation process. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Electric field measurement in microwave discharge ion thruster with electro-optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Toshiyuki; Tsukizaki, Ryudo; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the internal phenomena in a microwave discharge ion thruster, it is important to measure the distribution of the microwave electric field inside the discharge chamber, which is directly related to the plasma production. In this study, we proposed a novel method of measuring a microwave electric field with an electro-optic (EO) probe based on the Pockels effect. The probe, including a cooling system, contains no metal and can be accessed in the discharge chamber with less disruption to the microwave distribution. This method enables measurement of the electric field profile under ion beam acceleration. We first verified the measurement with the EO probe by a comparison with a finite-difference time domain numerical simulation of the microwave electric field in atmosphere. Second, we showed that the deviations of the reflected microwave power and the beam current were less than 8% due to inserting the EO probe into the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the measurement of the electric-field profile in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. These measurements show that the electric field distribution in the thruster dramatically changes in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration as the propellant mass flow rate increases. These results indicate that this new method using an EO probe can provide a useful guide for improving the propulsion of microwave discharge ion thrusters.

  3. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  4. Compositional analysis of YBaCuO superconducting films with ion beam analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.; Timmers, H.; Ophel, T.R.; Elliman, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    High-T c YBa x Cu y O 7-δ superconducting films are being developed for applications such as superconducting quantum interference devices. The carrier concentration, critical current density J c and critical temperature T c of these films depend sensitively on the oxygen content . Stoichiometry, uniformity with depth, homogeneity across the sample and film thickness are also important quantities for their characterisation. It has been shown, for example, that the stoichiometry of the metallic elements affects the growth characteristics and surface morphology of the films. With the deposit ion techniques used, reproducibility of film properties is difficult. The characterisation of YBa x Cu y O 7-δ films with ion beam analysis techniques is complex. Whereas the three metallic elements can be detected with helium beams and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), the oxygen signal is generally obscured by that from substrate elements. It can be better detected using resonant backscattering with 3.04MeV 4 He ions or nuclear reaction analysis. Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) with high-energetic (1MeV/amu), heavy beams (Z > 120), enables all elements to be detected and separated in a single experiment. It is well established that ion bombardment induces vacancies in the oxygen sub-lattice, driving the material to change from crystalline to amorphous, the latter phase having a reduced oxygen content. In previous heavy ion ERD measurements of YBa x Cu yO z films with 200MeV 127 I beams, the opaque films became transparent in the beam spot area, indicative of the amorphous phase. The accuracy of the oxygen measurement is therefore questionable. Indeed, using Raman spectroscopy, distortions of the crystalline structure above a fluence of 5 x 10 11 ion/cm 2 and for higher doses some signatures of a reduction in oxygen content have been observed for such beams. It appears therefore that a correct determination of the oxygen content requires either a drastic reduction in fluence or a

  5. Graphene nanoribbon and nanostructured SnO2 composite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Xiang, Changsheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Yan, Zheng; Natelson, Douglas; Tour, James M

    2013-07-23

    A composite made from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) is synthesized and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The conductive GNRs, prepared using sodium/potassium unzipping of multiwall carbon nanotubes, can boost the lithium storage performance of SnO2 NPs. The composite, as an anode material for LIBs, exhibits reversible capacities of over 1520 and 1130 mAh/g for the first discharge and charge, respectively, which is more than the theoretical capacity of SnO2. The reversible capacity retains ~825 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g with a Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 50 cycles. Further, the composite shows good power performance with a reversible capacity of ~580 mAh/g at the current density of 2 A/g. The high capacity, good power performance and retention can be attributed to uniformly distributed SnO2 NPs along the high-aspect-ratio GNRs. The GNRs act as conductive additives that buffer the volume changes of SnO2 during cycling. This work provides a starting point for exploring the composites made from GNRs and other transition metal oxides for lithium storage applications.

  6. Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlau, Marie; Marcinek, Marek; Srinivasan, Venkat; Kostecki, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 and LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 composite cathodes were cycled in model cells to study interfacial phenomena that could lead to electrode degradation. Ex situ spectroscopic analysis of the tested cathodes, which suffered substantial power and capacity loss, showed that the state of charge (SOC) of oxide particles on the cathode surface was highly non-uniform despite the deep discharge of the Li-ion cell at the end of the test. The inconsistent kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles was attributed to the degradation of electronic pathways within the composite cathodes. A simple theoretical model based on a distributed network showed that an increase of the contact resistance between composite electrode particles may be responsible for non-uniform local kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles and the overall degradation of electrochemical performance of composite electrodes

  7. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the

  8. Storing keV negative ions for hours: Lifetime measurements in new time domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminska, M; Bäckström, E; Hole, O M; Nascimento, R F; Blom, M; Björkhage, M; Källberg, A; Löfgren, P; Reinhed, P; Rosèn, S; Thomas, R D; Mannervik, S; Schmidt, H T; Cederquist, H; Hanstorpt, D

    2015-01-01

    We have used one of the cryogenic ion storage rings of DESIREE to measure the lifetime of the 2 P° 1/2 level in the sulfur anion to be 503 ± 43 seconds. This is orders of magnitude longer than any previously measured lifetime in a negatively charged ion. (paper)

  9. Measuring main-ion temperatures in ASDEX upgrade using scattering of ECRH radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak.......We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak....

  10. Negative ion beam characterisation in BATMAN by mini-STRIKE: Improved design and new measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, G.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Chitarin, G.; Cristofaro, S.; Delogu, R.; De Muri, M.; Fasolo, D.; Fonnesu, N.; Franchin, L.; Franzen, P.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Muraro, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Tollin, M.; Veltri, P.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER project requires additional heating provided by two injectors of neutral beams resulting from the neutralisation of accelerated negative ions. To study and optimise negative ion production, the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A) is under construction in Padova, with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon fibre carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been employed in 2012 as a small-scale version (mini-STRIKE) of the entire system to investigate the features of the beam from BATMAN at IPP-Garching. As the BATMAN beamlets are superposed at the measurement position, about 1m from the grounded grid, an actively cooled copper mask is located in front of the tiles; holes in the mask create an artificial beamlet structure. Recently the mini-STRIKE has been updated, taking into account the results obtained in the first campaign. In particular the spatial resolution of the system has been improved by increasing the number of the copper mask holes. Moreover a custom measurement system has been realized for the thermocouple signals and employed in BATMAN in view of its use in SPIDER. The present contribution gives a description of the new design of the system as well as of the thermocouple measurements system and its field test. A new series of measurements has been carried out in BATMAN. The BATMAN beam characterisation in different experimental conditions is presented.

  11. Negative ion beam characterisation in BATMAN by mini-STRIKE: Improved design and new measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serianni, G.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Chitarin, G.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Fonnesu, N.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M.; Veltri, P.; Bonomo, F.; Cristofaro, S.; De Muri, M.; Franzen, P.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Muraro, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ITER project requires additional heating provided by two injectors of neutral beams resulting from the neutralisation of accelerated negative ions. To study and optimise negative ion production, the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A) is under construction in Padova, with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon fibre carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been employed in 2012 as a small-scale version (mini-STRIKE) of the entire system to investigate the features of the beam from BATMAN at IPP-Garching. As the BATMAN beamlets are superposed at the measurement position, about 1m from the grounded grid, an actively cooled copper mask is located in front of the tiles; holes in the mask create an artificial beamlet structure. Recently the mini-STRIKE has been updated, taking into account the results obtained in the first campaign. In particular the spatial resolution of the system has been improved by increasing the number of the copper mask holes. Moreover a custom measurement system has been realized for the thermocouple signals and employed in BATMAN in view of its use in SPIDER. The present contribution gives a description of the new design of the system as well as of the thermocouple measurements system and its field test. A new series of measurements has been carried out in BATMAN. The BATMAN beam characterisation in different experimental conditions is presented

  12. Neutron stress measurement of W-fiber reinforced Cu composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, M.; Hanabusa, T.; Ikeuchi, Y.; Minakawa, N.

    2003-01-01

    Stress measurement methods using neutron and X-ray diffraction were examined by comparing the surface stresses with internal stresses in the continuous tungsten-fiber reinforced copper-matrix composite. Surface stresses were measured by X-ray stress measurement with the sin 2 ψ method. Furthermore, the sin 2 ψ method and the most common triaxal measurement method using Hooke's equation were employed for internal stress measurement by neutron diffraction. On the other hand, microstress distributions developed by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between these two phases were calculated by FEM. The weighted average strains and stresses were compared with the experimental results. The FEM results agreed with the experimental results qualitatively and confirmed the importance of the triaxial stress analysis in the neutron stress measurement. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev, H; Nielsen, S K; Porte, L; Hoekzema, J A; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Michelsen, S; Oosterbeek, J W; Tsakadze, E L; Westerhof, E; Woskov, P

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of fast ion populations in the TEXTOR tokamak are measured by collective Thomson scattering of millimetre wave radiation generated by a gyrotron operated at 110 GHz and 100-150 kW. Temporal evolution of the energetic ion velocity distribution at switch on of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the slowdown after switch off of NBI are measured. The turn on phase of the NBI has, furthermore, been measured in plasmas with a range of electron densities and temperatures. All of these measurements are shown to be in good agreement with simple Fokker-Planck modelling. Bulk ion rotation velocity is also measured

  14. Copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide composites for high performance Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Hee-Sang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a composite electrode structure consisting of copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide (CuNFs@CoO x . The copper nanofibers (CuNFs were fabricated on a substrate with formation of a network structure, which may have potential for improving electron percolation and retarding film deformation during the discharging/charging process over the electroactive cobalt oxide. Compared to bare CoO x thin-film (CoO x TF electrodes, the CuNFs@CoO x electrodes exhibited a significant enhancement of rate performance by at least six-fold at an input current density of 3C-rate. Such enhanced Li-ion storage performance may be associated with modified electrode structure at the nanoscale, improved charge transfer, and facile stress relaxation from the embedded CuNF network. Consequently, the CuNFs@CoO x composite structure demonstrated here can be used as a promising high-performance electrode for Li-ion batteries.

  15. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  16. A healthy lifestyle composite measure: Significance and potential uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary L; Katz, David L; Shenson, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to create and explore potential uses of a composite "Healthy Lifestyle" measure based on Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) Objectives for behaviors shown to be associated with morbidity and mortality. Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N=412,942) on five modifiable behaviors with HP2020 Objectives (leisure time exercise, eating fruits and vegetables 5 or more times/day, getting ≥7h of sleep/24h, not smoking and not drinking excessively). These indicators were combined to form an all-or-none composite Healthy Lifestyle (HLS) measure. Associations between the HLS measure and demographic and other measures, plus details of component measures, were reported. Results indicated that only 7.7% of adults reported a HLS with wide variation among states and demographic groups. Both unadjusted and logistic regression results found associations between a HLS and better health, lower rates of chronic disease and better access to health care. Over one fourth of all respondents (28.0%) needed to only improve fruit and vegetable consumption to be practicing a HLS. In conclusion, few adults were practicing five behaviors that are generally recognized as healthy. All-or-none metrics like this HLS measure offer a fresh perspective on modifiable behaviors and the need for improvement. Examination of measure components can help explain demographic differences and identify strategies for improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyaspartate extraction of cadmium ions from contaminated soil: Evaluation and optimization using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu'azu, Nuhu Dalhat; Haladu, Shamsuddeen A; Jarrah, Nabeel; Zubair, Mukarram; Essa, Mohammad H; Ali, Shaikh A

    2018-01-15

    The occurrences of heavy metal contaminated sites and soils and the need for devising environmentally friendly solutions have become global issues of serious concern. In this study, polyaspartate (a highly biodegradable agent) was synthesized using L-Aspartic acid via a new modified thermal procedure and employed for extraction of cadmium ions (Cd) from contaminated soil. Response surface methodology approach using 3 5 full faced centered central composite design was employed for modeling, evaluating and optimizing the influence of polyaspartate concentration (36-145mM), polyaspartate/soil ratio (5-25), initial heavy metal concentration (100-500mg/kg), initial pH (3-6) and extraction time (6-24h) on Cd ions extracted into the polyaspartate solution and its residual concentration in the treated soil. The Cd extraction efficacy obtained reached up to 98.8%. Increase in Cd extraction efficiency was associated with increase in the polyaspartate and Cd concentration coupled with lower polyaspertate/soil ratio and initial pH. Under the optimal conditions characterized with minimal utilization of the polyaspartate and high Cd ions removal, the extractible Cd in the polyaspartate solution reached up to 84.4mg/L which yielded 85% Cd extraction efficacy. This study demonstrates the suitability of using polyaspartate as an effective environmentally friendly chelating agent for Cd extraction from contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlations among structure, composition and electrochemical performances of WO3 anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pu; Li, Xing; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Mingshan; Fox, Thomas; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The residual precursor ions affect the charge/discharge performances of WO 3 . • Lithiated monoclinic WO 3 reveals the best discharge capacity. • Lithiation can enhance the conductivity of WO 3 . - Abstract: Suitable host structure for lithium insertion and extraction is crucial for lithium-ion batteries. Tungsten trioxides (WO 3 ) are particularly interesting materials for this purpose. In this work, the influences of structure and composition of WO 3 on the charge/discharge performances of Li-ion batteries are systematically investigated. Firstly, lithiated tungsten trioxides (Li-WO 3 ) are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method followed by annealing at different temperatures (200–600 °C). It is found that the hexagonal framework collapses and gradually transforms to the monoclinic phase due to the release of NH 4 + and NH 3 molecules. Unexpectedly, monoclinic WO 3 reveals better performances than that of hexagonal WO 3 . Among all the investigated samples, the lithiated WO 3 annealed at 500 °C exhibits the highest discharge capacity and cycle performance (703 mAh g −1 after 10 cycles). We believe that the Li + remained in the solid structure of WO 3 can lead to a more stable structure. In addition, Li + could inhibit the oxidation of W 5+ during the heat treatment process, which increases the electron conductivity of WO 3 . Our results indicate that the electrochemical properties of WO 3 are strongly related to the residual precursor and crystal structure.

  19. Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and the compositional and structural analysis of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.A. van den; Armour, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The physics of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) and its application as a surface analytical technique are reviewed. It is shown that compositional and short-range structural information can be obtained by choosing experimental conditions which optimize the contributions of single and double (or multiple) collisions, respectively. The LEIS technique allows mass analysis in a straightforward way, possesses a high surface selectivity but is unable to provide quantitative information in isolation due to scattering cross-section uncertainties and not easily quantifiable charge exchange effects. Structural information regarding adsorbate positions on single crystal surfaces and the short-range substrate structure (including damaged and reconstructed surfaces) can be obtained by exploiting shadowing and/or multiple scattering phenomena. The progress made in recent years in this area is charted. It is shown that computer simulations often play an important role in this type of study. Effects, such as charge exchange, inelastic energy loss and ion beam surface perturbations, which complicate the use of low energy ion scattering for surface analysis are discussed in detail. The present status of the technique in the different areas of study is indicated. (author)

  20. Ion-beam-induced topography and compositional changes in depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    When energetic ions penetrate and stop in solids they not only add a new atomic constituent to the matrix but they also create atomic recoils and defects. The fluxes of these entities can give rise to spatial redistribution of atomic components, which may be partly or completely balanced by reordering and relaxation processes. These latter, in turn, may be influenced by fields and gradients induced by the primary relocation processes and by the energy deposited. These will include quasi-thermal, concentration (or chemical potential) and electrostatic gradients and may act to enhance or suppress atomic redistribution. Some, or all, of these processes will operate, depending upon the system under study, when energetic ions are employed to sputter erode a substrate for depth sectioning and, quite generally, can perturb the atomic depth profile that it is intended to evaluate. Theoretical and computational approaches to modelling such processes will be outlined and experimental examples shown which illustrate specific phenomena. In particular the accumulation of implant species and defect generation or redistribution can modify, with increasing ion fluence, the local sputtering mechanism and create further problems in depth profile analysis as a changing surface topography penetrates the solid. Examples of such topographic evolution and its influence on depth profiling analysis will be given and models to explain general and specific behaviour will be outlined. The commonality of models which examine both depth-dependent composition modification and surface topography evolution will be stressed. (author)

  1. Nanostructure Sn-Co-C composite lithium ion battery electrode with unique stability and high electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mengyuan; Liu Chunling; Shi Meirong; Dong Wensheng

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructure Sn-Co-C composites with different compositions are synthesized by a simple solution polymerization using inexpensive raw materials followed by pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere. The nanostructure Sn-Co-C composites are characterized using various analytic techniques. The results show that the electrochemical performances of the composites are strongly dependent on their structure and composition. Among these composites the Sn-Co-C-1 with a weight composition of Sn 0.31 Co 0.09 C 0.6 exhibits high reversible capacity and excellent cycleability when used as an anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. This composite is composed of SnCo 2 , SnCo, Sn and amorphous carbon, and the nanoparticles of SnCo 2 , SnCo and Sn are uniformly dispersed into the amorphous carbon matrix, the average diameter of these metal nanoparticles is 8.44 nm.

  2. Coincidence measurements of slow recoil ions with projectile ions in 42-MeV Arq+-Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Matsuo, T.; Tawara, H.

    1989-01-01

    Slow Ar recoil-ion production cross sections by projectiles of 1.05-MeV/amu Ar q+ (q=4,6,8,10,12,14) were measured using a projectile-ion--recoil-ion coincidence technique. The present results indicate that the average recoil ion charges left-angle i right-angle increase with increasing the incident projectile charge q and the number of the lost and captured electrons from and/or into projectiles, whereas the projectile charge-changing cross sections for loss ionization decrease steeply with increasing q for low-charge-state projectiles, and those for transfer ionization increase rapidly with increasing q for high-charge-state projectiles. For Ar projectiles with q=10, which corresponds to the equilibrium charge state of Ar projectiles at the present collision energy, the average recoil-ion charges are nearly the same in both loss and transfer ionization, and a pure ionization process plays a much more important role in producing highly charged recoil ions, in contrast to projectile electron loss or transfer processes, which play a role in other projectile charge states

  3. Swift heavy ions induced surface modifications in Ag-polypyrrole composite films synthesized by an electrochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sharma, Kashma; Kumar, Vinod; Sonkawade, R.G.; Dhaliwal, A.S.; Swart, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two steps electrochemical synthesis for the fabrication of Ag-polypyrrole composite films. • Surface modifications by swift heavy ion beam. • SEM image shows the formation of craters and humps after irradiation. • Detailed structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: The general aim of this work was to study the effects of swift heavy ions on the properties of electrochemically synthesized Ag-polypyrrole composite thin films. Initially, polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide coated glass surfaces using a chronopotentiometery technique, at optimized process conditions. The prepared PPy films have functioned as working electrodes for the decoration of submicron Ag particles on the surface of the PPy films through a cyclicvoltammetry technique. Towards probing the effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural and morphological properties, the composite films were subjected to a 40 MeV Li 3+ ion beam irradiation for various fluences (1 × 10 11 , 1 × 10 12 and 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 ). Comparative microstructural investigations were carried out after the different ion fluences using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Raman and SEM studies revealed that the structure of the films became disordered after irradiation. The SEM studies of irradiated composite films show significant changes in their surface morphologies. The surface was smoother at lower fluence but craters were observed at higher fluence

  4. Swift heavy ions induced surface modifications in Ag-polypyrrole composite films synthesized by an electrochemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijays_phy@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ali, Yasir [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, District Sangrur 148106, Punjab (India); Sharma, Kashma [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173212 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Sonkawade, R.G. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asif Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, District Sangrur 148106, Punjab (India); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Two steps electrochemical synthesis for the fabrication of Ag-polypyrrole composite films. • Surface modifications by swift heavy ion beam. • SEM image shows the formation of craters and humps after irradiation. • Detailed structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: The general aim of this work was to study the effects of swift heavy ions on the properties of electrochemically synthesized Ag-polypyrrole composite thin films. Initially, polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide coated glass surfaces using a chronopotentiometery technique, at optimized process conditions. The prepared PPy films have functioned as working electrodes for the decoration of submicron Ag particles on the surface of the PPy films through a cyclicvoltammetry technique. Towards probing the effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural and morphological properties, the composite films were subjected to a 40 MeV Li{sup 3+} ion beam irradiation for various fluences (1 × 10{sup 11}, 1 × 10{sup 12} and 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}). Comparative microstructural investigations were carried out after the different ion fluences using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Raman and SEM studies revealed that the structure of the films became disordered after irradiation. The SEM studies of irradiated composite films show significant changes in their surface morphologies. The surface was smoother at lower fluence but craters were observed at higher fluence.

  5. Synthesis of LiFePO4/Graphene Nano composite and Its Electrochemical Properties as Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X.; Chen, G.; Liu, Q.; Zeng, G.; Wu, T.

    2014-01-01

    LiFePO 4 /graphene nano composite was successfully synthesized by rheological phase method and its electrochemical properties as the cathode materials for lithium ion batteries were measured. As the iron source in the synthesis, FeOOH nano rods anchored on graphene were first synthesized. The FeOOH nano rods precursors and the final LiFePO 4 /graphene nano composite products were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. While the FeOOH precursors were nano rods with 5-10 nm in diameter and 10-50 nm in length, the LiFePO 4 were nanoparticles with 20-100 nm in size. Compared with the electrochemical properties of LiFePO 4 particles without graphene nano sheets, it is clear that the graphene nano sheets can improve the performances of LiFePO 4 as the cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-synthesized LiFePO 4 /graphene nano composite showed high capacities and good cyclabilities. When measured at room temperature and at the rate of 0.1 C (1 C = 170 mA g -1 ), the composite showed a discharge capacity of 156 mA h g -1 in the first cycle and a capacity retention of 96% after 15 cycles. The improved performances of the composite are believed to be the result of the three-dimensional conducting network formed by the flexible and planar graphene nano sheets.

  6. Measurements of ion velocity separation and ionization in multi-species plasma shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Katz, J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Vold, E. L.; Keenan, B. D.; Simakov, A. N.; Chacón, L.

    2018-05-01

    The ion velocity structure of a strong collisional shock front in a plasma with multiple ion species is directly probed in laser-driven shock-tube experiments. Thomson scattering of a 263.25 nm probe beam is used to diagnose ion composition, temperature, and flow velocity in strong shocks ( M ˜6 ) propagating through low-density ( ρ˜0.1 mg/cc) plasmas composed of mixtures of hydrogen (98%) and neon (2%). Within the preheat region of the shock front, two velocity populations of ions are observed, a characteristic feature of strong plasma shocks. The ionization state of the Ne is observed to change within the shock front, demonstrating an ionization-timescale effect on the shock front structure. The forward-streaming proton feature is shown to be unexpectedly cool compared to predictions from ion Fokker-Planck simulations; the neon ionization gradient is evaluated as a possible cause.

  7. On-line measurement of microwave power in ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Kang Wu; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Xiong Riheng; Chen Junguang; Li Xiaoyun

    2005-01-01

    It is a new technology to apply an ECR ion source to the neutron generator. Because of the structure limitation, working state of the ECR ion source could not be judged by the color of gas discharging in discharge chamber. Therefore, it was hard to estimate if the ECR ion source was working properly in the neutron generator. The method to resolve the problem was described in this paper. The microwave power was measured on-line by a directional coupler and a small microwave power meter. The ion beam current could be educed from the measured incidence microwave power, and discharge state in discharge chamber could be determined. (authors)

  8. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  9. The Application of the EIS in Li-ion Batteries Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, N. S.; Li, M. W.; Wang, W. L.; Zhang, D. L.; Xu, D. G.

    2006-10-01

    The measurement and determination of the lithium ion battery's electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the application of EIS to battery classification are researched in this paper. The lithium ion battery gets extensive applications due to its inherent advantages over other batteries. For proper and sustainable performance, it is very necessary to check the uniformity of the lithium ion batteries. In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the lithium ion battery is analyzed; the design of hardware circuit based on DSP and software that calculates the EIS of the lithium ion battery is critically done and evaluated. The parameters of the lithium ion equivalent circuit are determined, the parameter values of li-ion equivalent circuit are achieved by least square method, and the application of Principal Component Analysis (CPA) to the battery classification is analyzed.

  10. The Application of the EIS in Li-ion Batteries Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, N S [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen (China); Li, M W [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen (China); Wang, W L [Shenzhen BPL instrument Ltd., Shenzhen (China); Zhang, D L [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen (China); Xu, D G [Electrical Engineering and Automation School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2006-10-15

    The measurement and determination of the lithium ion battery's electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the application of EIS to battery classification are researched in this paper. The lithium ion battery gets extensive applications due to its inherent advantages over other batteries. For proper and sustainable performance, it is very necessary to check the uniformity of the lithium ion batteries. In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the lithium ion battery is analyzed; the design of hardware circuit based on DSP and software that calculates the EIS of the lithium ion battery is critically done and evaluated. The parameters of the lithium ion equivalent circuit are determined, the parameter values of li-ion equivalent circuit are achieved by least square method, and the application of Principal Component Analysis (CPA) to the battery classification is analyzed.

  11. The Application of the EIS in Li-ion Batteries Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, N S; Li, M W; Wang, W L; Zhang, D L; Xu, D G

    2006-01-01

    The measurement and determination of the lithium ion battery's electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the application of EIS to battery classification are researched in this paper. The lithium ion battery gets extensive applications due to its inherent advantages over other batteries. For proper and sustainable performance, it is very necessary to check the uniformity of the lithium ion batteries. In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the lithium ion battery is analyzed; the design of hardware circuit based on DSP and software that calculates the EIS of the lithium ion battery is critically done and evaluated. The parameters of the lithium ion equivalent circuit are determined, the parameter values of li-ion equivalent circuit are achieved by least square method, and the application of Principal Component Analysis (CPA) to the battery classification is analyzed

  12. Measurement of negative ion mobilities in O2 and O3 mixtures at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, H.; Norimoto, K.; Hayashi, T.

    1998-01-01

    Mobility measurements of negative molecular oxygen ions in pure oxygen and in an oxygen-ozone mixture are reported. A cascaded gap consisting of an ion drift gap and an ion detection gap was used in the experiment. The ion detection gap was formed by a positive point and a grounded plane electrode was operated at atmospheric pressure. The zero field mobility of negative molecular oxygen ions was determined to be 2.07+-0.02 cm 2 /V.s. A somewhat higher value of oxygen mobility was found at higher electric field/pressure ratios; this is presumed to be due to negative ozone ions. When changing the electric field/pressure ratio the mobility of negative oxygen ions in oxygen-ozone mixtures becomes smaller than that in pure oxygen; this is probably due to the cumulative effect of other particles produced by silent discharges. (J.U.)

  13. Measurement of Dijet Angular Distributions and Search for Quark Compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P.; Davis, K.; Fein, D.; Forden, G.E.; Guida, J.A.; James, E.; Johns, K.; Nang, F.; Narayanan, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Butler, J.M.; Fatyga, M.; Featherly, J.; Gibbard, B.; Gordon, H.; Graf, N.; Kahn, S.; Kotcher, J.; Protopopescu, S.; Rajagopalan, S.; Bantly, J.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cutts, D.; Guida, J.M.; Hoftun, J.S.; Partridge, R.; Grinstein, S.; Piegaia, R.; Bloom, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Glenn, S.; Grim, G.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lander, R.; Mani, S.; Fahland, T.; Hall, R.E.; Boswell, C.; Choudhary, B.C.; Cochran, J.; Ellison, J.; Gartung, P.; Gounder, K.; Huehn, T.; Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; Maciel, A.K.; Motta, H.; Nicola, M.; Santoro, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Magana-Mendoza, L.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Adam, I.; Kotwal, A.V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Ahn, S.; Baldin, B.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bhat, P.C.; Boehnlein, A.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Bross, A.; Christenson, J.H.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Feher, S.; Fisk, H.E.; Flattum, E.; Fuess, S.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Grossman, N.; Haggerty, H.; Hansen, S.; Heintz, U.; Hobbs, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have measured the dijet angular distribution in √(s)=1.8 TeV p bar p collisions using the D0 detector. Order α 3 s QCD predictions are in good agreement with the data. At 95% confidence limit the data exclude models of quark compositeness in which the contact interaction scale is below 2TeV. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. Ion diode optics: measurement of divergence and aiming of beams for transport to light-ion ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastelev, E.G.; Kniazev, B.A.; Lindholm, F.; Hammer, D.A.; Kusse, B.R.; Greenly, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic development for measurements of anode plasma structure and ion beam local aiming and micro-divergence are being developed on the COBRA accelerator at Cornell University. Results of streaked-scintillator and tracer target beam diagnostics, and streaked anode light imaging are described. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref

  15. Ion diode optics: measurement of divergence and aiming of beams for transport to light-ion ICF targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krastelev, E G; Kniazev, B A; Lindholm, F; Hammer, D A; Kusse, B R; Greenly, J B [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    Diagnostic development for measurements of anode plasma structure and ion beam local aiming and micro-divergence are being developed on the COBRA accelerator at Cornell University. Results of streaked-scintillator and tracer target beam diagnostics, and streaked anode light imaging are described. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref.

  16. A New Class of Ternary Compound for Lithium-Ion Battery: from Composite to Solid Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wu, Hailong; Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Shengzhou; Tian, Xiaoqing; Cui, Yixiu; Liu, Xiaojiang; Yang, Yin

    2018-02-14

    Searching for high-performance cathode materials is a crucial task to develop advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high-energy densities for electrical vehicles (EVs). As a promising lithium-rich material, Li 2 MnO 3 delivers high capacity over 200 mAh g -1 but suffers from poor structural stability and electronic conductivity. Replacing Mn 4+ ions by relatively larger Sn 4+ ions is regarded as a possible strategy to improve structural stability and thus cycling performance of Li 2 MnO 3 material. However, large difference in ionic radii of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions leads to phase separation of Li 2 MnO 3 and Li 2 SnO 3 during high-temperature synthesis. To prepare solid-solution phase of Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 , a buffer agent of Ru 4+ , whose ionic radius is in between that of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions, is introduced to assist the formation of a single solid-solution phase. The results show that the Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system evolves from mixed composite phases into a single solid-solution phase with increasing Ru content. Meanwhile, discharge capacity of this ternary system shows significantly increase at the transformation point which is ascribed to the improvement of Li + /e - transportation kinetics and anionic redox chemistry for solid-solution phase. The role of Mn/Sn molar ratio of Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system has also been studied. It is revealed that higher Sn content benefits cycling stability of the system because Sn 4+ ions with larger sizes could partially block the migration of Mn 4+ and Ru 4+ from transition metal layer to Li layer, thus suppressing structural transformation of the system from layered-to-spinel phase. These findings may enable a new route for exploring ternary or even quaternary lithium-rich cathode materials for LIBs.

  17. Novel Faraday cup for the simultaneous observation and measurement of ion-beam currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.Y.; Seidman, D.N.

    1977-07-01

    The Faraday cup is constructed around a Galileo channel electron multiplier array (CEMA) which serves as the basis of an internal image intensification system (a gain of greater than 10 4 ) for the observation of the ion beam; the CEMA also acts as a collector for the ion cured by a Keithley 602 electrometer. The ion current is integrated by a simple and inexpensive dosimeter; the electronic circuit for the dosimeter is described. The application of the Faraday cup to the observation and measurement of a 30 keV Ar + ion beam is presented as an illustrative example. This Faraday cup was also employed to observe and measure 30 keV Cr + , Mo + or W + and 18 keV Au + ion beams employed for the in-situ irradiation of field-ion microscope specimens

  18. Scintillator-based diagnostic for fast ion loss measurements on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R. K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Zhu, Y. B.; Garcia-Munoz, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector has been installed on DIII-D with the time response (>100 kHz) needed to study energetic ion losses induced by Alfven eigenmodes and other MHD instabilities. Based on the design used on ASDEX Upgrade, the diagnostic measures the pitch angle and gyroradius of ion losses based on the position of the ions striking the two-dimensional scintillator. For fast time response measurements, a beam splitter and fiberoptics couple a portion of the scintillator light to a photomultiplier. Reverse orbit following techniques trace the lost ions to their possible origin within the plasma. Initial DIII-D results showing prompt losses and energetic ion loss due to MHD instabilities are discussed.

  19. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, B.D., E-mail: bpolat@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Eryilmaz, O.L. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keleş, O., E-mail: ozgulkeles@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Erdemir, A. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Amine, K. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g{sup −1} capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g{sup −1} (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g{sup −1} as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g{sup −1} capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.b - Highlights: • Highly adherent SiCu films are deposited by magnetron sputtering. • Compositionally graded SiCu film is produced and characterized. • Decrease of Cu content diverted the propagation of stress in the anode. • Cu rich layer at the bottom improves the adherence of the film.

  20. Using Ultrasonic Lamb Waves To Measure Moduli Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of broad-band ultrasonic Lamb waves in plate specimens of ceramic-matrix/fiber and metal-matrix/fiber composite materials used to determine moduli of elasticity of materials. In one class of potential applications of concept, Lamb-wave responses of specimens measured and analyzed at various stages of thermal and/or mechanical processing to determine effects of processing, without having to dissect specimens. In another class, structural components having shapes supporting propagation of Lamb waves monitored ultrasonically to identify signs of deterioration and impending failure.

  1. The nature of single-ion activity coefficients calculated from potentiometric measurements on cells with liquid junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, Dmitri P., E-mail: dmitri.zarubin@mtu-net.ru [Department of Physical and Collod Chemistry, Moscow State University of Technology and Management, 73 Zemlyanoi Val, Moscow 109803 (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Problem of ionic activity coefficients, determined by potentiometry, is reconsidered. > They are found to be functions of mean activity coefficients and transport numbers of ions. > The finding is verified by calculations and comparing the results with reported data. > Calculations are performed for systems with single electrolytes and binary mixtures. - Abstract: Potentiometric measurements on cells with liquid junctions are sometimes used for calculations of single-ion activity coefficients in electrolyte solutions, the incidence of this being increased recently. As surmised by Guggenheim in the 1930s, such coefficients (of ions i), {gamma}{sub i}, are actually complicated functions of mean ionic activity coefficients, {gamma}{sub {+-}}, and transport numbers of ions, t{sub i}. In the present paper specific functions {gamma}{sub i}({gamma}{sub {+-}}, t{sub i}) are derived for a number of cell types with an arbitrary mixture of strong electrolytes in a one-component solvent in the liquid-junction system. The cell types include cells with (i) identical electrodes, (ii) dissimilar electrodes reversible to the same ions, (iii) dissimilar electrodes reversible to ions of opposite charge signs, (iv) dissimilar electrodes reversible to different ions of the same charge sign, and (v) identical reference electrodes and an ion-selective membrane permeable to ions of only one type. Pairs of functions for oppositely charged ions are found to be consistent with the mean ionic activity coefficients as would be expected for pairs of the proper {gamma}{sub i} quantities by definition of {gamma}{sub {+-}}. The functions are tested numerically on some of the reported {gamma}{sub i} datasets that are the more tractable. A generally good agreement is found with data reported for cells with single electrolytes HCl and KCl in solutions, and with binary mixtures in the liquid-junction systems of KCl from the reference solutions and NaCl and HCl from the test solutions. It

  2. Depth profile of In and As in Si measured by RBS with He and C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q; Fang, Z [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Ophel, T R [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1994-12-31

    The depth profile of As and In implanted into Si have been measured by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) with 2 MeV He ions and 6 MeV C ions. Advantages of enhanced depth and mass resolution with C ions have been demonstrated over the conventional He RBS. More reliable information for the depth profile of In and As in Si has been obtained. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Predicted precision of ion temperature and impurity fractional density measurements using the JET collective scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsitto, F.

    1992-11-01

    In a previous investigation the possibility of measuring the bulk ion temperature was considered in detail, in the context of the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic for fast ions and alpha particles in the Joint European Torus project. In this report we give an affirmative answer to the question of whether good precision can be obtained in the simultaneous determination of the temperatures and densities of plasma ions from a collective scattering experiment provided some conditions are satisfied. (Author)

  4. Depth profile of In and As in Si measured by RBS with He and C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q.; Fang, Z. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1993-12-31

    The depth profile of As and In implanted into Si have been measured by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) with 2 MeV He ions and 6 MeV C ions. Advantages of enhanced depth and mass resolution with C ions have been demonstrated over the conventional He RBS. More reliable information for the depth profile of In and As in Si has been obtained. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Variations in ion and neutral composition at Venus - Evidence of solar control of the formation of the predawn bulges in H/+/ and He1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Mayr, H.; Brinton, H.; Niemann, H.; Hartle, R.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of ion and neutral composition measurements at Venus for periods of greatly different solar activity provides qualitative evidence of solar control of the day-to-night transport of light ion and neutral species. Concentrations of H(+) and He in the predawn bulge near solar maximum in November, 1979, exhibit a depletion signature correlated with a pronounced modulation in the solar F10.7 and EUV fluxes. This perturbation, not observed in the predawn region during an earlier period of relative quiet solar conditions, is interpreted as resulting from pronounced changes in solar heating and photoionization on the dayside, which in turn modulate the transport of ions and neutrals into the bulge region.

  6. Li-ion batteries from LiFePO{sub 4} cathode and anatase/graphene composite anode for stationary energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Viswanathan, Vish V.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Bae, In-Tae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Duong, Tien [US Departments of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20858 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Li-ion batteries made from LiFePO{sub 4} cathode and anatase TiO{sub 2}/graphene composite anode were investigated for potential application in stationary energy storage. Fine-structured LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized by a novel molten surfactant approach whereas anatase TiO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite was prepared via self-assembly method. The full cell that operated at 1.6 V demonstrated negligible fade even after more than 700 cycles at measured 1 C rate. While with relative lower energy density than traditional Li-ion chemistries interested for vehicle applications, the Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} combination potentially offers long life and low cost, along with safety, all which are critical to the stationary applications. (author)

  7. Methods of gas purification and effect on the ion composition in an RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet investigated by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Huebner, Simon; Schneider, Simon; Keudell, Achim von; Benedikt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the ion chemistry of atmospheric pressure plasmas is essential to evaluate ionic reaction pathways during plasma-surface or plasma-analyte interactions. In this contribution, the ion chemistry of a radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ) operated in helium is investigated by mass spectrometry (MS). It is found, that the ion composition is extremely sensitive to impurities such as N 2 , O 2 and H 2 O. Without gas purification, protonated water cluster ions of the form H + (H 2 O) n are dominating downstream the positive ion mass spectrum. However, even after careful feed gas purification to the sub-ppm level using a molecular sieve trap and a liquid nitrogen trap as well as operation of the plasma in a controlled atmosphere, the positive ion mass spectrum is strongly influenced by residual trace gases. The observations support the idea that species with a low ionization energy serve as a major source of electrons in atmospheric pressure helium plasmas. Similarly, the neutral density of atomic nitrogen measured by MS in a He/N 2 mixture is varying up to a factor 3, demonstrating the significant influence of impurities on the neutral species chemistry as well. (orig.)

  8. IMP-8 observations of the spectra, composition, and variability of solar heavy ions at high energies relevant to manned space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.

    1999-01-01

    In more than 25 years of almost continuous observations, the University of Chicago's Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) on IMP-8 has amassed a unique database on high-energy solar heavy ions of potential relevance to manned spaceflight. In the very largest particle events, IMP-8/CRT has even observed solar Fe ions above the Galactic cosmic ray background up to ∼800 MeV/nucleon, an energy sufficiently high to penetrate nearly 25 g/cm 2 of shielding. IMP-8/CRT observations show that high-energy heavy-ion spectra are often surprisingly hard power laws, without the exponential roll-offs suggested by stochastic acceleration fits to lower energy measurements alone. Also, in many solar particle events the Fe/O ratio grows with increasing energy, contrary to the notion that ions with higher mass-to-charge ratios should be less abundant at higher energies. Previous studies of radiation hazards for manned spaceflight have often assumed heavy-ion composition and steeply-falling energy spectra inconsistent with these observations. Conclusions based on such studies should therefore be re-assessed. The significant event-to-event variability observed in the high-energy solar heavy ions also has important implications for strategies in building probabilistic models of solar particle radiation hazards

  9. Methods of gas purification and effect on the ion composition in an RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet investigated by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Huebner, Simon; Schneider, Simon; Keudell, Achim von; Benedikt, Jan [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institute for Experimental Physics II, Bochum (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The analysis of the ion chemistry of atmospheric pressure plasmas is essential to evaluate ionic reaction pathways during plasma-surface or plasma-analyte interactions. In this contribution, the ion chemistry of a radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ) operated in helium is investigated by mass spectrometry (MS). It is found, that the ion composition is extremely sensitive to impurities such as N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Without gas purification, protonated water cluster ions of the form H{sup +}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} are dominating downstream the positive ion mass spectrum. However, even after careful feed gas purification to the sub-ppm level using a molecular sieve trap and a liquid nitrogen trap as well as operation of the plasma in a controlled atmosphere, the positive ion mass spectrum is strongly influenced by residual trace gases. The observations support the idea that species with a low ionization energy serve as a major source of electrons in atmospheric pressure helium plasmas. Similarly, the neutral density of atomic nitrogen measured by MS in a He/N{sub 2} mixture is varying up to a factor 3, demonstrating the significant influence of impurities on the neutral species chemistry as well. (orig.)

  10. Development of composite ion exchanger for separation of cesium from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Varshney, L.

    2010-01-01

    137 Cs (t 1/2 = 30 years) is one of the major radioisotope present in high level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Separation of 137 Cs from HLLW results in reduction of personal radiation exposure during the conditioning, transportation, storage and disposal. In addition, 137 Cs has enormous application as a radiation source in food preservation, sterilization of medical products, brachytherapy, blood irradiation, hygienization of sewage sludge etc. Ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), an inorganic ion exchanger, has high selectivity and high exchange capacity for Cs. It exits as microcrystalline powder which is not amenable for column operation. ALIX is a composite material in which AMP is physically blended with inert polymeric substrate to improve its column property, exchange kinetics and increase its mechanical strength. The observed excellent properties of the composite are attributed to its engineered structure which is formed during its production. SEM analysis of ALIX shows that AMP crystals embedded in the cavities are not covered by the polymer which greatly enhances its availability for cesium exchange. The highly porous structure of the composite having 49% void volume facilitates faster kinetics of exchange of Cs from the aqueous phase and increased rate of reaction with alkali required during its dissolution

  11. Stress analysis in cylindrical composition-gradient electrodes of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yaotian; Liu, Yulan; Wang, B.

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the composition-gradient electrode material has been verified to be one of the most promising materials in lithium-ion battery. To investigate diffusion-induced stresses (DIS) generated in a cylindrical composition-gradient electrode, the finite deformation theory and the stress-induced diffusion hypothesis are adopted to establish the constitutive equations. Compared with stress distributions in a homogeneous electrode, the increasing forms of Young's modulus E(R) and partial molar volume Ω(R) from the electrode center to the surface along the radial direction drastically increase the maximal magnitudes of hoop and axial stresses, while both of the decreasing forms are able to make the stress fields smaller and flatter. Also, it is found that the slope of -1 for E(R) with that of -0.5 for Ω(R) is a preferable strategy to prevent the inhomogeneous electrode from cracking, while for the sake of protecting the electrode from compression failure, the optimal slope for inhomogeneous E(R) and the preferential one for Ω(R) are both -0.5. The results provide a theoretical guidance for the design of composition-gradient electrode materials.

  12. Modification of composite por -Si/SnOx power ion beam of nanosecond duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korusenko, P.M.; Bolotov, V.V.; Knyazev, E.V.; Kovivchak, V.S.; Korepanov, A.A.; Nesov, S.N.; Povoroznyuk, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The results of XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), AES (Auger electron spectroscopy) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) investigation of tin oxide nanolayers on the samples of the composite por-Si/SnO x with different porosity of the matrix, formed under the influence of a powerful ion beam of nanosecond duration was presented. It is shown that fast melting and crystallization of the surface leads to the formation of globular structures with a typical size of 200 nm. Established that the tin is included in structure of the nanocomposite in the oxidized state with little inclusion of metallic β-tin. With increasing porosity, phase composition of nanolayers of tin is close to the state corresponding to the higher tin oxide SnO 2 . Also shows that with increasing porosity, the intensity of subvalent 4d lines of tin, which is apparently associated with an increased degree of hybridization of the tin atoms and oxygen atoms. According to the results stratified etching was to evaluate the changes of the elemental structure of the composite and the depth of penetration of tin. (authors)

  13. Compatible intracellular ion composition of the host improves carbon assimilation by zooxanthellae in mutualistic symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, C; Schlichter, D

    2001-09-01

    Cytosymbiotic algae within the host's plasma are exposed to completely different ionic conditions than microalgae living in the sea. The altered ionic gradients, in particular, could be the reason for higher in hospite carbon assimilation levels. To study the effect of varying extracellular ionic conditions on isolated zooxanthellae, their photosynthetic capacity in pure seawater was compared to that in a test medium in which the concentrations of the major inorganic ions, the pH and the osmolality were adjusted to the conditions measured in the host cytoplasm. In this test medium the ratio between oxygen evolution and carbon fixation was 1.2:1.0; in contrast, zooxanthellae in the hyperionic seawater medium showed a comparatively higher oxygen production (2.6:1.0). These results are attributed to a higher energy demand for ion regulation of the isolated algae in the hyperionic medium. Isolated cytosymbionts in seawater need more energy both for the readjustment to the original intracellular ion concentration within the host cell and also for the maintenance of a much steeper gradient during incubation under hyperionic conditions outside the host. The particular intracellular ion concentration of the host cells could have been a decisive evolutionary factor for the very successful establishment of the mutualistic symbioses between anthozoans and dinoflagellates more than 200 million years ago.

  14. Composition and Spectral Evolution of Energetic Ions at Voyager 1 in the Vicinity of the Solar Wind Termination Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2003-12-01

    For a six-month period beginning in mid-2002, measurements from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument aboard Voyager 1 (V1) indicate that the spacecraft was in a region having a low, subsonic solar wind speed. Before and after this period of interest (POI), the observations indicate higher, supersonic solar wind speeds. During the POI there was a low-energy particle enhancement showing intensity increases up to two orders of magnitude over the preceding period, with a composition that is poor in C, and for which the relative intensities of He and O are consistent with anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) composition. Consistency with ACR composition is determined based on ``species scaling'' arguments associated with transport effects. However, since the ACR peak for H is obscured by galactic cosmic rays, the relative H composition is uncertain and may diverge from ACR levels at higher energies per nucleon or may indeed differ from ACR-like composition. We have argued that these and other observations offer evidence that V1 crossed the termination shock (TS), resided downstream of the TS in the heliosheath for about six months, and then re-crossed the TS (which has a variable position), thus reentering the region of supersonic solar wind plasma early in 2003. To investigate this event further, we are undertaking analysis on time scales shorter than the entire six-month period, including the investigation of energy spectra using higher temporal resolution. The noted difference between the expected idealized TS spectrum and that which we observe is reduced when shorter time intervals are examined. There are also possible spectral features indicative of the transport of a very local ACR-like population from the TS to V1 in the upstream region just before and after the POI. Using the LECP instrument, which affords the lowest energy particle measurements from V1, we will pursue the ion composition by considering, e.g., the species scaling in light of the possible

  15. One-pot synthesis of NiO/C composite nanoparticles as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lipeng, E-mail: lipeng.zhang@jcu.edu.au [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Mu, Jiechen; Wang, Zhao; Li, Guomin; Zhang, Yanling [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); He, Yinghe, E-mail: yinghe.he@jcu.edu.au [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland 4811 (Australia)

    2016-06-25

    Nanostructured NiO/C composite particles with controlled carbon content for lithium-ion battery anode were prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal approach and subsequent calcination in a high purity nitrogen atmosphere. The composites were composed of amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline NiO. The structure of the NiO crystals was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the content of carbon was calculated from the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed a relatively narrow distribution of particle size for both the neat NiO and NiO/C nanoparticles. Electrochemical performance measurements demonstrated that, after 50 cycles, NiO/C nanocomposites maintained a high reversible capacity of 585.9 mAh g{sup −1}, much higher than that of 356.1 mAh g{sup −1} of the neat NiO nanoparticles without carbon. The NiO/C nanoparticles also exhibited a remarkable discharge capacity, a high charge/discharge rate and an excellent cycle stability. The improvements can be attributed to the even carbon coating on the NiO particles, which significantly enhances the conductivity and improves the structural stability of the electrode. - Highlights: • NiO/C nanocomposite material is prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal approach. • Both NiO and NiO/C composite have a narrow particle size distribution. • Carbon in the NiO/C enhanced the conductivity and suppressed particle aggregation. • NiO/C composites maintained a reversible capacity of 585.9 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles.

  16. The role of cold plasma and its composition on the growth of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, J. M.; Johnson, J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kim, E. H.; Tian, S.

    2017-12-01

    While it is currently well accepted that the free energy for growth of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in Earth's magnetosphere comes from unstable configurations of hot anisotropic ions that are injected into the ring current, several questions remain about what controls the instability. A recent study of the occurrence of EMIC waves relative to the plasmapause in Vallen Probes Data showed that plasma density gradients or enhancements were not the dominant factor in determining the site of EMIC wave generation [Tetrick et al. 2017]. However, the factors that control wave growth on each of the branches are not fully understood. For example, in some cases, the measured anisotropy is not adequate to explain local instability, and the relative importance of the density and composition of a cold plasma population is still uncertain. Several intervals of EMIC wave activity are analyzed to determine the role of a cold population in driving instability on each of the wave branches. This study utilizes the WHAMP (Waves in Homogeneous Anisotropic Magnetized Plasma) stability code with plasma distributions optimized to fit the observed distributions including temperature anisotropy, loss cone, and ring beam populations.

  17. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  18. COMPLIS: COllinear spectroscopy Measurements using a Pulsed Laser Ion Source

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Pulsed Laser spectroscopy experiment has been installed for the study of hyperfine structure and isotope shift of refractory and daughter elements from ISOLDE beams. It includes decelerated ion-implantation, element-selective laser ionization, magnetic and time-of-flight mass separation. The laser spectroscopy has been performed on the desorbed atoms in a set-up at ISOLDE-3 but later on high resolution laser collinear spectroscopy with the secondary pulsed ion beam is planned for the Booster ISOLDE set-up. During the first operation time of ISOLDE-3 we restricted our experiments to Doppler-limited resonant ionization laser and $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ nuclear spectroscopy on neutron deficient platinum isotopes of even mass number down to A~=~186 and A~=~179 respectively. These isotopes have been produced by implantation of radioactive Hg and their subsequent $\\beta$-decay.

  19. Oxygen permeation through oxygen ion oxide-noble metal dual phase composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.S.; Chen, C.S.; Kruidhof, H.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Verweij, H.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen permeation behaviour of three composites, yttria-stabilized zirconia-palladium, erbia-stabilized bismuth oxidenoble metal (silver, gold) was studied. Oxygen permeation measurements were performed under controlled oxygen pressure gradients at elevated temperatures. Air was supplied at one side

  20. Measuring Light Air Ions in a Speleotherapeutic Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubal, Z.; Bartušek, Karel; Szabó, Z.; Drexler, P.; Überhuberová, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 27-36 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA ČR GA13-09086S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : speleotherapy * air ions * Gerdien tube * climatology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2016

  1. Synthesis, characterization and nitrite ion sensing performance of reclaimable composite samples through a core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Yuqing, Zhao; Cui, Jiantao; Zheng, Qian; Bo, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The following paper reported and discussed a nitrite ion optical sensing platform based on a core-shell structure, using superamagnetic nanoparticles as the core, a silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell and two rhodamine derivatives as probe, respectively. This superamagnetic core made this sensing platform reclaimable after finishing nitrite ion sensing procedure. This sensing platform was carefully characterized by means of electron microscopy images, porous structure analysis, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermal stability analysis. Detailed analysis suggested that the emission of these composite samples was quenchable by nitrite ion, showing emission turn off effect. A static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between chemosensors and nitrite ion was proposed. These composite samples followed Demas quenching equation against different nitrite ion concentrations. Limit of detection value was obtained as low as 0.4 μM. It was found that, after being quenched by nitrite ion, these composite samples could be reclaimed and recovered by sulphamic acid, confirming their recyclability.

  2. A calorimeter-Faraday cup to measure energy content of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A calorimeter-Faraday cup to measure energy content of ion beams is described. It uses an HP quartz thermometer having a 10 -40 C sensitivity; contact potential problems, arising when working with thermocouples, are so avoided. Calibration has been performed with a resistive filament and with an electron beam. The apparatus is profitable if the measured ion beams are constant in time. The measured sensitivity was 10 -40 C/10 -5 W. (author)

  3. The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Li, X.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Baker, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), Helium Oxygen Proton Electron mass spectrometer (HOPE), and Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher-energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies <50 keV contribute more significantly to the ring current than those with higher energies; while the higher-energy protons dominate during the recovery phase and quiet times. The enhancements of higher-energy proton fluxes as well as energy content generally occur later than those of lower energy protons, which could be due to the inward radial diffusion. For the 29 March 2013 storm we investigated in detail that the contribution from O + is ~25% of the ring current energy content during the main phase and the majority of that comes from <50 keV O + . This indicates that even during moderate geomagnetic storms the ionosphere is still an important contributor to the ring current ions. Using the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation, the contributions of ring current particles to the magnetic field depression during this geomagnetic storm are also calculated. In conclusion, the results show that the measured ring current ions contribute about half of the Dst depression.

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of mesoporous Li2FeSiO4/C composite cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Jayakumar, O. D.; Bazzi, Khadije; Nazri, Gholam-Abbas; Naik, Vaman M.; Naik, Ratna

    2015-03-01

    Lithium iron silicate (Li2FeSiO4) has the potential as cathode for Li ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (~ 330 mAh/g) and improved safety. The application of Li2FeSiO4 as cathode material has been challenged by its poor electronic conductivity and slow lithium ion diffusion in the solid phase. In order to solve these problems, we have synthesized mesoporous Li2FeSiO4/C composites by sol-gel method using the tri-block copolymer (P123) as carbon source. The phase purity and morphology of the composite materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of ~ 12 nm size Li2FeSiO4 crystallites in composites annealed at 600 °C for 6 h under argon atmosphere. The electrochemical properties are measured using the composite material as positive electrode in a standard coin cell configuration with lithium as the active anode and the cells were tested using AC impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. The Li2FeSiO4/C composites showed a discharge capacity of ~ 240 mAh/g at a rate of C/30 at room temperature. The effect of different annealing temperature and synthesis time on the electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4/C will be presented.

  5. Measurements of secondary neutrons producted from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, T.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Fukumura, A.; Kumamoto, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We measured neutron angular and energy distributions from high energy heavy ions stopping in targets of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead at HIMAC. These spectra are much harder for the lighter target nucleus like carbon. This means that the momentum transfer in the forward direction from heavy ion beam to lighter nuclei is much higher than that to heavier nuclei. (author)

  6. Some experimental considerations regarding ion beam simulation of neutron irradiation for mechanical property measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styris, D.L.; Jones, R.H.; Harling, O.K.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Marshall, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the requirements for mechanical property data related to CTR materials is given. The status of ion simulation for mechanical property measurements is described. A damage analysis and calculations for light ions are presented along with sample size, heating and cooling, and surface considerations

  7. Measurements of the Properties of Highly-charged high-Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustine J. Smith, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    We had proposed carrying out a systematic experimental investigation of the atomic physics of highly charged, high-Z ions, produced in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLNL electron beam ion trap (EBIT-I) in its high energy mode, superEBIT. In particular we were going to accurately measure line positions for Δn=0 transitions in few electron high-Z ions; this was meant to enable us to investigate relativistic and quantum electrodynamics QED contributions to the energy levels as well as the nuclear properties of heavy ions. We were also going to measure cross sections for various electron-ion interactions, the degree of polarization of emitted x-rays, and radiation cooling rates of various ionization stages of highly charged, high-Z ions. This would enable us to study fundamental atomic physics of high-Z ions at relativistic electron impact energies and in the intense nuclear fields of highly ionized, high-Z ions. This would extend previous measurements we have carried out to a regime where there is a paucity of good data. These measurements were expected to generate increased theoretical interest and activity in this area. The project will extend a very successful collaboration between Morehouse College (MC) and a national laboratory LLNL, Minority student training and development are major components of the proposal

  8. Reverse adhesion of a gecko-inspired synthetic adhesive switched by an ion-exchange polymer-metal composite actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong-Jie; Liu, Rui; Cheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Ming; Fang, Shao-Ming; Elliott, Winston Howard; Tan, Wei

    2015-03-11

    Inspired by how geckos abduct, rotate, and adduct their setal foot toes to adhere to different surfaces, we have developed an artificial muscle material called ion-exchange polymer-metal composite (IPMC), which, as a synthetic adhesive, is capable of changing its adhesion properties. The synthetic adhesive was cast from a Si template through a sticky colloid precursor of poly(methylvinylsiloxane) (PMVS). The PMVS array of setal micropillars had a high density of pillars (3.8 × 10(3) pillars/mm(2)) with a mean diameter of 3 μm and a pore thickness of 10 μm. A graphene oxide monolayer containing Ag globular nanoparticles (GO/Ag NPs) with diameters of 5-30 nm was fabricated and doped in an ion-exchanging Nafion membrane to improve its carrier transfer, water-saving, and ion-exchange capabilities, which thus enhanced the electromechanical response of IPMC. After being attached to PMVS micropillars, IPMC was actuated by square wave inputs at 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 V to bend back and forth, driving the micropillars to actively grip or release the surface. To determine the adhesion of the micropillars, the normal adsorption and desorption forces were measured as the IPMC drives the setal micropillars to grip and release, respectively. Adhesion results demonstrated that the normal adsorption forces were 5.54-, 14.20-, and 23.13-fold higher than the normal desorption forces under 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 V, respectively. In addition, shear adhesion or friction increased by 98, 219, and 245%, respectively. Our new technique provides advanced design strategies for reversible gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives, which might be used for spiderman-like wall-climbing devices with unprecedented performance.

  9. Structure-phase composition and nano hardness of chrome-fullerite-chrome films irradiated by boron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, L.V.

    2015-01-01

    By methods of atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nano indentation the research of change of structure phase composition and nano hardness of the chrome - fullerite - chrome films, subjected to implantation by B + ions (E = 80 keV, F = 5*10 17 ions/cm 2 ) are submitted. It is established, that as a result of Boron ion implantation of the chrome - fullerite - chrome films, chrome and fullerite inter fusion on sues, that is the solid-phase interaction and as a result of which forms the heterophase with increased nano hardness. (authors)

  10. Measurements of bremsstrahlung spectra of Lanzhou ECR Ion Source No. 3 (LECR3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Ma, X.W.; Zhang, S.F.; Feng, W.T.; Zhu, X.L.; Zhang, Z.M.; He, W.; Sun, L.T.; Feng, Y.C.; Cao, Y.; Li, J.Y.; Li, X.X.; Wang, H.; Ma, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    In order to diagnose the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, electron bremsstrahlung spectra were measured by a HPGe detector on Lanzhou ECR Ion Source No. 3 at IMP. The ion source was operated with argon under various working conditions, including different microwave power, mixing gas, extraction high voltage (HV), and so on. Some of the measured spectra are presented in this article. The dependence of energetic electron population on mixing gas and extraction HV is also described. Additionally, we are looking forward to further measurements on SECRAL (Superconducting ECR Ion Source with Advanced design at Lanzhou)

  11. Ion Temperature Measurements in the Tore Supra Scrape-Off Layer Using a Retarding Field Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, M.; Gunn, J.P.; Pascal, J.Y.; Gauthier, E.

    2010-01-01

    The retarding field analyzer (RFA) is one of the only widely accepted diagnostics for measuring the ion temperature T i )in the tokamak scrape-off layer. An overview of the outstanding RFA performance over ten years of operation in Tore Supra tokamak is given and the validation of T i measurements is addressed. The RFA measurements in Tore Supra are found to be well reproducible. The ion-to-electron temperature ratio is higher than one at low-to-moderate ion-electron collisionality regime and converges to unity at high collisionality regime. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of different methods for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    The impedance represents one of the most important performance parameters of the Lithium-ion batteries since it used for power capability calculations, battery pack and system design, cooling system design and also for state-of-health estimation. In the literature, different approaches...... are presented for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc current pulses are the most used ones; each of these approaches has its own advantages and drawbacks. The goal of this paper is to investigate which of the most encountered impedance measurement...... approaches is the most suitable for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing....

  13. Doppler spectroscopic measurements of sheath ion velocities in radio-frequency plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodcock, B.K.; Busby, J.R.; Freegarde, T.G.; Hancock, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the distributions of N 2 + ion velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the electrode in the sheath of a radio-frequency nitrogen reactive ion etching discharge, using pulsed laser-induced fluorescence. Parallel to the electrode, the ions have throughout a thermal distribution that is found to be consistent with the rotational temperature of 355 K. In the perpendicular direction, we see clearly the acceleration of the ions towards the electrode, and our results agree well with theoretical predictions although an unexpected peak of unaccelerated ions persists. We have also determined the absolute ion concentrations in the sheath, which we have calibrated by analyzing the decay in laser-induced fluorescence in the plasma bulk after discharge extinction. At 20 mTorr, the bulk concentration of 1.0x10 10 cm -3 falls to around 2x10 8 cm -3 at 2 mm from the electrode. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sookyung; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Jung, Hee Joon; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-08-27

    With the ever increasing demands on Li-ion batteries with higher energy densities, alternative anode with higher reversible capacity is required to replace the conventional graphite anode. Here, we demonstrate a cost-effective hydrothermal-carbonization approach to prepare the hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite (HC-nSi/G) composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries. In this hierarchical structured composite, the hard carbon coating layer not only provides an efficient pathway for electron transfer, but also alleviates the volume variation of silicon during charge/discharge processes. The HC-nSi/G composite electrode shows excellent electrochemical performances including a high specific capacity of 878.6 mAh g-1 based on the total weight of composite, good rate performance and a decent cycling stability, which is promising for practical applications.

  15. COMPOSITIONS BASED ON PALLADIUM(II AND COPPER(II COMPOUNDS, HALIDE IONS, AND BENTONITE FOR OZONE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2017-05-01

    bromide ion. For Cu(II-KBr/N-Bent composition, kinetic and calculation data show that, in the presence of bromide ions, copper(II inhibits the ozone decomposition. For Pd(II-KBr/NBent composition, it has been found that the maximum activity is attained at СPd(II = 1.02·10-5 mol/g. For bimetallic Pd(II- Cu(II-KBr/N-Bent composition, changes in τ0, τ1/2, k1/2, and Q1/2 parameters depending on a Pd(II content are similar to those for monometallic Pd(II-KBr/NBent composition; however, values of the parameters are higher for the monometallic system. Thus, the inhibiting effect of Cu(II is observed even in the presence of palladium(II.

  16. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-16

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO 2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g -1 at a current density of 50 mA·g -1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  17. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 50 mA·g-1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  18. Dynamic model of ion and water transport in ionic polymer-metal composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zicai Zhu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of electro-mechanical transduction of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs, the transport of ion and water molecule plays an important role. In this paper, the theoretical transport models of IPMCs are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis on the recent developments in the latest decade. The models can be divided into three classes, thermodynamics of irreversible process model, frictional model and Nernst-Planck (NP equation model. To some extent the three models can be transformed into each other, but their differences are also obvious arising from the various mechanisms that considered in different models. The transport of ion and water molecule in IPMCs is compared with that in membrane electrode assembly and electrodialysis membrane to identify and clarify the fundamental transport mechanisms in IPMCs. And an improved transport model is proposed and simplified for numerical analysis. The model considers the convection effect rather than the diffusion as the major transport mechanism, and both the self-diffusion and the electroosmosis drag are accounted for in the water flux equation.

  19. Ferrous Ion and Medium Composition Effects on Acidogenic Phase in Biobutanol Production from Molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Grinanda, D.

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum B530 has ability to convert sugar into biobutanol through two phases, i.e. acidogenic and solventogenic. This fermentation process is often hampered by high raw material cost and low product yield. In order to suppress the production cost, the molasses, a byproduct of sugar cane process production, was used as carbon source in this research. Molasses has nitrogen content in a small amount, thus could be negating the beef extract component, which is expected not to affect the growth of C. acetobutylicum B530 and also can reduce the production cost. In addition, a certain amount of Fe2+ (ferrous ion), a precursor in the formation of the enzyme ferredoxin, was added to the fermentation medium to contribute in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, so that the formation of acidogenic products such as butyric acid and acetic acid is affected. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ferrous ion and the medium composition in acidogenic phase. The addition of 20 ppm FeSO4.7H2O in the fermentation medium without beef extract can increase the concentration of butyric acid by 20% at a temperature of 35°C, while acetic acid concentration decreased by 6%. According to those results, it is expected that the product selectivity of butanol will increase in solventogenic phase. In addition, the removal of beef extract in the fermentation medium does not affect the kinetics of growth of C. acetobutylicum B530.

  20. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Wrapped FeS2 Composite as Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Guo, Can; Zhu, Yuxuan; He, Jiapeng; Wang, Hongqiang

    2018-06-01

    Iron disulfide is considered to be a potential anode material for sodium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. However, its applications are seriously limited by the weak conductivity and large volume change, which results in low reversible capacity and poor cycling stability. Herein, reduced graphene oxide-wrapped FeS2 (FeS2/rGO) composite was fabricated to achieve excellent electrochemical performance via a facile two-step method. The introduction of rGO effectively improved the conductivity, BET surface area, and structural stability of the FeS2 active material, thus endowing it with high specific capacity, good rate capability, as well as excellent cycling stability. Electrochemical measurements show that the FeS2/rGO composite had a high initial discharge capacity of 1263.2 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and a high discharge capacity of 344 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1, demonstrating superior rate performance. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1, the discharge capacity remained at 609.5 mAh g-1, indicating the excellent cycling stability of the FeS2/rGO electrode.

  1. Advanced Quadrupole Ion Trap Instrumentation for Low Level Vehicle Emissions Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amendable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methy-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. All of the ions with potential to serve as parent ions in a tandem mass spectrometry experiment were found to yield parent-to-product conversion efficiencies greater than 75%. The flexibility afforded to the ion trap by use of tailored wave-forms applied to the end-caps allows parallel monitoring schemes to be devised that provide many of the advantages of tandem mass spectrometry without major loss in measurement rate. A large loss in measurement rate would ordinarily result from the use of conventional tandem mass spectrometry experiments carried out in series for a large number of targeted components. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of

  2. Measurement of organic carbon stable isotope composition of different soil types by EA-IRMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Biao; Ding Lingling; Cui Jiehua; Wang Yanhong

    2009-01-01

    Element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometers (EA-IRMS) is a rapid and precise method for measuring stable carbon isotope. Pure CO 2 reference gas was calibrated via international standard-Urea, and the δ 13 C us PDB value of pure CO 2 is (-29.523 ± 0.0181)%. Stability and linearity of the EA-IRMS system, precision of δ 13 C measurement for samples were tested through experimental comparison. Moreover, determination method of organic carbon stable isotope in soil was based on the system. The EA-IRMS system had well linearity when ion intensity ranged from 1.0 to 7.0V, and it excelled the total linearity when the ion intensity was from 1.5 to 5.0V, and the accurate result of δ 13 C for sample analysis could be obtained with precision of 0.015%. If carbon content in sample is more than 5μg, the requirement for analyzing accurate result of δ 13 C could be achieved. The organic carbon stable isotope was measured in 18 different types soil samples, the average natural abundance of 13 C was 1.082%, and the organic carbon stable isotope composition was significantly different among different type soils. (authors)

  3. Measurements of flux and isotopic composition of soil carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorczyca, Z.; Rozanski, K.; Kuc, T.

    2002-01-01

    The flux and isotope composition of soil CO 2 has been regularly measured at three sites located in the southern Poland, during the time period: January 1998 - October 2000. They represent typical ecosystems appearing in central Europe: (i) mixed forest; (ii) cultivated agricultural field; (iii) grassland. To monitor the flux and isotopic composition of soil CO 2 , a method based on the inverted cup principle was adopted. The flux of soil CO 2 reveals distinct seasonal fluctuations, with maximum values up to ca. 25 mmol/m 2 /h during sommer months and around ten times lower values during winter time. Also significant differences among the monitored sites were detected, the flux density of this gas being highest for the mixed forest site and ca. two times lower for the cultivated grassland. Carbon-13 content of the soil CO 2 reveals little seasonal variability, with δ 13 C values essentially reflecting the isotopic composition of the soil organic matter and the vegetation type. The carbon-14 content of soil CO 2 flux also reveals slight seasonality, with lower δ 14 C values recorded during winter time. Significantly lower δ 14 C values recorded during winter time. Significantly lower δ 14 C values were recorded at depth. (author)

  4. Measurements of actinometry and ions energy in a microwave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril, F.; Camps, E.; Villagran, M.; Muhl, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work it is showed the implementation of the plasma diagnostic technique through actinometry which allows to determine the absolute density of excited species. It is showed the range of the technique application, for the case of N 2 -H 2 mixtures plasmas used for the metals nitridation. The effects of magnetic field and the work pressure over ions energy were determined, using a Faraday cup type energy analyser. The results showed that in our device it is possible to vary such energy in a range between 10-45 eV, which amplify the range of applications perceptibly in comparison with another type of discharges. (Author)

  5. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino composition with the IMB-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, D.; Becker-Szendy, R.; Bratton, C.B.; Cady, D.R.; Claus, R.; Dye, S.T.; Gajewski, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; LoSecco, J.M.; McGrew, C.; Matsuno, S.; Matthews, J.; Mudan, M.S.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sinclair, D.; Sobel, H.W.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Svoboda, R.; Thornton, G.; van der Velde, J.C.; The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Brookhaven National; Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973; Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; The University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 University College, London, WC1E F6BT, United Kingdom; Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland; Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio 44115; The University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556; Lousiana State University, Baton Rouge, Lousisiana 70803; The University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742)

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino flux is measured using a 3.4-kt yr exposure of the IMB-3 detector. Single-ring events are classified as showering or nonshowering using the geometry of the Cerenkov pattern. A simulation of neutrino interactions and three models of atmospheric neutrino production are used to predict the composition of the sample. Showering-nonshowering character is strongly correlated with the flavor of the neutrino parent. In the lepton momentum range p<1500 MeV/c, we find that nonshowering events comprise [41±3±2syst]% of the total. The fraction expected is [51±5(syst)]%

  6. Measurement of residual radioactivity in cooper exposed to high energy heavy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ito, Sachiko; Fukumura, Akifumi

    1999-03-01

    The residual radioactivities produced by high energy heavy ions have been measured using the heavy ion beams of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The spatial distribution of residual radioactivities in 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 10 cm thick copper targets of 10 cm x 10 cm size bombarded by 290 MeV/u, 400 MeV/u-{sup 12}C ion beams and 400 MeV/u-{sup 20}Ne ion beam, respectively, were obtained by measuring the gamma-ray activities of 0.5 mm thick copper foil inserted in the target with a high purity Ge detector after about 1 hour to 6 hours irradiation. (author)

  7. On-line measurement of the microwave power in ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Kang Wu; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Xiong Riheng; Chen Junguang

    2005-01-01

    It is a new technology that ECR ion source is applied in the neutron generator. Because of effect of the structure, working state of ECR ion source could not be judged by the color of gas discharging in discharging chamber as doing in high frequency ion source. Therefore, state adjusting of ECR ion source was difficult in running of the neutron generator. The method to resolve the question is described in this paper. The micro-wave power was measured in case of running by using the method of directional coupler adding small microwave power meter. Because both were in the direct proportion, the ion beam current could be educed from microwave incidence power measured, and discharge state in discharge chamber could be judged. Finally, the neutron generator might be operated in best running state. (authors)

  8. Advanced Measurements of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhad Farzbod; Stephen J. Reese; Zilong Hua; Marat Khafizov; David H. Hurley

    2012-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is being considered as a fuel cladding material for accident tolerant fuel under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Silicon carbide has many potential advantages over traditional zirconium based cladding systems. These include high melting point, low susceptibility to corrosion, and low degradation of mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. In addition, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) made from SiC have high mechanical toughness enabling these materials to withstand thermal and mechanical shock loading. However, many of the fundamental mechanical and thermal properties of SiC CMCs depend strongly on the fabrication process. As a result, extrapolating current materials science databases for these materials to nuclear applications is not possible. The “Advanced Measurements” work package under the LWRS fuels pathway is tasked with the development of measurement techniques that can characterize fundamental thermal and mechanical properties of SiC CMCs. An emphasis is being placed on development of characterization tools that can used for examination of fresh as well as irradiated samples. The work discuss in this report can be divided into two broad categories. The first involves the development of laser ultrasonic techniques to measure the elastic and yield properties and the second involves the development of laser-based techniques to measurement thermal transport properties. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of SiC CMCs in regards to thermal and mechanical properties. The material properties characterized within this work package will be used as validation of advanced materials physics models of SiC CMCs developed under the LWRS fuels pathway. In addition, it is envisioned that similar measurement techniques can be used to provide process control and quality assurance as well as measurement of

  9. Mechanical properties of MeV ion-irradiated SiC/SiC composites characterized by indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.Y.; Park, K.H.; Kim, W.; Kishimoto, H.; Kohyama, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: SiC/SiC composites have been considered as a structural material for advanced fusion concepts. In the core of fusion reactor, those SiC/SiC composites are experienced the complex attacks such as strong neutron, high temperature and transmuted gases. One of the vital data for designing the SiC/SiC composites to the fusion reactor is mechanical properties under the severe neutron irradiation. In this work, various SiC/SiC composites were prepared by the different fabrication processes like CVI (chemical vapor infiltration), WA-CVI (SiC whisker assisted CVI) and hot-pressed method. The expected neutron irradiation was simulated by a silicon self-ion irradiation at a DuET facility; Dual-beam for Energy Technologies, Kyoto University. The irradiation temperature were 600 deg. C and 1200 deg. C, and the irradiation does were 5 dpa and 20 dpa, respectively. The 5.1 MeV Si ions were irradiated to the intrinsic CVI-SiC, SiC whisker reinforced SiC and SiC composites produced by hot-press method. The mechanical properties like hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness were characterized by an indentation technique. The ion irradiation caused the increase of the hardness and fracture toughness, which was dependent on the irradiation temperature. SiC whisker reinforcement in the SiC matrix accelerated the increase of the fracture toughness by the ion irradiation. For SiC/SiC composites after the ion irradiation, this work will provide the additional data for the mechanical properties as well as the effect of SiC whisker reinforcement. (authors)

  10. Variations of Low-energy Ion Distributions Measured in the Heliosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an update of low-energy ion intensities and angular distributions measured recently by the Low Energy Charged Particle instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the inner heliosheath.

  11. Measurements of Positively Charged Ions in Premixed Methane-Oxygen Atmospheric Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad; Han, Jie; Chahine, May; Selim, Hatem; Belhi, Memdouh; Sarathy, Mani; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    chemistry models are needed to understand and predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasmas. In this work, a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane–oxygen argon

  12. Supplementary Material for: Measurements of Positively Charged Ions in Premixed Methane-Oxygen Atmospheric Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad B. S.; Han, Jie; Chahine, May; Selim, Hatem; Belhi, Memdouh; Sarathy, Mani; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    chemistry models are needed to understand and predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasmas. In this work, a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane–oxygen argon

  13. Graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite as an anode for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycki Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reduced graphene oxide (rGO is regarded as a highly interesting material which is appropriate for possible applications in electrochemistry, especially in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. Several methods were proposed for the preparation of rGO-based electrodes, resulting in high-capacity LIBs anodes. However, the mechanism of lithium storage in rGO and related materials is still not well understood. In this work we focused on the proposed mechanism of favorable bonding sites induced by additional functionalities attached to the graphene planes. This mechanism might increase the capacity of electrodes. In order to verify this hypothesis the composite of non-reduced graphene oxide (GO with multiwalled carbon nanotubes electrodes was fabricated. Electrochemical properties of GO composite anodes were studied in comparison with similarly prepared electrodes based on rGO. This allowed us to estimate the impact of functional groups on the reversible capacity changes. As a result, it was shown that oxygen containing functional groups of GO do not create, in noticeable way, additional active sites for the electrochemical reactions of lithium storage, contrary to what has been postulated previously.

  14. Impact of the storm-time plasma sheet ion composition on the ring current energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Cohen, I.

    2017-12-01

    The adiabatic inward transport of the night-side near-earth ( 6 Re) hot plasma sheet is the dominant contributor to the ring current pressure during storm times. During storm times, the plasma sheet composition in the 6 - 12 Re tail region changes due to O+ entry from the lobes (from the cusp) and the direct feeding from the night side auroral region. In addition, at substorm onset the plasma sheet O+ ions can be preferentially accelerated. We use MMS and observations during two magnetic storms, 5/8/2016 and 7/16/2017, to monitor the composition changes and energization in the 6 - 12 Re plasma sheet region. For both storms the MMS apogee was in the tail. In addition, we use subsequent Van Allen Probe observations (with apogee in the dawn and dusk respectively) to test if the 6-12 Re plasma sheet, observed by MMS, is a sufficient source of the O+ in the ring current. For this we will compare the phase space density (PSD) of the plasma sheet source population and the PSD of the inner magnetosphere at constant magnetic moment values as used in Kistler et al., [2016].

  15. Ion beam effects on the surface and near-surface composition of TaSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeri, S.; Di Bona, A.; Ottaviani, G.; Procop, M.

    1991-01-01

    Low-energy (0.7-4.5 keV) ion bombardment effects on polycrystalline TaSi 2 at sputter steady state and in various intermediate steps have been investigated, in the temperature range up to 550degC, to determine the time and temperature dependence of the altered layer formation. This in turn enables a better knowledge of the synergistic effects of the processes mentioned above. At low temperatures (T≤410degC) the surface is silicon depleted, and the depletion is even more severe in the subsurface region up to a depth of several tens of angstroems; silicon preferential sputtering and radiation-enhanced segregation assisted by the displacement mixing-induced motion of atoms are assumed to be responsible for this composition profile, while thermally activated diffusion processes become operative above 410degC, reducing progressively the concentration gradient between the surface and the subsurface zone. The composition at different depths has been determined from Auger peaks for different kinetic energies, by varying the take-off angle and finally by sputter profiling at low in energy the high energy processed surfaces. Quantitative analysis has been performed by XPS and AES by using the elemental standard method. (orig.)

  16. Preparation of chitosan/amine modified diatomite composites and adsorption properties of Hg(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Huang, Yue; Hu, Jianshe; Zhang, Zhengjie

    2018-03-01

    A green functional adsorbent (CAD) was prepared by Schiff base reaction of chitosan and amino-modified diatomite. The morphology, structure and adsorption properties of the CAD were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer Emmett Teller measurements. The effect of pH value, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of Hg(II) ions for the CAD is discussed in detail. The experimental results showed that the CAD had a large specific surface area and multifunctional groups such as amino, hydroxyl and Schiff base. The optimum adsorption effect was obtained when the pH value, temperature and contact time were 4, 25 °C and 120 min, respectively, and the corresponding maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(II) ions reached 102 mg/g. Moreover, the adsorption behavior of Hg(II) ions for the CAD followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model. The negative ΔG 0 and ΔH 0 suggested that the adsorption was a spontaneous exothermic process.

  17. Flow direction variations of low energy ions as measured by the ion electron sensor (IES) flying on board of Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegö, Karoly; Nemeth, Zoltan; Foldy, Lajos; Burch, James L.; Goldstein, Raymond; Mandt, Kathleen; Mokashi, Prachet; Broiles, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The Ion Electron Sensor (IES) simultaneously measures ions and electrons with two separate electrostatic plasma analyzers in the energy range of 4 eV- 22 keV for ions. The field of view is 90ox360o, with angular resolution 5ox45o for ions, with a sector containing the solar wind being further segmented to 5o × 5o. IES has operated continuously since early 2014. In the ion data a low energy (energy ions. Here we analyze the arrival direction of this low energy component. The origin of these low energy ions is certainly the ionized component of the neutral gas emitted due to solar activity from comet 67P/Churiumov-Gerasimenko. The low energy component in general shows a 6h periodicity due to cometary rotation. The data show, however, that the arrival direction of the low energy ions is smeared both in azimuth and elevation, due possibly to the diverse mechanisms affecting these ions. One of these effects is the spacecraft potential (~-10V), which accelerates the ions towards the spacecraft omnidirectionally. To characterize the flow direction in azimuth-elevation, we have integrated over the lowest 8 energy channels using weighted energy: sum(counts * energy)/sum(counts); and considered only cases when the counts are above 30. When we apply higher cut for counts, the flow direction became more definite. For this analysis we use data files where the two neighbouring energy values and elevation values are collapsed; and the azimuthal resolution is 45o, that is the solar wind azimuthal segmentation is also collapsed. Here we use day 2014.09.11. as illustration. On that day a solar wind shock reached the spacecraft at about ~10 UT. After the shock transition the energy of the solar wind became higher, and after ~12 UT the flow direction of the solar wind fluctuated, sometimes by 35o. On this day Rosetta flew at about 29.3-29.6 km from the nucleus. In the azimuth-elevation plots summed over "weighted energy" (as defined above) we were able to identify two flow directions

  18. A diagnostic for time-resolved spatial profiles measurements on the ion temperature on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocken, H.J.B.M.; Ven, H.W van der.

    1980-05-01

    A neutral particle scattering experiment for a continuous measurement of the ion temperature and ion density of the JET plasma in the hydrogen and deuterium phase is proposed. Space- and time-resolved measurements are possible by injection of a mono-energetic particle beam into the plasma and from the analysis of the velocity distribution of the scattered particles. The requirements on the injection system are specified and a suitable analyzer system is described

  19. X ray and EUV spectroscopic measurements of highly charged tungsten ions relevant to fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R; Biedermann, C; Mandelbaum, P; Schwob, J L

    2007-01-01

    Using high-resolution x ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometry, the line emission of W 28+ - W 50+ ions was measured at the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). Our study encompasses a wide range of wavelengths (5-800 A) and includes the observation of electric and magnetic dipole lines. The results of our measurements are compared with predicted transition wavelengths from ab initioatomic structure calculations

  20. In situ recording of particle network formation in liquids by ion conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenhuber, Christian; Sörgel, Seniz; Weichert, Katja; Bele, Marjan; Mundinger, Tabea; Göbel, Marcus; Maier, Joachim

    2011-09-21

    The formation of fractal silica networks from a colloidal initial state was followed in situ by ion conductivity measurements. The underlying effect is a high interfacial lithium ion conductivity arising when silica particles are brought into contact with Li salt-containing liquid electrolytes. The experimental results were modeled using Monte Carlo simulations and tested using confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and ζ-potential measurements.

  1. Accurate measurements of visible M1 transitions of titanium-like ions using an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, D.N.; Gaarde-Widdowson, K.; Silver, J.D.; Tarbutt, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic dipole transitions between the fine structure levels (3d 4 ) 5 D 3 - 5 D 2 of titanium-like silver and tin have been observed as emission lines from the Oxford electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The precision of the measurement system is validated by observation and comparison of well known lines in Kr II and He I with the database values, justifying uncertainties of 4-12 ppm. (orig.)

  2. Accurate measurements of visible M1 transitions of titanium-like ions using an electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, D.N.; Gaarde-Widdowson, K.; Silver, J.D.; Tarbutt, M.R. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    2001-07-01

    Magnetic dipole transitions between the fine structure levels (3d{sup 4}) {sup 5}D{sub 3}-{sup 5}D{sub 2} of titanium-like silver and tin have been observed as emission lines from the Oxford electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The precision of the measurement system is validated by observation and comparison of well known lines in Kr II and He I with the database values, justifying uncertainties of 4-12 ppm. (orig.)

  3. A polymeric membrane ion selective electrode based on organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger for the determination of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Agarwal, Himanshu; Chandan Kumar, Singh; Sindhu, Susheel Kumar; Pankaj Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on organic- inorganic composite ion exchanger, tin(IV) tungstoselenate-pyridine, has been prepared and tested for the selective determination of thorium(IV) ions. The PVC membrane electrode comprising 16% composite ion exchanger as the electroactive phase, 50% o-dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer, 4% tetraphenyl borate as anionic excluder and 30% poly(vinylchloride) displays a linear response to thorium(IV) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 -8.0 x 10 -6 M with a Nernstain slope of 14.2 mV/ decade. The electrode shows a very short response time (∼15 s) and may be used in the pH range 2.5-9.0. The selectivity coefficient for alkali, alkaline earth and transition is smaller than 4.0 x 10 -4 . The sensor has been successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Th 4+ with EDTA as well as also for the determination of Th 4+ in the binary mixtures. (author)

  4. X-ray spectroscopic measurements of dielectronic recombination of highly charged krypton ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, C.; Fuchs, T.; Liebisch, P.; Radtke, R.; Behar, E.; Doron, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have performed X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the dielectronic recombination (DR) resonance strengths for the KLn (n = 2, .., 5) series of He-, Li-, and Be-like krypton ions. The ions were produced with an electron beam ion trap, and the strengths were obtained from a fit procedure that compares the experimental excitation function for DR to theory. The results agree well with the predictions. By looking at the KLL resonance, the time evolution of different krypton charge states was measured with this technique and compared with a model of the trap inventory. (orig.)

  5. Transient field measurements on 56Fe- and 80Se-ions using segmented Fe-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.; Kremeyer, S.; Meens, A.; Maier-Komor, P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of transient magnetic fields (TF) were performed on swift heavy ions of 56 Fe and 80 Se, with Coulomb excitation of their first 2 + state as probe, traversing thin Fe layers with segmented and unsegmented structures. The 50 μm x 50 μm squares of the segments were accomplished applying the techniques of photolithography and ion etching. The magnitude of the TF deduced clearly shows that by segmentation of the targets the ion beam induced attenuations can be eliminated. This finding has direct applications to g-factor measurements. (orig.)

  6. A Spinel-integrated P2-type Layered Composite: High-rate Cathode for Sodium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Kan, Wang Hay; Wang, Chong M.; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-01-14

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIB) are being intensively investigated, owing to the natural abundance and low cost of Na resources. However, the SIBs still suffer from poor rate capability due to the large ionic radius of Na+ ion and the significant kinetic barrier to Na+-ion transport. Here, we present an Fd-3m spinel-integrated P2-type layered composite (P2 + Fd-3m) material as a high-rate cathode for SIBs. The P2 + Fd-3m composite material Na0.50Ni1/6Co1/6Mn2/3O2 shows significantly enhanced discharge capacity, energy density, and rate capability as compared to the pure P2-type counterpart. The composite delivers a high capacity of 85 mA h g-1 when discharging at a very high current density of 1500 mA g-1 (10C rate) between 2.0 and 4.5 V, validating it as a promising cathode candidate for high-power SIBs. The superior performance is ascribed to the improved kinetics in the presence of the integrated-spinel phase, which facilitates fast electron transport to coordinate with the timely Na+-ion insertion/extraction. The findings of this work also shed light on the importance of developing lattice doping, surface coating, and electrolyte additives to further improve the structural and interfacial stability of P2-type cathode materials and fully realize their practical applications in sodium-ion batteries.

  7. Bone composition measured by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.; Hukins, D.W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten composite samples consisting of cortical bone and adipose tissue, in known proportions, were made. The intensity of monochromatic x-rays (energy 8 keV) scattered by these samples was determined as a function of the modulus of the scattering vector, K. The ratio of the heights of peaks at K values of around 134 and 22 nm -1 provided a measure of the ratio of adipose tissue to bone mineral in these samples. This method was then used to determine the ratio of adipose tissue to mineral in samples of trabecular bone from 16 vertebral bodies. The results were correlated with measurements of the bone composition determined by ashing (r = 0.66) and histomorphometry (r = 0.66). Furthermore, the ashing and histomorphometry results were correlated with each other (r = 0.68). The feasibility of using higher energy x-rays (35-80 keV) for obtaining the same information from bone within the body is briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Measurement of plutonium isotopic composition by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Ahn, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The technology of the analysis of plutonium isotopic ratio is independent of the measurement geometry and applicable to samples of physical and chemical composition. Three standard plutonium samples were measured in the HPGe system. The results showed that CRM 136 and CRM 137 containing 238 Pu(0.223%) and 238 Pu(0.268%) were 18.4% and 14.2% error and CRM 138 of 238 Pu(0.01%) was 76% error. However the analysis represented less than 1.6% and 9% error in the three standard samples of highly involved 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Therefore, gamma-ray spectroscopy is very effective in the plutonium isotope analysis, having greater than 10% in content

  9. Three-dimensional flowerlike iron oxide nanostructures: Morphology, composition and metal ion removal capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dan [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 250022 Jinan (China); Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 250022 Jinan (China); Huang, Baibiao [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The iron alkoxide precursors are calcined into α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microstructures with different morphologies by changing calcination atmosphere, reaction time of precursors and calcination temperature simply. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag hybrid composites prepared through aqueous synthesis and light irradiation. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microstructures with different morphologies were created. • Solvents play an important role for the solvothermal treatment of precursors. • The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures show excellent adsorption properties. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag hybrid composites were prepared to improve their properties. - Abstract: The flower-like precursors of Fe alkoxide constructed by the self-assembly of nanoflakes were prepared. Time-dependent experiments confirmed the formation mechanism of flower-like precursors. After calcination, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures with different morphologies were created. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures containing blocks with a truncated octahedron structure were obtained under N{sub 2} protection. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures were prepared in an air atmosphere. The values of maximum adsorption capacity of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures for Cr{sup 6+} ions were much higher than that of commercial bulk α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Ag NPs were deposited on α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures through an aqueous synthesis and light irradiation using L-cysteine as a linker. Such procedure is utilizable for the preparation of the composites of noble metals and magnetic materials.

  10. Temperature dependent mobility measurements of alkali earth ions in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putlitz, Gisbert Zu; Baumann, I.; Foerste, M.; Jungmann, K.; Riediger, O.; Tabbert, B.; Wiebe, J.; Zühlke, C.

    1998-05-01

    Mobility measurements of impurity ions in superfluid helium are reported. Alkali earth ions were produced with a laser sputtering technique and were drawn inside the liquid by an electric field. The experiments were carried out in the temperature region from 1.27 up to 1.66 K. The temperature dependence of the mobility of Be^+-ions (measured here for the first time) differs from that of the other alkali earth ions Mg^+, Ca^+, Sr^+ and Ba^+, but behaves similar to that of He^+ (M. Foerste, H. Günther, O. Riediger, J. Wiebe, G. zu Putlitz, Z. Phys. B) 104, 317 (1997). Theories of Atkins (A. Atkins, Phys. Rev.) 116, 1339 (1959) and Cole (M.W. Cole, R.A. Bachmann Phys. Rev. B) 15, 1388 (1977) predict a different defect structure for He^+ and the alkali earth ions: the helium ion is assumed to form a snowball like structure whereas for the alkali earth ions a bubble structure is assumed. If the temperature dependence is a characteristic feature for the different structures, then it seems likely that the Be^+ ion builds a snowball like structure.

  11. Supplementary Material for: Measurements of Positively Charged Ions in Premixed Methane-Oxygen Atmospheric Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Cations and anions are formed as a result of chemi-ionization processes in combustion systems. Electric fields can be applied to reduce emissions and improve combustion efficiency by active control of the combustion process. Detailed flame ion chemistry models are needed to understand and predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasmas. In this work, a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane–oxygen argon burner-stabilized atmospheric flames. Lean and stoichiometric flames are considered to assess the dependence of ion chemistry on flame stoichiometry. Relative ion concentration profiles are compared with numerical simulations using various temperature profiles, and good qualitative agreement was observed for the stoichiometric flame. However, for the lean flame, numerical simulations misrepresent the spatial distribution of selected ions greatly. Three modifications are suggested to enhance the ion mechanism and improve the agreement between experiments and simulations. The first two modifications comprise the addition of anion detachment reactions to increase anion recombination at low temperatures. The third modification involves restoring a detachment reaction to its original irreversible form. To our knowledge, this work presents the first detailed measurements of cations and flame temperature in canonical methane–oxygen-argon atmospheric flat flames. The positive ion profiles reported here may be useful to validate and improve ion chemistry models for methane-oxygen flames.

  12. Measurements of Positively Charged Ions in Premixed Methane-Oxygen Atmospheric Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2016-08-22

    Cations and anions are formed as a result of chemi-ionization processes in combustion systems. Electric fields can be applied to reduce emissions and improve combustion efficiency by active control of the combustion process. Detailed flame ion chemistry models are needed to understand and predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasmas. In this work, a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane–oxygen argon burner-stabilized atmospheric flames. Lean and stoichiometric flames are considered to assess the dependence of ion chemistry on flame stoichiometry. Relative ion concentration profiles are compared with numerical simulations using various temperature profiles, and good qualitative agreement was observed for the stoichiometric flame. However, for the lean flame, numerical simulations misrepresent the spatial distribution of selected ions greatly. Three modifications are suggested to enhance the ion mechanism and improve the agreement between experiments and simulations. The first two modifications comprise the addition of anion detachment reactions to increase anion recombination at low temperatures. The third modification involves restoring a detachment reaction to its original irreversible form. To our knowledge, this work presents the first detailed measurements of cations and flame temperature in canonical methane–oxygen-argon atmospheric flat flames. The positive ion profiles reported here may be useful to validate and improve ion chemistry models for methane-oxygen flames.

  13. Three-dimensional iron sulfide-carbon interlocked graphene composites for high-performance sodium-ion storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Sun, Hongyu; Shangguan, Huihui

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon-wrapped iron sulfide interlocked graphene (Fe7S8@C-G) composites for high-performance sodium-ion storage are designed and produced through electrostatic interactions and subsequent sulfurization. The iron-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs, MIL-88-Fe) interact with...

  14. Ion-Selective Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuator based on crown ether containing sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, S.; Zoetebier, B.; Sukas, O.S.; Bayraktar, M.; Hempenius, M.; Vancso, G.J.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of ion selective actuation in polymer metal composite actuators, employing crown ether bearing aromatic polyether materials. For this purpose, sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPAEK) and crown ether containing SPAEK with molar masses suitable for membrane

  15. Spectroscopic metrology for isotope composition measurements and transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Balslev-Harder, David; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Richmond, Craig; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Kiseleva, Maria; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O as critical for global climate monitoring. Other molecules such as CO that has an indirect effect of enhancing global warming are also monitored. WMO has stated compatibility goals for atmospheric concentration and isotope ratio measurements of these gases, e.g. 0.1 ppm for CO2 concentration measurements in the northern hemisphere and 0.01 ‰ for δ13C-CO2. For measurements of the concentration of greenhouse gases, gas analysers are typically calibrated with static gas standards e.g. traceable to the WMO scale or to the International System of Units (SI) through a national metrology institute. However, concentrations of target components, e.g. CO, in static gas standards have been observed to drift, and typically the gas matrix as well as the isotopic composition of the target component does not always reflect field gas composition, leading to deviations of the analyser response, even after calibration. The deviations are dependent on the measurement technique. To address this issue, part of the HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) project [1] focused on the development of optical transfer standards (OTSs) for greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and CO, potentially complementing gas standards. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) [2] is currently used to provide state-of-the-art high precision (in the 0.01 ‰ range) measurements for the isotopic composition of greenhouse gases. However, there is a need for field-deployable techniques such as optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) that can be combined with metrological measurement methods. Within the HIGHGAS project, OIRS methods and procedures based on e.g. cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), matched to metrological principles have been established for the measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O, and 13C/12C and 2H

  16. Momentum distributions in nuclei measured with relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, B.; Huefner, J.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1982-01-01

    In a peripheral reaction between relativistic heavy ions, where one nucleon is knocked out of the projektile, the momentum distribution of the remaining fragment reflects the momentum distribution of the knocked out nucleon. This has been proven in a previous paper. Here we study how the final-state interaction between the knocked out nucleon and the observed fragment influences the result: The real part of the optical potential which describes the final-state interaction shifts the experimental momentum distribution by a value [ksub(||)] of a few tens of MeV/c and the imaginary part reduces the cross sections by a factor 2 roughly. We also derive the cross section for a proton as target. (orig.)

  17. Final Report: Mechanisms of sputter ripple formation: coupling among energetic ions, surface kinetics, stress and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chason, Eric; Shenoy, Vivek

    2013-01-22

    Self-organized pattern formation enables the creation of nanoscale surface structures over large areas based on fundamental physical processes rather than an applied template. Low energy ion bombardment is one such method that induces the spontaneous formation of a wide variety of interesting morphological features (e.g., sputter ripples and/or quantum dots). This program focused on the processes controlling sputter ripple formation and the kinetics controlling the evolution of surfaces and nanostructures in high flux environments. This was done by using systematic, quantitative experiments to measure ripple formation under a variety of processing conditions coupled with modeling to interpret the results.

  18. Dielectric functions, chemical and atomic compositions of the near surface layers of implanted GaAs by In+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, M.; Kołodyńska, D.; Bayramov, A.; Drozdziel, A.; Olejniczak, A.; Żuk, J.

    2018-06-01

    The surfaces of (100) GaAs were irradiated with In+ ions. The implanted samples were isobaric annealed at 800 °C and then of dielectric function, the surface atomic concentrations of atoms and also the chemical composition of the near surface layers in these implanted semiconductor samples were obtained. The following investigation methods were used: spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses (RBSA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in the study of the above mentioned quantities, respectively. The change of the shape spectra of the dielectric functions at about 3.0 eV phonon energy, diffusion of In+ ions as well as chemical composition changes were observed after ion implantation and the thermal treatment. Due to displacement of Ga ions from GaAs by the In+ ions the new chemical compound InAs was formed. The relative amounts Ga2O3 and As2O3 ratio increase in the native oxide layers with the fluences increase after the thermal treatment of the samples. Additionally, it was noticed that the quantities of InO2 increase with the increasing values of the irradiated ions before thermal treatment.

  19. Preparation of Nafion 117™-SnO2 Composite Membranes using an Ion-Exchange Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2012-01-01

    Nafion 117™-SnO2 composite membranes were prepared by in-situ particle formation using an ion-exchange method. SnO2 was incorporated into Nafion 117ä membranes by ion-exchange in solutions of SnCl2 ∙2 H2O in methanol, followed by oxidation to SnO2 in air. By adjustment of the concentration of SnCl2...... ∙ 2 H2O used in the ion-exchange step, compositions ranging from 2 to 8 wt% SnO2 with SnO2 homogeneously distributed as nanoparticles were obtained. The prepared nanocomposite membranes were characterized by powder XRD, 119Sn MAS NMR spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water uptake...

  20. Changes in phase composition and stress state of surface layers of VK20 hard alloy after ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, G.L.; Leonov, E.Yu.; Anikin, V.N.; Anikeev, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Titanium ion bombardment of the surface of the hard VK20 alloy is studied for its effect on variations in the phase and chemical composition of its surface layers. It is stated that ion treatment results in the appearance of the η-phase of Co 6 W 6 C composition in the surface layer of the VK20 alloy, in the increase of distortions and decrease of coherent scattering blocks of the hard alloy carbide phase. Such a bombardment is found to provoke a transition of the plane-stressed state of the hard alloy surface into the volume-stressed state. It is established that ion treatment does not cause an allotropic transition of the cobalt phase α-modification, formed during grinding of the hard alloy, into the β-modification

  1. Composite ion-exchangers and their possible use in treatment of low/intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; Motl, A.; John, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of preparation of composite inorganic-organic ion exchangers using modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for the inorganic active component is described. This method enables incorporation of very fine to colloidal particles of active component in the binding polymer which increases the capacity and improves the kinetics of ion exchange of the resulting absorber. The proposed method can be applied on most of the inorganic ion exchangers known. Results of tests of some absorbers for treatment of radioactive wastes produced in the nuclear industry are given. For the removal of radiocesium from Long Term Fuel Storage Pond water at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) NiFC-PAN composite ion exchanger has been tested. Excellent results have been achieved both at low and high (floating bed) flow rates in the course of treatment of up to 45,000 BV of pond water. The possibility of decreasing the total activity of the Biological Shield water from the same NPP below the 37 Bq/l discharge limit has been proved using NiFC-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite ion exchangers. NiFC-PAN, NaTiO-PAN, MnO-PAN, M315-PAN and Na-Y-PAN composite ion exchangers were tested for removal of radiocesium, radiocobalt and radiomanganese from standard liquid radioactive wastes and concentrates from NPP Krsko, Croatia. Different combinations of absorbers have been tested for the treatment of Boron Recycle Hold-up, Waste Condensate and Waste Hold-up Tanks. Radium could be quantitatively removed from highly saline acid waste water from uranium underground leaching on Ba(Ca)SO 4 -PAN absorber

  2. A chemically activated graphene-encapsulated LiFePO4 composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeonghyun; Park, Seung-Keun; Yu, Seung-Ho; Jin, Aihua; Jang, Byungchul; Bong, Sungyool; Kim, In; Sung, Yung-Eun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2013-09-21

    A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly, the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite has exhibited better electrochemical properties than the conventional graphene/LiFePO4 composite as well as bare LiFePO4, including exceptional speed of charging-discharging and excellent cycle stability. That is because the CA-graphene in the composite provides abundant porous channels for the diffusion of lithium ions. Moreover, it acts as a conducting network for easy charge transfer and as a divider, preventing the aggregation of LiFePO4 particles. Owing to these properties of CA-graphene, LiFePO4 could demonstrate enhanced and stably long-lasting electrochemical performance.

  3. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Porte, L.

    2007-01-01

    ) and the slowdown after switch off of NBI are measured. The turn on phase of the NBI has, furthermore, been measured in plasmas with a range of electron densities and temperatures. All of these measurements are shown to be in good agreement with simple Fokker-Planck modelling. Bulk ion rotation velocity is also...

  4. Energy measurement of fast ions trapped in the toroidal field ripple of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Hutter, T.; Martin, G.; Pecquet, A.L.; Saoutic, B.

    1993-09-01

    During additional heating in Tore Supra (ICRF or NBI) fast ion losses due to the toroidal field ripple were clearly measured by a set of graphite probes. This diagnostic collects the flow of fast ions entering a vertical port and usually shows a maximum flux for ions originating from the vicinity of surface δ * = 0. During the monster sawteeth regime, achieved with ICRF, a remarkable phenomenon was observed: the ejection of fast ions, not correlated with any measured MHD activity. The radial distribution of these ions is quite different from that usually observed exhibiting a peak located in the central section of the plasma. In order to measure the energy distribution of these ions, from 80 keV (energy of the neutral beam injected in Tore Supra) up to 1 MeV (expected during ICRF), a new diagnostic is under construction. The principle of the diagnostic is to discriminate the ions in energy using their Larmor radius (p = 1.3 cm for 100 keV → p = 3.6 cm for 700 keV, B = 4T). The detector is made of a hollow graphite cylinder with a small entrance slot, located in a vertical port on the ion drift side. An array of six metallic collectors placed inside the graphite cylinder intercepts the ions. The current on each collector was estimated at 10 → 100 nA, during ICRF heating. The energy resolution of this diagnostic is expected to be about 20 keV for the lowest energy range and 100 keV for the highest. This type of ruggedized detector might be extrapolated for the measurements of alpha particle losses in future DT experiments. It should also be suitable for the studies of stochastic ripple diffusion. (authors). 3 refs., 9 figs

  5. Adsorption Effectivity Test of Andisols Clay-Zeolite (ACZ) Composite as Chromium Hexavalent (Cr(VI)) Ion Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranoto; Masykur, A.; Nugroho, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    Adsorption of chromium hexavalent (Cr(VI)) ion in aqueous solution was investigated. This research was purposed to study the influence of the composition of ACZ, temperature activation, and contact time against adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) ion in aqueous solution. Determination of adsorption effectivity using several parameter such as composition variation of ACZ, contact time, pH, activation temperature, and concentration. In this research, andisol clay and zeolite has been activated with NaOH 3 M and 1 M, respectively. Temperature variation used 100, 200, and 400°C. While composition variation ACZ used 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. The pH variation was used 2 – 6 and concentration variation using 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 ppm. Characterization in this research used such as UV-Vis, Surface Area Analyzer (SAA) and Acidity Analysis. Result of this research is known that optimum composition of ACZ was 50:50 with calcination temperature 100°C. Optimum adsorption of Cr(VI) at pH 4 with removal percentage 76.10 % with initial concentration 2 ppm and adsorption capacity is 0.16 mg/g. Adsorption isotherm following freundlich isotherm with value Kf = 0.17 mg/g and value n is 0.963. Based on results, ACZ composite can be used as Cr(VI) ion adsorbents in aqueous solutions.

  6. Removal of Cr(VI and Toxic Ions from Aqueous Solutions and Tannery Wastewater Using Polymer-Clay Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Azeem Sallam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-clay composites were prepared by natural zeolite (clinoptilolite or naturally local clay deposits in an N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as cross-linked. The resultant composites were used for the removal of Cr(VI from an aqueous solution. Additionally, their effects on soluble ions of tannery wastewater were investigated. The produced composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that Cr(VI removal is dependent upon initial concentrations and pH. The adsorption quantity of Cr(VI onto the polymerized clay deposit followed by polymerized zeolite exhibited higher values than their original samples. The polymer-clay composite of clay deposit showed the highest removal of 76.3–100% overall initial concentrations of 10–50 mg L−1 and at initial pH of 2. Kinetics of Cr(VI removal by various sorbents was predicted using a pseudo–second order model. Our findings showed that the levels of salinity and various soluble ions (Cr2+, Na+, Cl− and SO42− in tannery wastewater are very high, and their levels were reduced after treatment, especially by polymerized sorbents. It could be concluded that the polymer-clay composites may be employed as a highly efficient sorbent for the removal of Cr(VI and toxic ions from the wastewater.

  7. Preparation of Advanced CuO Nanowires/Functionalized Graphene Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper oxide (CuO nanowires/functionalized graphene (f-graphene composite material was successfully composed by a one-pot synthesis method. The f-graphene synthesized through the Birch reduction chemistry method was modified with functional group “–(CH25COOH”, and the CuO nanowires (NWs were well dispersed in the f-graphene sheets. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the composite exhibited good cyclic stability and decent specific capacity of 677 mA·h·g−1 after 50 cycles. CuO NWs can enhance the lithium-ion storage of the composites while the f-graphene effectively resists the volume expansion of the CuO NWs during the galvanostatic charge/discharge cyclic process, and provide a conductive paths for charge transportation. The good electrochemical performance of the synthesized CuO/f-graphene composite suggests great potential of the composite materials for lithium-ion batteries anodes.

  8. Formation of nanodots and enhancement of thermoelectric power induced by ion irradiation in PbTe:Ag composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Manju, E-mail: manjubala474@gmail.com [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Meena, Ramcharan; Gupta, Srashti; Pannu, Compesh [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, Tripurari S. [Aalto University, Värmemansgränden 2, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Varma, Shikha [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneshwar, Odisha 751005 (India); Tripathi, Surya K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India); Asokan, K., E-mail: asokaniuac@gmail.com [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Avasthi, Devesh K. [Amity University, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-07-15

    Present study demonstrates an enhancement in thermoelectric power of 10% Ag doped PbTe (PbTe:Ag) thin films when irradiated with 200 keV Ar ion. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in crystallinity for both PbTe and PbTe:10Ag nano-composite films after Ar ion irradiation due to annealing of defects in the grain boundaries. The preferential sputtering of Pb and Te ions in comparison to Ag ions resulted in the formation of nano-dots. This was further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Such an enhancement in thermoelectric power of irradiated PbTe:10Ag films in comparison to pristine PbTe:10Ag film is attributed to the decrease in charge carrier concentration that takes part in the transport process via restricting the tunneling of carriers through the wider potential barrier formed at the interface of nano-dots.

  9. Friction and wear measurements of sputtered MoS/sub x/ films amorphized by ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, N.J.; Chevallier, J.; Soerensen, G.; Straede, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The present study presents an experimental evidence for amorphization of rf sputtered MoS/sub x/ films by ion bombardment. Even at low doses (3 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 ) of 400 keV argon ions a complete amorphization was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. As a result of the ion bombardment the film density increased 100% to almost the bulk value for MoS 2 . The friction coefficient for ion beam amorphized MoS/sub x/ was measured to be 0.04 in agreement with the values reported for crystalline films but disagreeing considerably with the friction coefficient of 0.4 previously reported for amorphous films

  10. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.

    2008-01-01

    reported [Bindslev , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205005 2006]. Here we extend the discussion of these results which were obtained at the TEXTOR tokamak. The fast ions are generated by neutral-beam injection and ion-cyclotron resonance heating. The CTS system uses 100-150 kW of 110-GHz gyrotron probing radiation......Fast ions created in the fusion processes will provide up to 70% of the heating in ITER. To optimize heating and current drive in magnetically confined plasmas insight into fast-ion dynamics is important. First measurements of such dynamics by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were recently...... of the velocity distribution after turnoff of the ion heating. These results are in close agreement with numerical simulations....

  11. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Hantush, Mohamed; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2018-05-15

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity of water quality violations, risk metrics such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V) are computed for assessing water quality-based watershed health. In this study, a modified methodology for computing R-R-V measures is presented, and a new composite watershed health index is proposed. Risk-based assessments for different water quality parameters are carried out using identified national sampling stations within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, the Maumee River Basin, and the Ohio River Basin. The distributional properties of risk measures with respect to water quality parameters are reported. Scaling behaviors of risk measures using stream order, specifically for the watershed health (WH) index, suggest that WH values increased with stream order for suspended sediment concentration, nitrogen, and orthophosphate in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Spatial distribution of risk measures enable identification of locations exhibiting poor watershed health with respect to the chosen numerical standard, and the role of land use characteristics within the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomass carbon composited FeS2 as cathode materials for high-rate rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Meng, Zhen; Zhu, Xueling; Zhang, Shunlong; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Pyrite FeS2 has long been used as commercial primary lithium batteries at room temperature. To achieve rechargeable FeS2 battery, biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites are prepared using green and renewable auricularia auricula as carbon source through the process of carbonization and sulfuration. The auricularia auricula has strong swelling characteristics to absorb aqueous solution which can effectively absorb Fe ions into its body. FeS2 homogeneously distributed in biomass carbon matrix performs high electronic and ionic conductivity. The specific capacity of biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites remains 850 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles at 0.5C and 700 mAh g-1 at the rate of 2C after 150 cycles. Biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites exhibit high-rate capacity in lithium-ion battery.

  13. Stable silicon/3D porous N-doped graphene composite for lithium-ion battery anodes with self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofu; Wen, Guangwu; Song, Yan

    2018-04-01

    We fabricate a novel 3D N-doped graphene/silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes, with Si nanoparticles uniformly dispersed and thoroughly embedded in the N-doped graphene matrix. The favorable structure of the composite results in a BET surface area and an average mesopore diameter of 189.2 m2 g-1 and 3.82 nm, respectively. The composite delivers reversible capacities as high as 1132 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles under a current of 5 A g-1 and 1017 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at 1 A g-1, and exhibits an improved rate capability. The present approach shows promise for the preparation of other high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Measurement and model on thermal properties of sintered diamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Tala; Garnier, Bertrand; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermal properties of sintered diamond used for grinding is studied. ► Flash method with infrared temperature measurement is used to investigate. ► Thermal conductivity increases with the amount of diamond. ► It is very sensitive to binder conductivity. ► Results agree with models assuming imperfect contact between matrix and particles. - Abstract: A prelude to the thermal management of grinding processes is measurement of the thermal properties of working materials. Indeed, tool materials must be chosen not only for their mechanical properties (abrasion performance, lifetime…) but also for thermal concerns (thermal conductivity) for efficient cooling that avoids excessive temperatures in the tool and workpiece. Sintered diamond is currently used for grinding tools since it yields higher performances and longer lifetimes than conventional materials (mineral or silicon carbide abrasives), but its thermal properties are not yet well known. Here the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density of sintered diamond are measured as functions of the diamond content in composites and for two types of metallic binders: hard tungsten-based and soft cobalt-based binders. The measurement technique for thermal conductivity is derived from the flash method. After pulse heating, the temperature of the rear of the sample is measured with a noncontact method (infrared camera). A parameter estimation method associated with a three-layer nonstationary thermal model is used to obtain sample thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and absorbed energy. With the hard metallic binder, the thermal conductivity of sintered diamond increased by up to 64% for a diamond content increasing from 0 to 25%. The increase is much less for the soft binder: 35% for diamond volumes up to 25%. In addition, experimental data were found that were far below the value predicted by conventional analytical models for effective thermal conductivity. A possible explanation

  15. Si/C composite lithium-ion battery anodes synthesized using silicon nanoparticles from porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Bae; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Jeon, Young-Jun; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Man

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of Si nanoparticles by ultrasonication processing of porous Si powder and a novel method for preparing a high-capacity Si/C composite using this technique is reported. The porous Si powder is prepared by selectively etching the silicide phase of a Ti 24 Si 76 alloy consisting of Si and silicide phases. The particle size of the nanocrystalline Si is determined by the crystallite size of the Si and silicide phases in the alloy powder. Ultrasonication of the porous Si obtained from the mechanically alloyed Ti 24 Si 76 alloy generates nanocrystalline Si particles of size about 5 nm. Growth of the Si and silicide phases in the alloy is induced by annealing of the mechanically alloyed sample, with a consequent increase in the size of the Si particles obtained after ultrasonication. Application of the ultrasonication process to the fabrication of Si/C composite anode materials generates nanometer-scale Si particles in situ that are distributed in the matrix. Analysis of the phases obtained and evaluation of the distribution of the nanometer-scale Si particles in the composites via XRD/TEM measurements show that the nanometer-scale Si particles are effectively synthesized and uniformly distributed in the carbon matrix, leading to enhanced electrochemical performance of the Si/C composites

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical characteristics of Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite anode for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hong; Zhao Hailei; Jia Xidi; Qiu Weihua; Cui Fenge

    2007-01-01

    Micro-scaled Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite was synthesized from oxides of Sn, Sb and Ni via carbothermal reduction. The phase composition and electrochemical properties of the Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite anode material were studied. The prepared alloy composite electrode exhibits a high specific capacity and a good cycling stability. The lithiation capacity was 530 mAh g -1 in the first cycle and maintained at 370-380 mAh g -1 in the following cycles. The good electrochemical performance may be attributed to its relatively large particle size and multi-phase characteristics. The former reason leads to the lower surface impurity and thus the lower initial capacity loss, while the latter results in a stepwise lithiation/delithiation behavior and a smooth volume change of electrode in cycles. The Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite material shows a good candidate anode material for the rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  17. Yolk-shell structured composite for fast and selective lithium ion sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lu, Deli; Zhang, Jinlong; Wang, Lingzhi

    2018-06-15

    Yolk-shell structured C@Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 microspheres composed of carbon core (ca. 500 nm) and sea urchin-like Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 shell (ca. 400-500 nm) are formed by hydrothermally treating the core-shell structured C@TiO 2 in the EtOH/H 2 O solution of LiOH and calcining it in N 2 atmosphere. Yolk-shell structured TiO 2 -type lithium ion sieve is further transformed from C@Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 through the acid treatment, which have a high specific surface area of 201.74 m 2 /g. The composite shows adsorption capacity towards Li + proportional to the pH value in the range of 7-13. The adsorption reaches equilibrium within 2 h with a high equilibrium adsorption capacity of 28.46 mg/g under alkaline conditions, which is ca. 8 times the value of ordinary TiO 2 lithium ion sieve with comparable size and surface area, demonstrating the enhanced adsorption is attributed to the generation of more accessible surficial voids by replacing internal part with light carbon core. The adsorption follows Freundlich and pseudo-second-order kinetic models with a high rate constant of 0.015 g/(mg·min). The selective adsorption to Li + is verified in the presence of K + , Na + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Study the effect of ion-complex on the properties of composite gel polymer electrolyte based on Electrospun PVdF nanofibrous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weili; Xing, Yujin; Wu, Yuhui; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Lizhuang; Yang, Gang; Tang, Benzhong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, nanofibrous membranes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) doped with ion-complex (SiO 2 -PAALi) were prepared by electrospinning technique and the corresponding composite gel-polymer electrolytes (CGPEs) were obtained after being activated in liquid electrolyte. The microstructure, physical and electrochemical performances of the nanofibrous membranes and the corresponding CGPEs were studied by various measurements such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Stress-strain test, Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV), AC impedance measurement and Charge/discharge cycle test. As to the ion-complex doped nanofibrous membranes, PVdF can provide mechanical support with network structure composed of fully interconnection; while the ion-complexes are absorbed onto the surface of the PVdF nanofibers evenly instead of being aggregated. With the help of doped ion-complex, the prepared nanofibrous membranes present good liquid electrolyte absorbability, excellent mechanical performance, and high decomposition temperature. For the corresponding CGPEs, they possess high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and good charge/discharge cycle performance

  19. Mesoporous Tin-Based Oxide Nanospheres/Reduced Graphene Composites as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Half/Full Cells and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyan; Li, Aihua; Dong, Caifu; Li, Chuanchuan; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-10-04

    The large volume variations of tin-based oxides hinder their extensive application in the field of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, structure design, hybrid fabrication, and carbon-coating approaches have been simultaneously adopted to address these shortcomings. To this end, uniform mesoporous NiO/SnO 2 @rGO, Ni-Sn oxide@rGO, and SnO 2 @rGO nanosphere composites have been selectively fabricated. Among them, the obtained NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite exhibited a high capacity of 800 mAh g -1 at 1000 mA g -1 after 400 cycles. The electrochemical mechanism of NiO/SnO 2 as an anode for LIBs has been preliminarily investigated by ex situ XRD pattern analysis. Furthermore, an NiO/SnO 2 @rGO-LiCoO 2 lithium-ion full cell showed a high capacity of 467.8 mAh g -1 at 500 mA g -1 after 100 cycles. Notably, the NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite also showed good performance when investigated as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). It is believed that the unique mesoporous nanospherical framework, synergistic effects between the various components, and uniform rGO wrapping of NiO/SnO 2 shorten the Li + ion diffusion pathways, maintain sufficient contact between the active material and the electrolyte, mitigate volume changes, and finally improve the electrical conductivity of the electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fuel ion rotation measurement and its implications on H-mode theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Hinton, F.L.; Kim, Y.B.; Seraydarian, R.; Mandl, W.

    1993-10-01

    Poloidal and toroidal rotation of the fuel ions (He 2+ ) and the impurity ions (C 6+ and B 5+ ) in H-mode helium plasmas have been investigated in the DIII-D tokamak by means of charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, resulting in the discovery that the fuel ion poloidal rotation is in the ion diamagnetic drift direction while the impurity ion rotation is in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. The radial electric field obtained from radial force balance analysis of the measured pressure gradients and rotation velocities is shown to be the same regardless of which ion species is used and therefore is a more fundamental parameter than the rotation flows in studying H-mode phenomena. It is shown that the three contributions to the radial electric field (diamagnetic, poloidal rotation, and toroidal rotation terms) are comparable and consequently the poloidal flow does not solely represent the E x B flow. In the high-shear edge region, the density scale length is comparable to the ion poloidal gyroradius, and thus neoclassical theory is not valid there. In view of this new discovery that the fuel and impurity ions rotate in opposite sense, L-H transition theories based on the poloidal rotation may require improvement

  1. Measurements of Ion Selective Containment on the RF Charge Breeder Device BRIC

    CERN Document Server

    Variale, Vincenzo; Batazova, Marina; Boggia, Antonio; Clauser, Tarcisio; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Rainò, Antonio; Shiyankov, Sergey; Skarbo, Boris A; Valentino, Vincenzo; Verrone, Grazia

    2005-01-01

    The "charge state breeder" BRIC (BReeding Ion Charge) is based on an EBIS source and it is designed to accept Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) with charge +1, in a slow injection mode, to increase their charge state up to +n. BRIC has been developed at the INFN section of Bari (Italy) during these last 3 years with very limited funds. Now, it has been assembled at the LNL (Italy) where are in progress the first tests as stand alone source. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion drift chamber, of a Radio Frequency (RF) Quadrupole aiming to filtering the unwanted elements and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this contribution, the measurements of the selective effect on the ion charge state containement of the RF quadrupole field, applied on the ion chamber, will be reported and discussed. The ion charge state analisys of the ions trapped in BRIC seem confirm, as foreseen by simulation results carried out previously, that the s...

  2. Plasma rotation and ion temperature measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2015-01-01

    We present the first deuterium ion temperature and rotation measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade. The results are in general agreement with boron-based charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements and consistent with neoclassical simulations for the plasma sce...... scenario studied here. This demonstration opens the prospect for direct non-perturbative measurements of the properties of the main ion species in the plasma core with applications in plasma transport and confinement studies.......We present the first deuterium ion temperature and rotation measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade. The results are in general agreement with boron-based charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements and consistent with neoclassical simulations for the plasma...

  3. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Congsen [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Janssen, Maurice H. M. [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  4. Neutron measurements in the stray field produced by 158 GeV/c lead ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Nava, E.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses measurements carried out at CERN in the stray radiation field produced by 158 GeV/c 208 Pb 82+ ions. The purpose was to test and intercompare the response of several detectors, mainly neutron measuring devices, and to determine the neutron spectral fluence as well as the microdosimetric (absorbed dose and dose equivalent) distributions in different locations around the shielding. Both active instruments and passive dosimeters were employed, including different types of Andersson-Braun rem counters, a tissue equivalent proportional counter, a set of superheated drop detectors, a Bonner sphere system and different types of ion chambers. Activation measurements with 12 C plastic scintillators and with 32 S pellets were also performed to assess the neutron yield of high energy lead ions interacting with a thin gold target. The results are compared with previous measurements and with measurements made during proton runs. (author)

  5. Surface potential measurement of the insulator with secondary electron caused by negative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Toyota, Yoshitaka; Nagumo, Syoji; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki; Tanjyo, Masayasu; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1994-01-01

    Ion implantation has the merit of the good controllability of implantation profile and low temperature process, and has been utilized for the impurity introduction in LSI production. However, positive ion implantation is carried out for insulator or insulated conductor substrates, their charged potential rises, which is a serious problem. As the requirement for them advanced, charge compensation method is not the effective means for resolving it. The negative ion implantation in which charging is little was proposed. When the experiment on the negative ion implantation into insulated conductors was carried out, it was verified that negative ion implantation is effective as the implantation process without charging. The method of determining the charged potential of insulators at the time of negative ion implantation by paying attention to the energy distribution of the secondary electrons emitted from substrates at the time was devised. The energy analyzer for measuring the energy distribution of secondary electrons was made, and the measurement of the charged potential of insulators was carried out. The principle of the measurement, the measuring system and the experimental results are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Measurements of fast ion spatial dynamics during magnetic activity in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Bonofiglo, P.; Kim, J.; McConnell, R.; Magee, R. M.

    2017-10-01

    Fast ions in the RFP are only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field and behave nearly classically in concentration too low to excite Alfvenic activity. At high fast ion concentration sourced by H-NBI in 300kA RFP discharges, a substantial drop in core-localized high pitch fast ions is observed during bursts of coupled EPM and IAE (magnetic island-induced Alfven eigenmode) activity (100-200kHz) through neutral particle analysis. Sourcing instead fast deuterium with NBI, the DD fusion products can measure the dynamics of the fast ion density profile. Both a collimated neutron detector and a new 3MeV fusion proton detector loaned by TriAlpha Energy measure the fast ion density profile with 5cm spatial resolution and 100 μs temporal resolution. In D-NBI, the bursting EPM is excited at slightly lower frequency and the IAE activity is nearly absent, likely due to an isotope effect and loss of wave-particle interaction. In these cases, neutral particle analysis shows little change in the core-localized high pitch fast ion content, and the fusion product profile indicates little change in the fast ion density profile, leaving unexplained the mechanism removing EPM drive. We measure a substantial redistribution of the fast ion profile due to strong lower-frequency ( 30kHz) MHD activity that accompanies the current profile relaxation in the RFP. Profile flattening is strongest in low bulk density discharges, which often occur with a total increase in global neutron flux from acceleration of the beam ions. Work supported by US DoE.

  7. Magnetically filtered Faraday probe for measuring the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovey, Joshua L.; Walker, Mitchell L.R.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of a magnetically filtered Faraday probe (MFFP) to obtain the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster is investigated. The MFFP is designed to eliminate the collection of low-energy, charge-exchange (CEX) ions by using a variable magnetic field as an ion filter. In this study, a MFFP, Faraday probe with a reduced acceptance angle (BFP), and nude Faraday probe are used to measure the ion current density profile of a 5 kW Hall thruster operating over the range of 300-500 V and 5-10 mg/s. The probes are evaluated on a xenon propellant Hall thruster in the University of Michigan Large Vacuum Test Facility at operating pressures within the range of 4.4x10 -4 Pa Xe (3.3x10 -6 Torr Xe) to 1.1x10 -3 Pa Xe (8.4x10 -6 Torr Xe) in order to study the ability of the Faraday probe designs to filter out CEX ions. Detailed examination of the results shows that the nude probe measures a greater ion current density profile than both the MFFP and BFP over the range of angular positions investigated for each operating condition. The differences between the current density profiles obtained by each probe are attributed to the ion filtering systems employed. Analysis of the results shows that the MFFP, operating at a +5 A solenoid current, provides the best agreement with flight-test data and across operating pressures

  8. Measurement of asymmetric optical pumping of ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuan; Scime, Earl; Miah, Mahmood; Cohen, Samuel; Skiff, Frederick

    2004-01-01

    We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities

  9. Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff

    2004-10-28

    We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities.

  10. 'Beam-emission spectroscopy' diagnostics also measure edge fast-ion light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Bortolon, A; McKee, G R; Smith, D R

    2011-01-01

    Beam-emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics normally detect fluctuations in the light emitted by an injected neutral beam. Under some circumstances, however, light from fast ions that charge exchange in the high neutral-density region at the edge of the plasma make appreciable contributions to the BES signals. This 'passive' fast-ion D α (FIDA) light appears in BES signals from both the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). One type of passive FIDA light is associated with classical orbits that traverse the edge. Another type is caused by instabilities that expel fast ions from the core; this light can complicate measurement of the instability eigenfunction.

  11. Measurements of hydrogen gas stopping efficiency for tin ions from laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramenko, D. B.; Spiridonov, M. V.; Krainov, P. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Astakhov, D. I.; Medvedev, V. V.; van Kampen, M.; Smeets, D.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental studies of stopping of ion fluxes from laser-produced plasma by a low-pressure gas atmosphere are presented. A modification of the time-of-flight spectroscopy technique is proposed for the stopping cross-sectional measurements in the ion energy range of 0.1-10 keV. The application of the proposed technique is demonstrated for Sn ion stopping by H2 gas. This combination of elements is of particular importance for the development of plasma-based sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation for lithographic applications.

  12. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  13. Plasma flow measurement using directional Langmuir probe under weakly ion-magnetized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Kenichi; Okamoto, Atsushi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    It is both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that ion flow velocity at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetic field can be measured with a directional Langmuir probe. Based on the symmetry argument, we show that the effect of magnetic field on directional probe current is exactly canceled in determining the ion flow velocity, and obtain the generalized relation between flow velocity and directional probe currents valid for any flowing direction. The absolute value of the flow velocity is determined by an in situ calibration method of the probe. The applicability limit of the present method to a strongly ion-magnetized plasma is experimentally examined. (author)

  14. Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff

    2004-01-01

    We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities

  15. Methods to determine fast-ion distribution functions from multi-diagnostic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko

    -ion diagnostic views, it is possible to infer the distribution function using a tomography approach. Several inversion methods for solving this tomography problem in velocity space are implemented and compared. It is found that the best quality it obtained when using inversion methods which penalise steep......Understanding the behaviour of fast ions in a fusion plasma is very important, since the fusion-born alpha particles are expected to be the main source of heating in a fusion power plant. Preferably, the entire fast-ion velocity-space distribution function would be measured. However, no fast...

  16. Systematic measurements of transient fields for W, Os and Pt ions traversing Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Heseltine, T.H.; Anderssen, S.S.; Bolotin, H.H.; Byrne, A.P.; Fabricius, B.; Kibedi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Transient magnetic fields were measured for W, Os and Pt ions traversing iron hosts with average velocities in the range from approximately 1.6 v 0 to 4.8 v 0 (v 0 = c/137, Bohr velocity). Transient fields for W and Os in Fe are consistent with behaviour found for lighter rare-earth ions and are about 20% stronger than those for Pt in Fe over the majority of the velocity range examined. A measurement was made to confirm that possible heavy-ion beam induced attenuations of the transient field are negligible for low-velocity Pt ions excited by Ni beams. Results are discussed in terms of both empirical and model-based parameterizations of the transient field strength. (orig.)

  17. Heavy ion beam probe development for the plasma potential measurement on the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L.G.; Kornev, V.A.; Lebedev, S.V.; Tukachinsky, A.S.; Zhubr, N.A.; Dreval, N.B.; Krupnik, L.I.

    2004-01-01

    The peculiarities of the heavy ion beam probe implementation on the small aspect ratio tokamak TUMAN-3M are analyzed. The toroidal displacement of beam trajectory due to the high I pl /B tor ratio is taken into account when designing the layout of the diagnostic. Numerical calculation of beam trajectories using realistic configuration of TUMAN-3M magnetic fields and parabolic plasma current profile resulted in proper adjustment of probing and detection parameters (probing ion material, energy, entrance angles, detector location, and orientation). Secondary ion energy analyzer gain functions G and F were measured in situ using neutral hydrogen puffed in the tokamak vessel as a target for secondary ions production. The detector unit featured split-plate design and had additional electrodes for secondary electron emission suppression. As a result, the diagnostic is now capable of plasma potential evolution measurement and is sensitive enough to trace the potential profile evolution at the L-H mode transition

  18. Measurements of ion mobility in argon and neon based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00507268

    2017-01-01

    As gaseous detectors are operated at high rates of primary ionisation, ions created in the detector have a considerable impact on the performance of the detector. The upgraded ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will operate during LHC Run$\\,3$ with a substantial space charge density of positive ions in the drift volume. In order to properly simulate such space charges, knowledge of the ion mobility $K$ is necessary. To this end, a small gaseous detector was constructed and the ion mobility of various gas mixtures was measured. To validate the corresponding signal analysis, simulations were performed. Results are shown for several argon and neon based mixtures with different $\\textrm{CO}_2$ fractions. A decrease of $K$ was measured for increasing water content.

  19. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  20. Parallel ion flow velocity measurement using laser induced fluorescence method in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Okamoto, Atsushi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ogiwara, Kohei; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Parallel ion flow velocity along a magnetic field has been measured using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) argon plasma with a weakly-diverging magnetic field. To measure parallel flow velocity in a cylindrical plasma using the LIF method, the laser beam should be injected along device axis; however, the reflection of the incident beam causes interference between the LIF emission of the incident and reflected beams. Here we present a method of quasi-parallel laser injection at a small angle, which utilizes the reflected beam as well as the incident beam to obtain the parallel ion flow velocity. Using this method, we observed an increase in parallel ion flow velocity along the magnetic field. The acceleration mechanism is briefly discussed on the basis of the ion fluid model. (author)

  1. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriott, Philip

    1987-06-01

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69 Ga + , Ga ++ and Ga 2 + ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  2. Stable cyclic performance of nickel oxide–carbon composite anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung; Wang, Xinghui; Fan, Yu; Xiao, Qizhen; Fitzgerald, Eugene; Pey, Kin Leong; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) directly grown on nickel foam is regarded as a promising lithium ion battery anode material which shows good cyclic and rate performances with a theoretical specific capacity of 718 mA h g −1 . In this study, we demonstrated a carbon-incorporated NiO anode (NiO–C) with a capacity per unit area of 2.11 mA h cm −2 and 1.76 mA h cm −2 at 0.2 C and 0.5 C rates, respectively, fabricated by thermal oxidation of carbon coated nickel foam. The specific capacity of our NiO–C composite samples at 0.5 C rate is found to be typically 389.16 mA h g −1 , with a stable cyclic performance up to more than 100 cycles. This remarkable performance is apparently superior to the control samples of pure NiO samples. The improved performance is contributed to carbon incorporation which serves as a fluent channel for electrons and a flexible network preventing NiO nanostructures from structural deformation during charge and discharge processes. The advantage of using our approach is the easy preparation of the NiO–C composite using a simple two-step process: chemical vapor deposition of ethanol and annealing in air. - Highlights: • We demonstrated a directly grown NiO–C anode on nickel foam substrate. • NiO–C anode was made using simple processes: CVD of ethanol and annealing in air. • The NiO–C anode has a stable cycle life up to 102 cycles. • It has an acceptable areal capacity (1.76 mA h cm −2 at 0.5 C rate) for practical use. • Carbon provides electrons path and buffering matrix preventing NiO pulverization

  3. Bulk-compositional changes of Ni2Al3 and NiAl3 during ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Houwen; Wang Rong

    2008-01-01

    Bulk-compositional changes of Ni 2 Al 3 and NiAl 3 in a Ni-50 wt% Al alloy during ion etching have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analyses. After etching with 7, 5 and 3 keV Ar + ions for 15, 24 and 100 h nickel contents in both Ni 2 Al 3 and NiAl 3 exceeded greatly those in the initial compounds and increased with the decrement of the sputtering energy. After 100 h etching with 3 keV Ar + ions the compositions of these two compounds reached a similar value, about Ni 80-83 Al 12-15 Fe 3-4 Cr 1-2 (at%). A synergistic action of preferential sputtering, radiation-induced segregation and radiation-enhanced diffusion enables the altered-layers at the top and bottom of the film extend through the whole film. The bulk-compositional changes are proposed to occur in the unsteady-state sputtering regime of ion etching and caused by an insufficient supply of matter in a thin film

  4. Integrated Microanalytical System for Simultaneous Voltammetric Measurements of Free Metal Ion Concentrations in Natural Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Stéphane; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Lin, Lin; Buffle, Jacques; Guenat, Olivier; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-01-01

    A complexing gel integrated microelectrode (CGIME) for direct measurements of free metal ion concentrations in natural waters has been developed. It is prepared by the successive deposition of microlayers of a chelating resin, an antifouling agarose gel and Hg on a 100-interconnected Ir-based microelectrode array. The trace metals of interest are in a first step accumulated on the chelating resin in proportion to their free ion concentration in solution, then released in acidic solution and d...

  5. Cascade Problems in Some Atomic Lifetime Measurements at a Heavy-Ion Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E; Hoffmann, J; Krantz, C; Wolf, A; Ishikawa, Y; Santana, J

    2008-10-09

    Lifetimes of 3s{sup 2}3p{sup k} ground configuration levels of Al-, Si-, P-, and S-like ions of Be, Co, and Ni have been measured at a heavy-ion storage ring. Some of the observed decay curves show strong evidence of cascade repopulation from specific 3d levels that feature lifetimes in the same multi-millisecond range as the levels of the ground configuration.

  6. Self-standing paper based anodes prepared from siliconcarbonitride-MoS2 composite for Li-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lamuel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2013-03-01

    We study synthesis of free-standing polymer derived SiCN/ MoS2 composite paper anode for Li-ion battery application. This was achieved following a two-step approach: First, polysilazane was interfaced with exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets which upon pyrolysis resulted in SiCN/MoS2 composite. Second, dispersion of SiCN/MoS2 in isopropanol was vacuum filtered resulting in formation of a self-standing composite paper. Physical and chemical characterization of the composite was carried out by use of electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR data indicated complete conversion of polysilazane precursor to SiCN ceramic, while electron microscopy confirmed layered structure of the paper. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed enhanced thermodynamic stability of the composite paper up to 800 °C. Electrochemical analysis of SiCN/MoS2 composite paper anodes showed that Li-ion can reversible intercalate in the voltage range of 0-2.5 V with a first cycle discharge capacity of 770 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.

  7. Cerenkov detector for heavy-ion velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.L.; Baumgartner, M.; Dufour, J.P.; Girard, J.G.; Greiner, D.E.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Symons, T.J.M.; Crawford, H.J.

    1984-08-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive velocity measuring detector using total-internal-reflection Cerenkov counters of a type mentioned by Jelly in 1958. If the velocity of the particle is above the threshold for total-internal-reflection these counters have a charge resolution of sigma = 0.18e for a 3mm thick glass radiator. For the velocity measurement we use a fused silica radiator so that the velocity of the particles are near the threshold for total-internal reflection. For momentum-analyzed projectile fragments of 1.6 GeV/nucleon 40 Ar, we have measured a mass resolution of sigma = 0.1u for isotope identification

  8. A device for automated phase space measurement of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukas, J.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment for automated phase-space measurements was developed at the VERA Lab. The measurement of the beam's intensity distribution, as well as its relative position with respect to the reference orbit is performed at two locations along the beam line. The device basically consists of moveable slits and a beam profile monitor, which are both coordinated and controlled by an embedded controller. The operating system of the controller is based on Linux with real-time extension. It controls the movement of the slits and records the data synchronized to the movement of the beam profile monitor. The data is sent via TCP/IP to the data acquisition system of VERA where visualization takes place. The duration of one phase space measurement is less than 10 s, which allows for using the device during routine beam tuning

  9. Scrape-off layer ion temperature measurements at the divertor target during type III ELMs in MAST measured by RFEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, S., E-mail: Sarah.Elmore@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Allan, S.Y.; Fishpool, G.; Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kočan, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Tamain, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Thornton, A.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Edge-localised modes (ELMs) can carry significant fractions of their energy as far as main chamber plasma-facing components in divertor tokamaks. Since in future devices (e.g. ITER, DEMO) these energies could cause issues for material lifetime and impurity production, the energy and temperature of ions in ELMs needs to be investigated. In MAST, novel divertor measurements of T{sub i} during ELMs have been made using the divertor retarding field energy analyser (RFEA) probe. These measurements have shown instantaneous ion energy distributions corresponding to an effective T{sub i} at 5 cm from the strike point at the target that can be as high as 60 eV and that this decreases with time after the ELM start. This is consistent with the hottest, fastest ions arriving at the target first by parallel transport, followed by the lower end of the ion energy distribution. This analysis will form a basis for future data analysis of fast swept measurements of ion distributions in ELMs.

  10. Beta Neutrino Correlation Measurement with Trapped Radioactive Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velten, Ph.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Mery, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2010-01-01

    The beta-neutrino angular correlation coefficient provides a sensitive observable to search for physics beyond the standard electroweak model in nuclear beta decay. We address here the measurement of this parameter in the pure Gamow-Teller transition of 6 He. A deviation from the standard model prediction would indicate the existence of tensor like couplings, possibly mediated by new bosons like leptoquarks. The aim of the LPCTrap experiment is to measure this coefficient with a statistical uncertainty of 0.5% using a novel transparent Paul trap. The status of the experiment is briefly presented along with the work in progress.

  11. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, S. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, A., E-mail: anton.kaufmann@klzh.ch [Official Food Control Authority, Fehrenstrasse 15, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland); Companyó, R. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed.

  12. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borràs, S.; Kaufmann, A.; Companyó, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed

  13. An assessment of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and implications for ion fluid heat flux limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, D; LaBombard, B; Churchill, R M; Hughes, J; Lipschultz, B; Ochoukov, R; Theiler, C; Walk, J; Rognlien, T D; Umansky, M V; Whyte, D

    2013-01-01

    The ion temperature is not frequently measured in the boundary of magnetic fusion devices. Comparisons among different ion temperature techniques and simulations are even rarer. Here we present a comparison of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak from three different diagnostics: charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), an ion sensitive probe (ISP), and a retarding field analyzer (RFA). Comparison between CXRS and the ISP along with close examination of the ISP measurements reveals that the ISP is space charge limited. It is thus unable to measure ion temperature in the high density (>10 19 m −3 ) boundary plasma of C-Mod with its present geometry. Comparison of ion temperatures measured by CXRS and the RFA shows fair agreement. Ion and electron parallel heat flow is analyzed with a simple 1D fluid code. The code takes divertor measurements as input and results are compared to the measured ratios of upstream ion to electron temperature, as inferred respectively by CXRS and a Langmuir probe. The analysis reveals the limits of the fluid model at high Knudsen number. The upstream temperature ratio is under predicted by a factor of 2. Heat flux limiters (kinetic corrections) to the fluid model are necessary to match experimental data. The values required are found to be close to those reported in kinetic simulations. The 1D code is benchmarked against the 2D plasma fluid code UEDGE with good agreement. (paper)

  14. An assessment of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and implications for ion fluid heat flux limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Churchill, R. M.; Hughes, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Ochoukov, R.; Rognlien, T. D.; Theiler, C.; Walk, J.; Umansky, M. V.; Whyte, D.

    2013-09-01

    The ion temperature is not frequently measured in the boundary of magnetic fusion devices. Comparisons among different ion temperature techniques and simulations are even rarer. Here we present a comparison of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak from three different diagnostics: charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), an ion sensitive probe (ISP), and a retarding field analyzer (RFA). Comparison between CXRS and the ISP along with close examination of the ISP measurements reveals that the ISP is space charge limited. It is thus unable to measure ion temperature in the high density (>1019 m-3) boundary plasma of C-Mod with its present geometry. Comparison of ion temperatures measured by CXRS and the RFA shows fair agreement. Ion and electron parallel heat flow is analyzed with a simple 1D fluid code. The code takes divertor measurements as input and results are compared to the measured ratios of upstream ion to electron temperature, as inferred respectively by CXRS and a Langmuir probe. The analysis reveals the limits of the fluid model at high Knudsen number. The upstream temperature ratio is under predicted by a factor of 2. Heat flux limiters (kinetic corrections) to the fluid model are necessary to match experimental data. The values required are found to be close to those reported in kinetic simulations. The 1D code is benchmarked against the 2D plasma fluid code UEDGE with good agreement.

  15. An Antiproton Ion Collider (AIC) for Measuring Neutron and Proton Distributions in Stable and Radioactive Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, Paul

    2005-01-01

    An antiproton-ion collider is proposed to independently determine mean square radii for protons and neutrons in stable and short lived nuclei by means of antiproton absorption at medium energies. The experiment makes use of the electron ion collider complex (ELISE) of the GSI FAIR project with appropriate modifications of the electron ring to store, cool and collide antiprotons of 30 MeV energy with 740A MeV energy ions.The total absorption cross-section of antiprotons by the stored ions will be measured by detecting their loss by means of the Schottky noise spectroscopy method. Cross sections for the absorption on protons and neutrons, respectively, will be studied by detection of residual nuclei with A-1 either by the Schottky method or by analysing them in recoil detectors after the first dipole stage of the NESR following the interaction zone. With a measurement of the A-1 fragment momentum distribution, one can test the momentum wave functions of the annihilated neutron and proton, respectively. Furthermore by changing the incident ion energy the tails of neutron and proton distribution can be measured.The absorption cross section is at asymptotic energies in leading order proportional to the mean square radius of the nucleus. Predicted cross sections and luminosities show that the method is applicable to nuclei with production rates of about 105 s-1 or lower, depending on the lifetime of the ions in the NESR, and for half-lives down to 1 second

  16. Atmo-metabolomics: a new measurement approach for investigating aerosol composition and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ubach, A.; Liu, Y.; Sardans, J.; Tfaily, M. M.; Kim, Y. M.; Bourrianne, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Penuelas, J.; Guenther, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols play crucial roles in the processes controlling the composition of the atmosphere and the functioning of ecosystems. Gaining a deeper understanding of the chemical composition of aerosols is one of the major challenges for atmospheric and climate scientists and is beginning to be recognized as important for ecological research. Better comprehension of aerosol chemistry can potentially provide valuable information on atmospheric processes such as oxidation of organics and the production of cloud condensation nuclei as well as provide an approximation of the general status of an ecosystem through the measurement of certain stress biomarkers. In this study, we describe an efficient aerosol sampling method, the metabolite extraction and the analytical procedures for the chemical characterization of aerosols, namely, the atmo-metabolome. We used mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-MS), gas chromatography (GC-MS) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR-MS) to characterize the atmo-metabolome of two marked seasons; spring and summer. Our sampling and extraction methods demonstrated to be suitable for aerosol chemical characterization with any of the analytical platforms used in this study. The atmo-metabolome between spring and summer showed overall statistically differences. We identified several metabolites that can be attributed to pollen and other plant-related aerosols. Spring aerosols exhibit higher concentrations of metabolites linked to higher plant activity while summer samples had higher concentrations of metabolites that may reflect certain oxidative stresses in primary producers. Moreover, the elemental composition of aerosols showed clear different between seasons. Summer aerosols were generally higher in molecular weight and with higher O/C ratios, indicating higher oxidation levels and condensation of compounds relative to spring. Our method represents an advanced approach for characterizing the composition of

  17. The application and properties of composite sorbents of inorganic ion exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchi, A; Khanchi, A; Atashi, H; Bagheri, A; Nematollahi, L

    2006-10-11

    A description is given of the preparation and properties of potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II) (KCFC) and the composite, potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II)-polyacrylonitrile (KCFC-PAN). The materials were dried at high temperatures and characterized by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma and infrared. The ion exchange of alkaline earth metals and molybdenum on a nonstoichiometric compound K(2)[CoFe(CN)(6)] and its PAN based absorber was examined by batch methods. The adsorption of molybdenum from aqueous solutions on KCFC-PAN was investigated and optimized as a function of equilibration time and pH. The materials which were dried at optimum high temperature of 110 degrees C were found to be stable in water, dilute acids, alkaline solutions and relatively high temperature. The distribution coefficient values K(d) for alkaline earth metals, followed the same trend of increase for both sets of absorbers studied, i.e. Ba(2+)>Sr(2+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+), which closely resembles to the order of the size of the hydrated cations. However, the K(d) values show a significant increase for PAN based absorbers in comparison to KCFC absorbers.

  18. Novel Bi/BiOBr/AgBr composite microspheres: Ion exchange synthesis and photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jianchang; Li, Zhenlu; Ge, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Novel Bi/BiOBr/AgBr composite microspheres were prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Bi/BiOBr microspheres and AgNO3. The characteristic of the as-obtained ternary microspheres was tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL). Under visible light irradiation, Bi/BiOBr/AgBr microspheres exhibited an excellent photocatalytic efficiency for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation, which was about 1.4 and 4.9 times as high as that of Bi/BiOBr and BiOBr/AgBr, demonstrating that the highest separation efficiency of charge carriers in the heterostructured Bi/BiOBr/AgBr. The photocatalytic activity of Bi/BiOBr/AgBr microspheres just exhibited a slight decrease after three consecutive cycles. The photocatalytic mechanism investigation confirmed that the superoxide radicals (O2•-) were the dominant reactive oxygen species for RhB degradation in Bi/BiOBr/AgBr suspension.

  19. Biochar-supported reduced graphene oxide composite for adsorption and coadsorption of atrazine and lead ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Cao, Bo; Zhao, Lulu; Sun, Lili; Gao, Yan; Li, Jiaojiao; Yang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    To explore potential in application for simultaneous removal of atrazine and lead ions (Pd2+), the adsorption and coadsorption of atrazine and Pd2+ is evaluated onto a novel biochar-supported reduced graphene oxide composite (RGO-BC), which has been successfully developed via slow pyrolysis of graphene oxide (GO) pretreated corn straws. Structure and morphology analysis reveal that GO nanosheets are coated on the surface of biochar (BC) mainly through π-π interactions, notably, GO nanosheets after annealing reduction can basically retain the original morphology, meanwhile, the change of physico-chemical properties on the surface endow excellent adsorption capaities of 26.10 mg g-1 for Pb2+ and 67.55 mg g-1 for atrazine. A significant difference is in sorption of Pb2+ and atrazine on RGO-BC sample in both single- and binary-solute systems. The adsorption capacity of RGO-BC still remained above 54.58 mg g-1 after four times regeneration (81% adsorption capacity remained), demonstrating a promising candidate for the application of removal contaminant in the environment.

  20. Copper ferrocyanide - polyurethane foam as a composite ion exchanger for removal of radioactive cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.; Ahmed, J.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed for the removal of cesium from the aqueous radioactive waste using a composite ion-exchanger consisting of Copper-Ferrocyanide Powder (CFC) and Polyurethane (PU) Foam. Polyvinyl acetate has been used as a binder in the preparation of CFC-PU foam. The physical properties of CFC such as density, surface area, IR stretching frequency and lattice parameters have been evaluated and also its potassium and copper(II) content have been estimated. Optimization of loading of CFC on PU foam has been studied. The CFC-PU was viewed under microscope to find out the homogeneity of distribution. Exchange capacities of the CFC-PU foam in different media have been determined and column studies have been carried out. Studies have been undertaken on extraction of cesium from CFC foam and also on digestion of spent CFC-PU foam and immobilization of digested solution in cement matrix. The cement matrices have been characterized with respect to density, bio-resistance and leaching resistance. (author)