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Sample records for iodine value

  1. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all Piodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  2. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Making Decisions What you Need To Know About Supplements Dietary ... mild iodine deficiency and of iodine supplements on cognitive ... breasts. It mainly affects women of reproductive age but can also occur ...

  3. Threshold values characterizing iodine-induced SCC of zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, K.

    1984-01-01

    Threshold values of stress, stress intensity factor, strain, strain rate and iodine concentration for SCC of unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloys are reviewed. The ratio of σsub(th)/σsub(y) adequately represents the effects of cold work and irradiation damage on the SCC susceptibility, where threshold stress σsub(th) is defined as the minimum stress to cause SCC to failure after -6 and 10 -3 min -1 . A comparison of SCC data between constant strain rate and constant stress tests is presented in order to examine the validity of a cumulative-damage concept under SCC conditions. (author)

  4. Theoretical modeling of iodine value and saponification value of biodiesel fuels from their fatty acid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinath, A.; Puhan, Sukumar; Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-07-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The properties of biodiesel depend on the type of vegetable oil used for the transesterification process. The objective of the present work is to theoretically predict the iodine value and the saponification value of different biodiesels from their fatty acid methyl ester composition. The fatty acid ester compositions and the above values of different biodiesels were taken from the available published data. A multiple linear regression model was developed to predict the iodine value and saponification value of different biodiesels. The predicted results showed that the prediction errors were less than 3.4% compared to the available published data. The predicted values were also verified by substituting in the available published model which was developed to predict the higher heating values of biodiesel fuels from their iodine value and the saponification value. The resulting heating values of biodiesels were then compared with the published heating values and reported. (author)

  5. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delange, F.; Benker, G.; Caron, P.; Eber, O.; Ott, W.; Peter, F.; Podoba, J.; Simescu, M.; Szybinsky, Z.; Vertongen, F.; Vitti, P.; Wiersinga, W.; Zamrazil, V.

    1997-01-01

    Up to 1992, most European countries used to be moderately to severely iodine deficient. The present study aimed at evaluating possible changes in the status of iodine nutrition in 12 European countries during the past few years. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography in 7599 schoolchildren

  6. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg ulcers and reduce the chance of a future infection. Conjunctivitis (pinkeye). Research suggests that using eye ... National Institute of Medicine has set Adequate Intake (AI) of iodine for infants: 0 to 6 months, ...

  7. Threshold values characterizing iodine-induced SCC of zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, K.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, threshold values of stress, stress intensity factor, strain, strain rate and iodine concentration for SCC of unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloys are reviewed. The ratio of σ sub(th)/σ sub(y) adequately represents the effects of cold-work and irradiation on the SCC susceptibility, where threshold stress σ sub(th) is defined as the minimum stress to cause SCC to failure after 10-20 hours and σ sub(y), the yield stress obtained in an inert atmosphere. The ratio becomes gradually smaller with larger σ sub(y) and is less than 1 for materials with yield strengths above about 350MPa. Plastic strain appears to be necessary for SCC; plastic strains to failure range from 0.1 to 1% for high strength materials, even when data for irradiated materials are included. Strain rate significantly affects the susceptibility. A comparison of SCC data between constant strain rate and constant stress tests is presented. (author)

  8. Optimising Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin For Its Crude Stearic Acid Iodine Value To Provide The Stable Specification Of Blended Stearic Acid Distillate Iodine Value

    OpenAIRE

    Ritonga, Muhammad Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    On the commercial scale, the quality standard of Blended Stearic Acid Distilled (BSAD) couldn’t be achieved by normal distillation. BSAD iodine value is mostly higher than maximum quality standard (0.2 mg/100 g), with the same iodine value (0.80 g/100 g) of feed Hydrogenated Splitted RBDPS Fatty Acid or HSRBDPSFA, feed capacity 5.5 ton/hour with bottom flash distiller temperature reaching 213oC. The separation and reduction of chemical impurities (so sensitive to oxidation/temperature/heat ch...

  9. Value of radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid imaging in diagnosis of painless thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rusen; Feng Yong; Hu Yingjian; He Hongyuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical value of radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid imaging in diagnosis of painless thyroiditis (PT). Methods: Seventy cases of PT patients, 50 cases of GD patients and 50 cases of healthy persons were retrospectively analyzed by using radioactive iodine uptake, thyroid imaging and serological examination. Results: PT group radioactive iodine uptake rate was significantly lower than the control group, GD group was significantly higher than the control group, PT group and the GD group difference was significant (F=64.88, P<0.01). Thyroid image of PT group is not clear, or no to be seen, thyroid image of GD group can be clearly visible. Conclusion: Radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid imaging play an irreplaceable role in the identification of PT and GD, and the method is simple and effective too. (authors)

  10. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 ° C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 ° C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 ° C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 ° C, 0 ° C, 6 ° C and 24 ° C upon storage for one year.

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for iodine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for iodine, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI). Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Through these hormones, iodine...... stores in conditions of adequate iodine status before pregnancy and considers that a full compensation for the iodine secreted in breast milk is not justified for the derivation of an AI for iodine for lactating women....

  12. Obtaining the Iodine Value of Various Oils via Bromination with Pyridinium Tribromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simurdiak, Michael; Olukoga, Olushola; Hedberg, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory exercise was devised that allows students to rapidly and fairly accurately determine the iodine value of oleic acid. This method utilizes the addition of elemental bromine to the unsaturated bonds in oleic acid, due to bromine's relatively fast reaction rate compared to that of the traditional Wijs solution method. This method also…

  13. Review of measured values of the milk transfer coefficient f/sub m/ for iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F O [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-08-01

    Most published assessments of the environmental transport of iodine have used a value of 1 X 10/sup -2/ days per litre (d/1) for the transfer coefficient (fsub(m)) which relates the concentration per litre of milk to the daily amount of the element ingested by a cow. However, the USNRC has recommended (USNRC 77) a value of 0.6 X 10/sup -2/ d/1 for the transfer of iodine to cow's milk and 6 X 10/sup -2/ d/1 for goat's milk. A literature survey of published values of fsub(m) leads to a recommendation which deviates from the values chosen by the USNRC. An fsub(m) of 0.5 d/1 for goat's milk and an fsub(m) of 1 X 10/sup -2/ for cow's milk appear to be more appropriate.

  14. A review of measured values of the milk transfer coefficient (fsub(m)) for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most published assessments of the environmental transport of iodine have used a value of 1 X 10 -2 days per litre (d/1) for the transfer coefficient (fsub(m)) which relates the concentration per litre of milk to the daily amount of the element ingested by a cow. However, the USNRC has recommended (USNRC 77) a value of 0.6 X 10 -2 d/1 for the transfer of iodine to cow's milk and 6 X 10 -2 d/1 for goat's milk. A literature survey of published values of fsub(m) leads to a recommendation which deviates from the values chosen by the USNRC. An fsub(m) of 0.5 d/1 for goat's milk and an fsub(m) of 1 X 10 -2 for cow's milk appear to be more appropriate. (author)

  15. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of –20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year.

  16. Obtaining and application of increased food and biological value iodinated products from lentils sprouted grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of research direction is related to the actual problem of production and distribution of functional purpose food products due to the spread of nutritional diseases and the lack of micronutrients in ordinary people and athletes diet. As an object for enrichment with iodine, it was suggested to use lentils, which is famous for its high protein content, low lipid and oligosaccharide content, and low inhibitory effect. The iodine accumulation occurs during germination, due to the use of a nutrient solution of the iodine inorganic form. In addition, the biochemical composition of the grain and the biological value of lentils are significantly improved: an increase in the content of total amino acids and vitamins is found to be 1.5-2.0 times, a mass fraction of the oligosaccharide fraction is observed. To determine the effect of technological processing on the degree of iodine conservation in lentils the grains were exposed to the following impact: grinding, extrusion, frying. An insignificant decrease in the amount of iodine during extrusion was noted and more significant one - during grinding. The obtained results of the determination of biological safety by the method of studying the effect of the investigated product on the growth response of ciliates allowed to confirm the safety of both fresh and dried sprouted grain of lentils. When studying the microbiology of grain by sowing on agarized selective diagnostic environments with subsequent identification of the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora, including colony-forming units, deviations from the normative indices were not revealed. Experimental production of the extrudate was carried out, possible ways of its use in meat systems for improving the functional and technological properties of minced meat, as well as for independent use as snacks for the nutrition of athletes were suggested.

  17. The effect of eating salt with iodine on the normal values of thyroid 131I uptake rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Wang Huawen; Li Guirong; Chen Chunmei; Zhang Lixia; Yu Yuehua

    2002-01-01

    131 I uptake rates of control group, which stop eating salt with iodine for over six weeks, eating salt with iodine group, the hyperthyroidism group are determined in 2 h, 6 h and 24 h respectively. The results show 131 I uptake rate of eating salt with iodine group are (7.7 +- 4.2)% in 2 h, (13.8 +- 5.3)% in 6 h and (21.9 +- 7.7)% in 24 h. There are no difference between sex. There is significance of difference (P 131 I uptake rates between the hyperthyroidism group of eating salt with iodine and control group is 5.0%, and eating salt with iodine group is 22.5%. To determine the thyroid iodine uptake rate in the patients who did not stop eating salt with iodine, the ranges of normal values must be defined. This result could be as a standard to diagnose the patients of hyperthyroidism of eating salt with iodine

  18. Accessory spleen versus lymph node: Value of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lambert, Jack W.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether iodine quantification with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) improves the differentiation of accessory spleens (AS) from lymph nodes (LN) compared to CT number measurements. Methods: Abdominal DECT images of 75 patients with either AS (n = 35) or LN (n = 48) (benign entity) were retrospectively evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HU) and iodine concentrations of AS, LN and the main spleen were measured. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were performed to calculate an optimal threshold for distinguishing AS from LN. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for distinguishing AS from LN by iodine concentration measurements. Results: Mean CT numbers and iodine concentrations were higher for AS (148 ± 29 HU and 48.2 ± 11 × 100 μg/cc) than LN (83 ± 19 HU and 31.5 ± 6.2 × 100 μg/cc, respectively, P < 0.001 each). Mean CT numbers were lower for AS compared to the main spleen (161 ± 29HU, P < 0.01), whereas mean iodine concentrations (47.7 ± 10 × 100 μg/cc) were not significantly different (P = 0.095). An iodine concentration greater than 38 × 100 μg/cc suggested AS with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91%, 85%, and 88%, respectively (Area under ROC curve 0.941). Conclusions: Iodine measurements might contribute to the differentiation of AS from LN. Iodine concentrations similar to that of the main spleen may help to confirm the diagnosis of AS.

  19. Accessory spleen versus lymph node: Value of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian, E-mail: Sebastian.winklhofer@usz.ch [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Lin, Wei-Ching, E-mail: d7466@mail.cmuh.org.tw [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2, Yuh-Der Rd., Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological science, China Medical University, No. 91, Syueshih Rd., Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lambert, Jack W., E-mail: Jack.Lambert@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail: Benjamin.Yeh@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate whether iodine quantification with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) improves the differentiation of accessory spleens (AS) from lymph nodes (LN) compared to CT number measurements. Methods: Abdominal DECT images of 75 patients with either AS (n = 35) or LN (n = 48) (benign entity) were retrospectively evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HU) and iodine concentrations of AS, LN and the main spleen were measured. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were performed to calculate an optimal threshold for distinguishing AS from LN. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for distinguishing AS from LN by iodine concentration measurements. Results: Mean CT numbers and iodine concentrations were higher for AS (148 ± 29 HU and 48.2 ± 11 × 100 μg/cc) than LN (83 ± 19 HU and 31.5 ± 6.2 × 100 μg/cc, respectively, P < 0.001 each). Mean CT numbers were lower for AS compared to the main spleen (161 ± 29HU, P < 0.01), whereas mean iodine concentrations (47.7 ± 10 × 100 μg/cc) were not significantly different (P = 0.095). An iodine concentration greater than 38 × 100 μg/cc suggested AS with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91%, 85%, and 88%, respectively (Area under ROC curve 0.941). Conclusions: Iodine measurements might contribute to the differentiation of AS from LN. Iodine concentrations similar to that of the main spleen may help to confirm the diagnosis of AS.

  20. Iodine intake in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.A.; Hetherton, A.M.; O'Carroll, D.; Smith, D.F.; O'Halloran, M.J.; O'Donovan, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A study of urinary iodine excretion and thyroid gland uptake of radioactive iodine 131 I was undertaken in the Dublin area with a view to providing data on the current iodine status in Ireland. A mean urinary iodine excretion of 118±82μg/gram creatinine (Median 96) obtained from 821 subjects attending general hospital outpatient clinics in the Dublin area in 1987, while excluding severe iodine deficiency in this particular cohort, obscured the fact that 250 (30%) had iodine excretion values ≤70 μ/g creatinine, a value approximating to the minimum daily iodine requirement. The results provide sufficient evidence of sporadic iodine deficiency to justify a more widespread study of the iodine status of the Irish population with a view to making recommendations on the possible need for iodine prophylaxis

  1. Liquid–liquid microextraction in a multicommuted flow system for direct spectrophotometric determination of iodine value in biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Andréia C.; Rocha, Fábio R.P., E-mail: frprocha@cena.usp.br

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • First flow-based procedure for iodine value determination in biodiesel. • Simple, fast and reliable procedure. • Detection without sample pretreatment or phase separation. • Liquid–liquid microextraction with low sample and reagent volumes. • Avoid toxic reagents and organic solvent used in the reference procedure. Abstract: A flow-based procedure was developed for the direct spectrophotometric determination of the iodine value (IV) in biodiesel. The procedure was based on the microextraction/reaction of unsaturated compounds with triiodide ions in an aqueous medium by inserting the reagent solution between the aliquots of biodiesel without any pretreatment. The interaction occurred through the biodiesel film formed on the inner walls of the hydrophobic tube used as the reactor and at the aqueous/biodiesel interfaces. The spectrophotometric detection was based on the discoloration of the I₃⁻ reagent in the aqueous phase by using a glass tube coupled to a fiber-optic spectrophotometer as the detection cell. Reference solutions were prepared by dilution of biodiesel samples with previously determined IV in hexane. The analytical response was linear for IV from 13 to 135 g I₂/100 g with a detection limit of 5 g I₂/100 g. A coefficient of variation of 1.7% (n = 10) and a sampling rate of 108 determinations per hour were achieved by consuming 224 μL of the sample and 200 μg of I₂ per determination. The slopes of analytical curves obtained with three different biodiesel samples were in agreement (variations in slopes lower than 3.1%), thus indicating an absence of any matrix effects. Results for biodiesel samples from different sources agreed with the volumetric official procedure at the 95% confidence level. The proposed procedure is therefore a simple, fast, and reliable alternative for estimating the iodine value of biodiesel.

  2. Liquid–liquid microextraction in a multicommuted flow system for direct spectrophotometric determination of iodine value in biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Andréia C.; Rocha, Fábio R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First flow-based procedure for iodine value determination in biodiesel. • Simple, fast and reliable procedure. • Detection without sample pretreatment or phase separation. • Liquid–liquid microextraction with low sample and reagent volumes. • Avoid toxic reagents and organic solvent used in the reference procedure. - Abstract: A flow-based procedure was developed for the direct spectrophotometric determination of the iodine value (IV) in biodiesel. The procedure was based on the microextraction/reaction of unsaturated compounds with triiodide ions in an aqueous medium by inserting the reagent solution between the aliquots of biodiesel without any pretreatment. The interaction occurred through the biodiesel film formed on the inner walls of the hydrophobic tube used as the reactor and at the aqueous/biodiesel interfaces. The spectrophotometric detection was based on the discoloration of the I 3 − reagent in the aqueous phase by using a glass tube coupled to a fiber-optic spectrophotometer as the detection cell. Reference solutions were prepared by dilution of biodiesel samples with previously determined IV in hexane. The analytical response was linear for IV from 13 to 135 g I 2 /100 g with a detection limit of 5 g I 2 /100 g. A coefficient of variation of 1.7% (n = 10) and a sampling rate of 108 determinations per hour were achieved by consuming 224 μL of the sample and 200 μg of I 2 per determination. The slopes of analytical curves obtained with three different biodiesel samples were in agreement (variations in slopes lower than 3.1%), thus indicating an absence of any matrix effects. Results for biodiesel samples from different sources agreed with the volumetric official procedure at the 95% confidence level. The proposed procedure is therefore a simple, fast, and reliable alternative for estimating the iodine value of biodiesel

  3. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  4. Liquid-liquid microextraction in a multicommuted flow system for direct spectrophotometric determination of iodine value in biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andréia C; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2014-06-04

    A flow-based procedure was developed for the direct spectrophotometric determination of the iodine value (IV) in biodiesel. The procedure was based on the microextraction/reaction of unsaturated compounds with triiodide ions in an aqueous medium by inserting the reagent solution between the aliquots of biodiesel without any pretreatment. The interaction occurred through the biodiesel film formed on the inner walls of the hydrophobic tube used as the reactor and at the aqueous/biodiesel interfaces. The spectrophotometric detection was based on the discoloration of the I3(-) reagent in the aqueous phase by using a glass tube coupled to a fiber-optic spectrophotometer as the detection cell. Reference solutions were prepared by dilution of biodiesel samples with previously determined IV in hexane. The analytical response was linear for IV from 13 to 135 g I2/100 g with a detection limit of 5 g I2/100 g. A coefficient of variation of 1.7% (n=10) and a sampling rate of 108 determinations per hour were achieved by consuming 224 μL of the sample and 200 μg of I2 per determination. The slopes of analytical curves obtained with three different biodiesel samples were in agreement (variations in slopes lower than 3.1%), thus indicating an absence of any matrix effects. Results for biodiesel samples from different sources agreed with the volumetric official procedure at the 95% confidence level. The proposed procedure is therefore a simple, fast, and reliable alternative for estimating the iodine value of biodiesel. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Dual-energy computed tomography to assess tumor response to hepatic radiofrequency ablation: potential diagnostic value of virtual noncontrast images and iodine maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Kyung Won; Klotz, Ernst; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2011-02-01

    to determine the value of dual-energy (DE) scanning with virtual noncontrast (VNC) images and iodine maps in the evaluation of therapeutic response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatic tumors. a total of 75 patients with hepatic tumors and who underwent DE computed tomography (CT) after RFA, were enrolled in this study. Our DE CT protocol included precontrast, arterial, and portal phase scans. VNC images and iodine maps were created from 80 to 140 kVp images during the arterial and portal phases. VNC images were then compared with true, noncontrast (TNC) images, and iodine maps were compared with linearly blended images, both qualitatively and quantitatively. For the former comparison, image quality and acceptability of the VNC images as a replacement for TNC images were both rated. The CT numbers of the hepatic parenchyma, ablation zone, and image noise were measured. For the latter comparison, lesion conspicuity of the ablation zone and the additional benefit of integrating the iodine map into the routine protocol, were assessed. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of the ablation zone-to-liver and aorta-to-liver as well as the CT number differences between the center and the periphery of the ablation zone were calculated. The image quality of the VNC images was rated as good (mean grading score, 1.88) and the level of acceptance was 90% (68/75). The mean CT numbers of the hepatic parenchyma and ablation zone did not differ significantly between the TNC and the VNC images (P > 0.05). The lesion conspicuity of the ablation zone was rated as excellent or good in 97% of the iodine map (73/75), and the additional benefits of the iodine maps were positively rated as better to the same (mean 1.5). The CNR of the aorta-to-liver parenchyma was significantly higher on the iodine map (P = 0.002), and the CT number differences between the center and the periphery of the ablation zone were significantly lower on the iodine map (P VNC images can be an alternative to TNC

  6. [Value of quantitative iodine-based material decomposition images with gemstone spectral CT imaging in the follow-up of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after TACE treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Gusheng; Wang, Shuang; Li, Chenrui; Zhao, Xinming; Zhou, Chunwu

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the value of quantitative iodine-based material decomposition images with gemstone spectral CT imaging in the follow-up of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoebolization (TACE). Consecutive 32 HCC patients with previous TACE treatment were included in this study. For the follow-up, arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP) dual-phase CT scans were performed with a single-source dual-energy CT scanner (Discovery CT 750HD, GE Healthcare). Iodine concentrations were derived from iodine-based material-decomposition images in the liver parenchyma, tumors and coagulation necrosis (CN) areas. The iodine concentration difference (ICD) between the arterial-phase (AP) and venal-phase (VP) were quantitatively evaluated in different tissues.The lesion-to-normal parenchyma iodine concentration ratio (LNR) was calculated. ROC analysis was performed for the qualitative evaluation, and the area under ROC (Az) was calculated to represent the diagnostic ability of ICD and LNR. In all the 32 HCC patients, the region of interesting (ROI) for iodine concentrations included liver parenchyma (n=42), tumors (n=28) and coagulation necrosis (n=24). During the AP the iodine concentration of CNs (median value 0.088 µg/mm(3)) appeared significantly higher than that of the tumors (0.064 µg/mm(3), P=0.022) and liver parenchyma (0.048 µg/mm(3), P=0.005). But it showed no significant difference between liver parenchyma and tumors (P=0.454). During the VP the iodine concentration in hepatic parenchyma (median value 0.181 µg/mm(3)) was significantly higher than that in CNs (0.140 µg/mm(3), P=0.042). There was no significant difference between liver parenchyma and tumors, CNs and tumors (both P>0.05). The median value of ICD in CNs was 0.006 µg/mm(3), significantly lower than that of the HCC (0.201 µg/mm(3), Piodine-based material decomposition images with gemstone spectral CT imaging can improve the diagnostic efficacy of CT imaging

  7. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  8. Serum butanol extractable iodine values for adolescents exposed in utero - Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrow, G N; Hamilton, H B; Man, E B

    1961-10-18

    Serum BEI determinations were performed on 249 fifteen year old exposed and nonexposed apparently normal children all of whom were in utero at the time of the atomic bombing in Nagasaki, Japan. The girls were more mature in growth and development than the boys; the boys were probably near the peak stress of adolescent development. No statistically significant difference of BEI values was found between exposed and control groups. The trimester of gestation of the children at the time of exposure appeared to have no conclusive effect on the BEI value, but the number of subjects from each trimester was too small for satisfactory statistical analysis. Eleven females with goiter were analyzed separately. There was a slight preponderance of goiter in the exposed group, but the difference was not significant. The mean BEI value for the males was significantly lower than that for the females. The mean BEI values for Japanese adolescents are higher than for adolescents in the Middle Atlantic and New England states in the United States. 31 references, 2 tables.

  9. SU-G-IeP2-12: The Effect of Iterative Reconstruction and CT Tube Voltage On Hounsfield Unit Values of Iodinated Contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, K; Greene-Donnelly, K; Vallabhaneni, D; Scalzetti, E [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of changing iterative reconstruction strength and tube voltage on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of varying concentrations of Iodinated contrast medium in a phantom. Method: Iodinated contrast (Omnipaque 300, GE Healthcare, Princeton NJ) was diluted with distilled water to concentrations of 0.6, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, and 10.8 mg/mL of Iodine. The solutions were scanned in a patient equivalent water phantom on two MDCT scanners: VCT 64 slice (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) and an Aquilion One 320 slice scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin CA). The phantom was scanned at 80, 100, 120, 140 kV using 400, 255, 180, and 130 mAs, respectively, for the VCT scanner, and 80, 100, 120, and 135 kV using 400, 250, 200, and 150 mAs, respectively, on the Aquilion One. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm (VCT) and 0.5 mm (Aquilion One). The VCT images were reconstructed using Advanced Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) at 6 different strengths: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. Aquilion One images were reconstructed using Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) at 4 strengths: no AIDR, Weak AIDR, Standard AIDR, and Strong AIDR. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the images to measure the HU values and standard deviations of the diluted contrast. Second order polynomials were used to fit the HU values as a function of Iodine concentration. Results: For both scanners, there was no significant effect of changing the iterative reconstruction strength. The polynomial fits yielded goodness-of-fit (R2) values averaging 0.997. Conclusion: Changing the strength of the iterative reconstruction has no significant effect on the HU values of Iodinated contrast in a tissue-equivalent phantom. Fit values of HU vs Iodine concentration are useful in quantitative imaging protocols such as the determination of cardiac output from time-density curves in the main pulmonary artery.

  10. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omomo, Yoichiro

    1974-01-01

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  11. Normal values of iodine - 131 uptake in 24 hours, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Filho, T.F. de; Oliveira, C.F.F. de

    Thorough clinical exams on all patients come to the radioisotope Laboratory at UFRN, where carried out attempting to select those patients with thyroids considered to be clinically normal. After wayne tests for hypo and hyperthyroidism were carried out, 100 patients were considered to be fit for the research. All of them had an impalpable and asympitomatic thyroid. Waynes clinical indices were precisely revealed in 93% of cases. It was concluded that the normal values of uptake of 131 I during the 24 hours in RGN varied between 14% and 44% [pt

  12. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  13. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  14. Simple methods via Mid-IR or {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy for the determination of the iodine value of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamoto, Gustavo G.; Favaro, Martha M.A.; Tubino, Matthieu, E-mail: tubino@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2015-07-01

    Two methods for determining the iodine value in vegetable oils are described. One employs mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy and the other uses hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The determination of the iodine value is based on either the transmittance intensity of mid-IR signals or on the {sup 1}H NMR signal integration and multivariate calibration. Both of the methods showed adequate coefficients of determination (r{sup 2} = 0.9974 and 0.9978, respectively) when compared to Wijs method, which is recommended by the norm EN 14111. A statistical comparison between the results from the proposed methods and from Wijs method shows that both instrumental methods offer equivalent results and greater precision compared to Wijs method. The regressions obtained from the constructed models were considered statistically significant and useful for making predictions. The proposed methods present several advantages compared to Wijs method because they significantly reduce analysis time, reagent consumption and waste generation. Furthermore, an analyst can choose between the mid-IR or {sup 1}H NMR to determine the iodine value. (author)

  15. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  16. Iodinated bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunghi, F.; Riva, P.; Assone, F.; Villa, M.; Plassic, G.

    1978-01-01

    Bleomycin was labelled with iodine-131 by the iodine monochloride method. Iodination did not alter the chemical and chromatographic features and ''in vitro'' stability studies on freeze-dried 131 I-Bleomycin having a specific activity of 1 mCi/mg, stored at different temperatures, showed no appreciable variation of the free-iodine content. Tissue distribution of 131 I-Bleomycin has been evaluated in tumor bearing rats. Patients have been injected with 0.5-1.0 mCi of 131 I-Bleomycin corresponding to a maximum of 1.5 mg. No adverse reactions have been observed. Total body scans have been performed at 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after injection. The iodinated Bleomycin was rapidly distributed and cleared from the body and showed an early uptake in the neoplastic tissue. A diagnostic accuracy of 90% has been observed in malignant deseases, while no false positive results have been, at the moment, recorded. (author)

  17. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  18. Quantifying the effects of iodine contrast media on standardised uptake values of FDG PET/CT images: an anthropomorphic phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Nordin, Abdul Jalil; Ackerly, Trevor; Van Every, Bruce; Martin, Ruth; Geso, Moshi

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to quantify the amount of change in Standardised Uptake Values (SUVs) of PET/CT images by simulating the set-up as closely as possible to the actual patient scanning. The experiments were conducted using an anthropomorphic phantom, which contained an amount of radioactivity in the form of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in a primary plastic test tube and one litre saline bags, including the insertion of bony structures and another two test tubes containing different concentrations of iodine contrast media. Standard scanning protocols were employed for the PET/CT image acquisition. The highest absolute differences in the SUVmax and SUVmean values of the saline bags were found to be about 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The primary test tube showed the largest change of 1.5 in both SUVs; SUV max and SUVmean. However, none of these changes were found to be statistically significant. The clinical literature also contains no evidence to suggest that the changes of this magnitude would change the final diagnosis. Based on these preliminary data, we propose that iodine contrast media can be used during the CT scan of PET/CT imaging, without significantly affecting the diagnostic quality of this integrated imaging modality.

  19. Quantitative CT analysis of pulmonary ground-glass opacity nodules for distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from non-invasive or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma: the added value of using iodine mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji Ye; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Joungho; Jeong, Ji Yun; Kwon, O.J.; Shim, Young Mog

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether quantitative analysis of iodine-enhanced images generated from dual-energy CT (DECT) have added value in distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from non-invasive or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) showing ground-glass nodule (GGN). Thirty-four patients with 39 GGNs were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent DECT followed by complete tumour resection. Various quantitative imaging parameters were assessed, including virtual non-contrast (VNC) imaging and iodine-enhanced imaging. Of all 39 GGNs, four were adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (10 %), nine were MIA (23 %), and 26 were invasive adenocarcinoma (67 %). When assessing only VNC imaging, multivariate analysis revealed that mass, uniformity, and size-zone variability were independent predictors of invasive adenocarcinoma (odds ratio [OR] = 19.92, P = 0.02; OR = 0.70, P = 0.01; OR = 16.16, P = 0.04, respectively). After assessing iodine-enhanced imaging with VNC imaging, both mass on the VNC imaging and uniformity on the iodine-enhanced imaging were independent predictors of invasive adenocarcinoma (OR = 5.51, P = 0.04 and OR = 0.67, P < 0.01). The power of diagnosing invasive adenocarcinoma was improved after adding the iodine-enhanced imaging parameters versus VNC imaging alone, from 0.888 to 0.959, respectively (P = 0.029). Quantitative analysis using iodine-enhanced imaging metrics versus VNC imaging metrics alone generated from DECT have added value in distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from AIS or MIA. (orig.)

  20. Quantitative CT analysis of pulmonary ground-glass opacity nodules for distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from non-invasive or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma: the added value of using iodine mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Ji Ye; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, 81 Irwon-Ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Yun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.J. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Respiratory and Critical Medicine of the Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Young Mog [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, 81 Irwon-Ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To determine whether quantitative analysis of iodine-enhanced images generated from dual-energy CT (DECT) have added value in distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from non-invasive or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) showing ground-glass nodule (GGN). Thirty-four patients with 39 GGNs were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent DECT followed by complete tumour resection. Various quantitative imaging parameters were assessed, including virtual non-contrast (VNC) imaging and iodine-enhanced imaging. Of all 39 GGNs, four were adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (10 %), nine were MIA (23 %), and 26 were invasive adenocarcinoma (67 %). When assessing only VNC imaging, multivariate analysis revealed that mass, uniformity, and size-zone variability were independent predictors of invasive adenocarcinoma (odds ratio [OR] = 19.92, P = 0.02; OR = 0.70, P = 0.01; OR = 16.16, P = 0.04, respectively). After assessing iodine-enhanced imaging with VNC imaging, both mass on the VNC imaging and uniformity on the iodine-enhanced imaging were independent predictors of invasive adenocarcinoma (OR = 5.51, P = 0.04 and OR = 0.67, P < 0.01). The power of diagnosing invasive adenocarcinoma was improved after adding the iodine-enhanced imaging parameters versus VNC imaging alone, from 0.888 to 0.959, respectively (P = 0.029). Quantitative analysis using iodine-enhanced imaging metrics versus VNC imaging metrics alone generated from DECT have added value in distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from AIS or MIA. (orig.)

  1. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Iodine is also used during the production of methamphetamine. Note: This list may not be all inclusive. ... breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests Chest x-ray EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids through a ...

  2. Modelling the chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have assembled a kinetic model, based on elementary chemical reactions, that describes the chemical behaviour of iodine in aqueous solution as a function of time and various parameters such as pH, concentration and radiation field. The model is conceptually divided into six section: aqueous iodine chemistry, aqueous organic iodide chemistry, water radiolysis, radiolysis of iodine solutions, radiolysis of organic iodide solutions and mass transfer. The model indicates that, in the absence of a radiation field, the rate of production of volatile iodine species is controlled by the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion. The volatile iodine species are dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. The single most important parameter controlling iodine volatility is the pH of the solution; high pH values tend to minimize iodine volatility. In the presence of a radiation field, the volatility of iodine is controlled by the radiation-induced oxidation of the iodide ion. Again, iodine volatility is dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. High pH values minimize iodine volatility. A sensitivity analysis has been performed on some sections of the model to identify reactions to which the volatility of iodine is most sensitive. In the absence of a radiation field, the volatility is most sensitive, first, to the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion, and, second, to the rate of mass transfer of volatile species between the aqueous and the gaseous phases. This approach should be useful in identifying reactions for which accurate rate constants are required and in decreasing the complexity of the model. 37 refs

  3. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  4. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  5. Quantitative CT analysis of pulmonary ground-glass opacity nodules for distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from non-invasive or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma: the added value of using iodine mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji Ye; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, Joungho; Jeong, Ji Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kwon, O Jung; Shim, Young Mog

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether quantitative analysis of iodine-enhanced images generated from dual-energy CT (DECT) have added value in distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from non-invasive or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) showing ground-glass nodule (GGN). Thirty-four patients with 39 GGNs were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent DECT followed by complete tumour resection. Various quantitative imaging parameters were assessed, including virtual non-contrast (VNC) imaging and iodine-enhanced imaging. Of all 39 GGNs, four were adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (10 %), nine were MIA (23 %), and 26 were invasive adenocarcinoma (67 %). When assessing only VNC imaging, multivariate analysis revealed that mass, uniformity, and size-zone variability were independent predictors of invasive adenocarcinoma (odds ratio [OR] = 19.92, P = 0.02; OR = 0.70, P = 0.01; OR = 16.16, P = 0.04, respectively). After assessing iodine-enhanced imaging with VNC imaging, both mass on the VNC imaging and uniformity on the iodine-enhanced imaging were independent predictors of invasive adenocarcinoma (OR = 5.51, P = 0.04 and OR = 0.67, P VNC imaging alone, from 0.888 to 0.959, respectively (P = 0.029). Quantitative analysis using iodine-enhanced imaging metrics versus VNC imaging metrics alone generated from DECT have added value in distinguishing invasive adenocarcinoma from AIS or MIA. Quantitative analysis using DECT was used to distinguish invasive adenocarcinoma. Tumour mass and uniformity were independent predictors of invasive adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic performance was improved after adding iodine parameters to VNC parameters.

  6. Technetium, Iodine, and Chromium Adsorption/Desorption Kd Values for Vadose Zone Pore Water, ILAW Glass, and Cast Stone Leachates Contacting an IDF Sand Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Performance and risk assessments of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) have shown that risks to groundwater are quite sensitive to adsorption-desorption interactions occurring in the near- and far-field environment. These interactions between the underlying sediments and the contaminants present in the leachates that descend from the buried glass, secondary waste grouts, and potentially Cast Stone low-activity waste packages have been represented in these assessments using the contaminant distribution coefficient (Kd) construct. Some contaminants (99Tc, 129I, and Cr) present in significant quantities in these wastes have low Kd values and tend to drive risk to public health and the environment. Relatively small changes in the Kd value can cause relatively large changes in the retardation factor. Thus, even relatively small uncertainty in the Kd value can result in a relatively large uncertainty in the risk determined through performance assessment modeling. The purpose of this study is to further reduce the uncertainty in Kd values for 99Tc, iodine (iodide and iodate), and Cr (chromate; CrO42-) by conducting systematic adsorption-desorption experiments using actual sand-dominated Hanford formation sediments from beneath the IDF and solutions that closely mimic Hanford vadose zone pore water and leachates from Cast Stone and ILAW glass waste forms. Twenty-four batch and 21 flow-through column experiments were conducted, yielding 261 Kd measurements for these key contaminants, and contributing to our understanding for predicting transport from wastes disposed to the IDF. While the batch Kd methodology is not well-suited for measuring Kd values for non-sorbing species (as noted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), the batch Kd results presented here are not wholly inconsistent with the column Kd results, and could be used for sensitivity purposes. Results from the column experiments are consistent with the best

  7. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  8. Risk Stratification of Thyroid Incidentalomas Found on PET/CT: The Value of Iodine Content on Noncontrast Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Cha, Jongtae; Jo, Kwanhyeong; Lee, Narae; Yun, Mijin

    2015-11-01

    The Hounsfield unit (HU) ratio of thyroid nodules was assessed compared to the contralateral thyroid lobe on noncontrast computed tomography (CT) to stratify further the risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas found on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT). This retrospective analysis included 82 patients who had thyroid incidentalomas on PET/CT in 2011. On PET/CT, the maximal standardized uptake value ratios of the thyroid nodule compared to liver (T/BSUV) and the HU ratios of the thyroid nodule compared to contralateral thyroid lobe (T/BHU) were calculated. Diagnostic performances of the T/BSUV and T/BHU were compared. The area under the curve of T/BHU was higher than that of T/BSUV (0.941 vs. 0.689, p risk of malignancy was much higher (71.1%) in nodules with a T/BHU cutoff value ≤0.68, whereas it was 0% in nodules with a T/BHU of >0.68. In this study, there were 18 nodules with nondiagnostic (n = 7) or atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance cytologies (n = 11) after fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). When the T/BHU cutoff value was applied, three (60%) of the five nodules with a T/BHU of ≤0.68 were found to be papillary carcinomas. The remaining 13 nodules with a T/BHU of >0.68 were all benign with a risk of malignancy of 0%. T/BHU is a simple and effective parameter to stratify the risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas found on PET/CT. This may be of clinical relevance in those nodules with nondiagnostic or undetermined significance cytologies upon FNAB in the scheme of current clinical practice.

  9. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  10. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  11. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  12. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  13. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...... containing vitamin/mineral tablets. Approximately one third of the women had received tablets containing iodine. In women who had not received iodine supplementation urinary iodine was low with a median value of 39.7 micrograms/g creatinine (Aalborg 28, Randers 33, Ringkøbing 34, Arhus 43 and Copenhagen 62...

  14. Comparison of iodinated contrast media for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque attenuation values by CT coronary angiography: Observations in an ex vivo model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. la Grutta (Ludovico); M. Galia (Massimo); G. Gentile; G. Lo Re (G.); E. Grassedonio (Emanuele); F. Coppolino; E. Maffei (Erica); E. Maresi (E.); A. Lo Casto (A.); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); M. Midiri (Massimo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the influence of different iodinated contrast media with several dilutions on plaque attenuation in an ex vivo coronary model studied by multislice CT coronary angiography. Methods: In six ex vivo left anterior descending coronary arteries immersed in oil, CT

  15. Long-term thyroid values after intake of radio-active iodine; Bilans thyroidiens de longue duree apres administration d'iode radioactif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riviere, R [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In connection with a compartment theory, a kinetic study of thyroid metabolism in man requires the determination of the specific iodine activity at all accessible levels (plasma, urines, faeces), during periods of over a month; The basic methods required for such a study are therefore the use of iodine-125 as a tracer, the exact determination of iodine-127 using activation analysis and the setting-up of a daily diet of constant iodine content. The results are presented for each particular case and the main parameters of thyroid metabolism are calculated. The discussion includes some special considerations concerning the pathological condition of the subject or a break in the thyroid equilibrium. It shows in particular that constant disagreement exists between the experimental curves for the specific iodine activity and the corresponding theoretical curves for a conventional thyroid process based on 3 compartments; these discrepancies concern both the inorganic iodine and the organic iodine eliminated with the faeces. (author) [French] Dans le cadre d'une theorie a compartiments, l'etude cinetique du metabolisme thyroidien chez l'homme necessite la determination de l'activite specifique de l'iode a tous les niveaux accessibles (plasma, urines, feces), pendant des periodes depassant un mois. Les methodes de base indispensables pour une telle etude sont donc l'utilisation de l'iode 125 comme traceur, le dosage precis de l'iode 127 grace a l'analyse par activation et l'etablissement d'une diete journaliere constante en iode. Les resultats sont presentes pour chaque cas et les principaux parametres du metabolisme thyroidien calcules. La discussion fait part de considerations particulieres liees a l'etat pathologique du sujet ou a une rupture de l'equilibre thyroidien. Elle met surtout en lumiere des desaccords constants entre les courbes experimentales d'activite specifique de l'iode et les courbes theoriques correspondantes conformes au schema thyroidien classique a 3

  16. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  17. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-07-01

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. {sup 201}Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative {sup 131}I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of {sup 201}Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. {sup 201}Tl imaging was performed before the {sup 131}I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent {sup 201}Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the {sup 201}Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic {sup 131}I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by {sup 201}Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on {sup 131}I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on {sup 131}I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I

  18. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung; Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. 201 Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative 131 I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of 201 Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of 131 I and 201 Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative 201 Tl and 131 I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. 201 Tl imaging was performed before the 131 I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent 201 Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the 201 Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic 131 I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by 201 Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative 201 Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on 131 I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on 131 I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative 201 Tl and 131 I scans, 15 had elevated serum Tg levels. Among these, local recurrence followed by lung

  19. Iodine and thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Rim Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency causes hypothyroidism that results in impaired somatic growth and motor development in children. Mild and moderate iodine deficiencies cause multifocal autonomous growth of thyroid, which results in thyrotoxicosis. On the other hand, iodine excess is associated with the development of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. In areas of iodine deficiency, a sudden increase in iodine intake is associated with transient hyperthyroidism. Recent studies demonstrated that long-term thyroid function of subjects who experienced both iodine deficiency and iodine excess during childhood tended to be abnormal despite optimization of their current iodine intake. Iodine status in the Korean Peninsula is very unique because people in the Republic of Korea have been shown to have predominantly excessive iodine levels, whereas the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is known to be an iodine-deficient area. Further research is warranted to verify the optimal ranges of iodine intake and to clarify the effects of iodine intake on thyroid disorders in the Korean Peninsula.

  20. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour 123 I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women

  1. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  2. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L M.C.; Grindon, E; Handy, B J; Sutherland, L [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W G; Sims, H E [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C; Jacquemain, D [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  3. Breast-Milk Iodine Concentrations and Iodine Levels of Infants According to the Iodine Status of the Country of Residence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Pantea; Kabir, Ali; Dalili, Hosein; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2018-01-01

    Iodine, an essential micronutrient, plays a critical role in normal growth and development, especially during the first two years of life. This systematic review and meta-analysis is among the first to evaluate breast-milk iodine concentrations and infant iodine status in countries characterized by iodine sufficiency or deficiency. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and other relevant databases, as well as reference lists of previous reviews, were searched for relevant studies published between 1986 and 2016. Mean or median breast-milk and infant urinary iodine concentrations, along with other relevant data, were extracted from eligible studies. Each study was assessed for quality and risk of bias. Of the 496 identified studies, 57 met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The mean (confidence interval [CI]) iodine concentrations in maternal colostrum were 152.0 μg/L [CI 106.2-198.7 μg/L] and 57.8 μg/L [CI 41.4-74.1 μg/L] in iodine-sufficient and -deficient countries, respectively, indicating a significant difference between the two iodine statuses. By contrast, the corresponding values in mature milk did not differ significantly between mothers in iodine-sufficient and -deficient countries (71.5 μg/L [CI 51.0-92.0 μg/L] and 28.0 μg/L [CI -13.8 to 69.9 μg/L], respectively]. The weighted urinary iodine levels [CIs] of breast-fed infants in iodine-sufficient countries were significantly higher than those in iodine-deficient countries (164.5 μg/L [CI 116.4-212.7 μg/L] vs. 70.4 μg/L [CI 46.2-94.6 μg/L]). Similarly, a significant difference was observed in the pooled estimates of urinary iodine levels [CIs] among formula-fed infants in iodine-sufficient versus iodine-deficient countries (310.3 μg/L [CI 287.4-342.1 μg/L] vs. 38.3 μg/L [CI 23.4-53.2 μg/L]). The meta-analysis reveals that in iodine-sufficient countries, the mean iodine concentrations in colostrum and mature breast milk

  4. Iodination of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Feldthus, A.; Carlsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol is iodinated in aqueous solution at pH 5 (acetate buffer) by elemental iodine or, if the iodine is present as iodide, enzymatically controlled by peroxidases. Generally mono-, di- and triiodophenols are obtained, the overall product composition being virtually identical for the two iodination modes. However, there is a tendency to a higher para to ortho ratio for the enzymatically controlled reaction. The mutual ratios of the single iodophenols depends on the initial concentration ratio between phenol and the iodinating species. The first step in the iodination leads preferentially to substitution in the ortho position rather than in the para position in contract to e.g. the corresponding bromination. The relative rates of the competive reactions in the combined iodination scheme has been derived. (author) 2 tabs., 3 ills., 15 refs

  5. Iodine Prophylaxis and Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine is a highly volatile element therefore being very mobile in the environment. It enters the metabolism of living organisms and is selectively taken up and concentrated in the thyroid gland. The plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive material that might be released in the environment in the case of a serious nuclear accident, primarily consists of the radioactive isotopes of iodine. Among those, due to its decay properties, is the most important 131 I. The effective means of protecting the thyroid gland against exposure to radioactive iodine is an intake of stable iodine. Therefore, one of the central issues in the emergency planning is to determine whether and at which projected thyroid radiation dose stable iodine should be given to the population. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set the generic optimized intervention value for iodine prophylaxis to 100 mGy of avertable committed dose to a thyroid.The prophylaxis is implemented by utilizing the pills of pills of potassium iodine (KI). The efficacy of KI in protecting the thyroid gland depends upon the time of intake relative to the start of exposure to radioactive iodine. The best results are obtained if KI is taken 1-2 hours before or immediately after the start of exposure. The recommended dosage, based upon the study performed by Il'in et.al. is 130 mg/day. KI should be taken at least three days after the acute exposure to radioiodine, to prevent accumulation in a thyroid gland of radioiodine excreted from the other compartments of the body. The largest epidemiological study on the effects of KI prophylaxis ever performed was the one in Poland after the Chernobyl accident. Stable iodine was given as single dose of KI solution to 10.5 million of children and 7 millions of adults. Among children no serious side effects were seen while only two adults (with previously recorded iodine sensitivity) had severe respiratory distresses. Polish experiences showed that rapid response to such

  6. Iodine budget in surface waters from Atacama: Natural and anthropogenic iodine sources revealed by halogen geochemistry and iodine-129 isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, Fernanda; Reich, Martin; Snyder, Glen; Pérez-Fodich, Alida; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Daniele, Linda; Fehn, Udo

    2016-01-01

    "1"5) strongly suggest mixing between the groundwater and iodine storage in organic-rich rocks (with variable influence of volcanic fluids) and pre-anthropogenic meteoric water, while samples with higher values (∼2000–93,700 × 10"−"1"5) indicate the input of anthropogenic meteoric fluid. Taking into account the geological, hydrologic and climatic features of the Atacama region, we propose that the mean contribution of anthropogenic "1"2"9I is associated with "1"2"9I releases during nuclear weapon tests carried out in the central Pacific Ocean until the mid 1990's ("1"2"9I/I = ∼12,000 × 10"−"1"5). This source reflects rapid redistribution of this radioisotope on a global scale. Our results support the notion of a long-lived continental iodine cycle in the hyperarid margin of western South America, which is driven by local hydrological and climate conditions, and confirm that groundwater was a key agent for iodine remobilization and formation of the extensive iodine-rich soils of Atacama. - Highlights: • Natural waters from the Atacama Desert are strongly enriched in iodine. • Lower Iodine isotopic ratios confirm that most of the iodine derives from a deep fluid. • Higher iodine isotopic ratios indicate the input of anthropogenic meteoric water. • Groundwater was a key agent for iodine remobilization in Atacama. • There is a long-lived continental iodine cycle in the hyperarid Atacama Desert.

  7. The determination of iodine 129 in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, Roger; Cappellini, Liliane; Goujon de Beauvivier, Michel; Jeanmaire, Lucien; Patti, Francois.

    1975-08-01

    Activation analysis was used for the determination of 129 I in thyroids. Iodine is first extracted from the thyroid and irradiated as lead iodate, thus giving enough sensitivity and making it possible to use common laboratory material. The results showed that the present activity levels in France are between 1 and 50 pCi per gram of iodine; the values found in Argentina are clearly lower [fr

  8. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  9. Weight, iodine content and iodine uptake of the thyroid gland of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Various questions arise in the application of ICRP ''Standard Man'' values to Japanese. One of the questions is that ''Standard Man'' values of the thyroid are different from normal Japanese values. A systematic survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal Japanese values of the thyroid. The subjects of search were weight, iodine content and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) of the thyroid. These are important factors in the estimation of the radiation dose of the thyroid caused by internal contamination of radioiodine, and are foreseen to have the difference between Japanese and ''Standard Man''. The result of study suggested that the weight of the thyroid of normal Japanese is about 19 g for adult male and about 17 g for adult female, and that the iodine content is 12-22 mg and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  10. Iodine deficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).

  11. Intravascular enhancement with identical iodine delivery rate using different iodine contrast media in a circulation phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jurencak, Tomas; Yanniello, Michael J; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kalafut, John F; Nalbantov, Georgi; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Behrendt, Florian F; Das, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Both iodine delivery rate (IDR) and iodine concentration are decisive factors for vascular enhancement in computed tomographic angiography. It is unclear, however, whether the use of high-iodine concentration contrast media is beneficial to lower iodine concentrations when IDR is kept identical. This study evaluates the effect of using different iodine concentrations on intravascular attenuation in a circulation phantom while maintaining a constant IDR. A circulation phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used (heart rate, 60 beats per minute; stroke volume, 60 mL; blood pressure, 120/80 mm Hg). Maintaining a constant IDR (2.0 g/s) and a constant total iodine load (20 g), prewarmed (37°C) contrast media with differing iodine concentrations (240-400 mg/mL) were injected into the phantom using a double-headed power injector. Serial computed tomographic scans at the level of the ascending aorta (AA), the descending aorta (DA), and the left main coronary artery (LM) were obtained. Total amount of contrast volume (milliliters), iodine delivery (grams of iodine), peak flow rate (milliliter per second), and intravascular pressure (pounds per square inch) were monitored using a dedicated data acquisition program. Attenuation values in the AA, the DA, and the LM were constantly measured (Hounsfield unit [HU]). In addition, time-enhancement curves, aortic peak enhancement, and time to peak were determined. All contrast injection protocols resulted in similar attenuation values: the AA (516 [11] to 531 [37] HU), the DA (514 [17] to 531 [32] HU), and the LM (490 [10] to 507 [17] HU). No significant differences were found between the AA, the DA, and the LM for either peak enhancement (all P > 0.05) or mean time to peak (AA, 19.4 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds; DA, 21.1 [1.0] to 21.4 [1.15] seconds; LM, 19.8 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds). This phantom study demonstrates that

  12. Contamination of pasture by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio

    1980-08-01

    The reassessment of the experimental data on the transfer of iodine to aerial parts of rye-gras leads to the following significant findings: 1 - Water content of herbage depending markedly on time and location, the contamination of the vegetals has to be expressed on a dry weight basis. 2 - The value of the geometrical mean of the deposition velocity of iodine vapour as derived from 19 experiments carried out over 4 years is 0.76 cm/s. This value agrees very well with the value of V(d)=0.80 obtained in the USA during experiments comparable as to the number of tests and their duration. Consequently we propose a value of V(d)=0.76 cm/s for the evaluation of pasture land contamination by iodine resulting from routine releases. For accidental releases, however, we propose a value of V(d)=2 cm/s, which was the upper limit in about 90% of our experimental results. 3 - The analysis of data on wet deposition of iodine on the aerial parts of rye-grass shows that the initial retention when expressed as percent of the total deposit decreases with aspersion intensities. If expressed as retention factor, the initial retention is constant, for all aspersion intensities. The average initial iodine retention being lower by a factor of 2.3 than water retention the value of the latter will therefore be the upper limit for this radionuclide [fr

  13. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  14. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  15. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  16. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  17. [Reference values of iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols for the Venezuelan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Landaeta, Maritza; Adrianza de Baptista, Gertrudis; Murillo, Carolain; Rincón, Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Bilbao, Arantza; Anderson, Hazel; García, Doris; Franquiz, Julia; Puche, Rafael; Garcia, Omar; Quintero, Yurimay; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The review on iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols recommendations for Venezuela comprise the definitions adopted worldwide known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that include Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA for iron: 11 mg/day for infants Vitamin C: 40-50 mg/day for infants, 15-45 mg/ day for children, 75 mg/day for male adolescents, 65 mg/day for female adolescents, 90 mg/day for adult males, 75 mg/day for adult females, 80-85 mg/day during pregnancy and 115-120 mg/day during lactation. Recommendations for copper, selenium, molybdenum, vitamins E, K, carotenoids and polyphenols are also presented. These recommendations will help to design adequate and efficient policies that could help to avoid or to treat the consequences derived from the deficiency or the excess of these nutrients.

  18. Iodine leaflets in chapter D5 'Distribution of iodine pills'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Jodine leaflet A will be distributed together with iodine pills in a nuclear disaster. Iodine leaflet B is suitable for informing the public in advance. Iodine leaflet C informs physicians in a scientific way on the benefits and risk of iodine pills. (orig./HP) [de

  19. INFLUENCE OF IODINATED OIL AND MARGARINE ON THE THYROID SYSTEM OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica A. Sturza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world today. Food fortification is an important compliment to food-based approaches, and iodine fortification of foods as one of the strategies for the control of iodine deficiency. Manufacturing and consumption of sunflower oil fortified with iodine as well as derivative products on it basis is a perspective direction for elimination of alimentary dependent iodine deficiency disorders. The present work examines morphological changes in the thyroid system of rats at the experimental mercatholile-induced hypothyroidism. As well it determines the influence of iodinated oil and margarine on the thyroid system of rats. It specifies the safe value of iodinated oil and margarine for rats. In-vivo study demonstrated the efficacy of fortification of lipid products with iodine under iodine deficiency status.

  20. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  1. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroid iodine uptake and serum triiodothyronine level in eldery subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowski, L.; Dolinska, G.; Knapik, Z.; Rynowiecka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Iodine uptake by the thyroid and serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) level in subjects aged from 65 to 93 years were determined. Low T 3 level and normal uptake of inorganic iodine by the thyroid were found. In the light of these results it is suggested that normal accumulation of inorganic iodine and low production of T 3 are characteristic features of euthyroidism in elderly subjects. It is believed that the function of the thyroid is expressed better by determination of the serum levels of thyroid hormones than determination of the uptake of radioactive iodine. Elaboration of standard normal values which would take into account abnormalities encountered in old age is postulated. (author)

  3. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  4. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate iodine intake in Japanese infants, iodine contents were determined in both commercial and homemade baby food samples consumed in Japan. Fifty-three samples of commercial bottled or retort baby food and 25 samples of homemade baby food for one day were collected and their iodine contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after an extraction with 0.5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Among the commercial baby food samples, 35 samples showed low iodine values ( 1000 ng/g wet weight. Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp than other samples. Among the homemade baby food samples, 12 samples brought very low iodine intake (< 1- 24 μg/d, while 5 samples brought very high iodine intake (283-978 μg/d. These results indicate that intermittent high iodine baby food including dishes cooked using kombu contributes to sufficient iodine intake in Japanese infants.

  5. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  6. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author)

  7. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  8. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  9. An Assessment of the Selenium Status of Iodine-Deficient and Non-Iodine Deficient Filipino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sofia Amarra

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare blood selenium levels in iodine-deficient and non-iodine deficient children. Two groups of children were examined: one group with iodine deficiency (n=31 and the other group with normal iodine status (n=32. Blood was extracted by venipuncture from children aged 6-10 years attending first grade in Commonwealth Elementary School in Quezon City. Whole blood selenium was examined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Iodine status was determined by goiter palpation and urinary iodine excretion. Mean selenium levels of deficient and non-deficient children were compared using T-test. Using a cut-off value of 60 mg Se/L whole blood, the proportion of children with normal and deficient iodine status who fell below this cut-off was compared using chi-square test. Whole blood selenium values ranged from 17.6 to 133.6 mg/L. There were no significant differences in mean selenium levels between children with normal and deficient iodine status. Children with normal iodine status had a mean blood selenium level of 55.87 ± 26.3 mg/L while children with deficient iodine status had a mean level of 58.76 ± 26.4 mg/L. Sixty percent of children had blood selenium levels below the arbitrary cut-off of 60 mg/L with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.165, indicating that selenium deficiency is prevalent in this group of children regardless of iodine status. Since selenium deficiency limits the response to iodine supplementation, further investigation is needed to determine whether the same situation exists in children from other areas.

  10. Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food was investigated. Results show significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the iodine content of the processed food compared with the raw forms. The iodine value of 658.60 ± 17.2 ìg/100g observed in raw edible portion of Discorea rotundata was significantly higher ...

  11. Electrochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaraliev, Ya.A. (AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Neorganicheskoj i Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    1982-06-01

    The review is devoted to investigations into oxidation-reduction processes in different systems including iodine. The data on adsorption of iodine on metals are discussed; the connection between the nature of iodine adsorption and the mechanism of its electrode reactions is considered. The metals studied can be placed in the following series taking into account the degree of I sorption on them: Cd approximately Tl < Sn approximately Pb < Ga < Bi < Hg < Co approximately Ni < Fe < Ag approximately Rh approximately Pd approximately Ir < Pt. The data are given of standard and equilibrium potentials in iodine systems. Electric oxidation and electric reduction of iodide ions is investigated using the methods of Faraday impedance and rectification, methods of voltamperometry and oscillopolarography, rotating disc electrode, chronopotentiometry. Anode and cathode processes of oxidation-reduction reactions in I/sup -//IO/sub 3//sup -/, I/sub 2//IO/sub 3//sup -/ and I/sub 2//I/sup +/ systems are analyzed.

  12. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  13. Variation in the iodine concentrations of foods: considerations for dietary assessment1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, Alicia L; Spungen, Judith H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Dwyer, Johanna T; Juan, WenYen; Wirtz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-composition tables typically give measured nutrient concentrations in foods as a single summary value, often the mean, without providing information as to the shape of the distribution. Objective: Our objective was to explore how the statistical approach chosen to describe the iodine concentrations of foods affects the proportion of the population identified as having either insufficient or excessive iodine intakes. Design: We used food intake data reported by the 2009−2010 NHANES and measured iodine concentrations of Total Diet Study (TDS) foods from 4 US regions sampled in 2004–2011. We created 4 data sets, each by using a different summary statistic (median, mean, and 10th and 90th percentiles), to represent the iodine concentration distribution of each TDS food. We estimated the iodine concentration distribution of each food consumed by NHANES participants as the 4 iodine concentration summary statistics of a similar TDS food and used these, along with NHANES food intake data, to develop 4 estimates of each participant’s iodine intake on each survey day. Using the 4 estimates in turn, we calculated 4 usual iodine intakes for each sex- and age-specific subgroup. We then compared these to guideline values and developed 4 estimates of the proportions of each subgroup with deficient and excessive usual iodine intakes. Results: In general, the distribution of iodine intakes was poorly characterized when food iodine concentrations were expressed as mean values. In addition, mean values predicted lower prevalences of iodine deficiency than did median values. For example, in women aged 19–50 y, the estimated prevalence of iodine deficiency was 25% when based on median food iodine concentrations but only 5.8% when based on mean values. Conclusion: For nutrients such as iodine with highly variable concentrations in important food sources, we recommend that food-composition tables provide useful variability information, including the mean, SD, and

  14. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Absorption of gaseous iodine by water droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.F.

    1985-07-01

    A new model has been developed for predicting the rate at which gaseous molecular iodine is absorbed by water sprays. The model is a quasi-steady state mass transfer model that includes the iodine hydrolysis reactions. The parameters of the model are spray drop size, initial concentration of the gas and liquid phases, temperature, pressure, buffered or unbuffered spray solution, spray flow rate, containment diameter and drop fall height. The results of the model were studied under many values of these parameters. Plots of concentration of iodine species in the drop versus time have been produced by varying the initial gas phase concentration of molecular iodine over the range of 1 x 10 -5 moles/liter to 1 x 10 -10 moles/liter and a drop size of 1000 microns. Results from the model are compared to results available from Containment Systems Experiments at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The difference between the model predictions and the experimental data ranges from -120.5% to 68.0% with the closest agreement 7.7%. The new spray model is also compared to previously existing spray models. At high concentrations of gaseous molecular iodine, the new spray model is considered to be less accurate but at low concentrations, the new model predicts results that are closer to the experimental data than the model called the realistic model from WASH-1329. Inclusion of the iodine hydrolysis reaction is shown to be a feature important to a model intended for determining the removal of molecular iodine over a wide range of conditions

  16. Sources of dietary iodine: bread, cows' milk, and infant formula in the Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Pino, Sam; He, Xuemei; Bazrafshan, Hamid R; Lee, Stephanie L; Braverman, Lewis E

    2004-07-01

    Dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Although U.S. dietary iodine is generally adequate, some groups, especially women of childbearing age, are at risk for mild iodine deficiency. Children's average urinary iodine is higher than that of adults. U.S. dietary iodine sources have not been assessed recently. A survey of iodine content in 20 brands of bread, 18 brands of cows' milk, and eight infant formulae was performed between 2001 and 2002. Three bread varieties contained more than 300 microg iodine per slice. Iodine content in other brands was far lower (mean +/- sd, 10.1 +/- 13.2 microg iodine/slice). All cows' milk samples had at least 88 microg iodine/250 ml, ranging from 88-168 microg (116.0 +/- 22.1 microg/250 ml). Infant formulae values ranged from 16.2 to 56.8 microg iodine/5 oz (23.5 +/- 13.78 microg/5 oz). The public should be aware of the need for adequate dietary iodine intake and should be aware that ingredient lists do not reflect the iodine content of foods.

  17. Seaweed tablet: a natural source of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones, Annabelle V.; Ambal, Wilhelmina O.; Monroyo, Evangelina C.; Bonifacio, Teresita S.; Sison, Fe M.

    1997-01-01

    Species of seaweeds namely: Halymenia durvillaei, Laurencia flexilis and Sargassum gigantifolium were processed into dried form and formulated as tablet. Prior to tablet formulation, the seaweeds were assayed for iodine and trace elements. The seaweeds that exhibited significance values of iodine and trace elements were further analyzed for the presence of heavy metals followed by acute oral toxicity test (LD 50 ). Among the seaweeds evaluated, H. durvilaei was found to contain high level of iodine (0.255% w/w) and magnesium (1.65% w/w) with sufficient amount of zinc (25.69 ppm) and phosporous (11.68 ppm). Analysis of heavy metals showed minute amount of mercury (0.0055 ppm), cadmium (0.67 ppm) and lead (1.80 ppm). The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of H. durvillaei administered orally in Swiss male mice is 119.1489 ± 4.9873 g/kg. Tablet formulation was based on the U.S. recommended daily allowance of 0.15 mg. of iodine per adult and children. The final product was comparable to imported Kelp pills (available in the local market) in terms of physical properties and iodine content. (Author)

  18. Reaction rate of hydrolysis of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yoshikazu; Eguchi, Wataru; Adachi, Motonari

    1979-01-01

    Absorption rates of dilute iodine vapor contained in air by aqueous mixtures of sodium hydroxide and boric acid were measured using a laminar liquid jet column absorber at 298 K. Absorption rates in this system are controlled by a series of complex reactions taking place in the liquid phase. The reaction rate constant of iodine hydrolysis in the aqueous phase was determined from the absorption rates observed under the conditions that the base-catalytic hydrolysis reaction of iodine can be considered to be irreversible and that other reactions can be neglected. The absorption rates calculated theoretically with the rate constant value obtained above were in good accordance with the whole experimental data observed for a wide range of experimental conditions. (author)

  19. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  20. Accuracy of contrast-enhanced dual-energy MDCT for the assessment of iodine uptake in renal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Marin, Daniele; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Scribano, Emanuele; Krauss, Bernhard; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the accuracy of iodine-related attenuation and iodine quantification as imaging biomarkers of iodine uptake in renal lesions on a single-phase nephrographic image with dual-energy MDCT. Fifty-nine patients (41 men, 18 women; age range, 28-84 years) with 80 renal lesions underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT during the nephrographic phase of enhancement. Renal lesions were characterized as enhancing or nonenhancing on color-coded iodine overlay maps using iodine-related attenuation (in Hounsfield units) and iodine quantification (in milligrams per milliliter). For iodine-related attenuation the iodine uptake thresholds of 15 and 20 HU were tested; a threshold of 0.5 mg/mL was used for iodine quantification. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of iodine-related attenuation and iodine quantification were calculated from chi-square tests of contingency with histopathology or imaging follow-up as the reference standard. The 95% CIs were calculated from binomial expression. Differences in sensitivity and specificity were assessed by means of McNemar analysis. A significant difference in sensitivity and specificity was found between iodine-related attenuation with the thresholds of 15 HU (sensitivity, 91.4%; specificity, 93.3%; PPV, 91.4%; NPV, 93.3%) and 20 HU (sensitivity, 77.1%; specificity, 100%; PPV, 100%; NPV, 84.9%) (p = 0.008) and between iodine quantification (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 97.7%; PPV, 97.2%; NPV, 100%) and iodine-related attenuation with a threshold of 20 HU (p = 0.004). No significant difference in sensitivity and specificity was found between iodine quantification and iodine-related attenuation with a threshold of 15 HU. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy MDCT with iodine-related attenuation and iodine quantification allows accurate evaluation of iodine uptake in renal lesions on a single-phase nephrographic image.

  1. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Zhao, Xin-ming; Zhao, Yan-feng; Wang, Xiao-yi; Zhou, Chun-wu

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values. 26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A). Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI) of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B). GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis. As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684). CT dose index (CTDI) values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000), respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B. The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  2. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhu

    Full Text Available To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values.26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22 underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A. Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22 were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B. GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD, signal-noise-ratio (SNR, contrast-noise-ratio (CNR of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis.As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684. CT dose index (CTDI values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000, respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B.The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  3. Iodine in different food articles and standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z.; Byrne, A.R.; Stegnar, P.; Stibilj, V.; Rossbach, M.

    1990-01-01

    The greater part of essential iodine enters living organisms via the food chain. Nevertheless, quantitative data on its concentration in diets, food articles and also in available SRMs are very poor and scarce. This and WHO recommendations on daily allowances of iodine for man via food articles caused an added demand for accurate and reliable determination of iodine in these samples. From this point of view the purpose of the present was to analyse and to establish the concentration levels of total iodine in some food articles, diets, SRMs and candidate reference materials by the use of rapid radiochemical separation, developed in our laboratory. The results were checked by the analysis of SRMs with available certified values for iodine and good agreement is evident. (orig.)

  4. The study of iodine in Chinese total diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Chai, Chifang; Qian, Qinfang; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Yongbao; Wang, Ke

    1997-01-01

    In this work, China was divided into four area groups according to their geographical positions and dietary habits. All foods were divided into 12 types and the iodine contents in various diets were determined using epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The intakes for China were evaluated. The results indicate that the intakes of iodine in northern areas are slightly higher and in south areas lower than the lowest recommended intake, and the average intake in China is 166 μg/person per day, which is within the recommended range. In addition, one province was chosen from each area groups. The dietary intakes of iodine were investigated in different ages and sex using total mixed diet method. Our results indicate that the average iodine intake of four provinces was lower than the recommended value, which suggests that it is necessary to supplement iodine in foods in China

  5. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  6. Mock iodine-125 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    An intimate mixture of americium-241 and iodine-129 provides an energy spectrum that reliably simulates the spectrum of iodine-125 in a well-type detector. As such, it may be used as a long-lived standard to calibrate instruments such as well scintillation spectrometers in which measurements are to be made involving iodine-125

  7. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion. No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account.

  8. Clinical value of lung uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a myocardial sympathetic nerve imaging agent, in patients with chronic heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Xiuli; Hasegawa, Shinji; Yoshioka, Jun [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine] (and others)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the clinical value of I-123 MIBG pulmonary accumulation and washout in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Nineteen patients with CHF and 15 normal volunteers (NL) were included. The uptake ratio of heart to mediastinum (H/M), that of lung fields to mediastinum (L/M), and washout rate (WR) of the heart and lung fields were calculated in anterior planar images and compared with results of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. In the CHF group, the lung uptake in delayed images increased and lung WR was decreased, suggesting pulmonary endothelial lesions. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between right and left lung WR and pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure (PA(D)) and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PA(S)) in the CHF group. Since the WR of MIBG reflected PA, it may be used as an index of severity of cardiac dysfunction. (author)

  9. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  10. Efficacy of adjuvant therapy with 3.7 GBq radioactive iodine in intermediate-risk patients with 'higher risk features' and predictive value of postoperative nonstimulated thyroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Pedro W; Mourão, Gabriela F; Calsolari, Maria Regina

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of adjuvant therapy with 3.7 GBq radioactive iodine (RAI) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) of intermediate risk with higher risk features and determined the predictive value of postoperative nonstimulated thyroglobulin (Tg). This was a prospective study including 85 patients with PTC of intermediate risk and higher risk features: tumor greater than 1 cm and aggressive histological subtype or vascular invasion; and/or more than three positive lymph node (LN) or LN greater than 1.5 cm or showing macroscopic extracapsular extension; and/or a combination of tumor greater than 4 cm, microscopic extrathyroidal extension, aggressive histology, and LN metastases (cN1). After thyroidectomy, all patients had nonstimulated Tg of at least 0.3 ng/ml and ultrasonography showed no anomalies. When evaluated 12 months after RAI therapy, an excellent response to initial therapy was achieved in 61 patients (71.7%). Structural disease was detected in five patients (5.9%). During follow-up, 6/80 patients (7.5%) without structural disease 1 year after RAI developed relapse. In the last assessment, 80 patients (94.1%) had nonstimulated Tg less than 1 ng/ml and no evidence of structural disease. There was no case of death because of the tumor. Postoperative nonstimulated Tg was a predictive factor of the main outcome (structural disease 1 year after RAI or recurrence) and the best cut-off was 1.8 ng/ml (sensitivity: 72.7%, specificity: 83.4%, negative predictive value: 95.4%). In patients with PTC of intermediate risk with higher risk features treated with 3.7 GBq RAI, postoperative nonstimulated Tg up to 1.8 ng/ml was a predictor of low risk of structural disease 1 year after therapy or recurrence.

  11. The value of combined strain gauge plethysmography and radioactive iodine fibrinogen scan of the leg in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbuRahma, A.F.; Lawton, W.E. Jr.; Osborne, L.

    1983-01-01

    The fallibility of the clinical diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis has led to a variety of noninvasive diagnostic methods, for example, Doppler ultrasound, plethysmography, 125 I fibrinogen and radionuclide phlebography. This study was undertaken to analyze the value of combined strain gauge plethysmography and 125 I fibrinogen scan of the leg in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. The study was carried out upon 368 patients with suggestive findings of venous thrombosis. Four hundred and fifty strain gauge plethysmograms were reviewed. Venograms were done upon 106 limbs and 125 I fibrinogen leg scans, on 136 limbs. Of the 64 limbs with normal strain gauge plethysmograms which had venograms, 58 were normal, five had incompetent perforators and one limb had deep venous thrombosis. Of the 42 legs with abnormal strain gauge plethysmograms which had venograms, 25 had deep venous thrombosis, 15 had incompetent perforators and two were normal. Twenty-three of 24 legs having both abnormal strain gauge plethysmograms and leg scans were confirmed to have deep venous thrombosis at venography. Fourteen of 18 legs with abnormal strain gauge plethysmograms but normal scans were found to have incompetent perforators. We conclude, that the strain gauge plethysmogram is a reliable test in excluding deep venous thrombosis and, when combined with the fibrinogen leg scan, is reliable in its diagnosis

  12. QUALIMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IODINE SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Bazrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the new iodine-containing supplements (ID derived from organic media collagenous animal protein (pork rind, carpatina and collagen and protein concentrates brands SCANGEN and PROMIL C95. It is shown that the use of these proteins as carriers of iodine is due to the high content of the amino acids glycine and alanine, which correlates with the degree of binding of iodine objects. New additives in addition to the special focus improve rheological properties of foods, including texture, appearance and functional properties. To assess the quality'ID and selection of preferred option the proposed qualitative assessment and a systematic approach to consider all'ID as a system to allocate its elements, to justify the principles of its construction and the requirements imposed on it, to build a General decision tree. For the construction of complex criterion for assessing the quality'ID proposed procedure formalization based on selection and evaluation of individual indicators, the definition of the laws of their change, depending on the dose, duration and temperature of exposure, and functional efficiency. For comparative evaluation of single and calculation of group indicators all of them were reduced to a single dimension by introducing the dimensionless coefficients of adequately describing the analyzed indicators. The article presents the calculated values of single and group of indicators characterizing technological properties 'ID: the degree of binding of iodine, the binding rate of iodine, heat losses of iodine and basic functional and technological properties of meat stuffing systems (water-binding, moisture-holding, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, obtained by the introduction of stuffing in the system studied'ID. At the final stage is the selection of the best 'ID, on the basis of an assessment of group performance.

  13. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  14. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  15. Iodine filters in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined

  16. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  17. Can neonatal TSH screening reflect trends in population iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The distribution of neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations has been used as an index reflecting population dietary iodine intake, with higher concentrations being indicative of lower iodine intake. We examined this distribution in neonates born in Ireland, where the pregnant population has shown a recent decline in urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Our objectives were to determine if any alteration was observed in the percentage of values > 5.0 mIU\\/L and whether a trend in neonatal blood TSH was apparent.

  18. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  19. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  20. Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I 2 . 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The speciation of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The speciation of iodine in the environment is discussed under the following topics: (i) sea surface to atmosphere, (ii) chemistry in bulk seawater, (iii) iodine in rocks, (iv) iodine in soils, (v) iodine in plants and (vi) iodine in solidified wastes. (author)

  2. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  3. MDCT angiography of the pulmonary arteries: intravascular contrast enhancement does not depend on iodine concentration when injecting equal amounts of iodine at standardized iodine delivery rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, S.; Plumhans, C.; Behrendt, F.F.; Das, M.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.; Stanzel, S.; Seidensticker, P.; Knackstedt, C.; Wildberger, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the impact of iodine concentration using two different contrast materials (CM) at standardized iodine delivery rate (IDR) and overall iodine load in 16-multidetector-row-CT-angiography (MDCTA) of the pulmonary arteries of 192 patients with known or suspected pulmonary embolism. One hundred three patients (group A) received 148 ml of a CM containing 300 mg iodine/ml (Ultravist 300 trademark, BayerScheringPharma) at a flow rate of 4.9 ml/s. Eighty-nine patients (group B) received 120 ml of a CM with a concentration of 370 mg iodine/ml (Ultravist370 trademark) at a flow rate of 4.0 ml/s, resulting in a standardized IDR (∝1.5 gI/s) and the same overall amount of iodine (44.4 g). Both CM injections were followed by a saline chaser. Mean density values were determined in the pulmonary trunk, the ascending and the descending aorta, respectively. Applying repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences between both MDCTA protocols were found (p=0.5790): the mean density in the pulmonary trunk was 355±116 Hounsfield Units (group A) and 358±115 (group B). The corresponding values for the ascending and descending aorta were 295±79 (group A) and 284±65 (group B) as well as 272±71 and 262±70. In conclusion, the use of standardized IDR and overall iodine load provides comparable intravascular CM density in pulmonary 16-MDCTA for delivering contrast materials with different iodine concentrations. (orig.)

  4. Disposal of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  5. Atomic iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program

  6. Hyperthyroidism and radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The study details the results of treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism using a combination of fractionated low doses radioactive iodine and anthithyroid drug therapy. The patients studied were treated according to this regimen after August 1968 and all reached euthyroidism before March 1979. None of the patients had been treated with radioactive iodine prior to the start of the protocol. A subgroup of the patients had received an unsuccessfull course with antithyroid drug therapy and, or, surgical therapy before the start of the protocol. Patients who had never been treated for hyperthyroidism were given antithyroid drug therapy for at least 6 months in an attempt to reach euthryroidism without the use of 131 I therapy. Therefore, all patients had experienced a course of unsuccessfull therapy prior to the start of the treatment protocol using combined fractionated low doses of 131 I and antithyroid drug therapy. (Auth.)

  7. Study of Iodine Behavior in the Gas Phase during a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hanchul; Cho, Yeonghun; Ryu, Myunghyun

    2014-01-01

    Among the iodine species, the organic iodides produced from the reaction between iodine and organics such as paint, are not easily trapped by the filters during the containment venting following a severe accident. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has been studying this issue, joining international research programs such as ISTP-EPICUR, OECDBIP and OECD-STEM. In the course of this study, a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) has been developed (Oh et al., 2011), based on the IMOD methodology, and other previous studies. This paper deals with our recent activities on this study, including the development of the model for the iodine reactions in gas phase. Iodine reactions in gas phase were modeled and added to the RAIM code, taking into account several relevant reactions such as formation of ARP, iodine oxide, and organic iodides in gas phase. RAIM was then applied to analyze the S2-6-5-2 test for which iodine-loaded coupons were tested in gas phase. The analysis results show a reasonable estimation of volatile iodine concentration with the desorption rate constant of about 10 -6 s -1 , while those of the other iodine species overestimated for the whole period of the test. It reveals the need to determine appropriate values for the rate constants for formation of iodine oxides and organic iodides

  8. Experimental study of iodine removal efficiency in self-priming venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulhane, N.P.; Landge, A.D.; Shukla, D.S.; Kale, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication, erection of experimental set up and carrying out experimentation with self priming venturi scrubber. • Predicting solubility of iodine in water and its pH dependency. • Increasing pH of water increases iodine removal efficiency. • Maximum iodine removal efficiency is obtained at 10 pH of water using sodium thiosulphate. - Abstract: The objective of present experimental study is to examine the iodine removal efficiency of a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged operating condition. The venturi scrubber is used in Containment Filtered Venting System of nuclear power plants to remove the gaseous pollutants from contaminated gas during severe accidents. The experiment consists of mixing the iodine vapours with the air using suction venturi and pressure cooker system. The purpose of iodine mixing with air is to examine scrubbing performance of the designed venturi scrubber with water as scrubbing liquid. The performance parameters of venturi scrubber are expressed mainly in terms of pressure drop and iodine removal efficiency. The iodine removal efficiency of venturi scrubber is estimated for a series of two experiments by measuring the quantity of iodine in water from iodometric titration with four distinct pH of water. It has been experimentally observed that iodine removal efficiency is improved by using higher pH value of scrubbing liquid since solubility of iodine gets improved at higher pH

  9. Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Iodine Deficiency among Nepalese School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.

  10. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  11. Separation and retention of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    Caustic and mercuric nitrate scrubbers have been used for iodine recovery from process offgas, but they exhibit low decontamination factors for organic iodide removal and produce liquid wastes that are unsuitable for final storage. The Iodox process gives high decontamination factors for both organic iodides and elemental iodine. The liquid waste can be evaporated to a solid or concentrated and fixed in cement. Efficient separation and retention of gaseous iodine species can be obtained with silver-loaded adsorbents. The waste is a dry solid easily handled and stored. Adsorbents containing cheaper metals appear to have lower iodine-loading capacities and may be unsuitable for bulk iodine removal from process offgas because of the large amounts of solid waste that would be generated. A potential method for regenerationg and recycling silver-loaded adsorbents is being evaluated. In conjunction with the regeneration, lead-exchanged zeolite is used as a secondary adsorbent for the final fixation and storage of the iodine

  12. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  13. Thyroid volumes and urinary iodine in German school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendl, J; Juhran, N; Reiners, C

    2001-01-01

    Several recently published investigations showed a significant improvement in the iodine supply of the German population, but so far Germany is still considered an iodine deficient country. However most of the studies presented do not meet the epidemiological criteria established by WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD and may therefore suffer from a selection bias with respect to goiter prevalence estimates. School children, owing to their easy recruitment, representativeness of different socio-economic classes and high vulnerability of Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), are one of the best target groups for surveillance of IDD. In this field study a total of 591 children were investigated. The total sample included 268 females and 323 males aged 7-17 years. The following data were collected: thyroid size by ultrasound, urinary iodine concentration in a first-morning spot urine, weight, height, sex and age. The median urinary iodine concentration of the children was 183 microg/L. The proportion of samples with concentrations below 100 microg/L or below 50 microg/L was 15.4% and 4.3% respectively. Urine samples with high iodine concentrations were also found amounting to 17.3%. Almost all families (97%) declared to use iodized kitchen salt and 19.6% of all children are taking regularly iodine tablets. Application of the WHO/ICCIDD thyroid volume references to the German children resulted in a goiter prevalence of 0.2%, using either age/sex-specific or body surface area (BSA)/sex-specific cut-off values. Comparison with the P97 values of the original normative data of Gutekunst and Martin-Teichert however gives a goiter prevalence of 3% as expected. The thyroid volumes of the children in our study appear comparable with those reported recently for iodine sufficient children from Switzerland and for iodine replete Berlin children and for children with sufficient iodine supply in the region of Leipzig, so that Germany probably has no longer to be considered an iodine deficient

  14. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  15. Chemical generation of iodine atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, Kevin B. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States)]. E-mail: kevin.hewett@kirtland.af.mil; Hager, Gordon D. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Crowell, Peter G. [Northrup Grumman Information Technology, Science and Technology Operating Unit, Advanced Technology Division, P.O. Box 9377, Albuquerque, NM 87119-9377 (United States)

    2005-01-10

    The chemical generation of atomic iodine using a chemical combustor to generate the atomic fluorine intermediate, from the reaction of F{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, followed by the production of atomic iodine, from the reaction of F + HI, was investigated. The maximum conversion efficiency of HI into atomic iodine was observed to be approximately 75%, which is in good agreement with the theoretical model. The conversion efficiency is limited by the formation of iodine monofluoride at the walls of the combustor where the gas phase temperature is insufficient to dissociate the IF.

  16. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  17. Effect of alkali metal content of carbon on retention of iodine at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Activated carbon for filters in reactor confinement systems is intentionally impregnated with iodine salts to enhance the removal of radioiodine from air streams containing organic iodides. When a variety of commercial impregnated carbons were evaluated for iodine retention at elevated temperatures (4 hours at 180 0 C), wide variations in iodine penetration were observed. The alkali metal and iodine content of carbon samples was determined by neutron activation analysis, and a strong correlation was shown between the atom ratio of iodine to alkali metals in the carbons and the high-temperature retention performance. Carbons containing excess alkali (especially potassium) have iodine penetration values 10 to 100 times lower than carbons containing excess iodine. Both low I/K ratios and high pH values were shown essential to high efficiency iodine retention; therefore, conversion of elemental iodine to ionic iodine is the basic reaction mechanism. The natural high K + content and high pH coconut carbons make coconut the preferred natural base material for nuclear air cleaning applications. Studies show, however, that treatment of low potassium carbons with a mixture of KOH and I 2 may produce a product equal to or better than I 2 -impregnated coconut carbons at a lower cost. (U.S.)

  18. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  19. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  20. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  1. Study on gold concentrate leaching by iodine-iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-xia; Sun, Chun-bao; Li, Shao-ying; Fu, Ping-feng; Song, Yu-guo; Li, Liang; Xie, Wen-qing

    2013-04-01

    Gold extraction by iodine-iodide solution is an effective and environment-friendly method. In this study, the method using iodine-iodide for gold leaching is proved feasible through thermodynamic calculation. At the same time, experiments on flotation gold concentrates were carried out and encouraging results were obtained. Through optimizing the technological conditions, the attained high gold leaching rate is more than 85%. The optimum process conditions at 25°C are shown as follows: the initial iodine concentration is 1.0%, the iodine-to-iodide mole ratio is 1:8, the solution pH value is 7, the liquid-to-solid mass ratio is 4:1, the leaching time is 4 h, the stirring intensity is 200 r/mim, and the hydrogen peroxide consumption is 1%.

  2. Radioanalytical studies of iodine behaviour in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.J.; Hammad, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The behaviour of iodine in the environment is of interest both in relation to radioecology and human nutrition. Radiochemical techniques were used to evaluate various aspects of the behaviour of iodine in the environment. The natural iodine content of plant, water and soil samples collected from three sites was determined using preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA). The effect of initial chemical speciation on the distribution of iodine between various soils, sediments and waters was evaluated using I-131 tracer. Iodide was found to adsorb more extensively than iodate, although four most of the solid/water systems examined, a substantial portion of the iodate was slowly reduced to iodide. Experiments involving gamma irradiation suggest that much of the sorption of iodide and reduction of iodate involved microbial processes. Distribution coefficients measured using I-131 were comparable with values based on the natural I-127 content. (author) 18 refs.; 5 tabs

  3. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiro, B D; Johnston, F L [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na {sup 125}I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author).

  4. Iodine metabolism and food needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, R.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine is an element that is necessary for the growth and mental development of a child and for the maintenance of the activity of all cells at all ages. In this article, the author recalls the iodine sources, its metabolism and the food needs and contributions

  5. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results indicated iodine sufficiency in schoolchildren from the

  6. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  7. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Haywood, S.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for iodine-125,129,131,132,133,134,135 in selected materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for iodine radionuclides in water, soil, grass, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for iodine radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  8. Evaluation method of iodine re-evolution from an in-containment water pool after a loss of coolant accident, Part II: Evaluation of pH and iodine re-evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is required to evaluate re-evolved iodine from sump water after LOCA. • Transport of iodine and chemicals influencing pH were analyzed using CFD. • Chemical conditions of the iodine-rich region suppress iodine re-evolution. • The current evaluation method for I 2 re-evolution is excessively conservative. - Abstract: Radioactive iodine that is released during a postulated loss of coolant accident is dissolved into the containment spray water and transported into the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The re-evolution of iodine from the water is a safety concern. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses are conducted in order to analyze the transport of chemical species including iodine in the IRWST and to calculate the amount of iodine that re-evolves from the IRWST water. The CFD analyses demonstrate that the pH of water is high where the iodine concentration is high. Considering that the creation rate of molecular iodine declines as the pH increases, it can be understood that the iodine re-evolution is not so strong in practical situations because the chemical conditions of the iodine-rich region suppress the re-evolution of the iodine. In addition, four different methods for evaluating the amount of re-evolved iodine are examined. The amount of re-evolved iodine calculated using the total-volume-average values, which are currently used for safety analyses, appear to be significantly higher than those determined using other methods. The amount of re-evolved iodine estimated using a realistic method with a conservative assumption of volatilization appears to be approximately one thousandth of that evaluated using the current method. This implies that the current method is very conservative.

  9. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  10. Iodine removing means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Masaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To employ exhaust gas from an incinerator to effect regeneration of an adsorbent such as active carbon which has adsorbed a radioactive gas such as iodine contained in the ventilating system exhaust gas of a boiling water reactor power plant. Structure: Radioactive exhaust gas such as iodine, xenon and krypton is led to an active carbon adsorbing means for removal through adsorption. When the adsorbing function of the active carbon adsorption means is reduced, the exhaust gas discharged from the incinerator is cooled down to 300 0 C and then caused to flow into the active carbon layer, and after depriving it of sulfur dioxide gas, oxides of nitrogen, daughter nuclides resulting from attenuation of radioactive gas and so forth, these being adsorbed by the carbon active layer, it is led again to the incinerator, whereby the radioactivity accompanying the regenerated gas is sealed as ash within the incinerator. Further, similarly accompanying fine active carbon particles and the like are utilized as a heat source for the incinerator. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Determination of iodine 129 in vegetables using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Eduardo E.; Thyssen, Sandra M.; Bruno, Hector A.

    1999-01-01

    The developed methodology allows the determination of iodine 129 in vegetables, using neutron activation analysis. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in these matrixes, as well as the bromine 82 originated in the activation process. The experimental method for the determination of iodine 129 by neutron activation analysis involves five steps: 1- digestion by alkaline fusion; 2- pre-irradiation purification of iodine 129 by distillation followed by solvent extraction, and adsorption on activated charcoal by distillation; 3- neutron irradiation; 4- post-irradiation purification of iodine 130 by distillation followed by solvent extraction; 5- gamma spectrometry. A chemical recovery of 95 % is obtained in the distillations, measured using iodine 131 as tracer. The whole process recovery is within 70 % and 85 %. The detection limit is 2 mBq/kg of sample, but several factors affect this value, such as type of vegetable, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. The methodology developed is applied at environmental surveillance with safeguards proposes, in the detection of undeclared reprocessing of irradiated fuel. (authors)

  12. Photostop of iodine atoms from electrically oriented ICl molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Da-Xiao; Lian-Zhong Deng; Xu Liang; Yin Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of photostopping iodine atoms from electrically oriented ICl molecules was numerically studied based on their orientational probability distribution functions. Velocity distributions of the iodine atoms and their production rates were investigated for orienting electrical fields of various intensities. For the ICl precursor beams with an initial rotational temperature of ∼ 1 K, the production of the iodine atoms near zero speed will be improved by about ∼ 5 times when an orienting electrical field of ∼ 200 kV/cm is present. A production rate of ∼ 0.5‰ is obtained for photostopped iodine atoms with speeds less than 10 m/s, which are suitable for magnetic trapping. The electrical orientation of ICl precursors and magnetic trapping of photostopped iodine atoms in situ can be conveniently realized with a pair of charged ring magnets. With the maximal value of the trapping field being ∼ 0.28 T, the largest trapping speed is ∼ 7.0 m/s for the iodine atom. (paper)

  13. Phebus FPT-O. Exploratory containment iodine chemistry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Dickinson, S.; Edward, J.B.; Ewig, F.J.; Funke, F.; Hueber, C.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.J.; Sims, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the exploratory containment iodine chemistry calculations related to the first Phebus-FP test (benchmark exercise for explaining the reasons for code inconsistencies and realistic calculation for test preparation) are reported. Calculations have been performed by CEA/IPSN/DRS/SEMAR-Cadarache (France), CIEMAT-Madrid (Spain), GRS-Koeln and SIEMENS/KWU, Erlangen (Germany), AEA-Harwell (UK), Ontario Hydro-Toronto, University of Toronto and AECL-Whiteshell (Canada). The code benchmark results show that mechanistic codes (INSPECT and LIRIC) are in agreement for molecular iodine concentration in the gaseous phase, whereas empirical codes (IODE and IMPAIR) are in disagreement because they model differently HOI disproportionation and use different radiolytic constant values (iodide/iodate radiolysis). Furthermore, the molecular iodine concentrations in the gaseous phase are 10 to 100 times higher at acid pH (pH - 5) than at neutral pH (pH - 7), and the presence of organic radicals in water does not change the concentrations of inorganic iodine species. Concerning the realistic calculation, the iodine mass distribution in the containment differ from one code to another, but all codes predict that the iodine concentration in the gaseous phase is high enough to be detected by foreseen instrumentation (as was verified during the test). FPT-0 test has been performed in December 1993. Analysis of experimental results is underway and result interpretation will be available at the beginning of 1995. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  14. Field measurements of the washout coefficient for gaseous iodine likely to be released on accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caput, C.; Camus, H.; Gauthier, D.; Belot, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Field experiments were performed in Brittany to assess the washout coefficient Λ for molecular iodine. During each run, a few grams of nonradioactive iodine were released from a 12 meters telescopic mast, and the rain was sampled at a short distance downwind along complete transversal sections of the plume. The amount of iodine in each sample was determined by ionic chromatography to calculate the washout coefficient. In most cases, the results obtained (a few 10 -5 s -1 ) are not so different as expected from the theoretical values assuming a complete solubility of iodine in rain water. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Enhanced delivery of iodine for synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy by means of intracarotid injection and blood-brain barrier disruption: Quantitative iodine biodistribution studies and associated dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Jean-Francois; Biston, Marie-Claude; Joubert, Aurelie; Charvet, Anne-Marie; Le Bas, Jean-Francois; Esteve, Francois; Elleaume, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSR) is a binary cancer treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of a high Z element, such as iodine, in tumors, followed by stereotactic irradiation with kilovoltage X-rays from a synchrotron source. The success of SSR is directly related to the absolute amount of iodine achievable in the tumor. The purposes of this preclinical study were to determine whether the delivery of iodine to brain tumor models in rats could be enhanced by the means of its intracarotid injection with or without a hyperosmotic solution and to evaluate corresponding absorbed X-ray doses. Methods and materials: Experiments were performed on four groups of F98 glioma-bearing rats, which received either intracarotid (IC) or intravenous (IV) infusions of a mixture (6 mL in 12 min) of an iodinated contrast agent associated or not with a transient blood-brain barrier opener (mannitol). The mixture volumetric proportions were 8/13 of Iomeron (C = 350 mg/mL) for 5/13 of mannitol or saline, respectively. Absolute iodine concentration kinetic was measured in vivo in the tumor, blood, contralateral and ipsilateral brain, and muscle by monochromatic computed tomography. Associated dosimetry was performed by computing the iodine dose enhancement factor (DEF) in each region and building dose distribution maps by analytical simulations. Results: Infusion of mannitol significantly enhanced iodine tumor uptake compared with the control values (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0138, for IC and IV protocols, respectively). The mean iodine concentrations (C) reached 20.5 ± 0.98 mg/mL (DEF = 4.1) after administration of iodine and mannitol vs. 4.1 ± 1.2 mg/mL i.c. with serum (DEF = 1.6). The tumor iodine uptakes after jugular injection with mannitol (C = 4.4 ± 2.1 mg/mL, DEF = 1.7) were not significantly different from IC injection of iodine without mannitol (p = 0.8142). The IV injection of iodine with saline led to an iodine concentration in the tumor

  16. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  17. RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL IODINE-131 FALLOUT FOR THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF IODINE-129 CONTENT IN THE SOIL DETERMINATION IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gavrilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  18. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  19. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  20. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  1. Iodine isotopes and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, B.; Nedvekajte, T.; Filistovich, V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of concentration determination of stable and radioactive iodine isotopes in the Earth's different geospheres are described. Iodine isotopes concentration data, chemical forms and transformations as well as their exchange among separate geospheres of their global biochemical circulation (ocean, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere) are presented. Information on iodine isotopes as after-effects of nuclear installations accident (in particular, the Chernobyl accident) is generalized. The book is intended for scientists and practical workers in ecology and radioactivity protection and for a students of physics. 442 refs.; 82 figs.; 36 tabs

  2. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  3. Radiochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures

  4. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  5. Mechanisms of iodine release from iodoapatite in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Immobilization of iodine-129 with waste forms in geological setting is challenging due to its extremely long half-life and high volatility in the environment. To evaluate the long-term performance of waste form, it is imperative to determine the release mechanism of iodine hosted in the waste form materials. This study investigated the iodine released from apatite structured waste form Pb9.85 (VO4)6 I1.7 to understand how diffusion and dissolution control the durability of apatite waste form. A standard semi-dynamic leach test was adopted in this study. Samples were exposed in fresh leachant periodically and the leachant was replaced after each interval. Each experiment was carried out in cap-sealed Teflon vessels under constant temperature (e.g. 90 °C). ICP-MS analysis on the reacted leachates shows that Pb and V were released constantly and congruently with the stoichiometric ratio of Pb/V. However, iodine release is incongruent and time dependent. The iodine release rate starts significantly higher than the corresponding stoichiometric value and gradually decreases, approaching the stoichiometric value. Therefore, a dual-mode mechanism is proposed to account for the iodine release from apatite, which is dominated by short-term diffusion and long-term dissolution processes. Additional tests show that the element release rates depend on a number of test parameters, including sample surface to solution volume ratio (m-1), interval (day), temperature (°C), and solution pH. This study provides a quantitative characterization of iodine release mechanism. The activation energy of iodine leaching 21±1.6 kJ/mol was obtained by varying the test temperature. At the test conditions of to neutral pH and 90 °C, the long-term iodine release rate 3.3 mg/(m2 • day) is projected by normalizing sample surface area to solution volume ratio (S/V) to 1.0 m-1 and interval to 1 day. These findings demonstrate i) the feasibility of our approach to quantify the release mechanism

  6. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  7. A Comparison of the Use of Contrast Media with Different Iodine Concentrations for Multidetector CT of the Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Chai; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To determine the optimal iodine concentration of contrast media for kidney multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing the degree of renal parenchymal enhancement and the severity of the renal streak artifact with contrast media of different iodine concentrations. A 16-row MDCT was performed in 15 sedated rabbits by injection of 2 mL contrast media/kg body weight at a rate of 0.3 mL/sec. Monomeric nonionic contrast media of 250, 300, and 370 mg iodine/mL were injected at 1-week intervals. Mean attenuation values were measured in each renal structure with attenuation differences among the structures. The artifact was evaluated by CT window width/level and three grading methods. The values were compared with iodine concentrations. The 370 mg iodine/mL concentration showed significantly higher cortical enhancement than 250 mg iodine/mL in all phases (p < 0.05). There was however no significant difference in the degree of enhancement between the 300 mg iodine/mL and 370 mg iodine/mL concentrations in all phases. There is a significant difference in attenuation for the cortex-outer medulla between 250 mg iodine/mL and 300 mg iodine/mL (p < 0.05). The artifact was more severe with a medium of 370 mg iodine/mL than with 250 mg iodine/mL by all grading methods (p < 0.05). The 300 mg iodine/mL is considered to be the most appropriate iodine concentration in an aspect of the enhancement and artifact on a kidney MDCT scan.

  8. A Comparison of the Use of Contrast Media with Different Iodine Concentrations for Multidetector CT of the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Chai; Cho, Jeong Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimal iodine concentration of contrast media for kidney multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing the degree of renal parenchymal enhancement and the severity of the renal streak artifact with contrast media of different iodine concentrations. Materials and Methods A 16-row MDCT was performed in 15 sedated rabbits by injection of 2 mL contrast media/kg body weight at a rate of 0.3 mL/sec. Monomeric nonionic contrast media of 250, 300, and 370 mg iodine/mL were injected at 1-week intervals. Mean attenuation values were measured in each renal structure with attenuation differences among the structures. The artifact was evaluated by CT window width/level and three grading methods. The values were compared with iodine concentrations. Results The 370 mg iodine/mL concentration showed significantly higher cortical enhancement than 250 mg iodine/mL in all phases (p < 0.05). There was however no significant difference in the degree of enhancement between the 300 mg iodine/mL and 370 mg iodine/mL concentrations in all phases. There is a significant difference in attenuation for the cortex-outer medulla between 250 mg iodine/mL and 300 mg iodine/mL (p < 0.05). The artifact was more severe with a medium of 370 mg iodine/mL than with 250 mg iodine/mL by all grading methods (p < 0.05). Conclusion The 300 mg iodine/mL is considered to be the most appropriate iodine concentration in an aspect of the enhancement and artifact on a kidney MDCT scan. PMID:22043154

  9. Iodine filters in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1977-04-01

    On the basis of calculated and recorded release rates of nuclear power plants, the significance of iodine releases in the invironmental impact relative to other nuclides is discussed. The release pathways for iodine in LWR-type reactors and the efficiency of various methods to lower the activity release are given. The airborne species of iodine are discussed with regard to their removal in iodine sorption filters and environmental impact. The technical status of iodine removal by means of iodine sorption filters is studied for normal operation and accident conditions in nuclear power stations on the basis of the data given in the relevant literature for the efficiency of a number of iodine sorption materials. The applicability of concepts for ventilation and containment and their influence on iodine filter systems are discussed. Design, structure, and testing of iodine sorption filters are treated in detail; recommendations for design are given, and failure sources are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  10. Mercury and Iodine systematics of volcanic arc fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.; Fehn, U.; Lu, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The mantle has low Mercury and Iodine concentrations, but these elements occur in volcanic gases and hydrothermal fluids at ppb (Hg) and ppm (Iodine) levels. Possibly, the Hg and Iodine concentrations in volcanic fluids reflect subducted sediment sources in arc magmas. Iodine is a biophilic element, and I129/I values indicate that subducted sediment (especially organic matter) is an important Iodine source for arc magmas. It is uncertain if this is true for Hg as well, although in the surface environment Hg is commonly associated with organic matter. We present 60 new analyses of Hg and I in fluids from volcanoes in Central America, New Zealand, Japan, and the Cascades. A first assessment suggests that Iodine is released to some degree in the early stage of subduction in the forearc, whereas Hg may be released largely below the main volcanic arc. Isotope and trace element signatures of volcanic rocks of the investigated volcanoes show no simple correlation with Hg or Iodine abundances. The acid hot spring fluids of Copahue volcano (Argentina) carried ~ 200 ppt Hg in January 1999, ~80 ppt Hg in March 2008, and 90 ppt Hg in the crater lake in March 1997. The dissolved Hg fluxes from the Copahue hydrothermal system are ~300 gr Hg/year in 1999 and ~130 gr Hg/year in 2008. The bulk hydrothermal Hg flux (particle bound+dissolved) in 2008 was ~ 350 gr Hg/year. The potential Mercury evasion from these hydrothermal spring fluids into the air has not yet been incorporated in these estimates.

  11. Chemisorption of organic iodine compounds forming from fission isotopes of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tot, G.; Galina, F.; Zel'd, E.

    1977-01-01

    Studied is ethyl iodine adsorption, labelled by iodine 131, on palladium black and on aluminium oxide activized by palladium. The desorption of adsorbed iodine in the temperature range of 20-600 deg C by the mass spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric methods was investigated. At the ethyl iodine and palladium interaction the bond between carbon and iodine in the ethyl iodine molecule breaks down and extracting iodine reacts with palladium, forming a stable compound at high temperatures. Desorption of adsorbed iodine is insignificant up to the temperatures of 250-300 deg C. Thus, sorbents, containing palladium, may be successfully applied for iodine absorption from the organic iodine compounds. These compounds spontaneously appear from the iodine fragment ratio isotopes during their interaction with some environmental organic impurities

  12. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  13. The radiotoxicology of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty radioisotopes of iodine are known but only those with mass numbers from 123 to 135 are of major radiotoxicological interest. Exposure of animals or man to inorganic 131 I or 125 I may result in the induction of benign or malignant thyroid tumors or depression of thyroid function; Bq for Bq 125 I is less toxic than 131 I. However, the shorter lived radioiodines 132 I, 133 I, and 135 I appear to be 10 to 100 times more toxic than 131 I alone. Little information is available about the toxicity of radioiodine containing organic compounds. The DNA precursor, iododeoxyuridine when labelled with 125 I becomes incorporated into the cell nucleus and produces severe and often irreparable damage due to the emission of Auger electrons. The risk estimate for the induction of thyroid carcinoma or adenoma by inorganic 131 I is considered to be 10 to 20x10 -6 persons Gy -1 y -1 , but may be up to 100 times larger for persons exposed to mixtures of short-lived radioiodines. (author)

  14. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  15. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  16. Effect of contrast media iodine concentration on bolus tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Naoi, Kuniji; Ikeno, Naoya; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Satake, Mitsuo

    2006-01-01

    Computer-assisted bolus tracking has been confirmed to be a useful technique in computed tomography (CT) imaging and allows images to be captured with automated timing. The inflow of the contrast medium is monitored, and when the contrast medium reaches a predetermined level, CT image capture starts automatically. However, it has been shown that the preset threshold value of contrast medium is affected by its iodine concentration, which causes variations in image capture times. Greater speed in current multislice CT imaging requires that medical technicians pay more attention to setting the timing of image capture during venous examinations by taking into account the iodine concentration in contrast media. (author)

  17. Iodine sorption of bentonite - radiometric and polarographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konirova, R.; Vinsova, H.; Koudelkova, M.; Ernestova, M.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments focused on kinetics of iodine retardation on bentonite, influence of aqueous phase pH, buffering properties of bentonite, etc. were carried out by batch method. Distribution coefficient KD was the criterion applied for evaluation of iodine interaction with solid phase. High sorption potential of bentonite to cationic forms of various radionuclides, resulting from relatively high cation exchange capacity, is generally known. On the other hand the inorganic anions are not adsorbed strongly to mineral surface of clays thus uptake of iodine (occurring mainly at iodide (I - ) or iodate (IO 3 - ) form under oxoic conditions) is limited. The distribution coefficients of iodine anions' sorption on bentonite R reach order of magnitude 10 -1 mL/g. In order to increase the sorption capacity of the solid phase, several additives were added to bentonite. Most of them didn't provide satisfactory results except of the addition of activated carbon, which has high surface area. Electromigration and polarographic methods were used for investigation of the redox state of iodine in aqueous phase and determination of KD values as well. Acquired results were compared with data obtained by radiometric measurements. (authors)

  18. Uptake mechanism for iodine species to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Min-Gyu

    2013-09-17

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in determining the fate and transport of iodine species such as iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) in groundwater system. Although NOM exists as diverse forms in environments, prior iodine studies have mainly focused on uptake processes of iodide and iodate to humic materials. This study was conducted to determine the iodide and iodate uptake potential for a particulate NOM (i.e., black carbon [BC]). A laboratory-produced BC and commercial humic acid were used for batch experiments to compare their iodine uptake properties. The BC exhibited >100 times greater uptake capability for iodide than iodate at low pH of ~3, while iodide uptake was negligible for the humic acid. The uptake properties of both solids strongly depend on the initial iodine aqueous concentrations. After uptake reaction of iodide to the BC, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy results indicated that the iodide was converted to electrophilic species, and iodine was covalently bound to carbon atom in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the BC. The computed distribution coefficients (i.e., Kd values) suggest that the BC materials retard significantly the transport of iodide at low pH in environmental systems containing even a small amount of BC.

  19. Spectrophotometric and Thermal Studies of the Reaction of Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of the equilibrium constant (K), absorptivity (g) and oscillator strength (f) of the iodine complex are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of solvent used. The important role played by the solvent is suggested to be mainly due to the interaction of the ionic complex with the solvent. The proposed structure of ...

  20. Spectrophotometric and Thermal Studies of the Reaction of Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of the equilibrium constant (K), absorptivity (e) and oscillator strength (f) of the iodine complex are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of solvent used. The important role played by the solvent is suggested to be mainly due to the interaction of the ionic complex with the solvent. The proposed structure of ...

  1. Determination of iodine in Asian food by ENAA and RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Randa, Z.; Iyengar, G.V.; Parr, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Food samples from Asia were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). Technical details of the procedures are given. It is concluded that the recommended daily intake value of 150 μg iodine is hardly achieved in the majority of Asian countries, which can have serious health consequences. (P.A.)

  2. A Molecular Iodine Spectral Data Set for Rovibronic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. Charles; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Kafader, Rachael A.

    2013-01-01

    A data set of 7,381 molecular iodine vapor rovibronic transitions between the X and B electronic states has been prepared for an advanced undergraduate spectroscopic analysis project. Students apply standard theoretical techniques to these data and determine the values of three X-state constants (image omitted) and four B-state constants (image…

  3. Highly efficient capture of iodine by Cu/MIL-101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bingbing; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Tao; Gao, Qianhong; Yan, Xuewu; Jiao, Yan; Yang, Yi

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the uptake capacity of MIL-101 for iodine, Cu nanoparticles doped MIL-101 were successfully synthesized through a facile method. The obtained Cu/MIL-101 was characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS, TEM, IR, TGA and BET to examine the chemical and thermal stabilities. The capture experiments for the adsorbents showed that the capture capacity of Cu/MIL-101 for volatile iodine is 342 wt%, which is higher than that of pure MIL-101. An I2 uptake of 342 wt% is the highest value reported among metal-organic frameworks. Furthermore, Cu/MIL-101 has a cycle ratio of 95% after three cycles and exhibits a better cyclicity than pure MIL-101. Meanwhile, Cu/MIL-101 shows an excellent reversible adsorption of iodine in solution.

  4. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-01-01

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana–Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r 2 < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  5. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  6. Current status of iodine intake in Croatia--the results of 2009 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusić, Zvonko; Jukić, Tomislav; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Juresa, Vesna; Dabelić, Nina; Stanicić, Josip; Borić, Marta; Lukinac, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Ivan; Punda, Ante; Smokvina, Aleksandar; Topalović, Zlatko; Katalenić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    In 1996, due to persistence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency, new law on obligatory salt iodination with 25 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kg of salt was implemented in Croatia. Along with a new law, a new program for monitoring of iodine prophylaxis was implemented. Investigations of goiter and iodine intake performed in 2002, demonstrated sufficient iodine intake in Croatia with overall median of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for schoolchildren in Croatia of 140 microg/L. In 2002, thyroid volumes (TV) measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from all four geographic regions of Croatia were for the first time within the normal range according to ICCIDD reference values. Nowadays, Croatia is internationally recognized as iodine sufficient country. The aim of the present study was to assess current status of iodine intake in Croatia. The investigation was carried out in 2009. A total of 386 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years from all four major geographic regions of Croatia, 103 euthyroid pregnant women and 36 women of child-bearing age from Zagreb, the capital, were included in the survey. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in all participants. Thyroid volumes were measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from the capital of Zagreb (N = 101) and the village of Rude (N = 56). In the time period 2002-2009, the content of KI was analyzed in 384 salt samples from Croatian salt plants and samples of imported salt. An overall median UIC for schoolchildren in Croatia was 248 microg/L. Median UIC in pregnant women was 159 microg/L, with 50% of samples below and under 150 microg/L. Median UIC in women of child-bearing age was 136 microg/L. Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren were within the normal range according to the new reference values. Mean value of KI/kg of salt in samples from Croatian salt plants was 25.5 mg/kg and 24.9 mg/kg in samples of imported salt. A total of 72/384 (18.8%) of salt samples didn't corresponded to the Croatian law on

  7. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  8. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  9. Which Iodine concentration in chest CT? - A prospective study in 300 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenbruch, Georg [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Behrendt, Florian F.; Eddahabi, Mohammed A.; Das, Marco; Guenther, Rolf W.; Mahnken, Andreas H. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Knackstedt, Christian [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology and Angiology, Aachen (Germany); Stanzel, Sven [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Institute of Medical Statistics, Aachen (Germany); Seidensticker, Peter [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Wildberger, Joachim E. [University Hospital Maastricht, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    In computed tomography(CT) several contrast media with different iodine concentrations are available. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare contrast media with iodine concentrations of 300, 370 and 400 mg iodine/ml for chest- CT. 300 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled, under a waiver of the local ethics committee. The first (second, third) 100 patients, received contrast medium with 300(370, 400)mg iodine/ml. Injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate(1.3 mg/s) and total iodine load(33 g) for all three groups. Standardized MDCT of the chest (16 x 0.75 mm, 120 kVp, 100 mAseff.) was performed. Intravascular attenuation values were measured in the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta; subjective image quality was rated on a 3-point-scale. Discomfort during and after injection was evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in contrast enhancement comparing the three contrast media at the pulmonary trunk(p = 0.3198) and at the ascending aorta(p = 0.0840). Image quality(p = 0.0176) and discomfort during injection(p = 0.7034) were comparable for all groups. General discomfort after injection of contrast media with 300 mg iodine/ml was statistically significant higher compared to 370 mg iodine/ml(p = 0.00019). Given identical iodine delivery rates of 1.3 g/s and iodine loads of 33 g, contrast media with concentrations of 300, 370 and 400 mg iodine/ml do not result in different intravascular enhancement in chest-CT. (orig.)

  10. Experimental reproduction of iodine deficiency in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, M A; Smyth, J A; Ellis, W A; Arthur, J R; Kennedy, D G

    1997-11-22

    The role of iodine deficiency in stillbirth/perinatal weak calf syndrome was investigated in pregnant heifers. Five heifers were fed an iodine deficient diet (mean [sd] iodine concentration 0.06 [0.01] mg/kg dry matter [DM]) and six received an iodine sufficient diet (mean [sd] iodine concentration 1.45 [0.27] mg/kg DM). The diets consisted of wheat and soyabean meal with added minerals and vitamins (with or without iodine) and were fed to the heifers over the final four to five months of pregnancy. The iodine deficient diet produced clinicopathological changes and pathological changes in the thyroid glands of both the heifers and their offspring. However, all the calves in the iodine deficient group were born clinically normal.

  11. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency...

  12. Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.

  13. An improved model to simulate pressurized water reactor iodine spiking behavior under power transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Among those theories to interpret the PWR iodine spiking behaviors, the most accepted concept is based on steam formation and condensation in damaged fuel rods. Due to the complex nature of the phenomenon, a comprehensive model of the iodine behavior has not yet been successfully developed. In 1992 a new empirical model was introduced to establish a correlation with the operating parameters. The comparison results of the predicted iodine-131 equivalent activity value with the operating radiochemistry database was off by 23%. This paper presents an improved model. Although it is still an empirical model which also gives a first order estimation of the peak iodine spiking magnitude, the deviation between prediction and measurement was reduced to ∼7%. It is believed that this improved model can be used for better prediction and control of the iodine spiking magnitude resulted from failed fuel rods during power transients or plant shutdown. (author)

  14. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  15. Formation and behaviour of organic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.; Koukkar, P.; Karjunen, T.; Sjoevall, H.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents experimental studies on the formation of organic iodine in severe reactor accidents. The analyses were performed to evaluate the amount of alkaline chemical needed for effective pH control of containment water during the accidents. The formation of organic iodine in solutions used in the filtered venting system and the absorption of iodine compounds in the solutions were studied. Experiments for the formation of organic iodine on painted surfaces were also performed. (au)

  16. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  17. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  18. Absorption behavior of iodine from molten salt mixture to zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kei; Terai, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiro; Uozumi, Koichi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2011-01-01

    Behavior of zeolite to absorb anion fission product (FP) elements in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was studied using iodine. At first, zeolite-A was selected as the suitable type of zeolite among zeolite-A (powder), zeolite-X (powder and granule), and zeolite-Y (powder) through experiments to heat the zeolite together with LiCl-KCl-KI salt, respectively. As the next step, similar experiments to immerse zeolite-A in molten LiCl-KCl-KI salt containing various concentrations of iodine were performed. The affinity of iodine to zeolite was evaluated using the separation factor (SF) value, which is defined as [I/(I+Cl) mol ratio in zeolite after immersion]/[I/(I+Cl) mol ratio in salt after immersion]. Since the SF values ranged between 4.3 and 9.1, stronger affinity of iodine than chlorine to zeolite-A was revealed. Finally, influence of co-existing cation FPs was studied by similar absorption experiments in LiCl-KCl-KI salt containing CsCl, SrCl 2 , or NdCl 3 . The SF values were less than those obtained in the LiCl-KCl-KI salt and this can be ascribed to the sharing of inner space of zeolite cage among absorbed cations and anions. (author)

  19. A phenomenological model for iodine stress corrosion cracking of zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.K.; Tasooji, A.

    1981-01-01

    To predict the response of Zircaloy tubing in iodine environments under conditions where either crack initiation or crack propagation predominates, a unified model of the SCC process has been developed based on the local conditions (the local stress, local strain, and local iodine concentration) within a small volume of material at the cladding inner surface or the crack tip. The methodology used permits computation of these values from simple equations. A nonuniform distribution of local stress and strain results once a crack has initiated. The local stress can be increased due to plastic constraint and triaxiality at the crack tip. Iodine penetration is assumed to be a surface diffusion-controlled process. Experimental data are used to derive criteria for intergranular failure, transgranular failure, and ductile rupture in terms of the local conditions. The same failure criteria are used for both crack initiation and crack propagation. Irradiation effects are included in the model by changing the value of constants in the equation governing iodine penetration and by changing the values used to represent the mechanical properties of the Zircaloy. (orig./HP)

  20. The importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinoer, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    To examine the importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy. Review of existing literature of iodine in pregnancy. Population surveys and metabolic studies. Pregnant women. The main changes in thyroid function associated with pregnancy are due to an increase in hormone requirements that begin in the first trimester of gestation. This increase can only be met by a proportional increase in hormone production, something that depends directly upon the availability of iodine. When dietary iodine is lacking, an adequate physiological adaptation is difficult to achieve and is progressively replaced by pathological alterations that occur in parallel with the degree and duration of iodine deprivation. Iodine prophylaxis should be given systematically to women during pregnancy. In most public health programmes dealing with the correction of iodine deficiency disorders, iodised salt has been used as the preferred means to deliver iodine to households. Iodised salt, however, is not the ideal means of delivering iodine in the specific instances of pregnancy, breast-feeding and complementary feeding because of the need to limit salt intake during these periods. In European countries, presently it is proposed that iodine is given to pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers by systematically administering multivitamin tablets containing iodine in order to reach the recommended dietary allowance of 250 microg iodine day-1.

  1. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  2. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  3. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  4. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  5. Chemical species of iodine in some seaweeds. Pt. 2. Iodine-bound biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin Hou; Chifang Chai; Xiaojun Yan

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of iodine in various biological macromolecules in Sargassum kjellmanianum was studied using neutron activation analysis combined with chemical and biochemical separation techniques. The results indicate that iodine is mainly bound with protein, part of iodine with pigment and polyphenol, and little with polysaccharides, such as algin, fucoidan and cellulose. This result is significant for the mechanism of enriching iodine of algae and utilization of alga iodine. (author)

  6. Assessment of iodine nutrition in pregnant north Indian subjects in three trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Grewal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the iodine status of pregnant women, using median urinary iodine concentration (MUI as the measure of outcome, to document the impact of advancing gestation on the MUI in normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the MUI in casual urine samples from 50 pregnant subjects of each trimester and 50 age-matched non-pregnant controls. Results: The median (range of urinary iodine concentration (UIC in pregnant women was 304 (102-859 μg/L and only 2% of the subjects had prevalence of values under 150 μg/L (iodine insufficiency. With regard to the study cohort, median (range UIC in the first, second, and third trimesters was 285 (102-457, 318 (102-805, and 304 (172-859 μg/L, respectively. Differences between the first, second, and third trimesters were not statistically significant. The MUI in the controls (305 μg/L was not statistically different from the study cohort. Conclusion: The pregnant women had no iodine deficiency, rather had high median urinary iodine concentrations indicating more than adequate iodine intake. Larger community-based studies are required in iodine-sufficient populations, to establish gestation-appropriate reference ranges for UIC in pregnancy.

  7. Performance of an iodine-fueled radio-frequency ion-thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Kristof; Gärtner, Waldemar; Zschätzsch, Daniel; Scharmann, Steffen; Köhler, Peter; Dietz, Patrick; Klar, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Two sets of performance data of the same radio-frequency ion-thruster (RIT) have been recorded using iodine and xenon, respectively, as propellant. To characterize the thruster's performance, we have recorded the radio-frequency DC-power, required for yielding preset values of the extracted ion-beam currents, as a function of mass flow. For that purpose, an iodine mass flow system had to be developed, calibrated, and integrated into a newly-built test facility for studying corrosive propellants. The performance mappings for iodine and xenon differ significantly despite comparable operation conditions. At low mass flows, iodine exhibits the better performance. The situation changes at higher mass flows where the performance of iodine is significantly poorer than that of xenon. The reason is very likely related to the molecular nature of iodine. Our results show that iodine as propellant is compatible with RIT technology. Furthermore, it is a viable alternative as propellant for dedicated space missions. In particular, when taking into account additional benefits such as possible storage as a solid and its low price the use of iodine as propellant in ion thrusters is competitive.

  8. Physico-chemical aspects of the bovine growth hormone iodination by the electrolytic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.A.; Ciscato, V.A.; Giacomini, S.M.V. de; Quiroga, S.; Kurcbart, H.; Radicella, R.

    1975-04-01

    With a view to studying the mechanism by which iodine is incorporated into the bovine somatotropin molecule, labelling was carried out by the electrolytic method (pH7.4, current 20 μA) as a function of time for various total iodine/protein ratios. In all cases the labelling yields were determined by paper electrophoresis. The corresponding degree of iodination was calculated on the basis of the values obtained and knowledge of the amount of reacting protein, values greater than 12 being obtained in many cases. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on all the samples obtained and in the hydrolysates an increase in free iodide was observed which became more manifest as the iodide/protein molar ratio increased. The percentage of radioactivity from monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine was determined for the various degrees of iodination from chromatograms of the hydrolysates. For an iodination value of 12, diiodotyrosine radioactivity of 70% was found. When the degree of relative iodination for each iodide/protein molar ratio is calculated from the hydrolysis data, it can be seen that only 75% of the total number of available places in the tyrosine residues accept the incorporation of iodine. This fact suggests that not all tyrosine residues are equally accessible. (author)

  9. The effect of iodine uptake on radiation dose absorbed by patient tissues in contrast enhanced CT imaging. Implications for CT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Spanakis, Kostas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hatzidakis, Adam [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the effect of iodine uptake on tissue/organ absorbed doses from CT exposure and its implications in CT dosimetry. The contrast-induced CT number increase of several radiosensitive tissues was retrospectively determined in 120 CT examinations involving both non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT imaging. CT images of a phantom containing aqueous solutions of varying iodine concentration were obtained. Plots of the CT number increase against iodine concentration were produced. The clinically occurring iodine tissue uptake was quantified by attributing recorded CT number increase to a certain concentration of aqueous iodine solution. Clinically occurring iodine uptake was represented in mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms. Standard 120 kV CT exposures were simulated using Monte Carlo methods and resulting organ doses were derived for non-enhanced and iodine contrast-enhanced CT imaging. The mean iodine uptake range during contrast-enhanced CT imaging was found to be 0.02-0.46% w/w for the investigated tissues, while the maximum value recorded was 0.82% w/w. For the same CT exposure, iodinated tissues were found to receive higher radiation dose than non-iodinated tissues, with dose increase exceeding 100% for tissues with high iodine uptake. Administration of iodinated contrast medium considerably increases radiation dose to tissues from CT exposure. (orig.)

  10. Non-destructive neutron activation analysis studies on a withering disease of lowland rice occurring near an iodine plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzaki, N.; Moriyama, N.

    1985-01-01

    The withering disease of lowland rice that seems to be an injury caused by excess iodine was recognized in the paddy fields near an iodine isolation plant. To investigate the cause of this disease, a pot experiment of lowland rice was performed and iodine contents of soils and rice plants were determined by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The soils of the disease-produced paddy fields were remarkably polluted with iodine, its content in roots of diseased rice plants was higher than the reported limiting values for the disease. (author)

  11. The retention of iodine in stainless steel sample lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.J.; Deir, C. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Ball, J.M. [Whiteshell Laboratories, Pinawa (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    Following an accident in a multi-unit CANDU nuclear generating station, decontamination of air vented from containment would play a critical role in minimizing the release of iodine to the environment. The concentration of gas phase iodine in containment air would be measured using the post accident radiation monitoring system, requiring that air samples be passed through a considerable length of tubing to a remote location where the desired measurements could safely be made. A significant loss of iodine, due to adsorption on the sample line surfaces, could greatly distort the measurement. In this study, the retention of I{sub 2}(g) on stainless steel was evaluated in bench scale experiments in order to evaluate, and if possible minimise, the extent of any such line losses. Experiments at the University of Toronto were performed using 6 inch lengths of 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing. Air, containing I-131 labelled I{sub 2}(g), ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}6} mol/dm{sup 3} and relative humidity (:RH) from 20 to 90 %, was passed through tubing samples maintained at temperatures ranging from 25 to 90{degrees}C. Adsorption at low gas phase iodine concentrations differed substantially from that at higher concentrations. The rate of deposition was proportional to the gas phase concentration, giving support to the concept of a first order deposition velocity. The surface loading increased with increasing relative humidity, particularly at low RH values, while the deposition rate decreased with increasing temperature. Surface water on the steel may play an important role in the deposition process. The chemisorbed iodine was located primarily in areas of corrosion. Furthermore, water used to wash the steel contained Fe, Mn and iodine in the form of iodide, suggesting that I{sub 2} reacted to form metal iodides. The deposition of I{sub 2} was also found to depend on the initial surface condition.

  12. Transfer of gaseous iodine to Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuji; Ohmomo, Yoichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Transfer rates of gaseous elemental iodine and methyliodide from atmosphere to Tradescantia were investigated in relation to supposed genetic mutation due to radioactive iodine released from nuclear facilities. The estimated transfer rate of elemental iodine to the young buds of Tradescantia, which was given as the ratio of iodine uptake rate per unit weight of the plant to the concentration of the element in the air, was approximately 7 x 10 -2 cm 3 /g.sec, about 30 to 40 times higher than that of methyliodide. The contribution of direct deposition of elemental iodine was suggested to be significant, although methyliodide was mainly absorbed by respiration through stomata of the plant. (author)

  13. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  14. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  15. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  16. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine

  17. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers' performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding K d values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding K d values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and K d values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and K d values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine sorption.

  18. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Prophylactic iodine treatment in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1980-01-01

    Prophylactic iodine treatment is to prevent accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid. This is done by administering a large amount of stable iodine before uptake of radioactive iodine so that further accummulation of iodine in the thyroid will be impossible. This blocking effect should be as complete as possible. This is achieved by administering an initial dose of 200 mg potassium iodide. As the release of radioactive iodine may last several hours or even days; for this reason, maintenance doses of 100 mg potassium iodide should be administered in 8-hour intervals. The risk of prophylactiv iodine treatment is rather low; however, provocation of latent hyperthyreoses must be expected in, at the most, 0.2% of the exposed population. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Contrast enhancement in multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) of the abdomen: intraindividual comparison of contrast media containing 300 mg versus 370 mg iodine per ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, F.F.; Mahnken, A.H.; Keil, S.; Das, M.; Hohl, C.; Guenther, R.W.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Bauer, D.; Seidensticker, P.; Jost, E.; Wildberger, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to intraindividually evaluate the difference in intraluminal vessel and parenchyma contrast enhancement of two different iodine concentrations in multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) of the abdomen. Eighty-three patients underwent baseline and follow-up MDCT-scanning (Somatom Sensation 16; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) of the abdomen using contrast media containing 370 mg iodine/ml (protocol A; Ultravist 370, Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany) and 300 mg iodine/ml (protocol B; Ultravist 300). The total iodine load (37 g iodine) and the iodine delivery rate (1.29 g iodine/s) were identical for both protocols. Contrast enhancement in the portal venous phase was measured in the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney. Mean attenuation values were compared using paired t-test. Intraindividual comparison revealed no statistically significant differences of the mean attenuation values between protocols A and B for all anatomic sites: abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney (all P > 0.05). Given an injection protocol with constant total iodine load and constant iodine delivery rate, the iodine concentration of contrast media does not significantly influence abdominal contrast enhancement in the portal venous phase. (orig.)

  1. Iodine status in a Sherpa community in a village of the Khumbu region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydon, Emma E; Thomson, Christine D; Mann, Jim; Williams, Sheila M; Skeaff, Sheila A; Sherpa, Kami T; Heydon, John L

    2009-09-01

    To assess the iodine status of Sherpa residents living in Kunde village, Khumbu region, Nepal. Prevalence of goitre was determined by palpation. Urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were determined in casual morning samples, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in finger-prick blood samples on filter paper. Dietary and demographic data were obtained via questionnaire, and selected foods analysed for iodine. Khumbu region is an area of low soil iodine in Nepal, where the prevalence of goitre was greater than 90% in the 1960s prior to iodine intervention. Two hundred and fifteen of 219 permanent residents of Kunde were studied. Overall prevalence of goitre was 31% (Grade 1 goitre, 27.0%; Grade 2, 4.2%). When adjusted to a world population, goitre prevalence was 27% (95% CI 23, 32%); Grade 2 goitre prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI 1.0, 4.6%). Median UIC was 97 microg/l, but only 75 microg/l in women of childbearing age. Thirty per cent had UIC 300 microg/l. Ten per cent of participants had TSH concentrations >5 microU/ml. The prevalence of severe iodine deficiency has decreased since the 1960s, but mild iodine deficiency persists, particularly in women of childbearing age. The consumption of high-iodine uncooked instant noodles and flavour sachets by school-aged children contributed to their low prevalence of goitre and excessive UIC values. This finding may obscure a more severe iodine deficiency in the population, while increasing the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in children. Ongoing monitoring is essential.

  2. A Spectroscopic Method for Determining Free Iodine in Iodinated Fatty-Acid Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the concentration of free iodine in samples of iodinated fatty-acid esters can be measured using the electronic absorption spectra of their solutions in ethanol. The method proposed is rather simple in use and highly sensitive, allowing detection of presence of less than 10 ppm of free iodine in iodinated compounds. It is shown using the example of Lipiodol that this makes it possible to easily detect small amounts of free iodine in samples containing bound iodine in concentrations down to 40 wt %.

  3. Separation of iodine-131 from water using isotopic exchange with iodine-starch compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Kolomejtseva, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    Conditions of iodine isotopic exchange with iodine-starch compound (ISC) were studied with the aim of compound utilizatoin for radioactive iodine separation from solution. It is shown that in pH range from 2 to 7 the degree of iodine extraction and coefficient of its distribution practically do not depend on pH, at pH>7 ISC destruction (decolorizing) starts and iodine extraction decreases. Rapid method of iodine separation from solution is suggested. The method can be used in radiochemical techniques. The degree of extraction equals 80 %, a higher degree of extraction can not be achieved owing to ISC formation peculiarities

  4. Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Research Labs.); Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake

    1989-05-01

    For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and /sup 125/I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author).

  5. Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao; Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake.

    1989-01-01

    For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and 125 I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author)

  6. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Q.; Moran, J.E.; Blackwood, V.

    2007-01-01

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic 129 I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils

  7. Recovery of iodine as iodine-125 from biological materials prior to assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.B.; Belling, G.B.; Buckley, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    In biological tissues iodine is usually present as iodoamino acids or iodoproteins. The organic material must be oxidised and the iodine converted into iodate prior to the final spectrophotometric determination. At parts per billion (10 9 ) levels, recoveries of added iodine are difficult to measure precisely as iodine can easily be lost from the sample and added inorganic iodine may not be recovered in the same proportions as the naturally occurring iodine. Iodine-125 provides a much more sensitive, specific and accurate means of testing the recovery of nanogram amounts of iodine from biological tissues and it can be incorporated into tissues in the naturally occurring compounds. Plants can be grown in a solution culture containing iodine-125 and animals can be injected with iodine-125 to provide tissues where naturally occurring iodine compounds are labelled with radioactive iodine. These tissues can be used to examine the recovery of iodine after oven drying, freeze drying, alkali ashing and acid digestion of the samples. Experimental details are given for spinach, tobacco, oats, cauliflower and thyroid. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  8. Iodine status in schoolchildren living in northeast Italy: the importance of iodized-salt use and milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watutantrige Fernando, S; Barollo, S; Nacamulli, D; Pozza, D; Giachetti, M; Frigato, F; Redaelli, M; Zagotto, G; Girelli, M E; Mantero, F; Mian, C

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the study were: (i) to determine iodine status of schoolchildren living in northeast Italy; (ii) to assess dietary habits and iodine status and (iii) to investigate the level of knowledge concerning iodine sufficiency and ways to ameliorate iodine status. One thousand three hundred seventy-five consecutive 12-13 year-old completed questionnaires collecting demographic data and information about the use of iodized salt and food frequency habits. Iodine concentration in urine samples (UIC) and in commercially available milk samples has been measured. The median UIC was found to be 81 μg/l (95% confidence interval (CI) 74-87); 40% of the subjects had an UIC of ≥ 100 μg/l. Iodine deficiency was prevalent in subjects living in hilly areas. Median iodine concentration in milk was 264 μg/l. Only the combined use of iodized salt plus daily milk normalized UIC, resulting into a median value of 108 μg/l. A logistic regression model confirmed independent associations between low UIC and low intake of milk, use of non-iodized salt and geographical location (Pimportance of iodine. Northeast Italy is still characterized by mild iodine deficiency. An adequate iodine status was achieved only when iodized salt was combined with daily milk intake. The national iodine prophylaxis program has led to greater consumption of iodized salt and, it is now used in 60-70% of the Italian households. The low level of awareness highlights the need for public programs to promote knowledge and efforts to improve iodine status.

  9. Reactivities of some aldoses towards iodine in alkaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Nizami, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics studies of oxidation of some reducing sugars by aqueous alkaline solution of iodine investigated. Results demonstrated that iodine in the presence of alkali converted into hypoiodous acid which was effective oxidizing species. Reaction between iodine and sugars was slowest reaction. The rate of oxidation of sugars was affected by change in pH of the medium and maximum at pH 11.4 where the concentration of hypoiodous acid was maximum which oxidized the sugars into respective acids. The rate of oxidation followed first order kinetics with respect to substrate and obeyed zero order kinetics with that of iodine. Change in ionic strength of the medium showed no effect on the rate of oxidation indicating that reaction occurred between molecular species and there was no ionic species present in the rate determining step. Reaction was affected by the change in temperature and value of energy of activation corresponding to glucose, galactose, D-mannose and L-arabinose were 10.16 kj/mol, 12.17 kj/mol, 14.00 kj/mol and 20.22 kj/mol respectively. (author)

  10. Distinguishing enhancing from nonenhancing renal masses with dual-source dual-energy CT: iodine quantification versus standard enhancement measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, Giorgio; Mileto, Achille; Krauss, Bernhard; Gaeta, Michele; Blandino, Alfredo; Scribano, Emanuele; Settineri, Nicola; Mazziotti, Silvio

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of iodine quantification and standard enhancement measurements in distinguishing enhancing from nonenhancing renal masses. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study conducted from data found in institutional patient databases and archives. Seventy-two renal masses were characterised as enhancing or nonenhancing using standard enhancement measurements (in HU) and iodine quantification (in mg/ml). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of standard enhancement measurements and iodine quantification were calculated from χ (2) tests of contingency with histopathology or imaging follow-up as the reference standard. Difference in accuracy was assessed by means of McNemar analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for standard enhancement measurements and iodine quantification were 77.7 %, 100 %, 100 %, 81.8 %, 89 % and 100 %, 94.4 %, 94.7, 100 % and 97 %, respectively. The McNemar analysis showed that the accuracy of iodine quantification was significantly better (P < 0.001) than that of standard enhancement measurements. Compared with standard enhancement measurements, whole-tumour iodine quantification is more accurate in distinguishing enhancing from nonenhancing renal masses. • Enhancement of renal lesions is important when differentiating benign from malignant tumours. • Dual-energy CT offers measurement of iodine uptake rather than mere enhancement values. • Whole-tumour iodine quantification seems more accurate than standard CT enhancement measurements.

  11. Nuclear ventilation installations. Method of control of the scrubbing coefficient of iodine trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The present standard aims at defining a method to control the scrubbing coefficient of radioactive iodine trapping systems, used in nuclear ventilation installations. It applies to the installations where the trapping, efficiency of radioactive iodine has to be known, tested and compared to a reference value generally included in the safety reports. It applies to the installations where the absolute pressure of the air in the ventilation systems is above 1,4. 10 5 Pa (1,4 Bar) [fr

  12. Iodine prophylaxis around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site, Republic of Kazakstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Aiko; Zakupbekova, Mairash; Sagandikova, Sagadat; Espenbetova, Maira; Ohashi, Toshinori; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the iodine deficiency status in the Semipalatinsk region that has been contaminated by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the period of the former USSR. Based on the Japan-Kazakstan joint project of adult cancer screening around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), from May to October 2002 spot urine specimens were collected at random in each village. Separately, children aged 5-15 years from around the SNTS were chosen at random and spot urine specimens were collected from them. Area contaminated by radioactive fallout around the SNTS, Republic of Kazakstan. A total of 2609 adults aged >40 years from 16 settlements in three regions and one city, and 298 children aged 5-15 years from two regions and one city. Median urinary iodine concentrations of adults and children in all regions were in the range of 116.0-381.7 and 127.7-183.0 microg l(-1), respectively. The highest prevalence of values 100 microg l(-1). In agreement with our previous studies, the urinary iodine concentration data showed no clear evidence of iodine deficiency around the SNTS. Kazakstan is geographically and nutritionally at moderate risk of iodine deficiency disorders without fortification or iodine replacement by iodised salt. The socio-medical prophylaxis against iodine deficiency has been successfully maintained in East Kazakstan.

  13. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260-300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  14. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  15. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  16. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  17. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs

  18. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D A [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  19. Application of radiopharmaceuticals in iodine disorder studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element and is of much interest in nutritional research. It is essential for the production of the hormones in the thyroid gland. However, deficiency or excess of iodine can cause disorders, commonly known as iodine disorders. Total quantity of iodine present in the body is 15-20 mg, mostly in thyroid gland and the safe and adequate intake of iodine is in the range of 50-200 μg.d -1 . Most of the iodine taken from food is accumulated in thyroid glands which plays a vital role in the well being as it controls growth and metabolism. In some people gland becomes over active (hyper thyroiditis) and in some people gland becomes sluggish (hypo thyroiditis). However, both the conditions are unhealthy and lead to serious consequences. The condition can be detected and treated with the help of radioiodine

  20. Criteria for safe working with iodine-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    Radio-immunoassay and other saturation assay tests involving the use of iodine-125 are finding wide application for the determination of hormone concentrations in biological fluids. In such tests, iodinations involving concentrations of a milli-curie per micro-litre are common. Iodine-125 presents a problem from the monitoring standpoint because of its low energy photon emission (27 and 35 keV). Iodine is preferentially taken up by the thyroid gland and work involving moderate amounts of radio-iodine may give rise to a significant hazard in an accident situation. The general precautions which should be taken in work with unsealed radioactive substances are briefly summarized, working limits for iodine-125 are identified, and methods of personal protection and monitoring in an emergency situation described. (author)

  1. A simple method to estimate the optimum iodine concentration of contrast material through microcatheters: hydrodynamic calculation with spreadsheet software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Teiyu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Yamada, Takeshi; Futami, Choichiro; Tsukiyama, Yumiko; Harada, Motoko; Furui, Shigeru; Suzuki, Shigeru; Mimura, Kohshiro

    2008-01-01

    It is important to increase the iodine delivery rate (I), that is the iodine concentration of the contrast material (C) x the flow rate of the contrast material (Q), through microcatheters to obtain arteriograms of the highest contrast. It is known that C is an important factor that influences I. The purpose of this study is to establish a method of hydrodynamic calculation of the optimum iodine concentration (i.e., the iodine concentration at which I becomes maximum) of the contrast material and its flow rate through commercially available microcatheters. Iopamidol, ioversol and iohexol of ten iodine concentrations were used. Iodine delivery rates (I meas) of each contrast material through ten microcatheters were measured. The calculated iodine delivery rate (I cal) and calculated optimum iodine concentration (calculated C opt) were obtained with spreadsheet software. The agreement between I cal and I meas was studied by correlation and logarithmic Bland-Altman analyses. The value of the calculated C opt was within the optimum range of iodine concentrations (i.e. the range of iodine concentrations at which I meas becomes 90% or more of the maximum) in all cases. A good correlation between I cal and I meas (I cal = 1.08 I meas, r = 0.99) was observed. Logarithmic Bland-Altman analysis showed that the 95% confidence interval of I cal/I meas was between 0.82 and 1.29. In conclusion, hydrodynamic calculation with spreadsheet software is an accurate, generally applicable and cost-saving method to estimate the value of the optimum iodine concentration and its flow rate through microcatheters

  2. Local radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons of iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, P.; Uenak, T.

    1987-01-01

    High radiotoxicity of iodine-125 has been mainly attributed to the local radiolytic effects of Auger electrons on biological systems. In the present study, experimental and theoretical results are compared. The agreement between the experimental and theoretical results explains that the energy absorption of iodine aggregates has an important role in the radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons and iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  4. Global 99mTc-uptake in the differentiation between normal thyroid, goitre with euthyroidism, and thyroid autonomy in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisig, T.; Vaitl, C.; Kirsch, C.M.; Knesewitsch, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Horn, K.; Bechtner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Global TcTU was determined in 568 patients without any specific thyroid drug intake - 54 with normal thyroid, 274 with goitre and euthyroidism and 240 with thyroid autonomy. 57 patients with autonomy and overt hyperthyroidism were the only group with TcTU values significantly higher than normals. Common to all groups was a large scatter of the TcTU values. In 332, the effects of individual iodine supply were studied by measuring the iodine concentration in spot urine samples. There was a significant inverse correlation between the TcTU values and the urinary iodine excretion in the groups of normal thyroids and of goitres with euthyroidism. In the group with autonomy an effect of iodine supply could only be seen in cases of greatly increased urinary iodine excretion, resulting in very low TcTU values. Out of 20 patients with autonomy and iodine contamination, only 4 showed overt hyperthyroidism. The large scatter of TcTU values in all groups may be explained by the persistent iodine deficiency as well as by the frequent exposure to unknown amounts of iodine in patients with thyroid disease. Therefore, the spontaneous TcTU alone cannot identify a small group of patients with autonomy and high risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, from a very large group of patients with goitre. (orig.) [de

  5. Equine goiter associated with excess dietary iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroksuz, H; Eroksuz, Y; Ozer, H; Ceribasi, A O; Yaman, I; Ilhan, N

    2004-06-01

    Naturally occurring goiter cases are described in 2 newborn Arabian foals whose mares were supplemented with excess iodine during the final 24 w of the pregnancy. Six nursing foals and 2 mares were also affected clinically with thyroid hypertrophy. At least 12 times the maximum tolerable level of iodine supplementation was given, as the daily iodine intake for each mare was 299 mg. The prevalence of goiter cases was 2 and 9% in the mares and foals, respectively.

  6. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  7. Sensitive determination of iodine species, including organo-iodine, for freshwater and seawater samples using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    In order to more effectively use iodine isotope ratios, 129 I/ 127 I, as hydrological and geochemical tracers in aquatic systems, a new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of iodine speciation. The dissolved iodine species that dominate natural water systems are iodide, iodate, and organic iodine. Using this new method, iodide was determined directly by combining anion exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry. Iodate and the total of organic iodine species are determined as iodide, with minimal sample preparation, compared to existing methods. The method has been applied to quantitatively determine iodide, iodate as the difference of total inorganic iodide and iodide after reduction of the sample by NaHSO 3 , and organic iodine as the difference of total iodide (after organic decomposition by dehydrohalogenation and reduction by NaHSO 3 ) and total inorganic iodide. Analytical accuracy was tested: (1) against certified reference material, SRM 1549, powdered milk (NIST); (2) through the method of standard additions; and (3) by comparison to values of environmental waters measured independently by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been successfully applied to measure the concentrations of iodide species in rain, surface and ground water, estuarine and seawater samples. The detection limit was ∼1 nM (0.2 ppb), with less than 3% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for samples determined by standard additions to an iodide solution of 20 nM in 0.1 M NaCl. This technique is one of the few methods sensitive enough to accurately quantify stable iodine species at nanomolar concentrations in aquatic systems across a range of matrices, and to quantitatively measure organic iodine. Additionally, this method makes use of a very dilute mobile phase, and may be applied to small sample volumes without pre-column concentration or post-column reactions

  8. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages, are con...

  9. Molecular environment of iodine in naturally iodinated humic substances: Insight from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Michel L.; Mercier-Bion, Florence; Barre, Nicole; Reiller, Pascal; Moulin, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The molecular environment of iodine in reference inorganic and organic compounds, and in dry humic and fulvic acids (HAs and FAs) extracted from subsurface and deep aquifers was probed by iodine L-3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of iodine spectra from HAs and FAs resembled those of organic references and displayed structural features consistent with iodine forming covalent bonds with organic molecules. Simulation of XANES spectra by linear combination of reference spectra suggested the predominance of iodine forming covalent bonds to aromatic rings (aromatic-bound iodine). Comparison of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of reference and samples further showed that iodine was surrounded by carbon shells at distances comparable to those for references containing aromatic-bound iodine. Quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra indicated that iodine was bound to about one carbon at a distance d(I-C) of 2.01(4)-2.04(9) angstrom, which was comparable to the distances observed for aromatic-bound iodine in references (1.99(1)-2.07(6) angstrom), and significantly shorter than that observed for aliphatic-bound iodine (2.15(2)-2.16(2) angstrom). These results are in agreement with previous conclusions from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and from electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. These results collectively suggest that the aromatic-bound iodine is stable in the various aquifers of this study. (authors)

  10. 127I Moessbauer study of some oxygen bonded iodine(I) and iodine(III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, M.; Birchall, T.; Frampton, C.; Kapoor, P.

    1988-01-01

    127 I Moessbauer spectra have been recorded at 4.2 0 K for a series of oxygen bonded iodine(I) and iodine(III) complexes. The sign of the quadrupole coupling constant is dependant only on the primary arrangement of ligands about the central iodine nucleus whereas the magnitude and the asymmetry parameter are more sensitive to ligand electronegativity and type. (orig.)

  11. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  12. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  13. Effect of different iodine intake on schoolchildren's thyroid diseases and intelligence in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高天舒; 滕卫平; 单忠艳; 金迎; 关海霞; 滕晓春; 杨帆; 王微波; 史小光; 佟雅洁; 李丹; 陈威

    2004-01-01

    Background Reports are increasingly appearing on the side effects caused by excessive iodine intake. Our objective was to find out whether iodine excess would impair the thyroid function and intelligence of schoolchildren in rural areas of China. Methods A comparative epidemiological study was made on thyroid function and intelligence of the schoolchildren in the areas of low, moderate or excessive intake of iodine. In the area of low intake of iodine (Panshan, Liaoning province, median urinary iodine (MUI) was 99 μg/L), of moderate intake of iodine (Zhangwu, Liaoning Province, MUI was 338 μg/L) and of excessive intake of iodine (Huanghua, Hebei Province, MUI was 631 μg/L). The numbers of schoolchildren from each area selected to take part in a Chinese version of Raven's Test were 190, 236 and 313, respectively, and then 116, 110 and 112 of them were tested for thyroid function, thyroid autoantibody (TAA) and urinary iodine (UI).Results There were no significant differences in the incidences of overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism in Panshan, Zhangwu and Huanghua. But significant differences were found in the incidences of subclinical hypothyroidism (P= 0.001) in these three areas. The incidences of subclinical hypothyroidism in Huanghua and Zhangwu were 4.76 and 3.37 times higher than that in Panshan. TAA were negative in all the schoolchildren with subclinical hypothyroidism except for one. No significant difference was found among the rates of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) in these three areas. Mean serum thyroglobulin (TG) value of Huanghua was markedly higher than those of the other two (P= 0.02). Mean serum TG value of Zhangwu was higher than that of Panshan but the difference was not significant. Mean IQ value of the schoolchildren in Huanghua was markedly higher than that for Zhangwu (P=0.001). Mean IQ value of the schoolchildren in Panshan was lower than that of Huanghua and

  14. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  15. Hygienic assessment of radioactive iodine isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Sources of radioactive iodine isotopes and their biological significance depending on the way of intake are discussed. The degree of food contamination by radioactive iodine as well as products, which serve as the source of its intake into the human body, and results of their processing are considered. The danger of radioactive iodine intake by different groups of population as well as thyroid irradiation effects are discussed. Description of activities, directed to the human body protection against radioactive iodine and assessment of these protection measures efficiency is presented

  16. Photochemistry of DNA containing iodinated cytosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, R O; Stafford, R S [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-10-01

    Irradiation at 313 nm of compounds containing iodinated cytosine moieties results in the photolysis of iodine. Photolysis occurs with a quantum yield of 0.022-0.024 for 5-iododeoxycytidine and 5-iododeoxycytidine monophosphate, and 0.004-0.008 for iodinated DNA as well as for iodinated polycytidylate. Photodegradation of the cytosine moiety occurs when air is present during irradiation, presumably due to the reaction of oxygen with the cytosyl radical formed when iodine is lost. This oxygen promoted photodegradation destroys the cytosine chromophore and is complete in the monomers but occurs to only a limited extent in the polymers. In the absence of oxygen or in the presence of ethanol, photodegradation is prevented and the loss of iodine leads exclusively to the formation of the cytosine chromophore. In DNA, the loss of iodine is accompanied by the formation of sugar damage and/or chain breaks. As measured by sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients, approximately one break is made for every six iodines lost in denatured DNA. The frequency of chain breakage per iodine photolyzed is reduced 2-fold in renatured DNA. Analysis in neutral gradients suggests that half of the breaks observed in alkali are alkali-labile bonds. Both ethanol and cysteamine reduce the number of chain breaks in alkali by approximately 3-fold.

  17. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  18. Reduced radioiodine uptake at increased iodine intake and {sup 131}I-induced release of ''cold'' iodine stored in the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, B.; Haase, A.; Richter, E.; Baehre, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Seyfarth, M. [Inst. of Clinical Chemistry, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Wenzel, B.E. [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Aim: the extent of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) provides information about iodine supply and release. In the present study we investigated correlations between UIE and radioiodine uptake (RIU) as well as effects of radioiodine therapy on UIE in patients with autonomous goitre. Patients, methods: In 197 consecutive patients with thyroid autonomy, UIE was measured twice during radioiodine test (RITe) and correlated with RIU. In 98 of these patients, thyroglobulin and thyroid volume (V) were determined prior to therapy. Individual changes in urinary iodine excretion ({delta}UIE) and TG ({delta}TG) could be investigated four weeks (4W) and six months (6M) after radioiodine therapy. Additionally, {delta}V was determined 6M after therapy. {delta}UIE, {delta}TG and {delta}V were correlated with target dose and target volume. Results: patients with higher iodine excretion exhibited significantly lower thyroidal radioiodine uptake values. Twofold increased UIE prior to therapy decreased radioiodine uptake by 25%. Compared with pretherapeutic values, UIE and TG were significantly increased four weeks after radioiodine therapy (p < 0.001). Median values of both parameters were found to be doubled. The product of target dose and target volume was not only correlated with a decrease of thyroid volume 6M after therapy, but also with an increase of UIE and TG in the early phase after therapy. Conclusions: it was confirmed that UIE during RITe is a measure for iodine intake and can be used to investigate the competition between stable iodine and radioiodine. The increase of UIE and TG four weeks after therapeutic administration of radioiodine can be explained by disintegrated thyroid follicles. The therapy-induced iodine release may be one important cause for the development of hyperthyroidism in some patients during the first weeks after radioiodine therapy. It may contribute to the known decrease of radioiodine uptake after preapplications of {sup 131}I in various thyroid

  19. Study of molecular iodine-epoxy paint mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belval-Haltier, E [Inst. de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, CEN Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    The mass transfer phenomena may have a significant influence on the quantity of I{sub 2} which could be released following a severe accident of a nuclear power plant and specially the mass transfer of iodine onto containment surfaces. So, the objective of the present work was to evaluate which phase limited the adsorption process of iodine onto gaseous epoxy paint under a range of conditions which may be relevant to a severe reactor accident. In this aim, a series of experiments was conducted in which the sorption kinetics of molecular iodine, labelled with {sup 131}I, was measured by monitoring continuously the accumulation of this species on the epoxy surface. For each test condition, the initial deposition velocity was determined and the corresponding gas phase mass transfer, kg, was estimated by using the heat transfer analogy for a laminar flow passing over a flat plate. Then, the surface reaction rate, Kr, was deduced from these two values. Experiments performed indicated that iodine adsorption onto epoxy paint is highly dependent on temperature, relative humidity of the carrier gas and moisture content of the painted coupon. In dry air flow conditions, the adsorption of iodine onto paint was found to increase with temperature and to be limited by the surface reaction rate, Kr. The I{sub 2} adsorption rate was found to increase with the humidity of carrier gas and in some studied conditions, the initial deposition velocity appeared to be controlled by gas phase mass transfer rather than surface interaction. The same phenomenon has been observed with an increase of the initial water content of the painted coupon. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  20. ENAA of iodine in standard reference material lyophilized human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongbao; Wang Ke; Wang Ganfeng

    1997-01-01

    The contents of iodine in two kinds of standard reference materials lyophilized human urine are determined by ENAA. The sensitivity of this method is ten times higher than that of TNAA, and the relative standard deviations of ten measurements are 2.9% and 3.3%, respectively. Two certificated reference samples are used for verification of the analysis. The analytical results are in agreement with the recommended values, and the relative error is less than 3%

  1. Study on solubility and leaching property of Iodine-129 waste-forms for geological disposal. Document prepared by other institute, based on the trust contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, A.; Izumi, J. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitao, H. [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ueta, S.; Okada, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Muroi, M. [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    As concern the study on the property of Iodine-129 waste-forms, the solubilities and leachabilities of iodine-sodalite and leachabilities of apatite containing Iodine were measured last year. The results in this year are summarized as follows. 1. Solubility and Leachability of Iodine-sodalite. Leachabilities and solubilities of the synthesized iodine-sodalite by HIP method were measured by means of a long-term leach test in the solution with chloride ions and high pH (12.5). The measured solubilities were within a range of 10{sup -3} - 10{sup -2} mol/L, which were larger compare with the previous values. The leachabilities were 10{sup -6} g/cm{sup 2}/day (powder) and 10{sup -3} g/cm{sup 2}/day (block). After the leach test, the solid phases were analyzed and the alternation was not observed. 2. Leaching Property of Apatite Sample which contains Iodine adsorption medicine. Apatite sample was manufactured from apatite and zeorait which adsorbs iodine matrix by plasma-hotpress. The porosity of the samples was under 5% and release rate of iodine was about 10% at plasma-hotpress manufacturing. The leachabilities of iodine were 10{sup -4} - 10{sup -3} g/cm{sup 2}/d at 56 day soaking period. These values were 1 - 2 digits higher compare with the leachabilities of calcium. It is thought that the iodine selectively is leached from apatite sample. (author)

  2. The true absorption of 131I, and its transfer to milk in cows given different stable iodine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Van Hees, M.; Hardeman, F.; Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the stable iodine content in the diet on the absorption of radioiodine and its transfer to cow's milk was investigated for cows at different stages of lactation. Three different rates of stable iodine: a low intake rate of 4 mg d -1 , a moderate intake of 35 mg d -1 and a high rate of 75 mg d -1 were fed to two groups of three lactating cows in mid- and late-lactation. The transfer to milk of a single oral administration of radioiodine was measured for the three different intake rates. The lactation phase had no significant effect on iodine transfer to milk; therefore, the data from the two lactation groups were pooled for further statistical analyses. The mean transfer coefficient values for oral radioiodine to milk increased from 0.020 d l -1 for the low treatment to 0.024 d l -1 for the moderate stable iodine rate. There was a statistically significant decrease in the transfer to milk for the high stable dietary iodine intake rate (mean transfer coefficient=0.018 d l -1 ) compared with the moderate treatment. These differences were not due to effects on absorption since true absorption was complete for all three stable iodine treatments, but rather to differential affinities and saturation levels of the thyroid and milk pathways competing for the available iodine. The same behaviour and comparable values of transfer coefficients (range 0.015-0.020 d l -1 ) were observed for stable iodine

  3. Radiation doses by therapeutical practices with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Trano, J.L.; Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.M.; Grassi, E.; Gatica, N.; Kunst, J.J.; Gonzalez, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this document is to estimate the doses to workers and public due to therapeutical practices with iodine 131. Environmental and personal doses by external irradiation were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The environmental dosimetry resulted in an equivalent dose H * (10) of approximately 0,1 mSv. The calculated personal equivalent dose Hp (10) was of the order of 0,1 mSv. The exposition rate was measured, being the values obtained in the range of 0,20 and 0,35 mSv/h. (1m from the abdominal wall). Concentrations of iodine 131 were determinate in the air of the room, during the first day in the hospital. Values obtained were between 0,04 Bq/l and 0,20 Bq/l. Surface samples were taken in the service, obtaining levels of contamination in the range of 0,001 and 0,4 Bq/cm 2 . The surface samples obtained in the hospital room were about 0,15 Bq/cm 2 . Urine samples were collected resulting in an eliminated activity of iodine 131, during the first 24 hours, of about 60 % of the administered activity. Samples of sweat of different cutaneous regions were obtained, the maximum values of the activity measured reached 200 Bq/cm 2 . According to the obtained results it is important to elaborate guides to be given to patients as an instrument to reduce the external exposure and to avoid internal contamination. (author)

  4. SmallSats, Iodine Propulsion Technology, Applications to Low-Cost Lunar Missions, and the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.

  5. Serum thyroglobulin and urinary iodine concentration are the most appropriate indicators of iodine status and thyroid function under conditions of increasing iodine supply in schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Briel, T.; West, C. E.; Hautvast, J. G.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ategbo, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency control programs have greatly reduced iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. For monitoring changes in iodine status, different indicators may be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of indicators of iodine status and thyroid function, thyroglobulin (Tg),

  6. Molecular structures and thermodynamic properties of monohydrated gaseous iodine compounds: Modelling for severe accident simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudolská, Mária; Cantrel, Laurent; Budzák, Šimon; Černušák, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Monohydrated complexes of iodine species (I, I2, HI, and HOI) have been studied by correlated ab initio calculations. The standard enthalpies of formation, Gibbs free energy and the temperature dependence of the heat capacities at constant pressure were calculated. The values obtained have been implemented in ASTEC nuclear accident simulation software to check the thermodynamic stability of hydrated iodine compounds in the reactor coolant system and in the nuclear containment building of a pressurised water reactor during a severe accident. It can be concluded that iodine complexes are thermodynamically unstable by means of positive Gibbs free energies and would be represented by trace level concentrations in severe accident conditions; thus it is well justified to only consider pure iodine species and not hydrated forms.

  7. Doping efficiency of single and randomly stacked bilayer graphene by iodine adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, HoKwon; Renault, Olivier; Rouchon, Denis; Mariolle, Denis; Chevalier, Nicolas [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tyurnina, Anastasia; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Dijon, Jean [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LITEN, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-07

    We report on the efficiency and thermal stability of p-doping by iodine on single and randomly stacked, weakly coupled bilayer polycrystalline graphene, as directly measured by photoelectron emission microscopy. The doping results in work function value increase of 0.4–0.5 eV, with a higher degree of iodine uptake by the bilayer (2%) as compared to the single layer (1%) suggesting iodine intercalation in the bilayer. The chemistry of iodine is identified accordingly as I{sub 3}{sup −} and I{sub 5}{sup −} poly iodide anionic complexes with slightly higher concentration of I{sub 5}{sup −} in bilayer than monolayer graphene, likely attributed to differences in doping mechanisms. Temperature dependent in-situ annealing of the doped films demonstrated that the doping remains efficient up to 200 °C.

  8. Iodine metabolism in leprosy patients (examination with a method of whole-body radiometry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balybin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of whole-body radiometry was used to study iodine metabolism in 47 patients with lepromatous leprosy. Disorders were found in 1/3 of the cases. The level of organic iodine in the body was the most informative of all iodine metabolism indices. In the active stage of leprosy it was twice as low, on an average, as the normal one, in the stage of incomplete and stable regression it rose not reaching, however, the values of healthy persons. The content of iodine in the thyroid of leprosy patients showed a tendency to a rise starting from the active stage, however it was only in the stages of incomplete and stable regression that it significantly exceeded the normal level. The data obtained should be considered during therapy of lepers to predict and control an unfavorable complication like specific polyneuritis

  9. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  10. Change of 99mtechnetium-pertechnetate-thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTUs) induced by optimization of iodine supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Trupkovic, T.; Schumacher, T.; Krause, T.M.; Oexle, C.; Moser, E.

    1998-01-01

    The present study deals with the change of the 99m Technetium-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTU s ) in dependence on the urinary iodine excretion. The study collective comprises 510 patients with euthyroid goiter (N=91), with functional thyroid autonomy (N=361) and with Graves' disease (N=58), who were examined in the now thyroid ambulance between January 1995 and February 1997 and who presented with endogeneous or exogeneous TSH-supression. All patients received a quantitative thyroid scintigraphy with 99m Technetium-pertechnetate and a measurement of the urinary iodine excretion. The TcTU s from the whole collective shows an inverse correlation to the urinary iodine excretion for the range of 0 to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. The TcTU s remains constant on a low basal level for iodine excretion values over 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. Significant differences occur in dependence on the underlying disease. TcTU s is constantly low in patients with euthyroid goiter, independent of the iodine excretion value. The TcTU s is significantly increased in patients with functional thyroid autonomy or Graves' disease when iodine excretion is below 100 or 50 μg iodine/g creatinine respectively, but shows only minor changes when iodine excretion rises up to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. When iodine excretion exceeds 500 μg iodine/g creatinine, the TcTU s of patients with thyroid autonomy drops down to a low basal level. (orig.) [de

  11. Investigations on a cortisol-iodine-125-radioimmunoassay test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, U.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of a cortisol-iodine-125-RIA test system the reliability criteria were detected. Additionally, the so-called normal values of the cortisol daily rhythm were determined in a test group with normal metabolism. Moreover, in an other examination control values for the ACTH stimulation were registered and in addition the reproducability of this test was investigated. The results of the examinations and investigations confirm the necessity of taking precision and normal values determined in the own laboratory - as basis for the interpretation of radiochemical substrate analyses. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.; Holm, J.; Ekberg, C.; Glaenneskog, H.

    2009-10-01

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  13. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  14. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (U.S.)

  15. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (auth)

  16. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The incre......, and the current fortification level of salt ( 13 ppm) seems reasonable.......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  17. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuye, Chernet; Hailemariam, Bantiyrgu; Neka Tibeb, Hanna; Urga, Kelbesa; Woldegebriel, Zewidie

    1995-01-01

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  18. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, H.; Strachan, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M2O.3Al2O3. 6SiO2.2MX, where M alkali metal; X I - or IO 3- ) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800 0 to 1100 0 C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite

  19. Iodine laser for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, B.

    1988-01-01

    The most powerful iodine laser in the world, known as Asterix IV, is being prepared for operation at The Max Plank-Institut fuer Quantenoptik at Garching, near Munich, in West Germany. It is expected to produce 2kJ pulses of 1ns duration. Shorter pulses of about 200 ps duration should be obtainable at power levels of over 5 TW. Pulses of maximum power will be available every 20 minutes; this frequency is expected to be adequate for fusion experiments, although the short rate could be raised if necessary by greater gas circulation and cooling. (Author)

  20. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, M.; Philippe, Ch.; Pham, Minh Tuan; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, O.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 17010102. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18430S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : iodine cells * absorption spectroscopy * laser spectroscopy * laser standards * frequency stability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  1. Iodine stress corrosion cracking in Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.H.P. de; Pelloux, R.M.N.

    1983-01-01

    The subcritical growth of iodine-induced cracks in unirradiated Zircaloy plates is investigated as a function of the stress intensity factor K. The testing variables are: crystallographic texture (f-Number), microstructure (grain directionaly), heat treatment (stress relieved vs recrystallized plate), and temperature. The iodine partial pressure is 40Pa. (author) [pt

  2. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein. 558.295 Section 558.295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter...

  3. Sorption of iodine onto Japanese soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Satoshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch

    1996-04-01

    Soils were collected from various regions of Japan. Iodine concentrations in the soils were quantitatively determined. The adsorption ratio and the distribution coefficients of iodine onto the soils were derived and effects of co-existing ions were studied. (J.P.N.)

  4. Iodine deficiency disorders in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyu, A; Tambi, Z; Ahmad, Y

    1998-12-01

    The state of Sarawak in Malaysia has a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This has been revealed through a review of goitre surveys that were carried out in the State from the early 1970s to the 1990s. The primary cause was low iodine intake. Contributory factors were low iodine content in the soil and water as well as high cassava consumption. Virtual elimination of IDD is one of the nutritional goals of the IDD prevention and control programs. The strategies adopted include the iodination of coarse salt, which is sold in the market by shopkeepers and also provided free from government health clinics; legislation requiring that salt sold in IDD-gazetted areas must be iodised; and the use of iodinators to iodise water supplied by the gravity-feed system to villages and boarding schools in rural areas. The indicators used in the monitoring and evaluation of the program include the availability of iodised salt in the market and households, iodine levels in water supply that had been fitted with iodinators, goitre volume measured by ultrasound, and urinary iodine excretion among school children.

  5. Sorption of iodine onto Japanese soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    1996-01-01

    Soils were collected from various regions of Japan. Iodine concentrations in the soils were quantitatively determined. The adsorption ratio and the distribution coefficients of iodine onto the soils were derived and effects of co-existing ions were studied. (J.P.N.)

  6. The high-power iodine laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Witte, K. J.

    The book provides a description of the present state of the art concerning the iodine laser, giving particular attention to the design and operation of pulsed high-power iodine lasers. The basic features of the laser are examined, taking into account aspects of spontaneous emission lifetime, hyperfine structure, line broadening and line shifts, stimulated emission cross sections, the influence of magnetic fields, sublevel relaxation, the photodissociation of alkyl iodides, flashlamp technology, excitation in a direct discharge, chemical excitation, and questions regarding the chemical kinetics of the photodissociation iodine laser. The principles of high-power operation are considered along with aspects of beam quality and losses, the design and layout of an iodine laser system, the scalability and prospects of the iodine laser, and the design of the single-beam Asterix III laser.

  7. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    While radioactive iodine is clearly the therapy of choice for Graves' disease (even in younger patients) the use of radioactive iodine for therapy of the toxic multinodular or uninodular goiter presents an entirely different problem. Although these two entities can be treated with radioactive iodine provided there is some suppression of the tissue that is not autonomous, transient release of thyroid hormone may induce symptoms of thyroid storm in the very large multinodular toxic goiter treated with radioiodine therapy. These toxic nodules generally require much larger doses of radioiodine than is commonly used for classical Graves' disease and may either require fractional administration of radioisotopes or concomitant use of antithyroid drugs and iodides. In general, surgery remains the treatment of choice for large toxic multinodular goiters, after proper preparation by medical means including radioactive iodine. Radioactive iodine therapy for hyperthyroidism is contraindicated in pregnancy and generally is not used in children below five years of age. (U.S.)

  8. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  9. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  10. A new kinetic model for human iodine metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficken, V.J.; Allen, E.W.; Adams, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    A new kinetic model of iodine metabolism incorporating preferential organification of tyrosil (TYR) residues of thyroglobulin is developed and evaluated for euthyroid (n=5) and hyperthyroid (n=11) subjects. Iodine and peripheral T4 metabolims were measured with oral /sup 131/I-NaI and intravenous /sup 125/I-74 respectively. Data (obtained over 10 days) and kinetic model are analyzed using the SAAM27 program developed by Berman (1978). Compartment rate constants (mean rate per hour +- ISD) are tabulated in this paper. Thyroid and renal iodide clearance compare favorably with values reported in the literature. TYR rate constants were not unique; however, values obtained are within the range of rate constants determined from the invitro data reported by others. Intraluminal iodine as coupled TYR is predicted to be 21% for euthyroid and 59% for hyperthyroid subjects compared to analytical chemical methods of 30% and 51% respectively determined elsewhere. The authors plan to evaluate this model as a method of predicting the thyroid radiation dose from orally administered I/sup 131/

  11. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bouga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed (edible algae is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224 were identified. Only 22 products (10% stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18% provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503 and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520. While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content.

  12. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouga, Maria; Combet, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed (edible algae) is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224) were identified. Only 22 products (10%) stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18%) provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503) and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520). While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European) tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content). PMID:28231201

  13. The influence of non-radiation factors on the kinetics of radioactive iodine metabolism in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalistratova, V.S.; Filatov, V.V.; Shavrina, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    metabolism kinetics of radioactive iodine in the critical organ. Experimental result indicate that such factors as vaccine, alcohol and environmental temperature can essentially affect a function of the thyroid and its ability to accumulate radioactive iodine. It is found that the accumulation level of radioactive iodine and the dose of thyroid irradiation are increased by 1,3-1,5 times when radionuclide is administered: at late periods after vaccination (5-14 days); after a single administration of ethanol (20,0% concentration). A decrease of radionuclide accumulation level in the thyroid by 1,3-1,5 times and of the absorbed dose created by this radionuclide about 2 times is observed when iodine is administered: at early periods after vaccination (up to 5 days); after a long, during 2 months, exposure to ethanol (20,0% concentration); in the conditions of high environmental temperature (43-45 deg C). Therefore, the degree of critical organ (thyroid) irradiation by radioactive iodine will be essentially decreased under the influence of most of the investigated factors. When estimating the risk of exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine the change of functional activity of the thyroid under the influence of modifying factors can be of principle value due to the possible summation of non-radiation and radiation effects if iodine is administered in the amount inducing hypofunction of the thyroid. In order to make a final conclusion about the significance of non-radiation factors for the problem of normalization of radioactive isotopes of iodine it is necessary to perform further studies of biological effects induced by the radionuclide and non-radiation factors. (author)

  14. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  16. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. The results of this work are expected to identify where additional data

  17. Goitre in girls at the age of puberty. Part 2. Determination of thyroid iodine uptake and triiodothyronine-binding index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, W.

    1977-01-01

    Thyroid iodine uptake and 125 I-triiodothyronine-binding index (T 3 BC) were determined in 114 girls with juvenile goitre and the results were related to the size of the goitre and its duration. Measurements of thyroid iodine uptake showed a gradual decrease of its value with increasing size of goitre and its longer duration without reaching, however, the values regarded as normal. T 3 BC showed no significant changes in relation to the size of goitre and its duration. (author)

  18. Effects of culture conditions and biofilm formation on the iodine susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, K. L.; Pyle, B. H.; Sauer, R. L.; McFeters, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to iodination was studied with cultures grown in well water, on rich agar media, and attached to stainless-steel surfaces. Legionella pneumophila grown in water cultures in association with other microorganisms were less sensitive to disinfection by chlorine and iodine than were agar-passaged cultures. Differences in sensitivity to disinfection between water-cultured and agar-grown legionellae were determined by comparing C x T values (concentration in milligrams per litre multiplied by time in minutes to achieve 99% decrease in viability) and CM x T values (concentration in molarity). Iodine (1500x) gave a greater difference in CM x T values than did chlorine (68x). Iodine was 50 times more effective than chlorine when used with agar-grown cultures but was only twice as effective when tested against water-grown Legionella cultures. C x T x S values (C x T multiplied by percent survivors), which take into consideration the percent surviving bacteria, were used to compare sensitivities in very resistant populations, such as those in biofilms. Water cultures of legionellae associated with stainless-steel surfaces were 135 times more resistant to iodination than were unattached legionellae, and they were 210,000 times more resistant than were agar-grown cultures. These results indicate that the conditions under which legionellae are grown can dramatically affect their susceptibility to some disinfectants and must be considered when evaluating the efficacy of a disinfecting agent.

  19. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (Pseaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  20. Urinary Iodine Clearance following Iodinated Contrast Administration: A Comparison of Euthyroid and Postthyroidectomy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice D. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare iodine clearance following iodinated contrast administration in thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and euthyroid individuals. Methods. A convenience population (6 thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and 7 euthyroid controls was drawn from patients referred for iodinated contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT studies. Subjects had sequential urine samples collected up to 6 months (50 samples from the thyroidectomised and 63 samples from the euthyroid groups. t-tests and generalised estimating equations (GEE were used to test for group differences in urinary iodine creatinine ratios. Results. Groups had similar urinary iodine creatinine ratios at baseline, with a large increase 2 weeks following iodinated contrast (P=0.005. Both groups had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline by 4 weeks, with no significant group differences overall or at any time point. Conclusions. Thyroidectomised patients did not have a significantly different urinary iodine clearance than euthyroid individuals following administration of iodinated contrast. Both had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline within 4 weeks.

  1. Contribution to the study of gaseous molecular iodine washout by natural rains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier-Bidoz, V.

    1991-01-01

    This study is part of researches about nuclear accident prediction consequences on the environment. It concerns transfering of molecular gaseous iodine into liquids and especially precipitation scavenging below the cloud (washout). Bibliographic data directly concerned with this study (iodine's aqueous chemistry, aqueous to gaseous phases transfer) and also with its global frame-work (atmospheric release from a nuclear reactor in accidental situation and the behaviour of atmospheric iodine) are presented. Several experimental approaches have been performed in laboratory and on field. An aqueous to gaseous phase transfer simulator allowed us to isolate parameters involved in absorption and desorption of the halogen. Field experiments permit to quantify dry deposition on different solutions and to get a better insight of the phenomenon. Extrapolation of the whole results to precipitation scavenging of gaseous iodine I 2 by natural rains suggests that the process is an irreversible one. Washout rate values acquired during rainy experiments with molecular iodine emission or in a laboratory rainfall simulator agree with literatures data relative to irreversibility. However and even if reversibility was efficient it was not possible to clearly exhibit it according to experimental conditions. Moreover, the analytical iodine method which leads to a good experimental study has been presented

  2. Status of thyroidal radioiodine (I-131) uptake and urinary iodine in Bangladesh population: A re-look following implementation of universal iodination of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, F.; Sultana Haque, F.; Karim, M.A.; Faruque, O.; Ali, L.; Azad Khan, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Iodide plays a central role in thyroid physiology and in the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal vertebrate growth and development. Radioiodine uptake test is one of the oldest radionuclide investigations for evaluation of thyroid function. On the other hand useful information about the nutritional status of a population can be obtained by measuring the prevalence of deficiency in a population. The main aim of this study was to find out the present status of urinary iodine and thyroid uptake status of people living in and around Dhaka City (Bangladesh). The present study was carried out over a period of three years from 1999 to 2002 involving 300 subjects inclusive of 216 females and 84 males. Efforts were made to randomly include people from a broad spectrum of social and economic strata, starting from people belonging to the lowest to the highest income groups; as well as people representing the urban, rural and suburban populations. Urinary iodine levels and 24 hour percentage radioiodine uptake by the thyroid were estimated in all subjects included in this study. Subsequently patients were grouped into four categories based on the values of their percentage 24-hour radioiodine uptake; e.g., Group-A (N-99) with lowest uptake (0-5%), Group-B (N=100) with uptake ranging between 5-10%, Group-C (N=73) with uptake ranging between 10-30% and Group D (N=28) with uptake above 30%. The median 24 hours RAIU values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, 23 and 34% respectively. The corresponding mean urinary iodine levels in the four groups were 43.31, 33.95, 12.97 and 9.35μgm/dl respectively. The results have shown that 1.04, 3.48, 16.72 and 78.74% people studied had levels of urinary iodine indicating severe, moderate, mild or no iodine deficiency respectively as per the WHO Criteria (Severe: <2 μgm /dl, Moderate: 2-4.9 μgm /dl, mild: 5.0-9.9μgm /dl, normal: ≥ 10 μgm /dl). It may be noted that the normal values of Thyroidal I-131 uptake were

  3. Iodine tablets - many benefits and few disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1996-01-01

    The number of thyroid cancers among children has increased steeply around Chernobyl after the nuclear catastrophe. An iodine tablet taken at the right time would have protected the thyroid from the effects of radioiodine. Nuclear fallout may contain large amounts of radioactive iodine. If this enters the body, either through inhalation or ingestion, most of it ends up in the thyroid. As a result, the thyroid may be exposed to a considerable radiation dose. High doses endanger the functioning of the thyroid, and even smaller doses may cause benign or malignant tumours in the thyroid. Sensitivity of the thyroid to radiation depends largely on the person's age. The younger the child, the higher the risk. Adults probably have a low risk. It has not been shown that people over 40 years of age would have any risk of contracting radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Iodine tablets are particularly important for children. Iodine has fewer side effects than had been thought previously. At least for children, the risk of side effects caused by one dose of iodine is so small that it can be ignored when considering whether iodine should be given in a fallout situation. The risk increases with age. It must unconditionally be left for the authorities to decide who should be given iodine tablets and when. (orig.)

  4. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R W; Custard, Kyle D; May, Nathaniel W; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J; Huey, L G; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B; Pratt, Kerri A

    2017-09-19

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I 2 ) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I 2 and snowpack iodide (I - ) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I 2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I - measurements showed enrichments of up to ∼1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I - /Na + , consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I 2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I 2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  5. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  6. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelay, J [IPSN/DPEA/SEAC (France)

    1996-12-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author).

  7. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelay, J.

    1996-01-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author)

  8. Consensus statement on iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Betty; Chan, C W; Chan, Fredriech; Chan, K W; Cheng, Anna W F; Cheung, Patrick; Choi, K L; Chow, C B; Chow, Francis C C; Eastman, Creswell; Fok, T F; Fung, L M; Gomes, Cynthia; Huen, K F; Ip, T P; Kung, Annie W C; Lam, Karen S L; Lam, Y Y; Lao, Terence; Lee, C Y; Lee, K F; Leung, Jenny; Leung, N K; Li, Dominic; Li, June; Lo, K W; Lo, Louis; Ng, K L; Siu, S C; Tam, Sidney; Tan, Kathryn C B; Tiu, S C; Tse, H Y; Tse, Winnie; Wong, Gary; Wong, Shell; Wong, William; Yeung, Vincent T F; Young, Rosie; Yu, C M; Yu, Richard

    2003-12-01

    This article reviews the available data on the study of iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong and to discuss the approach towards preventing such disorders in Hong Kong. The importance of iodine and iodine deficiency disorders is described, and the available data on the dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine concentration in different populations of Hong Kong are summarised and discussed. Dietary iodine insufficiency among pregnant women in Hong Kong is associated with maternal goitrogenesis and hypothyroxinaemia as well as neonatal hypothyroidism. Borderline iodine deficiency exists in the expectant mothers in Hong Kong. Women of reproductive age, and pregnant and lactating women should be made aware and educated to have an adequate iodine intake, such as iodised salt, as an interim measure. A steering group involving all stakeholders should be formed to advise on the strategy of ensuring adequate iodine intake, including universal iodisation of salt in Hong Kong. Continuous surveillance of iodine status in the Hong Kong population is necessary.

  9. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  10. Modeling an Iodine Hall Thruster Plume in the Iodine Satellite (ISAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    An iodine-operated 200-W Hall thruster plume has been simulated using a hybrid-PIC model to predict the spacecraft surface-plume interaction for spacecraft integration purposes. For validation of the model, the plasma potential, electron temperature, ion current flux, and ion number density of xenon propellant were compared with available measurement data at the nominal operating condition. To simulate iodine plasma, various collision cross sections were found and used in the model. While time-varying atomic iodine species (i.e., I, I+, I2+) information is provided by HPHall simulation at the discharge channel exit, the molecular iodine species (i.e., I2, I2+) are introduced as Maxwellian particles at the channel exit. Simulation results show that xenon and iodine plasma plumes appear to be very similar under the assumptions of the model. Assuming a sticking coefficient of unity, iodine deposition rate is estimated.

  11. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S

    1999-01-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...

  12. Iodine-123 program at the TRIUMF laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program for the production and utilization of iodine-123 is described. From 1979 to 1982 the spallation of elemental cesium by 500-MeV protons was used to provide 100 mCi/hr at the end of bombardment (EOB). Contaminants were 3% iodine-125 and 0.15% tellurium-121 at EOB + 36 hr. The material from weekly runs was used by remote clinics in Canada for evaluation as a radiochemical and for labeling studies. A new facility at TRIUMF will be operational in 1983 to produce iodine-123 by the (p,5n) reaction

  13. Automatic production of Iodine-123 with PLC 135/U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam-Banaem, L.; Afarideh, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this project, the automatic system for production of Iodine-123 with PLC/135μ Siemens, which is designed and installed for the first time in Iran, is discussed. The PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is used to control industrial processing, which is similar to a computer and consists of central processing unit and memory and Input/Output units. PLC receives input information from auxiliary units such as sensors, switches, etc. and software processes data in memory and then sends commands to output units such as relays, motors, etc.The target section in Iodine production consists of 8 stages. In order to be sure automation works properly the system can be operated both manually and automatically. First PLC checks Manual/Automatic switch and in the case of automatic mode, PLC runs the program in memory and processing is done automatically. For this purpose, PLC takes the value of pressures and temperatures from analog inputs and after processing them it sends commands to digital output to activate valves or vacuum pumps or heaters. In this paper the following subjects are discussed: 1) Production of Iodine 123 2) PLC structure and auxiliary boards 3) Sensors and actuators and their connection to PLC 4) Software flowchart

  14. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Iodine-123 in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinreich, R.

    1976-08-01

    The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123 I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report, April 1975-- March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations during the past twelve months have included the following subjects: factors which influence release of radioiodine from thyroid glands; contamination of commercially available low-iodine diets; effects of hypoxia on release of iodine from thyroid glands of rats and mice; development of practical tests for available iodine in low-iodine diets; reproduction and abnormal thyroglobulin of rats maintained on low-iodine diets; observations on radioactivity in animal thyroids; collaboration with other laboratories regarding radium in bovine thyroids

  17. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  18. Quantitative method for determination of body inorganic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    An original method of quantitation of body inorganic iodine, based upon a simultaneous administration of a known dose of stable and radioactive iodine with subsequent radiometry of the thyroid was proposed. The calculation is based upon the principle of the dilution of radiactive iodine in human inorganic iodine space. The method permits quantitation of the amount of inorganic iodine with regard to individual features of inorganic space. The method is characterized by simplicity and is not invasive for a patient

  19. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  20. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  1. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of surface area and pore volume of activated carbons by methylene blue and iodine numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton A. Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of methylene blue number and iodine number of activated carbons samples were calibrated against the respective surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume using multiple regression. The models obtained from the calibrations were used in predicting these physical properties of a test group of activated carbon samples produced from several raw materials. In all cases, the predicted values were in good agreement with the expected values. The method allows extracting more information from the methylene blue and iodine adsorption studies than normally obtained with this type of material.

  3. The retention of iodine by iodine filters in nuclear power plants in the case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, V.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the liberation of considerable amounts of gaseous combustion products, fires in nuclear power plants may lead to a deterioration in the retention of radioiodine by iodine filters. The combustion products of the burnable materials, i.e., insulations, lubricants and paints, vary considerably with the development of the fire. Combustion product analyses of these materials have been performed only to a limited extent. The reaction of iodine with combustion products as well as the retention of the resulting iodine reaction products by sorbents have not yet been investigated. The reduction in the removal efficiencies of iodine sorbents due to the presence of combustion products is unknown. (orig.) [de

  4. Iodination and stability of somatostatin analogues: comparison of iodination techniques. A practical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-01-01

    For iodination ((125/127)I) of tyrosine-containing peptides, chloramin-T, Pre-Coated Iodo-Gen(®) tubes and Iodo-Beads(®) (Pierce) are commonly used for in vitro radioligand investigations and there have been reliant vendors hereof for decades. However, commercial availability of these radio-iodinated peptides is decreasing. For continuation of our research in this field we investigated and optimized (radio-)iodination of somatostatin analogues. In literature, radioiodination using here described somatostatin analogues and iodination techniques are described separately. Here we present an overview, including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation and characterisation by mass spectrometry, to obtain mono- and di-iodinated analogues. Reaction kinetics of (125/127)I iodinated somatostatin analogues were investigated as function of reaction time and concentration of reactants, including somatostatin analogues, iodine and oxidizing agent. To our knowledge, for the here described somatostatin analogues, no (127)I iodination and optimization are described. (Radio-)iodinated somatostatin analogues could be preserved with a >90% radiochemical purity for 1 month after reversed phase HPLC-purification.

  5. Suboptimal Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Inadequate Iodine Intake among Lactating Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, Sigrun; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Aakre, Inger; Dudareva, Anna; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2017-06-22

    Breastfed infants depend on sufficient maternal iodine intake for optimal growth and neurological development. Despite this, few studies have assessed iodine concentrations in human milk and there is currently no published data on iodine status among lactating women in Norway. The aim of this study was to assess iodine concentrations in breast milk (BMIC) in lactating women and estimate iodine intake. Five Mother and Child Health Centres in Oslo were randomly selected during 2016, and 175 lactating women between 2nd and 28th weeks postpartum participated. Each of the women provided four breastmilk samples which were pooled and analysed for iodine concentrations. Participants also provided information on iodine intake from food and supplements covering the last 24 h and the habitual iodine intake (food frequency questionnaire). The median (p25, p75 percentiles) BMIC was 68 (45, 98) µg/L and 76% had BMIC food (p25, p75) was 121 (82, 162) µg/day and the total intake (food and supplements) was 134 (95, 222) µg/day. The majority of lactating women had suboptimal BMIC and inadequate intake of iodine from food and supplements.

  6. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zava, Theodore T., E-mail: ttzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Kapur, Sonia, E-mail: soniak@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Zava, David T., E-mail: dzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R{sup 2} = 0.9483; creatinine: R{sup 2} = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs.

  7. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  8. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zava, Theodore T.; Kapur, Sonia; Zava, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R 2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R 2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  9. Study and parameters survey for iodine-125 source dosimetry to be applied in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Eduardo Santana de

    2011-01-01

    The use of brachytherapy technique with iodine-125 seeds to prostate cancer treatment has been used for decades with good clinical outcomes. To aim the Brazilian population necessities, IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the iodine-125 seed prototype with national technology. The objectives of this work are the development and the study of dosimetric procedures associates with the experimental acquisition of the useful parameters for the iodine-125 dosimetric characterization and to evaluate if the developed procedures, in this work, have the basic conditions to determinate the dosimetric analysis, that are fundamental for clinical procedures. The dosimeters selected for the analysis are the TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti), initially these dosimeters were submitted for two selection steps to choose the dosimeters more reproducible for the dosimetric analysis. The two steps were the selection by the mass of the dosimeters and the reproducibility after four irradiation series in a Cobalt-60 irradiator (CTR-IPEN). Afterwards these steps, the dosimeters were irradiated in linear accelerator with 6 MV energy (Service of Radiotherapy - Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein) to yield the individual calibration factors to each dosimeter. After, the dosimeters were used to the irradiations with iodine-125 seed, 6711 model, (GE-Healthcare). The irradiations and others analysis with iodine-125 seeds yield the useful values for the determination of the parameters suggested by the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine): constant of dose rate, geometry function, dose radial function and anisotropy function. The results showed good agreement with the values published by the literature, for the same iodine- 125 model, this fact confirms that the realized parameters will be able to be used for the IPEN-CNEN iodine-125 seeds dosimetry and quality control. (author)

  10. A mathematical model for iodine kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.A.T. da.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the iodine kinetics in thyroid is presented followed by its analytical solution. An eletroanalogical model is also developed for a simplified stage and another is proposed for the main case [pt

  11. Cement materials for cesium and iodine confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, G.; Lequeux, N.; Boch, P.; Prene, S.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: radioactive waste storage, cement materials reacting with radioactive cesium and iodine, chemical barrier formation against radioactive pollution, ceramization, long term stability, XRD, PIXE analysis

  12. Iodine behaviour in the SLOWPOKE nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekeris, P A; Evans, G J [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to measure and attempt to explain the presence and volatility of iodine isotopes present as fission products in the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor. Liquid sampling and extraction procedures developed indicated that approximately 40% of the reactor iodine is in the form of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}), and 60% is in the form of iodide (I{sup -}). No appreciable amount in non-polar forms such as molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) or organic iodides (RI) were detected. This goes contrary to past expectations that all of the iodine in the liquid phase would be in the form of I{sup -}. In addition partition coefficients for I-131 were determined as 2-6x10{sup 6} at a neutral pH. Kr-88 is suspected as a possible interfering isotope in the measurement of I-131 in the liquid and gas phases. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Assessment of iodine content in Brazilian duplicate portion diets and in table salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Moura, P.L.C.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Excess dietary intake may increase the risk for the hyperthyroidism in the elderly. This study investigated iodine dietary intake by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) analyzing duplicate portion diet and fortified table salt samples. Duplicate diet samples were obtained from a group of twenty-five steel mill workers from the city of Sao Paulo, over a 3-day period. The samples were freeze dried, mixed and homogenized. Fortified table salt brands were collected from the market and were analyzed with no pre-treatment. Assays for the iodine concentration in the table salt samples revealed values between 24 to 65 mg/kg. The average iodine daily intake for the worker's diets was 813 μg/day, ranging from 402 to 1363 μg/day. In some cases daily intakes were around 10 times higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) value (150 μg/day). (author)

  14. Iodine sorption by microwave irradiated hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, S.P. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Fetter, G. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Pue (Mexico)]. E-mail: geolarfetter@yahoo.com.mx; Bosch, P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-12-15

    Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HT) were prepared by the microwave method on the one hand with ethoxide-acetylacetonate and on the other with acetylacetonate as precursors. They presented a maximum sorption capacity of 2.179 and 1.517 meq of {sup 131}I{sup -}/g of hydrotalcite respectively. When the hydrotalcites were calcined and rehydrated in a {sup 131}I{sup -} solution, iodine sorption decreased in both samples to 1.515 and 1.446, respectively. The corresponding value for nitrated hydrotalcite which was prepared by the conventional method for comparison purposes, was 0.570. The radionuclide content in hydrotalcites was determined by {gamma}-spectrometry. {sup 131}I{sup -} sorption is dependent on two main parameters: one is the type of the interlayer organic material and the second the surface area. It was found that hydrotalcites prepared with ethoxide-acetylacetonate were better sorbents for {sup 131}I{sup -} than those with acetylacetonate. Still, if the specific surface area increased, {sup 131}I{sup -}sorption increased as well; nitrated HT resulted in low specific surface area and a low sorption capacity. It is, therefore, concluded that organic residues present in the samples prepared by the microwave method favor the sorption of radioactive anions, in particular {sup 131}I{sup -} if compared with nitrated and/or carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites.

  15. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction of iodine-123 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Many clinical and research studies in nuclear medicine require quantitation of iodine-123 ( 123 I) distribution for the determination of kinetics or localization. The objective of this study was to implement several reconstruction methods designed for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 123 I and to evaluate their performance in terms of quantitative accuracy, image artifacts, and noise. The methods consisted of four attenuation and scatter compensation schemes incorporated into both the filtered backprojection/Chang (FBP) and maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) reconstruction algorithms. The methods were evaluated on data acquired of a phantom containing a hot sphere of 123 I activity in a lower level background 123 I distribution and nonuniform density media. For both reconstruction algorithms, nonuniform attenuation compensation combined with either scatter subtraction or Metz filtering produced images that were quantitatively accurate to within 15% of the true value. The ML-EM algorithm demonstrated quantitative accuracy comparable to FBP and smaller relative noise magnitude for all compensation schemes

  16. Volatilization: a soil degassing coefficient for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Thibault, D.H.; Smith, P.A.; Hawkins, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Iodine, an element essential to some animals, is ubiquitous in the biosphere. Unlike other metallic elements, molecular I is volatile, and other inorganic species present in aerated soils, such as I - and IO 3 - , may also volatilize as hydrides, hydrogen iodide (HI), or hydrogen iodates (HIO 3 , HIO 4 ). Methyl iodide has been measured in soils, and it is likely evolved from soils and plants. The long-lived radioisotope 129 I is abundant in nuclear wastes, and its high solubility in groundwater makes it an important element in the performance assessment of underground disposal facilities. Overestimates of soil I residence half-times by traditional foodchain models may be due to underestimation of volatilization. Field and lysimeter experiments over a 3-year period, and direct trapping experiments in the laboratory are reported. The results, combined with values from the literature, indicate the soil I degassing coefficient for a wide range of soil types, vegetated and bare, wet and dry, is lognormally distributed with a geometric mean of 2.1 x 10 -2 year -1 , a range of 1.8 x 10 -4 to 3.1 year -1 and a geometric standard deviation of 3.0. The results of a biosphere model simulation including degassing reduces soil I concentrations fivefold and increases air concentrations 25-fold at steady state, compared to simulations without degassing. (author)

  17. Radiation exposure in I-131 iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years, the applied I-131 radioactivity quantity has doubled with a constant number of beds. In 1984, it was 925 GBq (25 Ci). Despite this development, no changes in the professional radiation exposure were made out. The evaluation shows a dose smaller than 0.04 man Sv/TBq (0.16 man rem/Ci) of I-131 applied. This value is below the traceability limit of the film badges. The incorporation load of the personnel (27 members) was determined by monthly body counter measurements. Only in one measurement thyroid gland activity of 5 kBq (140 nCi) was detected. Most measurements did not show any incorporation; and the few positive results were below 0.74 kBq (20 nCi). The environmental load due to unfiltered release from patients' rooms was determined at the fence of the nuclear research plant. The maximum was 0.24 mSv/a thyroid gland dose of a small child in 1982 taking into account the measured 90% partion of organic compound iodine. The waste water is decayed following chemical treatment in storage tanks. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Epiboron instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of iodine in various salt samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Osae, S.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Maakuu, B.T.

    2001-01-01

    Epiboron instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) using flexible boron as thermal neutron filter, has been used to analyze several salt samples obtained from various markets in Ghana for iodine. The method involves the irradiation of samples in boron carbide-lined polyethylene vials at the outer irradiation site of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1). The samples were then counted directly without any pre-treatment on a Canberra N-type HPGe detector. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were done using the 443 keV photopeak of 128 I. The precision and accuracy of the method have been evaluated and the detection limits of the various samples were calculated. The values of iodine determined in the iodized salt range between 10.0 and 210 ppm. For non-iodinated salts, iodine levels were below 500 ppb. The values obtained show great variations among the salt samples, sample collection time and from market to market. This results show that the method can be successfully applied in the determination of trace amount of iodine in salt samples without any chemical separation. (author)

  19. Image quality in CT perfusion imaging of the brain. The role of iodine concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias; Bueltmann, Eva; Bode-Schnurbus, Lucas; Koenen, Dirk; Mielke, Eckhart; Heuser, Lothar [Knappschaftskrankenhaus Langendreer, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of various iodine contrast concentrations on image quality in computed tomography (CT) perfusion studies. Twenty-one patients with suspicion of cerebral ischemia underwent perfusion CT using two different iodine contrast concentrations: 11 patients received iomeprol 300 (iodine concentration: 300 mg/ml) while ten received the same volume of iomeprol 400 (iodine concentration: 400 mg/ml). Scan parameters were kept constant for both groups. Maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and time to peak (TTP) were calculated from two adjacent slices. Quantitative comparisons were based on measurements of the maximum enhancement [Hounsfield units (HU)] and signal-to-noise index (SNI) on CBF, CBV, and TTP images. Determinations of grey-to-white-matter delineation for each iodine concentration were performed by two blinded readers. Only data from the non-ischemic hemispheres were considered. Both maximum enhancement and SNI values were higher after iomeprol 400, resulting in significantly better image quality in areas of low perfusion. No noteworthy differences were found for normal values of CBF, CBV, and TTP. Qualitative assessment of grey/white matter contrast on CBF and CBV maps revealed better performance for iomeprol 400. For brain perfusion studies, highly concentrated contrast media such as iomeprol 400 is superior to iomeprol 300. (orig.)

  20. The pathogenetic significance of low iodine intake in non-endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriet, D.P.; Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen

    1977-01-01

    The blood inorganic iodine concentration (BII), the radioiodide clearance and the absolute iodine uptake (AIU) were determined in 27 patients with simple goiter and in 21 controls. The purpose was to evaluate the pathogenetic significance of low iodine intake for the formation of sporadic goiter. An early thyroid radioiodide clearance was measured by 132 I (5-30 min post injection), and the BII values were bases on the specific activity of I in saliva. The median BII levels of patients and controls were 1.1 and 1.5 μg/l respectively, and the urinary iodine excretion 67 and 79 μg/day respectively, the difference was not significant. The radioiodide clearance was above the normal range in 13 out of 27 patients, and 16 of 27 patients had elevated or high normal AIU values. These patients included 7 out of 9 patients with diffuse, shortlasting goiter; the AIU of those with nodular goiter ranged from slightly subnormal to elevated. Only one exhibited a typical iodine deficiency pattern of very low BII, high radioiodide clearance and normal AIU. (orig.) [de

  1. LWR severe accident simulation: Iodine behaviour in FPT2 experiment and advances on containment iodine chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, N., E-mail: nathalie.girault@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP3 - 13115 St.-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bosland, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP3 - 13115 St.-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dickinson, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Harwell, Oxon OX11 0QT (United Kingdom); Funke, F. [AREVA NP Gmbh, PO Box 1109, 91001 Erlangen (Germany); Guentay, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Herranz, L.E. [Centro des Investigaciones Energeticas, MedioAmbiantales y Tecnologicas, av. Complutense 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Powers, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Short term gaseous iodine fraction can be produced either in primary circuit or on containment condensing surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gaseous radiolytic reactions convert volatile iodine into non-volatile iodine oxide particulates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline and evaporating sump decrease the iodine volatility in containment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of volatile iodine from containment surfaces explained the long term stationary residual gaseous iodine concentration. - Abstract: The Phebus Fission Product (FP) Program studies key phenomena of severe accidents in water-cooled nuclear reactors. In the framework of the Phebus program, five in-pile experiments have been performed that cover fuel rod degradation and behaviour of fission products released via the coolant circuit into the containment vessel. The focus of this paper is on iodine behaviour during the Phebus FPT2 test. FPT2 used a 33 GWd/t uranium dioxide fuel enriched to 4.5%, re-irradiated in situ for 7 days to a burn-up of 130 MWd/t. This test was performed to study the impact of steam-poor conditions and boric acid on the fission product chemistry. For the containment vessel, more specifically, the objective was to study iodine chemistry in an alkaline sump under evaporating conditions. The iodine results of the Phebus FPT2 test confirmed many of the essential features of iodine behaviour in the containment vessel provided by the first two Phebus tests, FPT0 and FPT1. These are the existence of an early gaseous iodine fraction, the persistence of low gaseous iodine concentrations and the importance of the sump in suppressing the iodine partitioning from sump to atmosphere. The main new insights provided by the Phebus FPT2 test were the iodine desorption from stainless steel walls deposits and the role of the evaporating sump in further iodine depletion in the containment atmosphere. The current paper presents an interpretation of

  2. Investigations on iodine-129 in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.; Oliver, E.; Jakob, D.

    1992-01-01

    In order to detect characteristic regional differences or temporal changes of iodine-129 concentrations in the biosphere, thyroids from humans, grazing livestock and roedeer (Capreolus capreolus L.) are collected in various parts of the world, which are differing in the exposure to I-129 immissions from nuclear sources. For reasons of comparison all samples are analysed for their I-129/I-127 atom ratios. Human thyroids taken from Lower Saxony (Federal Republic of Germany), which is a region not directly affected by reprocessing plants showed I-129/I-127 values between 8x10 -9 and 6x10 -8 for a period from February 1988 to September 1990. Those atom ratios correspond to the level of biospheric I-129 in background areas of Europe exposed to fallout atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during the 1950s and 1960s. Thyroid glands of roedeer taken from the Heby commune in Middle Sweden during spring 1990 showed I-129/I-127 ratios between 2x10 -7 and 4x10 -7 . Two soil samples taken from Krasnaya Gora and Mirny locations in Russia (about 200 km northwest of Chernobyl) exhibited ratios of about 1x10 -6 . According to the Cs-137 levels, the Swedish Heby area as well as both Russian locations were found to be seriously Chernobyl contaminated. Ratios found in human and bovine thyroids collected in the 10th Region in southern Chile (40deg-42degS) indicated values between 1x10 -10 and 9x10 -9 . On the basis of the prenuclear range of I-129/I-127 ratios between 4x10 -11 and 3x10 -9 , which were found in human thyroids analysed in the USA before 1945 the Chilean values can be considered only slightly elevated as compared to those determined in samples of Northern Hemisphere today. (orig.) [de

  3. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  4. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il; Yim, Mansung

    2014-01-01

    129 I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10 7 years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of 129 I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous 129 I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing 129 I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping 129 I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling

  5. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settle, Amy E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berstis, Laura R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Shuting [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rorrer, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hu, Haiming [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-12

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate (ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form (ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Density functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations due to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely due to solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95% were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98%) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for biobased chemicals.

  6. Ultrahigh iodine adsorption in porous organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    We present two porous organic frameworks (POFs), PAF-1 and JUC-Z2, with ultrahigh iodine capture capacity. The iodine vapor uptake of PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 were 1.86 g g-1 and 1.44 g g-1 respectively at 298 K per 40 Pa, which is extremely high for such low pressure sorption conditions. In addition, PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 could adsorb iodine over water with the selectivity of 5.1 and 6.5 respectively. The isosteric enthalpy at zero surface coverage, calculated by a virial equation with the iodine vapor sorption isotherms at 298 K and 313 K of JUC-Z2, reached -51.1 kJ mol-1, which was much higher than the coverage of PAF-1 (-14.9 kJ mol-1). Raman measurement confirmed the polyiodide to be I5 - in POFs. Furthermore, solvents with different polarities, such as n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were chosen to conduct iodine binding measurements on PAF-1 and JUC-Z2. The formation constant Kf for POFs in n-hexane, chloroform and methanol drastically decreased with the increase in polarity, thus illustrating the important role of solvents in iodine binding. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  7. Behavior of iodine in the atmosphere-soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Uchida, Shigeo

    1996-01-01

    Levels and behavior of radioactive and stable iodine in the environment have been studied to obtain parameter values for the assessment of 129 I released from nuclear facilities. The deposition velocity (V D ) of gaseous iodine from the atmosphere to rice grains (rough rice) was 0.00048 cm 3 g -1 s -1 for CH 3 I and 0.15 cm 3 g -1 s -1 for I 2 . The ratio of the iodine distribution in a grain exposed to CH 3 I was as follows, rough rice : brown rice (hulled rice) : polished rice = 1.0 : 0.49 : 0.38. The distribution ratio in polished rice for CH 3 I was about 20 times higher than that for I 2 . The soil-solution distribution coefficient (K d ) for both I - and IO 3 - varied very widely, i.e. -1 . High values were found in soils having high concentrations of total organic carbon, active-Al and active-Fe (Al and Fe extracted by a mixture of oxalic acid and ammonium oxalate). Andosol, one of the most typical Japanese soils derived from deposits of volcanic ash, showed specifically high K d values. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (or concentration ratio) in the edible parts of crops were in the range 0.0002-0.016. The transfer factors for tomato, sweet potato, carrot, soybeans and rice were significantly lower than their leaf values. The value for rice (polished) was 0.002. Iodine was found to be evaporated from the soil-plant system as CH 3 I. The emission of CH 3 I from rice plants grown on flooded soil was much higher than that from oat plants grown on unflooded soil. The 129 I levels in environmental samples collected in and around Tokai-mura, where a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is located, have been determined by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of 129 I in surface soils ranged from -1 . The 129 I concentrations in forest soil tended to be higher than those in field soils. Most of the 129 I was retained in the first 10 cm of the surface soil collected from forests in Tokai-mura. (author)

  8. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the behaviour of iodine during severe accidents: volatile iodine. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, F.; Zeh, P.; Greger, G.U.; Hellmann, S.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear power plants requires knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides relevant from the radiological viewpoint, especially the iodine. The current modelling of iodine behaviour is not conclusive, owing to insufficiently known data. This project is intended to eliminate some of these data gaps in critical areas. 350 tests on the radiation-induced oxidation of elemental iodine (I 2 ) in the containment atmosphere were performed yielding an extended database. Moreover, irradiation tests were performed on the formation and decomposition of ozone which is a reaction partner for I 2 . The reaction with ozone converts volatile I 2 into non-volatile iodine oxides or iodate. An improved kinetic modelling was developed for the iodine accident code IMPAIR. Now the model is valid also for steam-containing atmospheres and, additionally, considers dose rate and thus the actual ozone concentration. An assessment of the literature concludes that β and γ radiation have no different impact on iodine chemistry and thus do not need to be modelled separately in iodine accident codes. An assessment of the literature shows a partly significant chemical interaction of volatile iodine with aerosols. Since such reactions lead to a faster decrease of volatile iodine at least at high aerosol concentrations, a modelling should be foreseen in the future. In the frame of the international ISP-41 project, calculations to an integral test in the Canadian Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) were performed with IMPAIR. The existing model of the radiation-induced I 2 formation in the sump in IMPAIR is identified as a weakness requiring future improvement. A theoretical assessment on the iodine chemistry in the droplets of a spray system concludes that a modelling is necessary in case of spraying with fresh water, and that this is already contained in available spray models. During recirculation spraying in an examplary, hypothetical EPR case, no

  10. Iodine nutrition status in lactating mothers residing in countries with mandatory and voluntary iodine fortification programs: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin; Shiva, Niloofar; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Mojarrad, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to assess data available on iodine nutrition status in lactating mothers residing in countries with mandatory and voluntary iodine fortification programs and/or iodine supplementation. A systematic review was conducted by searching articles published between 1964 and 2013 in Pub Med, ISI Web, and Cochrane Library using iodine nutrition, lactation, iodine supplementation, and iodine fortification as keywords for titles and/or abstracts. Relevant articles were included if they reported urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in lactating mothers and, if determined, the type of iodine fortification program and/or iodine supplementation. Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 21 studies assessed lactating mothers in countries with a mandatory iodine fortification program, 17 studies were from countries with voluntary and/or without iodine fortification programs, and four studies assessed iodine nutrition status in lactating mothers undergoing iodine supplementation. Among countries with mandatory iodine fortification programs, the range of salt iodization level in lactating mothers with a UIC 100 μg/L, it was between 15 and 60 ppm. Levels of UIC Chile, Iran, Mongolia, New Guinea, and Nigeria, the median or mean of UIC was >100 μg/L. There was a median or mean UIC program was voluntary, including Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and Germany. However, in some countries with voluntary iodine fortification programs, such as the United States, Spain, and Japan, a mean or median UIC of >100 μg/L has been reported. Although universal salt iodization is still the most feasible and cost-effective approach for iodine deficiency control in pregnant and lactating mothers, UIC in lactating mothers of most countries with voluntary programs and in areas with mandatory iodine fortification is still within the iodine deficiency range, indicating that iodine supplementation in daily prenatal vitamin/mineral supplements in

  11. Speciation of {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I in atmospheric aerosols at Risoe, Denmark. Insight into sources of iodine isotopes and their species transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Hou, Xiaolin [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark). Center for Nuclear Technologies; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China). State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology; Xu, Sheng [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Center, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Speciation analysis of iodine in aerosols is a very useful approach for understanding geochemical cycling of iodine in the atmosphere. In this study, overall iodine species, including water-soluble iodine species (iodide, iodate and water-soluble organic iodine), NaOH-soluble iodine, and insoluble iodine have been determined for {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I in the aerosols collected at Risoe, Denmark, during March and May 2011 (shortly after the Fukushima nuclear accident) and in December 2014. The measured concentrations of total iodine are in the range of 1.04-2.48 ngm{sup -3} for {sup 127}I and (11.3-97.0) x 10{sup 5} atoms m{sup -3} for {sup 129}I, corresponding to {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I atomic ratios of (17.8-86.8) x 10{sup -8}. The contribution of Fukushima-derived {sup 129}I (peak value of 6.3 x 10{sup 4} atoms m{sup -3}) is estimated to be negligible (less than 6 %) compared to the total {sup 129}I concentration in northern Europe. The concentrations and species of {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I in the aerosols are found to be strongly related to their sources and atmospheric pathways. Aerosols that were transported over the contaminated seas contained higher concentrations of {sup 129}I than aerosols transported over the European continent. The high {sup 129}I concentrations of the marine aerosols are attributed to secondary emission of marine discharged {sup 129}I in the contaminated seawater in the North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, English Channel, Kattegat, etc., rather than direct gaseous release from the European nuclear reprocessing plants (NRPs). Water-soluble iodine was found to be a minor fraction to the total iodine for both {sup 127}I (7.8-13.7 %) and {sup 129}I (6.5-14.1 %) in ocean-derived aerosols, but accounted for 20.2-30.3% for {sup 127}I and 25.6-29.5 % for {sup 129}I in land-derived aerosols. Iodide was the predominant form of water-soluble iodine, accounting for more than 97 % of the water-soluble iodine. NaOH-soluble iodine seems to be

  12. A rechargeable iodine-carbon battery that exploits ion intercalation and iodine redox chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ke; Hu, Ziyu; Ma, Jizhen; Ma, Houyi; Dai, Liming; Zhang, Jintao

    2017-09-13

    Graphitic carbons have been used as conductive supports for developing rechargeable batteries. However, the classic ion intercalation in graphitic carbon has yet to be coupled with extrinsic redox reactions to develop rechargeable batteries. Herein, we demonstrate the preparation of a free-standing, flexible nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped hierarchically porous graphitic carbon for iodine loading by pyrolysis of polyaniline coated cellulose wiper. We find that heteroatoms could provide additional defect sites for encapsulating iodine while the porous carbon skeleton facilitates redox reactions of iodine and ion intercalation. The combination of ion intercalation with redox reactions of iodine allows for developing rechargeable iodine-carbon batteries free from the unsafe lithium/sodium metals, and hence eliminates the long-standing safety issue. The unique architecture of the hierarchically porous graphitic carbon with heteroatom doping not only provides suitable spaces for both iodine encapsulation and cation intercalation but also generates efficient electronic and ionic transport pathways, thus leading to enhanced performance.Carbon-based electrodes able to intercalate Li + and Na + ions have been exploited for high performing energy storage devices. Here, the authors combine the ion intercalation properties of porous graphitic carbons with the redox chemistry of iodine to produce iodine-carbon batteries with high reversible capacities.

  13. Longitudinal study of iodine in toenails following IV administration of an iodine-containing contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spate, V.L.; Morris, J.S.; Nichols, T.A.; Baskett, C.K.; Mason, M.M.; Horsman, T.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer (TC) risk and the higher incidence of TC among Asian immigrants to the US compared to second and third generation subgroups has prompted epidemiologists to hypothesize that increased levels of iodine consumption may be associated with TC risk, particularly among persons with a history of clinical or subclinical thyroid dysfunction. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), we have applied epiboron neutron activation analysis to investigate human nails as a dietary monitor for iodine. Preliminary studies have indicated a positive correlation between dietary iodine intake and the concentration of iodine in toenails. However, these studies are confounded by high iodine levels (up to 30 ppm) in approximately 5% of the nails studied. We hypothesize that, in the subjects we have studied, the high iodine levels may be due to iodine-containing medications, in particular contrast-agents containing iopamidol. This paper will report on longitudinal studies using contrast agent subjects who where followed-up for almost two years compared to a longitudinal control and a population mean. Based on this study, we suggest that iodine-containing contrast agents contaminate nail samples via non-specific binding in the short term followed by incorporation in the nail as a result of absorption. (author)

  14. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods...

  15. The impact of iodised salt or iodine supplements on iodine status during pregnancy lactation and infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Monitoring of iodine status during pregnancy, lactation and infancy is difficult as there are no established reference criteria for urinary iodine concentration (UI) for these groups; so it is uncertain whether iodized salt programs meet the needs of these life stages. Design and

  16. Determination of atmospheric iodine species using a system of specifically prepared filters and IDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaebler, H.E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1993-01-01

    A system was developed which allowed the determination of four different atmospheric iodine species by preparing glass microfibre filters, which were arranged in consecutive order, in a specific way. Particulate iodine was collected by a particle filter, HI and I 2 by a NaOH impregnated filter, HOI was adsorbed on a TBAH impregnated filter and organoiodine was adsorbed on a filter loaded with activated charcoal. These behaviours were checked by extensive model experiments. Two or more filters of the same type were used in series to show the degree of collection of one iodine species. Two European samples, one of continental and one of marine origin, and two Antarctic samples were analysed by this filter system using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for quantification. The distribution pattern for the different iodine species is similar for the two European samples. Organoiodine is found to be the most abundant species whereas in Antarctica the HI/I 2 fraction is up to nearly 50% of the total iodine. The particulate iodine fraction is higher in Europe than in Antarctica, which is due to the low particle concentration in the remote area of Antarctica. The higher HI/I 2 and HOI fractions found at the North Sea compared with the continental sample indicate that the ocean is a primary source of these species. Concentrations in the range of (0.3-3.1) ngI/m 3 were analysed for particulate iodine, (0.4-1.3) ng I/m 3 for HI/I 2 , (0.2-1.8) ng I/m 3 for HOI and (0.4-7.6) ng I/m 3 for organoiodine. The detection limits varied with the variances of the blank values of the different filters and lay between 0.02 ng I/m 3 and 0.24 ng I/m 3 using sample volumes of 70 m 3 air. (orig.)

  17. The influence of physical parameters on the adsorption of iodine 131 by activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Chevalier, G.; Caron, J.; Van Der Meersch, J.

    1966-01-01

    Following an outline of the means of generating iodine 131 in the gas phase and a brief description of the apparatus used, the authors analyse the experimental results obtained on the trapping of iodine 131 by activated charcoal. The efficiency depends concurrently on the relative humidity and the iodine concentration of the air. While it is independent of this concentration in dry air, it does not exceed 50 in moist air, whatever the bed depth, when the concentration is less than 1 mCi/m 3 , then it increases with the concentrations to reach values close to those obtained in dry air for concentrations of around 1000 Ci/m 3 . At the same time the efficiency of a dust filter with respect to iodine remains very low in dry air whatever the iodine concentration; in moist air this efficiency, which is high at low concentrations, decreases when the latter increases. In addition if a charcoal bed is divided into several beds, separated by an amount corresponding to a passage time of about a second, it is found that the efficiency of the whole is appreciably higher than that of the initial bed. These results appear to establish the existence of at least two forms of iodine, one molecular form and one particulate form probably formed by clusters, the forms equilibrium being functions of the relative concentrations of iodine and water vapour in the air. The third form evidence, a gaseous form compound, remains hypothetical; the experimental curves can be explained either by the molecular and particular forms reversibility or by the increase of clusters size with the relative humidity of the air. (authors) [fr

  18. Doping characteristics of iodine on as-grown chemical vapor deposited graphene on Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, HoKwon, E-mail: hknano@gmail.com [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Renault, Olivier [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tyurnina, Anastasia; Guillet, Jean-François; Simonato, Jean-Pierre [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LITEN/DTMN, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rouchon, Denis; Mariolle, Denis; Chevalier, Nicolas [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Dijon, Jean [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LITEN/DTMN, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-15

    Using laboratory X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM), we investigated the doping efficiency and thermal stability of iodine on as-grown graphene on Pt. After iodine adsorption of graphene in saturated vapor of I{sub 2,} monolayer and bilayer graphene exhibited work function of 4.93 eV and 4.87 eV, respectively. Annealing of the doped monolayer graphene at 100 °C led to desorption of hydrocarbons, which increased the work function of monolayer graphene by ~0.2 eV. The composition of the polyiodide complexes evolved upon a step-by-step annealing at temperatures from 100 °C to 300 °C while the work-function non-monotonically changed with decreasing iodine content. The iodine dopant was stable at relatively high temperature as a significant amount of iodine remained up to the annealing temperature of 350 °C. - Highlights: • Laboratory XPEEM demonstrates that iodine can effectively p-dope as-grown graphene on Pt with a work-function value up to 5.1 eV. • On the other hand, residual hydrocarbon contamination decreases the work function by up to ~0.2 eV. • The spontaneous intercalation of as-grown few-layered graphene is not easily feasible. • The iodine dopant was not completely removed up to the annealing temperature of 350 °C. • The I{sub 3}{sup −} and I{sub 5}{sup −} polyiodide content ratio of I-doped Gr/Pt decreases with annealing temperature.

  19. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  20. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect

  1. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  2. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  3. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide complexing with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikov, Yu Ya; Serguchev, Yu A; Staninets, V I

    1986-01-01

    Dielectrometry, conductometry, IR-spectroscopy are used to study dimethyl sulfoxide complexing with iodine in binary system and in CCl/sub 4/, C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/Cl, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CF/sub 3/, 1, 2-dichloroethane solutions. Complexes of 1:1 composition are formed in solutions, in the binary system of 2:1 and 2:2 composition. I/sub 2/ molecules add to oxygen atoms. In CCl/sub 4/ and in binary system gradual transformation of so called external charge transfer complexes (CTC-1) to internal ones (CTC-2) that are described by the 1st order reaction kinetic equations is observed. On dissolution of CTC of 2:2 composition they disproportionate into two CTC molecules 1:1. Enthalpy of forming CTC-1 1:1 is approximately 4 kcal/mol, CTC-2 1:1 - 8, CTC-1 2:1 - 8 kcal/mol.

  5. SU-E-I-14: Comparison of Iodine-Labeled and Indium-Labeled Antibody Biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is often assumed that animal biodistributions of novel proteins are not dependent upon the radiolabel used in their determination. In units of percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), organ uptake results (u) may be obtained using either iodine or metal as radioactive labels. Iodination is preferred as it is a one-step process whereas metal labeling requires two chemical procedures and therefore more protein material. It is important to test whether the radioactive tag leads to variation in the uptake value. Methods: Uptakes of 3antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing 150 to 300 mg LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. Antibodies included diabody (56 kDa), minibody (80kDa) and intact M5A (150 kDa) anti-CEA cognates. Both radioiodine and indium-111 labels were used with uptakes evaluated at 7 time(t) points out to 96 h. Ratios (R) of u(iodine-label)/u(indium-label) were determined for liver, spleen, kidneys, lung and tumor. Results: Hepatic loss was rapid for diabody and minibody; by 24 h their R values were only 2%; i.e., uptake of iodine was 2% of that of indium for these 2 antibodies. By contrast, R for the intact cognate was 50% at that time point. Splenic results were similar. Tumor uptake ratios did not depend upon the antibody type and were 50% at 24 h. Conclusions: Relatively rapid loss of iodine relative to indium in liver and spleen was observed in lower mass antibodies. Tumor ratios were larger and independent of antibody type. Aside from tumor, the R ratio of uptakes depended on the antibody type. R values decreased monotonically with time in all tissues and for all cognates. Using this ratio, one can possibly correct iodine-based u (t) results so that they resemble radiometal-derived biodistributions.

  6. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  7. Iodine concentration calculated by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) as a functional parameter to evaluate thyroid metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Duong Duc; Nakajima, Takahito; Otake, Hidenori; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-07-19

    Thyroid function in patients with Grave's disease is usually evaluated by thyroid scintigraphy with radioactive iodine. Recently, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with two different energy X-rays can calculate iodine concentrations and can be applied for iodine measurements in thyroid glands. This study aimed to assess the potential use of DECT for the functional assessment of the thyroid gland. Thirteen patients with Grave's disease treated at our hospital from May to September 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Before treatments, all subjects had undergone both iodine scintigraphy [three and 24 h after oral administration of 123 I (20 μCi)] and non-enhanced DECT. The region of interests (ROIs) were placed in both lobes of the thyroid glands, and CT values (HU: Hounsfield unit) and iodine concentrations (mg/mL) calculated from DECT images were measured. The correlation between CT values and iodine concentrations from DECT in the thyroid gland was evaluated and then the iodine concentrations were compared with radioactive iodine uptake ratios by thyroid scintigraphy. Mean (±SD) 123 I uptake increased from 46.3 (±22.2) % (range, 11.1-80.1) at 3 h, to 66.5 (±15.2) % (range, 40.0-86.1) at 24 h (p hyperthyroid patients.

  8. Studying the iodine leaching from the compositions based on epoxide resin and lead iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, N.N.; Elizarova, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    When studying iodine leaching, the possibility to use solid compositions, produced by incorporation of dry powdered lead iodide and its aqueous suspension into epoxide resin for long-term immobilization of iodine-129 under conditions of monitored storage, is evaluated. Analysis of the results obtained has shown that leaching rate in the first 4 days has the maximum value and constitutes (4.2 - 2700.0) x 10 -6 cm/day. Then the process of leaching is determined by diffusion mechanism. For samples, prepared by wet lead iodide incorporation the rate of leaching is higher than that of the corresponding samples prepared by dry compound incorporation

  9. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  10. Investigations on the retention of 131I by an iodine filter of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.; Gerlach, K.

    1983-09-01

    The retention of 131 I by an equipment room exhaust filter of a German pressurized water reactor was determined by various methods to particularly obtain reliable results. Moreover, investigations were performed to clarify the reason for aging of the carbon contained in the iodine filter mentioned. The actual retention of the organic 131 I, corresponding to a value of 99.9%, was limited by 131 I in the form of penetrating iodine compounds. It was lower than the retention of CH 3 131 I under layout conditions by more than one order of magnitude. The aging was essentially caused by the adsorption of low-volatile organic compounds. (orig.) [de

  11. Investigations on the retention of I-131 by an iodine filter of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.; Gerlach, K.

    1984-01-01

    The retention of I-131 by an equipment room exhaust filter of a German pressurized water reactor was determined by various methods to particularly obtain reliable results. Moreover, investigations were performed to clarify the reason for aging of the carbon contained in the iodine filter mentioned. The actual retention of the organic I-131, corresponding to a value of 99.9%, was limited by I-131 in the form of penetrating iodine compounds. It was lower than the retention of CH 3 I-131 under layout conditions by more than one order of magnitude. The aging was essentially caused by the adsorption of low-volatile organic compounds. (orig.) [de

  12. Clinical and Biochemical Uses of Stable Iodine Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutras, D. A. [Thyroid Section, Alexandra Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    1970-07-01

    Iodine and thyroid function are closely linked, since the only known role of iodine is its participation in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine metabolism may be represented as a metabolic cycle consisting of three main pools: the Plasma Inorganic Iodine (PIl) pool into which dietary iodine goes and from where it is either taken up by the thyroid or excreted by the kidneys, the intrathyroidal iodine pool, where. thyroid hormone synthesis occurs, and finally the peripheral pool of thyroid hormones, of which about 80% are deiodinated and 20% excreted with the faeces. Endemic goitre is usually due to iodine deficiency. There is no renal homeostatic mechanism to keep the PII level constant, and so adaptation to iodine deficiency occurs by increasing the thyroidal iodide clearance rate. Stable iodine measurements are necessary for a complete study of iodine metabolism. Estimates of the serum Protein-Bound Iodine (PBl) are the best index of thyroid function, estimates of the PII and of the urinary iodine are the best indices of iodine nutrition. (author)

  13. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obican, Sarah G; Jahnke, Gloria D; Soldin, Offie P; Scialli, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, L.; Chopin, J.

    1996-01-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40 o C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H + ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I 2 ], [IO 3 - ], [H 2 O 2 ] and [H + ]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs

  15. Production of adsorbent from palm shell for radioactive iodine scrubbing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Abdul Halim Badaruddin; Mohammad Nizammudin Abd Aziz; Muhd Ridwan Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic of year 2004, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. Therefore, the biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce granular adsorbent for radioactive materials. For that reason, a newly system, called Rocking Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB) was developed to utilize large amount of the biomass to produce high value added product. Charcoal or chemically produced activated carbon could be produced by using the kiln. Washing process was introduced to remove particles, minerals and volatile matters from charcoal produced and then would create more surface area in the adsorbent by creating more active sites. In this research, the adsorbent produced was used to scrub iodine 131. In nuclear power reactor, iodine isotope 131 is produced during nuclear fission, and this elementary radioactive iodine may pollute exhaust air streams that could cause thyroid cancer. For removal of radioactive iodine, normally a potassium iodide - impregnated activated carbon (KI - AC) is used. Thus, a process will be developed to produce KI - AC and this product will be used to calculate the efficiency to remove the radioactive iodine 131.The results obtain show that adsorbent produced has a high potential to be used in radioactive adsorbing and likely more economics. This paper will elaborate further the experimental set-up of in Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB), adsorbent quality and radioactive scrubbing process. (author)

  16. Self-assembly of iodine in superfluid helium droplets. Halogen bonds and nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Lei, Lei; Kong, Wei [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We present evidence of halogen bond in iodine clusters formed in superfluid helium droplets based on results from electron diffraction. Iodine crystals are known to form layered structures with intralayer halogen bonds, with interatomic distances shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii of the two neighboring atoms. The diffraction profile of dimer dominated clusters embedded in helium droplets reveals an interatomic distance of 3.65 Aa, much closer to the value of 3.5 Aa in iodine crystals than to the van der Waals distance of 4.3 Aa. The profile from larger iodine clusters deviates from a single layer structure; instead, a bi-layer structure qualitatively fits the experimental data. This work highlights the possibility of small halogen bonded iodine clusters, albeit in a perhaps limited environment of superfluid helium droplets. The role of superfluid helium in guiding the trapped molecules into local potential minima awaits further investigation. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Study of behaviour of radioactive iodine inorganic compounds in PWR type reactor loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, M.; Johannsen, K.-H.; Dreyer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Compounds of radioactive iodine and its distribution between water and vapour depending on temperature, pressure and water regime of reactor coolant with water under pressure are investigated. The field of variation of parameters indicated is widened as compared with operating reactor parameters (pressure 2-14 MPa, temperature 210-335 deg C). Distribution of iodine compounds has been studied by a statistical method. For WWER-type reactors the following conclusions have been drawn: radioactive iodine in water and vapor in the first and second loops exists in the form of iodide, radioactive iodine concentration in water vapour at constant temperature and pressure mainly is depended on water pH value, radioactive iodine solubility in water vapor at normal parameters of the reactor first loop can be approximately calculated by the equation: Ksub(d)=Csub(g)/Csub(l)=(rhosub(g)/rhosub(l))sup(2), where Ksub(d) is a coefficient of solid distribution between water and vapour, rho is density c is concentration [ru

  18. Iodine-clearance-equivalent (123I) for delineation of thyroid dysfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, E.

    1981-01-01

    In 138 patients whose thyroid function was proved by R T 3 -uptake, T 4 -RIA, T 3 -RIA, FT 4 , FT 3 the iodine uptake of the thyroid 2 and 4 hours after application of 200 μCi 123 iodine p.o. or i.v., respectively after application of 34 μCi 131 iodine p.o. was determined. 2 hours after application of radioiodine plasma acitivity was measured. The ratio between increase/hour of uptake and plasma level of activity after 2 hours was taken as clearance equivalent, which does not measure the correct value of iodine clearance but is sufficiently related to it. The type of radioiodine and the method of application had no influence on the results. There was significant difference between euthyroid adenoma, euthyroid adenoma and hyperthyroid adenoma. The advantage of the technique is the practicability, the short occupancy of the uptake system and the reduction of radiation dosage by consequent use of 123 iodine. The second uptake measurement coincides with thyroid imaging, which results in time saving for the patient. (orig.) [de

  19. [The effect of copper on the metabolism of iodine, carbohydrates and proteins in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipenko, B E; Marsakova, N V

    1990-01-01

    Experiments on 156 rats maintained at ration with copper deficiency have demonstrated a decrease in the values of iodine metabolism in organs and tissues excluding the liver where a sharp increase in the concentration and content of inorganic iodine was observed. A disturbance in indices of carbohydrate and proteins metabolism in the organism of animals is marked. A direct relationship with a correlation coefficient equaling 0.87-1.00 is determined between changes in the concentration of protein-bound iodine in blood and concentration of glycogen in the liver, skeletal muscles, albumins, alpha 1-, alpha 2-globulins, urea concentration; an inverse relationship with glucose, activity of blood lipo-dehydrogenase and liver mitochondria, aldolase, concentration of pyruvic and lactic acids is established as well. It is concluded that copper deficiency can exert both a direct effect on metabolic processes (as data from literature testify) and an indirect one disturbing iodine metabolism, i. e. sharply decreasing protein-bound iodine production by the thyroid gland.

  20. Development of a definitive method for iodine speciation in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenhaeuser, C.; Heumann, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A definitive method of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was developed to determine four different iodine species in aquatic systems (iodide, iodate and two organoiodine compounds: one of the organic species is chromatographically elutable from a column filled with an anion exchanger resin, the other one is not). The iodine species were analysed after the isotope dilution step with an enriched 129 I spike and after their chromatographic separation. The total iodine concentration was measured after decomposition of organic compounds in the aquatic system by UV irradiation. Different types of natural water samples (river water, water of a pond, moorland lake water) were analysed and important water parameters like pH-value, redox potential, oxygen content and dissolved organic carbon were measured for each of these samples. The total iodine concentration in the different samples differed only slightly in the range of 2-7 μg/l. In most of the moorland lake water samples only the two organoiodine species could be detected. In these samples the concentration of iodide and iodate was less than the detection limit of 0.5 μg/l and 0.1 μg/l, respectively. On the other hand, all four iodine species could be determined in most of the river water samples. Positive correlations were found for the oxygen content of the water samples and the iodate concentration as well as for the redox potential and the anionic organoiodine compound. (orig.)

  1. Development of silver impregnated alumina for iodine separation from off-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Kikuchi, Makoto [Energy Research Laboratory, Hitachi (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    An inorganic iodine adsorbent, silver impregnated alumina (AgA), has been developed to separate iodine effectively from off-gas streams of nuclear facilities and to decrease the volume of waste (spent adsorbent). Iodine removal efficiency was improved at relatively high humidity by using alumina carrier with two different pore diameters. Waste volume reduction was achieved by impregnating relatively large amounts of silver into the alumina pores. The developed adsorbent was tested first with simulated off-gas streams under various experimental conditions and finally with actual off-gas streams of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. The decontamination factor (DF) was about 100 with the AgA bed depth of 2cm at 70% relative humidity, which was a DF one order higher than that when AgA with one pore size was used. Iodine adsorption capacity was checked by passing excess iodine into the AgA bed. Values were about 0.12 and 0.35 g-I/cm`-AgA bed for 10 and 24wt% silver impregnated AgA, respectively. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the applicability of the developed AgA to the off-gas treatment system of nuclear facilities.

  2. Iodine intake by adult residents of a farming area in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and the accuracy of estimated iodine intake calculated using the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Chiba, Keiko; Watanabe, Takao; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Seki, Takako

    2016-11-01

    Iodine intake by adults in farming districts in Northeastern Japan was evaluated by two methods: (1) government-approved food composition tables based calculation and (2) instrumental measurement. The correlation between these two values and a regression model for the calibration of calculated values was presented. Iodine intake was calculated, using the values in the Japan Standard Tables of Food Composition (FCT), through the analysis of duplicate samples of complete 24-h food consumption for 90 adult subjects. In cases where the value for iodine content was not available in the FCT, it was assumed to be zero for that food item (calculated values). Iodine content was also measured by ICP-MS (measured values). Calculated and measured values rendered geometric means (GM) of 336 and 279 μg/day, respectively. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference between calculated and measured values. The correlation coefficient was 0.646 (p GM, calculated) and 279 μg/day (GM, measured). Both values correlated so well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.646, that a regression model (Y = 130.8 + 1.9479X, where X and Y are measured and calculated values, respectively) could be used to calibrate calculated values.

  3. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: The effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Holwerda, H.T.; Khodabaks, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration

  4. Iodine-131 in milk 1961-62 and in thyroid glands of cattle and sheep 1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvinden, T.; Lillegraven, A.

    1976-03-01

    Cases of late effects from radioactive iodine uptake in children have renewed interest in this contaminant. I-131 data collected in Norway during periods following the nuclear weapons test series in 1961 and 1962 have been re-examined and collated with more recent data on natural iodine in the milk and thyroid glands from domestic animals. Some of the measured values may be interpreted as indications of an inverse relationship between the level of natural iodine and the uptake of I-131, but the material is too small and inconsistent to draw any conclusions. Obviously the uptake and concentration of I-131 in animal milk and thyroid glands are influenced by many factors besides the fallout amounts; at present it is not possible to determine their relative importance and set up a satisfactory model for the I-131 uptake. (Auth.)

  5. Statistical data on transfer factors of iodine isotopes from the diet to milk of cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutinin, Yu.V.; Kashparov, V.A.; Lazarev, N.M.; Otreshko, L.N.; Joshchenko, L.V.

    2017-01-01

    The transfer factors of iodine isotopes from the daily diet to milk of the cows in the pasture period for different soil and landscape conditions of Ukraine were evaluated and analyzed. It was shown that the possible values of the considered coefficient of the transition is a random variable, which is satisfactorily described by the lognormal distribution law of probabilities. The resulting estimates of medians (GM = 0.046 +- 0.003) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD = 1.79) for possible iodine conversion coefficient of the daily diet in cow milk were obtained. They refine the IAEA reference data for specific soil-landscape conditions of continental Ukraine and allow obtaining less conservative estimates when predicting the specific content of iodine isotopes in the milk of cows in the pasture period.

  6. Mobile Iodine Mineralization Based on Malachite Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Our new method that is proposed here, however, offer drastic cost cutting by using copper. Moreover, the selectivity of iodine in anion-rich water is advantage to lower the disposal cost by reducing the radioactive waste volume. Iodide (I{sup -}) is soluble and mobile in water, so it is very difficult to capture and precipitate it with common adsorbents. Until now, various exchanger and getter materials have been developed to capture radioactive iodine in wastewater. The materials developed generally showed a good performance under acidic conditions. However, the adsorption amounts were not relatively large in neutral and high pH conditions. Furthermore, the capacity to capture iodine is limited by their properties, such as the specific surface area and adsorbing affinity. Recently, Ag-coated materials have attracted attention as adsorbents. They have shown higher uptake for I- compared to other substances, but they are costly. Our new method that is proposed here, however, offer drastic cost cutting by using copper. Moreover, the selectivity of iodine in anion-rich water is advantage to lower the disposal cost by reducing the radioactive waste volume. Radioactive iodine isotopes are characterized as volatile and mobile species that are difficult to capture by adsorbents. In our study, we developed a new way to uptake and crystallize the mobile iodide as cuprous iodide (CuI). This method will be a promising way to simply stabilize iodide in a solid form with compacted volume.

  7. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  8. Feasibility of Single Scan for Simultaneous Evaluation of Regional Krypton and Iodine Concentrations with Dual-Energy CT: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sae Rom; Chang, Suyon; Im, Dong Jin; Suh, Young Joo; Hong, Yoo Jin; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Hye-Jeong

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of a simultaneous single scan of regional krypton and iodine concentrations by using dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional animal experimental committee. An airway obstruction model was first made in 10 beagle dogs, and a pulmonary arterial occlusion was induced in each animal after 1 week. For each model, three sessions of dual-energy CT (80% krypton ventilation [krypton CT], 80% krypton ventilation with iodine enhancement [mixed-contrast agent CT], and iodine enhancement [iodine CT]) were performed. Krypton maps were made from krypton and mixed-contrast agent CT, and iodine maps were made from iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT. Observers measured overlay Hounsfield units of the diseased and contralateral segments on each map. Values were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results In krypton maps of airway obstruction, overlay Hounsfield units of diseased segments were significantly decreased compared with those of contralateral segments in both krypton and mixed-contrast agent CT (P = .005 for both). However, the values of mixed-contrast agent CT were significantly higher than those of krypton CT for both segments (P = .005 and .007, respectively). In iodine maps of pulmonary arterial occlusion, values were significantly lower in diseased segments than in contralateral segments for both iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT (P = .005 for both), without significant difference between iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT for both segments (P = .126 and .307, respectively). Conclusion Although some limitations may exist, it might be feasible to analyze regional krypton and iodine concentrations simultaneously by using dual-energy CT. © RSNA, 2016.

  9. SU-G-IeP2-09: Iodine Imaging at Spectral CT with a Dual-Layer Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguner, O [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Dhanantwari, A; Halliburton, S; Utrup, S [Philips Healthcare, Highland Heights, OH (United States); Wen, G [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Jordan, D [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the attenuation response of iodine and the accuracy of iodine quantification on a detector-based spectral CT scanner. Methods: A Gammex 461A phantom was scanned using a dual-layer detector (IQon, Philips) at 120 kVp using helical acquisition with a CDTIvol of 15 mGy to approximate the hospital’s clinical body protocol. No modifications to the standard protocol were necessary to enable spectral imaging. Iodine inserts at 6 concentrations (2, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 mg/ml) were scanned individually at the center of the phantom and the 20 mg/ml insert was additionally scanned at the 3, 6, and 12 o’clock positions. Scans were repeated 10 times. Conventional, virtual monoenergetic (40–200 keV) and iodine-no-water images (with pixel values equal to iodine concentration of corresponding tissue) were reconstructed from acquired data. A circular ROI (diameter=30 pixels) was used in each conventional and monoenergetic image to measure the mean and standard deviation of the CT number in HU and in each iodine-no-water image to measure iodine concentration in mg/ml. Results: Mean CT number and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measured from monoenergetic images increased with decreasing keV for all iodine concentrations and matched measurements from conventional images at 75 keV. Measurements from the 20 ml insert showed the CT number is independent of location and CNR is a function only of noise, which was higher in the center. Measured concentration from iodine-no-water images matched phantom manufacturer suggested concentration to within 6% on average for inserts at the center of the phantom. Measured concentrations were systematically higher due to optimization of iodine quantification parameters for clinical mixtures of iodine and blood/tissue. Conclusion: Spectral acquisition and reconstruction with a dual-layer detector represents the physical behavior of iodine as expected and accurately quantifies the material concentration. This should permit a

  10. The behaviour of iodine in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.

    1990-02-01

    Literature on the geochemistry of iodine is surveyed, focusing on fundamental chemical aspects which influence the migration behaviour of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is stated that the organic fraction in soil plays the predominant role in the retention of iodine. Simple aromatic molecules serve as simple models for humic acid, and humic acid is iodinated catalyzed by haloperoxidases. The enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acid is described in detail and it is demonstrated that the results may reflect a kind of equilibrium. It is shown that soil extracts are able to catalyze the iodination of humic acid and it is suggested that extracellular peroxidases in soil are reponsible for the reaction. The enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acid is discussed and some considerations about the influence on the migration of iodine in the terrestrial environment are given. (author) 4 tabs., 26 ills., 82 refs

  11. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...... women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until...

  12. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Iodine excess, Goiter, Sub Saharan Africa. Iodine Excess is a ... synthesis leading to increased thyroid stimulating hormone ..... study done in Uganda revealed a similar picture ... significant association, probably due to recall bias.

  13. Comprehensive handbook of iodine: nutritional, biochemical, pathological and therapeutic aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Burrow, Gerard N; Watson, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    ... for Monitoring Effects of Iodine/Thyroid Status in Populations Inge Bülow Pedersen and Peter Laurberg 3 15 29 39 47 55 65 Section 2: General Aspects of Iodine Sources and Intakes in the Diet, Mai...

  14. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  15. Study on adsorption performance of coal based activated carbon to radioactive iodine and stable iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping; Zhang, Youchen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The impregnated coal-based activated carbons as adsorbent for removing methyl iodide. • The coal-based activated carbons to remove stable iodine. • Iodine residues are under 0.5 μg/ml after adsorption treatment. • The decontamination factor is much higher than 1000. - Abstract: Nuclear power plant, nuclear reactors and nuclear powered ship exhaust contains a large amount of gaseous radioactive iodine, and can damage to the workplace and the surrounding environment. The quantitative test to remove methyl iodide and the qualitative test for removing stable iodine were investigated using the impregnated coal-based activated carbons and coal-based activated carbons as adsorbents. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues were under 0.5 μg/ml after adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing the stable iodine was more than 1000, which can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, and satisfy the requirement of gaseous waste treatment of nuclear powered vessel and other nuclear plants

  16. Head-end iodine removal from a reprocessing plant with a solid sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.; Furrer, J.; Schultes, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the first large-scale reprocessing plant planned in the Federal Republic of Germany a total amount of 580 kg of iodine per annum will be released in the fuel dissolution process for a maximum heavy metal throughput of 1800 tons per year and 40,000 MWd/t of burnup. The main portion of the iodine is formed by the 129 I (T/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 x 10 7 a) isotope of which 82 Ci at the maximum are released every year. With the scheduled fuel element storage time of greater than or equal to 220 d the simultaneous release of 131 I is less than or equal to 12.5 Ci the mass of which does not play any part. According to the computer model presently imposed in the Federal Republic of Germany for treatment of the environmental impact by radioiodine, a total decontamination factor of 340 must be attained. This implies a long-term diffusion factor of 1 x 10 -7 s/m 3 for releases via the stack of the reprocessing plant and a limit value of 50 mrem/a at the maximum for the thyroid dose to the critical group of the population via the ingestion path. The flowsheet for dissolver off-gas cleaning in a reprocessing plant employing solid iodine sorption material and the arrangement of filter components are discussed. The principle of an iodine sorption filter is described which allows exhaustive loading of the iodine sorption material. The removal reactions of different organic iodine compounds and the loading capacity and removal efficiency of the iodine sorption material in the original dissolver off-gases of reprocessing plants are indicated. Studies on the influence of filter poisons are reported.Operating experience gathered with a first iodine sorption filter in operation is discussed; this filter has been used to remove practically all iodine produced in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Pilot Plant (WAK). Direct measurement of 129 I in samples of filter material using a low energy photon spectrometer is briefly reported

  17. Green design of a paper test card for urinary iodine analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Myers

    Full Text Available When young children do not receive adequate amounts of the micronutrient iodine in their diet, their growth and cognitive development can be impaired. Nearly every country in the world has programs in place to track iodine intake and provide supplemental iodine if needed, usually in the form of fortified salt. The iodine nutrition status of a population can be tracked by monitoring iodine levels in urine samples to see if the median value falls in the range of 100-300 micrograms of iodine per liter of urine (μg I/L, which indicates adequate or more than adequate iodine nutrition. Many low and middle-income countries (LMIC do not have a laboratory capable of carrying out this challenging assay, so samples must be sent out for assay in external labs, which is expensive and time-consuming. In most LMIC, population iodine surveys are carried out every 5-10 years, which limits the utility of the data for program monitoring and evaluation. To solve this problem, we developed a field-friendly paper test card that uses the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction to measure urinary iodine levels. A blind internal validation study showed that 93% of samples (n = 60 of iodide in an artificial urine matrix were categorized correctly by visual analysis as deficient, adequate, or excessive for levels set forth by the World Health Organization. Quantitative measurements based on computer image analysis had an error of 40 ± 20 μg I/L (n = 35 for samples in the calibration range and these results categorized 88% of the samples (n = 60 correctly. We employed lifecycle analysis principles to address the known toxicity of arsenic, which is an obligatory reagent in the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. Disposal of the cards in a landfill (their most likely destination after use could let arsenic leach into groundwater; toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP tests showed that the level of arsenic leached from the cards was 28.78 ppm, which is above the United States

  18. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  19. Estimation of iodine in soils by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.R.; Iyer, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports the determination of the iodine content of soils by neutron activation analysis. The irradiated sample is fused with alkali in presence of 131 I tracer. From the aqueous extract, iodine activity is extracted into carbon tetrachloride and stripped back to aqueous phase with a high selectivity for iodine. 131 I tracer is used to measure chemical yield. Iodine contents in the range 1 to 20 ppm. have been determined by this technique. (author)

  20. Iodine oxides in large-scale THAI tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, F.; Langrock, G.; Kanzleiter, T.; Poss, G.; Fischer, K.; Kühnel, A.; Weber, G.; Allelein, H.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Iodine oxide particles were produced from gaseous iodine and ozone. ► Ozone replaced the effect of ionizing radiation in the large-scale THAI facility. ► The mean diameter of the iodine oxide particles was about 0.35 μm. ► Particle formation was faster than the chemical reaction between iodine and ozone. ► Deposition of iodine oxide particles was slow in the absence of other aerosols. - Abstract: The conversion of gaseous molecular iodine into iodine oxide aerosols has significant relevance in the understanding of the fission product iodine volatility in a LWR containment during severe accidents. In containment, the high radiation field caused by fission products released from the reactor core induces radiolytic oxidation into iodine oxides. To study the characteristics and the behaviour of iodine oxides in large scale, two THAI tests Iod-13 and Iod-14 were performed, simulating radiolytic oxidation of molecular iodine by reaction of iodine with ozone, with ozone injected from an ozone generator. The observed iodine oxides form submicron particles with mean volume-related diameters of about 0.35 μm and show low deposition rates in the THAI tests performed in the absence of other nuclear aerosols. Formation of iodine aerosols from gaseous precursors iodine and ozone is fast as compared to their chemical interaction. The current approach in empirical iodine containment behaviour models in severe accidents, including the radiolytic production of I 2 -oxidizing agents followed by the I 2 oxidation itself, is confirmed by these THAI tests.

  1. Effect of iodinated contrast media on thyroid: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Mehlika Kuşkonmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parallel to the increased use of computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents are increasingly becoming a source of excess iodide. Iodinated contrast agents may induce thyroid dysfunction in exposed patients, especially in the presence of an underlying thyroid disease. Thus, an ordinary dose of the contrast used for the imaging, can induce hyper or hypothyroidism in a patient with subtle thyroid disease. This review will briefly discuss the physiology of iodine and the clinical evaluation of iodine induced thyroid dysfunction.

  2. Prospects of the high power iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohla, K.; Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Volk, R.; Witte, K.J.

    1976-09-01

    The characteristic properties of the iodine laser (gaseous laser substance, photolytic pump mechanism, variable stimulated emission cross-section) made it possible in a relatively short time to generate ns pulses in the kJ range. The Asterix II and III iodine laser systems at IPP are working successfully, and the question arises what prospects are afforded for further iodine laser development. What are the problems that have to be clarified in order to build 10 or 100 kJ systems for laser fusion experiments. According to our experience these can be classified as follows: 1) Short pulse generation and contrast ratio, 2) pulse shaping in a high-gain laser and amplification in the coherent time range, 3) non-linear properties at high intensities, 4) scalable pumping schemes and chemical processes. (orig./WL) [de

  3. Micromethod of Iodine Measurement in Vrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbuzova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine concentration in urine is the direct quantity indicator of the current consumption of iodine in the population. The most widespread method of determination of iodine in urine is cerium-arsenic method with preliminary processing samples of urine using the solution ammonium persulfate. The purpose of work was to develop updating of the given method for reduction of the formation of toxic products of the reaction. Described method has good characteristics (the limit of the detection of this method 11 ug/l, CV < 10 %, the coefficient of the correlation with reference method 0.99, the amount of toxic substances formed during reaction decreases in 3 times, the cost price of research is reduced owing to reduction of the volume of reagents and water.

  4. Iodine-129 in the European Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R.; Daraoui, A.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Sachse, R.; Tosch, L. [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover (Germany); Alfimov, V.; Synal, H. -A. [Labor fuer Ionenstrahlphysik, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nies, H.; Herrmann, J.; Goroncy, I. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Due to former atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, accidents in nuclear facilities and releases from nuclear reprocessing plants, the natural occurrence of the radionuclide {sup 129}I has been affected on a long term scale by human activities. Particularly in Western Europe, these changes are continuing due to discharges from the nuclear reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield. A survey is given on the environmental abundances of {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I in the North Sea, the Northeast Atlantic, as well as on the atmospheric transport of iodine isotopes from the sea to the continent and their pathways to animals and man. Today, the environmental {sup 129}I /{sup 127}I isotope ratios range from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -6} and are far above the pre-nuclear ratio of {approx}10{sup -12}. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments and serve as tracers of the complex environmental chemistry of iodine. (author)

  5. Iodine Support of Population in Vinnytsa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Vlasenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 9 localities in Vinnitsa region the study of iodine support of population was conducted. 810 persons were examined including 540 children aged 7–12 years old living under the conditions of combined influence of geochemical and anthropogenic ecological factors. Vinnitsa region was found to be the territory with the mild iodine deficiency. Schoolboys with endemic increase of thyroid gland appeared to have typically higher prevalence of chronic somatic pathology. The peculiarities of goitrous endemia confirm complex pathogenesis of thyromegaly in children under conditions of combined influence of anthropogenic and geochemical factors, caused not only by the absolute iodine insufficiency but also by influence of additional goiterous factors. These peculiarities determine the necessity of complex approach to perform preventive antithyroid measures.

  6. Inquiry about 131 Iodine use in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, Claudio Cordeiro; Takahashi, Mirian Hideko; Senhorini Junior, Sidney; Graf, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is an effective and widely accepted therapy for Graves disease (G D) and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), but there still are some controversies about the criteria for its use. To establish the present tendency for radioiodine indication, we have sent questionnaires for members of The Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Latin American Thyroid Society, with 3 index cases: G D, toxic nodular goiter (TNG) and DTC. For each case, questions were proposed about diagnostic procedures and therapy with some clinical variants, which could modify the therapeutic choice. From the almost 2000 questionnaires sent only 82 replies (3.4%) were analyzed. Most of respondents defined themselves as general endocrinologists (85%), working in South and Southeast regions of Brazil (80%), with more than 20 years of professional activity and working mainly at University Hospitals (40%). In case index 1 (G D), 95% of the respondents used arrays of T 3, T 4 and TSH for the diagnosis and 25% added TRAb and thyroid scan. Antithyroid drugs (ATD) were the first choice for 72%, followed by radioiodine and surgery (26% and 1.3% respectively). None of clinical variants such as severe exophthalmos, older age or goiter size modified the therapy. In case 2 (TNG), radioiodine was the first therapy for 84% of professionals and the presence of compressive symptoms was the only variant that changed this tendency, when surgery was the main option. In case 3 (DTC), almost all indicated total thyroidectomy. Radioiodine for thyroid remnants was proposed by 45% of respondents, independent of residual uptake, while the remaining did so depending of different values of uptake, giving 30 to 100 mCI. These data show that radioiodine use is increasing for hyperthyroidism, but still less than observed in other countries and that we do not have uniformity for treatment of DTC. (author)

  7. GEMAS: Geochemical distribution of iodine in European agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Manfred; Reimann, Clemens; Ladenberger, Anna; Négrel, Philippe; Rauch, Uwe; Demetriades, Alecos; Korte, Frank; Dinelli, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    Iodine concentrations are reported for the climate, soil formation processes, and geology (parent material, in some cases mineralisation). The distribution of anomalous I concentrations is likely a reflection of I input from atmospheric and marine sources, as well as the accumulation of I as a result of sorption on organic material. Across Europe, high I areas correlate well with soil with elevated TOC values. This is particularly evident for the western coastal areas of Ireland, UK, Norway, Galicia and France, where the organic matter content in the soil is generally high. The continuous supply of I from sea spray represents a potential source for high and elevated I concentrations. In the coastal zones of SE Spain, SE Ukraine and SW Croatia the I concentration in Ap samples is usually high. Along the eastern Adriatic coast as well as in South-East Ukraine and in the Crimea the elevated and anomalous I concentrations correspond well with the distribution of terra rossa soils developed on karst and organic-rich soils (black soil). In SE Spain the I enriched soils are most likely related to the occurrence of evaporites. The comparison of I background values (medians) based on the parent materials demonstrates a higher I content in soils over limestone and shale. Iodine-low soil areas (Iberian Peninsula) and glacial and aeolian deposits (NW Ukraine).

  8. Iodine-125 and Iodine-131 in the Thames Valley and other areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.R.; Lloyd, M.K.; Bowlt, C.

    1985-01-01

    Part of the Iodine-125 and Iodine-131 waste from hospitals and research centres is discarded down drains and passes through sewage and water reclamation works into the river system. Relatively high concentration of radioiodine occur in outfalls that discharge into the river Thames, lower levels are found in the mainstream river and less still in the reservoirs and tap water supplies abstracted from the river. The pathway from waste to drinking water could account for the low levels of Iodine-125 found in the thyroid glands of some farm animals and human beings in the Thames valley

  9. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 ev...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor...

  11. The importance of prevention with iodine after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornealo, Elena; Chirca, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Medical negative consequences of the disastrous accident from the Chernobyl are tangible till present and the thyroid pathology has a special place among them. It is caused by the actions of radioactive iodine and can be greatly minimized by the implementation of prophylaxis with stable iodine. The basic principles, benefits and risks of iodine prophylaxis are reported in this article. (authors)

  12. Iodine. Do we need an enrichment program in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersson, G.; Haraldsdottir, J.

    1996-01-01

    A working group was established to evaluate the need for iodine enrichment in Denmark. Judged from studies of urinary iodine excretion and one dietary survey the intake of iodine in Denmark is low compared with recommended intakes. The occurrence of non-toxic goitre is relatively high; between 9...

  13. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  14. Iodine supplementation in pregnancy and its effest on child cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; Gowachirapant, S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Winichagoon, P.; Srinivasan, K.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxenemia due to iodine deficiency have been shown to affect development of the newborn negatively. Maternal iodine supplementation may therefore improve cognitive performance of the offspring, even in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). Several

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding iodine among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: hyperthyroidism; iodine; iodised salt; knowledge-attitude-practice study; South Africa ... While iodine deficiency has been reported to facilitate the development ... the health of children if they did not get enough iodine, almost all of the .... in South Africa. The use of local mass media could be considered during the.

  16. Development of Databases with Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and development, thus an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important in pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leadi...

  17. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine·replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  18. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cord blood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine...

  19. Considerations regarding iodine prophylaxis in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Rojo, A.M.; Dubner, D.; Bruno, H.

    1995-01-01

    The indication for the blockade of thyroid gland by the administration of stable iodide is the main countermeasure for diminishing the thyroid uptake of radioiodine following radiological accidents with potential release of radioiodine into the environment in order to avoid deterministic effects and to decrease the probability of stochastic effects. Iodine prophylaxis should be considered along with other countermeasures like sheltering indoors, evacuation and control on contaminated foods. In this communication different factors related to accidental situations regarding iodine prophylaxis are evaluated. A therapeutical scheme is proposed in order to be applied in countries of this region. (author). 4 refs

  20. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  1. Methods to determine iodine plate-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hougaard, H.; Solgaard, P.; Zak, W.

    1986-03-01

    A literature study on iodines behaviour after release from irradiated fuel rods and a detailed dscription of the ventilation system in the hot cell facility form the basis of chosen conditions for some preliminary experiments using non-radioactive iodine. The conclusion states that the system is well suited for the purpose as is the method of sampling from the surface of the ventilation duct, while the releasing technique and the chemical analysis has to be further developed, neutron activation analysis being most promising. (author)

  2. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaphylactoid reactions after iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strejcek, J.; Sehr, A.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is presented of data published in the literature on the incidence of undesirable and especially anaphylactoid reactions to intravenously administered iodinated contrast media used in radiodiagnosis, this with regard to age, sex, allergy in the patient's history, previously administered contrast media, possible previous reaction. A detailed description is presented of the assumed mechanisms of these reactions. There does not exist any reliable premedication. It is always indispensable to consider the indications of the examination using iodinated contrast agents and the possibilities of immediate and qualified resuscitation. (author). 2 tabs., 36 refs

  4. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  5. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed

  6. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with 10 B and 3 He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C 3 F 7 I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation

  7. Development of a coupled diffusion denuder system combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the separation and quantification of molecular iodine and the activated iodine compounds iodine monochloride and hypoiodous acid in the marine atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2009-03-01

    This study concerns the development of a coupled diffusion denuder system capable of separating and quantifying gaseous molecular iodine (I(2)) and two other highly reactive iodine species, ICl and HOI, which are collectively named activated iodine compounds (AIC). Both I(2) and AIC are key species in the atmospheric chemistry of iodine. 1,3,5-Trimethoxybenzene (1,3,5-TMB)- and alpha-cyclodextrin/(129)I(-) (alpha-CD/(129)I(-))-coated denuders proved to be suitable for the collection of gaseous AIC and I(2), respectively. The experimental collection efficiencies for AIC (tested as ICl) and I(2) agreed well with the theoretical values for gas flow rates in the range between 300 and 1800 mL min(-1). The coupled denuder system (1,3,5-TMB-coated denuder as front-denuder coupled upstream of an alpha-CD/(129)I(-)-coated denuder) was applied successfully to separate test gas mixtures of ICl and I(2) at various mixing ratios in the laboratory. The operation of both denuder systems was demonstrated to be independent of relative humidity (0-100%) and storage period (at least 2 weeks prior to and after sampling). Detection limits were achieved at sub-parts-per-trillion-by-volume (sub-pptv) level. The presented method provides a reliable and practical approach for the speciation of gaseous iodine compounds. In addition, we report for the first time ambient air measurements of AIC mixing ratios, carried out at the atmospheric research station in Mace Head, Ireland. A maximum concentration of AIC of 30.2 pptv was observed for nighttime measurements and 6.0 pptv for daytime measurements. A similar diurnal pattern was found for I(2) with an average concentration level of 23.2 pptv during daytime and 85.1 pptv during nighttime, indicating a strong correlation with AIC.

  8. Iodine-129 in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Moiseev, I.T.

    1987-01-01

    The quantitative ratio of aerial and soil entries of 129 I into plants, parameters of its migration in the system of atmosphere-soil-plants-river water, dynamics of transformation and biological availability of 129 I in soil for plants were studied on the basis of field observations and experiments using the radioactive tracers. The doses of human thyroid gland irradiation by 129 I under atmospheric and soil pathways of its transport into diet are estimated. 129 I content in soil due to its systematic, for 50 years, releases into atmosphere is shown to be negligible, agricultural production contamination by 129 I resulting mainly from its fallout onto overground phytomass. The period, needed to achieve 129 I concentration equilibrium in the atmosphere-soil system under constant average 129 I content in the air, varies depending on the soil type from several hundred years (for podzolic soils) up to several thousand years (for chernozem). The 129 I half-accumulation period is equal to 150 years for soddy-podzolic soil and to 700 years for chernozem. In case of 129 I fallout lasting for 100 years the annual increase of its content in overground phytomass due to the transport from soil will account for 0,3% of its atmospheric entry way for soddy-podzolic soil and for 0,1% for chernozem, respectively. For a number of sierozem, yellow soil and calcareous chernozem types this addition is higher (up to 1%). Under constant iodine-129 concentration in air (1 Bq/m3) the absorbed dose for one-year child's thyroid gland in continental area is approximately equal to 2 (Gy/y)/(Bq/m3). The absorbed dose from globally dissipated 129 I under 99% efficiency of gas purification will not exceed 2·10 -7 Gy/y. The input of globally dissipated 129 I, originating from deep underground disposal of nuclear wastes can account for not more than 10 -9 Gy/y. In total, 129 I releases for the coming century is not going to produce limitations for nuclear energetics development. (author)

  9. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  10. Low iodine content in the diets of hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Preterm formula provided 16.4-28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0-17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered.

  11. Simulation of ISTP-EPICUR Iodine Chemistry Tests with RAIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-Chul; Cho, Yeong-Hun; Jang, Dong-Ju; Ryu, Myung-Hyun [Nuclear Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The amount of iodine release largely depends on its volatility in the containment. Iodine has several chemical forms including aerosols, vapor, and gas. Among them gaseous iodine such as I{sub 2} and organic iodide are dominating due to their high volatility. Therefore, such iodine behavior has been extensively examined. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has been joining the relevant international programs such as ISTP-EPICUR, OECD-BIP and OECD-STEM. In the course of this study, a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) has been developed, based on the IMOD methodology and other previous studies. This model deals with chemical reactions associated with formation and destruction of iodine species in the containment atmosphere and the sump in a simple manner, as shown in Fig. 1. It also treats adsorption and desorption of volatile iodine on the paint surface. The iodine species modeled are inorganic volatile iodine, organic iodides of high volatility (HVRI) and low volatility (LVRI), non-volatiles, non-aqueous iodine, and iodine oxide aerosols (IO{sub x}). Many other material participating in the iodine reactions, e.g., air radiolysis products (ARP) such as ozone, are also modeled. This paper especially shows the analysis results after addition of gaseous reaction model to RAIM, which was further accompanied by adjustments of the existing reaction rate constants even for the aqueous reactions. After integration of iodine reaction models for gas and aqueous phase, RAIM was applied the S1-9 and S1-11 tests which were carried out in aqueous phase. In addition, re-analysis of the S2-6-5-2 test, for which iodine-loaded coupons were tested in gas phase, was also performed.

  12. Status of urinary iodine and I-131 uptake after universal iodination of common salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, F.; Begum, F.; Haque, M.; Karim, M.A.; Faruque, O.; Ali, L.; Khan, A.K.A.

    2002-01-01

    This work was carried out in the Institute of Institute of Nuclear Medicine (INM), Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Dhaka. Here we have tried to explore present status of urinary iodine and uptake status in Bangabandhu. Period study was from 1998 to 2000. Total study population was 300, of them 84 was male and 216 was female. Populations of all social and economic strata have been studied, starting from bottoms to top-level income groups as well as urban, rural and suburban populations are included randomly. We studied I-131 uptake and urinary iodine. I-131 given orally in liquid form and the quantity accumulated by the thyroid gland at 24 hours intervals of time is measured using a gamma scintillation counter. Gamma-ray emission of 364 keV energy by I-131 is detected gamma scintillation counter. Urinary iodine is estimated by CIS-BIO kit. Urine is digested with chloric acid under mild conditions and determined manually by its catalytic role in the reduction of ceric ammonium sulfate in the presence of arsenious acid. The uptake was grouped into four categories according to their uptake percentage. Group-A; (lowest uptake group) 99 subject, have uptake between 0 to 4.9%, Group-B; 100 subjects, (relatively low uptake) who have uptake between 4.91-9.9%, group-C; 73 subjects, who have uptake between 10-30% and in-group D, there was 28 subjects their uptake was above 30%. We have also found in group-A median uptake is 3.0% and urinary iodine level is 43.31 μg/dl, in group-B median uptake is 7.0% and urinary iodine level is 33.95 μg/dl, in group-C median uptake is 23.0% and urinary iodine level is 12.97 μg/dl, in group-D median uptake is 34.0% and urinary iodine level is 9.35 μg/dl. We have found 1.04% have severe type low urinary iodine, 3.48% moderate type of low urinary iodine, 3.48%, 16.72% mild type of low urinary iodine and 78.74% have normal

  13. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Mao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  14. Effect of Nitrates, Thiocyanates and Selenium on the Iron and Iodine Status of Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarska, Anelia V; Maneva, Ana I; Gatseva, Penka D; Katsarova, Mariana N

    2016-09-01

    To find correlations between high thiocyanate and nitrate levels and low selenium levels and the indicators of the iodine and iron status of postpartum women. The study included 41 mothers aged 26.4±5.9 yrs from Asenovgrad and nearby villages. Urinary iodine was determined by the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction and thiocyanate - by the interaction of these ions with acidic solution of KMnO4; for serum nitrates we used the colorimetric method; serum selenium was assessed by electro-thermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry; thyroxin (FT4), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum ferritin (SF), and serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) were determined using ELISA; Hb levels were determined by hematology analyzer. Assessing the iodine status, we found a negative correlation between the levels of iodine and thiocyanates in urine (R=-0.717, рnitrates and TSH (R=0.487, р=0.003) and a negative correlation between nitrates and FT4 (R=-0.312, р=0.06). For the iron status, we found a negative correlation between nitrates and SF (R=-0.429, р=0.009) and between nitrates and Hb (R=-0.383, р=0.021). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that in women with nitrate levels higher than the mean value there was low FT4 level (р=0.06), high TSH level (р=0.013), low Hb concentration (р=0.061) and low SF concentration (р=0.005). The combined effects of environmental factors (elevated nitrate levels and low selenium level) on the iodine and iron status are manifested by low concentrations of FT4 (р=0.033), Hb (р=0.06) and SF (р=0.05) and high level of TSH (р=0.05). In conclusion, we found that environmental factors, especially when combined, have a negative impact on the iron and iodine status of females.

  15. Fortification of seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) flour on nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Yahya; Raditya Hardany Nugraha, Galih; Dwi Utari, Dyah

    2017-10-01

    Pasta is a nutritious and energy product which produced from the dough of wheat flour and water. It contains less of iodine and high of glycemic index. Euchema cottonii belongs of red seaweed is food substance that contains much of iodine and dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to know the fortification effect of E. cottonii flour on the nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta. E. cottonii was collected from the culture farm of E. cottonii on the Wongsorejo beach, District of Banyuwangi, East Java on April-June 2015. Wheat flour and pasta ingredients were obtained locally at shops of Pasar Besar, Malang. Pasta was produced by weighing of components, mixing, dough, milling, steaming and drying. E. cottonii flour was added on mixing process at 0; 7; 14 and 21 % of ingredients. The parameter of this study was the level of water, lipid, protein, ash, and carbohydrate (by difference), iodine, crude fiber, the total of dietary fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, and glycemic index, respectively. Data were analyzed by variance and the least square difference used to determine the difference between treatments. The highest concentration group showed more nutritious than other treatments. The characters of its product were water 6.70%, lipid 2.26%, protein 23.09%, ash 14.11%, carbohydrate 53.84%, iodine 3.71 ppm, crude fiber 8.02%, the total of dietary fiber 20.88%, soluble fiber 11.69%, insoluble fiber 9.19%, and glycemic index 44.45, respectively. In conclusion, the fortification of E. cottonii flour enhances the nutrition value, iodine content, and glycemic index of pasta.

  16. Investigation of the daily variation in iodine and creatinine excretion in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabech, H.S.

    1975-08-01

    Continuing earlier investigations of the level of iodine intake in Norway, the excretion of iodine in 24-hour samples of urine over 7 days has been measured for 23 persons. Three of them collected 24-hour samples of urine during continuous periods of 21, 22 and 54 days. The main aim of the investigation was to study the diurnal variation of iodine excretion , and to correlate it with diet components when connection was suspected. To this end the persons had to keep record of the diet, especially with respect to fish and fish products. The variation from day to day of the iodine excretion was much greater than expected, and the highest values were always preceded by meals of sea-fish. Mean 24-hour iodine excretion from 13 males was 266 μg/24h (range 54-2272), from 8 females 154 μg/24h (range 58-627), and from 2 children 74 μg/24h (range 33-129). Large fluctuations were present, as indicated by standard deviations that varied from 12 to 119% of the mean. None of the persons had a mean 24-hour excretion lower than the advised minimum of 1 μg iodine/kg b w. The excretion of creatinine has also been measured, and the excretion from day to day showed large fluctuations for some of the persons. In 13 males the mean 24-hour excretion of creatinine was 1.88 gram (range 0.81-2.93), and in 8 females 1.17 gram (range 0.47-1.74). In one person, who collected urine during a period of 54 days, the mean excretion of creatinine was 1.80 gram (range 1.19-2.75). (auth.)

  17. Adsorption modes of molecular iodine on defected boron nitrides: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabieh, Masoud; Azar, Yavar Taghipour

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of molecular iodine with pristine and monovacant boron-nitride quantum dots (QDs) have been investigated using density functional theory. It was found that removing one B or N single atom significantly decreased the calculated Eg values at various exchange functional. In B-defected BN system, the localized spin densities canceled each other and overall polarization of system was found to be equal to unity. For N-defected system there was smaller spin densities localized on each closest B atoms. Both B- and N-vacancies caused appearance of new states in gap region. Our calculation revealed that spin density and polarization of defected system are localized on vacancy region and other atoms did not take part in this polarization. The results of electron localization function for N-DBN showed there was high density region at the position of removed nitrogen atom. The calculated adsorption energies implied that there was no significant chemical interaction between iodine molecule and pristine BN sheet. We suggested that when a deficiency was imposed to the BN sheet, the reactivity of the modified system toward iodine molecule significantly could increase. We found strong interaction between iodine and nitrogen atoms of B-DBN system. In the case of I2/N-DBN system the neighbor atoms had no contribution in spin polarization of the system and it seemed that all spin density of system transferred to the iodine molecule after adsorption. Strong correlation between molecular iodine orientation and BN-QDs via their interactions type has been clarified in this work. These findings may provide a deeper insight into halogen molecules interactions with low dimensional defected boron nitrides.

  18. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.; Staples, B.A.; Murphy, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which absorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine

  19. Iodine and microbial interactions in an organic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Hawkins, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Iodine-129 in groundwater discharging from a geological disposal vault could accumulate in wetlands by chemical sorption onto low pH, highly organic solid surfaces or by direct or indirect microbial processes. Previous work indicated that saturation of anion sorption sites, microbial toxicity, or swamping of the I reduction/oxidation reaction decreased the retention of a wetland sphagnum for iodine with increased iodine porewater concentrations. Bog water and peat of an iodine-rich bog were studied to elucidate the role of micro-organisms in the retention and accumulation of iodine in a temperate wetland. (author)

  20. Severe Hypothyroidism From Iodine Deficiency Associated With Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golekoh, Marjorie C; Cole, Conrad R; Jones, Nana-Hawa Yayah

    2016-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition is crucial for supply of nutrients in children who cannot tolerate a full enteral diet. In the United States, it is not standard of care to give iodine to children dependent on parenteral nutrition, hence iodine is not routinely included in the micronutrient package. Herein, we present a case of a boy with hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency after prolonged exclusive use of parenteral nutrition. Our case highlights the importance of screening for iodine deficiency and administering timely iodine supplementation in these at-risk children to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser with atomic iodine generated via fluorine atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena; Jakubec, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 1 (2008), 14-22 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen–iodine laser * COIL Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.961, year: 2008

  2. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Špalek, Otomar; Čenský, Miroslav; Picková, Irena; Kodymová, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 334, - (2007), s. 167-174 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Grant - others:USAF European Office for Research and Development(XE) FA 8655-05-M-4027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen-iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2007

  3. Dissociation of molecular iodine in RF discharge for oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Schmiedberger, Josef; Čenský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2012), 1-6 ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0310 Grant - others:European Office for Aerospace R&D(XE) FA8655-09-1-3092 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : molecular iodine * RF discharge * dissociation * oxygen-iodine laser * COIL Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2012

  4. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  5. High power atomic iodine photodissociation lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.E.; Padrick, T.D.; Jones, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has developed into a system capable of producing nanosecond or shorter pulses of near infrared radiation with energies well in excess of a hundred J. Discussed are the operating characteristics, advantages, and potential problem areas associated with this laser

  6. Iodine insufficiency: a global health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christine A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2013-09-01

    As a result of collaborative efforts with international organizations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries practice universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory salt fortification programs. As a consequence, the prevalence of iodine deficiency decreased dramatically. The United States and Canada are among the few developed countries that do not practice USI. Such an undertaking would require evidence of deficiency among vulnerable population groups, including pregnant women, newborns, and developing infants. Government agencies in the United States rely heavily on data from NHANES to assess the iodine status of the general population and pregnant women in particular. NHANES data suggest that pregnant women in the United States remain mildly deficient. This is important, because the developing fetus is dependent on maternal iodine intake for normal brain development throughout pregnancy. Professional societies have recommended that pregnant and lactating women, or those considering pregnancy, consume a supplement providing 150 μg iodine daily. The United States and Canada collaborate on the daily recommended intake and are also confronted with the challenge of identifying the studies needed to determine if USI is likely to be beneficial to vulnerable population groups without exposing them to harm.

  7. The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kanji

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 60 0 C, and 90 -- 100 0 C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 μg/cm 2 . The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

  8. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  9. Mechanism for iodine cracking of zirconium claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of iodine cracking of zirconium cladding is analyzed taking into account the effect of stresses on diffusion. A decisive effect of the stress gradiemt on crack propagation in an agressive medium is shown. The experimental data are compared with the proposed model

  10. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2014, 28(2). 306 solvent. After completion of the reaction, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered. The excess of iodine was removed from the filtrate by drop wise addition of sodium bisulfite solution (1 M). The organic layers were separated, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and the ...

  12. Iodine 131 and 133 as Fission Indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1944-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in September 1944 and is about the possible use of Iodine 131 and 133 as fission indicators. Additionally, the description of the chemical procedure for I 131 and I 133 and the corresponding results can be found in this report. (nowak)

  13. Iodine kinetics and effectiveness of stable iodine prophylaxis after intake of radioiodine: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, B.; Verger, P.; Le Guen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Ingestion of stable iodine (potassium iodide) offers an efficient protection against the irradiation of the thyroid when an accidental exposure to radioiodine occurs. This prophylaxis aims at obtaining a rapid and maximum thyroid protection without antithyroid effects. This article reviews studies on iodine kinetics in the human and on stable iodine effectiveness to protect the thyroid. In adults with a normal thyroid function, ingestion of 100 mg of iodide just before exposure to radioiodine allows a percentage of thyroid averted dose equal or greater than 95%. If the exposure persists after iodide ingestion (100 mg), the percentage of averted dose may decrease significantly. Repeated ingestion of daily amounts of 15 mg of stable iodine would then allow to maintain a 90% effectiveness. Iodide effectiveness and antithyroid effects also depend on external and individual factors such as iodine amounts in the diet, thyroid function and age. It is recommended to adapt the amount of ingested stable iodine according to age at the time of exposure. (author)

  14. Iodine-125--digoxin radioimmunoassay: comparison of commercial kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, D.J.; Cianci, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Iodine-125-digoxin radioimmunoassay kits available from Abbott Diagnostics (AD), Dade Division (D), Schwarz/Mann (SM), and Clinical Assays (CA) were evaluated with respect to assay quality. The kit accuracies did not differ significantly at 2.0 ng/ml and the interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 9 percent (AD) to 21.4 percent (CA). The accuracy for all kits above 4 ng/ml is questionable, and since serum-dilution values correlated well with undiluted serum values, the dilution method of dose quantitation is preferable for levels above 4 ng/ml. Although all the kits were adequate for evaluating digoxin at the 2 ng/ml level, the Abbott kit seems to be of slightly better quality

  15. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The distribution and transformations of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine in the atmosphere is derived largely from seawater. It is probable that the biological production of methyl iodide is important in this transfer. Subsequent photolytic dissociation and oxidation of the methyl iodide, together with other inputs, with partial sorption of the products by aerosols, results in the atmospheric iodine being distributed between various gaseous and particulate forms. Atmospheric iodine is the major source of the iodine in soils, and the process of enrichment continues throughout soil formation and development until ultimately an equilibrium concentration is attained. The atmosphere is also a direct source of iodine for plants, and in some situations may be more important than the soil. Iodine may be lost from soils by leaching, volatilization, and removal in crops. The amounts of iodine reported in groundwaters, and in rivers and lakes remote from human activity, suggest that some leaching of iodine is widespread. Increased amounts of iodine occur in rivers receiving effluent from sewage works. Milk and milk products are now major dietary sources of iodine because their content is often increased by concentrate feedingstuffs supplemented with iodine and/or by the use in dairies of iodophor detergents and sterilants. (author)

  17. Instrumental determination of iodine in milk by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac Olive, K.; Chatt, A.

    2006-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element. It is related to thyroid functions and its deficiency or excess can be harmful. Deficiency of iodine leads to brain damage including cretinism, excess of iodine blocks the thyroid gland ultimately producing iodine deficiency as well. World Health Organization has set a daily iodine intake dose of 150 μg d -1 . Currently there are 740 million people in the world at risk of iodine deficiency disorders; therefore the monitoring of iodine intake is necessary. Although the iodized salt policy has been adopted in many countries, milk is also one of the major natural sources of iodine and it is also the principal food in children. Therefore, the determination of iodine in milk is needed. This work deals with the determination of iodine in milk by neutron activation analysis. Different methods of irradiation-counting are compared in terms of sensitivity and detection limits. The quantification of iodine was calculated using also two methods, the classic relative one and the standardization of k 0 parameter. A brief analysis of the uncertainty sources in the analytical method is also discussed.(Full text)

  18. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  19. WHO's new recommendations about iodine prophylaxis at nuclear catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, Wendla

    1999-01-01

    WHO has prepared new advice about using stable iodine as protection against emission of radioactive iodine from nuclear catastrophes. The experiences from Chernobyl show that the risk for thyroid gland cancer after emission of radio-iodine is significant. The risk of serious side effects of stable iodine as single dose is stated to be minimal. Stable iodine is a safe, effective remedy for protecting the thyroid gland against radioactive iodine. It is recommended to adjust different criteria for iodine prophylaxis for new-born, children, young people and adults older than 40 years. For children of the age up to 18 years iodine prophylaxis should be considered at 10 mGy thyroid gland doses, and for young adults at 100 mGy. For adults of 40 years or more the cancer risk of radioactive iodine is very low and iodine prophylaxis is unnecessary provided that the expected does not exceed 5 Gy. The new information about risk and advantage must be considered in planning for distribution and storage of stable iodine. WHO also commends that everybody has the possibility to buy it in a pharmacy. (EHS)

  20. Effects of elevated iodine in milk replacer on calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, K J; Hidiroglou, M

    1990-03-01

    Calves were fed milk replacer containing .57, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm iodine (from ethylenediaminedihydroiodide) in DM, from 3 to 38 d of age, to estimate the minimum toxic concentration of iodine. Only the 200 ppm iodine intake reduced weight gains, DM intake, feed efficiency, and DM digestibility. At the 100 and 200 ppm iodine intakes, protein digestibility was reduced, and calves showed typical symptoms of iodine toxicity (nasal discharge, excessive tear and saliva formation, and coughing from tracheal congestion). Thyroid iodine increased with every elevation in iodine intake. Iodine in plasma, bile, and non-thyroid tissues started to increase at the 50 ppm intake and, except for muscle, tended to increase again at the 100 and 200 ppm intakes. Thus, the preruminant calf tolerated up to 50 ppm iodine in milk replacer DM for 5 wk postpartum. However, as iodine concentrations in plasma and nonthyroid tissues started to increase at 50 ppm iodine, an upper limit of 10 ppm would be more preferable.

  1. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  2. Translocation of iodine-129 in soil and transfer to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.

    1989-01-01

    The translocation of I-129 in the soil and its long-term transfer from soil to plant have been investigated using an undisturbed soil column and a pasture on a river bank. The I-129 profiles in the soils of the monolith and the pasture exhibit clear differences in the distribution of radioiodine after 52 and 47 months, respectively. At those times after surface contamination of both soil types 88% (monolith) and 66% (pasture) of the total I-129 activity were found in the top soil layer of 10 cm, indicating that translocation in the pasture soil is faster than in the monolith. Apart from soil-specific parameters this behaviour may be explained by anaerobic conditions created in the soil due to high water levels in the nearby river attecting the chemical form of iodine. The distribution of stable iodine was found rather homogeneous in both soils with mean contents of 3 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. in the upper 15 cm and 4 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. in deeper layers in case of the monolith. For the pasture soil the corresponding values are about 4 and 5 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. Transfer factors plant/soil (dry weight basis) of I-129 obtained from the monolith 39 g and 52 months after contamination are 1.5x10 -3 and 2.1x10 -3 , respectively. Data from the pasture 35 and 47 months after contamination show values of 9.0x10 -3 and 8.4x10 -3 , respectively. Transfer factors of stable iodine are significantly higher in both soils yielding an average value of 1.0 for the monolith and 0.3 for the pasture. Delay constants (related to a top soil layer of 10 cm) calculated for I-129 using data obtained from the long-term translocation processes to deeper soil layers in the monolith and in the pasture show values of 1x10 -9 s -1 and 4x10 -9 s -1 , respectively. (orig.) [de

  3. Evaluation of soil-plant transfer factors of iodine. Estimation of annual ingestion for iodine from the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene.

    1980-11-01

    The author presents the iodine middle contents of the soils and vegetables. A synthesis on the iodine evolution in the soils and vegetables allows to conclude that the vegetable absorption of this isotope is correlated with the isotopiquely exchangeable iodine of the soil. The soil-plant transfer-factors are calculated for the vegetables, cereals, fruits from the stable iodine quantitative analysis. The annual iodine ingestion has been estimated from the dietary of the European Communites areas. This one is a little different of the quantity estimated by CRESTA-LACOURLY-R 2979, yet the contribution by consummation unity is different [fr

  4. Chromosomal damage after Iodine-131 treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer: in vivo dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, V.K.; Nguyen, X.P.; Truong, Q.X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Although it is well known that radiation induces chromosomal aberrations, there is a lack of information on the in- vivo dose-effect relationship in patients receiving Iodine-131 treatment and the results of previous studies are controversial. In this study, the dicentric chromosomal aberrations (DCA) analysis method was employed to investigate acute and late chromosomal damage (CD) in the peripheral lymphocytes of 58 differentiated thyroid cancer patients who received dose 1,1 GBq of Iodine-131 (group A), and 34 patients who received dose 3,7 GBq of Iodine- 131 (group B). The mean 100 metaphase spreads were scored for each subject. The DCA frequencies in cultured peripheral lymphocytes were determined before treatment to assess basal DCA frequencies, on the 3rd day to assess acute DCA frequencies and 6 months later to assess late DCA frequencies. The basal, acute and late DCA frequencies were divided into two groups: 0,18%, 2,14% and 0,53% (group A) and 0,18%, 2,12 % and 0,89% (group B), respectively, and these values differed significantly at various time after treatment (p 2 = 0,987), and group B as Y= 32,71 + 0,189 X. (r = 0,9381, R 2 = 0,880). However, there was an interesting difference in comparison with in- vitro studies, in that we found the coefficient β to have a negative value, suggesting the disappearance of damaged lymphocytes from peripheral circulation in a dose- dependent manner following Iodine-131 treatment. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the effect of the negative β value on biological dosimetry approach in continuous internal low LET radiation, as in the case of Iodine-131 treatment. (author)

  5. Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin and Low Iodine Intake Are Associated with Nontoxic Nodular Goiter among Adults Living near the Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv S. Ovadia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information about iodine intake is crucial for preventing thyroid diseases. Inadequate iodine intake can lead to thyroid diseases, including nontoxic nodular goiter (NNG. Objective. To estimate iodine intake and explore its correlation with thyroid diseases among Israeli adults living near the Mediterranean coast, where iodine-depleted desalinated water has become a major source of drinking water. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients attending Barzilai Medical Center Ashkelon. Participants, who were classified as either NNG (n=17, hypothyroidism (n=14, or control (n=31, provided serum thyroglobulin (Tg and completed a semiquantitative iodine food frequency questionnaire. Results. Elevated serum Tg values (Tg > 60 ng/mL were significantly more prevalent in the NNG group than in the other groups (29% versus 7% and 0% for hypothyroidism and controls, resp., P<0.05. Mean estimated iodine intake was significantly lower in the NNG group (65±30 μg/d than in controls (115±60 μg/d (P<0.05 with intermediate intake in the hypothyroid group (73±38 μg/d. Conclusions. Elevated serum Tg values and low dietary iodine intake are associated with NNG among adult patients in Ashkelon District, Israel. Larger studies are needed in order to expand on these important initial findings.

  6. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillant, S.; Sheppard, M.I.; Denys, S.; Leclerc Cessac, E.

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a radionuclide of major concern in the international safety assessments for deep geological storage and disposal of nuclear waste because it migrates quickly through the geosphere to the biosphere and then from the soil to humans through the food-chain. However, in organic soils the 129 I may be immobilized over a long time period, and so these soils represent a potential accumulation point in the biosphere. Effects of long residence times of iodine in soils are scarce. The present paper gives some insight on the aging of stable iodine, under natural conditions. Stable iodine was introduced as KI in 1987 at the base of a small natural sphagnum bog to simulate arrival of iodine via a groundwater discharge from the geosphere. Previous data revealed the spread of the iodine outwards spatially from the basal spike and also recorded its rise towards the bog surface. Fifteen years later, the groundwater, the soil and the vegetation have been sampled and analyzed for iodine. The results we will present give insight on the mobility of 'aged' iodine with time, the retention properties of the peat, and provide iodine transfer factors for native boreal plant species. The data show iodine: - continues to slowly spread from the spike after 15 years, - is more strongly retained on the solid phase at the surface than at depth, - the chemical structure of the peat may influence the retention of iodine as shown by NMR analysis, - iodine retention has become greater with time, and - herbaceous species are the greatest accumulators. This study demonstrates bogs present good sinks for iodine and limit the transfer of iodine to some of the 'wildlife' food-chains. (author)

  7. Global iodine nutrition: Where do we stand in 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2013-05-01

    Dietary iodine intake is required for the production of thyroid hormone. Consequences of iodine deficiency include goiter, intellectual impairments, growth retardation, neonatal hypothyroidism, and increased pregnancy loss and infant mortality. In 1990, the United Nations World Summit for Children established the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency worldwide. Considerable progress has since been achieved, largely through programs of universal salt iodization. Approximately 70% of all households worldwide currently have access to adequately iodized salt. In 2013, as defined by a national or subnational median urinary iodine concentration of 100-299 μg/L in school-aged children, 111 countries have sufficient iodine intake. Thirty countries remain iodine-deficient; 9 are moderately deficient, 21 are mildly deficient, and none are currently considered severely iodine-deficient. Ten countries have excessive iodine intake. In North America, both the United States and Canada are generally iodine-sufficient, although recent data suggest pregnant U.S. women are mildly iodine-deficient. Emerging issues include discrepancies between urinary iodine status in pregnant women compared to school-aged children in some populations, the problem of re-emerging iodine deficiency in parts of the developed world, the importance of food industry use of iodized salt, regions of iodine excess, and the potential effects of initiatives to lower population sodium consumption on iodine intake. Although substantial progress has been made over the last several decades, iodine deficiency remains a significant health problem worldwide and affects both industrialized and developing nations. The ongoing monitoring of population iodine status remains crucially important, and particular attention may need to be paid to monitoring the status of vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and infants. There is also need for ongoing monitoring of iodized salt and other dietary iodine sources in

  8. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caffagni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was

  9. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  10. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  11. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  12. Iodine excretion has decreased in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 - the importance of iodine content in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004-5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compared...... with data in a study carried out in 2008-10. The 2008-10 study was a follow-up of a cross-sectional study carried out before iodine fortification was implemented. Participants in the cross-sectional studies were randomly selected. Both studies were carried out in the cities of Aalborg and Copenhagen...... in Denmark. The median urinary iodine concentration decreased in women from 97 μg/l (n 2862) to 78 μg/l (n 2041) (Piodine excretion. The prevalence of users of iodine containing dietary...

  13. Penetuan Bilangan Iodin pada Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) dan Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Monica Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...

  14. Iodine ingestion dose factors for the thyroid exposure of infants. Technical instructions 7. Jod-Ingestionsdosisfaktor fuer die Strahlenexposition der Schilddruese von Kleinkindern. Weisungsbeschluss 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    For calculations of the thyroid exposure of infants via the pasture-cow-milk pathway, the dose factor = 8.8 x 10/sup 5/ rem x m/sup 3/ / Ci x s should be used for elementary iodine during the vegetation period. For the components of other chemical-physical forms of /sup 131/I, the above value should be multiplied by the following factors: 1) For iodine aerosols, by the factor 0.1; 2) for organic iodine, by the factor 0.01. The mean vegetation period in the Federal Republic of Germany is 6 months.

  15. Leak test method and test device for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1995-01-01

    An air introduction device which can change a humidity is disposed upstream of an iodine filter to be tested, and a humidity measuring device is disposed downstream of the iodine filter respectively. At first, dried air reduced with humidity is flown from the air introduction device to the iodine filter, to remove moisture content from an iodine adsorber in the iodine filter. Next, air at an increased humidity is supplied to the iodine filter. The difference between the time starting the supply of the highly humid air and the time detecting the high humidity at the humidity measuring device is measured. When the time difference is smaller than the time difference measured previously in a normal iodine filter, it shows the presence of leak in the iodine filter to be tested. With such procedures, leakage in the iodine filter which removes radioactive iodine from off-gases discharged from the radioactive material handling facilities can be detected easily by using water (steams), namely, a naturally present material. (I.N.)

  16. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrel, L [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPNS, CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chopin, J [Laboratoire d` Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40{sup o}C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H{sup +} ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I{sub 2}], [IO{sub 3}{sup -}], [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [H{sup +}]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs.

  18. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  19. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  20. Iodine status in the Nordic countries - past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries' iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries' strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50-75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  1. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  2. Deposition velocity of gaseous organic iodine from the atmosphere to rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Shigeo-Uchida; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1996-01-01

    To obtain parameter values for the assessment of 129 I transfer from the atmosphere to rice, deposition of CH 3 I to rice plants has been studied. The mass normalized deposition velocity (V D ) of CH 3 I for rough (unhulled) rice was 0.00048 cm 3 g -1 s -1 , which is about 1/300 of that of I 2 . Translocation of iodine, deposited as CH 3 I on leaves and stems, to rice grain was negligibly small. Distribution of iodine between hull and inner part of the grain was found to depend also on the chemical forms of atmospheric iodine to be deposited. The ratio of the iodine distribution in a grain exposed to CH 3 I was as follows: rough rice: brown rice (hulled rice):polished rice = 1.0:0.49:0.38. The distribution ratio in polished grains for CH 3 I exposed rice was about 20 times higher than that for I 2 . 22 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  3. Methodology for iodine-129 determination in coniferous plant by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, E.E.; Thyssen, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The measurement methods of iodine-129 ( 129 I) include liquid scintillation counting, mass spectrometry analysis, X-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The combination of long half-life and low radiation energy, limit the sensitivity of a direct measurement in environmental matrixes. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) permits the increase in the sensitivity because of the high thermal neutron cross section of 129 I. The reaction produced is 129 I (n,γ) 130 I and the Eγ (536 keV) of iodine-130 (t 1/2 = 12,6 hours) is measured. The developed methodology allows the determination of 129 I in coniferous needles using NAA. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in the matrix, as well as the Bromine-82 originated in the activation process. The analytical method is divided in six steps: a) digestion by alkaline fusion; b) radiochemical purification of 129 I by distillation followed by solvent extraction; c) distillation and adsorption on activated charcoal; d) neutron irradiation; e) radiochemical purification of 130 I by distillation followed by solvent extraction; f) gamma spectrometry. Iodine-131 tracer is added, and a chemical recovery of 95% in the distillations is obtained. The whole process recovery is within 70% and 85%. The detection limit is 0.48 mBq. Several factors affect this value, such as sample type, variety of coniferous, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. (author) [es

  4. Endemic goitre and iodine metabolism in schoolchildren from the Daunia uplands (province of Foggia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, V; Cenderelli, G; Cocco, U; Di Cerbo, A; Lo Iudice, G; Costa, A

    1978-04-01

    A study of endemic goitre was carried out in the western part of the province of Foggia (Daunia's pre-Appennines). About 50% of a total of 2719 children aged 6-15 years examined in the agricultural and hill towns of Accadia, Bovino, Candela, Deliceto and Sant'Agata di Puglia (500 to 800 m above sea level), presented a thyroid enlargement (usually of Grade 1). Urinary creatinine values were normal, while urinary iodine was low: 37.7 +/- 28.39 mug/g creatinine (mean +/- SD for 319 subjects). Serum levels of thyroid hormones were normal: T4 = 7.89 +/- 2.61 mug/dl; T3 = 114.72 +/- 40 ng/dl; T3 (T4 X 100) = 0.166 +/- 0.09. Subjects with Grade 2 thyroid enlargement had significant lower urinary iodine and serum T4, and higher T3 and T3/T4 ratio than children without goitre (Grade 0). Serum thyrotropin was rather high (3.79 +/- 4.17 muU/ml), but bore no straight relation to the thyroid size; in subjects with Grade 2 thyroids there was an inverse relationship between plasma T4 and TSH levels. Drinking water iodine was generally low (2-3 mug/l), though some richer sources (18, 38, 66 mug/l) were noted. Iodine contents of locally produced foodstuffs were below those found in food on Turin markets.

  5. Ab initio atomic simulation of hydrogen and iodine effects in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domain, Ch.

    2002-03-01

    In this work we present ab initio atomic simulations concerning the effects of hydrogen and iodine in hexagonal zirconium. We first studied the point defects in the dilute Zr-H (and to a less extend Zr-H-O) systems and concluded that it is better described within the generalised gradient approximation for the exchange and correlation functional. We calculated the hydrogen thermal diffusion coefficient in solid solution that agree very well with the experimental values. The calculated formation energy of different self-interstitial configuration are rather small (around 3 eV) and close to each other indicating the high complexity of these defects. We studied the core structure of the screw dislocation that has a preferential prismatic spreading. We also calculated the gamma surface for different gliding planes. The influence of hydrogen, that induces a significant reduction of the gamma surfaces excess energies, allows to qualitatively explain experimental results regarding some hydrogen effects on hexagonal zirconium plastic deformation. We also discussed the effect of zirconium hydride stoichiometry on gamma surfaces. The results concerning the iodine and oxygen adsorption on zirconium surfaces, inducing the evaluation of the effective surface energy reduction as a function of the iodine partial pressure allow for a better description of iodine induced stress corrosion cracking of zirconium. (author)

  6. [Iodized salt intake in households and iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age in Peru, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ana María; Miranda, Marianella; Campos, Miguel; Sánchez, José R

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to evaluate the intake of salt adequately iodized in their households in Peru. Cross-sectional study performed with a multistage, probabilistic, cluster sampling that included 1573 households and 2048 women in childbearing age, distributed in five domains (Lima, rest of the coast, rural highlands and jungle area). The use of iodized salt was evaluated in the households and the urinary iodine was evaluated in the childbearing age women. 97.5% (95%CI. 96.7-98.5%) of peruvian households have iodized salt consumption, being it lower in the rural highland (95%) and higher in Lima (100%). The national mean of urinary iodine was 266 μg/L, being it lower in the jungle areas (206 μg/L) and higher in the rest of the coast (302 μg/L), these values are above the level recommended by the World Health Organization in all domains (average higher than 200 μg/L), value that ensures control over the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Control of IDD associated with iodized salt consumption is good, and monitoring of the presence of iodine in salt, particularly in the areas with lowest access, should continue.

  7. Activation energies for iodine-exchange systems containing organic iodine compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, N. (Takyo Univ. of Education (Japan). Faculty of Science) Takahashi, Yasuko

    1976-01-01

    In studies on the nonequilibrium isotopic exchange method for determining iodine in organic iodine compounds, activation energies have been measured to find systems having appropriate rate of exchange reactions. Activation energies are discussed by considering the effect of the structure of organic iodine compounds, the concentrations of reactants and solvent, etc. In homogeneous systems, activation energy is found to become larger in the order of CH/sub 3/Iiodine ratio between I/sub 2/ and organic iodine is a predominant factor in determining the rate of the exchange reaction.

  8. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, Vit; Spalek, Otomar; Censky, Miroslav; Pickova, Irena; Kodymova, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    A method of the chemical generation of atomic iodine for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) using atomic fluorine as a reaction intermediate was studied experimentally. This method is based on the reaction between F 2 and NO providing F atoms, and the reaction of F with HI resulting in iodine atoms generation. Atomic iodine was produced with efficiency exceeding 40% relative to initial F 2 flow rate. This efficiency was nearly independent on pressure and total gas flow rate. The F atoms were stable in the reactor up to 2 ms. An optimum ratio of the reactants flow rates was F 2 :NO:HI = 1:1:1. A rate constant of the reaction of F 2 with HI was determined. The numerical modelling showed that remaining HI and IF were probably consumed in their mutual reaction. The reaction system was found suitable for employing in a generator of atomic iodine with its subsequent injection into a supersonic nozzle of a COIL

  9. Iodine supply in diet in various european regions and risks of iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The main risk of low level irradiation of the thyroid is the induction of thyroid neoplasia. In the case of nuclear accidents this risk depends on the level of radioiodine uptake and half life in the thyroid, on the size of the gland and on the relative biological efficiency of the emitted radiation especially at low doses. The level of radioiodine uptake is inversely related to stable iodine supply in the diet. In this study it was proposed to: 1. systematically survey iodine supply in the diet, radioiodine uptake and thyroid kinetics in various European regions. Most of these data are readily available. Taken together with presently accepted estimates of relative biological efficiency, the radiation doses at various contamination levels and risks could be computed and tabulated as an easy-to-use basis for decision guidelines. 2. to obtain in vitro from human autopsy material, radioiodine kinetics data in fetal thyroid to complement data in vivo in a model animal close to man (the chimpanzee) at various dietary iodine levels. Urinary iodine excretions vary in Europe from one region to another from 16 to 250 ug/day. The full spectrum from severe iodine deficiency to normal dietary intake exists in Europe. It is therefore quite to be expected that 24h thyroid radioiodine uptakes vary from 19 to 83%. Therefore for a similar radioiodide contamination the thyroid exposure will vary from one region to another by a factor of 4

  10. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  11. Neurotoxicity of iodinated radiological contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Pinheiro, R.S. de

    1988-01-01

    We studied during the last ten years the neurotoxicity of artificial iodinated contrast media, with prospective clinical and experimental protocols. The experimental investigation in animals aimed to understand the relationship between the intracarotid injection, the subarachnoid application and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier function. The electro physiologic disturbances and the morphologic observation of pial circulation support the evidence that iodinated artificial contrast media induces significant alterations in brain metabolism and in the autoregulation of the blood flow of the encephalon. Even if many of such phenomena may not be apparent at the clinical level, we supposed that they are always present and that their clinical exteriorization is prevented by the immediate and effective action of homeostatic mechanisms. (author)

  12. Separation of iodine species by adsorption chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.; Bellido Jr, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the different properties of iodide and iodate species in some sorption materials a new chromatographic method was developed to study the speciation of iodine in a mangrove system. Two sorption materials, alumina and silica, were investigated and several distribution coefficients for iodide and iodate were determined at different concentrations of NaOH, NaNO 3 and NaHCO 3 solutions. The best separation results were obtained percolating sea water samples, containing iodide species, through a glass column filled with alumina. The iodine passed through the column after washing the column with 0.1M sodium nitrate solution, and the iodate was eluted with a 0.5M sodium bicarbonate solution. (author)

  13. The 2016 iodine pill distribution campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmestre, A.; Le Guen, B.

    2016-01-01

    The last iodine pills were distributed in february 2009, they are now outdated and a new campaign has been launched. Each family will receive a voucher to recover iodine pills from the nearby pharmacy. The aim of this new campaign is of course to protect people in case of severe nuclear accident but also to develop a radiation protection culture among the population. During the previous campaign only 51% of the concerned people went to the pharmacy to get the pills. The 2016 campaign will involve the public and all the establishments open to the public in a range of 10 km around each of the 19 nuclear power plants. It concerns 500 municipalities, 375.000 households, 55.000 enterprises and public utilities and 275 pharmacies are involved in the campaign. (A.C.)

  14. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  15. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula

  16. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  17. Radiosensitizers action on Iodine 131 therapeutical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agote, Marcos; Kreimann, Erica L.; Bocanera, Laura V.; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.

    1999-01-01

    Present studies were aimed to research the possible application of a radiosensitizer, nicotinamide, to increase the therapeutical effect of radioiodine. There were used goitrous and normal rats with growing dose of Iodine 131, with and without simultaneous treatment with nicotinamide. The obtained results show that the nicotinamide treatment importantly increases the thyroid radio destructive effect induced by radioiodine. Under these experimental conditions, nicotinamide induces to a significant increase of thyroid vascularisation, without changes in the proteins ADP-ribosylation activity. These results show, for the first time, the radiosensitizer effect of nicotinamide in front of Iodine 131 and give the possibility of using it in the treatment of hyperthyroid or thyroid difference cancer patients. (author)

  18. Investigation of the radioecology of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Very sensitive analytical methods for I-129 were developed for different sample materials. - The behaviour of I-129 in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant and its release was completely investigated. - A longterm risk for the population caused by I-129 is not excpected. An existing environmental contamination with I-129 is reduced by a half-life of 0,3 y. The exposure of the population via the pasture-cow-milk path until now was overstimated at least by a factor 45. - In the environmental air of Kiel, Stade, Karlsruhe, Gundremmingen and Munich elemental iodine and iodine aerosols were measured. In the environmental air of Karlsruhe CH 3 127 I was determined. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents

  20. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135