WorldWideScience

Sample records for iodine model addition

  1. Primary circuit iodine model addition to IMPAIR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osetek, D.J.; Louie, D.L.Y. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guntay, S.; Cripps, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    As part of a continuing effort to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) with complete iodine analysis capability, a task was undertaken to expand the modeling of IMPAIR-3, an iodine chemistry code. The expanded code will enable the DOE to include detailed iodine behavior in the assessment of severe accident source terms used in the licensing of U.S. Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs). IMPAIR-3 was developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland, and has been used by ARSAP for the past two years to analyze containment iodine chemistry for ALWR source term analyses. IMPAIR-3 is primarily a containment code but the iodine chemistry inside the primary circuit (the Reactor Coolant System or RCS) may influence the iodine species released into the the containment; therefore, a RCS iodine chemistry model must be implemented in IMPAIR-3 to ensure thorough source term analysis. The ARSAP source term team and the PSI IMPAIR-3 developers are working together to accomplish this task. This cooperation is divided into two phases. Phase I, taking place in 1996, involves developing a stand-alone RCS iodine chemistry program called IMPRCS (IMPAIR -Reactor Coolant System). This program models a number of the chemical and physical processes of iodine that are thought to be important at conditions of high temperature and pressure in the RCS. In Phase II, which is tentatively scheduled for 1997, IMPRCS will be implemented as a subroutine in IMPAIR-3. To ensure an efficient calculation, an interface/tracking system will be developed to control the use of the RCS model from the containment model. These two models will be interfaced in such a way that once the iodine is released from the RCS, it will no longer be tracked by the RCS model but will be tracked by the containment model. All RCS thermal-hydraulic parameters will be provided by other codes. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  2. Primary circuit iodine model addition to IMPAIR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Louie, D.L.Y.; Guntay, S.; Cripps, R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) with complete iodine analysis capability, a task was undertaken to expand the modeling of IMPAIR-3, an iodine chemistry code. The expanded code will enable the DOE to include detailed iodine behavior in the assessment of severe accident source terms used in the licensing of U.S. Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs). IMPAIR-3 was developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland, and has been used by ARSAP for the past two years to analyze containment iodine chemistry for ALWR source term analyses. IMPAIR-3 is primarily a containment code but the iodine chemistry inside the primary circuit (the Reactor Coolant System or RCS) may influence the iodine species released into the the containment; therefore, a RCS iodine chemistry model must be implemented in IMPAIR-3 to ensure thorough source term analysis. The ARSAP source term team and the PSI IMPAIR-3 developers are working together to accomplish this task. This cooperation is divided into two phases. Phase I, taking place in 1996, involves developing a stand-alone RCS iodine chemistry program called IMPRCS (IMPAIR -Reactor Coolant System). This program models a number of the chemical and physical processes of iodine that are thought to be important at conditions of high temperature and pressure in the RCS. In Phase II, which is tentatively scheduled for 1997, IMPRCS will be implemented as a subroutine in IMPAIR-3. To ensure an efficient calculation, an interface/tracking system will be developed to control the use of the RCS model from the containment model. These two models will be interfaced in such a way that once the iodine is released from the RCS, it will no longer be tracked by the RCS model but will be tracked by the containment model. All RCS thermal-hydraulic parameters will be provided by other codes. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  3. Modelling the chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have assembled a kinetic model, based on elementary chemical reactions, that describes the chemical behaviour of iodine in aqueous solution as a function of time and various parameters such as pH, concentration and radiation field. The model is conceptually divided into six section: aqueous iodine chemistry, aqueous organic iodide chemistry, water radiolysis, radiolysis of iodine solutions, radiolysis of organic iodide solutions and mass transfer. The model indicates that, in the absence of a radiation field, the rate of production of volatile iodine species is controlled by the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion. The volatile iodine species are dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. The single most important parameter controlling iodine volatility is the pH of the solution; high pH values tend to minimize iodine volatility. In the presence of a radiation field, the volatility of iodine is controlled by the radiation-induced oxidation of the iodide ion. Again, iodine volatility is dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. High pH values minimize iodine volatility. A sensitivity analysis has been performed on some sections of the model to identify reactions to which the volatility of iodine is most sensitive. In the absence of a radiation field, the volatility is most sensitive, first, to the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion, and, second, to the rate of mass transfer of volatile species between the aqueous and the gaseous phases. This approach should be useful in identifying reactions for which accurate rate constants are required and in decreasing the complexity of the model. 37 refs

  4. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed. The thyroid gland needs iodine ... most recognized form of deficiency is goiter. Additionally, across the globe iodine deficiency is thought to be ...

  5. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  6. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Iodine Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about iodine? Disclaimer What is iodine and what does it do? Iodine is a ...

  7. A mathematical model for iodine kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.A.T. da.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the iodine kinetics in thyroid is presented followed by its analytical solution. An eletroanalogical model is also developed for a simplified stage and another is proposed for the main case [pt

  8. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  9. Modeling an Iodine Hall Thruster Plume in the Iodine Satellite (ISAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    An iodine-operated 200-W Hall thruster plume has been simulated using a hybrid-PIC model to predict the spacecraft surface-plume interaction for spacecraft integration purposes. For validation of the model, the plasma potential, electron temperature, ion current flux, and ion number density of xenon propellant were compared with available measurement data at the nominal operating condition. To simulate iodine plasma, various collision cross sections were found and used in the model. While time-varying atomic iodine species (i.e., I, I+, I2+) information is provided by HPHall simulation at the discharge channel exit, the molecular iodine species (i.e., I2, I2+) are introduced as Maxwellian particles at the channel exit. Simulation results show that xenon and iodine plasma plumes appear to be very similar under the assumptions of the model. Assuming a sticking coefficient of unity, iodine deposition rate is estimated.

  10. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  11. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  12. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  13. Iodine Gas Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials: A Combined Experiment–Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sava Gallis, Dorina F.; Ermanoski, Ivan; Greathouse, Jeffrey A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2017-02-13

    Here, we present a combined experimental and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) modeling study on the adsorption of iodine in three classes of nanoporous materials: activated charcoals, zeolites, and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). Iodine adsorption profiles were measured for the first time in situ, with a uniquely designed sorption apparatus. It was determined that pore size and pore environment are responsible for a dynamic adsorption profile, correlated with distinct pressure ranges. At pressures below 0.3 atm, iodine adsorption is governed by a combination of small pores and extra-framework components (e.g., Ag+ ions in the zeolite mordenite). At regimes above 0.3 atm, the amount of iodine gas stored relates with an increase in pore size and specific surface area. GCMC results validate the trends noted experimentally and in addition provide a measure of the strength of the adsorbate–adsorbent interactions in these materials.

  14. Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2014-04-01

    The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

  15. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  16. A physiological systems model for iodine for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for iodine in the human body and proposes a biokinetic model for use in dose assessments for radioiodine. The model unifies and extends existing physiological systems models describing three subsystems of the iodine cycle in the body: circulating (extrathyroidal) inorganic iodide; thyroidal iodine (trapping and organic binding of iodide, and synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones); and extrathyroidal organic iodine. Thyroidal uptake of iodide is described as a function of daily stable iodine intake and requirements for thyroid hormones. Baseline parameter values are developed for adults with typical iodine intakes and hormone requirements. Estimated thyroid doses derived from the baseline parameter values and reference thyroid weights are higher than values predicted by the current model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for adults for intake of iodine isotopes with half-lives up to a few hours but consistent with ICRP predictions for longer-lived isotopes. For nearly all iodine isotopes, the proposed model yields order-of-magnitude differences from the ICRP's current iodine model for adults for stomach wall, salivary gland, and kidneys. Dose estimates for intravenously injected 131I-labeled thyroid hormones based on the present model differ substantially from current ICRP values for adult patients for some organs, including the thyroid. Subsequent studies will address age-specific biokinetics of iodine, reduction of doses from radioiodine due to thyroid blocking, and effects of dietary iodine levels and thyroid hormone requirements on thyroid doses from radioiodine.

  17. A physiological systems model for iodine for use in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for iodine in the human body and proposes a biokinetic model for use in dose assessments for radioiodine. The model unifies and extends existing physiological systems models describing three subsystems of the iodine cycle in the body: circulating (extrathyroidal) inorganic iodide; thyroidal iodine (trapping and organic binding of iodide, and synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones); and extrathyroidal organic iodine. Thyroidal uptake of iodide is described as a function of daily stable iodine intake and requirements for thyroid hormones. Baseline parameter values are developed for adults with typical iodine intakes and hormone requirements. Estimated thyroid doses derived from the baseline parameter values and reference thyroid weights are higher than values predicted by the current model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for adults for intake of iodine isotopes with half-lives up to a few hours but consistent with ICRP predictions for longer-lived isotopes. For nearly all iodine isotopes, the proposed model yields order-of-magnitude differences from the ICRP s current iodine model for adults for stomach wall, salivary gland, and kidneys. Dose estimates for intravenously injected 131I-labeled thyroid hormones based on the present model differ substantially from current ICRP values for adult patients for some organs, including the thyroid. Subsequent studies will address age-specific biokinetics of iodine, reduction of doses from radioiodine due to thyroid blocking, and effects of dietary iodine levels and thyroid hormone requirements on thyroid doses from radioiodine.

  18. Fused Lasso Additive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN.

  19. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  20. Modelling protection behaviour towards micronutrient deficiencies: Case of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes as health intervention for school-going children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-02-01

    Despite successes recorded in combating iodine deficiency, more than 2 billion people are still at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Rural landlocked and mountainous areas of developing countries are the hardest hit, hence the need to explore and advance novel strategies such as biofortification. We evaluated adoption, purchase, and consumption of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes (IBVL) using the theory of protection motivations (PMT) integrated with an economic valuation technique. A total of 1,200 participants from three land-locked locations in East Africa were recruited via multi-stage cluster sampling, and data were collected using two, slightly distinct, questionnaires incorporating PMT constructs. The survey also elicited preferences for iodine biofortified foods when offered at a premium or discount. Determinants of protection motivations and preferences for iodine biofortified foods were assessed using path analysis modelling and two-limit Tobit regression, respectively. Knowledge of iodine, iodine-health link, salt iodization, and biofortification was very low, albeit lower at the household level. Iodine and biofortification were not recognized as nutrient and novel approaches, respectively. On the other hand, severity, fear, occupation, knowledge, iodine status, household composition, and self-efficacy predicted the intention to consume biofortified foods at the household level; only vulnerability, self-efficacy, and location were the most crucial elements at the school level. In addition, results demonstrated a positive willingness-to-pay a premium or acceptance of a lesser discount for biofortification. Furthermore, preference towards iodine biofortified foods was a function of protection motivations, severity, vulnerability, fear, response efficacy, response cost, knowledge, iodine status, gender, age. and household head. Results lend support for prevention of iodine deficiency in unprotected populations through biofortification; however

  1. Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Michelle H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The fate and transport of 129I in the environment and potential remediation technologies are currently being studied as part of environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site. A conceptual model describing the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, factors that control plume behavior, and factors relevant to potential remediation processes is needed to support environmental remedy decisions. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited. Thus, the conceptual model also needs to both describe known contaminant and biogeochemical process information and to identify aspects about which additional information needed to effectively support remedy decisions. this document summarizes the conceptual model of iodine behavior relevant to iodine in the subsurface environment at the Hanford site.

  2. Modeling of iodine radiation chemistry in the presence of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour, Fariborz; Evans, Greg J.

    2002-01-01

    A kinetic-based model was developed that simulates the radiation chemistry of iodine in the presence of organic compounds. The model's mechanistic description of iodine chemistry and generic semi-mechanistic reactions for various classes of organics, provided a reasonable representation of experimental results. The majority of the model and experimental results of iodine volatilization rates were in agreement within an order of magnitude

  3. Iodine-catalyzed addition of 2-mercaptoethanol to chalcone derivatives: Synthesis of the novel β-mercapto carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürkan Yerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of novel β-mercapto carbonyl derivatives (3-(2-hydroxyethylthio-1,3-diarylpropan-1-one (5a-i were prepared by addition of 2-mercaptoethanol (4 to chalcones (3a-i in the presence of catalytic amount of iodine (10 mol % in CH 2Cl 2.

  4. Increased bioclogging and corrosion risk by sulfate addition during iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Choon-Ping; Zhao, Dan; Takase, Yuta; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Tomoko; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Tanji, Yasunori

    2011-02-01

    Iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant in Japan involved the addition of sulfuric acid for pH adjustment, resulting in an additional about 200 mg/L of sulfate in the waste brine after iodine recovery. Bioclogging occurred at the waste brine injection well, causing a decrease in well injectivity. To examine the factors that contribute to bioclogging, an on-site experiment was conducted by amending 10 L of brine with different conditions and then incubating the brine for 5 months under open air. The control case was exposed to open air but did not receive additional chemicals. When sulfate addition was coupled with low iodine, there was a drastic increase in the total amount of accumulated biomass (and subsequently the risk of bioclogging) that was nearly six times higher than the control. The bioclogging-associated corrosion rate of carbon steel was 84.5 μm/year, which is four times higher than that observed under other conditions. Analysis of the microbial communities by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the additional sulfate established a sulfur cycle and induced the growth of phototrophic bacteria, including cyanobacteria and purple bacteria. In the presence of sulfate and low iodine levels, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria bloomed, and the accumulation of abundant biomass may have created a more conducive environment for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is believed that the higher corrosion rate was caused by a differential aeration cell that was established by the heterogeneous distribution of the biomass that covered the surface of the test coupons.

  5. Modeling the behavior of iodine in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trincal, Julien

    2015-01-01

    During a severe accident occurring to a nuclear facility, the radiological consequences are related to the transport and deposition of radionuclides released into the environment. Following the Fukushima accident, significant differences between measurements and simulations were observed for iodine. These could notably be explained by the absence of any iodine chemistry during the transport in the dispersion codes used. To investigate this hypothesis, a reactional mechanism of iodine in the atmosphere has been developed from a critical review of the literature data and 0D and 3D simulations has been performed using the ASTEC and Polair3D simulation tools. The results obtained showed a partial and fast transformation of the released gaseous iodine (I 2 and CH 3 I). The influence of parameters on the iodine speciation such as the pollutant conditions (O 3 , NO x , COV), photolysis and the amount of iodine is discussed. Iodine turns quickly into oxide forms (I x O y , INO x ) and iodo-carbons. Significant improvements regarding the reactional mechanism (determination of fundamental data, coupling chemistry-aerosol) remain to be done before coming up with a firm conclusion on the radioactive iodine species present in the atmosphere. (author)

  6. Microwave-Accelerated Iodination of Some Aromatic Amines, Using Urea-Hydrogen Peroxide Addition Compound (UHP as the Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Skulski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A fast and simple method for the oxidative iodination of some aromatic amines, under microwave irradiation, is reported, using diiodine and the the strongly Hbonded urea-hydrogen peroxide addition compound (H2NCONH2···H2O2, UHP as the oxidant. The reactions were carried out in boiling CHCl3 under a reflux condenser to afford, within 10 minutes, the purified monoiodinated products in 40-80% yields.

  7. Engineering Model Propellant Feed System Development for an Iodine Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload, providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cu cm and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high (Delta)v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. 3, 4 Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature (system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the vacuum chamber (it is under 10(exp -6) torr at -75 C), making it possible to 'cryopump' the propellant with lower-cost recirculating refrigerant-based systems as opposed to using liquid nitrogen or low temperature gaseous helium cryopanels. In the present paper, we describe the design and testing of the engineering model propellant feed system for iSAT (see Fig. 1). The feed system is based around an iodine propellant reservoir and two proportional control

  8. Experimental models, protocols, and reference values for evaluation of iodinated analogues of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.; Koumanov, F.; Ghezzi, C.; Mathieu, J.P.; Hamant, S.; Leiris, J. de; Comet, M.

    1995-01-01

    For an iodinated analogue of glucose to be useful for evaluating glucose uptake using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), it must enter the cell via the same transporter as glucose and accumulate within the cell without being degraded. The biological behavior of the iodinated tracer must therefore be similar to that of 2-deoxy-d-[1- 14 C]-glucose(2-DG). In the present study, four experimental models (biodistribution in mouse, isolated rat heart, human erythrocytes in suspension and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes) have been chosen and protocols have been set up which allow for the examination of small quantities of iodinated analogues of glucose. The uptakes of 2-DG and l-[1- 14 C]-glucose have been measured in these models to establish reference values which will be compared with uptake values for iodinated analogues of glucose

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of iodine and selenium retention in solutions with high salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, Sven; Moog, Helge C.; Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Erich, Agathe

    2012-04-01

    The report on iodine and selenium retention in saline solutions includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction and scope of the work. (2) Actual status of knowledge. (3) Experimental and numerical models. (4) Thermodynamic properties of selenite and hydrogen selenite in solutions of oceanic salts. (5) Thermodynamic properties of selenate in solutions of oceanic salts. (6) Thermodynamic properties of iodide in solutions of oceanic salts. (7) Experimental studies on the retention of iodine and selenium in selected sorbents. (8) Summary and conclusions.

  10. Suboptimal Iodine Status among Pregnant Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, Sigrun; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Borthne, Sandra; Pajalic, Zada; Blix, Ellen; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2018-02-28

    Norway has been considered iodine replete for decades; however, recent studies indicate reemergence of inadequate iodine status in different population groups. We assessed iodine status in pregnant women based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and iodine intake from food and supplements. In 804 pregnant women, 24-h iodine intakes from iodine-rich foods and iodine-containing supplements were calculated. In 777 women, iodine concentration was measured in spot urine samples by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, 49 of the women collected a 24-h urine sample for assessment of UIE and iodine intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Median UIC was 92 µg/L. Fifty-five percent had a calculated iodine intake below estimated average requirement (EAR) (160 µg/day). Iodine intake from food alone did not provide the amount of iodine required to meet maternal and fetal needs during pregnancy. In multiple regression models, hypothyroidism, supplemental iodine and maternal age were positively associated with UIC, while gestational age and smoking were negatively associated, explaining 11% of the variance. This study clearly shows that pregnant women in the Oslo area are mild to moderate iodine deficient and public health strategies are needed to improve and secure adequate iodine status.

  11. Model of iodine transport and reaction kinetics in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W. Jr.

    1977-05-01

    A model is presented to describe the time-dependent flow and retention of stable iodine isotopes and the decay of 131 I in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The plant consists of 16 units of equipment such as a voloxidizer or graphite burner, fuel dissolver, solvent extractors, storage tanks, vaporizers, primary iodine sorbers, and silver zeolite. The rate of accumulation of bulk and radioactive iodine in these units and in the environment is described using 19 differential equations. Reasonable time-dependence of iodine retention factors (RFs) by the plant were calculated. RFs for a new plant in excess of 10 6 for stable iodine and 129 I decrease to the range of 10 3 to 10 2 as plant operating times exceed 50 to 100 days. The RFs for 131 I also decrease initially, for a period of approximately 10 days, but then increase by several orders of magnitude due to radioactive decay and isotopic exchange. Generally, the RFs for 131 I exceed those for stable iodine by factors of 10 4 or more. 19 references, 13 figures, 2 tables

  12. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  13. Iodine's impact on tropospheric oxidants: a global model study in GEOS-Chem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sherwen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a global simulation of tropospheric iodine chemistry within the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. This includes organic and inorganic iodine sources, standard gas-phase iodine chemistry, and simplified higher iodine oxide (I2OX, X = 2, 3, 4 chemistry, photolysis, deposition, and parametrized heterogeneous reactions. In comparisons with recent iodine oxide (IO observations, the simulation shows an average bias of  ∼ +90 % with available surface observations in the marine boundary layer (outside of polar regions, and of  ∼ +73 % within the free troposphere (350 hPa  <  p  <  900 hPa over the eastern Pacific. Iodine emissions (3.8 Tg yr−1 are overwhelmingly dominated by the inorganic ocean source, with 76 % of this emission from hypoiodous acid (HOI. HOI is also found to be the dominant iodine species in terms of global tropospheric IY burden (contributing up to 70 %. The iodine chemistry leads to a significant global tropospheric O3 burden decrease (9.0 % compared to standard GEOS-Chem (v9-2. The iodine-driven OX loss rate1 (748 Tg OX yr−1 is due to photolysis of HOI (78 %, photolysis of OIO (21 %, and reaction between IO and BrO (1 %. Increases in global mean OH concentrations (1.8 % by increased conversion of hydroperoxy radicals exceeds the decrease in OH primary production from the reduced O3 concentration. We perform sensitivity studies on a range of parameters and conclude that the simulation is sensitive to choices in parametrization of heterogeneous uptake, ocean surface iodide, and I2OX (X = 2, 3, 4 photolysis. The new iodine chemistry combines with previously implemented bromine chemistry to yield a total bromine- and iodine-driven tropospheric O3 burden decrease of 14.4 % compared to a simulation without iodine and bromine chemistry in the model, and a small increase in OH (1.8 %. This is a significant impact and so halogen chemistry needs to be

  14. TRENDS [Transport and Retention of Nuclides in Dominant Sequences]: A code for modeling iodine behavior in containment during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.; Daish, S.R.; Shockley, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    The ultimate aim of a description of iodine behavior in severe LWR accidents is a time-dependent accounting of iodine species released into containment and to the environment. Factors involved in the behavior of iodine can be conveniently divided into four general categories: (1) initial release into containment, (2) interaction of iodine species in containment not directly involving water pools, (3) interaction of iodine species in, or with, water pools, and (4) interaction with special systems such as ice condensers or gas treatment systems. To fill the large gaps in knowledge and to provide a means for assaying the iodine source term, this program has proceeded along two paths: (1) Experimental studies of the chemical behavior of iodine under containment conditions. (2) Development of TRENDS (Transport and Retention of Nuclides in Dominant Sequences), a computer code for modeling the behavior of iodine in containment and its release from containment. The main body of this report consists of a description of TRENDS. These two parts to the program are complementary in that models within TRENDS use data that were produced in the experimental program; therefore, these models are supported by experimental evidence that was obtained under conditions expected in severe accidents. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L −1 (mean 14.4 μg L −1 , median 11.9 μg L −1 ). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L −1 originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the

  16. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  17. Electrophoretic Deposition of Aluminum Nitride from Its Suspension in Acetylacetone Using Iodine as an Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizuneh Workie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied electrophoretic deposition of AlN from its suspension in acetylacetone with I2 as an additive. AlN powder with particle size <10 μm is dispersed to produce a positive charge and deposited on the cathode by applying fields greater than 10 V/cm between the electrodes. X-ray diffraction and FTIR studies indicate that the AlN before and after deposition has the same composition and structure. An increase in the amount of AlN in the suspension, the deposition potential, and the deposition time results in a linear increase in the weight of the AlN deposited. Electrophoretic deposition from 10 g/L AlN suspension shows an initial increase in the weight of AlN deposited with the concentration of I2, and the weight of AlN decreases after reaching a maximum at 0.20 g/L I2.

  18. Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kyle, Jennifer E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tfaily, Malak M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle MV [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martijn L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sahajpal, Rahul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carroll, Matthew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chu, Rosalie K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Hope [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Garcia, Whitney L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kerisit, Sebastien N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Odeta [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Frances N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Toyoda, Jason G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plymale, Andrew E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Isotopes of iodine were generated during plutonium production within the nine production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The short half-life 131I that was released from the fuel into the atmosphere during the dissolution process (when the fuel was dissolved) in the Hanford Site 200 Area is no longer present at concentrations of concern in the environment. The long half-life 129I generated at the Hanford Site during reactor operations was (1) stored in single-shell and double-shell tanks, (2) discharged to liquid disposal sites (e.g., cribs and trenches), (3) released to the atmosphere during fuel reprocessing operations, or (4) captured by off-gas absorbent devices (silver reactors) at chemical separations plants (PUREX, B-Plant, T-Plant, and REDOX). Releases of 129I to the subsurface have resulted in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater. There is also 129I remaining in the vadose zone beneath disposal or leak locations. The fate and transport of 129I in the environment and potential remediation technologies are currently being studied as part of environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site. A conceptual model describing the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, factors that control plume behavior, and factors relevant to potential remediation processes is needed to support environmental remedy decisions. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited. In addition, its behavior in subsurface is different from that of other more common and important contaminants (e.g., U, Cr and Tc) in terms of sorption (adsorption and precipitation), and aqueous phase species transformation via redox reactions. Thus, the conceptual model also needs to both describe known contaminant and biogeochemical process information and identify aspects about which additional information is needed to effectively support remedy decisions.

  19. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... effectively takes over the productive activities of the manufacturer. We discuss some of the main implications for research and practice of consumer-centric business models and the changing decoupling point in consumer goods’ manufacturing supply chains....

  2. Structured Dimensionality Reduction for Additive Model Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzi, Alhussein; Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Chen, Bei; Sinn, Mathieu; Frossard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Additive models are regression methods which model the response variable as the sum of univariate transfer functions of the input variables. Key benefits of additive models are their accuracy and interpretability on many real-world tasks. Additive models are however not adapted to problems involving a large number (e.g., hundreds) of input variables, as they are prone to overfitting in addition to losing interpretability. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for applying additive ...

  3. Model of the direct solar-pumped iodine photodissociation laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Boris S.; Fokanov, V. P.; Kudryavtsev, S. N.; Pavlov, A. B.

    1996-04-01

    The results of the experimental and theoretical DSPIL modeling are presented. The parameters of the generation pulse (energy, duration, delay time) are measured for the series of perfluoriodide laser compounds under pumping conditions imitating the space solar radiation spectrum. The time dependence of the radiation spectrum was measured for the pumping pulse. The spectrum of this pulse corresponds to the ABB spectrum with temperature 6000 K in the pulse beginning and 3500 K in the end. The generation energy ratio (E10/E1) in repeatedly pumping pulse action without the active laser medium change was measured in this experiment. The empirical linear dependence between quantities 1n(E10/E1) and 1n(k3/k4) is received, where E1 and E10 are the energies of generation pulse after first and tenth pumping pulses. The mathematical model of DSPIL, containing the main kinetical processes description, is developed. The computing evaluation of the energy characteristics of DSPIL are presented.

  4. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  5. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  6. Comprehensive study of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells based on the binary ionic liquid electrolyte by modifying with additives and iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ao-qiang; Cao, Da-peng; Wang, Wu-yang; Li, Xue-yan; Mi, Bao-xiu; Gao, Zhi-qiang; Liang, Zhong-cheng

    2017-07-01

    The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is enhanced by modifying the binary room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte with additives and iodine. The average photoelectric conversion efficiency ( PCE) of 6.39% is achieved. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry scans and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency ( IPCE) data, the working principles are analyzed. The enhancement is mainly attributed to the improvement of short circuit current which is caused by the reduction of overall internal resistance of the devices. Durability tests are measured at room temperature, and the long-term stability performance can be maintained.

  7. Further assessment of the chemical modelling of iodine in IMPAIR 3 code using ACE/RTF data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.C.; Guentay, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    This paper introduces the assessment of the computer code IMPAIR 3 (Iodine Matter Partitioning And Iodine Release) which simulates physical and chemical iodine processes in a LWR containment with one or more compartments under conditions relevant to a severe accident in a nuclear reactor. The first version was published in 1992 to replace both the multi-compartment code IMPAIR 2/M and the single-compartment code IMPAIR 2.2. IMPAIR 2.2 was restricted to a single pH value specified before programme execution and precluded any variation of pH or calculation of H{sup +} changes during program execution. This restriction is removed in IMPAIR 3. Results of the IMPAIR 2.2 assessment using ACE/RTF Test 2 and the acidic phase of Test 3 B data were presented at the 3rd CSNI Workshop. The purpose of the current assessment is to verify the IMPAIR 3 capability to follow the whole test duration with changing boundary conditions. Besides revisiting ACE/RTF Test 3B, Test 4 data were also used for the current assessment. A limited data analysis was conducted using the outcome of the current ACEX iodine work to understand the iodine behaviour observed during these tests. This paper presents comparisons of the predicted results with the test data. The code capabilities are demonstrated to focus on still unresolved modelling problems. The unclear behaviour observed in the gaseous molecular iodine behaviour and its inconclusive effect on the calculated behaviour in the acidic phase of the Test 4 and importance of the catalytic effect of stainless steel are also indicated. (author) 18 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  8. Further assessment of the chemical modelling of iodine in IMPAIR 3 code using ACE/RTF data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripps, R.C.; Guentay, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the assessment of the computer code IMPAIR 3 (Iodine Matter Partitioning And Iodine Release) which simulates physical and chemical iodine processes in a LWR containment with one or more compartments under conditions relevant to a severe accident in a nuclear reactor. The first version was published in 1992 to replace both the multi-compartment code IMPAIR 2/M and the single-compartment code IMPAIR 2.2. IMPAIR 2.2 was restricted to a single pH value specified before programme execution and precluded any variation of pH or calculation of H + changes during program execution. This restriction is removed in IMPAIR 3. Results of the IMPAIR 2.2 assessment using ACE/RTF Test 2 and the acidic phase of Test 3 B data were presented at the 3rd CSNI Workshop. The purpose of the current assessment is to verify the IMPAIR 3 capability to follow the whole test duration with changing boundary conditions. Besides revisiting ACE/RTF Test 3B, Test 4 data were also used for the current assessment. A limited data analysis was conducted using the outcome of the current ACEX iodine work to understand the iodine behaviour observed during these tests. This paper presents comparisons of the predicted results with the test data. The code capabilities are demonstrated to focus on still unresolved modelling problems. The unclear behaviour observed in the gaseous molecular iodine behaviour and its inconclusive effect on the calculated behaviour in the acidic phase of the Test 4 and importance of the catalytic effect of stainless steel are also indicated. (author) 18 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  9. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  10. Nonparametric and semiparametric dynamic additive regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas Harder; Martinussen, Torben

    Dynamic additive regression models provide a flexible class of models for analysis of longitudinal data. The approach suggested in this work is suited for measurements obtained at random time points and aims at estimating time-varying effects. Both fully nonparametric and semiparametric models can...... in special cases. We investigate the finite sample properties of the estimators and conclude that the asymptotic results are valid for even samll samples....

  11. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid problems, such as nodules, hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease. Administration of large amounts of iodine through medications ( ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  12. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  13. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  14. The development of a human eye model for ophthalmic iodine-125 brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, A.P.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy is used to treat malign tumors. Radiotherapy is an alternative to enucleation in ocular tumors. However, the irradiation of ocular region can bring damages due high doses, mainly in the crystalline lens and in the bone tissue in growth phase. Brachytherapy instead of teletherapy looks for reducing doses in the crystalline lens and the adjacent tissues of the ocular globe (orbital region), minimizing side effects. Herein, some encapsulated radioisotopes in radioactive seeds applied to the ocular brachytherapy are available. Thus, a three-dimensional computational voxel model of the ocular region with its heterogeneous tissues, globe and adjacent tissues is developed. This computational model is used to simulate orbital irradiation with radioactive seeds positioned on the sclera surface through the MCNP5 code. The computational simulation allows evaluating how doses are spatially distributed in the orbital volume in treatments with the radioactive seeds of iodine-125. Therefore, the results allow comparing the spatial doses distribution obtained through the MCNP5 simulation for those two distinct types of radioactive seeds. Bench markets from literature validates the proposed simulations. (author)

  15. Ex vivo micro-CT imaging of murine brain models using non-ionic iodinated contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Bautista, N.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T.; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, J.; Franco-Pérez, J.; Calvillo-Velasco, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    Preclinical investigation of brain tumors is frequently carried out by means of intracranial implantation of brain tumor xenografts or allografts, with subsequent analysis of tumor growth using conventional histopathology. However, very little has been reported on the use contrast-enhanced techniques in micro-CT imaging for the study of malignant brain tumors in small animal models. The aim of this study has been to test a protocol for ex vivo imaging of murine brain models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) after treatment with non-ionic iodinated solution, using an in-house developed laboratory micro-CT. We have found that the best compromise between acquisition time and image quality is obtained using a 50 kVp, 0.5 mAs, 1° angular step on a 360 degree orbit acquisition protocol, with 70 μm reconstructed voxel size using the Feldkamp algorithm. With this parameters up to 4 murine brains can be scanned in tandem in less than 15 minutes. Image segmentation and analysis of three sample brains allowed identifying tumor volumes as small as 0.4 mm3.

  16. Iodine stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy: Laboratory data, a phenomenological model, and predictions of in-reactor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.K.; Tasooji, A.

    1981-01-01

    Data from laboratory tests performed on unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloy have been used as the basis for developing a phenomenological model of iodine-induced stress corrosion crack initiation and growth. The model is capable of predicting the response of cladding subjected to complex loading conditions. Major features of the data incorporated into the model include the existence of a threshold stress, the effect of iodine concentration, temperature effects, the role of chemical inhomogeneities and mechanical flaws, crack initiation in smooth specimens, crack propagation rates as a function of stress intensity in flawed specimens, and the detrimental effect of irradiation. The major physical processes addressed by the model include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC), transgranular SCC, ductile rupture, iodine penetration by surface diffusion along existing on incipient cracks, and stress and strain intensification and triaxiality caused by cracks or flaws. A probabilistic description of the size distribution of the flaws found in as-fabricated cladding is used at the basis for quantitatively extrapolating the laboratory test results to predict in-reactor cladding behavior. The in-reactor SCC resistance of a large fuel assembly is predicted to be substantially lower and more variable than that of small laboratory specimens. (orig.)

  17. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  18. Generalized Additive Models for Nowcasting Cloud Shading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, March (2014), s. 272-282 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST ES1002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : sunshine number * nowcasting * generalized additive model * Markov chain Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2014

  19. Iodination-deiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherberg, N.; Refetoff, S.

    1977-01-01

    Bound iodine is released from radioiodinated nucleotides in polymers exposed to sodium bisulfite. The rate of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of pyrimidines can be controlled both by change of temperature or pH and is also dependent on the molecular association of the nucleotide. The rate of release of iodine from iodocytidine in polycytidylate is greater than the rate of elimination from RNA. Experiments testing the influence of base-pairing of the iodopyrimidines in synthetic polynucleotides showed that pairing of the substituted nucleotide protected the iodine bond. The rates of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of several radioiodinated RNAs were measured. The action of bisulfite on all single-stranded RNAs tested was multiphasic consisting of a rapid early deiodination reaction supplanted by a slower phase which was followed by reacceleration of release. The release of iodine from double-stranded RNA and DNA-RNA duplexes was retarded in comparison with the release from ribosomal and messenger RNA fractions. The deiodination profiles of single- and double-stranded RNA suggested that in the intermediate stage iodine release is governed by melting of paired zones of low stability. Late release may result from destabilization of the molecule through the addition of bisulfite to the pyrimidine ring or deamination. The effect of several substances expected to complex with polynucleotides was tested. The results show that a change in sensitivity to chemical deiodination may follow the interaction of small amounts of protein with polynucleotides

  20. Experimental and analytical studies of iodine mass transfer from xenon-iodine mixed gas bubble to liquid sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, S.; Sagawa, N.; Shimoyama, K.

    1996-01-01

    . Measured DFs are described as a function of the time and the iodine concentration. To clarify the process of the iodine mass transfer in a xenon-iodine mixed gas bubble rising through the liquid sodium pool, the mass transfer is analyzed on the basis of a diffusion model applied to the first short stage just after the bubble generation and a convection model applied to the successive stage. In the diffusion model, production of sodium iodide aerosols and generation of the heat caused by the chemical reaction of iodine vapor and sodium vapor are taken into account in addition to the diffusion of vapor and aerosols and the heat conduction in a static spherical bubble. The diffusion of aerosols is composed of Brownian motion, thermophoresis and diffusiophoresis. In the convection model, the analysis is made for aerosol settling caused by inertial deposition, sedimentation and Brownian motion in an internal flow induced by a spherical cap bubble rising. Increase in the initial iodine concentration in the bubble is shown to enlarge the temperature difference across a region between the reaction front and the bubble surface and enhance a contribution of thermophoresis to the aerosol diffusion through the region. The DF obtained from the calculation describes well a rapid increase at the first stage and a slow increase in the successive Period, which are seen in measured DFs, and suggests the breakup of the original bubble during rising through the pool. (author)

  1. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  2. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active-fracture-model

  3. Additive risk survival model with microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray techniques survey gene expressions on a global scale. Extensive biomedical studies have been designed to discover subsets of genes that are associated with survival risks for diseases such as lymphoma and construct predictive models using those selected genes. In this article, we investigate simultaneous estimation and gene selection with right censored survival data and high dimensional gene expression measurements. Results We model the survival time using the additive risk model, which provides a useful alternative to the proportional hazards model and is adopted when the absolute effects, instead of the relative effects, of multiple predictors on the hazard function are of interest. A Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type estimate is proposed for simultaneous estimation and gene selection. Tuning parameter is selected using the V-fold cross validation. We propose Leave-One-Out cross validation based methods for evaluating the relative stability of individual genes and overall prediction significance. Conclusion We analyze the MCL and DLBCL data using the proposed approach. A small number of probes represented on the microarrays are identified, most of which have sound biological implications in lymphoma development. The selected probes are relatively stable and the proposed approach has overall satisfactory prediction power.

  4. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome. ##

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the extent of neurological impairments associated with low...

  5. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the neurological impairments associated with low level TH ...

  6. Network reconstruction using nonparametric additive ODE models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James; Michailidis, George

    2014-01-01

    Network representations of biological systems are widespread and reconstructing unknown networks from data is a focal problem for computational biologists. For example, the series of biochemical reactions in a metabolic pathway can be represented as a network, with nodes corresponding to metabolites and edges linking reactants to products. In a different context, regulatory relationships among genes are commonly represented as directed networks with edges pointing from influential genes to their targets. Reconstructing such networks from data is a challenging problem receiving much attention in the literature. There is a particular need for approaches tailored to time-series data and not reliant on direct intervention experiments, as the former are often more readily available. In this paper, we introduce an approach to reconstructing directed networks based on dynamic systems models. Our approach generalizes commonly used ODE models based on linear or nonlinear dynamics by extending the functional class for the functions involved from parametric to nonparametric models. Concomitantly we limit the complexity by imposing an additive structure on the estimated slope functions. Thus the submodel associated with each node is a sum of univariate functions. These univariate component functions form the basis for a novel coupling metric that we define in order to quantify the strength of proposed relationships and hence rank potential edges. We show the utility of the method by reconstructing networks using simulated data from computational models for the glycolytic pathway of Lactocaccus Lactis and a gene network regulating the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells. For purposes of comparison, we also assess reconstruction performance using gene networks from the DREAM challenges. We compare our method to those that similarly rely on dynamic systems models and use the results to attempt to disentangle the distinct roles of linearity, sparsity, and derivative

  7. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  8. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  9. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  10. A laboratory characterisation of inorganic iodine emissions from the sea surface: dependence on oceanic variables and parameterisation for global modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Martin, J.; MacDonald, S.; Chance, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Carpenter, L.; Plane, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive iodine compounds (IOx = I + IO) play a significant role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer, by causing ozone destruction and changing the HOx and NOx partitioning. The HOI and I2 fluxes produced from iodide solutions after reaction with O3 were measured by using the iodine oxide particle size distributions obtained from a differential mobility analyser. The effect of a number of relevant parameters including water temperature, salinity and organic compound concentration on the HOI and I2 fluxes were investigated. The results of these experiments and those reported previously (Carpenter et al., 2013) were then used to produce parameterised expressions for the HOI and I2 fluxes. The scarce concurrent measurements of sea surface iodide and temperature available in the literature were then used to parameterise the iodide concentration as a function of temperature, which enables inclusion in atmospheric models. The adapted expressions were then input into the Tropospheric HAlogen chemistry MOdel (THAMO) to compare with latitudinal MAX-DOAS measurements of IO and IOx performed during the HaloCAST-P cruise in the Eastern Pacific ocean (Mahajan et al., 2012), spanning a wide range of SST, wind speed and O3 mixing ratios. The modelled IO and IOx matches well with the observations when the predicted fluxes are lower, however, there is an over-prediction in the model at low wind speeds. The inorganic iodine flux contributions to IO and IOx are found to be comparable with or larger than the contribution of organoiodine compounds, and therefore its inclusion in atmospheric models is necessary to improve predictions of the influence of halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer.

  11. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aceves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In addition to being a component of thyroid hormone (TH, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine.Methods and Results: Studies from our laboratory shown that in preclinical (cell culture, induced animal cancer and xenographs and clinical studies (mammary cancer protocol, molecular iodine (I2 supplementation exerts suppressive effects on implantation, development, and progression of cancer neoplasias. These effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine modulates the immune/tumor response and through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma (PPARγ triggering apoptotic and/or differentiation pathways.Conclusion: The absence of side effects and the easy availability and handling of I2 have allowed the establishment of clinical protocols to utilize I2 supplementation as an adjuvant in therapies against cancers that take up iodine.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Aceves C, Anguiano B. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:3401.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  12. Thermodynamic modeling of HIx part of the Iodine – Sulfur thermocycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hadj-Kali, Mohamed; Gerbaud, Vincent; Borgard, Jean-Marc; Floquet, Pascal; Joulia, Xavier; Carles, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The thermochemical water splitting cycle is an environmentally attractive way to produce hydrogen without using fossil fuels. Among a hundreds possible cycles, the sulfur – iodine (IS) is a promising one, expected to become a major source of hydrogen production from nuclear or solar energy. The IS process cycle is divided into three sections; namely: (1) the Bunsen section whose purpose is to produce the two immiscible liquid acid phases: one containing mainly sulfuric acid and the other h...

  13. An Additive-Multiplicative Cox-Aalen Regression Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2002-01-01

    Aalen model; additive risk model; counting processes; Cox regression; survival analysis; time-varying effects......Aalen model; additive risk model; counting processes; Cox regression; survival analysis; time-varying effects...

  14. Reduced dimer production in solar-simulator-pumped continuous wave iodine lasers based on model simulations and scaling and pumping studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costen, Robert C.; Heinbockel, John H.; Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E., Jr.; Tabibi, Bagher M.; Lee, Ja H.; Williams, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical rate equation model for a continuous wave iodine laser with longitudinally flowing gaseous lasant is validated by approximating two experiments that compare the perfluoroalkyl iodine lasants n-C3F7I and t-C4F9I. The salient feature of the simulations is that the production rate of the dimer (C4F9)2 is reduced by one order of magnitude relative to the dimer (C3F7)2. The model is then used to investigate the kinetic effects of this reduced dimer production, especially how it improves output power. Related parametric and scaling studies are also presented. When dimer production is reduced, more monomer radicals (t-C4F9) are available to combine with iodine ions, thus enhancing depletion of the laser lower level and reducing buildup of the principal quencher, molecular iodine. Fewer iodine molecules result in fewer downward transitions from quenching and more transitions from stimulated emission of lasing photons. Enhanced depletion of the lower level reduces the absorption of lasing photons. The combined result is more lasing photons and proportionally increased output power.

  15. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  16. Role of iodine in pathogenesis of thyroid disease - is induction of apoptosis consequence of iodine cytotoxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is one of the best-characterized environmental factors associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD. Epidemiological studies have shown that ATD incidence has increased following the introduction of salt iodination in the 1920s; in addition, ATD patients can improve upon iodine restriction. In animal models such as BioBreeding/Worcester and Buffalo rats, obese chicken strain, and non-obese diabetic H-2h4 mice, excess iodine is associated with autoimmunity. Analyses of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT have shown enlarged number of apoptotic follicular cells, and the destruction is an effect of death receptormediated apoptosis. Excess of iodine induces rapid apoptosis of goitrogen Wistar pretreated rats, possibly connected with inhibition of polyamine synthesis, inhibitors of DNA fragmentation. Percentage of apoptotic cells was statistically higher in patients with HT than in those with euthyroid goiter, with significant increase of caspase 32. Genes for Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are under the transcriptional control of p53. In TAD-2 cell cultures, apoptosis is p53-independed, suggesting that DNA damage is not primarily evoked by potassium iodide (KI. High concentrations of NaI increase the proportion of apoptotic cells in FTRL5 thyroid cell line. Iodide cytotoxicity is inhibited by a TPO inhibitor and is relieved with an anti-oxidant agent. Chronic iodine excess induces apoptosis and necrosis of thyroid follicular and endothelial cells, leading to thyroglobulin accumulation in connective tissue. Iodide excess requires peroxidase enzymatic activity to induce apoptosis. Ionic iodide is not directly toxic, whereas its molecular form I2 mediates the apoptotic effect of KI. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI-175059

  17. Modelling transport and deposition of caesium and iodine from the Chernobyl accident using the DREAM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Frohn, L.M.; Frydendall, J.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A tracer model, DREAM (the Danish Rimpuff and Eulerian Accidental release Model), has been developed for modelling transport, dispersion and deposition (wet and dry) of radioactive material from accidental releases, as the Chernobyl accident. The model is a combination of a Lagrangian model, that includes the near source dispersion, and an Eulerian model describing the long-range transport. The MM5v2 model is used as a meteorological driver. The performance of the transport model has previously been tested within the European Tracer Experiment, ETEX, which included transport and dispersion of an inert, non-depositing tracer from a controlled release. The focus of this paper is the model performance with respect to the total deposition of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I from the Chernobyl accident, using different relatively simple and comprehensive parameterizations for dry- and wet deposition. The performance, compared to measurements, of using different combinations of two different wet deposition parameterizations and three different parameterizations of dry deposition has been evaluated, using different statistical tests. The best model performance, compared to measurements, is obtained when parameterizing the total deposition combined of a simple method for dry deposition and a subgrid-scale averaging scheme for wet deposition based on relative humidities. The same major conclusion is obtained for all the three different radioactive isotopes and using two different deposition measurement databases. Large differences are seen in the results obtained by using the two different parameterizations of wet deposition based on precipitation rates and relative humidities, respectively. The parameterization based on subgrid-scale averaging is, in all cases, performing better than the parameterization based on precipitation rates. This indicates that the in-cloud scavenging process is more important than the below cloud scavenging process for the submicron particles

  18. Modelling transport and deposition of caesium and iodine from the Chernobyl accident using the DREAM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A tracer model, DREAM (the Danish Rimpuff and Eulerian Accidental release Model, has been developed for modelling transport, dispersion and deposition (wet and dry of radioactive material from accidental releases, as the Chernobyl accident. The model is a combination of a Lagrangian model, that includes the near source dispersion, and an Eulerian model describing the long-range transport. The performance of the transport model has previously been tested within the European Tracer Experiment, ETEX, which included transport and dispersion of an inert, non-depositing tracer from a controlled release. The focus of this paper is the model performance with respect to the total deposition of  137Cs, 134Cs and 131I from the Chernobyl accident, using different relatively simple and comprehensive parameterizations for dry- and wet deposition. The performance, compared to measurements, of using different combinations of two different wet deposition parameterizations and three different parameterizations of dry deposition has been evaluated, using different statistical tests. The best model performance, compared to measurements, is obtained when parameterizing the total deposition combined of a simple method for dry deposition and a subgrid-scale averaging scheme for wet deposition based on relative humidities. The same major conclusion is obtained for all the three different radioactive isotopes and using two different deposition measurement databases. Large differences are seen in the results obtained by using the two different parameterizations of wet deposition based on precipitation rates and relative humidities, respectively. The parameterization based on subgrid-scale averaging is, in all cases, performing better than the parameterization based on precipitation rates. This indicates that the in-cloud scavenging process is more important than the below cloud scavenging process for the submicron particles and that the precipitation rates are

  19. A model for determination of human foetus irradiation during intrauterine development when the mother incorporates iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, V.; Doncheva, B.

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented for irradiation calculation of human foetus during weeks 8-15 of the intrauterine development, when the mother chronically incorporates iodine 131. This period is critical for the nervous system of the foetus. Compared to some other author's models, the method proposed eliminates some uncertainties and takes into account the changes in the activity of mother's thyroid in time. The model is built on the base of data from 131 I-kinetics of pregnant women and experimental mice. A formula is proposed for total foetus irradiation calculation including: the internal γ and β irradiation; the external γ and β irradiation from the mother as a whole; and the external γ irradiation from the mother's thyroid

  20. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  1. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Yarrington; Elizabeth N. Pearce

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  2. 64-Slice multidetector row CT angiography of the abdomen: comparison of low versus high concentration iodinated contrast media in a porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holalkere, N-S; Matthes, K; Kalva, S P; Brugge, W R; Sahani, D V

    2011-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to assess the image quality and degree of vascular enhancement using low-concentration contrast media (LCCM) (300 mg I ml–1) and high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) (370 mg I ml–1) on 64-slice multidetector row CT (MDCT) abdominal CT angiography (CTA). In addition, we aimed to study the feasibility of using HCCM with a reduced total iodine dose. Methods CTA of the abdomen on a 64-slice MDCT was performed on 15 anaesthetised pigs. Study pigs were divided into three groups of five each based on the iodine concentration and dose received: Group A (LCCM; 300 mg I ml–1), Group B (HCCM; 370 mg I ml–1) and Group C HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. The total iodine injected was kept constant (600 mg kg–1) in Groups A and B. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to study and compare each group for image quality, visibility of the branch order of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), artefacts, degree of enhancement in the aorta and main stem arteries and uniformity of enhancement in the aorta. Groups were compared using the analysis of variance test. Results The image quality of 64-slice MDCT angiography was excellent with a mean score of 4.63 and confident visualisation of the third to fifth order branches of the SMA in all groups. Group B demonstrated superior vascular enhancement, as compared with Groups A and C (p≤0.05). Uniform aortic enhancement was achieved with the use of LCCM and HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. Conclusion 64-slice MDCT angiography of the abdomen was of excellent quality. HCCM improves contrast enhancement and overall CTA image quality and allows the iodine dose to be reduced. PMID:21081582

  3. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  4. Comparison of iodinated contrast media for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque attenuation values by CT coronary angiography: Observations in an ex vivo model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. la Grutta (Ludovico); M. Galia (Massimo); G. Gentile; G. Lo Re (G.); E. Grassedonio (Emanuele); F. Coppolino; E. Maffei (Erica); E. Maresi (E.); A. Lo Casto (A.); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); M. Midiri (Massimo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the influence of different iodinated contrast media with several dilutions on plaque attenuation in an ex vivo coronary model studied by multislice CT coronary angiography. Methods: In six ex vivo left anterior descending coronary arteries immersed in oil, CT

  5. Oxygen discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling for the electric oxygen-iodine laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, A D; Zimmerman, J W; Woodard, B S; Carroll, D L; Verdeyen, J T; Lim, T C; Solomon, W C

    2007-07-26

    Laser oscillation at 1315 nm on the I(2P1/2)-->I(2P3/2) transition of atomic iodine has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1Delta) produced using a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG) kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O2(a1Delta) generation system. The advanced model BLAZE-IV has been introduced to study the energy-transfer laser system dynamics and kinetics. Levels of singlet oxygen, oxygen atoms, and ozone are measured experimentally and compared with calculations. The new BLAZE-IV model is in reasonable agreement with O3, O atom, and gas temperature measurements but is under-predicting the increase in O2(a1Delta) concentration resulting from the presence of NO in the discharge and under-predicting the O2(b1Sigma) concentrations. A key conclusion is that the removal of oxygen atoms by NOX species leads to a significant increase in O2(a1Delta) concentrations downstream of the discharge in part via a recycling process; however, there are still some important processes related to the NOX discharge kinetics that are missing from the present modeling. Further, the removal of oxygen atoms dramatically inhibits the production of ozone in the downstream kinetics.

  6. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (U.S.)

  7. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (auth)

  8. Development of computational models for the simulation of isodose curves on dosimetry films generated by iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano M.; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Reis, Sergio C.; Grynberg, Suely E., E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b [Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The interstitial brachytherapy is one modality of radiotherapy in which radioactive sources are placed directly in the region to be treated or close to it. The seeds that are used in the treatment of prostate cancer are generally cylindrical radioactive sources, consisting of a ceramic or metal matrix, which acts as the carrier of the radionuclide and as the X-ray marker, encapsulated in a sealed titanium tube. This study aimed to develop a computational model to reproduce the film-seed geometry, in order to obtain the spatial regions of the isodose curves produced by the seed when it is put over the film surface. The seed modeled in this work was the OncoSeed 6711, a sealed source of iodine-125, which its isodose curves were obtained experimentally in previous work with the use of dosimetric films. For the films modeling, compositions and densities of the two types of dosimetric films were used: Agfa Personal Monitoring photographic film 2/10, manufactured by Agfa-Geavaert; and the model EBT radiochromic film, by International Specialty Products. The film-seed models were coupled to the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results obtained by simulations showed to be in good agreement with experimental results performed in a previous work. This indicates that the computational model can be used in future studies for other seeds models. (author)

  9. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  10. 129I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of metallocene-iodine adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Satoru; Sakai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masanobu; Maeda, Yutaka

    1994-01-01

    A 129 I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iodine adducts of ferrocenophane, biruthenocene, and osmocene is reported. The spectra show the existence of iodine bonded to the central metals of metallocenes in addition to triiodide anions. The valence state of iron in the ferrocenophane-iodine adduct is the same as those of ruthenium and osmium in their adducts. (orig.)

  11. [Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Bajkin, Ivana; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Zavisić, Branka Kovacev

    2012-01-01

    Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger a utoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction. is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consuquences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima). The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  12. Development of a kinetic model, including rate constant estimations, on iodine and caesium behaviour in the primary circuit of LWR's under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Buron, J.M.; Fernandez, S.

    1991-07-01

    In this report, a kinetic model has been developed with the aim to try to reproduce the chemical phenomena that take place in a flowing system containing steam, hydrogen and iodine and caesium vapours. The work is divided into two different parts. The first part consists in the estimation, through the Activited Complex Theory, of the reaction rate constants, for the chosen reactions, and the development of the kinetic model based on the concept of ideal tubular chemical reactor. The second part deals with the application of such model to several cases, which were taken from the Phase B 'Scoping Calculations' of the Phebus-FP Project (sequence AB) and the SFD-ST and SFD1.1 experiments. The main conclusion obtained from this work is that the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium could be inacurrate in order to estimate the iodine and caesium species distribution under severe accidents conditions

  13. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  14. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  15. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  16. Process chain modeling and selection in an additive manufacturing context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Stolfi, Alessandro; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-dimensional approach to modeling manufacturing process chains. This approach is used to consider the role of additive manufacturing technologies in process chains for a part with micro scale features and no internal geometry. It is shown that additive manufacturing...... evolving fields like additive manufacturing....

  17. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  18. Targeted radionuclide therapy for lung cancer with iodine-131-labeled peptide in a nude-mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenzhu; Gao, Hongyi; Li, Man; Fang, Shun; Li, Guiping; Guo, Linlang

    2017-06-01

    Integrin α3β1 has been shown to be a novel candidate target for the imaging and specific therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer. We have previously reported on a peptide containing a novel motif of NGXG that specifically binds to the integrin α3 receptor on lung cancer cells using a one-bead one-peptide combinatorial library. In this study, we developed the peptide cNGEGQQc-based therapeutic agent labeling with radionuclide iodine-131 (I) and evaluated its characteristics including stability, biodistribution, antitumor activity, and safety. The results showed that I-cNGEGQQc was stable in serum. Furthermore, the biodistribution of I-cNGEGQQc was determined in normal mice and rabbits. In-vivo biodistribution studies showed that radiolabeled peptide in the kidney was significantly higher than that in other organs. Nude mice bearing lung cancer cell xenografts (H1975 and L78) were used as an in-vivo model for tumor-inhibition efficacy studies with I-cNGEGQQc. The tumor growth decreased significantly in mice receiving I-labeled peptide compared with the controls and the effect of I-labeled peptide can be blocked by unlabeled cNGEGQQc. Safety studies showed that I-cNGEGQQc was relatively safe for animals without significant toxicity. Our data suggest that I-cNGEGQQc has potential as a targeted radiotherapeutic agent for non-small-cell lung cancer.

  19. Conceptual design model of the sulfur-iodine S-I thermochemical water splitting process for hydrogen production using nuclear heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, Daniel; Parra, Lazaro Garcia, E-mail: dgr@instec.cu, E-mail: lgarcia@instec.cu [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologias Aplicadas, La Habana (Cuba)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen is the most indicated candidate for its implementation as energy carrier in a future sustainable scenario. The current hydrogen production is based on fossils fuels; they have a huge contribution to the atmosphere pollution. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles do not have this issue because they use solar or nuclear heat; their environment impact is smaller than conventional fuels. The software based on chemical process simulation (CPS) can be used to simulate the thermochemical water splitting cycle Sulfur-Iodine for hydrogen production. In the paper is developed a model for Sulfur-Iodine process in order to analyze his sensibility and calculate the efficiency and the influence of many parameters on this value. (author)

  20. Conceptual design model of the sulfur-iodine S-I thermochemical water splitting process for hydrogen production using nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, Daniel; Parra, Lazaro Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is the most indicated candidate for its implementation as energy carrier in a future sustainable scenario. The current hydrogen production is based on fossils fuels; they have a huge contribution to the atmosphere pollution. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles do not have this issue because they use solar or nuclear heat; their environment impact is smaller than conventional fuels. The software based on chemical process simulation (CPS) can be used to simulate the thermochemical water splitting cycle Sulfur-Iodine for hydrogen production. In the paper is developed a model for Sulfur-Iodine process in order to analyze his sensibility and calculate the efficiency and the influence of many parameters on this value. (author)

  1. Impacts of bromine and iodine chemistry on tropospheric OH and HO2: comparing observations with box and global model perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daniel; Sherwen, Tomás; Evans, Mathew J.; Vaughan, Stewart; Ingham, Trevor; Whalley, Lisa K.; Edwards, Peter M.; Read, Katie A.; Lee, James D.; Moller, Sarah J.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Heard, Dwayne E.

    2018-03-01

    The chemistry of the halogen species bromine and iodine has a range of impacts on tropospheric composition, and can affect oxidising capacity in a number of ways. However, recent studies disagree on the overall sign of the impacts of halogens on the oxidising capacity of the troposphere. We present simulations of OH and HO2 radicals for comparison with observations made in the remote tropical ocean boundary layer during the Seasonal Oxidant Study at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory in 2009. We use both a constrained box model, using detailed chemistry derived from the Master Chemical Mechanism (v3.2), and the three-dimensional global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem. Both model approaches reproduce the diurnal trends in OH and HO2. Absolute observed concentrations are well reproduced by the box model but are overpredicted by the global model, potentially owing to incomplete consideration of oceanic sourced radical sinks. The two models, however, differ in the impacts of halogen chemistry. In the box model, halogen chemistry acts to increase OH concentrations (by 9.8 % at midday at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory), while the global model exhibits a small increase in OH at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (by 0.6 % at midday) but overall shows a decrease in the global annual mass-weighted mean OH of 4.5 %. These differences reflect the variety of timescales through which the halogens impact the chemical system. On short timescales, photolysis of HOBr and HOI, produced by reactions of HO2 with BrO and IO, respectively, increases the OH concentration. On longer timescales, halogen-catalysed ozone destruction cycles lead to lower primary production of OH radicals through ozone photolysis, and thus to lower OH concentrations. The global model includes more of the longer timescale responses than the constrained box model, and overall the global impact of the longer timescale response (reduced primary production due to lower O3 concentrations

  2. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The mean residual life measures the expected remaining life of a subject who has survived up to a particular time. When survival time distribution is highly skewed or heavy tailed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose an additive-multiplicative restricted...... mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline....... For the suggested model, some covariate effects are allowed to be time-varying. To estimate the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the large sample properties of the resulting estimators are established. In addition, to assess the adequacy of the model, we investigate a goodness...

  3. Numerical simulations of atmospheric dispersion of iodine-131 by different models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Leelőssy

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several dispersion models are available to simulate the transport processes of air pollutants and toxic substances including radionuclides in the atmosphere. Reliability of atmospheric transport models has been demonstrated in several recent cases from local to global scale; however, very few actual emission data are available to evaluate model results in real-life cases. In this study, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I emitted to the atmosphere during an industrial process was simulated with different models, namely the WRF-Chem Eulerian online coupled model and the HYSPLIT and the RAPTOR Lagrangian models. Although only limited data of 131I detections has been available, the accuracy of modeled plume direction could be evaluated in complex late autumn weather situations. For the studied cases, the general reliability of models has been demonstrated. However, serious uncertainties arise related to low level inversions, above all in case of an emission event on 4 November 2011, when an important wind shear caused a significant difference between simulated and real transport directions. Results underline the importance of prudent interpretation of dispersion model results and the identification of weather conditions with a potential to cause large model errors.

  4. Numerical simulations of atmospheric dispersion of iodine-131 by different models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelőssy, Ádám; Mészáros, Róbert; Kovács, Attila; Lagzi, István; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, several dispersion models are available to simulate the transport processes of air pollutants and toxic substances including radionuclides in the atmosphere. Reliability of atmospheric transport models has been demonstrated in several recent cases from local to global scale; however, very few actual emission data are available to evaluate model results in real-life cases. In this study, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I emitted to the atmosphere during an industrial process was simulated with different models, namely the WRF-Chem Eulerian online coupled model and the HYSPLIT and the RAPTOR Lagrangian models. Although only limited data of 131I detections has been available, the accuracy of modeled plume direction could be evaluated in complex late autumn weather situations. For the studied cases, the general reliability of models has been demonstrated. However, serious uncertainties arise related to low level inversions, above all in case of an emission event on 4 November 2011, when an important wind shear caused a significant difference between simulated and real transport directions. Results underline the importance of prudent interpretation of dispersion model results and the identification of weather conditions with a potential to cause large model errors.

  5. Proceedings of the specialists' workshop on iodine chemistry in reactor safety, September 11th and 12th, 1985 at AERE, Harwell, England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deane, A.M.; Potter, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The iodine workshop, held at Harwell in Sept. 1985, provided a forum to study the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. The major issues discussed were iodine equilibrium and kinetics in aqueous solutions, radiolysis of iodine in aqueous solutions, iodine/boric acid reactions, organic iodine compounds and partition measurements. Other factors must be identified before a complete model of iodine behaviour during reactor accidents can be established. (U.K.)

  6. Low iodine content in the diets of hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Preterm formula provided 16.4-28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0-17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered.

  7. In situ quantification of endothelial cell damage caused by iodinated contrast media using a rat vena cava model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of vascular endothelial cell damage induced by iodinated contrast media using an in situ perfused rat vena cava model. Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this study protocol prior to the commencement of all studies. A laparotomy was performed in 90 rats divided into 18 groups of five, and an 18G-catheter was inserted into the abdominal vena cava (mean length: ca 8 mm). After sacrificing, a thoracotomy was done and the outflow perfusate was emitted via a polyethylene tube inserted into the thoracic vena cava through the right atrium for an open system. Iopamidol (300 or 370 mg I/mL, 50 or 100 mL) was injected via the abdominal vena cava at a rate of 1, 4, or 8 mL/s. The abdominal vena cava was removed for histological analysis (n = 5). Physiological saline was injected as a negative control. The detachment percentage of endothelial cells was calculated by measuring the circumference and detachment section of the endothelium. The difference of the detachment percentage and circumference between each group was compared with Tukey's range test. Results: In contrast media groups, the severity of damage to the vascular endothelial cell was direct proportional to the increase of injection rate. The detachment percentage at 4 or 8 mL/s was significantly higher than that at 1 mL/s. As a result, the correlation between the injection rate and severity of cell damage was significant; however, the detachment percentage among contrast media groups was not significant at any injection rate. Conclusion: The in situ vena cava model was able to quantify contrast media injection related endothelial damage based on histopathological endpoints. Moreover, our results indicate that mechanical shear stress besides physico-chemical properties such as osmolality or viscosity cause endothelial damage.

  8. Clinically useful dilution factors for iodine and gadolinium contrast material: an animal model of pediatric digital subtraction angiography using state-of-the-art flat-panel detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racadio, John M; Kashinkunti, Soumya R; Nachabe, Rami A; Racadio, Judy M; Johnson, Neil D; Kukreja, Kamlesh U; Patel, Manish N; Privitera, Mary Beth; Hales, Jasmine E; Abruzzo, Todd A

    2013-11-01

    Iodinated and gadolinium contrast agents pose some risk for certain pediatric patients, including allergic-like reactions, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Digital flat-panel detectors enhance image quality during angiography and might allow use of more dilute contrast material to decrease risk of complications that might be dose-dependent, such as CIN and NSF. To assess the maximum dilution factors for iodine- and gadolinium-based contrast agents suitable for vascular imaging with fluoroscopy and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on digital flat-panel detectors in an animal model. We performed selective catheterization of the abdominal aorta, renal artery and common carotid artery on a rabbit. In each vessel we performed fluoroscopy and DSA during contrast material injection using iodinated and gadolinium contrast material at 100%, 80%, 50%, 33% and 20% dilutions. An image quality score (0 to 3) was assigned by each of eight evaluators. Intracorrelation coefficient, paired t-test, one-way repeated analysis of variance, Spearman correlation and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were applied to the data. Overall the image quality scores correlated linearly with dilution levels. For iodinated contrast material, the optimum cut-off level for DSA when a score of at least 2 is acceptable is above 33%; it is above 50% when a score of 3 is necessary. For gadolinium contrast material, the optimum cut-off for DSA images is above 50% when a score of at least 2 is acceptable and above 80% when a score of 3 is necessary. Knowledge of the relationship between image quality and contrast material dilution might allow a decrease in overall contrast load while maintaining appropriate image quality when using digital flat-panel detectors.

  9. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  10. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2017-04-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3 + HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed and included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. Our results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25% of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. That active nighttime iodine could also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  11. Iodine Deficiency: Where Are We Now? (Efficiency of Belarusian Strategy in Elimination of Iodine Deficiency: 15-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.V. Mokhort

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the former Soviet republics, which became independent states, there are big differences in the state of iodine provision and in technology to eliminate iodine deficiency in the diet of the population. The publication presents a strategy for the elimination of iodine deficiency, developed and implemented in the Republic of Belarus in order to achieve an adequate level of iodine nutrition in the state. In the Republic of Belarus, 94 % of salt consumption is iodized salt that ensures adequate iodine intake, confirmed by urinary iodine excretion (median 169 mcg/l. The effectiveness of the model for iodine prophylaxis used in Belarus and based on the widespread use of iodized salt in the food industry gives reason to recommend this model for implementation in other countries.

  12. Interactions between iodinated contrast media and tissue plasminogen activator: In vitro comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Eszter; Deres, László; Halmosi, Róbert; Várady, Edit; Tóth, Kálmán; Battyáni, István

    2017-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (Xenetix®, Ultravist®, Omnipaque®, Visipaque® and Iomeron®) used for computed tomography (CT) may decrease fibrinolysis by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). We hypothesized that receiving iodinated contrast media before rt-PA may impair thrombolysis as measured by a new model system. Whole blood from Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 10) was obtained and allowed to form blood clots. Thrombolysis was performed by placing individually the prepared clots into 15 mL tubes and adding 5 mL saline buffer, 100μg rt-PA and a different contrast media; adjusting the quantity of iodine to either 30 mg or 60 mg. The thrombolytic efficacy was quantified by measuring the optical density (OD415) of the supernatant at different time points, namely at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min. There was a significant decrease in clot lysis efficiency observed in presence of iodine containing contrast media comparing to positive control group. Moreover, when the quantity of iodine was increased from 30 mg to 60 mg; the dissolution rate downturned with additional ∼50%. In conclusion, our study suggests that high dose of iodine potentially could negatively affect the efficiency of the thrombolytic therapy performed by rt-PA.

  13. Development, Demonstration, and Analysis of an Integrated Iodine Hall Thruster Feed System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Burt, Adam O.; Martin, Adam K.; Martinez, Armando; Seixal, Joao F.; Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The design of an in-space iodine-vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system is described. The solid-iodine propellant tank has unique issues associated with the microgravity environment, requiring a solution where the iodine is maintained in intimate thermal contact with the heated tank walls. The flow control valves required alterations from earlier iterations to survive for extended periods of time in the corrosive iodine-vapor environment. Materials have been selected for the entire feed system that can chemically resist the iodine vapor, with the design now featuring Hastelloy or Inconel for almost all the wetted components. An integrated iodine feed system/Hall thruster demonstration unit was fabricated and tested, with all control being handled by an onboard electronics card specifically designed to operate the feed system. Structural analysis shows that the feed system can survive launch loads after the implementation of some minor reinforcement. Flow modeling, while still requiring significant additional validation, is presented to show its potential in capturing the behavior of components in this low-flow, low-pressure system.

  14. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  15. Iodine deficiency disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.)

  16. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all Piodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  17. Sensitivity analysis on the deposition of inhaled radioactive iodine and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2001-01-01

    The prophylactic use of stable iodine is one of the protective measures during a nuclear emergency. In order to know the resultant radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in the case of Japanese, a sensitivity analysis was performed for related physiological parameters for Japanese. As a result, the variances in the deposition efficiency of radioactive iodine aerosol in the respiratory tract due to changes in the respiratory parameters were found rather small between the standard Caucasian and Japanese. The changes due to the radioactive iodine aerosol size were more significant, suggesting the importance of understanding the physico-chemical status of aerobic radioiodine released in a nuclear emergency. Concerning the metabolic parameters of iodine, the result of the sensitivity analysis based on an iodine metabolic model showed that the most critical parameters are those which describe the transport of stable and radioactive iodine from the blood compartment to the thyroid gland. Accordingly, a confirmation of the transport model and the related parameters for Japanese are essential to clarify the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis to reduce thyroid gland exposure of Japanese. (author)

  18. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  19. Ridge, Lasso and Bayesian additive-dominance genomic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Camila Ferreira; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; E Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Valente, Magno Sávio Ferreira; Resende, Márcio Fernando Ribeiro; Muñoz, Patricio

    2015-08-25

    A complete approach for genome-wide selection (GWS) involves reliable statistical genetics models and methods. Reports on this topic are common for additive genetic models but not for additive-dominance models. The objective of this paper was (i) to compare the performance of 10 additive-dominance predictive models (including current models and proposed modifications), fitted using Bayesian, Lasso and Ridge regression approaches; and (ii) to decompose genomic heritability and accuracy in terms of three quantitative genetic information sources, namely, linkage disequilibrium (LD), co-segregation (CS) and pedigree relationships or family structure (PR). The simulation study considered two broad sense heritability levels (0.30 and 0.50, associated with narrow sense heritabilities of 0.20 and 0.35, respectively) and two genetic architectures for traits (the first consisting of small gene effects and the second consisting of a mixed inheritance model with five major genes). G-REML/G-BLUP and a modified Bayesian/Lasso (called BayesA*B* or t-BLASSO) method performed best in the prediction of genomic breeding as well as the total genotypic values of individuals in all four scenarios (two heritabilities x two genetic architectures). The BayesA*B*-type method showed a better ability to recover the dominance variance/additive variance ratio. Decomposition of genomic heritability and accuracy revealed the following descending importance order of information: LD, CS and PR not captured by markers, the last two being very close. Amongst the 10 models/methods evaluated, the G-BLUP, BAYESA*B* (-2,8) and BAYESA*B* (4,6) methods presented the best results and were found to be adequate for accurately predicting genomic breeding and total genotypic values as well as for estimating additive and dominance in additive-dominance genomic models.

  20. Apoptosis imaging studies in various animal models using radio-iodinated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonjung; Ha, Yeong Su; Soni, Nisarg; Lee, Woonghee; Park, Se-Il; Ahn, Heesu; An, Gwang Il; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis has a role in many medical disorders and treatments; hence, its non-invasive evaluation is one of the most riveting research topics. Currently annexin V is used as gold standard for imaging apoptosis. However, several drawbacks, including high background, slow body clearance, make it a suboptimum marker for apoptosis imaging. In this study, we radiolabeled the recently identified histone H1 targeting peptide (ApoPep-1) and evaluated its potential as a new apoptosis imaging agent in various animal models. ApoPep-1 (CQRPPR) was synthesized, and an extra tyrosine residue was added to its N-terminal end for radiolabeling. This peptide was radiolabeled with (124)I and (131)I and was tested for its serum stability. Surgery- and drug-induced apoptotic rat models were prepared for apoptosis evaluation, and PET imaging was performed. Doxorubicin was used for xenograft tumor treatment in mice, and the induced apoptosis was studied. Tumor metabolism and proliferation were assessed by [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT PET imaging and compared with ApoPep-1 after doxorubicin treatment. The peptide was radiolabeled at high purity, and it showed reasonably good stability in serum. Cell death was easily imaged by radiolabeled ApoPep-1 in an ischemia surgery model. And, liver apoptosis was more clearly identified by ApoPep-1 rather than [(124)I]annexin V in cycloheximide-treated models. Three doxorubicin doses inhibited tumor growth, which was evaluated by 30-40% decreases of [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT PET uptake in the tumor area. However, ApoPep-1 demonstrated more than 200% increase in tumor uptake after chemotherapy, while annexin V did not show any meaningful uptake in the tumor compared with the background. Biodistribution data were also in good agreement with the microPET imaging results. All of the experimental data clearly demonstrated high potential of the radiolabeled ApoPep-1 for in vivo apoptosis imaging.

  1. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R. W.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K.; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I- measurements showed enrichments of up to ˜1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  2. Update of JAEA-TDB. Additional selection of thermodynamic data for solid and gaseous phases on nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium plutonium and americium, update of thermodynamic data on iodine, and some modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Fujiwara, Kenso; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi

    2012-07-01

    We additionally selected thermodynamic data for solid and gaseous phases of nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium to our thermodynamic database JAEA-TDB for geological disposal of radioactive waste of high-level and TRU wastes. We thermodynamically obtained equilibrium constant from addition and subtraction of Gibbs free energy of formation on nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium plutonium and americium, which were selected in the Thermochemical Database Project by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Furthermore, we collected and updated thermodynamic data on iodine, changed master species of technetium(IV), and added thermodynamic data on selenium due to improving reliability of the thermodynamic database. We prepared text files of the updated thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for geochemical calculation programs of PHREEQC, EQ3/6 and Geochemist's Workbench. These text files are contained in the attached CD-ROM and will be available on our Website (http://migrationdb.jaea.go.jp/). (author)

  3. Effects of addition of water on strain-electrode characteristic and stress corrosion susceptibility of zirconium in alcohol-iodine solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Keiichi; Yamane, Toshimi; Minamino, Yoritoshi; Makino, Kazuya.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of addition of water on the strain-electrode characteristic and stress corrosion susceptibility of Zr were investigated by the electrochemical method using a bending strain-electrode. Test pieces were heat-treated at 1,073 K for 7.2 ks, quenched into ice-water and tested under bending strain in CH 3 OH-0.33 w% I containing water. Rest potential of Zr had a peak in the solution containing 2∼3 x 10 -2 v% water. In this case, many stress corrosion cracks were observed. An addition of water to the solution progressively increased the rest potential of Zr. The large amount of water, moreover, prevented stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of fracture mechanics for interpreting stress corrosion cracking, shows that crack velocities have the power law on the stress intensity factor K. Time to fracture of stress corrosion was estimated by parameters C and n controlling the growth of stress corrosion cracks. (author)

  4. Mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for iodine laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Space-based laser power systems will require converters to change laser radiation into electricity. Vertical junction photovoltaic converters are promising devices for this use. A promising laser for the laser power station is the t-C4F9I laser which emits radiation at a wavelength of 1.315 microns. This paper describes the results of mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for use with this laser. The material for this photovoltaic converter is Ga(53)In(47)As which has a bandgap energy of 0.94 eV, slightly below the energy of the laser photons (0.943 eV). Results of a study optimizing the converter parameters are presented. Calculated efficiency for a 1000 vertical junction converter is 42.5 percent at a power density of 1 x 10 to the 3d power w/sq cm.

  5. Iodine chemistry at severe accidents. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in the field. APRI 5 report. Part I: Iodine chemistry at hypothetical severe accidents. A review of the state-of-the-art 2003. Part II: A comparison of our knowledge on iodine chemistry and fission products with the current models used in MAAP 4.0.5; Jodkemi under svaara haverier. En sammanstaellnig och vaerdering av kunskapslaeget inom omraadet. APRI 5 rapport. Del I: Jodkemi vid hypotetiska svaara haverier. En genomgaang av kunskapslaeget aar 2003. Del II: Jaemfoerelse av kunskapslaeget om jodkemi och fissionsprodukter med aktuella modeller i MAAP 4.0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, Jan-Olov [Liljenzins data och kemikonsult, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The current report tries to summarize and analyze the state-of-the-art on Iodine chemistry relevant to the conditions expected during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This has made it necessary to compare a considerable amount of data, new as well as old, in order to try to find the reasons behind some changes in the expected chemical behaviour of Iodine. In a few cases this has been far from simple. Many numerical values are given in this report. However, me numbers given should not be used in a non-critical way because they are often deduced from measurements whose interpretation depends on various kinds of systematic differences and assumptions with regard to technique, 'known' constants, and models applied. The most important observation today is that one can no longer uncritically assume that iodine is only released and transported as cesium iodide. The considerable effect that control rod material (including other construction materials) can have on the way in which an accident develops and on its iodine chemistry is clearly seen from the results of the experiments performed within the PHEBUS FP project. The second part of the report evaluates new knowledge on Iodine chemistry and Iodine behaviour of importance in severe nuclear reactor accidents. Also some new information regarding the behaviour and chemistry of other fission products has been collected. In the light of this information, the current modelling of Iodine behaviour in the MAAP code version 4.0.5 has been investigated. No modelling errors have been found. However, some of the equations used to calculate the vapour pressure of the components in the AlC-alloy used in PWR control rods give questionable results. An error in the MAAP manual was found which should be corrected. Finally, some suggestions are given for future improvements in the modelling of severe accidents used in MAAP for both BWRs and PWRs.

  6. Additive Intensity Regression Models in Corporate Default Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    2013-01-01

    We consider additive intensity (Aalen) models as an alternative to the multiplicative intensity (Cox) models for analyzing the default risk of a sample of rated, nonfinancial U.S. firms. The setting allows for estimating and testing the significance of time-varying effects. We use a variety...... of model checking techniques to identify misspecifications. In our final model, we find evidence of time-variation in the effects of distance-to-default and short-to-long term debt. Also we identify interactions between distance-to-default and other covariates, and the quick ratio covariate is significant....... None of our macroeconomic covariates are significant....

  7. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  8. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  9. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  10. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  11. Modeling Errors in Daily Precipitation Measurements: Additive or Multiplicative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Tang, Ling; Sapiano, Matthew; Maggioni, Viviana; Wu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The definition and quantification of uncertainty depend on the error model used. For uncertainties in precipitation measurements, two types of error models have been widely adopted: the additive error model and the multiplicative error model. This leads to incompatible specifications of uncertainties and impedes intercomparison and application.In this letter, we assess the suitability of both models for satellite-based daily precipitation measurements in an effort to clarify the uncertainty representation. Three criteria were employed to evaluate the applicability of either model: (1) better separation of the systematic and random errors; (2) applicability to the large range of variability in daily precipitation; and (3) better predictive skills. It is found that the multiplicative error model is a much better choice under all three criteria. It extracted the systematic errors more cleanly, was more consistent with the large variability of precipitation measurements, and produced superior predictions of the error characteristics. The additive error model had several weaknesses, such as non constant variance resulting from systematic errors leaking into random errors, and the lack of prediction capability. Therefore, the multiplicative error model is a better choice.

  12. Intravascular enhancement with identical iodine delivery rate using different iodine contrast media in a circulation phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jurencak, Tomas; Yanniello, Michael J; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kalafut, John F; Nalbantov, Georgi; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Behrendt, Florian F; Das, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Both iodine delivery rate (IDR) and iodine concentration are decisive factors for vascular enhancement in computed tomographic angiography. It is unclear, however, whether the use of high-iodine concentration contrast media is beneficial to lower iodine concentrations when IDR is kept identical. This study evaluates the effect of using different iodine concentrations on intravascular attenuation in a circulation phantom while maintaining a constant IDR. A circulation phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used (heart rate, 60 beats per minute; stroke volume, 60 mL; blood pressure, 120/80 mm Hg). Maintaining a constant IDR (2.0 g/s) and a constant total iodine load (20 g), prewarmed (37°C) contrast media with differing iodine concentrations (240-400 mg/mL) were injected into the phantom using a double-headed power injector. Serial computed tomographic scans at the level of the ascending aorta (AA), the descending aorta (DA), and the left main coronary artery (LM) were obtained. Total amount of contrast volume (milliliters), iodine delivery (grams of iodine), peak flow rate (milliliter per second), and intravascular pressure (pounds per square inch) were monitored using a dedicated data acquisition program. Attenuation values in the AA, the DA, and the LM were constantly measured (Hounsfield unit [HU]). In addition, time-enhancement curves, aortic peak enhancement, and time to peak were determined. All contrast injection protocols resulted in similar attenuation values: the AA (516 [11] to 531 [37] HU), the DA (514 [17] to 531 [32] HU), and the LM (490 [10] to 507 [17] HU). No significant differences were found between the AA, the DA, and the LM for either peak enhancement (all P > 0.05) or mean time to peak (AA, 19.4 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds; DA, 21.1 [1.0] to 21.4 [1.15] seconds; LM, 19.8 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds). This phantom study demonstrates that

  13. Covariate selection for the semiparametric additive risk model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers covariate selection for the additive hazards model. This model is particularly simple to study theoretically and its practical implementation has several major advantages to the similar methodology for the proportional hazards model. One complication compared...... and study their large sample properties for the situation where the number of covariates p is smaller than the number of observations. We also show that the adaptive Lasso has the oracle property. In many practical situations, it is more relevant to tackle the situation with large p compared with the number...... of observations. We do this by studying the properties of the so-called Dantzig selector in the setting of the additive risk model. Specifically, we establish a bound on how close the solution is to a true sparse signal in the case where the number of covariates is large. In a simulation study, we also compare...

  14. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  15. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan, E-mail: zhangfan@itpcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Luo Wensui [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Parker, Jack C. [Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Brooks, Scott C.; Watson, David B. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jardine, Philip M. [Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Gu Baohua [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  16. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  17. Efficient estimation of an additive quantile regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Y.; de Gooijer, J.G.; Zerom, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper two kernel-based nonparametric estimators are proposed for estimating the components of an additive quantile regression model. The first estimator is a computationally convenient approach which can be viewed as a viable alternative to the method of De Gooijer and Zerom (2003). By

  18. Efficient estimation of an additive quantile regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Y.; de Gooijer, J.G.; Zerom, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper two kernel-based nonparametric estimators are proposed for estimating the components of an additive quantile regression model. The first estimator is a computationally convenient approach which can be viewed as a viable alternative to the method of De Gooijer and Zerom (2003). By

  19. Efficient estimation of an additive quantile regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Y.; de Gooijer, J.G.; Zerom, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two non-parametric estimators are proposed for estimating the components of an additive quantile regression model. The first estimator is a computationally convenient approach which can be viewed as a more viable alternative to existing kernel-based approaches. The second estimator

  20. The additive hazards model with high-dimensional regressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers estimation and prediction in the Aalen additive hazards model in the case where the covariate vector is high-dimensional such as gene expression measurements. Some form of dimension reduction of the covariate space is needed to obtain useful statistical analyses. We study...

  1. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jui Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  2. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-08-23

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  3. Modelling of additive manufacturing processes: a review and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Panagiotis; Foteinopoulos, Panagis

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a very promising technology; however, there are a number of open issues related to the different AM processes. The literature on modelling the existing AM processes is reviewed and classified. A categorization of the different AM processes in process groups, according to the process mechanism, has been conducted and the most important issues are stated. Suggestions are made as to which approach is more appropriate according to the key performance indicator desired to be modelled and a discussion is included as to the way that future modelling work can better contribute to improving today's AM process understanding.

  4. Semiquantitative test for iodine vapor above "complexed" iodine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, M; Kleinmann, K

    1975-04-01

    A test to determine the extent to which free iodine exists in the vapor phase above the surface of "complexed iodine" solutions is described. The procedure is based on the qualitative starch-iodine test. The results can be related to the degree of complexation occurring between the polymer used in the preparation and iodine. Four products were tested: nonylphenoxypoly ethanol-iodine complex; polyvinyl pyrrolidine-iodine complex; popoxamer-iodine complex; and nonylphenoxypoly ethanol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine complex. Free iodine in the vapor phase of the first product was detected in 90 minutes; the time for the other three was five days. For the tincture of iodine control, the time was 30 minutes.

  5. Single-Index Additive Vector Autoregressive Time Series Models

    KAUST Repository

    LI, YEHUA

    2009-09-01

    We study a new class of nonlinear autoregressive models for vector time series, where the current vector depends on single-indexes defined on the past lags and the effects of different lags have an additive form. A sufficient condition is provided for stationarity of such models. We also study estimation of the proposed model using P-splines, hypothesis testing, asymptotics, selection of the order of the autoregression and of the smoothing parameters and nonlinear forecasting. We perform simulation experiments to evaluate our model in various settings. We illustrate our methodology on a climate data set and show that our model provides more accurate yearly forecasts of the El Niño phenomenon, the unusual warming of water in the Pacific Ocean. © 2009 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  6. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  7. Just Another Gibbs Additive Modeler: Interfacing JAGS and mgcv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N. Wood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The BUGS language offers a very flexible way of specifying complex statistical models for the purposes of Gibbs sampling, while its JAGS variant offers very convenient R integration via the rjags package. However, including smoothers in JAGS models can involve some quite tedious coding, especially for multivariate or adaptive smoothers. Further, if an additive smooth structure is required then some care is needed, in order to centre smooths appropriately, and to find appropriate starting values. R package mgcv implements a wide range of smoothers, all in a manner appropriate for inclusion in JAGS code, and automates centring and other smooth setup tasks. The purpose of this note is to describe an interface between mgcv and JAGS, based around an R function, jagam, which takes a generalized additive model (GAM as specified in mgcv and automatically generates the JAGS model code and data required for inference about the model via Gibbs sampling. Although the auto-generated JAGS code can be run as is, the expectation is that the user would wish to modify it in order to add complex stochastic model components readily specified in JAGS. A simple interface is also provided for visualisation and further inference about the estimated smooth components using standard mgcv functionality. The methods described here will be un-necessarily inefficient if all that is required is fully Bayesian inference about a standard GAM, rather than the full flexibility of JAGS. In that case the BayesX package would be more efficient.

  8. Ultrahigh iodine adsorption in porous organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    We present two porous organic frameworks (POFs), PAF-1 and JUC-Z2, with ultrahigh iodine capture capacity. The iodine vapor uptake of PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 were 1.86 g g-1 and 1.44 g g-1 respectively at 298 K per 40 Pa, which is extremely high for such low pressure sorption conditions. In addition, PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 could adsorb iodine over water with the selectivity of 5.1 and 6.5 respectively. The isosteric enthalpy at zero surface coverage, calculated by a virial equation with the iodine vapor sorption isotherms at 298 K and 313 K of JUC-Z2, reached -51.1 kJ mol-1, which was much higher than the coverage of PAF-1 (-14.9 kJ mol-1). Raman measurement confirmed the polyiodide to be I5 - in POFs. Furthermore, solvents with different polarities, such as n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were chosen to conduct iodine binding measurements on PAF-1 and JUC-Z2. The formation constant Kf for POFs in n-hexane, chloroform and methanol drastically decreased with the increase in polarity, thus illustrating the important role of solvents in iodine binding. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  9. Stability of added iodine in processed cereal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, B M

    2009-01-01

    The stability of iodine from iodized salt was measured in white bread, grain bread, sweet biscuits and the breakfast cereals, Weetbix (a flaked, pressed, wheat product), Ricies (a puffed rice product) and toasted muesli, as part of the New Zealand Government's initiatives to address the public health issue of low iodine intake by most New Zealanders. Triplicate runs of each product were manufactured by commercial food manufacturers between September 2006 and May 2007 with iodized and non-iodized salt. Triplicate samples were taken at various steps during processing of each food and analysed for moisture and iodine content. Iodine concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following an alkaline digestion. Iodine, at the equivalent of 25-65 mg of iodine per kg salt, was 100% retained in each of the selected foods from the time of mixing to the final product. These results imply that all iodine added via salt at the time of manufacture is available for consumption but not necessarily bioavailable. These data can be used for modelling the impact of strategies to increase iodine exposure. Salt as an ingredient is not a good predictor of iodine intake due to the inhomogeneity of iodine in iodized salt.

  10. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  11. Recovery and storage method for radioactive iodine by vacuum freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Ouchi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Toru.

    1990-01-01

    After scrubbing off-gas formed in a re-processing process for spent nuclear fuels, scrubbing liquids after use are subjected, as they are or with addition of additives, to a precipitating treatment. Then, liquid wastes containing radioactive iodine was subjected to freeze-drying treatment by freeze-drying under vacuum to recover radioactive iodine as iodine compounds. Off-gas scrubbing is conducted by using a sodium hydroxide solution and copper or silver ions may be added as additives in the precipitating treatment. Recovered iodine compounds containing radioactive iodine are solidified, either directly or after formulating into a composition of naturally existing iodine-containing ores by means of high pressure pressing into ores. This can prevent radioactive iodine 1 29I of long half-decay time from diffusing into the circumference and store the radioactive iodine stably for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  12. Estimating classification images with generalized linear and additive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Kenneth; Maloney, Laurence T

    2008-12-22

    Conventional approaches to modeling classification image data can be described in terms of a standard linear model (LM). We show how the problem can be characterized as a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with a Bernoulli distribution. We demonstrate via simulation that this approach is more accurate in estimating the underlying template in the absence of internal noise. With increasing internal noise, however, the advantage of the GLM over the LM decreases and GLM is no more accurate than LM. We then introduce the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), an extension of GLM that can be used to estimate smooth classification images adaptively. We show that this approach is more robust to the presence of internal noise, and finally, we demonstrate that GAM is readily adapted to estimation of higher order (nonlinear) classification images and to testing their significance.

  13. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  14. The additive hazards model with high-dimensional regressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers estimation and prediction in the Aalen additive hazards model in the case where the covariate vector is high-dimensional such as gene expression measurements. Some form of dimension reduction of the covariate space is needed to obtain useful statistical analyses. We study...... model. A standard PLS algorithm can also be constructed, but it turns out that the resulting predictor can only be related to the original covariates via time-dependent coefficients. The methods are applied to a breast cancer data set with gene expression recordings and to the well known primary biliary...

  15. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  16. Iodine frequency references for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Döringshoff, Klaus; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm3) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ˜ 1 · 10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017.

  17. Modeling process-structure-property relationships for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Kafka, Orion L.; Yu, Cheng; Liu, Zeliang; Lian, Yanping; Wolff, Sarah; Cao, Jian; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents our latest work on comprehensive modeling of process-structure-property relationships for additive manufacturing (AM) materials, including using data-mining techniques to close the cycle of design-predict-optimize. To illustrate the processstructure relationship, the multi-scale multi-physics process modeling starts from the micro-scale to establish a mechanistic heat source model, to the meso-scale models of individual powder particle evolution, and finally to the macro-scale model to simulate the fabrication process of a complex product. To link structure and properties, a highefficiency mechanistic model, self-consistent clustering analyses, is developed to capture a variety of material response. The model incorporates factors such as voids, phase composition, inclusions, and grain structures, which are the differentiating features of AM metals. Furthermore, we propose data-mining as an effective solution for novel rapid design and optimization, which is motivated by the numerous influencing factors in the AM process. We believe this paper will provide a roadmap to advance AM fundamental understanding and guide the monitoring and advanced diagnostics of AM processing.

  18. Additive manufacturing for consumer-centric business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Digital fabrication—including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing—has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model—describing the logic of creating...... and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from a manufacturer......-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer effectively takes over...

  19. Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition

  20. Production of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses and compares various ways of Iodine-123 production using different targets such as 124 Xe, 122 Te, 123 Te, 124 Te and others. Requirements to targets and their design are discussed as well as nuclear reactions that lead to 123 I. Separation of the Iodine radioisotope is briefly presented along with comparison of the pathways in terms of the isotopic purity of target 123 I

  1. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  2. Testing exclusion restrictions and additive separability in sample selection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction of these......Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction...... of these assumptions by applying the approach of Huber and Mellace (Testing instrument validity for LATE identification based on inequality moment constraints, 2011) (for testing instrument validity under treatment endogeneity) to the sample selection framework. We show that the exclusion restriction and additive...... separability imply two testable inequality constraints that come from both point identifying and bounding the outcome distribution of the subpopulation that is always selected/observed. We apply the tests to two variables for which the exclusion restriction is frequently invoked in female wage regressions: non...

  3. Process Modeling and Validation for Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Noakes, Mark W. [ORNL; Chin, Charlie [Dassault Systemes; Oancea, Victor [Dassault Systemes

    2017-05-01

    Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (mBAAM) is a new additive manufacturing (AM) technology based on the metal arc welding. A continuously fed metal wire is melted by an electric arc that forms between the wire and the substrate, and deposited in the form of a bead of molten metal along the predetermined path. Objects are manufactured one layer at a time starting from the base plate. The final properties of the manufactured object are dependent on its geometry and the metal deposition path, in addition to depending on the basic welding process parameters. Computational modeling can be used to accelerate the development of the mBAAM technology as well as a design and optimization tool for the actual manufacturing process. We have developed a finite element method simulation framework for mBAAM using the new features of software ABAQUS. The computational simulation of material deposition with heat transfer is performed first, followed by the structural analysis based on the temperature history for predicting the final deformation and stress state. In this formulation, we assume that two physics phenomena are coupled in only one direction, i.e. the temperatures are driving the deformation and internal stresses, but their feedback on the temperatures is negligible. The experiment instrumentation (measurement types, sensor types, sensor locations, sensor placements, measurement intervals) and the measurements are presented. The temperatures and distortions from the simulations show good correlation with experimental measurements. Ongoing modeling work is also briefly discussed.

  4. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age living in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Soboleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the assessment of iodine status and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age. In this regard, we examined 200 individuals from 18 up to 44 years old living in Saint Petersburg for more than 3 years permanently. Most of the examined individuals had mild iodine deficiency, less than half of people of reproductive age (46 % used iodized salt at home. Goiter was found by palpation in 8 % of participants. More than half of the surveyed individuals are women of reproductive age who are at risk for the development of iodine deficiency disorders. Our data reflect an unfavorable situation in fight against iodine deficiency disorders in Saint Petersburg. Probably, the voluntary model of using iodized salt as the prevention of iodine deficiency in the Russian Federation is not effective enough.

  5. The treatment of iodine and chlorine chemistry in the risk assessment of deep radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    The predicted contribution from 129 I, 131 I and 36 Cl to the radiological risk from a radioactive waste repository may be enhanced by the assumption of limited retardation in the near field and geosphere. However, migration of these radionuclides may be affected by their chemical speciation and retarded by a range of sorption processes. The chemical behaviour of iodine and chlorine is determined emphasizing i) aqueous speciations, ii) sorption onto inorganic substrates, and iii) the role of organic matter and microbes. Recommendations to enhance the methodology include i) consideration of aqueous speciation of iodine, both metal and organic complexes, ii) mechanistic simulation of iodine sorption by ion exchange and electrostatic/covalent adsorption, iii) simulation of enzymatically enhanced sorption of iodine and chlorine onto organic substrates, iv) enhancement of HMIP K d databases to include iodine and chlorine data for the geosphere and biosphere. A well defined programme of additional data collection, modelling studies and experimental investigations is recommended to achieve these enhancements. (author)

  6. Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A multistate additive relative survival semi-Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaizeau, Florence; Dantan, Etienne; Giral, Magali; Foucher, Yohann

    2017-08-01

    Medical researchers are often interested to investigate the relationship between explicative variables and times-to-events such as disease progression or death. Such multiple times-to-events can be studied using multistate models. For chronic diseases, it may be relevant to consider semi-Markov multistate models because the transition intensities between two clinical states more likely depend on the time already spent in the current state than on the chronological time. When the cause of death for a patient is unavailable or not totally attributable to the disease, it is not possible to specifically study the associations with the excess mortality related to the disease. Relative survival analysis allows an estimate of the net survival in the hypothetical situation where the disease would be the only possible cause of death. In this paper, we propose a semi-Markov additive relative survival (SMRS) model that combines the multistate and the relative survival approaches. The usefulness of the SMRS model is illustrated by two applications with data from a French cohort of kidney transplant recipients. Using simulated data, we also highlight the effectiveness of the SMRS model: the results tend to those obtained if the different causes of death are known.

  8. Estimation of oil toxicity using an additive toxicity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.

    2000-01-01

    The impacts to aquatic organisms resulting from acute exposure to aromatic mixtures released from oil spills can be modeled using a newly developed toxicity model. This paper presented a summary of the model development for the toxicity of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures. This is normally difficult to quantify because oils are mixtures of a variety of hydrocarbons with different toxicities and environmental fates. Also, aromatic hydrocarbons are volatile, making it difficult to expose organism to constant concentrations in bioassay tests. This newly developed and validated model corrects toxicity for time and temperature of exposure. In addition, it estimates the toxicity of each aromatic in the oil-derived mixture. The toxicity of the mixture can be estimated by the weighted sum of the toxicities of the individual compounds. Acute toxicity is estimated as LC50 (lethal concentration to 50 per cent of exposed organisms). Sublethal effects levels are estimated from LC50s. The model was verified with available oil bioassay data. It was concluded that oil toxicity is a function of the aromatic content and composition in the oil as well as the fate and partitioning of those components in the environment. 81 refs., 19 tabs., 1 fig

  9. The protective action decision model: theoretical modifications and additional evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Michael K; Perry, Ronald W

    2012-04-01

    The Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) is a multistage model that is based on findings from research on people's responses to environmental hazards and disasters. The PADM integrates the processing of information derived from social and environmental cues with messages that social sources transmit through communication channels to those at risk. The PADM identifies three critical predecision processes (reception, attention, and comprehension of warnings or exposure, attention, and interpretation of environmental/social cues)--that precede all further processing. The revised model identifies three core perceptions--threat perceptions, protective action perceptions, and stakeholder perceptions--that form the basis for decisions about how to respond to an imminent or long-term threat. The outcome of the protective action decision-making process, together with situational facilitators and impediments, produces a behavioral response. In addition to describing the revised model and the research on which it is based, this article describes three applications (development of risk communication programs, evacuation modeling, and adoption of long-term hazard adjustments) and identifies some of the research needed to address unresolved issues. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. [sup 129]I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of metallocene-iodine adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Satoru (Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)); Sakai, Hiroshi (Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)); Watanabe, Masanobu (Dept. of Chemistry, Coll. of Arts and Sciences, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Maeda, Yutaka (Research Reactor Inst., Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    A [sup 129]I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iodine adducts of ferrocenophane, biruthenocene, and osmocene is reported. The spectra show the existence of iodine bonded to the central metals of metallocenes in addition to triiodide anions. The valence state of iron in the ferrocenophane-iodine adduct is the same as those of ruthenium and osmium in their adducts. (orig.)

  11. Estimation and variable selection for generalized additive partial linear models

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Li

    2011-08-01

    We study generalized additive partial linear models, proposing the use of polynomial spline smoothing for estimation of nonparametric functions, and deriving quasi-likelihood based estimators for the linear parameters. We establish asymptotic normality for the estimators of the parametric components. The procedure avoids solving large systems of equations as in kernel-based procedures and thus results in gains in computational simplicity. We further develop a class of variable selection procedures for the linear parameters by employing a nonconcave penalized quasi-likelihood, which is shown to have an asymptotic oracle property. Monte Carlo simulations and an empirical example are presented for illustration. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2011.

  12. Addition Table of Colours: Additive and Subtractive Mixtures Described Using a Single Reasoning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Students' misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts--due to the different domains of knowledge involved--make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single…

  13. Thermal modelling of extrusion based additive manufacturing of composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mathias Laustsen; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    One of the hottest topics regarding manufacturing these years is additive manufacturing (AM). AM is a young branch of manufacturing techniques, which by nature is disruptive due to its completely different manufacturing approach, wherein material is added instead of removed. By adding material...... of composite parts not feasible by conventional manufacturing techniques. This sets up new requirements to the part verification and validation, while conventional destructive tests become too expensive. This initial study aims to investigate alternative options to this destructive testing by increasing......-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and thermosetting polyurethane (PU) material extrusion processes. During the experimental evaluation of the produced models it is found that some critical material properties needs to be further investigated to increase the precision of the model. It is however also found that even with only...

  14. WATEQ3 geochemical model: thermodynamic data for several additional solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.

    1982-09-01

    Geochemical models such as WATEQ3 can be used to model the concentrations of water-soluble pollutants that may result from the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. However, for a model to competently deal with these water-soluble pollutants, an adequate thermodynamic data base must be provided that includes elements identified as important in modeling these pollutants. To this end, several minerals and related solid phases were identified that were absent from the thermodynamic data base of WATEQ3. In this study, the thermodynamic data for the identified solids were compiled and selected from several published tabulations of thermodynamic data. For these solids, an accepted Gibbs free energy of formation, ΔG 0 /sub f,298/, was selected for each solid phase based on the recentness of the tabulated data and on considerations of internal consistency with respect to both the published tabulations and the existing data in WATEQ3. For those solids not included in these published tabulations, Gibbs free energies of formation were calculated from published solubility data (e.g., lepidocrocite), or were estimated (e.g., nontronite) using a free-energy summation method described by Mattigod and Sposito (1978). The accepted or estimated free energies were then combined with internally consistent, ancillary thermodynamic data to calculate equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis reactions of these minerals and related solid phases. Including these values in the WATEQ3 data base increased the competency of this geochemical model in applications associated with the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. Additional minerals and related solid phases that need to be added to the solubility submodel will be identified as modeling applications continue in these two programs

  15. [Urinary iodine levels and its influencing factors among residents over age of 15 years in Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Jian; He, Shan; Wang, Jun; Fang, Xiaoheng

    2014-11-01

    To understand the status of iodine nutrition and the affective factors of urinary iodine concentration among residents over age of 15 years in Shenzhen City. Totally 8152 residents from 73 communities were selected with stratified cluster random sampling. The morning urinary iodine was determined and the dietary assessment of iodine using a food frequency questionnaire were carried out. The range of urinary iodine was 9. 65 - 4039.09 μg/L and the median of urinary iodine was 194.59 μg/L among the residents. The percentages of the residents with urinary iodine iodine between different gender (P = 0.0001), the medians of urinary iodine of men (201.32 μg/L) was slightly higher. There was no significant difference in urinary iodine levels (186.59 - 197.44 μg/L) among all age groups, the medians of urinary iodine of all age groups were within the recommended adequate intake. Along with the increase in age, the medians of urinary iodine of all age groups was gradually decreased. Sex, alcohol consumption and daily dietary iodine intake was significant in the final regression model. The iodine nutrition of residents in Shenzhen City was in good condition, populations with low or high iodine still exist. The monitoring is needed and the influencing factors of the urine iodine levels need much exploration.

  16. Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing: Process Modeling and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Noakes, Mark W [ORNL; Chin, Charlie [Dassault Systemes; Oancea, Victor [Dassault Systemes

    2017-01-01

    Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (mBAAM) is a new additive manufacturing (AM) technology for printing large-scale 3D objects. mBAAM is based on the gas metal arc welding process and uses a continuous feed of welding wire to manufacture an object. An electric arc forms between the wire and the substrate, which melts the wire and deposits a bead of molten metal along the predetermined path. In general, the welding process parameters and local conditions determine the shape of the deposited bead. The sequence of the bead deposition and the corresponding thermal history of the manufactured object determine the long range effects, such as thermal-induced distortions and residual stresses. Therefore, the resulting performance or final properties of the manufactured object are dependent on its geometry and the deposition path, in addition to depending on the basic welding process parameters. Physical testing is critical for gaining the necessary knowledge for quality prints, but traversing the process parameter space in order to develop an optimized build strategy for each new design is impractical by pure experimental means. Computational modeling and optimization may accelerate development of a build process strategy and saves time and resources. Because computational modeling provides these opportunities, we have developed a physics-based Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation framework and numerical models to support the mBAAM process s development and design. In this paper, we performed a sequentially coupled heat transfer and stress analysis for predicting the final deformation of a small rectangular structure printed using the mild steel welding wire. Using the new simulation technologies, material was progressively added into the FEM simulation as the arc weld traversed the build path. In the sequentially coupled heat transfer and stress analysis, the heat transfer was performed to calculate the temperature evolution, which was used in a stress analysis to

  17. Geo-additive modelling of malaria in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebhardt Albrecht

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health issue in Burundi in terms of both morbidity and mortality, with around 2.5 million clinical cases and more than 15,000 deaths each year. It is still the single main cause of mortality in pregnant women and children below five years of age. Because of the severe health and economic burden of malaria, there is still a growing need for methods that will help to understand the influencing factors. Several studies/researches have been done on the subject yielding different results as which factors are most responsible for the increase in malaria transmission. This paper considers the modelling of the dependence of malaria cases on spatial determinants and climatic covariates including rainfall, temperature and humidity in Burundi. Methods The analysis carried out in this work exploits real monthly data collected in the area of Burundi over 12 years (1996-2007. Semi-parametric regression models are used. The spatial analysis is based on a geo-additive model using provinces as the geographic units of study. The spatial effect is split into structured (correlated and unstructured (uncorrelated components. Inference is fully Bayesian and uses Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The effects of the continuous covariates are modelled by cubic p-splines with 20 equidistant knots and second order random walk penalty. For the spatially correlated effect, Markov random field prior is chosen. The spatially uncorrelated effects are assumed to be i.i.d. Gaussian. The effects of climatic covariates and the effects of other spatial determinants are estimated simultaneously in a unified regression framework. Results The results obtained from the proposed model suggest that although malaria incidence in a given month is strongly positively associated with the minimum temperature of the previous months, regional patterns of malaria that are related to factors other than climatic variables have been identified

  18. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  19. Evaluation of Iodine-131 dispersion after accident in Nuclear Angra Power Plant using the model of aquatic dispersion, SisBahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    It was inserted, in the cooling system of the nucleus, a LOCA, where 431 m 3 of coolant was lost. Such an inventory contained 3,04 x 10 10 Bq / m 3 and iodine was released near the beach Itaorna, Angra dos Reis - RJ. Applying the model in the proposed scenario (Angra 1 and Angra 2 in operation and 3 in with varying capture and discharge with the discharge gradually reduced after the accident), the dilution of the specific activity of radionuclides reached lower values after 22 hours, the reference levels for seawater 131 I (7,40 x 10 2 Bq / m 3 ). After 54 hours, levels of the radionuclide, in the area of indirect influence, are already below minimum activity values detected by the laboratory for environmental monitoring of the CNAAA (5,0 x 10 1 Bq / m 3

  20. [Critical of the additive model of the randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussageon, Rémy; Gueyffier, François; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Felden-Dominiak, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are currently the best way to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Its methodology relies on the method of difference (John Stuart Mill), through which the observed difference between two groups (drug vs placebo) can be attributed to the pharmacological effect of the drug being tested. However, this additive model can be questioned in the event of statistical interactions between the pharmacological and the placebo effects. Evidence in different domains has shown that the placebo effect can influence the effect of the active principle. This article evaluates the methodological, clinical and epistemological consequences of this phenomenon. Topics treated include extrapolating results, accounting for heterogeneous results, demonstrating the existence of several factors in the placebo effect, the necessity to take these factors into account for given symptoms or pathologies, as well as the problem of the "specific" effect.

  1. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  2. Propulsion System Development for the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Stephen R.; Seixal, Joao F.; Mauro, Stephanie L.; Lewis, Brandon L.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Calvert, Derek H.; Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The development and testing of a 200-W iodine-fed Hall thruster propulsion system that will be flown on a 12-U CubeSat is described. The switch in propellant from more traditional xenon gas to solid iodine yields the advantage of high density, low pressure propellant storage but introduces new requirements that must be addressed in the design and operation of the propulsion system. The thruster materials have been modified from a previously-flown xenon Hall thruster to make it compatible with iodine vapor. The cathode incorporated into this design additionally requires little or no heating to initiate the discharge, reducing the power needed to start the thruster. The feed system produces iodine vapor in the propellant reservoir through sublimation and then controls the flow to the anode and cathode of the thruster using a pair of proportional flow control valves. The propellant feeding process is controlled by the power processing unit, with feedback control on the anode flow rate provided through a measure of the thruster discharge current. Thermal modeling indicates that it may be difficult to sufficiently heat the iodine if it loses contact with the propellant reservoir walls, serving to motivate future testing of that scenario to verify the modeling result and develop potential mitigation strategies. Preliminary, short-duration materials testing has thus-far indicated that several materials may be acceptable for prolonged contact with iodine vapor, motivating longer-duration testing. A propellant loading procedure is presented that aims to minimize the contaminants in the feed system and propellant reservoir. Finally, an 80-hour duration test being performed to gain experience operating the thruster over long durations and multiple restarts is discussed.

  3. Iodine nutrition status in pregnant women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Reyes-Mendoza, Vanessa Amaranta; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Iodine nutrition during pregnancy has become an important public health concern because of the deleterious impact of iodine deficiency on brain development during fetal and early postnatal life. Iodine nutrition status can be assessed in a population by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). World Health Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund, and the International Council for Iodine Deficiency Disorders have established that a median of UIC between 150 and 249 μg/L in pregnant women indicates an adequate iodine intake. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in Mexican pregnant women. Two hundred ninety-four pregnant women receiving prenatal care in the Public Medical Units of the State Ministry of Health for each pregnancy trimester (first, n=60; second, n=103; and third, n=131) in Queretaro, Mexico, were enrolled to assess UIC by the Sandell-Kholtoff method. The median of UIC was 273, 285, and 231 μg/L in the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. Globally, the median (range) of UIC was 260 (5-1320) μg/L, and the percentage of samples with UIC below 150 μg/L was 28%. There was no significant difference between the UIC of women using iodine-containing multivitamins compared with those who reported the consumption of noniodized multivitamins (p>0.05). In addition, we found no difference between the UIC of women using iodized table salt compared with those who employed noniodized table salt, with those who did not know whether their table salt was iodized (p>0.05). Based on the median UIC, iodine intake in Queretaro, Mexico, is slightly above requirements during the first two trimesters, and adequate in the third trimester. The wide Mexican universal iodized salt program seems to supply adequate dietary iodine to pregnant women without health insurance in this region. However, regular monitoring of iodine status is recommended during pregnancy throughout Mexico.

  4. Additive mathematical model of materials aeration classification in separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Potapov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to confirmation of a mechanism of aeration classification in drum-shelf friction separators of materials, the components of which are distinguished by a wide range of “sailage” in order to increase the separators efficiency and the quality of finished products in technology of components separation of ore and non-ore materials. Using aerodynamics of bodies of arbitrary shape in a directed air flow, a mathematical model is obtained of aeration classification of particles of material components, depending on their physical properties, unified by an integral criterion of “sailage”, and controlled airflow parameters with separate accounting of influence of particles velocity and flow. Equations are obtained for calculation of geometric parameters of a unit of aeration classification friction drum – shelf separator depending on integral criterion of “sailage” determined by shape, size, density of initial raw material and air viscosity providing for maximum quality of stratification of the feedstock and, as a result, increasing the production efficiency and the quality of the separated material. The efficiency of aeration classification with the use of a controlled air flow is confirmed, as well as sufficient convergence of experimental and calculated data. The additive mathematical model has confirmed the high efficiency of application of aeration classification in drum-type friction separators to improve the quality of stratification with reference to initial raw materials, components of which differ in a wide range of “sailage”.

  5. 6715 Volume 12 No. 6 October 2012 NATURAL ADDITIVES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR AKIN OSO

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... (United States Patent 4098575). Ten milliliters of water was added to .... order model 2FI (Equation 6) was adequate to describe the variation in the iodine value of the peanut oil due to additive ... Response surface cubic model was appropriate to illustrate the relationship (Equation 7). The contour plot of the ...

  6. Mock iodine-125 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    An intimate mixture of americium-241 and iodine-129 provides an energy spectrum that reliably simulates the spectrum of iodine-125 in a well-type detector. As such, it may be used as a long-lived standard to calibrate instruments such as well scintillation spectrometers in which measurements are to be made involving iodine-125

  7. The study of iodine in Chinese total diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Chai, Chifang; Qian, Qinfang; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Yongbao; Wang, Ke

    1997-01-01

    In this work, China was divided into four area groups according to their geographical positions and dietary habits. All foods were divided into 12 types and the iodine contents in various diets were determined using epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The intakes for China were evaluated. The results indicate that the intakes of iodine in northern areas are slightly higher and in south areas lower than the lowest recommended intake, and the average intake in China is 166 μg/person per day, which is within the recommended range. In addition, one province was chosen from each area groups. The dietary intakes of iodine were investigated in different ages and sex using total mixed diet method. Our results indicate that the average iodine intake of four provinces was lower than the recommended value, which suggests that it is necessary to supplement iodine in foods in China

  8. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  9. Iodine Deficiency in Latvia: Current Status and Need for National Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrāde Ilze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a mandatory salt iodisation programme, two nationwide cross-sectional cluster surveys revealed persisting iodine deficiency among Latvian schoolchildren during the spring season and a noteworthy iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Latvia; these deficiencies warrant intervention. The consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation can adversely affect foetal brain development. Data from a Latvian population survey revealed the consumption of approximately 100 μg of iodine per day through foods and iodised salt. Therefore, strategies to increase the consumption of iodine-containing products should be implemented, particularly for children. In addition, to meet the increased iodine requirement during pregnancy, pregnant women should take daily supplements containing 150 μg iodine from the earliest time possible. All women of childbearing age should be advised to increase their dietary iodine intake by using iodised table salt and iodine-rich products: seafood, milk and milk products. For women with pre-existing thyroid pathologies, the medical decision should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Urinary iodine concentration monitoring among schoolchildren and pregnant women and neonatal thyrotropin registry analysis every five years would be an appropriate strategy for maintaining iodine intake within the interval that prevents iodine deficiency disorders.

  10. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  11. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  12. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  13. Predictive Model for Environmental Assessment in Additive Manufacturing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourhis , Florent; Kerbrat , Olivier; Dembinski , Lucas; Hascoët , Jean-Yves; Mognol , Pascal

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Additive Manufacturing is an innovative way to produce parts. However its environmental impact is unknown. To ensure the development of additive manufacturing processes it seems important to develop the concept of DFSAM (Design for Sustainable Additive Manufacturing). In fact, one of the objectives of environmental sustainable manufacturing is to minimize the whole flux consumption (electricity, material and fluids) during manufacturing step. To achieve this goal, it i...

  14. Systematic review using meta-analyses to estimate dose-response relationships between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status in different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Dullemeijer, Carla; Tepsić, Jasna; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Glibetić, Marija; Souverein, Olga W; Collings, Rachel; Cavelaars, Adriënne; de Groot, Lisette; van't Veer, Pieter; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify studies investigating iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status, to assess the data of the selected studies, and to estimate dose-response relationships using meta-analysis. All randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, nested case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies that supplied or measured dietary iodine and measured iodine biomarkers were included. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and the standard error of β were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis on a double-log scale, using the calculated intake-status regression coefficient (β) for each individual study. The results of pooled randomized controlled trials indicated that the doubling of dietary iodine intake increased urinary iodine concentrations by 14% in children and adolescents, by 57% in adults and the elderly, and by 81% in pregnant women. The dose-response relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status indicated a 12% decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and a 31% decrease in thyroglobulin in pregnant women. The model of dose-response quantification used to describe the relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status may be useful for providing complementary evidence to support recommendations for iodine intake in different population groups.

  15. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arimescu, Carmen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models.

  16. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  17. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae - linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFiggans, G.; Coe, H.; Burgess, R.; Allan, J.; Cubison, M.; Alfarra, M. R.; Saunders, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M. C.; Wevill, D.; Carpenter, L.; Rickard, A. R.; Monks, P. S.

    2004-05-01

    Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2), (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003), provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000) and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular iodine release from

  18. [Iodine deficiency in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirović, H; Toromanović, A; Hadzibegić, N; Stimljanin, D; Budimić, Z; Cengić, H; Roncević, Z; Denjo, E; Huskić, J; Hadzimujić, I; Moro, D; Ivanković, A; Dodig, N; Hasanbegović, S

    2000-01-01

    food industry which is consuming on its teritory, has to be iodinated on the place of its production without looking back whether or not it is produced or imported in Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation, lodination has to be performed with 20 to 30 mg KI per one kg of salt, thereby an average the iodine content has to be 25 mg per kg. In this way it will be prevented the wide spectrum of disorders, which we often are not aware for that its are caused by iodine deficiency. In addition it will be prevented many very important socioeconomical consequences of iodine deficiency.

  19. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Andrea B.; Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  20. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  1. Study of Iodine Behavior in the Gas Phase during a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hanchul; Cho, Yeonghun; Ryu, Myunghyun

    2014-01-01

    Among the iodine species, the organic iodides produced from the reaction between iodine and organics such as paint, are not easily trapped by the filters during the containment venting following a severe accident. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has been studying this issue, joining international research programs such as ISTP-EPICUR, OECDBIP and OECD-STEM. In the course of this study, a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) has been developed (Oh et al., 2011), based on the IMOD methodology, and other previous studies. This paper deals with our recent activities on this study, including the development of the model for the iodine reactions in gas phase. Iodine reactions in gas phase were modeled and added to the RAIM code, taking into account several relevant reactions such as formation of ARP, iodine oxide, and organic iodides in gas phase. RAIM was then applied to analyze the S2-6-5-2 test for which iodine-loaded coupons were tested in gas phase. The analysis results show a reasonable estimation of volatile iodine concentration with the desorption rate constant of about 10 -6 s -1 , while those of the other iodine species overestimated for the whole period of the test. It reveals the need to determine appropriate values for the rate constants for formation of iodine oxides and organic iodides

  2. Zero-valent iron pretreatment for detoxifying iodine in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Cha, D K; Oh, Y K; Ko, K B; Song, J S

    2009-05-15

    This study investigated reductive transformation of iodine by zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the subsequent detoxification of iodine-laden wastewater. ZVI completely reduced aqueous iodine to non-toxic iodide. Respirometric bioassay illustrated that the presence of iodine increase the lag phase before the onset of oxygen consumption. The length of lag phase was proportional to increasing iodine dosage. The reduction products of iodine by ZVI did not exhibit any inhibitory effect on the biodegradation. The cumulative biological oxidation associated with iodine toxicity was closely fitted to Gompertz model. When iodine-laden wastewater was continuously fed to a bench-scale activated sludge unit, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from above 90% to below 80% along with a marked decrease in biomass concentration. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency and biomass concentration remained constant in the integrated ZVI-activated sludge system. Respirometric bioassay with real iodine-laden LCD manufacturing wastewater demonstrated that ZVI was effective for detoxifying iodine and consequently enhancing biodegradability of wastewater. This result suggested that ZVI pretreatment may be a feasible option for the removal of iodine in LCD processing wastewater, instead of more costly processes such as adsorption and chemical oxidation, which are commonly in the iodine-laden LCD wastewater treatment facility.

  3. Zero-valent iron pretreatment for detoxifying iodine in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Cha, D.K.; Oh, Y.K.; Ko, K.B.; Song, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated reductive transformation of iodine by zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the subsequent detoxification of iodine-laden wastewater. ZVI completely reduced aqueous iodine to non-toxic iodide. Respirometric bioassay illustrated that the presence of iodine increase the lag phase before the onset of oxygen consumption. The length of lag phase was proportional to increasing iodine dosage. The reduction products of iodine by ZVI did not exhibit any inhibitory effect on the biodegradation. The cumulative biological oxidation associated with iodine toxicity was closely fitted to Gompertz model. When iodine-laden wastewater was continuously fed to a bench-scale activated sludge unit, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from above 90% to below 80% along with a marked decrease in biomass concentration. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency and biomass concentration remained constant in the integrated ZVI-activated sludge system. Respirometric bioassay with real iodine-laden LCD manufacturing wastewater demonstrated that ZVI was effective for detoxifying iodine and consequently enhancing biodegradability of wastewater. This result suggested that ZVI pretreatment may be a feasible option for the removal of iodine in LCD processing wastewater, instead of more costly processes such as adsorption and chemical oxidation, which are commonly in the iodine-laden LCD wastewater treatment facility

  4. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  5. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    sought to identify, if possible, groups at risk of thyroid disease because of their food choices. Design: This cohort study included 4649 randomly selected subjects with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency; the subjects lived in 2 cities in Denmark. Iodine intake was estimated by using a food-frequency...... questionnaire and by measuring iodine excretion in spot urine samples. Thyroid volume and nodularity were measured with ultrasonography. Results: In multiple linear regression models, significant inverse relations were found between thyroid volume and estimated 24-h iodine excretion, iodine intake from diet...

  6. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The speciation of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The speciation of iodine in the environment is discussed under the following topics: (i) sea surface to atmosphere, (ii) chemistry in bulk seawater, (iii) iodine in rocks, (iv) iodine in soils, (v) iodine in plants and (vi) iodine in solidified wastes. (author)

  8. Variation in the iodine concentrations of foods: considerations for dietary assessment1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, Alicia L; Spungen, Judith H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Dwyer, Johanna T; Juan, WenYen; Wirtz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-composition tables typically give measured nutrient concentrations in foods as a single summary value, often the mean, without providing information as to the shape of the distribution. Objective: Our objective was to explore how the statistical approach chosen to describe the iodine concentrations of foods affects the proportion of the population identified as having either insufficient or excessive iodine intakes. Design: We used food intake data reported by the 2009−2010 NHANES and measured iodine concentrations of Total Diet Study (TDS) foods from 4 US regions sampled in 2004–2011. We created 4 data sets, each by using a different summary statistic (median, mean, and 10th and 90th percentiles), to represent the iodine concentration distribution of each TDS food. We estimated the iodine concentration distribution of each food consumed by NHANES participants as the 4 iodine concentration summary statistics of a similar TDS food and used these, along with NHANES food intake data, to develop 4 estimates of each participant’s iodine intake on each survey day. Using the 4 estimates in turn, we calculated 4 usual iodine intakes for each sex- and age-specific subgroup. We then compared these to guideline values and developed 4 estimates of the proportions of each subgroup with deficient and excessive usual iodine intakes. Results: In general, the distribution of iodine intakes was poorly characterized when food iodine concentrations were expressed as mean values. In addition, mean values predicted lower prevalences of iodine deficiency than did median values. For example, in women aged 19–50 y, the estimated prevalence of iodine deficiency was 25% when based on median food iodine concentrations but only 5.8% when based on mean values. Conclusion: For nutrients such as iodine with highly variable concentrations in important food sources, we recommend that food-composition tables provide useful variability information, including the mean, SD, and

  9. Atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  11. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  12. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  13. Multiple Imputation of Predictor Variables Using Generalized Additive Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Roel; van Buuren, Stef; Spiess, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of multiple imputation methods to deviations from their distributional assumptions is investigated using simulations, where the parameters of scientific interest are the coefficients of a linear regression model, and values in predictor variables are missing at random. The

  14. Are weaning infants at risk of iodine deficiency even in countries with established iodized salt programs?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Because iodine deficiency (ID) during infancy can irreversibly impair neurodevelopment and increase mortality, it is critical that dietary iodine is adequate in this vulnerable group. Lactating mothers consuming iodized salt can transfer adequate iodine to the infant via breast milk, but during the weaning period, infants are at risk for ID for several reasons: (1) requirements per kg bodyweight for iodine and thyroid hormone during infancy are higher than at any other time in the life cycle; (2) experts recommend no extra salt (iodized or not) be given to infants during the first year; (3) cow's milk (a major source of dietary iodine in many countries) is also not recommended for infants during the first year; and (4) iron deficiency, a common disorder during infancy, can impair iodine metabolism and reduce thyroid hormone production. For many weaning infants in industrialized countries, iodine fortified into commercial infant foods becomes important. This has recently been demonstrated in Switzerland, where a long-standing iodized salt program provides adequate iodine to pregnant women and school-age children, but new national data suggest weaning infants not receiving iodine-containing commercial baby foods have inadequate iodine intakes. Thus, even in countries with effective iodized salt programs, infants may be at risk of ID during weaning and may need additional dietary and/or supplemental sources of iodine. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Studies on 129I in bovine thyroid glands and investigations on revolatilization of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glubrecht, H.; Kiselnic, L.; Handl, J.; Kuehn, W.

    1979-01-01

    In order to study fall out effect, deposition and revolatilization of iodine in the field and 129 I activity in bovine thyroid glands were studied. Deposition velocity of I 2 was 0.15 to 7 cm/sec, which was 100 times higher than that of CH 3 I. Biological half-life of iodine was 7.5 +- 0.5 d. In the contaminated plants, indifferent to the environmental conditions. However, the decrease of iodine concentration was not observed when the plants were cut off immediately after deposition of iodine. A sample of soil with or without plants was contaminated with iodine and re-emitted iodine was trapped by a charcoal filter. Iodine concentration was determined by I-specific electrodes after 1, 2, 4, and 8 hrs. In any case, I 2 was re-emitted immediately after the contamination. Bovine thyroid glands were dried by deep freezing and ground after the addition of KOH. Organic compounds were decomposed by stepwise heating up to 600 0 C. Then iodine was extracted by concentrated H 2 SO 4 and heated at 110 0 C. Evaporating iodine was adsorbed by a pure charcoal filter. By neutron activation analysis of the filter the activity of 129 I was 1.2 pCi/g iodine, which would be about 5 times higher than that measured in animals living far from nuclear installations. The distribution of stable iodine in thyroid gland was inhomogeneous. (Nakanishi, T.)

  16. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  17. Application of BOLD MRI and DTI for the evaluation of renal effect related to viscosity of iodinated contrast agent in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ren, Ke; Liu, Yi; Sun, Wen-Ge; Wang, Jia-Huan; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Cheng-Hua

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of viscosity of contrast agent (CA) on intrarenal oxygenation and diffusion as measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a rat model. Radiocontrast iodixanol formulated in three viscosities were designated 270, 320, and 350 (mg iodine/mL). Sixty-three male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Saline and iodixanol (4 g iodine/kg) were administered. MR images were acquired on a 3.0T scanner at baseline and at 1 hour, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours postinjection of solutions. BOLD-MRI was performed with a multiple gradient-recalled-echo sequence. The changes in R2*, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), histology, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) immunoexpression were evaluated. The R2*, ADC, and FA values were normalized to baseline to calculate ΔR2*, ΔADC, and ΔFA. Compared with baseline levels, distinct elevation of ΔR2* (P < 0.05) and obvious decrease in ΔADC (P < 0.01) and ΔFA (P < 0.05) were observed in all the anatomical compartments at 1 hour after administration of CA. The absolute values in ΔR2*, ΔADC, and ΔFA increased with increases in CA viscosity, and differed significantly between the CA groups in renal cortex (CO), outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM), and inner stripe of outer medulla (ISOM) (all P < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was observed between ΔR2* and HIF-1α expression (P < 0.001, r = 0.75). Significant negative correlations were observed between ΔADC, ΔFA, and pathologies in CO, OSOM, ISOM (all P < 0.001, r = -0.68-0.87; all P < 0.001, r = -0.60-0.66). The effect of CA viscosity on intrarenal oxygenation and diffusion was viscosity-dependent, and was identified using BOLD-MRI and DTI. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1320-1331. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Effects of Adequate Iodine Supply on the Incidence of Iodine-Induced Thyroid Disorders in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk, Vid; Zaletel, Katja; Pirnat, Edvard; Hojker, Sergej; Gaberšček, Simona

    2017-04-01

    increase in iodine supply, a higher incidence of II-Hypo and a lower incidence of II-Hyper were observed than before the increase. Less severe II-Hyper, shorter duration of treatment of II-Hyper, as well as a longer thyroid disease-free period in patients on amiodarone are additional beneficial clinical consequences after the establishment of an adequate iodine supply.

  19. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  20. A mechanism for biologically induced iodine emissions from sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Blaszczak-Boxe, C. S.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, ultimately accumulating in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest that iodine is released to the atmosphere via three possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea ice, from where it is released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, the results nevertheless show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e. I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during

  1. Reaction kinetics of iodine compounds in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, R.M.

    1985-11-01

    A review is presented of the reaction kinetics of inorganic iodine species in aqueous solution, and describes the establishment of a kinetics data base for use in computer modelling of iodine release in PWR design basis faults. A data base of 167 reactions has been established to describe the behaviour of inorganic iodine species in solution. Organic iodides have been omitted because of the lack of understanding about how they are formed. A number of inadequacies in the data base requiring further research are noted. (author)

  2. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, Vit; Spalek, Otomar; Censky, Miroslav; Pickova, Irena; Kodymova, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    A method of the chemical generation of atomic iodine for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) using atomic fluorine as a reaction intermediate was studied experimentally. This method is based on the reaction between F 2 and NO providing F atoms, and the reaction of F with HI resulting in iodine atoms generation. Atomic iodine was produced with efficiency exceeding 40% relative to initial F 2 flow rate. This efficiency was nearly independent on pressure and total gas flow rate. The F atoms were stable in the reactor up to 2 ms. An optimum ratio of the reactants flow rates was F 2 :NO:HI = 1:1:1. A rate constant of the reaction of F 2 with HI was determined. The numerical modelling showed that remaining HI and IF were probably consumed in their mutual reaction. The reaction system was found suitable for employing in a generator of atomic iodine with its subsequent injection into a supersonic nozzle of a COIL

  3. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  4. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  5. Iodine chemistry in the troposphere and its effect on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Fernandez, R. P.; Ordóñez, C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Gómez Martín, J. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the potential influence of iodine chemistry on the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, reactive iodine distributions and their impact on tropospheric ozone remain almost unexplored aspects of the global atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive global modelling experiment aimed at estimating lower and upper limits of the inorganic iodine burden and its impact on tropospheric ozone. Two sets of simulations without and with the photolysis of IxOy oxides (i.e. I2O2, I2O3 and I2O4) were conducted to define the range of inorganic iodine loading, partitioning and impact in the troposphere. Our results show that the most abundant daytime iodine species throughout the middle to upper troposphere is atomic iodine, with an annual average tropical abundance of (0.15-0.55) pptv. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic iodine" that peaks in the tropical upper troposphere (~11-14 km) at the equator and extends to the sub-tropics (30° N-30° S). Annual average daytime I / IO ratios larger than 3 are modelled within the tropics, reaching ratios up to ~20 during vigorous uplift events within strong convective regions. We calculate that the integrated contribution of catalytic iodine reactions to the total rate of tropospheric ozone loss (IOx Loss) is 2-5 times larger than the combined bromine and chlorine cycles. When IxOy photolysis is included, IOx Loss represents an upper limit of approximately 27, 14 and 27% of the tropical annual ozone loss for the marine boundary layer (MBL), free troposphere (FT) and upper troposphere (UT), respectively, while the lower limit throughout the tropical troposphere is ~9%. Our results indicate that iodine is the second strongest ozone-depleting family throughout the global marine UT and in the tropical MBL. We suggest that (i) iodine sources and its chemistry need to be included in global tropospheric chemistry models, (ii) experimental programs designed to quantify the iodine budget in the troposphere should include

  6. Modeling additive and non-additive effects in a hybrid population using genome-wide genotyping: prediction accuracy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, J-M; Makouanzi, G; Cros, D; Vigneron, Ph

    2016-02-01

    Hybrids are broadly used in plant breeding and accurate estimation of variance components is crucial for optimizing genetic gain. Genome-wide information may be used to explore models designed to assess the extent of additive and non-additive variance and test their prediction accuracy for the genomic selection. Ten linear mixed models, involving pedigree- and marker-based relationship matrices among parents, were developed to estimate additive (A), dominance (D) and epistatic (AA, AD and DD) effects. Five complementary models, involving the gametic phase to estimate marker-based relationships among hybrid progenies, were developed to assess the same effects. The models were compared using tree height and 3303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 1130 cloned individuals obtained via controlled crosses of 13 Eucalyptus urophylla females with 9 Eucalyptus grandis males. Akaike information criterion (AIC), variance ratios, asymptotic correlation matrices of estimates, goodness-of-fit, prediction accuracy and mean square error (MSE) were used for the comparisons. The variance components and variance ratios differed according to the model. Models with a parent marker-based relationship matrix performed better than those that were pedigree-based, that is, an absence of singularities, lower AIC, higher goodness-of-fit and accuracy and smaller MSE. However, AD and DD variances were estimated with high s.es. Using the same criteria, progeny gametic phase-based models performed better in fitting the observations and predicting genetic values. However, DD variance could not be separated from the dominance variance and null estimates were obtained for AA and AD effects. This study highlighted the advantages of progeny models using genome-wide information.

  7. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  8. The additive damage model: a mathematical model for cellular responses to drug combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie Braziel; Secomb, Timothy W; Dewhirst, Mark W; El-Kareh, Ardith W

    2014-09-21

    Mathematical models to describe dose-dependent cellular responses to drug combinations are an essential component of computational simulations for predicting therapeutic responses. Here, a new model, the additive damage model, is introduced and tested in cases where varying concentrations of two drugs are applied with a fixed exposure schedule. In the model, cell survival is determined by whether cellular damage, which depends on the concentrations of the drugs, exceeds a lethal threshold, which varies randomly in the cell population with a prescribed statistical distribution. Cellular damage is assumed to be additive, and is expressed as a sum of separate terms for each drug. Each term has a saturable dependence on drug concentration. The model has appropriate behavior over the entire range of drug concentrations, and is predictive, given single-agent dose-response data for each drug. The proposed model is compared with several other models, by testing their ability to fit 24 data sets for platinum-taxane combinations and 21 data sets for various other combinations. The Akaike Information Criterion is used to assess goodness of fit, taking into account the number of unknown parameters in each model. Overall, the additive damage model provides a better fit to the data sets than any previous model. The proposed model provides a basis for computational simulations of therapeutic responses. It predicts responses to drug combinations based on data for each drug acting as a single agent, and can be used as an improved null reference model for assessing synergy in the action of drug combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I 2 . 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  11. The Effects of Rifampin, Povidone-Iodine and Hydrogen Peroxide on the Formation of Epidural Fibrosis in the Experimental Epidural Fibrosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilay, Zahir; Cetin, Nesibe Kahraman; İsmailoglu, Özgur; Yılmaz, Ali; Omurlu, İmran Kurt; Coskun, Mehmet Erdal; Aktaş, Serdar

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of direct application of rifampin, povidone-iodine, and hydrogen peroxide on the formation of epidural fibrosis in rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were equally and randomly divided into four groups (laminectomy, topical rifampin, topical povidone-iodine, and topical hydrogen peroxide). Laminectomy was performed at the T12 level in all rats. Four weeks later, the extent of epidural fibrosis was assessed both macroscopically and histopathologically. ANOVA test was used for the evaluation of dural thickness. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the pathology and macroscopic evaluation. Chi-square test was used for evaluation of the arachnoid involvement. p value hydrogen peroxide were effective in reducing epidural fibrosis formation. The results of our study provide the experimental evidence of the preventive effects of topical application of povidone-iodine and hydrogen peroxide over epidural fibrosis.

  12. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of Cementitious Representative Volume Element with Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzamanian, M. M.; Basirun, W. J.

    CEMHYD3D has been employed to simulate the representative volume element (RVE) of cementitious systems (Type I cement) containing fly ash (Class F) through a voxel-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach. Three-dimensional microstructures composed of voxels are generated for a heterogeneous cementitious material consisting of various constituent phases. The primary focus is to simulate a cementitious RVE containing fly ash and to present the homogenized macromechanical properties obtained from its analysis. Simple kinematic uniform boundary conditions as well as periodic boundary conditions were imposed on the RVE to obtain the principal and shear moduli. Our current work considers the effect of fly ash percentage on the elastic properties based on the mass and volume replacements. RVEs with lengths of 50, 100 and 200μm at different degrees of hydration are generated, and the elastic properties are modeled and simulated. In general, the elastic properties of a cementitious RVE with fly ash replacement for cement based on mass and volume differ from each other. Moreover, the finite element (FE) mesh density effect is studied. Results indicate that mechanical properties decrease with increasing mesh density.

  14. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  15. Evaluation method of iodine re-evolution from an in-containment water pool after a loss of coolant accident, Part II: Evaluation of pH and iodine re-evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is required to evaluate re-evolved iodine from sump water after LOCA. • Transport of iodine and chemicals influencing pH were analyzed using CFD. • Chemical conditions of the iodine-rich region suppress iodine re-evolution. • The current evaluation method for I 2 re-evolution is excessively conservative. - Abstract: Radioactive iodine that is released during a postulated loss of coolant accident is dissolved into the containment spray water and transported into the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The re-evolution of iodine from the water is a safety concern. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses are conducted in order to analyze the transport of chemical species including iodine in the IRWST and to calculate the amount of iodine that re-evolves from the IRWST water. The CFD analyses demonstrate that the pH of water is high where the iodine concentration is high. Considering that the creation rate of molecular iodine declines as the pH increases, it can be understood that the iodine re-evolution is not so strong in practical situations because the chemical conditions of the iodine-rich region suppress the re-evolution of the iodine. In addition, four different methods for evaluating the amount of re-evolved iodine are examined. The amount of re-evolved iodine calculated using the total-volume-average values, which are currently used for safety analyses, appear to be significantly higher than those determined using other methods. The amount of re-evolved iodine estimated using a realistic method with a conservative assumption of volatilization appears to be approximately one thousandth of that evaluated using the current method. This implies that the current method is very conservative.

  16. Development of portable methyl iodine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qun; Wang Ruiyun; Gao Xiaomei; Jia Ming; Guo Chuangcheng; Wu Tao; Liu Zhaofeng; Qiu Dangui

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive methyl iodide method is one of the important ways to test iodine adsorber. The methyl iodide generator is the key equipment in this method. The structure, technical specifications and results of performance tests of a self-made generator are introduced. The generator is comprised of methyl iodide generator body, pneumatic control system and negative pressure box with accessories. The results of 'hot best' showed that all operating parameters could be controlled within normal range, the generating flow-rate was stable, and the generating rate and purity of the methyl iodide could meet the requirements of iodine adsorber test. In addition, safety protection system and off-gas clean system were designed in the generator to effectively avoid radioactive gas escaping outside. The generator is portable with small size and light weight, which is convenient for on site use

  17. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  18. Impact of Polymer-bound Iodine on Fibronectin Adsorption and Osteoblast Cell Morphology Radiopaque Medical Polymers: Tyrosine-derived Polycarbonate Blends as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamer, Khaled A.; Genson, Kirsten L.; Kohn, Joachim; Becker, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging of polymer implants during surgical implantations is challenging in that most materials lack sufficient X-ray contrast. Synthetic derivatization with iodine serves to increase the scattering contrast but results in distinct physico-chemical properties in the material which influence subsequent protein adsorption and cell morphology behavior. Herein we report the impact of increasing iodine inclusion on the cell morphology (cell area and shape) of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on a series of homopolymers and discrete blend thin films of poly(desaminotyrosyl tyrosine ethyl ester carbonate), poly(DTE carbonate) and an iodinated analogue poly(I2-DTE carbonate). Cell morphology is correlated to film chemical composition via measuring Fibronectin (FN) adhesion protein adsorption profile on these films. FN exhibits up to 2 fold greater adsorption affinity for poly(I2-DTE carbonate) than (poly(DTE carbonate)). A correlation was established between cell area, roundness and the measured FN adsorption profile on the blend films up to 75 % by mass poly(I2-DTE carbonate). Data suggest that incorporation of iodine within the polymer backbone has a distinct impact on the way FN proteins adsorb to the surface and within the studied blend systems; the effect is composition dependent. PMID:19645443

  19. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  20. The story of iodine deficiency: An international challenge in nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for the growth and development of up to 800 million people living in iodine deficient environments throughout the world. The effects on growth and development, called the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), comprise goiter, stillbirths and miscarriages, neonatal and juvenile thyroid deficiency, dwarfism, mental defects, deaf mutism, and spastic weakness and paralysis, as well as lesser degrees of loss of physical and mental function. All these effects are due to inadequate thyroid hormone production because iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormone. In the West, IDD has been largely eliminated by the addition of iodine to the diet through iodized salt or through changes in food distribution and technology. IDD still persists in certain areas of Europe where these dietary changes have not occurred. In the Third World, IDD is a major problem in many countries with large populations, such as China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Zaire. In these and other Third World countries, IDD is a significant barrier to social and economic progress which can be removed by correction of the deficiency. This book shows that elimination of iodine deficiency is feasible within the next decade, only requiring a modest financial and technical effort from the West. Part 1 reviews IDD in man and animals. Part 2 discusses the control of iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, and considers action at the national and international level. Part 3 presents a global review of the status of IDD control. There is a brief conclusion on the way forward to successful control programs

  1. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  2. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  3. Iodine Emissions from Seaweeds: Species-dependent and Seasonal Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Ball, Stephen; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Emissions of iodine from macroalgae into the marine boundary layer (MBL) significantly impact tropospheric chemistry and the biogeochemical cycling of iodine. Gas-phase iodine chemistry perturbs the usual HOx and NOx radical cycles, provides additional sink reactions for tropospheric ozone, and modifies atmospheric oxidizing capacity. Iodine oxides (IxOywith x ≥ 2) formed through the reaction of iodine atoms with ozone nucleate new aerosol particles which, if they grow sufficiently, can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and so influence the local climate in coastal regions. Some seaweeds, such as brown algae, are important bio-accumulators of iodine. They specifically induce iodine metabolism to protect themselves against oxidative stress, both as a defence mechanism and when exposed to air around low tide. Indeed the dominant emission source of iodine into the atmosphere in coastal regions comes from intertidal macroalgal beds, particularly those of kelp species. We present results from an extensive laboratory study of molecular iodine (I2) emissions from five seaweed species (two Fucales, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, and three kelp species, Laminaria digitata, L. hyperborea and Saccharina latissima). Eighty-four incubation experiments were performed at the Station Biologique in Roscoff (Brittany, France) between September 2012 and June 2013 to quantify species-dependent I2 emission rates in response to progressive air exposure, mimicking low tide, and to investigate any seasonal differences. Measurements were conducted on 'fresh' biological samples: Ascophyllum and Fucus thalli were collected whilst still submerged on an ebbing tide, transported in seawater to the laboratory and analysed immediately; kelp samples were collected by boat, stored in an outside aquarium in running seawater and analysed within a few days. I2 emissions were quantified at high time resolution by broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometry (1σ detection limit

  4. Complex cell geometry and sources distribution model for Monte Carlo single cell dosimetry with iodine 125 radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, F.X. [Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, INPT, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Paillas, S. [IRCM, Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Montpellier F-34298 (France); INSERM, U1194, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Pouget, J.P [IRCM, Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Montpellier F-34298 (France); INSERM, U1194, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpelllier, F-34090 Montpellier (France); Institut régional du Cancer de Montpellier, F-34298 Montpellier (France); Incerti, S. [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Bardiès, M. [Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Bordage, M.C., E-mail: marie-claude.bordage@inserm.fr [Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, INPT, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France)

    2016-01-01

    In cellular dosimetry, common assumptions consider concentric spheres for nucleus and cell and uniform radionuclides distribution. These approximations do not reflect reality, specially in the situation of radioimmunotherapy with Auger emitters, where very short-ranged electrons induce hyper localised energy deposition. A realistic cellular dosimetric model was generated to give account of the real geometry and activity distribution, for non-internalizing and internalizing antibodies (mAbs) labelled with Auger emitter I-125. The impact of geometry was studied by comparing the real geometry obtained from confocal microscopy for both cell and nucleus with volume equivalent concentric spheres. Non-uniform and uniform source distributions were considered for each mAbs distribution. Comparisons in terms of mean deposited energy per decay, energy deposition spectra and energy-volume histograms were calculated using Geant4. We conclude that realistic models are needed, especially when energy deposition is highly non-homogeneous due to source distribution.

  5. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  6. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  7. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  8. Radiochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures

  9. Povidone-Iodine-Based Polymeric Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianyi; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Xinjie; Gao, Yangyang; Liu, Wenxin; Chen, Wanjun; Dong, Alideertu; Wang, Yan-Jie

    2017-08-09

    As microbial contamination is becoming more and more serious, antibacterial agents play an important role in preventing and removing bacterial pathogens from microbial pollution in our daily life. To solve the issues with water solubility and antibacterial stability of PVP-I 2 (povidone-iodine) as a strong antibacterial agent, we successfully obtain hydrophobic povidone-iodine nanoparticles (povidone-iodine NPs) by a two-step method related to the advantage of nanotechnology. First, the synthesis of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles, i.e., P(NVP-MMA) NPs, was controlled by tuning a feed ratio of NVP to MMA. Then, the products P(NVP-MMA) NPs were allowed to undergo a complexation reaction with iodine, resulting in the formation of a water-insoluble antibacterial material, povidone-iodine NPs. It is found that the feed ratio of NVP to MMA has an active effect on morphology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of the P(NVP-MMA) copolymer after some technologies, such as SEM, DLS, elemental analysis, 1 H NMR, GPC, and the contact angle test, were used in the characterizations. The antibacterial property of povidone-iodine NPs was investigated by using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) as model bacteria with the colony count method. Interestingly, three products, such as glue, ink, and dye, after the incorporation of povidone-iodine NPs, show significant antibacterial properties. It is believed that, with the advantage of nanoscale morphology, the final povidone-iodine NPs should have great potential for utilization in various fields where antifouling and antibacterial properties are highly required.

  10. Modelling time course gene expression data with finite mixtures of linear additive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Bettina; Scharl, Theresa; Leisch, Friedrich

    2012-01-15

    A model class of finite mixtures of linear additive models is presented. The component-specific parameters in the regression models are estimated using regularized likelihood methods. The advantages of the regularization are that (i) the pre-specified maximum degrees of freedom for the splines is less crucial than for unregularized estimation and that (ii) for each component individually a suitable degree of freedom is selected in an automatic way. The performance is evaluated in a simulation study with artificial data as well as on a yeast cell cycle dataset of gene expression levels over time. The latest release version of the R package flexmix is available from CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/).

  11. Iodine laser program: SAIL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The iodine laser is the most highly developed near-infrared gas laser available for large-scale laser development. Its fast-repetition-rate potential and prospects for improvements in efficiency make it a primary laser candidate to meet mid-term laser-fusion requirements. It may have adequate efficiency for commercial laser-fusion applications in a hybrid fission/fusion reactor, for fusion-fuel breeding and for laser-fusion power generation using complex pellets. Research progress is reported on: (1) SAIL-1; (2) iodine laser-code development; (3) collision and radiation coupling for iodine atoms; (4) development of multilevel Block-Maxwell equations; (5) approximations for iodine amplifiers; and (6) studies based on the ISTAR code

  12. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  13. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  14. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution. PMID:7051944

  15. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  16. Comparative dual-tracer studies of carbon-14 tryptophan and iodine-131 HIPDM in animal models of pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, K.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C.; Atkins, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that a significant amount of the diamine derivative 131 I-N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3- propanediamine (HIPDM) is taken up and retained by the normal pancreas. Therefore, we studied the uptake of [ 13 1I]HIPDM in various pathophysiological models in mice (chronic alcoholism, diabetes with beta-cell atrophy and obesity with beta-cell hypertrophy) and compared to 14 C-L-Tryptophan (TRY) distribution in order to determine the factors influencing their pancreatic uptake. In normal animals, the pancreas uptake of TRY was generally higher than HIPDM. In diabetes, the relative concentration of both compounds was higher over the controls; however, in obesity, TRY showed lower accumulation than in controls while HIPDM showed no significant difference. Chronic ethanol (20%) ingestion increased TRY uptake in the pancreas compared to controls (36.88 ± 3.21 vs. 30.03 ± 4.17% ID/g; p less than 0.01) after 5 wk study period, but it decreased by 10 wk (22.36 ± 0.95% ID/g; p less than 0.005). There were no significant changes in [ 131 I]HIPDM distribution in alcoholics as compared to the controls. Radioiodinated HIPDM has potential advantages over [ 11 C]TRY for pancreatic imaging since conventional imaging techniques can be employed. Our data, however, suggest that 11 C-L-TRY is a more sensitive indicator of various pancreatic disorders

  17. Iodine-paint interactions during a core fusion accident; Les interactions iode-peinture au cours d'un accident de fusion du coeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simondi-Teisseire, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Service d' etude et de recherche experimentale sur la chimie, 13 - Cadarache (France); Cantrel, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire d' Etudes du corium et du Transfert de Radioelements, 13 - Cadarache (France); Fillet, S. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire d' Experimentation environnement et chimie, 13 - Cadarache (France)

    2011-01-15

    If a core fusion accident should occur, radioactive iodine would be released from the fuel and would reach the reactor containment building, and then react with wall paintings to form organic iodine compounds, i.e. volatile compounds which are difficult to filtrate and therefore would be released in the environment. This article briefly reports investigations of the formation/destruction mechanisms of these volatile iodine compounds, notably through the Epicur program. This program focused on two prevailing phenomena: the radiolytic oxidation of iodine present in sump water, and the production of volatile organic iodides from painted surfaces where iodine adsorption occurs. Iodine behaviour is modelled by using the Astec code

  18. Iodine recovery from brine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weetall, H.H.; Hertl, W.

    1985-10-15

    Iodine has been produced by the reaction of iodide with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the catalyst ferrous sulfate. The presence of high concentrations of chloride or bromide in both natural and synthetic brines have no effect on the reaction specificity or kinetics. This approach is potentially a less caustic method for the recovery of iodine from brine as compared to the most commonly used chlorine displacement methods.

  19. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  20. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  1. Studies in iodine metabolism: Progress report, July 1968-July 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research on iodine metabolism conducted at the University of Tennessee, Memphis between July 1968 and July 1969. The author and his research team prepared autoradiographs of rat thyroids from individuals exposed to Iodine 125 in utero. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effect on hypothalamic lesions on iodide metabolism in rats; to evaluate an iodide-specific electrode for measuring iodide levels in blood or urine; and to study the amount of thyroxine absorption from the intestine. An analysis of bovine and sheep thyroids from eight locations provided additional information on global fallout levels. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  3. Iodine filters in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1977-04-01

    On the basis of calculated and recorded release rates of nuclear power plants, the significance of iodine releases in the invironmental impact relative to other nuclides is discussed. The release pathways for iodine in LWR-type reactors and the efficiency of various methods to lower the activity release are given. The airborne species of iodine are discussed with regard to their removal in iodine sorption filters and environmental impact. The technical status of iodine removal by means of iodine sorption filters is studied for normal operation and accident conditions in nuclear power stations on the basis of the data given in the relevant literature for the efficiency of a number of iodine sorption materials. The applicability of concepts for ventilation and containment and their influence on iodine filter systems are discussed. Design, structure, and testing of iodine sorption filters are treated in detail; recommendations for design are given, and failure sources are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  4. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...

  5. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  6. Antibacterial iodine-supported titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, T; Shimizu, T; Ohtani, K; Zen, Y; Takaya, M; Tsuchiya, H

    2011-04-01

    Deep infection remains a serious complication in orthopedic implant surgery. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, several biomaterial surface treatments have been proposed. This study focused on evaluating the antibacterial activity of iodine-supported titanium (Ti-I(2)) and its impact on post-implant infection, as well as determining the potential suitability of Ti-I(2) as a biomaterial. External fixation pins were used in this experiment as trial implants because of the ease of making the septic models. The antibacterial activity of the metal was measured using a modification of the Japanese Industrial Standards method. Activity was evaluated by exposing the implants to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli and comparing reaction of pathogens to Ti-I(2) vs. stainless steel and titanium controls. Ti-I(2) clearly inhibited bacterial colonization more than the control metals. In addition, cytocompatibility was assessed by counting the number of colonies that formed on the metals. The three metals showed the same amount of fibroblast colony formation. Japanese white rabbits were used as an in vivo model. Three pins were inserted into both femora of six rabbits for histological analysis. Pin sites were inspected and graded for infection and inflammation. Fewer signs of infection and inflammatory changes were observed in conjunction with the Ti-I(2) pins. Furthermore, osteoconductivity of the implant was evaluated with osteoid formation surface of the pin. Consecutive bone formation was observed around the Ti-I(2) and titanium pins, while little osteoid formation was found around the stainless steel pins. These findings suggest that Ti-I(2) has antimicrobial activity and exhibits cytocompatibility. Therefore, Ti-I(2) substantially reduces the incidence of implant infection and shows particular promise as a biomaterial. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  8. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  9. Control of the amount of free molecular iodine in iodine germicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J; Panicucci, R; Duan, Y; Dinehart, K; Murphy, J; Kessler, J; Gottardi, W

    1997-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase has been used to generate iodine compositions that comprised principally free molecular iodine. The concentration of free molecular iodine in these enzyme-based compositions ranged from 44 to 63% of the thiosulphate titratable iodine; this is substantially higher than the corresponding value for the povidone-iodine preparation betadine. The biocidal efficacy of these compositions was proportional to the concentration of free molecular iodine. Iodine compositions with relatively low total iodine concentrations but high levels of free molecular iodine (20-175 ppm) killed Staphylococcus aureus and spores of Bacillus subtilis more rapidly than betadine. The effects of normal saline and these enzyme-based iodine compositions on the rate of epidermal regeneration in superficial swine wounds were comparable. These results suggest that an effective germicide containing a high level of molecular iodine need not be irritating or toxic.

  10. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  11. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  12. Additive Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation A Literature Review for Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufzer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is coming into industrial use and has several desirable attributes. Control of the deposition remains a complex challenge, and so this literature review was initiated to capture current modeling efforts in the field of additive manufacturing. This paper summarizes about 10 years of modeling and simulation related to both welding and additive manufacturing. The goals were to learn who is doing what in modeling and simulation, to summarize various approaches taken to create models, and to identify research gaps. Later sections in the report summarize implications for closed-loop-control of the process, implications for local research efforts, and implications for local modeling efforts.

  13. Stiffness Model of a 3-DOF Parallel Manipulator with Two Additional Legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stiffness modelling of a 3-DOF parallel manipulator with two additional legs. The stiffness model in six directions of the 3-DOF parallel manipulator with two additional legs is derived by performing condensation of DOFs for the joint connection and treatment of the fixed-end connections. Moreover, this modelling method is used to derive the stiffness model of the manipulator with zero/one additional legs. Two performance indices are given to compare the stiffness of the parallel manipulators with two additional legs with those of the manipulators with zero/one additional legs. The method not only can be used to derive the stiffness model of a redundant parallel manipulator, but also to model the stiffness of non-redundant parallel manipulators.

  14. Study of the iodine kinetics in thermal conditions of a RCS in nuclear severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grégoire, A.-C.; Délicat, Y.; Tornabene, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature iodine reactivity in gas phase. • Kinetics limitations were evidenced in severe accident gas atmosphere conditions. • Iodine kinetic scheme involving steam/di-hydrogen/di-oxygen. - Abstract: During the PHEBUS-FP integral severe accidents simulation tests, gaseous iodine was detected in earlier stages of the simulated accident, coming from the experimental circuit modelling a reactor coolant system. One possible explanation is the existence of some kinetic limitations which promote the persistence of gaseous iodine at low temperature. This paper sums up some analytical and modelling works performed to check this assumption. Results show that the chemical speciation of iodine cannot be calculated by assuming chemical equilibrium, kinetics have to be considered, in particular for oxidising atmosphere with an excess of steam. A kinetic model for gaseous iodine is proposed and qualified by comparison with experimental works. Such modelling should be considered to calculate the transport of iodine through the reactor coolant system for a severe accident because it can significantly impact iodine source term evaluations.

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for iodine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for iodine, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI). Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Through these hormones, iodine....../day. For pregnant women, an AI of 200 µg/day is proposed, taking into account additional needs due to increased maternal thyroid hormone production and the iodine uptake by the fetus, placenta and amniotic fluid. The proposed AI for lactating women of 200 µg/day takes into account the existence of large iodine...... stores in conditions of adequate iodine status before pregnancy and considers that a full compensation for the iodine secreted in breast milk is not justified for the derivation of an AI for iodine for lactating women....

  16. Complete Initial Scoping Tests on the Incorporation of Novel Loaded Iodine Getters into GCM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garino, Terry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Croes, Kenneth James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-18

    This study encompasses initial scoping tests on the incorporation of a novel iodine loaded getter material into the Sandia developed low temperature sintering glass ceramic material (GCM) waste form. In particular, we studied the PNNL Ag-I-Aerogel. Optical microscopy indicates inhomogenous samples based on particle sizes and variations in color (AgI vs Ag/AgO on silica). TGA/MS data when heated in air indicates loss of iodine and organics (CO2) between 250-450°C a total of ~15wt% loss, with additional / small iodine loss when during 550°C hold for 1 hr. TGA/MS data when heated in N2 indicates less organic and slightly less iodine loss below 550°C, with no loss of iodine in 550°C 1 hour hold. Furthermore, a substantial mass loss of sulfur containing compounds is observed (m/e of 34 and 36) between 150 – 550°C in both air and N2 sintering atmospheres. In an effort to capture iodine lost to volatilization during heating (at temps below glass sintering temperature of 550°C), we added 5 wt% Ag flake to the AgIaerogel. Resulting data indicates the iodine is retained with the addition of the Ag flake, resulting in only a small iodine loss (< 1wt%) at ~350°C. No method of curtailing loss of sulfur containing compounds due to heating was successful in this scoping study.

  17. State of the art report on iodine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.; Cantrel, L.; Ducros, G.; Funke, F.; Herranz, L.; Rydl, A.; Weber, G.; Wren, C.

    2007-01-01

    An accident in which the normal core cooling is lost could lead to fuel elements melting and fission product release beyond the plant limits. Nuclear power plants are designed with engineering systems and associated operational procedures which provide an in-depth defence against such accidents. Iodine is a major contributor to the potential source term to the environment, thus a good understanding of its behaviour and validated calculation tools are required to perform meaningful risk analyses and make decisions in the field of accident management, mitigation measures and emergency procedures. A number of experimental programmes, involving separate-effect and integral tests have been carried out during the last decade, providing new and valuable results that have improved our understanding of iodine phenomena. A modelling effort has also been pursued in order to encapsulate the acquired knowledge in the calculation tools prepared for predicting the iodine behaviour under severe accident conditions. In view of the progress made, the Working Group on Analysis and Management of Accidents (GAMA) considered the necessity of producing a status paper on iodine chemistry, with the following objectives: - to review insights gained and evaluate the progress made during the last 10 years on the understanding of phenomena governing iodine chemistry and release in the case of a reactor severe accident, - to evaluate the current status of iodine chemistry knowledge and tools used for source term prediction in connection with accident management and emergency planning, under various reactor conditions, to identify the remaining weaknesses, discuss the reactor safety relevance of these issues and make recommendations as necessary. This paper aims at shedding light on the present situation, helping end-users and decision makers to adequately address questions related to iodine behaviour under severe accident conditions, and to essential programmes of work in this area

  18. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  19. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  20. An introduction to modeling longitudinal data with generalized additive models: applications to single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kristynn J; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time in both the presence and absence of treatment. This article introduces a statistical technique for analyzing SCD data that has not been much used in psychological and educational research: generalized additive models (GAMs). In parametric regression, the researcher must choose a functional form to impose on the data, for example, that trend over time is linear. GAMs reverse this process by letting the data inform the choice of functional form. In this article we review the problem that trend poses in SCDs, discuss how current SCD analytic methods approach trend, describe GAMs as a possible solution, suggest a GAM model testing procedure for examining the presence of trend in SCDs, present a small simulation to show the statistical properties of GAMs, and illustrate the procedure on 3 examples of different lengths. Results suggest that GAMs may be very useful both as a form of sensitivity analysis for checking the plausibility of assumptions about trend and as a primary data analysis strategy for testing treatment effects. We conclude with a discussion of some problems with GAMs and some future directions for research on the application of GAMs to SCDs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.

  2. Iodine 131 ablation of an obstructive lingual thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman undergoing surgery could not be intubated because of an oropharyngeal mass. CT and MRI revealed a 3 cm possible lingual thyroid mass, confirmed by Iodine-123 SPECT/CT. The patient underwent successful Iodine-131 ablation and has done well on thyroid hormone-replacement therapy. This case also demonstrates how modern cross-sectional imaging like SPECT/CT can appropriately be used in the patient diagnosis and management, and is of additional interest for including pre- and post-therapy MRI documenting efficacy morphologically.

  3. Comparison of computational models for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose in rainbow trout from uptake of iodine-131 - Comparison of rainbow trout phantoms for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose rates from uptake of iodine-131 in freshwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Nicole E. [Department of Environmental and Engineering Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, 29634 (United States); Johnson, Thomas E.; Ruedig, Elizabeth; Pinder, John E. III [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1681 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Internal radiation dose rates to biota are typically calculated utilizing dose conversion factors (DCF), which are values for absorbed dose rate per activity concentration (i.e. mGy d{sup -1} per Bq g{sup -1}). The current methodology employed by both the ICRP and within the ERICA Integrated Approach for calculating dose conversion coefficients is to use Monte Carlo modeling of a homogeneously distributed radionuclide within an ellipsoidal phantom chosen to represent a particular organism. It has been shown that for whole-body DCF, homogenous distribution is a reasonable assumption for electrons, and is associated with an uncertainty of less than 30% for photons. However, if a radionuclide has a specific tissue tropism (e.g. iodine-131 in thyroid) a much higher dose will be received by the organ or tissue than by the whole body. Internal organs are modeled generically as spheres within the ellipsoid phantom, due to the complex and variable nature of organ structure and arrangement within different types of organisms. Ratios of whole-body to organ mass offer conservative conversions of whole-body to organ specific DCF (Gomez-Ros et al 2008), but may considerably overestimate the organ dose; more accurate estimates can be made based on specific absorbed fractions and activity concentrations. Establishment of appropriate screening levels in the regulatory paradigm requires incorporation of sufficient knowledge of dose effects; the ICRP currently lists no derived consideration reference levels for organs, meaning that specific risks associated with organ dose rates are unavailable (ICRP 108). Model comparison and refinement is important in the process of determining both dose rates and dose effects, and here we develop and compare three models for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): the simple geometry described above, a more specific geometry employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging

  4. Chemical behavior of gaseous iodine at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Wang, C.F.; Yang, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the major results obtained in a research project investigating the behavior of iodine aerosols. This project includes laboratory studies on radiation effects of iodine in the gas phase and the measurements of airborne radioiodine in nuclear facilities. It was found that under gamma irradiation, the iodide (I - ) ions in aerosol were readily oxidized to I 2 and HIO, and some iodide ions were converted to organic iodine when organic additive was presented in the KI solution from which the aerosol was generated. The results also indicate that the behavior of irradiated iodide aerosol depends on the chemistry environment in both the carrier gas and the iodide solution. The chemical forms of airborne radioiodine in an isotope production laboratory and a nuclear power plant effluent have also been measured. Although radioiodine has been observed in various forms, the activity in organic forms was found to be the dominating species in both cases. (author)

  5. Formation and behaviour of organic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.; Koukkar, P.; Karjunen, T.; Sjoevall, H.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents experimental studies on the formation of organic iodine in severe reactor accidents. The analyses were performed to evaluate the amount of alkaline chemical needed for effective pH control of containment water during the accidents. The formation of organic iodine in solutions used in the filtered venting system and the absorption of iodine compounds in the solutions were studied. Experiments for the formation of organic iodine on painted surfaces were also performed. (au)

  6. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  7. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  8. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    density of iodine (solid at room temperature) is 4.933 g/cc. Iodine also has a relatively high vapor pressure at low temperatures. Vapor pressures of...unknowns with iodine – Vapor pressure requires temperature control – New flow control system design/complexity – Performance and lifetime? – Safety... Iodine is a demonstrated HET propellant – Cheaper than xenon, similar critical properties – 3x higher storage density – Low pressure storage • Issues

  9. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Iodine, Polymer-supported periodic acid, Oxidant, Iodination. INTRODUCTION. Iodobenzene derivatives are valuable compounds in organic synthesis, medicine, and biochemistry [1]. Iodine is an elemental halogen that has less reactive than the other halides in electrophilic substitution reactions, therefore ...

  11. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  12. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  13. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  14. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, D R; Crawley, M T; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J

    2014-01-01

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  15. Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of short-lived iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of short-lived iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon

  16. Spatial downscaling of soil prediction models based on weighted generalized additive models in smallholder farm settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P; Nair, Vimala D

    2017-09-11

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) is gaining momentum as a technique to help smallholder farmers secure soil security and food security in developing regions. However, communications of the digital soil mapping information between diverse audiences become problematic due to the inconsistent scale of DSM information. Spatial downscaling can make use of accessible soil information at relatively coarse spatial resolution to provide valuable soil information at relatively fine spatial resolution. The objective of this research was to disaggregate the coarse spatial resolution soil exchangeable potassium (K ex ) and soil total nitrogen (TN) base map into fine spatial resolution soil downscaled map using weighted generalized additive models (GAMs) in two smallholder villages in South India. By incorporating fine spatial resolution spectral indices in the downscaling process, the soil downscaled maps not only conserve the spatial information of coarse spatial resolution soil maps but also depict the spatial details of soil properties at fine spatial resolution. The results of this study demonstrated difference between the fine spatial resolution downscaled maps and fine spatial resolution base maps is smaller than the difference between coarse spatial resolution base maps and fine spatial resolution base maps. The appropriate and economical strategy to promote the DSM technique in smallholder farms is to develop the relatively coarse spatial resolution soil prediction maps or utilize available coarse spatial resolution soil maps at the regional scale and to disaggregate these maps to the fine spatial resolution downscaled soil maps at farm scale.

  17. Performance of an iodine-fueled radio-frequency ion-thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Kristof; Gärtner, Waldemar; Zschätzsch, Daniel; Scharmann, Steffen; Köhler, Peter; Dietz, Patrick; Klar, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Two sets of performance data of the same radio-frequency ion-thruster (RIT) have been recorded using iodine and xenon, respectively, as propellant. To characterize the thruster's performance, we have recorded the radio-frequency DC-power, required for yielding preset values of the extracted ion-beam currents, as a function of mass flow. For that purpose, an iodine mass flow system had to be developed, calibrated, and integrated into a newly-built test facility for studying corrosive propellants. The performance mappings for iodine and xenon differ significantly despite comparable operation conditions. At low mass flows, iodine exhibits the better performance. The situation changes at higher mass flows where the performance of iodine is significantly poorer than that of xenon. The reason is very likely related to the molecular nature of iodine. Our results show that iodine as propellant is compatible with RIT technology. Furthermore, it is a viable alternative as propellant for dedicated space missions. In particular, when taking into account additional benefits such as possible storage as a solid and its low price the use of iodine as propellant in ion thrusters is competitive.

  18. Considering the Epistemic Uncertainties of the Variogram Model in Locating Additional Exploratory Drillholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the certainty of the grade block model, it is necessary to increase the number of exploratory drillholes and collect more data from the deposit. The inputs of the process of locating these additional drillholes include the variogram model parameters, locations of the samples taken from the initial drillholes, and the geological block model. The uncertainties of these inputs will lead to uncertainties in the optimal locations of additional drillholes. Meanwhile, the locations of the initial data are crisp, but the variogram model parameters and the geological model have uncertainties due to the limitation of the number of initial data. In this paper, effort has been made to consider the effects of variogram uncertainties on the optimal location of additional drillholes using the fuzzy kriging and solve the locating problem with the genetic algorithm (GA optimization method.A bauxite deposit case study has shown the efficiency of the proposed model.

  19. Fitting additive hazards models for case-cohort studies: a multiple imputation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinhyouk; Harel, Ofer; Kang, Sangwook

    2016-07-30

    In this paper, we consider fitting semiparametric additive hazards models for case-cohort studies using a multiple imputation approach. In a case-cohort study, main exposure variables are measured only on some selected subjects, but other covariates are often available for the whole cohort. We consider this as a special case of a missing covariate by design. We propose to employ a popular incomplete data method, multiple imputation, for estimation of the regression parameters in additive hazards models. For imputation models, an imputation modeling procedure based on a rejection sampling is developed. A simple imputation modeling that can naturally be applied to a general missing-at-random situation is also considered and compared with the rejection sampling method via extensive simulation studies. In addition, a misspecification aspect in imputation modeling is investigated. The proposed procedures are illustrated using a cancer data example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Iodine stress-corrosion cracking in irradiated Zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Yaggee, F.L.; Neimark, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated Zircaloy cladding specimens, which had experienced fluences from 0.1 to 6 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV), were gas-pressure tested in an iodine environment to investigate their stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility. The test temperatures and hoop stresses ranged from 320 to 360 0 C and 150 to 500 MPa, respectively. The results indicate that irradiation, in general, increases the susceptibility of Zircaloy to iodine SCC. For specimens that experienced fluences >2 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV), the 24-h failure stress was 177+-18 MPa, regardless of the preirradiation metallurgical condition. An analytical model for iodine SCC has been developed which agrees reasonably well with the test results

  1. Development of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine containing inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Sven; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of iodine is important in multiple ways. The focus lies on the ability to influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, i.e. by destruction of ozone, and the formation of iodine oxide particles (IOP), i.e. the influence on condensation nuclei (CCN). Using a variation of techniques, like differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS), the reactive iodine species of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2), iodine monoxide (IO) and iodine dioxide (OIO) have all been detected in the atmosphere from Antarctica to the equatorial marine boundary layer (MBL). In the past few years there have been active research on IO, especially after revealing significant levels in open ocean measurements, OIO and higher iodine oxides. In addition to atmospheric measurements, significant developments in laboratory kinetics, photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry of iodine species have been accomplished. [1] Here we introduce an online-method for detecting gaseous molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine-containing inorganic compounds such as HOI, which is a further development of the technique used by Carpenter et al. [2]. The method is based on selective photolytic dissociation of the analytes, followed by oxidization and particle formation of the iodine compounds. The particles are than size-segregated and detected by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system. Initial IOP forming is performed in a reaction chamber providing specific wavelengths according to corresponding bond dissociation thresholds. Atmospheric samples can also be pre concentrated by diffusion denuder (with α Cyclodextrin modified and immobilised silica coating) [3-5] and afterwards released by thermodesorption. First attempts of quantification are carried out by external calibration using an

  2. A thermodynamic model of the Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te-iodine transport system. I - Te-saturated source material. II - Source material composition within the homogeneity range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, D.; Wiedemeier, H.

    1987-01-01

    A thermochemical analysis of the Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te-iodine vapor transport system is presented, and theoretical calculations of diffusion-controlled mass transport rates are made. The predicted mass fluxes are compared with experimental data obtained from transport experiments under vertical, stabilizing conditions reported earlier and with results of additional transport experiments conducted during the present study. Experimental mass transport rate studies of the transport system for fixed amount of excess Hg as a function of transport agent pressure are presented. The mass fluxes are determined for the vertical, stabilizing orientation of the density gradient relative to the gravitational vector. In order to compare experimental mass transport rates with computed values, the thermochemical analysis is extended to take the formation of Hg vacancies in the above compound into account along with their effect on the partial pressure of the system.

  3. Research on model of additional forces of ocean conditions in one-dimensional coolant channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Libo; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Li Yong; Huang Yanping; Yan Xiao

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different ocean conditions on coolant flow can come down to the differences of additional forces in the momentum equations, thus ocean conditions can be considered by adding the additional forces caused by them to the momentum equations. The model of additional forces of 6 types of typical and relevant coupled ocean conditions is obtained based on the basic momentum equation in the non-inertial reference frame and the one-dimensional coolant channel. (authors)

  4. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  5. Method of fixing radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanuma, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Nakamichi; Kubota, Yu; Hoshino, Yoshihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive iodine by adsorbing radioactive iodine to silicate type adsorbents carrying silver thereon, mixing the adsorbents with hydroxides of alkali or alkaline earth metals and subjecting them to hydrothermic reaction. Method: The adsorbents used in this invention are, for example, those silicate type adsorbents carrying silver such as silver-supporting zeolite and silver-supporting moldenite, and the silver supporting amount is suitably from about 30 to 40 % by weight. When radioactive iodine is brought into contact with the adsorbents, it is adsorbed and a portion thereof is present in the instable coupling. Then, at least one of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and barium hydroxide is mixed in an amount of 1 to 30 % by weight to the adsorbents and maintained under the state of a pressure of higher than 70 kg/cm 2 and a temperature above 150 deg C under the presence of water to conduct hydrothermic reduction, whereby iodine is converted into stable AgI or AgIO 3 and the adsorabents are formed into solidification products. (Takahashi, M.)

  6. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  7. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.

  8. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Expanded Analysis of Hot Isostatic Pressed Iodine-Loaded Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R. T. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Patton, K. K. [ORNL

    2014-09-30

    variations, and an expanded temperature range. Each sample was analyzed with the approach used in Phase I. In all cases, there is nothing in the SEM or XRD analyses that indicates creation of any AgI-containing silicon phase, with the samples being found to be largely amorphous. Phase III of this study has been initiated and is the final phase of scoping tests. It will expand upon the test matrix completed in Phase II and will examine the durability of the pressed pellets through product consistency testing (PCT) studies. Transformation of the component material into a well-characterized iodine-containing mineral phase would be desirable. This would limit the additional experimental testing and modeling required to determine the long-term stability of the pressed pellet, as much of that information has already been learned for several common iodine-containing minerals. However, this is not an absolute requirement, especially if pellets produced by hot isostatic pressing can be demonstrated through initial PCT studies to retain iodine well despite their amorphous composition.

  10. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... in various regions of Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two healthy pregnant women admitted to five different Danish departments of obstetrics participated in the study. Iodine status was evaluated by measurement of iodine in spot urine at day five after delivery and by careful history of the intake of iodine...... containing vitamin/mineral tablets. Approximately one third of the women had received tablets containing iodine. In women who had not received iodine supplementation urinary iodine was low with a median value of 39.7 micrograms/g creatinine (Aalborg 28, Randers 33, Ringkøbing 34, Arhus 43 and Copenhagen 62...

  11. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    By now it is a well-known fact that iodine is an essential trace element for the growth and development of the human body. Because of iodine deficiency, some countries have added iodate to salt in order to increase the iodine intake. However, some people prefer iodine from more natural sources like...... seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods...... for determining the different iodine species. For determining the total iodine concentration in marine samples five different extraction methods were compared. The most efficient and precise method was then used for determining the total concentration of iodine in seaweed and fish samples using inductively...

  12. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  13. The chaos and control of a food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a chaotic food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator. • Local and global stability conditions are derived in presence of additional food. • Chaos is controlled only by increasing quantity of additional food. • System enters into periodic region and depicts Hopf bifurcations supplying additional food. • This an application of non-chemical methods for controlling chaos. -- Abstract: The control and management of chaotic population is one of the main objectives for constructing mathematical model in ecology today. In this paper, we apply a technique of controlling chaotic predator–prey population dynamics by supplying additional food to top-predator. We formulate a three species predator–prey model supplying additional food to top-predator. Existence conditions and local stability criteria of equilibrium points are determined analytically. Persistence conditions for the system are derived. Global stability conditions of interior equilibrium point is calculated. Theoretical results are verified through numerical simulations. Phase diagram is presented for various quality and quantity of additional food. One parameter bifurcation analysis is done with respect to quality and quantity of additional food separately keeping one of them fixed. Using MATCONT package, we derive the bifurcation scenarios when both the parameters quality and quantity of additional food vary together. We predict the existence of Hopf point (H), limit point (LP) and branch point (BP) in the model for suitable supply of additional food. We have computed the regions of different dynamical behaviour in the quantity–quality parametric plane. From our study we conclude that chaotic population dynamics of predator prey system can be controlled to obtain regular population dynamics only by supplying additional food to top predator. This study is aimed to introduce a new non-chemical chaos control mechanism in a predator–prey system with the

  14. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate...... was combined with a detailed gas-phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results showed good agreements with the experiments conducted in a biomass grate-firing combustor, where ferric sulfate...... and elemental sulfur were used as additives. The results indicated that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition was the main contributor to KCl sulfation and that the effectiveness of ferric sulfate addition was sensitive to the applied temperature conditions. Comparison of the effectiveness...

  15. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum......-dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  16. Incorporating additional tree and environmental variables in a lodgepole pine stem profile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Byrne

    1993-01-01

    A new variable-form segmented stem profile model is developed for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees from the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. I improved estimates of stem diameter by predicting two of the model coefficients with linear equations using a measure of tree form, defined as a ratio of dbh and total height. Additional improvements were...

  17. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  18. Concentration addition, independent action and generalized concentration addition models for mixture effect prediction of sex hormone synthesis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast...... was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects...

  19. Iodine deficiency and associated factors among school children: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu Hailu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency remains a public health problem in the world. It is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage worldwide. Though 12 million school age children are at risk of developing iodine deficiency, there is a scarcity of literature showing the magnitude of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of iodine deficiency among school children in Robe District, southeast Ethiopia. Methods A school based cross–sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 422 children. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with iodine deficiency. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a P-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 393 school children participated in the study. The median urinary iodine level was 78 μg/l. About 57 and 43.5 % of the children were found with low urinary iodine level and goiter, respectively. Only 29 % of the households utilized adequately iodized salt. The result of the multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of iodine deficiency were higher among female [AOR = 2.23; 95 % CI: 1.54, 3.55] and older (10–12 years [AOR = 2.21; 95 % CI: 1.44, 3.42] children. Conclusion In this community, the prevalence of goiter and low urine iodine level is high. Thus, iodine deficiency exists as severe public health problem. In addition, there is a low utilization of iodized salt in the setting. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify efforts in the implementation of iodized salt. Moreover, attention should be given to school children to address ID.

  20. Epidemiological trends of iodine-related thyroid disorders: an example from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of thyroid disorders is significantly associated with iodine supply. In 1999, Slovenia increased iodine content in kitchen salt from 10 mg to 25 mg of potassium iodide per kg of salt. According to the WHO criteria, Slovenia shifted from a mildly iodine-deficient country to a country with adequate iodine intake. Ten years after the increase in iodine intake, the incidence of diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy decreased. Now patients with diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy reach older age than the patients before the increase in iodine intake. In addition, patients with thyroid autonomy are less frequently hyperthyroid than ten years ago and iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is less severe. The incidence of highly malignant thyroid carcinoma has also dropped. However, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased, most probably in genetically predisposed individuals. Over the last ten years, many animal and in vitro studies evaluated the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on various aspects of the thyroid function. They mostly studied the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated chemicals, and perchlorate. However, human studies on the effects of EDCs on the thyroid function are very scarce, especially the long-term ones. What they do suggest is that PCBs and dioxins interfere with the transport of thyroid hormones and adversely affect the thyroid function. Many authors agree that iodine deficiency predisposes the thyroid gland to harmful effects of EDCs. Therefore the effects of EDCs in iodine-deficient areas could be more severe than in areas with adequate iodine intake.

  1. A Spectroscopic Method for Determining Free Iodine in Iodinated Fatty-Acid Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the concentration of free iodine in samples of iodinated fatty-acid esters can be measured using the electronic absorption spectra of their solutions in ethanol. The method proposed is rather simple in use and highly sensitive, allowing detection of presence of less than 10 ppm of free iodine in iodinated compounds. It is shown using the example of Lipiodol that this makes it possible to easily detect small amounts of free iodine in samples containing bound iodine in concentrations down to 40 wt %.

  2. Between and beyond additivity and non-additivity : the statistical modelling of genotype by environment interaction in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    1996-01-01

    In plant breeding it is a common observation to see genotypes react differently to environmental changes. This phenomenon is called genotype by environment interaction. Many statistical approaches for analysing genotype by environment interaction rely heavily on the analysis of variance model.

  3. Incorporating shape constraints in generalized additive modelling of the height-diameter relationship for Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measurements of tree heights and diameters are essential in forest assessment and modelling. Tree heights are used for estimating timber volume, site index and other important variables related to forest growth and yield, succession and carbon budget models. However, the diameter at breast height (dbh can be more accurately obtained and at lower cost, than total tree height. Hence, generalized height-diameter (h-d models that predict tree height from dbh, age and other covariates are needed. For a more flexible but biologically plausible estimation of covariate effects we use shape constrained generalized additive models as an extension of existing h-d model approaches. We use causal site parameters such as index of aridity to enhance the generality and causality of the models and to enable predictions under projected changeable climatic conditions. Methods: We develop unconstrained generalized additive models (GAM and shape constrained generalized additive models (SCAM for investigating the possible effects of tree-specific parameters such as tree age, relative diameter at breast height, and site-specific parameters such as index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature during vegetation period, on the h-d relationship of forests in Lower Saxony, Germany. Results: Some of the derived effects, e.g. effects of age, index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature have significantly non-linear pattern. The need for using SCAM results from the fact that some of the model effects show partially implausible patterns especially at the boundaries of data ranges. The derived model predicts monotonically increasing levels of tree height with increasing age and temperature sum and decreasing aridity and social rank of a tree within a stand. The definition of constraints leads only to marginal or minor decline in the model statistics like AIC. An observed structured spatial trend in tree height is modelled via 2-dimensional surface

  4. Outcome Differences between Intra-Arterial Iso- and Low-Osmolality Iodinated Radiographic Contrast Media in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, T A; Foster, L D; Liebeskind, D S; Hill, M D; Carrozella, J; Goyal, M; von Kummer, R; Demchuk, A M; Dzialowski, I; Puetz, V; Jovin, T; Morales, H; Palesch, Y Y; Broderick, J; Khatri, P; Yeatts, S D

    2015-11-01

    Intracarotid arterial infusion of nonionic, low-osmolal iohexol contrast medium has been associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model compared with saline infusion. Iso-osmolal iodixanol (290 mOsm/kg H2O) infusion demonstrated smaller infarcts and less intracranial hemorrhage compared with low-osmolal iopamidol and saline. No studies comparing iodinated radiographic contrast media in human stroke have been performed, to our knowledge. We hypothesized that low-osmolal contrast media may be associated with worse outcomes compared with iodixanol in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial (IMS III). We reviewed prospective iodinated radiographic contrast media data for 133 M1 occlusions treated with endovascular therapy. We compared 5 prespecified efficacy and safety end points (mRS 0-2 outcome, modified TICI 2b-3 reperfusion, asymptomatic and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality) between those receiving iodixanol (n = 31) or low-osmolal contrast media (n = 102). Variables imbalanced between iodinated radiographic contrast media types or associated with outcome were considered potential covariates for the adjusted models. In addition to the iodinated radiographic contrast media type, final covariates were those selected by using the stepwise method in a logistic regression model. Adjusted relative risks were then estimated by using a log-link regression model. Of baseline or endovascular therapy variables potentially linked to outcome, prior antiplatelet agent use was more common and microcatheter iodinated radiographic contrast media injections were fewer with iodixanol. Relative risk point estimates are in favor of iodixanol for the 5 prespecified end points with M1 occlusion. The percentage of risk differences are numerically greater for microcatheter injections with iodixanol. While data favoring the use of iso-osmolal iodixanol for reperfusion of M1 occlusion following IV rtPA are

  5. Structured Additive Regression Models: An R Interface to BayesX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Umlauf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Structured additive regression (STAR models provide a flexible framework for model- ing possible nonlinear effects of covariates: They contain the well established frameworks of generalized linear models and generalized additive models as special cases but also allow a wider class of effects, e.g., for geographical or spatio-temporal data, allowing for specification of complex and realistic models. BayesX is standalone software package providing software for fitting general class of STAR models. Based on a comprehensive open-source regression toolbox written in C++, BayesX uses Bayesian inference for estimating STAR models based on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation techniques, a mixed model representation of STAR models, or stepwise regression techniques combining penalized least squares estimation with model selection. BayesX not only covers models for responses from univariate exponential families, but also models from less-standard regression situations such as models for multi-categorical responses with either ordered or unordered categories, continuous time survival data, or continuous time multi-state models. This paper presents a new fully interactive R interface to BayesX: the R package R2BayesX. With the new package, STAR models can be conveniently specified using Rs formula language (with some extended terms, fitted using the BayesX binary, represented in R with objects of suitable classes, and finally printed/summarized/plotted. This makes BayesX much more accessible to users familiar with R and adds extensive graphics capabilities for visualizing fitted STAR models. Furthermore, R2BayesX complements the already impressive capabilities for semiparametric regression in R by a comprehensive toolbox comprising in particular more complex response types and alternative inferential procedures such as simulation-based Bayesian inference.

  6. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewig, F.; Allelein, H.J.; Schwarz, S.; Weber, G.

    1996-01-01

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model which originally was only drafted for chains of compartments was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO 3 - is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO 3 - are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I 2 -concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I 2 is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO 3 - . (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12

  7. Source of Iodine-131 in Europe Identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA has received information from the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) that the source of the iodine-131 (I-131) detected in Europe was most probably a release to the atmosphere from the Institute of Isotopes Ltd., Budapest. The Institute of Isotopes Ltd. produces radioisotopes for healthcare, research and industrial applications. According to the HAEA, the release occurred from September 8 to November 16, 2011. The cause of the release is under investigation. As previously mentioned, the levels of I-131 that have been detected in Europe are extremely low. There is no health concern to the population. If any member of the public were to breathe iodine for a whole year at the levels measured in European countries, then they would receive a dose in the range of 0.01 microsieverts for the year. To put this into perspective, the average annual background is 2 400 microsieverts per year. The IAEA was first notified of the presence of trace levels of I-131 by authorities from the Czech Republic on 11 November. Since this notification, the IAEA contacted several member states throughout the region to determine the cause and origin. The IAEA also worked with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to conduct air dispersion modelling, as part of efforts to determine the source. (IAEA)

  8. Iodine-129 in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Moiseev, I.T.

    1987-01-01

    The quantitative ratio of aerial and soil entries of 129 I into plants, parameters of its migration in the system of atmosphere-soil-plants-river water, dynamics of transformation and biological availability of 129 I in soil for plants were studied on the basis of field observations and experiments using the radioactive tracers. The doses of human thyroid gland irradiation by 129 I under atmospheric and soil pathways of its transport into diet are estimated. 129 I content in soil due to its systematic, for 50 years, releases into atmosphere is shown to be negligible, agricultural production contamination by 129 I resulting mainly from its fallout onto overground phytomass. The period, needed to achieve 129 I concentration equilibrium in the atmosphere-soil system under constant average 129 I content in the air, varies depending on the soil type from several hundred years (for podzolic soils) up to several thousand years (for chernozem). The 129 I half-accumulation period is equal to 150 years for soddy-podzolic soil and to 700 years for chernozem. In case of 129 I fallout lasting for 100 years the annual increase of its content in overground phytomass due to the transport from soil will account for 0,3% of its atmospheric entry way for soddy-podzolic soil and for 0,1% for chernozem, respectively. For a number of sierozem, yellow soil and calcareous chernozem types this addition is higher (up to 1%). Under constant iodine-129 concentration in air (1 Bq/m3) the absorbed dose for one-year child's thyroid gland in continental area is approximately equal to 2 (Gy/y)/(Bq/m3). The absorbed dose from globally dissipated 129 I under 99% efficiency of gas purification will not exceed 2·10 -7 Gy/y. The input of globally dissipated 129 I, originating from deep underground disposal of nuclear wastes can account for not more than 10 -9 Gy/y. In total, 129 I releases for the coming century is not going to produce limitations for nuclear energetics development. (author)

  9. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S

    1999-01-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from ... the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P

  10. Estimation of direct effects for survival data by using the Aalen additive hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Gerster, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Aalen's additive regression for the event time, given exposure, intermediate variable and confounders. The second stage involves applying Aalen's additive model, given the exposure alone, to a modified stochastic process (i.e. a modification of the observed counting process based on the first......We extend the definition of the controlled direct effect of a point exposure on a survival outcome, other than through some given, time-fixed intermediate variable, to the additive hazard scale. We propose two-stage estimators for this effect when the exposure is dichotomous and randomly assigned...

  11. Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Field: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Stefano; Meneghello, Roberto; Concheri, Gianmaria

    2018-01-01

    Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed. PMID:29487626

  12. Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Field: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Gianpaolo; Rosso, Stefano; Meneghello, Roberto; Concheri, Gianmaria

    2018-01-01

    Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed.

  13. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages......, are considered in this article. Summary: There are two main ways in which urine can be collected for iodine measurement. The first is the collection of urine over a period, usually 24 hours. The second is the collection of a spot urinary sample. Urinary iodine values can be expressed as the content...... or concentration and reported without modification or as a function of creatinine in the same sample. The 24-hour urine for iodine measurement is often considered as the “reference standard” for giving a precise estimate of the individual iodine excretion and thereby iodine intake. As 24-hour collections...

  14. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, M.; Philippe, Ch.; Pham, Minh Tuan; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, O.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 17010102. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18430S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : iodine cells * absorption spectroscopy * laser spectroscopy * laser standards * frequency stability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  15. WE-FG-207B-08: Dual-Energy CT Iodine Accuracy Across Vendors and Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, M; Wood, C; Cody, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Although a major benefit of dual-energy CT is its quantitative capabilities, it is critical to understand how results vary by scanner manufacturer and/or model before making clinical patient management decisions. Each manufacturer utilizes a specific dual-energy CT approach; cross-calibration may be required for facilities with more than one dual-energy CT scanner type. Methods: A solid dual-energy quality control phantom (Gammex, Inc.; Appleton, WI) representing a large body cross-section containing three Iodine inserts (2mg/ml, 5mg/ml, 15 mg/ml) was scanned on these CT systems: GE HD-750 (80/140kVp), prototype GE Revolution CT with GSI (80/140kVp), Siemens Flash (80/140kVp and 100/140kVp), and Philips IQon (120kVp and 140kVp). Iodine content was measured in units of concentration (mg/ml) from a single 5mm-thick central image. Three to five acquisitions were performed on each scanner platform in order to compute standard deviation. Scan acquisitions were approximately dose-matched (∼25mGy CTDIvol) and image parameters were as consistent as possible (thickness, kernel, no noise reduction applied). Results: Iodine measurement error ranges were −0.24-0.16 mg/ml for the 2mg/ml insert (−12.0 − 8.0%), −0.28–0.26 mg/ml for the 5mg/ml insert (−5.6 − 5.2%), and −1.16−0.99 mg/ml for the 15mg/ml insert (−7.7 − 6.6%). Standard deviations ranged from 0 to 0.19 mg/ml for the repeated acquisitions from each scanner. The average iodine measurement error and standard deviation across all systems and inserts was −0.21 ± 0.48 mg/ml (−1.5 ± 6.48%). The largest absolute measurement error was found in the 15mg/ml iodine insert. Conclusion: There was generally good agreement in Iodine quantification across 3 dual-energy CT manufacturers and 4 scanner models. This was unexpected given the widely different underlying dual-energy CT mechanisms employed. Future work will include additional scanner platforms, independent verification of the Iodine

  16. Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Juichi; Tobisu, Kenichi; Sanada, Shingo

    1983-01-01

    Herein we report a 36-year-old man with hyperparathyroidism and a past history of internal irradiation to the thyroid. Twelve years previously at age 24 years he had received 8 mCi of radioactive iodine for Graves' disease. An additional dose of 4 mCi was required 3 years later. A right lower parathyroid adenoma (28 x 23 x 20 mm, 5.7 g) was found at neck exploration. Although the association of external ionizing radiation to the head and neck and the subsequent development of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands has been described in recent years, there are only 4 cases in the literature of parathyroid surgery for hyperparathyroidism secondary to earlier treatment with radioactive iodine for Graves' disease. In a long-term follow-up of 180 patients treated with radioactive iodine for Graves' disease, neither hypercalcemia nor hypophosphatemia was found. Whether internal radiation therapy can be a causative factor in the development of hyperparathyroidism should be elucidated in future. However, it seems reasonable to suggest that patients whose hyper-thyroidism has been treated with radioactive iodine should have their scrum calcium levels examined at 5-year intervals. (author)

  17. Estimation of additive and dominance variance for reproductive traits from different models in Duroc purebred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talerngsak Angkuraseranee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The additive and dominance genetic variances of 5,801 Duroc reproductive and growth records were estimated usingBULPF90 PC-PACK. Estimates were obtained for number born alive (NBA, birth weight (BW, number weaned (NW, andweaning weight (WW. Data were analyzed using two mixed model equations. The first model included fixed effects andrandom effects identifying inbreeding depression, additive gene effect and permanent environments effects. The secondmodel was similar to the first model, but included the dominance genotypic effect. Heritability estimates of NBA, BW, NWand WW from the two models were 0.1558/0.1716, 0.1616/0.1737, 0.0372/0.0874 and 0.1584/0.1516 respectively. Proportionsof dominance effect to total phenotypic variance from the dominance model were 0.1024, 0.1625, 0.0470, and 0.1536 for NBA,BW, NW and WW respectively. Dominance effects were found to have sizable influence on the litter size traits analyzed.Therefore, genetic evaluation with the dominance model (Model 2 is found more appropriate than the animal model (Model 1.

  18. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France); Geffroy, F. [Centre de Geostatistique, Fontainebleau (France)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  19. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  20. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  1. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  2. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  3. The regression-calibration method for fitting generalized linear models with additive measurement error

    OpenAIRE

    James W. Hardin; Henrik Schmeidiche; Raymond J. Carroll

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses and illustrates the method of regression calibration. This is a straightforward technique for fitting models with additive measurement error. We present this discussion in terms of generalized linear models (GLMs) following the notation defined in Hardin and Carroll (2003). Discussion will include specified measurement error, measurement error estimated by replicate error-prone proxies, and measurement error estimated by instrumental variables. The discussion focuses on s...

  4. Local radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons of iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, P.; Uenak, T.

    1987-01-01

    High radiotoxicity of iodine-125 has been mainly attributed to the local radiolytic effects of Auger electrons on biological systems. In the present study, experimental and theoretical results are compared. The agreement between the experimental and theoretical results explains that the energy absorption of iodine aggregates has an important role in the radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons and iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Iodine deficiency and associated factors among school children: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Sintayehu; Wubshet, Mamo; Woldie, Haile; Tariku, Amare

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a public health problem in the world. It is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage worldwide. Though 12 million school age children are at risk of developing iodine deficiency, there is a scarcity of literature showing the magnitude of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of iodine deficiency among school children in Robe District, southeast Ethiopia. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 422 children. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with iodine deficiency. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a P -value of deficiency were higher among female [AOR = 2.23; 95 % CI: 1.54, 3.55] and older (10-12 years) [AOR = 2.21; 95 % CI: 1.44, 3.42] children. In this community, the prevalence of goiter and low urine iodine level is high. Thus, iodine deficiency exists as severe public health problem. In addition, there is a low utilization of iodized salt in the setting. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify efforts in the implementation of iodized salt. Moreover, attention should be given to school children to address ID.

  6. Sparse Additive Ordinary Differential Equations for Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hulin; Lu, Tao; Xue, Hongqi; Liang, Hua

    2014-04-02

    The gene regulation network (GRN) is a high-dimensional complex system, which can be represented by various mathematical or statistical models. The ordinary differential equation (ODE) model is one of the popular dynamic GRN models. High-dimensional linear ODE models have been proposed to identify GRNs, but with a limitation of the linear regulation effect assumption. In this article, we propose a sparse additive ODE (SA-ODE) model, coupled with ODE estimation methods and adaptive group LASSO techniques, to model dynamic GRNs that could flexibly deal with nonlinear regulation effects. The asymptotic properties of the proposed method are established and simulation studies are performed to validate the proposed approach. An application example for identifying the nonlinear dynamic GRN of T-cell activation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  7. Vector generalized linear and additive models with an implementation in R

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a statistical framework that expands generalized linear models (GLMs) for regression modelling. The framework shared in this book allows analyses based on many semi-traditional applied statistics models to be performed as a coherent whole. This is possible through the approximately half-a-dozen major classes of statistical models included in the book and the software infrastructure component, which makes the models easily operable.    The book’s methodology and accompanying software (the extensive VGAM R package) are directed at these limitations, and this is the first time the methodology and software are covered comprehensively in one volume. Since their advent in 1972, GLMs have unified important distributions under a single umbrella with enormous implications. The demands of practical data analysis, however, require a flexibility that GLMs do not have. Data-driven GLMs, in the form of generalized additive models (GAMs), are also largely confined to the exponential family. This book ...

  8. Iodine-129 and Iodine-127 speciation in groundwater at the Hanford Site, U.S.: iodate incorporation into calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Saijin; Yeager, Chris; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Site, the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States, has large radioactive waste plumes containing high 129I levels. The geochemical transport and fate of radioiodine depends largely on its chemical speciation that is greatly affected by environmental factors. This study reports, for the first time, the speciation of stable and radioactive iodine in the groundwater from the Hanford Site. Iodate was the dominant species and accounts for up to 84%, followed by organo-iodine and minimal levels of iodide. The relatively high pH and oxidizing environment may have prevented iodate reduction. Our results identified that calcite precipitation caused by degassing of CO2 during deep groundwater sampling incorporated between 7 to 40% of dissolved iodine (including 127I and 129I) that was originally in the groundwater, transforming dissolved to particulate iodate during sampling. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying iodine incorporation by calcite, laboratory experiments were carried out to replicate this iodine sequestering processes. Two methods were utilized in this study, 1) addition of sodium carbonate; 2) addition of calcium chloride followed by sodium carbonate where the pH was well controlled at ~8.2, which is close to the average pH of Hanford Site groundwater. It was demonstrated that iodate was the main species incorporated into calcite and this incorporation process could be impeded by elevated pH and decreasing ionic strength in groundwater. This study provides critical information for predicting the long-term fate and transport of 129I at the Hanford Site and reveals a potential means for improved remediation strategies of 129I

  9. Molecular environment of iodine in naturally iodinated humic substances: Insight from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Michel L.; Mercier-Bion, Florence; Barre, Nicole; Reiller, Pascal; Moulin, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The molecular environment of iodine in reference inorganic and organic compounds, and in dry humic and fulvic acids (HAs and FAs) extracted from subsurface and deep aquifers was probed by iodine L-3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of iodine spectra from HAs and FAs resembled those of organic references and displayed structural features consistent with iodine forming covalent bonds with organic molecules. Simulation of XANES spectra by linear combination of reference spectra suggested the predominance of iodine forming covalent bonds to aromatic rings (aromatic-bound iodine). Comparison of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of reference and samples further showed that iodine was surrounded by carbon shells at distances comparable to those for references containing aromatic-bound iodine. Quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra indicated that iodine was bound to about one carbon at a distance d(I-C) of 2.01(4)-2.04(9) angstrom, which was comparable to the distances observed for aromatic-bound iodine in references (1.99(1)-2.07(6) angstrom), and significantly shorter than that observed for aliphatic-bound iodine (2.15(2)-2.16(2) angstrom). These results are in agreement with previous conclusions from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and from electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. These results collectively suggest that the aromatic-bound iodine is stable in the various aquifers of this study. (authors)

  10. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  11. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  12. Iodine status in schoolchildren living in northeast Italy: the importance of iodized-salt use and milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watutantrige Fernando, S; Barollo, S; Nacamulli, D; Pozza, D; Giachetti, M; Frigato, F; Redaelli, M; Zagotto, G; Girelli, M E; Mantero, F; Mian, C

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the study were: (i) to determine iodine status of schoolchildren living in northeast Italy; (ii) to assess dietary habits and iodine status and (iii) to investigate the level of knowledge concerning iodine sufficiency and ways to ameliorate iodine status. One thousand three hundred seventy-five consecutive 12-13 year-old completed questionnaires collecting demographic data and information about the use of iodized salt and food frequency habits. Iodine concentration in urine samples (UIC) and in commercially available milk samples has been measured. The median UIC was found to be 81 μg/l (95% confidence interval (CI) 74-87); 40% of the subjects had an UIC of ≥ 100 μg/l. Iodine deficiency was prevalent in subjects living in hilly areas. Median iodine concentration in milk was 264 μg/l. Only the combined use of iodized salt plus daily milk normalized UIC, resulting into a median value of 108 μg/l. A logistic regression model confirmed independent associations between low UIC and low intake of milk, use of non-iodized salt and geographical location (Pimportance of iodine. Northeast Italy is still characterized by mild iodine deficiency. An adequate iodine status was achieved only when iodized salt was combined with daily milk intake. The national iodine prophylaxis program has led to greater consumption of iodized salt and, it is now used in 60-70% of the Italian households. The low level of awareness highlights the need for public programs to promote knowledge and efforts to improve iodine status.

  13. Optimizing simulated fertilizer additions using a genetic algorithm with a nutrient uptake model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell P. Cropper; N.B. Comerford

    2005-01-01

    Intensive management of pine plantations in the southeastern coastal plain typically involves weed and pest control, and the addition of fertilizer to meet the high nutrient demand of rapidly growing pines. In this study we coupled a mechanistic nutrient uptake model (SSAND, soil supply and nutrient demand) with a genetic algorithm (GA) in order to estimate the minimum...

  14. Parametrically Guided Generalized Additive Models with Application to Mergers and Acquisitions Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Maity, Arnab; Wang, Yihui; Wu, Yichao

    2013-01-01

    Generalized nonparametric additive models present a flexible way to evaluate the effects of several covariates on a general outcome of interest via a link function. In this modeling framework, one assumes that the effect of each of the covariates is nonparametric and additive. However, in practice, often there is prior information available about the shape of the regression functions, possibly from pilot studies or exploratory analysis. In this paper, we consider such situations and propose an estimation procedure where the prior information is used as a parametric guide to fit the additive model. Specifically, we first posit a parametric family for each of the regression functions using the prior information (parametric guides). After removing these parametric trends, we then estimate the remainder of the nonparametric functions using a nonparametric generalized additive model, and form the final estimates by adding back the parametric trend. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the estimates and show that when a good guide is chosen, the asymptotic variance of the estimates can be reduced significantly while keeping the asymptotic variance same as the unguided estimator. We observe the performance of our method via a simulation study and demonstrate our method by applying to a real data set on mergers and acquisitions.

  15. Declarations pursuant to the Articles 2 and 3 of the Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Articles 2 and 3 of the Model Additional Protocol specify the content and the time limits of the information to be provided by the States into the framework of the Safeguard Agreements. To standardize the presentation of this information the IAEA has prepared guidelines for the preparation of the documents. A detailed explanation of the guidelines is given in the paper

  16. 78 FR 12271 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Additional Comment In Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... (202) 863-2893, facsimile (202) 863-2898, or via the Internet at http://www.bcpiweb.com . In addition, the Virtual Workshop may be accessed via the Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/blog/wcb-cost-model... this proceeding. The Bureau will not rely on anonymous comments posted during the workshop in reaching...

  17. Modeling a Change in Flowrate through Detention or Additional Pavement on the Receiving Stream : Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The addition or removal of flow from a stream affects the water surface downstream and possibly upstream. The extent of such effects is generally determined by modeling the receiving stream. Guidance that concisely describes how far up/downstream a h...

  18. A Bayesian Additive Model for Understanding Public Transport Usage in Special Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Borysov, Stanislav S.; Ribeiro, Bernardete

    2017-01-01

    additive model with Gaussian process components that combines smart card records from public transport with context information about events that is continuously mined from the Web. We develop an efficient approximate inference algorithm using expectation propagation, which allows us to predict the total...

  19. Discontinuity of Family Planning in Nigeria: A Geo-Additive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... This study explored the factors associated with discontinuance of Family Planning (FP) in Nigeria. A geo-additive model was ... education, wealth, religion, culture are responsible for women's attitude to ..... Planning Indicators by Wealth in Two South Asian Countries. www.cpc.unc.edu/measure. 25. Nyauchi ...

  20. Representational Flexibility and Problem-Solving Ability in Fraction and Decimal Number Addition: A Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a structural model in fraction and decimal number addition, which is founded primarily on a synthesis of major theoretical approaches in the field of representations in Mathematics and also on previous research on the learning of fractions and decimals. The study was conducted among 1,701 primary…

  1. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2013-01-01

    was affected by the decomposition temperature. Based on the experimental data, a model was proposed to simulate the sulfation of KCl by different sulfate addition, and the simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experiments conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The simulation results...

  2. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  3. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  4. Hygienic assessment of radioactive iodine isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Sources of radioactive iodine isotopes and their biological significance depending on the way of intake are discussed. The degree of food contamination by radioactive iodine as well as products, which serve as the source of its intake into the human body, and results of their processing are considered. The danger of radioactive iodine intake by different groups of population as well as thyroid irradiation effects are discussed. Description of activities, directed to the human body protection against radioactive iodine and assessment of these protection measures efficiency is presented

  5. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  6. Anti-microbial and skin wound dressing application of molecular iodine nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Bharathi Babu, Divya; Jayakumar, Gomathi; Dhinakar Raj, Gopal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, iodine nanoparticles were synthesized without use of any stabilizer by a new co-precipitation process using polyvinyl pyrolidone, calcium lactate, disodium hydrogen phosphate and iodine solution as precursor and the reaction was catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. Ten mg of the synthesized nanoparticles killed 95% of bacteria and inhibited 90% of bio film formation. Assays on membrane disintegration activities of the nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles destroyed the extracellular membrane of the bacteria. The wound healing application evaluated using mice model showed that it was hastened by iodine nanoparticles.

  7. A mechanism for biologically-induced iodine emissions from sea-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxe, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea-ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea-ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, to accumulate in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea-ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea-ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest iodine is released to the atmosphere via 3 possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea-ice, to be released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea-ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea-ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, nevertheless the results show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e., I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea-ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during this timeframe. The model results

  8. Absolute frequency atlas from 915 nm to 985 nm based on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölleke, Christian; Raab, Christoph; Neuhaus, Rudolf; Falke, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine gas between 915 nm and 985 nm. This wavelength range is scanned utilizing a narrow linewidth and mode-hop-free tunable diode-laser whose frequency is actively controlled using a calibrated wavelength meter. This allows us to provide an iodine atlas that contains almost 10,000 experimentally observed reference lines with an uncertainty of 50 MHz. For common lines, good agreement is found with a publication by Gerstenkorn and Luc (1978). The new rich dataset allows existing models of the iodine molecule to be refined and can serve as a reference for laser frequency calibration and stabilization.

  9. Advanced chemical oxygen iodine lasers for novel beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kenan; Zhao, Tianliang; Huai, Ying; Jin, Yuqi

    2018-03-01

    Chemical oxygen iodine laser, or COIL, is an impressive type of chemical laser that emits high power beam with good atmospheric transmissivity. Chemical oxygen iodine lasers with continuous-wave plane wave output are well-developed and are widely adopted in directed energy systems in the past several decades. Approaches of generating novel output beam based on chemical oxygen iodine lasers are explored in the current study. Since sophisticated physical processes including supersonic flowing of gaseous active media, chemical reacting of various species, optical power amplification, as well as thermal deformation and vibration of mirrors take place in the operation of COIL, a multi-disciplinary model is developed for tracing the interacting mechanisms and evaluating the performance of the proposed laser architectures. Pulsed output mode with repetition rate as high as hundreds of kHz, pulsed output mode with low repetition rate and high pulse energy, as well as novel beam with vector or vortex feature can be obtained. The results suggest potential approaches for expanding the applicability of chemical oxygen iodine lasers.

  10. Formation and reduction of carcinogenic furan in various model systems containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sil; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse and reduce furan in various model systems. Furan model systems consisting of monosaccharides (0.5M glucose and ribose), amino acids (0.5M alanine and serine) and/or 1.0M ascorbic acid were heated at 121°C for 25 min. The effects of food additives (each 0.1M) such as metal ions (iron sulphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate and calcium sulphate), antioxidants (BHT and BHA), and sodium sulphite on the formation of furan were measured. The level of furan formed in the model systems was 6.8-527.3 ng/ml. The level of furan in the model systems of glucose/serine and glucose/alanine increased 7-674% when food additives were added. In contrast, the level of furan decreased by 18-51% in the Maillard reaction model systems that included ribose and alanine/serine with food additives except zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NB-PLC channel modelling with cyclostationary noise addition & OFDM implementation for smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Togis; Gupta, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Power line communication (PLC) technology can be a viable solution for the future ubiquitous networks because it provides a cheaper alternative to other wired technology currently being used for communication. In smart grid Power Line Communication (PLC) is used to support communication with low rate on low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose the channel modelling of narrowband (NB) PLC in the frequency range 5 KHz to 500 KHz by using ABCD parameter with cyclostationary noise addition. Behaviour of the channel was studied by the addition of 11KV/230V transformer, by varying load location and load. Bit error rate (BER) Vs signal to noise ratio SNR) was plotted for the proposed model by employing OFDM. Our simulation results based on the proposed channel model show an acceptable performance in terms of bit error rate versus signal to noise ratio, which enables communication required for smart grid applications.

  12. A parallelized three-dimensional cellular automaton model for grain growth during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yanping; Lin, Stephen; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Wing Kam; Wagner, Gregory J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a parallelized 3D cellular automaton computational model is developed to predict grain morphology for solidification of metal during the additive manufacturing process. Solidification phenomena are characterized by highly localized events, such as the nucleation and growth of multiple grains. As a result, parallelization requires careful treatment of load balancing between processors as well as interprocess communication in order to maintain a high parallel efficiency. We give a detailed summary of the formulation of the model, as well as a description of the communication strategies implemented to ensure parallel efficiency. Scaling tests on a representative problem with about half a billion cells demonstrate parallel efficiency of more than 80% on 8 processors and around 50% on 64; loss of efficiency is attributable to load imbalance due to near-surface grain nucleation in this test problem. The model is further demonstrated through an additive manufacturing simulation with resulting grain structures showing reasonable agreement with those observed in experiments.

  13. Experimental validation of a fuel additive assisted regeneration model in silicon carbide diesel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, G.A.; Pontikakis, G.N.; Stamatelos, A.M. [University of Thessaly, Volos (Greece). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, an experimental validation procedure is applied to an improved one-dimensional model of fuel additive assisted regeneration of a diesel particulate filter. Full-scale tests on an engine bench of the regeneration behaviour of a diesel filter fitted to a modern diesel engine run on catalyst-doped fuel are employed for this purpose. The main objectives of the validation procedure concern the ability of the model to predict the effects of exhaust mass flowrate, initial soot loading mass, volatile organic fraction of the soot and additive concentration in the fuel. The results of the validation procedure are intended to demonstrate the scope and extent of applicability of models of this type to real-world design and optimization studies with diesel filters. (author)

  14. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... geographical (and seasonal) variations in iodine concentrations were found in different beverages supplying an appreciable part of the iodine in the Danish diet. This knowledge is important when calculating the iodine intake from dietary intake studies....

  15. Stakeholder reactions toward iodine biofortified foods. An application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; Wesana, Joshua; Makokha, Anselimo; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  17. Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Ihssen

    Full Text Available Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials.

  18. Serum thyroglobulin and urinary iodine concentration are the most appropriate indicators of iodine status and thyroid function under conditions of increasing iodine supply in schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Briel, T.; West, C. E.; Hautvast, J. G.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ategbo, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency control programs have greatly reduced iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. For monitoring changes in iodine status, different indicators may be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of indicators of iodine status and thyroid function, thyroglobulin (Tg),

  19. The potential application of European market research data in dietary exposure modelling of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David Robin; Bruyninckx, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Consumer exposure assessments for food additives are incomplete without information about the proportions of foods in each authorised category that contain the additive. Such information has been difficult to obtain but the Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD) provides information about product launches across Europe over the past 20 years. These data can be searched to identify products with specific additives listed on product labels and the numbers compared with total product launches for food and drink categories in the same database to determine the frequency of occurrence. There are uncertainties associated with the data but these can be managed by adopting a cautious and conservative approach. GNPD data can be mapped with authorised food categories and with food descriptions used in the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Surveys Database for exposure modelling. The data, when presented as percent occurrence, could be incorporated into the EFSA ANS Panel's 'brand-loyal/non-brand loyal exposure model in a quantitative way. Case studies of preservative, antioxidant, colour and sweetener additives showed that the impact of including occurrence data is greatest in the non-brand loyal scenario. Recommendations for future research include identifying occurrence data for alcoholic beverages, linking regulatory food codes, FoodEx and GNPD product descriptions, developing the use of occurrence data for carry-over foods and improving understanding of brand loyalty in consumer exposure models.

  20. Efficient semiparametric estimation in generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2014-02-01

    We consider efficient estimation of the Euclidean parameters in a generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data when multiple covariates need to be modeled nonparametrically, and propose an estimation procedure based on a spline approximation of the nonparametric part of the model and the generalized estimating equations (GEE). Although the model in consideration is natural and useful in many practical applications, the literature on this model is very limited because of challenges in dealing with dependent data for nonparametric additive models. We show that the proposed estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal even if the covariance structure is misspecified. An explicit consistent estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. Moreover, we derive the semiparametric efficiency score and information bound under general moment conditions. By showing that our estimators achieve the semiparametric information bound, we effectively establish their efficiency in a stronger sense than what is typically considered for GEE. The derivation of our asymptotic results relies heavily on the empirical processes tools that we develop for the longitudinal/clustered data. Numerical results are used to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators. © 2014 ISI/BS.

  1. Study of abrasive resistance of foundries models obtained with use of additive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovik, Evgeniy

    2017-10-01

    A problem of determination of resistance of the foundry models and patterns from ABS (PLA) plastic, obtained by the method of 3D printing with using FDM additive technology, to abrasive wear and resistance in the environment of foundry sand mould is considered in the present study. The description of a technique and equipment for tests of castings models and patterns for wear is provided in the article. The manufacturing techniques of models with the use of the 3D printer (additive technology) are described. The scheme with vibration load was applied to samples tests. For the most qualitative research of influence of sandy mix on plastic, models in real conditions of abrasive wear have been organized. The results also examined the application of acrylic paintwork to the plastic model and a two-component coating. The practical offers and recommendation on production of master models with the use of FDM technology allowing one to reach indicators of durability, exceeding 2000 cycles of moulding in foundry sand mix, are described.

  2. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  3. Development and comparison of computational models for estimation of absorbed organ radiation dose in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from uptake of iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, N.E.; Johnson, T.E.; Capello, K.; Pinder, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and compares different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ absorbed radiation dose and dose rates from 131 I uptake in multiple organs. The models considered are: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing additional organs with anatomically relevant size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O. mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling, and combined with estimated activity concentrations, to approximate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (μGy) to selected organs after several half-lives of 131 I. The different computational models provided similar results, especially for source organs (less than 30% difference between estimated doses), and whole body DCFs for each model (∼3 × 10 −3 μGy d −1 per Bq kg −1 ) were comparable to DCFs listed in ICRP 108 for 131 I. The main benefit provided by the computational models developed here is the ability to accurately determine organ dose. A conservative mass-ratio approach may provide reasonable results for sufficiently large organs, but is only applicable to individual source organs. Although CSUTROUT is the more anatomically realistic phantom, it required much more resource dedication to develop and is less flexible than the stylized phantom for similar results. There may be instances where a detailed phantom such as CSUTROUT is appropriate, but generally the stylized phantom appears to be the best choice for an ideal balance between accuracy and resource requirements. - Highlights: • Computational models (phantoms) are developed for rainbow trout internal dosimetry. • Phantoms are combined with empirical models for 131 I uptake to estimate dose. • Voxel and stylized phantoms predict

  4. Iodine Adsorption by Ag-Aerogel under Prototypical Vessel Off-Gas Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    possible, as no iodine was observed to break through the sorbent beds. Continued studies on the adsorption of iodine from prototypical vessel off-gas streams by silver-based sorbents will attempt to resolve some of the questions raised here, both regarding mass balance and the effect of aging on iodine adsorption by AgAerogel from a dilute gas stream. Additionally, the adsorption of different iodine species, such as I2 and C12H25I will be studied. Other variables that merit examination are the gas velocity of the test and the dependence of the observed results on the inlet iodine concentration. Finally, longer duration testing should be considered in an effort to determine the mass transfer zone associated with iodine adsorption by AgAerogel under prototypical vessel off-gas conditions. The estimation of mass transfer zone is required for any future industrial implementation.

  5. The effect of tailor-made additives on crystal growth of methyl paraben: Experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhihui; Liu, Yong; Song, Yang; Guan, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, methyl paraben (MP) was selected as the model component, and acetaminophen (APAP), p-methyl acetanilide (PMAA) and acetanilide (ACET), which share the similar molecular structure as MP, were selected as the three tailor-made additives to study the effect of tailor-made additives on the crystal growth of MP. HPLC results indicated that the MP crystals induced by the three additives contained MP only. Photographs of the single crystals prepared indicated that the morphology of the MP crystals was greatly changed by the additives, but PXRD and single crystal diffraction results illustrated that the MP crystals were the same polymorph only with different crystal habits, and no new crystal form was found compared with other references. To investigate the effect of the additives on the crystal growth, the interaction between additives and facets was discussed in detail using the DFT methods and MD simulations. The results showed that APAP, PMAA and ACET would be selectively adsorbed on the growth surfaces of the crystal facets, which induced the change in MP crystal habits.

  6. Electron-collision cross sections for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R.; Brunger, M.J.; Hoshino, M.; Buckman, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

  7. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  8. Workshop on iodine aspects of severe accident management. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Following a recommendation of the OECD Workshop on the Chemistry of Iodine in Reactor Safety held in Wuerenlingen (Switzerland) in June 1996 [Summary and Conclusions of the Workshop, Report NEA/CSNI/R(96)7], the CSNI decided to sponsor a Workshop on Iodine Aspects of Severe Accident Management, and their planned or effective implementation. The starting point for this conclusion was the realization that the consolidation of the accumulated iodine chemistry knowledge into accident management guidelines and procedures remained, to a large extent, to be done. The purpose of the meeting was therefore to help build a bridge between iodine research and the application of its results in nuclear power plants, with particular emphasis on severe accident management. Specifically, the Workshop was expected to answer the following questions: - what is the role of iodine in severe accident management? - what are the needs of the utilities? - how can research fulfill these needs? The Workshop was organized in Vantaa (Helsinki), Finland, from 18 to 20 May 1999, in collaboration with Fortum Engineering Ltd. It was attended by forty-six specialists representing fifteen Member countries and the European Commission. Twenty-eight papers were presented. These included four utility papers, representing the views of Electricite de France (EDF), Teollisuuden Voima Oy and Fortum Engineering Ltd (Finland), the Nuclear Energy Institute (USA), and Japanese utilities. The papers were presented in five sessions: - iodine speciation; - organic compound control; - iodine control; - modeling; - iodine management; A sixth session was devoted to a general discussion on iodine management under severe accident conditions. This report summarizes the content of the papers and the conclusions of the workshop

  9. Use of additive technologies for practical working with complex models for foundry technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovik, E.; Butsanets, A. A.; Ageeva, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the results of research of additive technology (3D printing) application for developing a geometrically complex model of castings parts. Investment casting is well known and widely used technology for the production of complex parts. The work proposes the use of a 3D printing technology for manufacturing models parts, which are removed by thermal destruction. Traditional methods of equipment production for investment casting involve the use of manual labor which has problems with dimensional accuracy, and CNC technology which is less used. Such scheme is low productive and demands considerable time. We have offered an alternative method which consists in printing the main knots using a 3D printer (PLA and ABS) with a subsequent production of castings models from them. In this article, the main technological methods are considered and their problems are discussed. The dimensional accuracy of models in comparison with investment casting technology is considered as the main aspect.

  10. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  11. Using 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) to Produce Low-Cost Simulation Models for Medical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, John P; Tatum, Peter S; Gada, Satyen; Wyn, Mark; Ho, Vincent B; Liacouras, Peter

    2018-03-01

    This work describes customized, task-specific simulation models derived from 3D printing in clinical settings and medical professional training programs. Simulation models/task trainers have an array of purposes and desired achievements for the trainee, defining that these are the first step in the production process. After this purpose is defined, computer-aided design and 3D printing (additive manufacturing) are used to create a customized anatomical model. Simulation models then undergo initial in-house testing by medical specialists followed by a larger scale beta testing. Feedback is acquired, via surveys, to validate effectiveness and to guide or determine if any future modifications and/or improvements are necessary. Numerous custom simulation models have been successfully completed with resulting task trainers designed for procedures, including removal of ocular foreign bodies, ultrasound-guided joint injections, nerve block injections, and various suturing and reconstruction procedures. These task trainers have been frequently utilized in the delivery of simulation-based training with increasing demand. 3D printing has been integral to the production of limited-quantity, low-cost simulation models across a variety of medical specialties. In general, production cost is a small fraction of a commercial, generic simulation model, if available. These simulation and training models are customized to the educational need and serve an integral role in the education of our military health professionals.

  12. Analysis of reactivity worth for xenon poisoning during restart-up of reactor in iodine pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xaofeng; Chen Wenzhen; Zhu Qian; Xu Guojun

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity worth of xenon poisoning and the densities of 135 I and 135 Xe were derived when the reactor was restarted up in iodine pit. Through the expressions obtained we can find the physics characteristics of reactor restarted up in iodine pit comprehensively and essentially. The results were analyzed and discussed. The reactor power before shutdown, the start-up power, the position where the reactor starts up in iodine pit, and so on, all have effect on the reactivity worth of xenon poisoning, and the different conditions can lead to totally different physics characteristics. In addition, the time when the reactor starts up in iodine pit is a very important factor for nuclear reactors safety. The conclusions are very important to the maneuverability and operation safety of ship nuclear reactors. (authors)

  13. Impact of Ecologically Unfriendly Environment on the Formation of Thyroid Pathology in Children Against Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Kosmynina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By prevalence among thyroid pathological conditions in Ukraine, the diffuse nontoxic goiter is dominated, the frequency of which, in addition to iodine deficiency, is influenced by anthropogenic pollution of environment. The article evaluated the role of the negative impact of polluted environment on the formation of thyroid disease in children from ecologically unfriendly region on the background of endemic iodine deficiency compared with children from ecologically friendly area of iodine deficiency. It has been determined the frequency of diffuse endemic goiter in children from studied groups according to palpation and ultrasonography. The functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system in children living in iodine deficiency environmentally unfriendly and ecologically friendly areas has been researched.

  14. Worst case prediction of additives migration from polystyrene for food safety purposes: a model update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Lopez, Brais; Gontard, Nathalie; Peyron, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    A reliable prediction of migration levels of plastic additives into food requires a robust estimation of diffusivity. Predictive modelling of diffusivity as recommended by the EU commission is carried out using a semi-empirical equation that relies on two polymer-dependent parameters. These param......A reliable prediction of migration levels of plastic additives into food requires a robust estimation of diffusivity. Predictive modelling of diffusivity as recommended by the EU commission is carried out using a semi-empirical equation that relies on two polymer-dependent parameters....... These parameters were determined for the polymers most used by packaging industry (LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PET, PS, HIPS) from the diffusivity data available at that time. In the specific case of general purpose polystyrene, the diffusivity data published since then shows that the use of the equation with the original...

  15. An additive-multiplicative mean residual life model for right-censored data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingheng; He, Haijin; Song, Xinyuan; Sun, Liuquan

    2017-05-01

    Many studies have focused on determining the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the mortality in different cohorts. In this article, we propose an additive-multiplicative mean residual life (MRL) model to assess the effects of BMI and other risk factors on the MRL function of survival time in a cohort of Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. The proposed model can simultaneously manage additive and multiplicative risk factors and provide a comprehensible interpretation of their effects on the MRL function of interest. We develop an estimation procedure through pseudo partial score equations to obtain parameter estimates. We establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators and conduct simulations to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The application of the procedure to a study on the life expectancy of type 2 diabetic patients reveals new insights into the extension of the life expectancy of such patients. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Additive Risk Model for Estimation of Effect of Haplotype Match in BMT Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Martinussen, T; Zhang, MJ

    2011-01-01

    leads to a missing data problem. We show how Aalen's additive risk model can be applied in this setting with the benefit that the time-varying haplomatch effect can be easily studied. This problem has not been considered before, and the standard approach where one would use the expected-maximization (EM......) algorithm cannot be applied for this model because the likelihood is hard to evaluate without additional assumptions. We suggest an approach based on multivariate estimating equations that are solved using a recursive structure. This approach leads to an estimator where the large sample properties can...... be developed using product-integration theory. Small sample properties are investigated using simulations in a setting that mimics the motivating haplomatch problem....

  17. Patient-specific in vitro models for hemodynamic analysis of congenital heart disease - Additive manufacturing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medero, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Sylvana; François, Christopher J; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro

    2017-03-21

    Non-invasive hemodynamic assessment of total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is challenging due to the complex anatomy. Additive manufacturing (AM) is a suitable alternative for creating patient-specific in vitro models for flow measurements using four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI. These in vitro systems have the potential to serve as validation for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), simulating different physiological conditions. This study investigated three different AM technologies, stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), to determine differences in hemodynamics when measuring flow using 4D Flow MRI. The models were created using patient-specific MRI data from an extracardiac TCPC. These models were connected to a perfusion pump circulating water at three different flow rates. Data was processed for visualization and quantification of velocity, flow distribution, vorticity and kinetic energy. These results were compared between each model. In addition, the flow distribution obtained in vitro was compared to in vivo. The results showed significant difference in velocities measured at the outlets of the models that required internal support material when printing. Furthermore, an ultrasound flow sensor was used to validate flow measurements at the inlets and outlets of the in vitro models. These results were highly correlated to those measured with 4D Flow MRI. This study showed that commercially available AM technologies can be used to create patient-specific vascular models for in vitro hemodynamic studies at reasonable costs. However, technologies that do not require internal supports during manufacturing allow smoother internal surfaces, which makes them better suited for flow analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling of Ti-W Solidification Microstructures Under Additive Manufacturing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolchigo, Matthew R.; Mendoza, Michael Y.; Samimi, Peyman; Brice, David A.; Martin, Brian; Collins, Peter C.; LeSar, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes have many benefits for the fabrication of alloy parts, including the potential for greater microstructural control and targeted properties than traditional metallurgy processes. To accelerate utilization of this process to produce such parts, an effective computational modeling approach to identify the relationships between material and process parameters, microstructure, and part properties is essential. Development of such a model requires accounting for the many factors in play during this process, including laser absorption, material addition and melting, fluid flow, various modes of heat transport, and solidification. In this paper, we start with a more modest goal, to create a multiscale model for a specific AM process, Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), which couples a continuum-level description of a simplified beam melting problem (coupling heat absorption, heat transport, and fluid flow) with a Lattice Boltzmann-cellular automata (LB-CA) microscale model of combined fluid flow, solute transport, and solidification. We apply this model to a binary Ti-5.5 wt pct W alloy and compare calculated quantities, such as dendrite arm spacing, with experimental results reported in a companion paper.

  19. Model for Assembly Line Re-Balancing Considering Additional Capacity and Outsourcing to Face Demand Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, TMAA; Sumihartati, Atin

    2016-02-01

    The most critical stage in a garment industry is sewing process, because generally, it consists of a number of operations and a large number of sewing machines for each operation. Therefore, it requires a balancing method that can assign task to work station with balance workloads. Many studies on assembly line balancing assume a new assembly line, but in reality, due to demand fluctuation and demand increased a re-balancing is needed. To cope with those fluctuating demand changes, additional capacity can be carried out by investing in spare sewing machine and paying for sewing service through outsourcing. This study develops an assembly line balancing (ALB) model on existing line to cope with fluctuating demand change. Capacity redesign is decided if the fluctuation demand exceeds the available capacity through a combination of making investment on new machines and outsourcing while considering for minimizing the cost of idle capacity in the future. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost of the line assembly that consists of operating costs, machine cost, adding capacity cost, losses cost due to idle capacity and outsourcing costs. The model develop is based on an integer programming model. The model is tested for a set of data of one year demand with the existing number of sewing machines of 41 units. The result shows that additional maximum capacity up to 76 units of machine required when there is an increase of 60% of the average demand, at the equal cost parameters..

  20. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Iodine Through Urinary Iodine Screening Among Local Children and Adolescents After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Watanobe, Hajime; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Chiaki; Ochi, Sae; Leppold, Claire; Kinoshita, Hirokatsu; Kato, Shigeaki; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation. However, little information is available on the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March 2011. In order to assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and the prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima, were evaluated. A total of 4410 children and adolescents with a median age of 10 years at examination underwent UIC testing between October 2012 and October 2015. Calculated for all the participants, the median UIC level was 204 μg/L (range 25-21,100 μg/L). There were 133 (3.0%), 732 (16.6%), and 1472 (33.4%) participants with UIC levels of nutritional iodine status, no participants were severely iodine deficient (<20 μg/L), but 16.6% of the population were mildly (50-100 μg/L) or moderately (20-50 μg/L) iodine deficient. While no significant difference in UIC was noted between those who did and did not increase dietary iodine intake after the accident (p = 0.93), there were significant differences by year (p < 0.01), school level (p < 0.001), and residential area at the time of the accident (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that the children and adolescents examined had a sufficient amount of iodine during the period 1.5-4.5 years after the nuclear accident. In addition to the differences in the scale and the countermeasures undertaken between the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, differences in dietary iodine intake might have played an additional role in resulting in the reportedly different radiation doses to the thyroid between the two nuclear accidents.

  1. A QCD derivation of the additive quark model from two and three gluon exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    The contributions to the Pomeron from two and three gluon exchanges are shown to give the correct combinatorial factors for the additive quark model relation between meson and baryon Pomeron couplings, even though two-quark and three-quark operators are involved. Similar results hold for the contributions to hadron masses from three-gluon vertices as well as one-gluon exchange. The color algebra reduces the multiquark couplings to a linear function of quark number. (author)

  2. PULSE: Integrated Parametric Modeling for a Shading System: From Daylight Optimization to Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Teeling, M.V.M.T.; Turrin, M.; de Ruiter, P.; Turrin, Michela; Peters, Brady; O'Brien, William; Stouffs, Rudi; Dogan, Timur

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a parametric approach to an integrated and performance-oriented design, from the conceptual design phase towards materialization. The novelty occurs in the use of parametric models as a way of integrating multidisciplinary design constraints, from daylight optimization to the additive manufacturing process. The work focuses on the case of a customized sun-shading system that tailors daylighting effects for a fully glazed façade of the alleged PULSE building.The overall wor...

  3. Development of a QTL-environment-based predictive model for node addition rate in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gezan, Salvador A; Eduardo Vallejos, C; Jones, James W; Boote, Kenneth J; Clavijo-Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Osorno, Juan M; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen; Roman-Paoli, Elvin; Gonzalez, Abiezer; Beaver, James; Ricaurte, Jaumer; Colbert, Raphael; Correll, Melanie J

    2017-05-01

    This work reports the effects of the genetic makeup, the environment and the genotype by environment interactions for node addition rate in an RIL population of common bean. This information was used to build a predictive model for node addition rate. To select a plant genotype that will thrive in targeted environments it is critical to understand the genotype by environment interaction (GEI). In this study, multi-environment QTL analysis was used to characterize node addition rate (NAR, node day - 1 ) on the main stem of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). This analysis was carried out with field data of 171 recombinant inbred lines that were grown at five sites (Florida, Puerto Rico, 2 sites in Colombia, and North Dakota). Four QTLs (Nar1, Nar2, Nar3 and Nar4) were identified, one of which had significant QTL by environment interactions (QEI), that is, Nar2 with temperature. Temperature was identified as the main environmental factor affecting NAR while day length and solar radiation played a minor role. Integration of sites as covariates into a QTL mixed site-effect model, and further replacing the site component with explanatory environmental covariates (i.e., temperature, day length and solar radiation) yielded a model that explained 73% of the phenotypic variation for NAR with root mean square error of 16.25% of the mean. The QTL consistency and stability was examined through a tenfold cross validation with different sets of genotypes and these four QTLs were always detected with 50-90% probability. The final model was evaluated using leave-one-site-out method to assess the influence of site on node addition rate. These analyses provided a quantitative measure of the effects on NAR of common beans exerted by the genetic makeup, the environment and their interactions.

  4. Iodine deficiency disorders in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyu, A; Tambi, Z; Ahmad, Y

    1998-12-01

    The state of Sarawak in Malaysia has a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This has been revealed through a review of goitre surveys that were carried out in the State from the early 1970s to the 1990s. The primary cause was low iodine intake. Contributory factors were low iodine content in the soil and water as well as high cassava consumption. Virtual elimination of IDD is one of the nutritional goals of the IDD prevention and control programs. The strategies adopted include the iodination of coarse salt, which is sold in the market by shopkeepers and also provided free from government health clinics; legislation requiring that salt sold in IDD-gazetted areas must be iodised; and the use of iodinators to iodise water supplied by the gravity-feed system to villages and boarding schools in rural areas. The indicators used in the monitoring and evaluation of the program include the availability of iodised salt in the market and households, iodine levels in water supply that had been fitted with iodinators, goitre volume measured by ultrasound, and urinary iodine excretion among school children.

  5. Iodine evolution and pH control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Lorenz, R.A.; Weber, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The pH is the major factor in determining the extent of I 2 in solution. In containment where no pH-control chemicals are present, the acidity or basicity of the water pool will be determined by materials that are introduced into containment as a result of the accident itself. These materials may be fission products (i.e., cesium compounds), thermally produced products (i.e., core-concrete aerosols), or compounds produced by radiation (i.e., nitric acid). In situations where pH levels fall below ∼7, the formation of I 2 will occur in irradiated iodide solutions. A correlation between pH and iodine formation is needed so that the amounts I 2 in water pools can be assessed. This, in turn, determines the amount of I 2 in the atmosphere available for escape by containment leakage. A number of calculational routines based on more than 100 differential equations representing individual reactions can be found in the literature. In this work, it is shown that a simpler approach based on the steady-state decomposition of hydrogen peroxide should correctly describe iodine formation in severe accidents. Comparisons with test data show this approach to be valid. The most important acids in containment will be nitric acid (HNO 3 ), produced by irradiation of water and air, and hydrochloric acid (HCl), produced by irradiation or heating of electrical cable insulation. The most important bases in containment will be cesium hydroxide, cesium borate (or cesium carbonate), and in some plants pH additives, such as sodium hydroxide or sodium phosphate

  6. Comparison of prosthetic models produced by traditional and additive manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the clinical-feasibility of additive manufacturing by comparing the accuracy of four different manufacturing methods for metal coping: the conventional lost wax technique (CLWT); subtractive methods with wax blank milling (WBM); and two additive methods, multi jet modeling (MJM), and micro-stereolithography (Micro-SLA). Thirty study models were created using an acrylic model with the maxillary upper right canine, first premolar, and first molar teeth. Based on the scan files from a non-contact blue light scanner (Identica; Medit Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), thirty cores were produced using the WBM, MJM, and Micro-SLA methods, respectively, and another thirty frameworks were produced using the CLWT method. To measure the marginal and internal gap, the silicone replica method was adopted, and the silicone images obtained were evaluated using a digital microscope (KH-7700; Hirox, Tokyo, Japan) at 140X magnification. Analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). The mean marginal gaps and internal gaps showed significant differences according to tooth type (Pmanufacturing method (Pmanufacturing methods were within a clinically allowable range, and, thus, the clinical use of additive manufacturing methods is acceptable as an alternative to the traditional lost wax-technique and subtractive manufacturing.

  7. Theoretical studies of vibrational relaxation of iodine in low density liquid xenon

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.K.; Russell, D.J.; Smith, D.E.; Harris, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary results of generalized Langevin and isolated binary collision (IBC) calculations for vibrational relaxation of iodine in low density liquid xenon are presented. Simple generalized Langevin simulations, using equilibrium xenon as a model solvent, fail to reproduce molecular dynamics vibrational relaxation data. This is explained, at least in part, by noting that the iodine vibrational motion perturbs the local solvent, with this perturbation resulting in dissipation of energy. Simp...

  8. A negative feedback between anthropogenic ozone pollution and enhanced ocean emissions of iodine

    OpenAIRE

    C. Prados-Roman; C. A. Cuevas; R. P. Fernandez; D. E. Kinnison; J.-F. Lamarque; A. Saiz-Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Naturally emitted from the oceans, iodine compounds efficiently destroy atmospheric ozone and reduce its positive radiative forcing effects in the troposphere. Emissions of inorganic iodine have been experimentally shown to depend on the deposition to the oceans of tropospheric ozone, whose concentrations have significantly increased since 1850 as a result of human activities. A chemistry-climate model is used herein to quantify the current ocean emissions of inorgani...

  9. Development of putative probiotics as feed additives: validation in a porcine-specific gastrointestinal tract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Soyoung; Lee, Suro; Park, Hyunjoon; Shin, Heuynkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Huh, Chul Sung

    2016-12-01

    Enforced restrictions on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production have prompted investigations into alternative feed additives in recent decades. Probiotics are currently the main feed additive used in livestock. However, the selection of probiotic candidates relies on human-based methods and little is known about the verification criteria for host-specific selection. We investigated the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from fed pig feces for their use as porcine feed additives. Two methods were developed that simulated the pig gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the intestinal epithelium, and these were compared with human-based in vitro methods and used for selecting porcine probiotics. Lactobacillus salivarius strain LS6 was identified as a promising probiotic strain for potential use as a porcine feed additive. This strain prevented disruption of the epithelial integrity of pig small intestine (PSI) cells by inhibiting the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. It also showed high survival rates in the in vitro pig GI tract model and good adhesion to PSI cells. We propose that host target-specific screening and validation methods are important tools in the development of effective probiotic feed additives, and this approach may support future-oriented agriculture.

  10. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    While radioactive iodine is clearly the therapy of choice for Graves' disease (even in younger patients) the use of radioactive iodine for therapy of the toxic multinodular or uninodular goiter presents an entirely different problem. Although these two entities can be treated with radioactive iodine provided there is some suppression of the tissue that is not autonomous, transient release of thyroid hormone may induce symptoms of thyroid storm in the very large multinodular toxic goiter treated with radioiodine therapy. These toxic nodules generally require much larger doses of radioiodine than is commonly used for classical Graves' disease and may either require fractional administration of radioisotopes or concomitant use of antithyroid drugs and iodides. In general, surgery remains the treatment of choice for large toxic multinodular goiters, after proper preparation by medical means including radioactive iodine. Radioactive iodine therapy for hyperthyroidism is contraindicated in pregnancy and generally is not used in children below five years of age. (U.S.)

  11. Radioiodination of methoxsalen using different iodinating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyoub, S.M.; Farah, K.

    2007-01-01

    Different iodinating agents such as chloramine-T (Ch-T), iodogen, H 2 O 2 and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) were used for the labelling of methoxsalen via electrophilic substitution reaction. These iodinating agents oxidize NaI to produce the iodonium ions which attacked the active position in methoxsalen. These iodinating agents successfully iodinate the methoxsalen with a reasonable radiochemical yield and purity. The factors affecting both chemical yield and purity, such as the concentration of the iodinating agent, the methoxsalen concentration and the reaction time, were studied. Different developing solvents were used for the identification of the products using TLC technique. It was found that the most suitable solvent for the identification of methoxsalen using TLC was n-butanol : acetic acid : water (4:1:1). Radiochemical yields of 80% and 84% , with purity 99%, were achieved in case of NBS and H 2 O 2 , respectively

  12. Iodine content in bulk biomass of wild-harvested and cultivated edible seaweeds: Inherent variations determine species-specific daily allowable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Roleda, Michael; Skjermo, Jorunn; Marfaing, Hélène; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Rebours, Celine; Gietl, Anna; Stengel, Dagmar; Nitschke, Udo

    2018-01-01

    This study represents a large-scale investigation into iodine contents in three commercially important and edible seaweed species from the North Atlantic: the brown algae Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta, and the red alga Palmaria palmata. Variability among and within species were explored in terms of temporal and spatial variations in addition to biomass source. Mean iodine concentration in bulk seaweed biomass was speciesspecific: Saccharina > Alaria > Palmaria. Iodine contents of ...

  13. GenoGAM: genome-wide generalized additive models for ChIP-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Georg; Engelhardt, Alexander; Schulz, Daniel; Schmid, Matthias; Tresch, Achim; Gagneur, Julien

    2017-08-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a widely used approach to study protein-DNA interactions. Often, the quantities of interest are the differential occupancies relative to controls, between genetic backgrounds, treatments, or combinations thereof. Current methods for differential occupancy of ChIP-Seq data rely however on binning or sliding window techniques, for which the choice of the window and bin sizes are subjective. Here, we present GenoGAM (Genome-wide Generalized Additive Model), which brings the well-established and flexible generalized additive models framework to genomic applications using a data parallelism strategy. We model ChIP-Seq read count frequencies as products of smooth functions along chromosomes. Smoothing parameters are objectively estimated from the data by cross-validation, eliminating ad hoc binning and windowing needed by current approaches. GenoGAM provides base-level and region-level significance testing for full factorial designs. Application to a ChIP-Seq dataset in yeast showed increased sensitivity over existing differential occupancy methods while controlling for type I error rate. By analyzing a set of DNA methylation data and illustrating an extension to a peak caller, we further demonstrate the potential of GenoGAM as a generic statistical modeling tool for genome-wide assays. Software is available from Bioconductor: https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GenoGAM.html . gagneur@in.tum.de. Supplementary information is available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Dietary iodine intake in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hai Xia; Li, Jian Wen; Mao, Wei Feng; Zhu, Jiang Hui; He, Yu Na; Song, Xiao Yu; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sa Na; Liu, Zhao Ping; Li, Feng Qin

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population. Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level (UL) and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). In areas with water iodine concentration (WI) lower than 150 μg/L, 80.8% of residents had iodine intake between the RNI and UL, 5.8% higher than UL, and the remaining (13.4%) lower than RNI if iodized salt was consumed. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.0% of residents between RNI and UL, 1.4% higher than UL, and a large part of residents (97.6%) lower than RNI. In areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L, all residents had iodine intake between RNI and UL if iodized salt was consumed, except 10.5% and 24.9% of residents higher than UL in areas with WI at 150-300 μg/L and higher than 300 μg/L respectively. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.5% and 1.7% of residents had higher iodine intake than UL respectively. The findings suggested that in general, the dietary iodine intake by the Chinese population was appropriate and safe at the present stage. People in areas with WI lower than 150 μg/L were more likely to have iodine deficiency. While people in areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L were more likely to have excessive iodine intake if iodized salt was consumed. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parity Symmetry and Parity Breaking in the Quantum Rabi Model with Addition of Ising Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiong; He Zhi; Yao Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility to generate new parity symmetry in the quantum Rabi model after a bias is introduced. In contrast to a mathematical treatment in a previous publication [J. Phys. A 46 (2013) 265302], we consider a physically realistic method by involving an additional spin into the quantum Rabi model to couple with the original spin by an Ising interaction, and then the parity symmetry is broken as well as the scaling behavior of the ground state by introducing a bias. The rule can be found that the parity symmetry is broken by introducing a bias and then restored by adding new degrees of freedom. Experimental feasibility of realizing the models under discussion is investigated. (paper)

  16. Testing Departure from Additivity in Tukey’s Model using Shrinkage: Application to a Longitudinal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A.; Park, Sung Kyun; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Allison, Matthew A.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Chen, Jinbo; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2014-01-01

    While there has been extensive research developing gene-environment interaction (GEI) methods in case-control studies, little attention has been given to sparse and efficient modeling of GEI in longitudinal studies. In a two-way table for GEI with rows and columns as categorical variables, a conventional saturated interaction model involves estimation of a specific parameter for each cell, with constraints ensuring identifiability. The estimates are unbiased but are potentially inefficient because the number of parameters to be estimated can grow quickly with increasing categories of row/column factors. On the other hand, Tukey’s one degree of freedom (df) model for non-additivity treats the interaction term as a scaled product of row and column main effects. Due to the parsimonious form of interaction, the interaction estimate leads to enhanced efficiency and the corresponding test could lead to increased power. Unfortunately, Tukey’s model gives biased estimates and low power if the model is misspecified. When screening multiple GEIs where each genetic and environmental marker may exhibit a distinct interaction pattern, a robust estimator for interaction is important for GEI detection. We propose a shrinkage estimator for interaction effects that combines estimates from both Tukey’s and saturated interaction models and use the corresponding Wald test for testing interaction in a longitudinal setting. The proposed estimator is robust to misspecification of interaction structure. We illustrate the proposed methods using two longitudinal studies — the Normative Aging Study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. PMID:25112650

  17. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen-Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J E; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for antigen production. In this study, we sequenced the genome of M. hyopneumoniae strain 11 and constructed a high quality constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model of 284 chemical reactions and 298 metabolites. We validated the model with time-series data of duplicate fermentation cultures to aim for an integrated model describing the dynamic profiles measured in fermentations. The model predicted that 84% of cellular energy in a standard M. hyopneumoniae cultivation was used for non-growth associated maintenance and only 16% of cellular energy was used for growth and growth associated maintenance. Following a cycle of model-driven experimentation in dedicated fermentation experiments, we were able to increase the fraction of cellular energy used for growth through pyruvate addition to the medium. This increase in turn led to an increase in growth rate and a 2.3 times increase in the total biomass concentration reached after 3-4 days of fermentation, enhancing the productivity of the overall process. The model presented provides a solid basis to understand and further improve M. hyopneumoniae fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2339-2347. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Modeling Data Containing Outliers using ARIMA Additive Outlier (ARIMA-AO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Guritno, Suryo; Abdurakhman; Rahman, Abdul; Awi; Alimuddin; Minggi, Ilham; Arif Tiro, M.; Kasim Aidid, M.; Annas, Suwardi; Utami Sutiksno, Dian; Ahmar, Dewi S.; Ahmar, Kurniawan H.; Abqary Ahmar, A.; Zaki, Ahmad; Abdullah, Dahlan; Rahim, Robbi; Nurdiyanto, Heri; Hidayat, Rahmat; Napitupulu, Darmawan; Simarmata, Janner; Kurniasih, Nuning; Andretti Abdillah, Leon; Pranolo, Andri; Haviluddin; Albra, Wahyudin; Arifin, A. Nurani M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim this study is discussed on the detection and correction of data containing the additive outlier (AO) on the model ARIMA (p, d, q). The process of detection and correction of data using an iterative procedure popularized by Box, Jenkins, and Reinsel (1994). By using this method we obtained an ARIMA models were fit to the data containing AO, this model is added to the original model of ARIMA coefficients obtained from the iteration process using regression methods. In the simulation data is obtained that the data contained AO initial models are ARIMA (2,0,0) with MSE = 36,780, after the detection and correction of data obtained by the iteration of the model ARIMA (2,0,0) with the coefficients obtained from the regression Zt = 0,106+0,204Z t‑1+0,401Z t‑2‑329X 1(t)+115X 2(t)+35,9X 3(t) and MSE = 19,365. This shows that there is an improvement of forecasting error rate data.

  19. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (Pseaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  20. Sodium, Iodine and Bromine in Polar Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffezzoli, Niccolo

    with a description of the main analytic al techniques used to measure ionic and elemental species in ice cores. Chapter 4 introduces sodium, bromine and iodine with a theoretical perspective and a particular focus on their connections with sea ice. Some of the physical and chemical properties that are believed......Abstract: This research focuses on sodium, bromine and iodine in polar ice cores, with the aim of reviewing and advancing their current understanding with additional measurements and records, and investigating the connections of these tracers with sea ice and their feasibility as sea ice indicators....... Modern Arctic sea ice decline clearly yields further motivation in this direction, as the reconstruction of past sea ice conditions could provide clues to the mechanisms in play nowadays and in the future projections. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) has been applied...

  1. Iodine Oxide Thermite Reactions: Physical and Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rod; Pantoya, Michelle; Bless, Stephan; Clark, William

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the potential for some thermite-like material reactions to kill bacteria spores. Iodine oxides and silver oxides react vigorously with metals like aluminum, tantalum, and neodymium. These reactions theoretically produce temperatures as high as 8000K, leading to vaporization of the reactants, producing very hot iodine and/or silver gases. We performed a series of computations and experiments to characterize these reactions under both quasi-static and ballistic impact conditions. Criteria for impact reaction were established. Measurements of temperature and pressure changes and chemical evolution will be reported. Basic combustion characterizations of these reactions, such as thermal equilibrium analysis and reaction propagation rates as well as ignition sensitivity, will be discussed. Additionally, testing protocols were developed to characterize the biocidal effects of these reactive materials on B. subtilis spores. The evidence from these tests indicates that these reactions produce heat, pressure, and highly biocidal gases.

  2. Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seulgi; Ka, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-07-09

    The effect of various food additives on the formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in a caramel model system was investigated. The relationship between the levels of 4-MI and various pyrazines was studied. When glucose and ammonium hydroxide were heated, the amount of 4-MI was 556 ± 1.3 μg/mL, which increased to 583 ± 2.6 μg/mL by the addition of 0.1 M of sodium sulfite. When various food additives, such as 0.1 M of iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, tryptophan, and cysteine were added, the amount of 4-MI was reduced to 110 ± 0.7, 483 ± 2.0, 460 ± 2.0, 409 ± 4.4, and 397 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The greatest reduction, 80%, occurred with the addition of iron sulfate. Among the 12 pyrazines, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine with 4-MI showed the highest correlation (r = -0.8239).

  3. Short-wavelength Contractional Structures in Venusian Fold Belts: Additional Constraints From New Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, R.; Phillips, R.; Hansen, V.; Nunes, D.

    2002-12-01

    We have previously reported on the development of very short-wavelength (30 km [1, 2]. We simulated the initiation and growth of VST using finite-element models with uniform composition and elasto-visco-plastic rheology undergoing simultaneous cooling and shortening. The models were constrained by Magellan SAR imagery and motivated by the current plume hypothesis for crustal plateau origin [3, 4]. We determined that VST developed only in models with surface temperatures near 1000 K and elevated thermal gradients derived from a halfspace cooling model with initial uniform temperatures of 1200-1400 K. Model rheological profiles indicated a truly viscoplastic character, in which both creep and plastic mechanisms were significant at shallow depths. The resulting topography showed both very short-wavelength components and slightly longer-wavelength, low amplitude folds, as is common in Venusian crustal plateau fold belts. New simulations with greater spatial extent and higher mesh resolution allow further exploration of the interplay between viscous and plastic processes during VST development. Wider models allow more detailed investigation of viscous folding on the 1-4 km scale. We also employ temperature-dependent thermal conductivity [5] to better represent the thermal behavior of the model crust. The additional insight and expanded parameter space provided by these new models allow us to place improved constraints on the early thermal and mechanical evolution of crustal plateaus. [1] Ghent, R.R., R.J. Phillips, V.L. Hansen, and D.C. Nunes, Eos Trans. AGU, 83(19), Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract P21A-05, 2002. [2] Ghent, R.R., R.J. Phillips, and V.L. Hansen, 2001, Eos Trans. AGU, 82(47), Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract T41B-0865, 2001. [3] Hansen, V.L. and J.J. Willis, Icarus, 132, 321-343, 1998. [4] Phillips, R.J. and V.L. Hansen, Science, 279, p1492, 1998. [5] Hofmeister, A, Science, 283, p1699, 1999.

  4. Lumped mass model of a 1D metastructure for vibration suppression with no additional mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Katherine K.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-09-01

    The article examines the effectiveness of metastructures for vibration suppression from a weight standpoint. Metastructures, a metamaterial inspired concept, are structures with distributed vibration absorbers. In automotive and aerospace industries, it is critical to have low levels of vibrations while also using lightweight materials. Previous work has shown that metastructures are effective at mitigating vibrations, but do not consider the effects of mass. This work takes mass into consideration by comparing a structure with vibration absorbers to a structure of equal mass with no absorbers. These structures are modeled as one-dimensional lumped mass models, chosen for simplicity. Results compare both the steady-state and the transient responses. As a quantitative performance measure, the H2 norm, which is related to the area under the frequency response function, is calculated and compared for both the metastructure and the baseline structure. These results show that it is possible to obtain a favorable vibration response without adding additional mass to the structure. Additionally, the performance measure is utilized to optimize the geometry of the structure, determine the optimal ratio of mass in the absorber to mass of the host structure, and determine the frequencies of the absorbers. The dynamic response of this model is verified using a finite element analysis.

  5. Delocalization model of regioselectivity and reactivity of free radicals in reactions of addition to olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovik, S.V.; Dyadyusha, G.G.; Staninets, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of polarity (philicity) of free radicals as proposed by the authors, within the framework of methods of qualitative surfaces of potential energy (linear combinations of configurations of fragments) and stabilization energy, an effective model has been developed for the regioselectivity and reactivity of radicals in processes of addition. A critical examination is made of certain key aspects of the change in regiochemistry and reactivity with changes in the electronic structure of the free radical and substrate. The dominant trends in regioselectivity and reactivity in processes of free-radical addition to olefins are controlled by electronic effects and can be predicted by analyzing interactions of diabatic potential energy surfaces or orbital interactions for a system consisting of a free radical and an unsaturated substrate

  6. Effect of Additional Incentives for Aviation Biofuels: Results from the Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory supported the Department of Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office, with analysis of alternative jet fuels in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Airlines for America requested additional exploratory scenarios within FAA analytic framework. Airlines for America requested additional analysis using the same analytic framework, the Biomass Scenario Model. The results were presented at a public working meeting of the California Air Resources Board on including alternative jet fuel in the Low Carbon Fuel Standard on March 17, 2017 (https://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/lcfs_meetings/lcfs_meetings.htm). This presentation clarifies and annotates the slides from the public working meeting, and provides a link to the full data set. NREL does not advocate for or against the policies analyzed in this study.

  7. Analysis of time to event outcomes in randomized controlled trials by generalized additive models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Argyropoulos

    Full Text Available Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking.By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population.PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data.By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial results under proportional and

  8. Modeling the Flyby Anomalies with Dark Matter Scattering: Update with Additional Data and Further Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2013-06-01

    We continue our exploration of whether the flyby anomalies can be explained by scattering of spacecraft nucleons from dark matter gravitationally bound to the Earth, with the addition of data from five new flybys to that from the original six. We continue to use our model in which inelastic and elastic scatterers populate shells generated by the precession of circular orbits with normals tilted with respect to the Earth's axis. With 11 data points and eight parameters in the model, a statistically meaningful fit is obtained with a chi-squared of 2.7. We give plots of the anomalous acceleration along the spacecraft trajectory, and the cumulative velocity change, for the five flybys which exhibit a significant nonzero anomaly. We also discuss implications of the fit for dark matter-nucleon cross-sections, give the prediction of our fit for the anomaly to be expected from the future Juno flyby, and give predictions of our fit for flyby orbit orientation changes. In addition, we give formulas for estimating the flyby temperature increase caused by dark matter inelastic scattering, and for the fraction of flyby nucleons undergoing such scatters. Finally, for circular satellite orbits, we give a table of predicted secular changes in orbit radius. These are much too large to be reasonable — comparing with data for COBE and GP-B supplied to us by Edward Wright (after the first version of this paper was posted), we find that our model predicts changes in orbit radius that are too large by many orders of magnitude. So the model studied here is ruled out. We conclude that further modeling of the flyby anomalies must simultaneously attempt to fit constraints coming from satellite orbits.

  9. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  10. Improving the predictive accuracy of hurricane power outage forecasts using generalized additive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Ryong; Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M

    2009-10-01

    Electric power is a critical infrastructure service after hurricanes, and rapid restoration of electric power is important in order to minimize losses in the impacted areas. However, rapid restoration of electric power after a hurricane depends on obtaining the necessary resources, primarily repair crews and materials, before the hurricane makes landfall and then appropriately deploying these resources as soon as possible after the hurricane. This, in turn, depends on having sound estimates of both the overall severity of the storm and the relative risk of power outages in different areas. Past studies have developed statistical, regression-based approaches for estimating the number of power outages in advance of an approaching hurricane. However, these approaches have either not been applicable for future events or have had lower predictive accuracy than desired. This article shows that a different type of regression model, a generalized additive model (GAM), can outperform the types of models used previously. This is done by developing and validating a GAM based on power outage data during past hurricanes in the Gulf Coast region and comparing the results from this model to the previously used generalized linear models.

  11. Using additive and coupled spatiotemporal SPDE models: a flexible illustration for predicting occurrence of Culicoides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Hens, Niel; Faes, Christel

    2017-11-01

    This paper formulates and compares a general class of spatiotemporal models for univariate space-time geostatistical data. The implementation of stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach combined with integrated nested Laplace approximation into the R-INLA package makes it computationally feasible to use spatiotemporal models. However, the impact of specifying models with and without space-time interaction is unclear. We formulate an extensive class of additive and coupled spatiotemporal SPDE models and investigate the distinction between them by (1) Extending their temporal effect, allowing a random walk process in time, (2) varying the spatial correlation function and (3) running a simulation study to assess the effect of misspecifying the spatial and temporal models, and to assess the generalizability of our results to a higher number of locations. Our methods are illustrated with Culicoides data from Belgium. The Bayesian spatial predictions showed that the highest prevalence of Culicoides species was found in the Northeastern and central parts of Belgium during summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Galetti, Valeria; Stinca, Sara; Mackenzie, Ian; Thomas, Susan; Thomas, Tinku; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine

  13. Prevalence and serverity of Iodine deficiency disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median urinary iodine level was 56 4g/L that indicates iodine deficiency. Out of 389 households in the study area, 277 (71.2%) were using non-iodinated salt, 102 (26.2%) of the households were using iodinated salt. Cabbage usage was significantly associated with goiter. CONCLUSION: Endemic goiter is quite ...

  14. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Burie and Womberma Districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect millions of people in developing countries mainly due to dietary iodine deficiency and aggravating factors that affect the bioavailability of iodine in the body. Iodine deficiency disorder is one of the public health problems of Ethiopia. Recent findings show that both endemic and ...

  15. Iodine deficiency in primary school children and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: More than two billion individuals worldwide have inadequate iodine intake and the adverse consequences of iodine deficiency are widely observed. Objective: To assess the iodine status of primary school children and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders among their caretakers. Methods: A ...

  16. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2015-10-01

    The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  17. Thermodynamic network model for predicting effects of substrate addition and other perturbations on subsurface microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Istok; Melora Park; James McKinley; Chongxuan Liu; Lee Krumholz; Anne Spain; Aaron Peacock; Brett Baldwin

    2007-04-19

    The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on microbial growth, community composition and system geochemistry. The hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding growth reactions performed by defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change.

  18. Additional Model Datasets and Results to Accelerate the Verification and Validation of RELAP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The RELAP-7 code verification and validation activities are ongoing under the code assessment plan proposed in the previous document (INL-EXT-16-40015). Among the list of V&V test problems in the ‘RELAP-7 code V&V RTM (Requirements Traceability Matrix)’, the RELAP-7 7-equation model has been tested with additional demonstration problems and the results of these tests are reported in this document. In this report, we describe the testing process, the test cases that were conducted, and the results of the evaluation.

  19. Real-time slicing algorithm for Stereolithography (STL) CAD model applied in additive manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, F. A.; Romlay, F. R. M.; Shafiq, M.

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the advent of the industrial revolution 4.0, the need for further evaluating processes applied in the additive manufacturing application particularly the computational process for slicing is non-trivial. This paper evaluates a real-time slicing algorithm for slicing an STL formatted computer-aided design (CAD). A line-plane intersection equation was applied to perform the slicing procedure at any given height. The application of this algorithm has found to provide a better computational time regardless the number of facet in the STL model. The performance of this algorithm is evaluated by comparing the results of the computational time for different geometry.

  20. Optimization of Grignard Addition to Esters: Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of Model Phthalide using Flow Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael J.; Born, Stephen; Neuenschwander, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    The kinetics of sequential addition of a distinct Grignard species onto a lactone is studied by flow chemistry. The experimental data are shown to be consistent with a kinetic model based on four reaction steps, reaction of ester to magnesium hemiacetal, rearrangement to ketone (forward...... and backward) and reaction of ketone to tertiary alcohol upon quenching. The experimental derived reaction mechanism is supported by ab initio molecular computations, and the predicted activation energy is in good agreement with the experimental observations. The Grignard reaction follows a substrate...

  1. Assessing the effect, on animal model, of mixture of food additives, on the water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.

  2. Low dose radiation risks for women surviving the a-bombs in Japan: generalized additive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropkin, Greg

    2016-11-24

    Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy. For all solid cancer incidence, RR estimated from 0 - 100 mGy and 0 - 20 mGy subcohorts is significantly raised. The response tapers above 150 mGy. At low doses, RR increases with age-at-exposure and decreases with time-since-exposure, the preferred covariate. Using the empirical cumulative distribution of dose improves model fit, and capacity to detect non-linear responses. RR is elevated over wide ranges of covariate values. Results are stable under simulation, or when removing exceptional data cells, or adjusting neutron RBE. Estimates of Excess RR at 10 mGy using the cumulative dose distribution are 10 - 45 times higher than extrapolations from a linear model fitted to the full cohort. Below 100 mGy, quasipoisson models find significant effects for all solid, squamous, uterus, corpus, and thyroid cancers, and for respiratory cancers when age-at-exposure > 35 yrs. Results for the thyroid are compatible with studies of children treated for tinea capitis, and Chernobyl survivors. Results for the uterus are compatible with studies of UK nuclear workers and the Techa River cohort. Non-linear models find large, significant cancer risks for Japanese women exposed to low dose radiation from the atomic bombings. The risks should be reflected in protection standards.

  3. Evaluation of 3D Additively Manufactured Canine Brain Models for Teaching Veterinary Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Horn, Timothy J; Scheviak, Tyler A; Royal, Kenneth D; Hudson, Lola C

    Physical specimens are essential to the teaching of veterinary anatomy. While fresh and fixed cadavers have long been the medium of choice, plastinated specimens have gained widespread acceptance as adjuncts to dissection materials. Even though the plastination process increases the durability of specimens, these are still derived from animal tissues and require periodic replacement if used by students on a regular basis. This study investigated the use of three-dimensional additively manufactured (3D AM) models (colloquially referred to as 3D-printed models) of the canine brain as a replacement for plastinated or formalin-fixed brains. The models investigated were built based on a micro-MRI of a single canine brain and have numerous practical advantages, such as durability, lower cost over time, and reduction of animal use. The effectiveness of the models was assessed by comparing performance among students who were instructed using either plastinated brains or 3D AM models. This study used propensity score matching to generate similar pairs of students. Pairings were based on gender and initial anatomy performance across two consecutive classes of first-year veterinary students. Students' performance on a practical neuroanatomy exam was compared, and no significant differences were found in scores based on the type of material (3D AM models or plastinated specimens) used for instruction. Students in both groups were equally able to identify neuroanatomical structures on cadaveric material, as well as respond to questions involving application of neuroanatomy knowledge. Therefore, we postulate that 3D AM canine brain models are an acceptable alternative to plastinated specimens in teaching veterinary neuroanatomy.

  4. A prototype of an electric-discharge gas flow oxygen−iodine laser: I. Modeling of the processes of singlet oxygen generation in a transverse cryogenic slab RF discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N. P.; Ionin, A. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    The existing kinetic model describing self-sustained and electroionization discharges in mixtures enriched with singlet oxygen has been modified to calculate the characteristics of a flow RF discharge in molecular oxygen and its mixtures with helium. The simulations were performed in the gas plug-flow approximation, i.e., the evolution of the plasma components during their motion along the channel was represented as their evolution in time. The calculations were carried out for the O 2 : He = 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2, and 1: 3 mixtures at an oxygen partial pressure of 7.5 Torr. It is shown that, under these conditions, volumetric gas heating in a discharge in pure molecular oxygen prevails over gas cooling via heat conduction even at an electrode temperature as low as ~100 K. When molecular oxygen is diluted with helium, the behavior of the gas temperature changes substantially: heat removal begins to prevail over volumetric gas heating, and the gas temperature at the outlet of the discharge zone drops to ~220–230 K at room gas temperature at the inlet, which is very important in the context of achieving the generation threshold in an electric-discharge oxygen−iodine laser based on a slab cryogenic RF discharge.

  5. ''Iodine delivery rate'' with catheterangiography under pressure conditions of hand injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.P.; Stocker, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to record the flow-rate and to calculate the 'iodine delivery rate' (IDR) of contrast media of various viscosities when the contrast media are injected by hand. Methods: Five different catheters for coronary angiography were tested with the injection system Medral Mark V Plus. Injections were performed with pressures of 100, 200 and 400 PSI. The contrast media examined were Imeron 350, Imeron 400, Omnipaque 350 and Ultravist 370. The IDR was calculated on the basis of the measured flow rate and the Iodine content of the contrast medium. Results: As was expected, the IDR was higher as the pressure increased. In addition to the iodine content the viscosity of the contrast medium is a very important factor for the IDR. At both 100 PSI and 200 PSI the increase of the IDR was higher with Imeron 350 than with Imeron 400. The comparison of contrast media with identical iodine contents but differing viscosities (Imeron 350, Omnipaque 350) clearly showed that the IDR depended on viscosity. Conclusion: The 'iodine delivery rate' is a decisive factor in the opacification of arterial vessels. Both iodine content and viscosity of a contrast medium are important for the IDR. Because of the low pressure at manual injection, contrast media with low viscosities should be used. A further possibility to increase the IDR is warming-up the contrast medium to body temperature. (orig.) [de

  6. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  7. On adjustment for auxiliary covariates in additive hazard models for the analysis of randomized experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vansteelandt, S.; Martinussen, Torben; Tchetgen, E. J Tchetgen

    2014-01-01

    We consider additive hazard models (Aalen, 1989) for the effect of a randomized treatment on a survival outcome, adjusting for auxiliary baseline covariates. We demonstrate that the Aalen least-squares estimator of the treatment effect parameter is asymptotically unbiased, even when the hazard...... that, in view of its robustness against model misspecification, Aalen least-squares estimation is attractive for evaluating treatment effects on a survival outcome in randomized experiments, and the primary reasons to consider baseline covariate adjustment in such settings could be interest in subgroup......'s dependence on time or on the auxiliary covariates is misspecified, and even away from the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. We furthermore show that adjustment for auxiliary baseline covariates does not change the asymptotic variance of the estimator of the effect of a randomized treatment. We conclude...

  8. Hybrid 2D-3D modelling of GTA welding with filler wire addition

    KAUST Repository

    Traidia, Abderrazak

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid 2D-3D model for the numerical simulation of Gas Tungsten Arc welding is proposed in this paper. It offers the possibility to predict the temperature field as well as the shape of the solidified weld joint for different operating parameters, with relatively good accuracy and reasonable computational cost. Also, an original approach to simulate the effect of immersing a cold filler wire in the weld pool is presented. The simulation results reveal two important observations. First, the weld pool depth is locally decreased in the presence of filler metal, which is due to the energy absorption by the cold feeding wire from the hot molten pool. In addition, the weld shape, maximum temperature and thermal cycles in the workpiece are relatively well predicted even when a 2D model for the arc plasma region is used. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelay, J. [IPSN/DPEA/SEAC (France)

    1996-12-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author).

  10. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelay, J.

    1996-01-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author)

  11. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2 μg/d, normal iodine (NI, 5–6 μg/d, and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16 μg/d. The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45 of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12 weeks of treatment (before pregnancy, iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P  0.05, all On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A level than the NI controls on PN7 (P  0.05. NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P > 0.05. Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were

  12. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour 123 I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women

  13. Iodine excretion has decreased in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 - the importance of iodine content in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004-5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compar...

  14. Quantifying spatial disparities in neonatal mortality using a structured additive regression model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N Kazembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality contributes a large proportion towards early childhood mortality in developing countries, with considerable geographical variation at small areas within countries. METHODS: A geo-additive logistic regression model is proposed for quantifying small-scale geographical variation in neonatal mortality, and to estimate risk factors of neonatal mortality. Random effects are introduced to capture spatial correlation and heterogeneity. The spatial correlation can be modelled using the Markov random fields (MRF when data is aggregated, while the two dimensional P-splines apply when exact locations are available, whereas the unstructured spatial effects are assigned an independent Gaussian prior. Socio-economic and bio-demographic factors which may affect the risk of neonatal mortality are simultaneously estimated as fixed effects and as nonlinear effects for continuous covariates. The smooth effects of continuous covariates are modelled by second-order random walk priors. Modelling and inference use the empirical Bayesian approach via penalized likelihood technique. The methodology is applied to analyse the likelihood of neonatal deaths, using data from the 2000 Malawi demographic and health survey. The spatial effects are quantified through MRF and two dimensional P-splines priors. RESULTS: Findings indicate that both fixed and spatial effects are associated with neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, therefore, suggests that the challenge to reduce neonatal mortality goes beyond addressing individual factors, but also require to understanding unmeasured covariates for potential effective interventions.

  15. Iodine-123 program at the TRIUMF laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program for the production and utilization of iodine-123 is described. From 1979 to 1982 the spallation of elemental cesium by 500-MeV protons was used to provide 100 mCi/hr at the end of bombardment (EOB). Contaminants were 3% iodine-125 and 0.15% tellurium-121 at EOB + 36 hr. The material from weekly runs was used by remote clinics in Canada for evaluation as a radiochemical and for labeling studies. A new facility at TRIUMF will be operational in 1983 to produce iodine-123 by the (p,5n) reaction

  16. Guarana Provides Additional Stimulation over Caffeine Alone in the Planarian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Dimitrios; Mezzio, Michael; Rodriguez, Branden R.; Constable, Mic Andre; Mulligan, Margaret E.; Voura, Evelyn B.

    2015-01-01

    The stimulant effect of energy drinks is primarily attributed to the caffeine they contain. Many energy drinks also contain other ingredients that might enhance the tonic effects of these caffeinated beverages. One of these additives is guarana. Guarana is a climbing plant native to the Amazon whose seeds contain approximately four times the amount of caffeine found in coffee beans. The mix of other natural chemicals contained in guarana seeds is thought to heighten the stimulant effects of guarana over caffeine alone. Yet, despite the growing use of guarana as an additive in energy drinks, and a burgeoning market for it as a nutritional supplement, the science examining guarana and how it affects other dietary ingredients is lacking. To appreciate the stimulant effects of guarana and other natural products, a straightforward model to investigate their physiological properties is needed. The planarian provides such a system. The locomotor activity and convulsive response of planarians with substance exposure has been shown to provide an excellent system to measure the effects of drug stimulation, addiction and withdrawal. To gauge the stimulant effects of guarana we studied how it altered the locomotor activity of the planarian species Dugesia tigrina. We report evidence that guarana seeds provide additional stimulation over caffeine alone, and document the changes to this stimulation in the context of both caffeine and glucose. PMID:25880065

  17. Guarana provides additional stimulation over caffeine alone in the planarian model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Moustakas

    Full Text Available The stimulant effect of energy drinks is primarily attributed to the caffeine they contain. Many energy drinks also contain other ingredients that might enhance the tonic effects of these caffeinated beverages. One of these additives is guarana. Guarana is a climbing plant native to the Amazon whose seeds contain approximately four times the amount of caffeine found in coffee beans. The mix of other natural chemicals contained in guarana seeds is thought to heighten the stimulant effects of guarana over caffeine alone. Yet, despite the growing use of guarana as an additive in energy drinks, and a burgeoning market for it as a nutritional supplement, the science examining guarana and how it affects other dietary ingredients is lacking. To appreciate the stimulant effects of guarana and other natural products, a straightforward model to investigate their physiological properties is needed. The planarian provides such a system. The locomotor activity and convulsive response of planarians with substance exposure has been shown to provide an excellent system to measure the effects of drug stimulation, addiction and withdrawal. To gauge the stimulant effects of guarana we studied how it altered the locomotor activity of the planarian species Dugesia tigrina. We report evidence that guarana seeds provide additional stimulation over caffeine alone, and document the changes to this stimulation in the context of both caffeine and glucose.

  18. Bioadhesive agents in addition to oral contrast media - evaluation in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Schneider, G.; Textor, J.; Schild, H.H.; Fimmers, R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the additional effect of bioadhesives in combination with iotrolan and barium as oral contrast media in an animal model. Method: The bioadhesives Noveon, CMC, Tylose and Carbopol 934 were added to iotrolan and barium. The solutions were administered to rabbits by a feeding tube. The animals were investigated by computed tomography (CT) and radiography after 0,5, 4, 12, 24 and in part after 48 hours. Mucosal coating and contrast filling of the bowel were evaluated. Results: Addition of bioadhesives to oral contrast media effected long-term contrast in the small intestine and colon, but no improvement in continuous filling and coating of the gastrointestinal tract was detected. Mucosal coating was seen only in short regions of the caecum and small intestine. In CT the best results for coating were observed with tylose and CMC, in radiography additionally with carbopol and noveon. All contrast medium solutions were well tolerated. Conclusion: The evaluated contrast medium solutions with bioadhesives have shown long-term contrast but no improvement in coating in comparison to conventional oral contrast media. (orig.) [de

  19. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report, April 1975-- March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations during the past twelve months have included the following subjects: factors which influence release of radioiodine from thyroid glands; contamination of commercially available low-iodine diets; effects of hypoxia on release of iodine from thyroid glands of rats and mice; development of practical tests for available iodine in low-iodine diets; reproduction and abnormal thyroglobulin of rats maintained on low-iodine diets; observations on radioactivity in animal thyroids; collaboration with other laboratories regarding radium in bovine thyroids

  20. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  1. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Ičin Tijana; Bajkin Ivana; Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is r...

  2. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period from the Hanford Reservation. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo realizations'' of the hourly release histories.

  3. Iodine-123 in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinreich, R.

    1976-08-01

    The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123 I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  5. Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 μg/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 μg/L, respectively). Higher values >150 μg/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!"

  6. Generalized additive models used to predict species abundance in the Gulf of Mexico: an ecosystem modeling tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drexler

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit ecosystem models of all types require an initial allocation of biomass, often in areas where fisheries independent abundance estimates do not exist. A generalized additive modelling (GAM approach is used to describe the abundance of 40 species groups (i.e. functional groups across the Gulf of Mexico (GoM using a large fisheries independent data set (SEAMAP and climate scale oceanographic conditions. Predictor variables included in the model are chlorophyll a, sediment type, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and depth. Despite the presence of a large number of zeros in the data, a single GAM using a negative binomial distribution was suitable to make predictions of abundance for multiple functional groups. We present an example case study using pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duroarum and compare the results to known distributions. The model successfully predicts the known areas of high abundance in the GoM, including those areas where no data was inputted into the model fitting. Overall, the model reliably captures areas of high and low abundance for the large majority of functional groups observed in SEAMAP. The result of this method allows for the objective setting of spatial distributions for numerous functional groups across a modeling domain, even where abundance data may not exist.

  7. Mechanism of pulse discharge production of iodine atoms from CF3I molecules for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P; Vagin, N P; Yuryshev, N N

    2009-01-01

    The pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) development is aimed at many new applications. Pulsed electric discharge is most effective in turning COIL operation into the pulse mode by instant production of iodine atoms. A numerical model is developed for simulations of the pulsed COIL initiated by an electric discharge. The model comprises a system of kinetic equations for neutral and charged species, electric circuit equation, gas thermal balance equation and the photon balance equation. Reaction rate coefficients for processes involving electrons are found by solving the electron Boltzmann equation, which is re-calculated in a course of computations when plasma parameters changed. The processes accounted for in the Boltzmann equation include excitation and ionization of atoms and molecules, dissociation of molecules, electron attachment processes, electron-ion recombination, electron-electron collisions, second-kind collisions and stepwise excitation of molecules. The last processes are particularly important because of a high singlet oxygen concentration in gas flow from the singlet oxygen chemical generator. Results of numerical simulations are compared with experimental laser pulse waveforms. It is concluded that there is satisfactory agreement between theory and the experiment. The prevailing mechanism of iodine atom formation from the CF 3 I donor in a very complex kinetic system of the COIL medium under pulse discharge conditions, based on their detailed numerical modelling and by comparing these results both with experimental results of other authors and their own experiments, is established. The dominant iodine atom production mechanism for conditions under study is the electron-impact dissociation of CF 3 I molecules. It was proved that in the conditions of the experiment the secondary chemical reactions with O atoms play an insignificant role.

  8. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  9. Influencing factors on iodine content of cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Franke, Katrin; Meyer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Schöne, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and it is incorporated into the thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which have multiple functions in energy metabolism and growth, but also as transmitter of nervous stimuli and as an important factor for brain development. Because of the small range between iodine requirements and the upper level for humans (between 1:2.5 and 3), the requirements should be met, but excesses should be avoided. One of the most important iodine sources for humans is milk of ruminants. Therefore, various influencing factors on the iodine content of milk of ruminants should be analyzed in the paper. The iodine content of milk depends on many factors, such as iodine content and level of iodine supplementation of feed, iodine source, iodine antagonists such as glucosinolates in the feed, farm management, teat dipping with iodine-containing substances, and milk processing in the dairy. The effects of some factors on the iodine content of milk are demonstrated and discussed. Feed iodine supplementation has the main effect on milk iodine. However, the iodine content of milk may vary considerably depending on many other influencing factors. As a consequence of preventive consumer protection, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a reduction in the iodine upper level for lactating ruminants from 5 to 2 mg/kg complete feed.

  10. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  11. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  12. Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    shows a schematic of the experimental system. Bioaerosols were generated by a six-jet Collison nebulizer at 7 Lpm. Virus concentrations in the...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0004 EFFECT OF BIOAEROSOL ON THE RELEASE OF IODINE FROM IODINE TREATED FILTERS Chang-Yu Wu, Hsing-Wang Li, Myung-Heui...Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F GOVT L0 QL102008 Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Wang; Woo

  13. The retention of iodine by iodine filters in nuclear power plants in the case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, V.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the liberation of considerable amounts of gaseous combustion products, fires in nuclear power plants may lead to a deterioration in the retention of radioiodine by iodine filters. The combustion products of the burnable materials, i.e., insulations, lubricants and paints, vary considerably with the development of the fire. Combustion product analyses of these materials have been performed only to a limited extent. The reaction of iodine with combustion products as well as the retention of the resulting iodine reaction products by sorbents have not yet been investigated. The reduction in the removal efficiencies of iodine sorbents due to the presence of combustion products is unknown. (orig.) [de

  14. Emissivity of the pulsed capacitive discharge in helium-iodine and neon-iodine mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Laslov, G. E.

    2009-01-01

    The emission parameters of a pulsed capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine and neon-iodine mixtures are reported. The discharge plasma emits at wavelengths of 183.0 and 206.2 nm, which correspond to iodine atom spectral lines. The capacitive discharge is initiated in a cylindrical quartz tube with an electrode distance of 10 cm. The discharge radiation is optimized in exciting pulse repetition rate and helium and neon pressures in He(Ne)-I2 mixtures. The optimal pressures of helium, neon, and iodine vapor fall into the ranges 0.8-2.0 kPa, 0.5-1.0 Pa, and ≤60 Pa, respectively.

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the effect of different forms and concentrations of iodine on uptake and yeast growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterc, Andrej; Fujs, Stefan; Raspor, Peter; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2009-02-01

    The essentiality of iodine for humans, especially in the early stages of life, is well recognized. The chemical forms of iodine in food supplements, infant formulae and iodated salt are either iodide (KI) or iodate (KIO(3)). Because there are no or rare data about iodine uptake by yeasts, we investigated the influence of different sources of iodine, as KI, KIO(3) and periodate (KIO(4)), on its uptake in and growth of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. KIO(3) inhibited the growth of the yeast the most and already at a 400 microM initial concentration in the growth medium; the OD was reduced by 23% in comparison with the control, where no KIO(3) was added. The uptake of different iodine sources by the yeast S. cerevisiae was minimal, in total yeast S. cerevisiae does not have the ability to transform KI into volatile species. We investigated the specificity of iodine uptake added as KIO(3) in the presence of Na(2)SeO(4) or ZnCl(2) or K(2)CrO(4) in the growth medium, and it was found that chromate had the most influence on reduction of KIO(3) uptake.

  16. Computational and Mathematical Model with Phase Change and Metal Addition Applied to GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo dos Santos Maia Neto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a 3D computational/mathematical model to solve the heat diffusion equation with phase change, considering metal addition, complex geometry, and thermal properties varying with temperature. The finite volume method was used and the computational code was implemented in C++, using a Borland compiler. Experimental tests considering workpieces of stainless steel AISI 304 were carried out for validation of the thermal model. Inverse techniques based on Golden Section method were used to estimate the heat transfer rate to the workpieces. Experimental temperatures were measured using thermocouples type J—in a total of 07 (seven—all connected to the welded workpiece and the Agilent 34970A data logger. The workpieces were chamfered in a 45° V-groove in which liquid metal was added on only one weld pass. An innovation presented in this work when compared to other works in scientific literature was the geometry of the weld pool. The good relation between experimental and simulated data confirmed the quality and robustness of the thermal model proposed in this work.

  17. Modeling additional solar constraints on a human being inside a room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thellier, Francoise; Monchoux, Francoise; Bonnis-Sassi, Michel; Lartigue, Berengere [Laboratoire Physique de l' Homme Appliquee a Son Environnement (PHASE), Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-15

    Sun fluxes induce additional heterogeneous thermal constraints in buildings and may also lead to discomfort for the inhabitant. To calculate the local thermal sensation of a human being totally or partially situated in the sunlight, the solar radiation inside a room and its detailed distribution on parts of the human body are modeled. The present study focuses on the solar gains part of a complete modeling tool simulating an occupied building. The irradiated areas are calculated with a ray tracing method taking shadow into account. Solar fluxes are computed. Fluxes can be absorbed by each surface or reflected. The reflected fluxes are then absorbed at the next impact. A multi-node thermoregulation model (MARCL) represents the thermal behavior of the human body and all its heat exchanges with the environment. The thermal transient simulation of the whole occupied building is performed in TRNSYS simulation software. In the case presented here, the results show that, when a person is inside the building, the skin and clothing temperatures of the irradiated segments increase more or less depending on the segments but the global thermal equilibrium of the body is maintained thanks to strong physiological reactions. (author)

  18. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development—Iodine Review1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Zimmermann, Michael; Jooste, Pieter; Pandav, Chandrakant; Caldwell, Kathleen; Raghavan, Ramkripa; Raiten, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is to provide state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect. Specifically, the BOND project seeks to develop consensus on accurate assessment methodologies that are applicable to researchers (laboratory/clinical/surveillance), clinicians, programmers, and policy makers (data consumers). The BOND project is also intended to develop targeted research agendas to support the discovery and development of biomarkers through improved understanding of nutrient biology within relevant biologic systems. In phase I of the BOND project, 6 nutrients (iodine, vitamin A, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12) were selected for their high public health importance because they typify the challenges faced by users in the selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers. For each nutrient, an expert panel was constituted and charged with the development of a comprehensive review covering the respective nutrient’s biology, existing biomarkers, and specific issues of use with particular reference to the needs of the individual user groups. In addition to the publication of these reviews, materials from each will be extracted to support the BOND interactive Web site (http://www.nichd.nih.gov/global_nutrition/programs/bond/pages/index.aspx). This review represents the first in the series of reviews and covers all relevant aspects of iodine biology and biomarkers. The article is organized to provide the reader with a full appreciation of iodine’s background history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers and specific considerations for the use and interpretation of iodine biomarkers across a range of clinical and population-based uses. The review also includes a detailed research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of iodine biology and assessment

  19. Distributional modeling and short-term forecasting of electricity prices by Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serinaldi, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the liberalized and deregulated electricity markets, price forecasting has become increasingly important for energy company's plans and market strategies. Within the class of the time series models that are used to perform price forecasting, the subclasses of methods based on stochastic time series and causal models commonly provide point forecasts, whereas the corresponding uncertainty is quantified by approximate or simulation-based confidence intervals. Aiming to improve the uncertainty assessment, this study introduces the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to model the dynamically varying distribution of prices. The GAMLSS allow fitting a variety of distributions whose parameters change according to covariates via a number of linear and nonlinear relationships. In this way, price periodicities, trends and abrupt changes characterizing both the position parameter (linked to the expected value of prices), and the scale and shape parameters (related to price volatility, skewness, and kurtosis) can be explicitly incorporated in the model setup. Relying on the past behavior of the prices and exogenous variables, the GAMLSS enable the short-term (one-day ahead) forecast of the entire distribution of prices. The approach was tested on two datasets from the widely studied California Power Exchange (CalPX) market, and the less mature Italian Power Exchange (IPEX). CalPX data allow comparing the GAMLSS forecasting performance with published results obtained by different models. The study points out that the GAMLSS framework can be a flexible alternative to several linear and nonlinear stochastic models. - Research Highlights: ► Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) are used to model electricity prices' time series. ► GAMLSS provide the entire dynamicaly varying distribution function of prices resorting to a suitable set of covariates that drive the instantaneous values of the parameters

  20. Modeling the Short-Term Effect of Traffic and Meteorology on Air Pollution in Turin with Generalized Additive Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pancrazio Bertaccini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular traffic plays an important role in atmospheric pollution and can be used as one of the key predictors in air-quality forecasting models. The models that can account for the role of traffic are especially valuable in urban areas, where high pollutant concentrations are often observed during particular times of day (rush hour and year (winter. In this paper, we develop a generalized additive models approach to analyze the behavior of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and particulate matter (PM10, collected at the environmental monitoring stations distributed throughout the city of Turin, Italy, from December 2003 to April 2005. We describe nonlinear relationships between predictors and pollutants, that are adjusted for unobserved time-varying confounders. We examine several functional forms for the traffic variable and find that a simple form can often provide adequate modeling power. Our analysis shows that there is a saturation effect of traffic on NO2, while such saturation is less evident in models linking traffic to PM10 behavior, having adjusted for meteorological covariates. Moreover, we consider the proposed models separately by seasons and highlight similarities and differences in the predictors’ partial effects. Finally, we show how forecasting can help in evaluating traffic regulation policies.

  1. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl O Martínez-Rincón

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis.

  2. Worst case prediction of additives migration from polystyrene for food safety purposes: a model update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Brais; Gontard, Nathalie; Peyron, Stéphane

    2018-03-01

    A reliable prediction of migration levels of plastic additives into food requires a robust estimation of diffusivity. Predictive modelling of diffusivity as recommended by the EU commission is carried out using a semi-empirical equation that relies on two polymer-dependent parameters. These parameters were determined for the polymers most used by packaging industry (LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PET, PS, HIPS) from the diffusivity data available at that time. In the specific case of general purpose polystyrene, the diffusivity data published since then shows that the use of the equation with the original parameters results in systematic underestimation of diffusivity. The goal of this study was therefore, to propose an update of the aforementioned parameters for PS on the basis of up to date diffusivity data, so the equation can be used for a reasoned overestimation of diffusivity.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of PLA and CF/PLA Binding Layer Specimens via Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Gao, Shiyou; Dong, Rongmei; Ding, Xuebing; Duan, Xiaoxi

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most popular additive manufacturing techniques, fused deposition modeling (FDM) is successfully applied in aerospace, automotive, architecture, and other fields to fabricate thermoplastic parts. Unfortunately, as a result of the limited nature of the mechanical properties and mass in raw materials, there is a pressing need to improve mechanical properties and reduce weight for FDM parts. Therefore, this paper presents an experiment of a special polylactic acid (PLA) and carbon fiber (CF)/PLA-laminated experimental specimen fabricated using the FDM process. The mechanical properties and mass analysis of the new composites for the PLA and CF/PLA binding layer specimen are investigated experimentally. Through the experimental analysis, one can conclude that the mass of laminated specimen is lighter than the CF/PLA specimen, and the tensile and flexural mechanical properties are higher than the pure PLA specimen.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of PLA and CF/PLA Binding Layer Specimens via Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Gao, Shiyou; Dong, Rongmei; Ding, Xuebing; Duan, Xiaoxi

    2018-01-01

    As one of the most popular additive manufacturing techniques, fused deposition modeling (FDM) is successfully applied in aerospace, automotive, architecture, and other fields to fabricate thermoplastic parts. Unfortunately, as a result of the limited nature of the mechanical properties and mass in raw materials, there is a pressing need to improve mechanical properties and reduce weight for FDM parts. Therefore, this paper presents an experiment of a special polylactic acid (PLA) and carbon fiber (CF)/PLA-laminated experimental specimen fabricated using the FDM process. The mechanical properties and mass analysis of the new composites for the PLA and CF/PLA binding layer specimen are investigated experimentally. Through the experimental analysis, one can conclude that the mass of laminated specimen is lighter than the CF/PLA specimen, and the tensile and flexural mechanical properties are higher than the pure PLA specimen.

  5. Characterization of metal additive manufacturing surfaces using synchrotron X-ray CT and micromechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzos, C. A.; Cunningham, R. W.; Tari, V.; Rollett, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing complex surface topologies is necessary to understand stress concentrations created by rough surfaces, particularly those made via laser power-bed additive manufacturing (AM). Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (μ XCT ) of AM surfaces was shown to provide high resolution detail of surface features and near-surface porosity. Using the CT reconstructions to instantiate a micromechanical model indicated that surface notches and near-surface porosity both act as stress concentrators, while adhered powder carried little to no load. Differences in powder size distribution had no direct effect on the relevant surface features, nor on stress concentrations. Conventional measurements of surface roughness, which are highly influenced by adhered powder, are therefore unlikely to contain the information relevant to damage accumulation and crack initiation.

  6. Iodine dynamics in the terrestrial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bowley, Hannah E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil properties on soil iodine dynamics and uptake to plants. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from across eastern Northern Ireland (NI) to form the basis of most experimental work; samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass archive were used to investigate the role of changing soil chemistry through time and due to selected fertiliser applications; and iodine dynamics in humic acid (HA) were studied to improve understanding of the r...

  7. Reinnervated Split-Muscle Technique for Creating Additional Myoelectric Sites in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslivia, Maria Florencia; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Zulkarnain, Rizki Fajar; Zhu, Bin; Adikrishna, Arnold; Jeon, In-Ho; Kim, Keehoon

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a novel reinnervated split-muscle operation to create additional myoelectric sites as sources of command signals of myoelectric prostheses for enhanced dexterous hand-to-wrist motions. The aim of this study was to investigate the postprocedure electromyographic properties of the muscles as distinct myoelectric sites in a rat model. The reinnervated split-muscle group (n = 6) had the gastrocnemius muscle separated along its longitudinal axis and nerves transferred to each new muscle (peroneal nerve to lateral muscle head and tibial to medial one); the non-split-muscle group (n = 6) only had nerve transfers with its muscle intact. Functional testing was conducted after 10 weeks. The main parameter is the difference in mean electromyographic amplitude between the new muscles, with greater values indicating better separability. After the reinnervated split-muscle procedure, there is a significant increase of the average ratio between two muscles compared with the control group, from 0.44 (range, 0.02 to 0.86) to 0.77 (range, 0.35 to 0.98) (p = 0.011). In addition, compared with the non-split muscle group, nerve transfer in the split-muscle group is more successful in reaching its intended target muscle. A reinnervated split-muscle procedure could be beneficial for acquiring a more precise and discrete command signal in upper limb amputees, thus enabling the creation of more dexterous prosthetic arm.

  8. Modelling and Design of HF RFID Passive Transponders with Additional Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge progress in electronics technology and RFID technique gives the opportunity to implement additional features in transponders. It should be noted that either passive or semipassive transponders are supplied with energy that is derived from the electromagnetic field generated by the read/write device and its antenna. This power source is used to conduct radio-communication process and excess energy could be used to power the extra electronic circuits, but the problem is to determine the additional power load impact on the RFID system proper operation and size of interrogation zone. The ability to power the supplementary electronic blocks applied in the HF passive transponders is discussed in detail this paper. The simulation model and test samples with a harvester that recovers energy from the electromagnetic field of read/write device and its antenna have been developed in order to conduct investigations. The harvested energy has been utilized to supply a microprocessor acquisition block for LTCC pressure sensor developed in research previously described by authors.

  9. Aggregation of gluten proteins in model dough after fibre polysaccharide addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Miś, Antoni; Wilczewska, Agnieszka Z; Markiewicz, Karolina H

    2017-09-15

    FT-Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry were used to study changes in structure of gluten proteins and their thermal properties influenced by four dietary fibre polysaccharides (microcrystalline cellulose, inulin, apple pectin and citrus pectin) during development of a model dough. The flour reconstituted from wheat starch and wheat gluten was mixed with the polysaccharides in five concentrations: 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 18%. The obtained results showed that all polysaccharides induced similar changes in secondary structure of gluten proteins concerning formation of aggregates (1604cm -1 ), H-bonded parallel- and antiparallel-β-sheets (1690cm -1 ) and H-bonded β-turns (1664cm -1 ). These changes concerned mainly glutenins since β-structures are characteristic for them. The observed structural changes confirmed hypothesis about partial dehydration of gluten network after polysaccharides addition. The gluten aggregation and dehydration processes were also reflected in the DSC results, while the TGA ones showed that gluten network remained thermally stable after polysaccharides addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of transfer factors of water, iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover. Development of a model of evaluation of the limits of foliar contamination by wet deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio.

    1977-07-01

    Transfer factors of water, iodine ( 131 I) and strontium ( 85 Sr) on above-ground parts of rye-grass and clover were determined as a function of aspersion intensities. An analysis of the results showed the effect of aspersion intensities, nature of the chemical element and plant species on the values of transfer factors of iodine and strontium. It also made it possible to propose a simple method of evaluation of contamination limits of the aerial parts of plants by wet deposit, based on transfer values of water on plants only [fr

  11. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  12. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Coherent Ultrashort Light Pulse CDMA With Multiple Optical Amplifiers Using Additive Noise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Kambiz; Salehi, Jawad A.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a study of the performance of various configurations for placing multiple optical amplifiers in a typical coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access (CULP-CDMA) communication system using the additive noise model. For this study, a comprehensive performance analysis was developed that takes into account multiple-access noise, noise due to optical amplifiers, and thermal noise using the saddle-point approximation technique. Prior to obtaining the overall system performance, the input/output statistical models for different elements of the system such as encoders/decoders,star coupler, and optical amplifiers were obtained. Performance comparisons between an ideal and lossless quantum-limited case and a typical CULP-CDMA with various losses exhibit more than 30 dB more power requirement to obtain the same bit-error rate (BER). Considering the saturation effect of optical amplifiers, this paper discusses an algorithm for amplifiers' gain setting in various stages of the network in order to overcome the nonlinear effects on signal modulation in optical amplifiers. Finally, using this algorithm,various configurations of multiple optical amplifiers in CULP-CDMA are discussed and the rules for the required optimum number of amplifiers are shown with their corresponding optimum locations to be implemented along the CULP-CDMA system.

  15. Generalized additive models reveal the intrinsic complexity of wood formation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Kiessé, Tristan Senga; Hartmann, Felix P; Barbeito, Ignacio; Fournier, Meriem

    2013-04-01

    The intra-annual dynamics of wood formation, which involves the passage of newly produced cells through three successive differentiation phases (division, enlargement, and wall thickening) to reach the final functional mature state, has traditionally been described in conifers as three delayed bell-shaped curves followed by an S-shaped curve. Here the classical view represented by the 'Gompertz function (GF) approach' was challenged using two novel approaches based on parametric generalized linear models (GLMs) and 'data-driven' generalized additive models (GAMs). These three approaches (GFs, GLMs, and GAMs) were used to describe seasonal changes in cell numbers in each of the xylem differentiation phases and to calculate the timing of cell development in three conifer species [Picea abies (L.), Pinus sylvestris L., and Abies alba Mill.]. GAMs outperformed GFs and GLMs in describing intra-annual wood formation dynamics, showing two left-skewed bell-shaped curves for division and enlargement, and a right-skewed bimodal curve for thickening. Cell residence times progressively decreased through the season for enlargement, whilst increasing late but rapidly for thickening. These patterns match changes in cell anatomical features within a tree ring, which allows the separation of earlywood and latewood into two distinct cell populations. A novel statistical approach is presented which renews our understanding of xylogenesis, a dynamic biological process in which the rate of cell production interplays with cell residence times in each developmental phase to create complex seasonal patterns.

  16. Additive surface complexation modeling of uranium(VI) adsorption onto quartz-sand dominated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenming; Wan, Jiamin

    2014-06-17

    Many aquifers contaminated by U(VI)-containing acidic plumes are composed predominantly of quartz-sand sediments. The F-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina (USA) is an example. To predict U(VI) mobility and natural attenuation, we conducted U(VI) adsorption experiments using the F-Area plume sediments and reference quartz, goethite, and kaolinite. The sediments are composed of ∼96% quartz-sand and 3-4% fine fractions of kaolinite and goethite. We developed a new humic acid adsorption method for determining the relative surface area abundances of goethite and kaolinite in the fine fractions. This method is expected to be applicable to many other binary mineral pairs, and allows successful application of the component additivity (CA) approach based surface complexation modeling (SCM) at the SRS F-Area and other similar aquifers. Our experimental results indicate that quartz has stronger U(VI) adsorption ability per unit surface area than goethite and kaolinite at pH ≤ 4.0. Our modeling results indicate that the binary (goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM under-predicts U(VI) adsorption to the quartz-sand dominated sediments at pH ≤ 4.0. The new ternary (quartz/goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM provides excellent predictions. The contributions of quartz-sand, kaolinite, and goethite to U(VI) adsorption and the potential influences of dissolved Al, Si, and Fe are also discussed.

  17. Volatilization: a soil degassing coefficient for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Thibault, D.H.; Smith, P.A.; Hawkins, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Iodine, an element essential to some animals, is ubiquitous in the biosphere. Unlike other metallic elements, molecular I is volatile, and other inorganic species present in aerated soils, such as I - and IO 3 - , may also volatilize as hydrides, hydrogen iodide (HI), or hydrogen iodates (HIO 3 , HIO 4 ). Methyl iodide has been measured in soils, and it is likely evolved from soils and plants. The long-lived radioisotope 129 I is abundant in nuclear wastes, and its high solubility in groundwater makes it an important element in the performance assessment of underground disposal facilities. Overestimates of soil I residence half-times by traditional foodchain models may be due to underestimation of volatilization. Field and lysimeter experiments over a 3-year period, and direct trapping experiments in the laboratory are reported. The results, combined with values from the literature, indicate the soil I degassing coefficient for a wide range of soil types, vegetated and bare, wet and dry, is lognormally distributed with a geometric mean of 2.1 x 10 -2 year -1 , a range of 1.8 x 10 -4 to 3.1 year -1 and a geometric standard deviation of 3.0. The results of a biosphere model simulation including degassing reduces soil I concentrations fivefold and increases air concentrations 25-fold at steady state, compared to simulations without degassing. (author)

  18. National trends in iodine nutrition: is everyone getting enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Until the 1920s, endemic iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in the Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Northwestern regions of the United States. Iodized salt was responsible for eliminating endemic goiter in the United States and remains the mainstay of iodine deficiency disorder eradication efforts worldwide. Although urinary iodine values have decreased by 50% since the early 1970s, the United States remains iodine sufficient. However, U.S. iodine nutrition, particularly among women of childbearing age, may remain an area worthy of public health concern. There is a wide amount of variation in the iodine content of some common foods, and the iodine content of foods is not well reflected by package labeling. There needs to be increased awareness of the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, among the U.S. public.

  19. Ultraviolet gas-discharge lamp on iodine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Kalyuzhnaya, A. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2010-08-01

    The emission characteristics of a pulsed-periodic UV radiation source are reported. The source excited by a pulsed-periodic capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine vapor, neon-iodine vapor, or krypton-iodine vapor mixtures radiates in the spectral range 200-450 nm. It is shown that most of the plasma radiation power concentrates in the integral line of the iodine atom (206.2 nm) and in the D'- A' band of the iodine molecule with a maximum at 342 nm. The radiation intensity of the lamp is optimized in accordance with the partial pressure of the inert gases. The discharge plasma parameters that are of interest for simulating the process kinetics and the output characteristics of an UV source based on molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and xenon iodide are calculated in helium-iodine vapor and xenon-iodine vapor mixtures.

  20. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent...... question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...