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Sample records for iodine colorimetric method

  1. A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of the Exhaustion Level of Granular Activated Carbons Used in Rum Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Crespo Sariol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectrophotometric measurement applied on saturated granular activated carbon (GAC is not yet explored. A colorimetric method in the visible range has been developed in order to determine the exhaustion level of GAC used in rum production. Aqueous ammonia solution has been used as an indicative agent to determine the extraction rate of taste compounds within the rum production process and the exhaustion degree of the GAC. The colorimetric results showed excellent correlation with the iodine number and the contact pH. The proposed colorimetric method opens possibilities for rum producers to improve the management and economical use of the activated carbon at the industrial scale.

  2. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  3. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Antitumor evaluation of epigallocatechin gallate by colorimetric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Soon Ok [Korean Ginseng and Tobacco Research institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Kwang; Baek, Seung Hwa; Han, Du Seok [Wonkwang Unvi., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    In the present study, we were evaluated cytotoxic effects of epigallocatechin gallate in human skin melanoma cells such as HTB-69. The light microscopic study showed morphological changes of the treated cells. Disruptions in cell organelles were determined by colorimetric methods; 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) assay and sulforhodamine B protein (SRB) as-say. These results suggest that epigallocatechin gallate retains a potential antitumor activity.

  5. Review of analytical methods for the quantification of iodine in complex matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelor, C. Phillip [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Dasgupta, Purnendu K., E-mail: Dasgupta@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} We focus on iodine in biological samples, notably urine and milk. {yields} Sample preparation and the Sandell-Kolthoff method are extensively discussed. - Abstract: Iodine is an essential element of human nutrition. Nearly a third of the global population has insufficient iodine intake and is at risk of developing Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD). Most countries have iodine supplementation and monitoring programs. Urinary iodide (UI) is the biomarker used for epidemiological studies; only a few methods are currently used routinely for analysis. These methods either require expensive instrumentation with qualified personnel (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, instrumental nuclear activation analysis) or oxidative sample digestion to remove potential interferences prior to analysis by a kinetic colorimetric method originally introduced by Sandell and Kolthoff {approx}75 years ago. The Sandell-Kolthoff (S-K) method is based on the catalytic effect of iodide on the reaction between Ce{sup 4+} and As{sup 3+}. No available technique fully fits the needs of developing countries; research into inexpensive reliable methods and instrumentation are needed. There have been multiple reviews of methods used for epidemiological studies and specific techniques. However, a general review of iodine determination on a wide-ranging set of complex matrices is not available. While this review is not comprehensive, we cover the principal developments since the original development of the S-K method.

  6. Quantitative method for determination of body inorganic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    An original method of quantitation of body inorganic iodine, based upon a simultaneous administration of a known dose of stable and radioactive iodine with subsequent radiometry of the thyroid was proposed. The calculation is based upon the principle of the dilution of radiactive iodine in human inorganic iodine space. The method permits quantitation of the amount of inorganic iodine with regard to individual features of inorganic space. The method is characterized by simplicity and is not invasive for a patient

  7. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, H.; Strachan, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M2O.3Al2O3. 6SiO2.2MX, where M alkali metal; X I - or IO 3- ) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800 0 to 1100 0 C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite

  8. A Spectroscopic Method for Determining Free Iodine in Iodinated Fatty-Acid Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the concentration of free iodine in samples of iodinated fatty-acid esters can be measured using the electronic absorption spectra of their solutions in ethanol. The method proposed is rather simple in use and highly sensitive, allowing detection of presence of less than 10 ppm of free iodine in iodinated compounds. It is shown using the example of Lipiodol that this makes it possible to easily detect small amounts of free iodine in samples containing bound iodine in concentrations down to 40 wt %.

  9. A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ozcan

    2005-12-01

    To develop a new, colorimetric and automated method for measuring total oxidation status (TOS). The assay is based on the oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion in the presence of various oxidant species in acidic medium and the measurement of the ferric ion by xylenol orange. The oxidation reaction of the assay was enhanced and precipitation of proteins was prevented. In addition, autoxidation of ferrous ion present in the reagent was prevented during storage. The method was applied to an automated analyzer, which was calibrated with hydrogen peroxide and the analytical performance characteristics of the assay were determined. There were important correlations with hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene hydroperoxide solutions (r=0.99, Ptotal antioxidant capacity (TAC) (r=-0.66 Ptotal oxidant status.

  10. Methods to determine iodine plate-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hougaard, H.; Solgaard, P.; Zak, W.

    1986-03-01

    A literature study on iodines behaviour after release from irradiated fuel rods and a detailed dscription of the ventilation system in the hot cell facility form the basis of chosen conditions for some preliminary experiments using non-radioactive iodine. The conclusion states that the system is well suited for the purpose as is the method of sampling from the surface of the ventilation duct, while the releasing technique and the chemical analysis has to be further developed, neutron activation analysis being most promising. (author)

  11. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  12. A colorimetric method to quantify endo-polygalacturonase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sebastián; Sayago, Jorge E; Ordoñez, Roxana M; Isla, María Inés

    2011-02-08

    We report a new colorimetric assay to quantify endo-polygalacturonase activity, which hydrolyzes polygalacturonic acid to produce smaller chains of galacturonate. Some of the reported polygalacturonase assays measure the activity by detecting the appearance of reducing ends such as the Somogyi-Nelson method. As a result of being general towards reducing groups, the Somogyi-Nelson method is not appropriate when studying polygalacturonase and polygalacturonase inhibitors in plant crude extracts, which often have a strong reducing power. Ruthenium Red is an inorganic dye that binds polygalacturonic acid and causes its precipitation. In the presence of polygalacturonase, polygalacturonic acid is hydrolyzed bringing about a corresponding gain in soluble Ruthenium Red. The described assay utilizes Ruthenium Red as the detection reagent which has been used previously in plate-based assays but not in liquid medium reactions. The new method measures the disappearance of the substrate polygalacturonic acid and is compared to the Somogyi-Nelson assay. The experimental results using lemon peel, a fern fronds and castor leaf crude extracts demonstrate that the new method provides a way to the quickly screening of polygalacturonase activity and polygalacturonase inhibitors in plant crude extracts containing high amounts of reducing power. On the other hand, the Ruthenium Red assay is not able to determine the activity of an exo-polygalacturonase as initial velocity and thus would allow the differentiation between endo- and exo-polygalacturonase activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Making Decisions What you Need To Know About Supplements Dietary ... mild iodine deficiency and of iodine supplements on cognitive ... breasts. It mainly affects women of reproductive age but can also occur ...

  14. Method and composition for removing iodine from gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.A.; O'Hara, D.K.; Pasha, M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and composition for removing iodine and organic iodides from an iodine-containing off-gas stream is provided. The composition for the removal is a ceramic material impregnated with a mixture of a metallic salt with a water-soluble secondary amine. The method for removing the iodine and iodide is accomplished by passing the off-gas stream over the ceramic impregnated with the metallic salt-amine mixture

  15. The method of quantitative determination of iodine in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, A.B.; Kalinchenko, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Method for separate determination of J 2 and J - concentrations in acetic acid is suggested. Iodine concentration in acetic acid is determined by measuring potential of iodine-selective electrode first in the initial solution of acetic acid, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 0.5, and then in acetic acid, with alkali (NaOH) addition up to pH > 3, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 1. Determination is conducted in 5x10 -7 -5x10 -6 mol/l concentration range with relative standard deviation not more than 0.1. 1 fig

  16. [Electrochemical methods of control of iodine contents in drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, E A; Slepchenko, G B; Kolpakova, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    The simple and express methods of determination of iodide ions (0.01-0.20 mg/decimeter3) in iodine-enriched drinks by potentiometry and inversion voltamperometry were developed. The studies on influencing a storage time hermetically packaged carbonated beverages, a storage time of the depressurized drinks, stuff of ware on the contents of iodine in drinks are held.

  17. Method for solidification of radioactive iodine-containing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Uetake, Naoto.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To process radioactive iodine containing solid wastes as non-leaching solidified wastes with no risk of iodine release. Method: It has been known for the thermal stability of CuI, PbI 2 or adsorbents containing the same that they do not release iodine in an inert gas atmosphere or in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature lower than 480 deg C. In view of the above, adsorbents containing iodine in the chemical form of CuI or PbI 2 , or CuI or powdery PbI 2 per se are sealed and solidified into low melting glass at a temperature of lower than 480 deg C at which no iodine release occurs in a non-oxidative atmosphere. Since the products are vitrified wastes, they scarcely show leaching property and are excellent in durability and stability. (Takahashi, M.)

  18. Some methods of detection of atmospheric contamination by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Chevalier, Gerard; Gaillard, Pierre; Pradel, Jacques

    1964-01-01

    Due to the extensive use of iodine, risks of contamination by iodine 131 are increasing. Moreover, the increase of reactor power requires venting installations equipped with efficient safety filters which must be tested. The authors thus report the study of iodine trapping in filters, and its atmospheric detection and measurement. They report studies and achievements in the field of measurement of atmospheric pollution, and tests performed on iodine trapping by activated coals. After having outlined key qualities of an apparatus for atmospheric control, the authors indicate the various sampling methods. They discuss the method and calibration for the measurement of radioactivity of filters and coal which have trapped iodine 131. They discuss measurement sensitivity. They report how the efficiency of coals has been checked. They describe the experimental installation, and report the tests of some detectors of atmospheric contamination: sampling cartridges full of activated coal, gas mask cartridge, continuous control apparatus ('coffee machine' type), and detector of gaseous iodine. Appendices indicate the calculation of error on a cartridge counting rate, iodine generation methods (discontinuous method, continuous method) [fr

  19. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg ulcers and reduce the chance of a future infection. Conjunctivitis (pinkeye). Research suggests that using eye ... National Institute of Medicine has set Adequate Intake (AI) of iodine for infants: 0 to 6 months, ...

  20. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  1. Comparison of macro-gravimetric and micro-colorimetric lipid determination methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Laura S; Lotufo, Guiherme R

    2006-10-15

    In order to validate a method for lipid analysis of small tissue samples, the standard macro-gravimetric method of Bligh-Dyer (1959) [E.G. Bligh, W.J. Dyer, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37 (1959) 911] and a modification of the micro-colorimetric assay developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1 (1985) 302] were compared. No significant differences were observed for wet tissues of two species of fish. However, limited analysis of wet tissue of the amphipod, Leptocheirusplumulosus, indicated that the Bligh-Dyer gravimetric method generated higher lipid values, most likely due to the inclusion of non-lipid materials. Additionally, significant differences between the methods were observed with dry tissues, with the micro-colorimetric method consistently reporting calculated lipid values greater than as reported by the gravimetric method. This was most likely due to poor extraction of dry tissue in the standard Bligh-Dyer method, as no significant differences were found when analyzing a single composite extract. The data presented supports the conclusion that the micro-colorimetric method described in this paper is accurate, rapid, and minimizes time and solvent use.

  2. Novel method of producing radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, E.; Amano, H.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive iodine(I-131) is easily obtained by heating, at a temperature ranging from 600 0 C to 650 0 C, a tellurium oxide intermediate which was obtained by heating telluric acid or tellurium trioxide at a temperature from about 400 0 C to 560 0 C and was irradited with a neutron flux. Thus, pure I-131 is obtained without the complicated operations required in a conventional process for separation and/or purification of the product. 4 claims

  3. Visual and colorimetric methods for rapid determination of total tannins in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kalinkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of rapid colorimetric method for determining the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw materials. The sorption-based colorimetric test is determining sorption tannins polyurethane foam, impregnated of FeCl3, receiving on its surface painted in black and green color of the reaction products and the determination of their in sorbent matrix. Selectivity is achieved by determining the tannins specific interaction of polyphenols with iron ions (III. The conditions of sorption-colorimetric method: the concentration of ferric chloride (III, impregnated in the polyurethane foam; sorbent mass in the analytical cartridge; degree of loading his agent; the contact time of the phases. color scales have been developed for the visual determination of the amount of tannins in terms of gallic acid. Spend a digitized image obtained scales using computer program “Sorbfil TLC”, excluding a subjective assessment of the intensity of the color scale of the test. The results obtained determine the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw rapid method using tablets and analytical cartridges. The results of the test determination of tannins with visual and densitometric analytical signal registration are compared to known methods. Spend a metrological evaluation of the results of determining the amount of tannins sorption rapid colorimetric methods. Time visual and densitometric rapid determination of tannins, taking into account the sample preparation is 25–30 minutes, the relative error does not exceed 28 %. The developed test methods for quantifying the content of tannins allow to exclude the use of sophisticated analytical equipment, carry out the analysis in non-laboratory conditions do not require highly skilled personnel.

  4. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  5. A Universal Fast Colorimetric Method for DNA Signal Detection with DNA Strand Displacement and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA or gene signal detection is of great significance in many fields including medical examination, intracellular molecular monitoring, and gene disease signal diagnosis, but detection of DNA or gene signals in a low concentration with instant visual results remains a challenge. In this work, a universal fast and visual colorimetric detection method for DNA signals is proposed. Specifically, a DNA signal amplification “circuit” based on DNA strand displacement is firstly designed to amplify the target DNA signals, and then thiol modified hairpin DNA strands and gold nanoparticles are used to make signal detection results visualized in a colorimetric manner. If the target DNA signal exists, the gold nanoparticles aggregate and settle down with color changing from dark red to grey quickly; otherwise, the gold nanoparticles’ colloids remain stable in dark red. The proposed method provides a novel way to detect quickly DNA or gene signals in low concentrations with instant visual results. When applied in real-life, it may provide a universal colorimetric method for gene disease signal diagnosis.

  6. An imaging-based photometric and colorimetric measurement method for characterizing OLED panels for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiting; Narendran, Nadarajah; Tan, Jianchuan; Mou, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has demonstrated its novelty in displays and certain lighting applications. Similar to white light-emitting diode (LED) technology, it also holds the promise of saving energy. Even though the luminous efficacy values of OLED products have been steadily growing, their longevity is still not well understood. Furthermore, currently there is no industry standard for photometric and colorimetric testing, short and long term, of OLEDs. Each OLED manufacturer tests its OLED panels under different electrical and thermal conditions using different measurement methods. In this study, an imaging-based photometric and colorimetric measurement method for OLED panels was investigated. Unlike an LED that can be considered as a point source, the OLED is a large form area source. Therefore, for an area source to satisfy lighting application needs, it is important that it maintains uniform light level and color properties across the emitting surface of the panel over a long period. This study intended to develop a measurement procedure that can be used to test long-term photometric and colorimetric properties of OLED panels. The objective was to better understand how test parameters such as drive current or luminance and temperature affect the degradation rate. In addition, this study investigated whether data interpolation could allow for determination of degradation and lifetime, L70, at application conditions based on the degradation rates measured at different operating conditions.

  7. Assessment of a colorimetric method for the measurement of low concentrations of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Henao, Laura; Turolla, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano; Antonelli, Manuela

    2018-06-01

    The recent growing interest in peracetic acid (PAA) as disinfectant for wastewater treatment demands reliable and readily-available methods for its measurement. In detail, the monitoring of PAA in wastewater treatment plants requires a simple, accurate, rapid and inexpensive measurement procedure. In the present work, a method for analyzing low concentrations of PAA, adapted from the US EPA colorimetric method for total chlorine, is assessed. This method employs N,N-diethyl-p-phenylelnediamine (DPD) in the presence of an excess of iodide in a phosphate buffer system. Pink colored species are produced proportionally to the concentration of PAA in the sample. Considering that PAA is available commercially as an equilibrium solution of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), a measurement method for H 2 O 2 is also investigated. This method, as the one for the determination of PAA, is also based on the oxidation of iodide to iodine, with the difference that ammonium molybdate Mo(VI) is added to catalyze the oxidation reaction between H 2 O 2 and iodide, quantifying the total peroxides (PAA+ H 2 O 2 ). The two methods are suitable for concentration ranges from about 0.1-1.65 mg L -1 and from about 0.3-3.3 mg L -1 , respectively for PAA and H 2 O 2 . Moreover, the work elucidates some relevant aspects related to the operational conditions, kinetics and the possible interference of H 2 O 2 on PAA measurement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High purity zirconium obtainment through the iodine compounds transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolcich, J.C.; Zuzek, E.; Dutrus, S.M.; Corso, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental method and the equipment designed, constructed and actually applied for the high purity zirconium obtainment from a zirconium sponge of the nuclear type. The mechanism of purification is based on the impure metal attack with gaseous iodine (at 200 deg C) to obtain zirconium tetra iodine as main product which is then transformed into a pure zirconium base (at 1000-1300 deg C), precipitating the metallic zirconium and releasing the gaseous iodine. From the first experiences carried out, pure zirconium has been obtained from an initial filament of 0.5 mm of diameter as well as wires up to 2.5 mm of diameter. This work presents the results from the studies and analysis made to characterize the material obtained. Finally, the refining methods to which the zirconium produced may be submitted so as to optimize the final purity are discussed. (Author)

  9. Absorbing method of iodine in radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutome, Yutaka; Mifuji, Hiroshi; Ito, Sakae.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain an iodine adsorbing efficiency at a high level by keeping the adsorbing atmosphere to more than a predetermined temperature to thereby suppress the degradation and the activity reduction in zeolite. Method: Adsorption and desorption-regeneration of gaseous wastes are performed in parallel by heating gaseous wastes in a heater and switchingly supplying the same to adsorption columns by way of valve operation. Processed gases are cooled in a cooler and desorbed gases are supplied to an after-treatment device to eliminate or recover iodine 131. In the adsorption column, iodine in gaseous wastes is adsorbed to remove by using zeolite, wherein the adsorbing atmosphere is kept at a temperature higher than 40 0 C. This can prevent the formation of an aqueous HNO 3 solution from NO 2 and H 2 O contained in the gaseous wastes and prevent the degradation of the zeolite adsorption layer. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. A rapid colorimetric screening method for vanillic acid and vanillin-producing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzuri, N A; Abd-Aziz, S; Rahim, R A; Phang, L Y; Alitheen, N B; Maeda, T

    2014-04-01

    To isolate a bacterial strain capable of biotransforming ferulic acid, a major component of lignin, into vanillin and vanillic acid by a rapid colorimetric screening method. For the production of vanillin, a natural aroma compound, we attempted to isolate a potential strain using a simple screening method based on pH change resulting from the degradation of ferulic acid. The strain Pseudomonas sp. AZ10 UPM exhibited a significant result because of colour changes observed on the assay plate on day 1 with a high intensity of yellow colour. The biotransformation of ferulic acid into vanillic acid by the AZ10 strain provided the yield (Yp/s ) and productivity (Pr ) of 1·08 mg mg(-1) and 53·1 mg L(-1) h(-1) , respectively. In fact, new investigations regarding lignin degradation revealed that the strain was not able to produce vanillin and vanillic acid directly from lignin; however, partially digested lignin by mixed enzymatic treatment allowed the strain to produce 30·7 mg l(-1) and 1·94 mg l(-1) of vanillic acid and biovanillin, respectively. (i) The rapid colorimetric screening method allowed the isolation of a biovanillin producer using ferulic acid as the sole carbon source. (ii) Enzymatic treatment partially digested lignin, which could then be utilized by the strain to produce biovanillin and vanillic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the use of a rapid colorimetric screening method for bacterial strains producing vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  12. Colorimetric determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water by enzymatic reduction, automated discrete analyzer methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents work at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to validate enzymatic reduction, colorimetric determinative methods for nitrate + nitrite in filtered water by automated discrete analysis. In these standard- and low-level methods (USGS I-2547-11 and I-2548-11), nitrate is reduced to nitrite with nontoxic, soluble nitrate reductase rather than toxic, granular, copperized cadmium used in the longstanding USGS automated continuous-flow analyzer methods I-2545-90 (NWQL laboratory code 1975) and I-2546-91 (NWQL laboratory code 1979). Colorimetric reagents used to determine resulting nitrite in aforementioned enzymatic- and cadmium-reduction methods are identical. The enzyme used in these discrete analyzer methods, designated AtNaR2 by its manufacturer, is produced by recombinant expression of the nitrate reductase gene from wall cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unlike other commercially available nitrate reductases we evaluated, AtNaR2 maintains high activity at 37°C and is not inhibited by high-phenolic-content humic acids at reaction temperatures in the range of 20°C to 37°C. These previously unrecognized AtNaR2 characteristics are essential for successful performance of discrete analyzer nitrate + nitrite assays (henceforth, DA-AtNaR2) described here.

  13. Colorimetric method for enzymatic screening assay of ATP using Fe(III)-xylenol orange complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akihiko; Yamada, Yasuko; Kamidate, Tamio

    2008-11-01

    In hygiene management, recently there has been a significant need for screening methods for microbial contamination by visual observation or with commonly used colorimetric apparatus. The amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can serve as the index of a microorganism. This paper describes the development of a colorimetric method for the assay of ATP, using enzymatic cycling and Fe(III)-xylenol orange (XO) complex formation. The color characteristics of the Fe(III)-XO complexes, which show a distinct color change from yellow to purple, assist the visual observation in screening work. In this method, a trace amount of ATP was converted to pyruvate, which was further amplified exponentially with coupled enzymatic reactions. Eventually, pyruvate was converted to the Fe(III)-XO complexes through pyruvate oxidase reaction and Fe(II) oxidation. As the assay result, yellow or purple color was observed: A yellow color indicates that the ATP concentration is lower than the criterion of the test, and a purple color indicates that the ATP concentration is higher than the criterion. The method was applied to the assay of ATP extracted from Escherichia coli cells added to cow milk.

  14. Aptamer-mediated colorimetric method for rapid and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Li; Xue, Feng; Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Baoguang; Chen, Wei

    2018-09-15

    We report an aptamer-mediated colorimetric method for sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP). The aptamer of CAP is immobilized by the hybridization with pre-immobilized capture probe in the microtiter plate. The horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is covalently attached to the aptamer by the biotin-streptavidin system for signal production. CAP will preferably bind with aptamer due to the high binding affinity, which attributes to the release of aptamer and HRP and thus, affects the optical signal intensity. Quantitative determination of CAP is successfully achieved in the wide range from 0.001 to 1000 ng/mL with detection limit of 0.0031 ng/mL, which is more sensitive than traditional immunoassays. This method is further validated by measuring the recovery of CAP spiked in two different food matrices (honey and fish). The aptamer-mediated colorimetric method can be a useful protocol for rapid and sensitive screening of CAP, and may be used as an alternative means for traditional immunoassays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel colorimetric method overcoming phosphorus interference during trace arsenic analysis in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2008-02-01

    A sensitive (method detection limit, 2.0 microg As L(-1)) colorimetric determination of trace As(v) and As(iii) concentrations in the presence of soluble phosphorus (P) concentrations in soil/water extracts is presented. The proposed method modifies the malachite green method (MG) originally developed for P in soil and water. Our method relies upon the finding that As(iii) and As(v) do not develop the green color during P analysis using the MG method. When an optimum concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) is added to a sample containing up to 15 times P > As (microM) concentrations, the final sample absorbance due to P will be equal to that of As(v) molecules. The soluble As concentration can then be quantified by the concentration difference between the mixed oxyanion (As + P) absorbance (proposed method) and the MG method absorbance that measures only P. Our method is miniaturized using a 96-well microplate UV-VIS reader that utilizes minute reagent and sample volumes (120 and 200 microL sample(-1), respectively), thus, minimizing waste and offering flexibility in the field. Our method was tested in a suite of As-contaminated soils that successfully measured both As and P in soil water extracts and total digests. Mean% As recoveries ranged between 84 and 117%, corroborating data obtained with high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. The performance of the proposed colorimetric As method was unaffected by the presence of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, Si, and Cr in both neutral and highly-acidic (ca. pH 2) soil extracts. Data from this study provide the proof of concept towards creating a field-deployable, portable As kit.

  16. A simple micro-photometric method for urinary iodine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Gabriele; Lindorfer, Heidelinde; Kieweg, Heidi; Marculescu, Rodrig; Hoffmann, Martha; Gessl, Alois; Sager, Manfred; Bieglmayer, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Urinary iodide concentration (UIC) is useful to evaluate nutritional iodine status. In clinical settings UIC helps to exclude blocking of the thyroid gland by excessive endogenous iodine, if diagnostic or therapeutic administration of radio-iodine is indicated. Therefore, this study established a simple test for the measurement of UIC. UIC was analyzed in urine samples of 200 patients. Samples were pre-treated at 95°C for 45 min with ammonium persulfate in a thermal cycler, followed by a photometric Sandell-Kolthoff reaction (SK) carried out in microtiter plates. For method comparison, UIC was analyzed in 30 samples by inductivity coupled plasma mass spectro-metry (ICP-MS) as a reference method. Incubation conditions were optimized concerning recovery. The photometric test correlated well to the reference method (SK=0.91*ICP-MS+1, r=0.962) and presented with a functional sensitivity of 20 μg/L. UIC of patient samples ranged from photometric test provides satisfactory results and can be performed with the basic equipment of a clinical laboratory.

  17. A simple in situ visual and tristimulus colorimetric method for the determination of diphosgene in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR PITSCHMANN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple visual and tristimulus colorimetric method (three-dimensional system CIE–L*a*b* for the determination of trace amounts of diphosgene in air has been developed. The method is based on the suction of diphosgene vapors through a modified cotton fabric filter fixed in a special adapter. Prior to analysis, the filter is saturated with a chromogenic reagent based on 4-(p-nitrobenzylpyridine. The optimal composition of the reagent is 2 g of 4-(p-nitrobenzylpyridine and 4 g of N-phenylbenzylamine in 100 ml of a 50:50 ethanol–glycerol mixture. The intensity of the formed red coloration of the filter is evaluated visually or by a tristimulus colorimeter (LMG 173, Lange, Germany. The detection limit is 0.01 mg m-3. Acetyl chloride and benzoyl chloride react in 150 and 50 times higher concentrations, respecttively. The method is suitable for mobile field analysis.

  18. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  19. Methods of iodine-129 analysis for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Nomura, Tamotsu; Kinoshita, Mutsumi

    1976-01-01

    Some methods for the analysis of I-129 in the environment are described. Iodide ion in seawater is coprecipitated with chloride ion by silver citrate powder, and that in seaweeds and in sediment is sublimated by heating at about 900 0 C in O 2 atmosphere, and then the iodine is trapped in cooled NaOH and NaHSO 3 mixed solution. The trapped iodine is precipitated with AgNO 3 solution for γ-/X-ray spectrometry (detection limit asymptotically equals 30 pCi), or extracted into toluene scintillater solution for liquid scintillation counting. The decomposition of AgI is necessary for low level I-129 measurement; The AgI was transfered in a flask, added with 2N H 2 SO 4 and Zn sand, and decomposed by stirring for 2 hr. Filtered the solution, added 0.5 g of NaNO 2 and toluene scintillater to extract the iodine then added 1 ml of 2-methyl 1-butene to decolorize, the solution is measured by a liquid scintillation counter (detection limit asymptotically equals 1 pCi). This method can be applied for monitoring of low level radioactive water waste. (auth.)

  20. Rapid-micro-determination of iodine in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godin, J.M.; Archimbaud, M.

    1967-03-01

    A method is described for detecting one microgram of iodine per litre of water. After having tested manually volumetric and colorimetric methods, the authors chose a kinetic method. Reduction of arsenious oxide by ceric sulphate is catalyzed by the presence of small quantities of iodine. Failure of manual tests led to the adoption of a Technicon auto-analyzer for carrying out the determination; this improves the reproducibility of the method and gives a sensitivity of about 1 microgram of iodine per litre with an accuracy of ±15 per cent. (authors) [fr

  1. Comparison of thiaminase activity in fish using the radiometric and 4-nitrothiophenol colorimetric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hanes, J.W.; Brown, L.; Kraft, C.E.; Begley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Thiaminase induced thiamine deficiency occurs in fish, humans, livestock and wild animals. A non-radioactive thiaminase assay was described in 2007, but a direct comparison with the radioactive 14C-thiamine method which has been in use for more than 30years has not been reported. The objective was to measure thiaminase activity in forage fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus) consumed by predators that manifest thiamine deficiency using both methods. Modifications were made to the colorimetric assay to improve repeatability. Modification included a change in assay pH, enhanced sample clean-up, constant assay temperature (37??C), increase in the concentration of 4-nitrothiophenol (4NTP) and use of a spectrophotometer fitted with a 0.2cm cell. A strong relationship between the two assays was found for 51 alewife (R2=0.85), 36 smelt (R2=0.87) and 20 sculpin (R2=0.82). Thiaminase activity in the colorimetric assay was about 1000 times higher than activity measured by the radioactive method. Application of the assay to fish species from which no thiaminase activity has previously been reported resulted in no 4NTP thiaminase activity being found in bloater Coregonus hoyi, lake trout Salvelinus namaycusch, steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In species previously reported to contain thiaminase, 4NTP thiaminase activity was measured in bacteria Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum, quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis and zebra mussels D. polymorpha. ?? 2010.

  2. Method for determination of radioactive iodine isotopes in environmental objects and biologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubynin, O.D.; Pogodin, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    The method proposed for determination of radioactive iodine isotopes content in environmental objects and biologic materials is based on the extraction of iodine with carbon tetrachloride and subsequent precipitation of bismuthyl iodine (BiOI) in perchloric medium. Sample preparation for analysis is carried out using conventional alkaline ashing methods. Quantitative iodine separation is hampered if macroquantities of Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2 - , SO 8 2 - , Cr 2 O 7 2 - and other ions are present in the solution. Iodine extraction is carried out before its precipitation. Separated iodine preparation activity is measured using scintillation (NaI) Tl gamma spectrometer. The method's sensitivity when measuring iodine-131 preparations makes up 0.07 Bq per 1 sample with the error +-25 %

  3. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian, E-mail: lingjian@ynu.edu.cn; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E., E-mail: qecao@ynu.edu.cn; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-10-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Demonstrated a new colorimetric strategy for iodide detection by silver nanoplates. •The colorimetric strategy is to find the critical color in a color change process. •The colorimetric strategy is more accurate and sensitive than common colorimetry. •Discovered a new morphological transformation phenomenon of silver nanoplates. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis.

  4. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E.; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Demonstrated a new colorimetric strategy for iodide detection by silver nanoplates. •The colorimetric strategy is to find the critical color in a color change process. •The colorimetric strategy is more accurate and sensitive than common colorimetry. •Discovered a new morphological transformation phenomenon of silver nanoplates. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis

  5. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.; Staples, B.A.; Murphy, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which absorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine

  6. A rapid colorimetric method for predicting the storage stability of middle distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshman, S.J. [Defense Research Agency, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Present methods used to predict the storage stability of distillate fuels such as ASTM D2274, ASTM D4625, DEF STAN 05-50 Method 40 and in-house methods are very time consuming, taking a minimum of 16 hours. In addition, some of these methods under- or over-predict the storage stability of the test fuel. A rapid colorimetric test for identifying cracked, straight run or hydrofined fuels was reported at the previous Conference. Further work has shown that while a visual appraisal is acceptable for refinery-fresh fuels, colour development may be masked by other coloured compounds in older fuels. Use of a spectrometric finish to the method has extended the scope of the method to include older fuels. The test can be correlated with total sediment from ASTM D4625 (13 weeks at 43{degrees}C) over a sediment range of 0-60mg/L. A correlation of 0.94 was obtained for 40 fuels.

  7. Leak test method and test device for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1995-01-01

    An air introduction device which can change a humidity is disposed upstream of an iodine filter to be tested, and a humidity measuring device is disposed downstream of the iodine filter respectively. At first, dried air reduced with humidity is flown from the air introduction device to the iodine filter, to remove moisture content from an iodine adsorber in the iodine filter. Next, air at an increased humidity is supplied to the iodine filter. The difference between the time starting the supply of the highly humid air and the time detecting the high humidity at the humidity measuring device is measured. When the time difference is smaller than the time difference measured previously in a normal iodine filter, it shows the presence of leak in the iodine filter to be tested. With such procedures, leakage in the iodine filter which removes radioactive iodine from off-gases discharged from the radioactive material handling facilities can be detected easily by using water (steams), namely, a naturally present material. (I.N.)

  8. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhou, Xichun; Pan, Zhengwei; Turchi, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoparticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (K d ) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanoparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: maltose > mannose > glucose > lactose > MAN5.

  9. A new diatom growth inhibition assay using the XTT colorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weina; Akagi, Takuya; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Takimoto, Ayaka; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Marine biofouling, which leads to significant operational stress and economic damage on marine infrastructures, is a major problem in marine related industries. Currently, the most common way to avoid marine biofouling involves the use of biocidal products in surface coatings. However, the need for environmentally friendly antibiofouling compounds has increased rapidly with the recent global prohibition of harmful antifoulants, such as tributyltin (TBT). In particular, periphytic diatoms have been shown to contribute significantly to biofilms, which play an important role in biofouling. Therefore, inhibiting the proliferation of fouling diatoms is a very important step in the prevention of marine biofouling. In this study, we developed a new, rapid, accurate, and convenient growth inhibition assay using the XTT colorimetric method to prevent the growth of the fouling periphytic diatom, Nitzschia amabilis Hidek. Suzuki (replaced synonym, Nitzschia laevis Hustedt). The feasibility of this method was verified by determining the growth inhibition activities of two standard photosynthetic inhibitors, DCMU and CuSO4. However, neither inhibitor had any cytotoxic activities at the range of concentrations tested. Moreover, this method was applied by screening and purification of herbicidic but non-cytotoxic compounds from cyanobacteria extracts. Our results demonstrate the utility of this newly established growth inhibition assay for the identification of marine anti-biofouling compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The microculture tetrazolium assay (MTA): another colorimetric method of testing Plasmodium falciparum chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaes, L; Lazaro, J E; Gay, F; Thellier, M; Danis, M

    1999-01-01

    Malarial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which uses 3-acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide as coenzyme in a reaction leading to the formation of pyruvate from L-lactate, may be used to study the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to a drug in vitro. Several methods to determine the activity of this enzyme are available. One, the colorimetric method of Makler and colleagues, was modified slightly, by using sodium-2,3-bis-[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5 - carboxanilide (XTT) and following the reaction by measuring the optical density at 450 nm. Using two, culture-adapted strains of P. falciparum, this LDH assay was compared with the unmodified Makler's assay and with the isotopic microtest based on the incorporation of tritium-labelled hypoxanthine. Fresh, clinical P. falciparum isolates were also tested in the presence of several drugs, including chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, halofantrine, atovaquone and qinghaosu derivatives. The results of the three assays were correlated for all the drugs tested except atovaquone. The two enzymatic assays are non-radioactive, rapid, reliable, inexpensive to perform and semi-automatic. However, they do require an initial parasitaemia of 2% with a haematocrit of 1.8%.

  11. Modified APHA closed-tube reflux colorimetric method for TOC determination in water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Simon Olonkwoh; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu

    2018-05-30

    The analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) by the American Public Health Association (APHA) closed-tube reflux colorimetric method requires potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ), silver sulfate (AgSO 4 ), and mercury (HgSO 4 ) sulfate in addition to large volumes of both reagents and samples. The method relies on the release of oxygen from dichromate on heating which is consumed by carbon associated with organic compounds. The method risks environmental pollution by discharging large amounts of chromium (VI) and silver and mercury sulfates. The present method used potassium monochromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) to generate the K 2 Cr 2 O 7 on demand in the first phase. In addition, miniaturizing the procedure to semi microanalysis decreased the consumption of reagents and samples. In the second phase, mercury sulfate was eliminated as part of the digestion mixture through the introduction of sodium bismuthate (NaBiO 3 ) for the removal of chlorides from the sample. The modified method, the potassium monochromate closed-tube colorimetry with sodium bismuthate chloride removal (KMCC-Bi), generates the potassium dichromate on demand and eliminates mercury sulfate. The semi microanalysis procedure leads to a 60% reduction in sample volume and ≈ 33.33 and 60% reduction in monochromate and silver sulfate consumption respectively. The LOD and LOQ were 10.17 and 33.90 mg L -1 for APHA, and 4.95 and 16.95 mg L -1 for KMCC-Bi. Recovery was between 83 to 98% APHA and 92 to 104% KMCC-Bi, while the RSD (%) ranged between 0.8 to 5.0% APHA and 0.00 to 0.62% KMCC-Bi. The method was applied for the UV-Vis spectrometry determination of COD in water and wastewater. Statistics was done by MINITAB 17 or MS Excel 2016. ᅟ Graphical abstract.

  12. Rapid and simple colorimetric method for the quantification of AI-2 produced from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanavanitchakorn, Siriluck; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Thamyongkit, Patchanita

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Fe(III) ion reduction for the simple and rapid quantification of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) produced from bacteria using Salmonella Typhimurium as a model. Since the molecular structure of AI-2 is somewhat similar to ascorbic acid it was expected that AI-2 would also act as a reducing agent and reduce Fe(III) ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to form the colored [(o-phen)3 Fe(II)]SO4 ferroin complex that could be quantified colorimetrically. In support of this, colony rinses and cell free supernatants from cultures of all tested AI-2 producing strains, but not the AI-2 negative Sinorhizobium meliloti, formed a colored complex with a λmax of 510nm. The OD510 values of these culture supernatants or colony rinses were in broad agreement with the % activity observed in the same samples using the standard Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay for AI-2 detection, and with previously reported results. This methodology could potentially be developed as an alternative method for the simple and rapid quantification of AI-2 levels produced in bacterial cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined enzymatic and colorimetric method for determining the uronic acid and methylester content of pectin: Application to tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M

    2008-09-01

    A simple procedure for determining the galacturonic acid and methanol contents of soluble and insoluble pectins, relying on enzymatic pectin hydrolysis and colorimetric quantification, is described. Pectin samples are incubated with a commercial pectinase preparation, Viscozyme, then the galacturonic acid content of the hydrolyzed pectin is quantified colorimetrically using a modification of the Cu reduction procedure originally described by Avigad and Milner. This modification, substituting the commonly used Folin-Ciocalteau reagent for the arsenic containing Nelson reagent, gives a response that is linear, sensitive, and selective for uronic acids over neutral sugars. This method also avoids the use of concentrated acids needed for the commonly used m-phenylphenol method. Methanol, released by the action of the pectin methylesterase found in the Viscozyme, is quantified using alcohol oxidase and Purpald. This combined enzymatic and colorimetric procedure correctly determined the galacturonic acid and methanol content of purified, soluble citrus pectin. Application of the procedure to water insoluble pectins was evaluated with water insoluble material from apples and oranges. In both cases good agreement was obtained between this method and commonly used methods based on chemical pectin hydrolysis. Good agreement between these procedures was also found in the analysis of both soluble and insoluble pectins from several tomato products. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple colorimetric methods for determination of sub-milligram amounts of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, F.; Zolotarevova, E.; Špundová, M.; Kaftan, Filip; Šlouf, Miroslav; Entlicher, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 1935-1938 ISSN 1742-7061 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096; GA MZd NT12229 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : joint replacement * polyethylene wear particles * wear particles determination * colorimetric methods Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.093, year: 2012

  15. Method for estimating effects of unknown correlations in spectral irradiance data on uncertainties of spectrally integrated colorimetric quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärhä, Petri; Vaskuri, Anna; Mäntynen, Henrik; Mikkonen, Nikke; Ikonen, Erkki

    2017-08-01

    Spectral irradiance data are often used to calculate colorimetric properties, such as color coordinates and color temperatures of light sources by integration. The spectral data may contain unknown correlations that should be accounted for in the uncertainty estimation. We propose a new method for estimating uncertainties in such cases. The method goes through all possible scenarios of deviations using Monte Carlo analysis. Varying spectral error functions are produced by combining spectral base functions, and the distorted spectra are used to calculate the colorimetric quantities. Standard deviations of the colorimetric quantities at different scenarios give uncertainties assuming no correlations, uncertainties assuming full correlation, and uncertainties for an unfavorable case of unknown correlations, which turn out to be a significant source of uncertainty. With 1% standard uncertainty in spectral irradiance, the expanded uncertainty of the correlated color temperature of a source corresponding to the CIE Standard Illuminant A may reach as high as 37.2 K in unfavorable conditions, when calculations assuming full correlation give zero uncertainty, and calculations assuming no correlations yield the expanded uncertainties of 5.6 K and 12.1 K, with wavelength steps of 1 nm and 5 nm used in spectral integrations, respectively. We also show that there is an absolute limit of 60.2 K in the error of the correlated color temperature for Standard Illuminant A when assuming 1% standard uncertainty in the spectral irradiance. A comparison of our uncorrelated uncertainties with those obtained using analytical methods by other research groups shows good agreement. We re-estimated the uncertainties for the colorimetric properties of our 1 kW photometric standard lamps using the new method. The revised uncertainty of color temperature is a factor of 2.5 higher than the uncertainty assuming no correlations.

  16. Evaluation of Iodine Bioavailability in Seaweed Using in Vitro Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-González, M Raquel; Chiocchetti, Gabriela M; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-09-27

    Due to the high levels of iodine present in seaweed, the ingestion of a large amount of this type of food can produce excessive intake of iodine. However, the food after ingestion undergoes different chemistry and physical processes that can modify the amount of iodine that reaches the systemic circulation (bioavailability). Studies on the bioavailability of iodine from food are scarce and indicate that the bioavailable amount is generally lower than ingested. Iodine in vitro bioavailability estimation from different commercialized seaweed has been studied using different in vitro approaches (solubility, dialyzability, and transport and uptake by intestinal cells). Results indicate that iodine is available after gastrointestinal digestion for absorption (bioaccessibility: 49-82%), kombu being the seaweed with the highest bioaccessibility. The incorporation of dialysis cell cultures to elucidate bioavailability modifies the estimation of the amount of iodine that may reach the systemic circulation (dialysis, 5-28%; cell culture, ≤3%). The paper discusses advantages and drawbacks of these methodologies for iodine bioavailability in seaweed.

  17. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yun-xia; WEN Yun-jie; HUANG Jin-li; LI Gui-hua; CHAI Xiao; WANG Hong

    2015-01-01

    The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method) is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P) in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA) is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the dige...

  19. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  20. Sub-stoichiometric isotope dilution analysis method for the determination of iodine in common salts using iodine-131 tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vivek; Garg, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    A sub-stoichiometric isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) method was developed for the determination of iodine in different brands of common salts. An aqueous salt solution containing 131 I tracer and NaI as carrier is oxidized by tartaric acid and KIO 3 and the liberated iodine is extracted with CCl 4 . To the extract an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 is added in substoichiometric amount to obtain a colloidal solution of AgI. On adding sodium thiosulfate solution, the NaI so formed passes into aqueous solution, which is then counted. Several different brands of salt were analysed. The method is especially suitable for the determination of microgram amounts of iodide in the presence of excess of chloride. (Author)

  1. Radio-iodination of a rabbit fibrinogen by the chloramine-T method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moza, A K; Kumar, M; Belavalgidad, M I; Sapru, R P [Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Experimental Medicine

    1974-01-01

    A method for radio-iodination of fibrinogen using chloramine-T has been described. Samples of greater than 90% clottable counts were obtained. Electrophoretic mobility and immunodiffusion showed that the entire radioactivity was present in the fibrinogen band. In vivo studies on the turnover of this labelled product in rabbits showed a half-life of 52.8 to 61.7 hrs in two batches of animals. The results compare very well with the reported results obtained from fibrinogen labelled with radioactive iodine by the iodine-monochloride method. The advantages of the new method have been pointed out.

  2. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yun-xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the digests were determined by CFA and VMYC method, respectively. The t test found that there was no any significant difference of the plant P contents measured by the CFA and the VMYC method. A linear equation could best describe their relationship: Y(CFA-P=0.927X(VMYC-P-0.002. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.985 with a significance level(n=69, P<0.01. The CFA method for plant P measurement had a high precision with relative standard deviation(RSD less than 1.5%. It is suggested that the CFA based on Murphy and Riley colorimetric detection can be used to determinate total plant P in the digests solutions with H2SO4-H2O2. The CFA method is labor saving and can handle large numbers of samples. The human error in mixing with other operations is reduced to a great extent.

  3. Processing method and device for iodine adsorbing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Shiga, Reiko.

    1997-01-01

    An iodine adsorbing material adsorbing silver compounds is reacted with a reducing gas, so that the silver compounds are converted to metal silver and stored. Then, the silver compounds are not melted or recrystallized even under a highly humid condition, accordingly, peeling of the adsorbed materials from a carrier can be prevented, and the iodine adsorbing material can be stored stably. Since the device is disposed in an off gas line for discharging off gases from a nuclear power facility, the iodine adsorbing material formed by depositing silver halides to the carrier is contained, and a reducing or oxidizing gas is supplied to the vessel as required, and silver halides can be converted to metal silver or the metal silver can be returned to silver halide. (T.M.)

  4. Radioactively labelled iodinated insulin and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R; Teetz, V; Eckert, H G

    1977-10-20

    Suitable tracers for RIA and substrates for pharmacokinetic investigations are insulin derivatives where B1 phenylalanine is substituted by a tyrosine derivative and part of the iodine is in the form of I-125 or I-131. The preparation of the insulin derivatives is described.

  5. Physico-chemical aspects of the bovine growth hormone iodination by the electrolytic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.A.; Ciscato, V.A.; Giacomini, S.M.V. de; Quiroga, S.; Kurcbart, H.; Radicella, R.

    1975-04-01

    With a view to studying the mechanism by which iodine is incorporated into the bovine somatotropin molecule, labelling was carried out by the electrolytic method (pH7.4, current 20 μA) as a function of time for various total iodine/protein ratios. In all cases the labelling yields were determined by paper electrophoresis. The corresponding degree of iodination was calculated on the basis of the values obtained and knowledge of the amount of reacting protein, values greater than 12 being obtained in many cases. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on all the samples obtained and in the hydrolysates an increase in free iodide was observed which became more manifest as the iodide/protein molar ratio increased. The percentage of radioactivity from monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine was determined for the various degrees of iodination from chromatograms of the hydrolysates. For an iodination value of 12, diiodotyrosine radioactivity of 70% was found. When the degree of relative iodination for each iodide/protein molar ratio is calculated from the hydrolysis data, it can be seen that only 75% of the total number of available places in the tyrosine residues accept the incorporation of iodine. This fact suggests that not all tyrosine residues are equally accessible. (author)

  6. Colorimetric method for determination of bisphenol A based on aptamer-mediated aggregation of positively charged gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingyue; Li, Ying; Bie, Jiaxin; Guo, Jiajia; Luo, Yeli; Shen, Fei; Sun, Chunyan; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid colorimetric aptasensor for the determination of the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) was developed. It is based on the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that are positively charged due to the modification with cysteamine which is cationic at near-neutral pH values. If aptamers are added to such AuNPs, aggregation occurs due to electrostatic interactions between the negatively-charged aptamers and the positively-charged AuNPs. This results in a color change of the AuNPs from red to blue. If a sample containing BPA is added to the anti-BPA aptamers, the anti-BPA aptamers undergo folding via an induced-fit binding mechanism. This is accompanied by a conformational change, which prevents the aptamer-induced aggregation and color change of AuNPs. The effect was exploited to design a colorimetric assay for BPA. Under optimum conditions, the absorbance ratio of A 527 /A 680 is linearly proportional to the BPA concentration in the range from 35 to 140 ng∙mL −1 , with a detection limit of 0.11 ng∙mL −1 . The method has been successfully applied to the determination of BPA in spiked tap water and gave recoveries between 91 and 106 %. Data were in full accordance with results obtained from HPLC. This assay is selective, easily performed, and in our perception represents a promising alternative to existing methods for rapid quantification of BPA. (author)

  7. Nuclear ventilation installations. Method of control of the scrubbing coefficient of iodine trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The present standard aims at defining a method to control the scrubbing coefficient of radioactive iodine trapping systems, used in nuclear ventilation installations. It applies to the installations where the trapping, efficiency of radioactive iodine has to be known, tested and compared to a reference value generally included in the safety reports. It applies to the installations where the absolute pressure of the air in the ventilation systems is above 1,4. 10 5 Pa (1,4 Bar) [fr

  8. Iodine metabolism in leprosy patients (examination with a method of whole-body radiometry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balybin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of whole-body radiometry was used to study iodine metabolism in 47 patients with lepromatous leprosy. Disorders were found in 1/3 of the cases. The level of organic iodine in the body was the most informative of all iodine metabolism indices. In the active stage of leprosy it was twice as low, on an average, as the normal one, in the stage of incomplete and stable regression it rose not reaching, however, the values of healthy persons. The content of iodine in the thyroid of leprosy patients showed a tendency to a rise starting from the active stage, however it was only in the stages of incomplete and stable regression that it significantly exceeded the normal level. The data obtained should be considered during therapy of lepers to predict and control an unfavorable complication like specific polyneuritis

  9. Preparation and Purification of natural uranium metal by Iodine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taies, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work ,glass-metal apparatus was designed and manufactured which used for preparing a high purity uranium.The reaction is simply take place between iodine vapour and uranium metal at 500C in closed system to form uranium tetra iodide which is decomposed on hot wire at high temperature around 1100C.Also another apparatus was made from Glass and used for preparing a high purity of UI 4 more than 99.9%purity

  10. In vitro preliminary cytotoxicity testing of vegetal extracts, using colorimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Cordero Camacho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To advance in the study of the Colombian vegetal biodiversity, considered as a potential source of pharmacologically active products, the establishment of biological activity evaluation systems is necessary, which allow the detection of active products against pathologies with high social and economical impact, such as cancer. This work describes the implementation of a preliminary in vitro methodology for the determination of potential anticancer activity in vegetal extracts, by cytotoxicity testing upon human tumor cell lines, measuring the cellular mass indirectly with the colorimetric assays of MTT (methyl tetrazolium tiazole reduction and SRB (sulforhodamine Bstaining. HT-29, MCF-7, SiHa and HEp-2 cell lines cultures were adapted, MTT concentration, cellular density and treatment period parameters for the cytotoxicity assay were selected. Cell lines sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin HCl was determined. Colombian vegetal species extracts cytotoxicity was tested and usefulness of the assay as a tool to bioguide the search of active products was evidenced.

  11. In vitro preliminary cytotoxicity testing of vegetal extracts, using colorimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Cordero Camacho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To advance in the study of the Colombian vegetal biodiversity, considered as a potential source of pharmacologically active products, the establishment of biological activity evaluation systems is necessary, which allow the detection of active products against pathologies with high social and economical impact, such as cancer. This work describes the implementation of a preliminary in vitro methodology for the determination of potential anticancer activity in vegetal extracts, by cytotoxicity testing upon human tumor cell lines, measuring the cellular mass indirectly with the colorimetric assays of MTT (methyl tetrazolium tiazole reduction and SRB (sulforhodamine Bstaining. HT-29, MCF-7, SiHa and HEp-2 cell lines cultures were adapted, MTT concentration, cellular density and treatment period parameters for the cytotoxicity assay were selected. Cell lines sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin HCl was determined. Colombian vegetal species extracts cytotoxicity was tested and usefulness of the assay as a tool to bioguide the search of active products was evidenced.

  12. Quantitative analysis of iodine in thyroidin. I. Methods of ''dry'' and ''wet'' mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listov, S.A.; Arzamastsev, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    The relative investigations on the quantitative determination of iodine in thyroidin using different modifications of the ''dry'' and ''wet'' mineralization show that in using these methods the difficulties due to the characteristic features of the object of investigation itself and the mineralization method as a whole must be taken into account. The studies show that the most applicable method for the analysis of thyroidin is the method of ''dry'' mineralization with potassium carbonate. A procedure is proposed for a quantitative determination of iodine in thyroidin

  13. Evaluation method of iodine re-evolution from an in-containment water pool after a loss of coolant accident, Part II: Evaluation of pH and iodine re-evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is required to evaluate re-evolved iodine from sump water after LOCA. • Transport of iodine and chemicals influencing pH were analyzed using CFD. • Chemical conditions of the iodine-rich region suppress iodine re-evolution. • The current evaluation method for I 2 re-evolution is excessively conservative. - Abstract: Radioactive iodine that is released during a postulated loss of coolant accident is dissolved into the containment spray water and transported into the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The re-evolution of iodine from the water is a safety concern. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses are conducted in order to analyze the transport of chemical species including iodine in the IRWST and to calculate the amount of iodine that re-evolves from the IRWST water. The CFD analyses demonstrate that the pH of water is high where the iodine concentration is high. Considering that the creation rate of molecular iodine declines as the pH increases, it can be understood that the iodine re-evolution is not so strong in practical situations because the chemical conditions of the iodine-rich region suppress the re-evolution of the iodine. In addition, four different methods for evaluating the amount of re-evolved iodine are examined. The amount of re-evolved iodine calculated using the total-volume-average values, which are currently used for safety analyses, appear to be significantly higher than those determined using other methods. The amount of re-evolved iodine estimated using a realistic method with a conservative assumption of volatilization appears to be approximately one thousandth of that evaluated using the current method. This implies that the current method is very conservative.

  14. Iodinated bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunghi, F.; Riva, P.; Assone, F.; Villa, M.; Plassic, G.

    1978-01-01

    Bleomycin was labelled with iodine-131 by the iodine monochloride method. Iodination did not alter the chemical and chromatographic features and ''in vitro'' stability studies on freeze-dried 131 I-Bleomycin having a specific activity of 1 mCi/mg, stored at different temperatures, showed no appreciable variation of the free-iodine content. Tissue distribution of 131 I-Bleomycin has been evaluated in tumor bearing rats. Patients have been injected with 0.5-1.0 mCi of 131 I-Bleomycin corresponding to a maximum of 1.5 mg. No adverse reactions have been observed. Total body scans have been performed at 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after injection. The iodinated Bleomycin was rapidly distributed and cleared from the body and showed an early uptake in the neoplastic tissue. A diagnostic accuracy of 90% has been observed in malignant deseases, while no false positive results have been, at the moment, recorded. (author)

  15. Development of a definitive method for iodine speciation in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenhaeuser, C.; Heumann, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A definitive method of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was developed to determine four different iodine species in aquatic systems (iodide, iodate and two organoiodine compounds: one of the organic species is chromatographically elutable from a column filled with an anion exchanger resin, the other one is not). The iodine species were analysed after the isotope dilution step with an enriched 129 I spike and after their chromatographic separation. The total iodine concentration was measured after decomposition of organic compounds in the aquatic system by UV irradiation. Different types of natural water samples (river water, water of a pond, moorland lake water) were analysed and important water parameters like pH-value, redox potential, oxygen content and dissolved organic carbon were measured for each of these samples. The total iodine concentration in the different samples differed only slightly in the range of 2-7 μg/l. In most of the moorland lake water samples only the two organoiodine species could be detected. In these samples the concentration of iodide and iodate was less than the detection limit of 0.5 μg/l and 0.1 μg/l, respectively. On the other hand, all four iodine species could be determined in most of the river water samples. Positive correlations were found for the oxygen content of the water samples and the iodate concentration as well as for the redox potential and the anionic organoiodine compound. (orig.)

  16. Colorimetric method for the detection of melamine using in-situ formed silver nanoparticles via tannic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Fazle; Laskar, Amaj Ahmed; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Shaida, Mohd. Azfar; Younus, Hina

    2017-08-01

    Melamine toxicity has recently attracted worldwide attention as it causes renal failure and the death of humans and animals. Therefore, developing a simple, fast and sensitive method for the routine detection of melamine is the need of the hour. Herein, we have developed a selective colorimetric method for the detection of melamine in milk samples based upon in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via tannic acid. The AgNPs thus formed were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), zetasizer and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The AgNPs were used to detect melamine under in vitro condition and in raw milk spiked with melamine. Under optimal conditions, melamine could be selectively detected in vitro within the concentration range of 0.05-1.4 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μM, which is lower than the strictest melamine safety requirement of 1 ppm. In spiked raw milk, the recovery percentage range was 99.5-106.5% for liquid milk and 98.5-105.5% for powdered milk. The present method shows extreme selectivity with no significant interference with other substances like urea, glucose, glycine, ascorbic acid etc. This assay method does not utilize organic cosolvents, enzymatic reactions, light sensitive dye molecules and sophisticated instrumentation, thereby overcoming some of the limitations of the other conventional methods.

  17. A Simple and Convenient Method of Multiple Linear Regression to Calculate Iodine Molecular Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    A new procedure using a student-friendly least-squares multiple linear-regression technique utilizing a function within Microsoft Excel is described that enables students to calculate molecular constants from the vibronic spectrum of iodine. This method is advantageous pedagogically as it calculates molecular constants for ground and excited…

  18. A New, Eco-Friendly Method for Iodination of Activated Arenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sathiyapriya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective, eco-friendly method for iodination of arenes is presented. The reaction of activated aromatics with a mixture of sodium iodate and sodium sulphite in the presence of hydrochloric acid gives mono iodoarenes in high yields.

  19. Methods for in-place testing of HEPA and iodine filters used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this work was a general investigation of existing in-place test methods and to build an equipment for in-place testing of HEPA and iodine sorption filters. In this work the discussion is limited to methods used in in-place testing of HEPA and iodine sorption filters used in light-water-cooled reactor plants. Dealy systems, built for the separation of noble gases, and testing of them is not discussed in the work. Contaminants present in the air of a reactor containment can roughly be diveded into three groups: aerosols, reactive gases, and noble gases. The aerosols are filtered with HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters. The most important reactive gases are molecular iodine and its two compounds: hydrogen iodide and methyl iodide. Of gases to be removed by the filters methyl iodide is the gas most difficult to remove especially at high relative humidities. Impregnated activated charcoal is generally used as sorption material in the iodine filters. Experience gained from the use of nuclear power plants proves that the function of high efficiency air filter systems can not be considered safe until this is proved by in-place tests. In-place tests in use are basically equal. A known test agent is injected upstream of the filter to be tested. The efficiency is calculated from air samples taken from both sides of the filter. (author)

  20. A simple method to estimate the optimum iodine concentration of contrast material through microcatheters: hydrodynamic calculation with spreadsheet software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Teiyu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Yamada, Takeshi; Futami, Choichiro; Tsukiyama, Yumiko; Harada, Motoko; Furui, Shigeru; Suzuki, Shigeru; Mimura, Kohshiro

    2008-01-01

    It is important to increase the iodine delivery rate (I), that is the iodine concentration of the contrast material (C) x the flow rate of the contrast material (Q), through microcatheters to obtain arteriograms of the highest contrast. It is known that C is an important factor that influences I. The purpose of this study is to establish a method of hydrodynamic calculation of the optimum iodine concentration (i.e., the iodine concentration at which I becomes maximum) of the contrast material and its flow rate through commercially available microcatheters. Iopamidol, ioversol and iohexol of ten iodine concentrations were used. Iodine delivery rates (I meas) of each contrast material through ten microcatheters were measured. The calculated iodine delivery rate (I cal) and calculated optimum iodine concentration (calculated C opt) were obtained with spreadsheet software. The agreement between I cal and I meas was studied by correlation and logarithmic Bland-Altman analyses. The value of the calculated C opt was within the optimum range of iodine concentrations (i.e. the range of iodine concentrations at which I meas becomes 90% or more of the maximum) in all cases. A good correlation between I cal and I meas (I cal = 1.08 I meas, r = 0.99) was observed. Logarithmic Bland-Altman analysis showed that the 95% confidence interval of I cal/I meas was between 0.82 and 1.29. In conclusion, hydrodynamic calculation with spreadsheet software is an accurate, generally applicable and cost-saving method to estimate the value of the optimum iodine concentration and its flow rate through microcatheters

  1. A new method for studying iodine metabolism; the isotopic equilibrium method - kinetic and quantitative aspects of measurements made on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.

    1964-05-01

    The isotopic equilibrium method which has been developed in the case of the rat has made it possible to measure the absolute values of the principal parameters of iodine metabolism in this animal. The quantities and concentrations of iodine have been measured in the thyroid gland and in the plasma with a sensitivity of 0.001 μg of 127 I. This sensitivity has made it possible to measure pools as small as the iodide and the free iodotyrosines of the thyroid and to demonstrate the absence of free iodotyrosines in the plasma of the normal rat. In vivo, the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the iodine content of the thyroid gland and to calculate the intensity of this gland's secretion without removing it. By double labelling with 125 I and 131 I the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the flux, intensity of the intrathyroidal recycling as well as the turnover rates of all the iodine containing compounds of the thyroid gland. For this gland no precursor-product relationship has been found between The iodotyrosines (MIT and DIT) and the iodothyronines (T 4 and T 3 ). The absence of this relationship is due to the heterogeneity of the thyroglobulin turnover. It has been shown furthermore that there exists in the plasma an organic fraction of the iodine which is different to thyroglobulin and which is renewed more rapidly than the circulating hormones T 3 and T 4 . The isotopic equilibrium method is very useful for series measurements of iodine. It makes it possible furthermore to improve the biochemical fractionations by adding carriers without affecting the subsequent 127 I measurements. (author) [fr

  2. Comparison between methods for fixing radioactive iodine in silver substrate for manufacturing brachytherapy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M., E-mail: fernandopeleias@gmail.com, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br; and others

    2013-07-01

    Cancer is a term used generically to represent a group of more than 100 illnesses, including malignant tumors from different locations. According to World Health Organization (WHO), is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounted for 7.6 million deaths. Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type in the world, representing about 10% of all cases of cancer and its treatment may be by surgery, radiotherapy or even vigilant observation. A method of radiotherapy which has been extensively used in the early and intermediate stages of the illness is brachytherapy, where radioactive seeds are placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, which reduces the probability of unnecessary damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Currently, the radioactive isotope Iodine-125, adsorbed on silver substrate, is one of the most used in prostate brachytherapy. The present study compares several deposition methods of radioactive Iodine on silver substrate, in order to choose the most suitable one to be implemented at the laboratory of radioactive sources production of IPEN. The methodology used was chosen based on the available infrastructure and experience of the researchers of the institute. Therefore, Iodine-131 was used for testing (same chemical behavior of Iodine -125). Three methods were selected: method 1 (test based on electrodeposition method, developed by David Kubiatowicz) which presented efficiency of 65.16% ; method 2 (chemical reaction based on the method developed by David Kubiatowicz -HCl) which presented efficiency of 70.80%; method 3 (chemical reaction based on the method developed by Dr. Maria Elisa Rostelato) which presented efficiency of 55.80% . Based on the results, the second method is the suggested one to be implemented at the laboratory of radioactive sources production of IPEN. (author)

  3. Comparison between methods for fixing radioactive iodine in silver substrate for manufacturing brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a term used generically to represent a group of more than 100 illnesses, including malignant tumors from different locations. According to World Health Organization (WHO), is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounted for 7.6 million deaths. Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type in the world, representing about 10% of all cases of cancer and its treatment may be by surgery, radiotherapy or even vigilant observation. A method of radiotherapy which has been extensively used in the early and intermediate stages of the illness is brachytherapy, where radioactive seeds are placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, which reduces the probability of unnecessary damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Currently, the radioactive isotope Iodine-125, adsorbed on silver substrate, is one of the most used in prostate brachytherapy. The present study compares several deposition methods of radioactive Iodine on silver substrate, in order to choose the most suitable one to be implemented at the laboratory of radioactive sources production of IPEN. The methodology used was chosen based on the available infrastructure and experience of the researchers of the institute. Therefore, Iodine-131 was used for testing (same chemical behavior of Iodine -125). Three methods were selected: method 1 (test based on electrodeposition method, developed by David Kubiatowicz) which presented efficiency of 65.16% ; method 2 (chemical reaction based on the method developed by David Kubiatowicz -HCl) which presented efficiency of 70.80%; method 3 (chemical reaction based on the method developed by Dr. Maria Elisa Rostelato) which presented efficiency of 55.80% . Based on the results, the second method is the suggested one to be implemented at the laboratory of radioactive sources production of IPEN. (author)

  4. The method of obtaining of sodium orthoiodohippurate labelled with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripov, D.; Abdukayumov, M.; Shukurov, A.Sh.

    1994-01-01

    The method of labelling of sodium orthoiodohippurate was elaborated with the purpose of increasing the preparation quality. Method includes the reaction of isotopic exchange between orthoiodhippur acid and sodium iodide solution labelled with iodine-131 with volume activity 150-200 mCu/mL and pH=6,5-7,0. Reaction occurs at temperature 120-130 C during 1,1-1,3 hours and the compound obtained is dissolved in 1% sodium bicarbonate solution. (author)

  5. A method to evaluate the dose increase in CT with iodinated contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Lizio, Domenico; Settineri, Nicola; Di Pasquale, Andrea; Salamone, Ignazio; Pandolfo, Ignazio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop a method to calculate the relative dose increase when a computerized tomography scan (CT) is carried out after administration of iodinated contrast medium, with respect to the same CT scan in absence of contrast medium. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of anthropomorphic neck and abdomen phantoms exposed to a simplified model of CT scanner was set up in order to calculate the increase of dose to thyroid, liver, spleen, kidneys, and pancreas as a function of the quantity of iodine accumulated; a series of experimental measurements of Hounsfield unit (HU) increment for known concentrations of iodinated contrast medium was carried out on a Siemens Sensation 16 CT scanner in order to obtain a relationship between the increment in HU and the relative dose increase in the organs studied. The authors applied such a method to calculate the average dose increase in three patients who underwent standard CT protocols consisting of one native scan in absence of contrast, followed by a contrast-enhanced scan in venous phase. Results: The authors validated their GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation by comparing the resulting dose increases for iodine solutions in water with the ones presented in literature and with their experimental data obtained through a Roentgen therapy unit. The relative dose increases as a function of the iodine mass fraction accumulated and as a function of the Hounsfield unit increment between the contrast-enhanced scan and the native scan are presented. The data shown for the three patients exhibit an average relative dose increase between 22% for liver and 74% for kidneys; also, spleen (34%), pancreas (28%), and thyroid (48%) show a remarkable average increase. Conclusions: The method developed allows a simple evaluation of the dose increase when iodinated contrast medium is used in CT scans, basing on the increment in Hounsfield units observed on the patients' organs. Since many clinical protocols

  6. A method to evaluate the dose increase in CT with iodinated contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Ernesto; Lizio, Domenico; Settineri, Nicola; Di Pasquale, Andrea; Salamone, Ignazio; Pandolfo, Ignazio [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Messina, Messina 98125 (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy); University Hospital ' ' G. Martino' ' , Messina 98125 (Italy); Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Messina, Messina 98125 (Italy) and University Hospital ' ' G. Martino' ' , Messina 98125 (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop a method to calculate the relative dose increase when a computerized tomography scan (CT) is carried out after administration of iodinated contrast medium, with respect to the same CT scan in absence of contrast medium. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of anthropomorphic neck and abdomen phantoms exposed to a simplified model of CT scanner was set up in order to calculate the increase of dose to thyroid, liver, spleen, kidneys, and pancreas as a function of the quantity of iodine accumulated; a series of experimental measurements of Hounsfield unit (HU) increment for known concentrations of iodinated contrast medium was carried out on a Siemens Sensation 16 CT scanner in order to obtain a relationship between the increment in HU and the relative dose increase in the organs studied. The authors applied such a method to calculate the average dose increase in three patients who underwent standard CT protocols consisting of one native scan in absence of contrast, followed by a contrast-enhanced scan in venous phase. Results: The authors validated their GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation by comparing the resulting dose increases for iodine solutions in water with the ones presented in literature and with their experimental data obtained through a Roentgen therapy unit. The relative dose increases as a function of the iodine mass fraction accumulated and as a function of the Hounsfield unit increment between the contrast-enhanced scan and the native scan are presented. The data shown for the three patients exhibit an average relative dose increase between 22% for liver and 74% for kidneys; also, spleen (34%), pancreas (28%), and thyroid (48%) show a remarkable average increase. Conclusions: The method developed allows a simple evaluation of the dose increase when iodinated contrast medium is used in CT scans, basing on the increment in Hounsfield units observed on the patients' organs. Since many clinical

  7. Cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and colorimetric method for hydrogen peroxide detection based on chitosan/silver nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang V. Tran

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a promising method to fabricate a non-enzymatic stable, highly sensitive and selective hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a chitosan/silver nanoparticles (CS/AgNPs hybrid. Using this composite, we elaborated both electrochemical and colorimetric sensors for hydrogen peroxide detection. The colorimetric sensor is based on a homogenous reaction which fades the color of CS/AgNPs solutions from red-orange to colorless depending on hydrogen peroxide concentration. For the electrochemical sensor, CS/AgNPs were immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes and hydrogen peroxide was measured using cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The response time is less than 10 s and the detection limit is 5 μM. Keywords: Spectrophotometric detection, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Square wave voltammetry, Cyclic voltammetry, Chitosan/silver nanoparticles (CS/AgNPs hybrid, Hydrogen peroxide

  8. Method for monitoring the course of oxidation of iodide ion during radioactive iodination operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuezhong, Luo

    1986-05-01

    A micro-iodine ion selective electrode is developed to follow and monitor the course of oxidation of iodide ion during radioactive iodination operation. The experimental results indicate that this method can quickly respond to the course of oxidation if the reacting liquid is greater than 30 micro liter in volume. Therefore it can be used for accurate controlling the amount of oxidzing reagent used for the reaction, for example, the amount of chloroamine T can be reduced to 1/40 of the amount ordinarily used for the preparation of angiotonin II and insulin. The effect of pH and concentration of phosphate of the reacting liquid to the oxidation reaction of I with chloroamine T is also studied.

  9. Photometric and Colorimetric Assessment of LED Chip Scale Packages by Using a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test (SSADT) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Fan, Jiajie; Fang, Jiayi; Yu, Chaohua; Ren, Yi; Fan, Xuejun; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-10-16

    By solving the problem of very long test time on reliability qualification for Light-emitting Diode (LED) products, the accelerated degradation test with a thermal overstress at a proper range is regarded as a promising and effective approach. For a comprehensive survey of the application of step-stress accelerated degradation test (SSADT) in LEDs, the thermal, photometric, and colorimetric properties of two types of LED chip scale packages (CSPs), i.e., 4000 °K and 5000 °K samples each of which was driven by two different levels of currents (i.e., 120 mA and 350 mA, respectively), were investigated under an increasing temperature from 55 °C to 150 °C and a systemic study of driving current effect on the SSADT results were also reported in this paper. During SSADT, junction temperatures of the test samples have a positive relationship with their driving currents. However, the temperature-voltage curve, which represents the thermal resistance property of the test samples, does not show significant variance as long as the driving current is no more than the sample's rated current. But when the test sample is tested under an overdrive current, its temperature-voltage curve is observed as obviously shifted to the left when compared to that before SSADT. Similar overdrive current affected the degradation scenario is also found in the attenuation of Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs) of the test samples. As used in the reliability qualification, SSADT provides explicit scenes on color shift and correlated color temperature (CCT) depreciation of the test samples, but not on lumen maintenance depreciation. It is also proved that the varying rates of the color shift and CCT depreciation failures can be effectively accelerated with an increase of the driving current, for instance, from 120 mA to 350 mA. For these reasons, SSADT is considered as a suitable accelerated test method for qualifying these two failure modes of LED CSPs.

  10. Analysis of the methods and reconstruction of iodine doses from the Chernobyl release in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsko, A.; Krivoruchko, K.; Gribov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the method of reconstructing the iodine-131 fallout based on the systematic exposure measurements. The measurements used were taken with standard DP-5 dosimeters at the monitoring sites of the State Hydrometeorological Service network. These data have been collected since the Chernobyl NPP accident. A short-living exponent has been deduced from the exposure dose dying away. Maps of the iodine-131 release in the period of May 1 - 31, 1996 have been constructed in the attempt to estimate the doses for the initial period of the accident. The paper also dwells on the intricacy of the problem and the refinements to be made for the dose commitments with allowance for a continuing release and meteorological changes that are comparable in time with the half-life events of iodine 131 decay. A comparative analysis has been made of various methods of the dose reconstruction. The results obtained are compared with the maps of the increased incidence of the thyroid gland cancer in adults and children in Belarus. (authors) 14 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Comparison between methods for fixing radioactive iodine in silver substrate for manufacturing brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Carla Daruich

    2012-01-01

    Among the different ways to treat prostate cancer, brachytherapy with iodine- 125 seeds is an option that provides good results and fewer side effects. In the present study several deposition methods of radioactive iodine in a silver substrate were compared in order to choose the most suitable alternative for the routine production to be implemented at IPEN's laboratory. The methodology used was chosen based on the available infrastructure and experience of the researchers present. Therefore, the 131 I was used for testing (same chemical behavior as 131 I). Four methods were selected: Method 1 (test based on electrodeposition method developed by D.Kubiatowicz) presented 65.16% efficiency; Method 2 (chemical reaction based on the method developed by D. Kubiatowicz - HCl) with the result of 70.80% efficiency; method 3 (chemical reaction based on the method developed by Dr. Maria Elisa Rostelato) with 55.80% efficiency; Method 4 (IQ-IPEN) resulted in 99% efficiency. Since this method has more radioactive material fixation (which represents virtually the entire cost of the seed), the final price is the cheapest. This method is the suggested one to be implemented in the IPEN's laboratory for brachytherapy sources production. Besides, the method is the fasted one. (author)

  12. A Low-Cost Imaging Method for the Temporal and Spatial Colorimetric Detection of Free Amines on Maize Root Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc H. Doan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates are important mediators in the interactions that occur between plants and microorganisms in the soil, yet much remains to be learned about spatial and temporal variation in their production. This work outlines a method utilizing a novel colorimetric paper to detect spatial and temporal changes in the production of nitrogen-containing compounds on the root surface. While existing methods have made it possible to conduct detailed analysis of root exudate composition, relatively less is known about where in the root system exudates are produced and how this localization changes as the root grows. Furthermore, there is much to learn about how exudate localization and composition varies in response to stress. Root exudates are chemically diverse secretions composed of organic acids, amino acids, proteins, sugars, and other metabolites. The sensor utilized for the method, ninhydrin, is a colorless substance in solution that reacts with free amino groups to form a purple dye. A detection paper was developed by formulating ninhydrin into a print solution that was uniformly deposited onto paper with a commercial ink jet printer. This “ninhydrin paper” was used to analyze the chemical makeup of root surfaces from maize seedlings grown vertically on germination paper. Through contact between the ninhydrin paper and seedling root surfaces, combined with images of both the seedlings and dried ninhydrin papers captured using a standard flatbed scanner, nitrogen-containing substances on the root surface can be localized and concentration of signal estimated for over 2 weeks of development. The method was found to be non-inhibiting to plant growth over the analysis period although damage to root hairs was observed. The method is sensitive in the detection of free amines at concentrations as little as 140 μM. Furthermore, ninhydrin paper is stable, showing consistent color changes up to 2 weeks after printing. This relatively simple, low

  13. A colorimetric method for the determination of xanthine based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Wendan; Zhao, Huawen; Wu, Liping; Zhao, Xianying

    2015-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive method for the determination of traces of xanthine based on the aggregation of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). It is found that, under optimal conditions of pH, the imide group of xanthine is adsorbed on the surface of the AuNPs, thereby displacing citrate ions. This leads to an aggregation of the AuNPs via hydrogen-bond interactions. As a result, the color of the solution changes from red to blue which can be seen with bare eyes and also can be measured by spectrophotometry. The ratio of the absorbances at 630 nm and 520 nm is linearly related to the concentration of xanthine in the 125 nM to 6.0 μM range (r = 0.9988), and the detection limit (3σ/slope) is 23 nM. The method is simple, feasible and fast. (author)

  14. An Aromatic Iodination Method, with Iodic Acid Used as the Only Iodinating Reagentâ€

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Skulski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Benzene, halobenzenes, and a number of more or less deactivated arenes,including nitrobenzene, readily reacted in anhydrous HIO3/AcOH/Ac2o/conc. H2SO4mixtures to probably give ArIO2 intermediates or other hypervalent species (notisolated. The final reaction mixtures were poured into excess aq. Na2SO3 solution (areductant to give the purified iodinated products in 39-83% yields.

  15. First Time Determination of Important Catalyst Sodium Methoxide Used in Biodiesel by Colorimetric Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabir; Tubino, Matthieu; Vila, Marta M D C; Bastos, Flavio A

    2018-03-06

    A simple and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the first time for the determination of sodium methoxide in methanol solution in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The developed method involves the formation of a pink species by the reaction between sodium methoxide and α-santonin. The pink compound formed shows absorbance maximum at 513 nm. N, N-Dimethylformamide and methanol were used as solvents, and the reaction was performed at different temperatures and 25 °C was selected for further experiments. The pink compound formed was dried and then was studied using FTIR and mass spectrometry. The calibration curve was constructed from 0.10 to 0.30% (m/v) sodium methoxide in methanol, and the standard deviation is 0.010%. Similarly, the relative standard deviations of 28%, 26%, and 24% solutions of sodium methoxide were obtained in the range of 0.4 to 1.9%. The correlation coefficient of the analytical curve r = 0.9997; the limit of detection, LOD, is ca. 1.1 × 10 -3 % w/w; and the limit of quantification, LOQ, is ca. 3.2 × 10 -3 % w/w. The results of analysis were validated statistically.

  16. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  17. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - Qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kwiecinska-Piróg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride and CV (crystal violet application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters. The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  18. Development of an encapsulation method using plasma arc welding to produce iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Anselmo; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Somessari, Samir L.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rela, Paulo R.

    2011-01-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer is public health problem in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing Iodine-125 radioisotope are implanted into the prostate gland. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed Iodine-125. The Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) is one of the viable techniques for sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes, such as, Laser Beam Welding (LBW). The main purpose of this work was the development of an encapsulation method using PAW. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cutting and cleaning titanium tube, determination of the welding parameters, development of a titanium tube holding device for PAW, sealed sources validation according to ISO 2919 - Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, and metallographic assays. The developed procedure to seal Iodine-125 seeds using PAW has shown high efficiency, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work will give the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC 17 - Good Manufacturing Practices to Medical Products defined by the ANVISA - National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) labelling with iodine-131 by direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Araujo, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide with a great numbers of receptors in tumoral cells, including adenocarcinomas and pancreatic and colon carcinomas. The VIP molecule contains two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to iodination, The VIP was labeled with 131-iodine by direct method using Iodogen as oxidant agent: 15.03 mmol VIP + 0.10 nmol KI + [ 131 I]NaI + 13.9 mmol Iodogen; the final volume was adjust to 100 μL using 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 and the reaction proceed with stirring for 30 minutes at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined by electrophoresis (Whatman 1MM paper; 0.05 M barbital buffer; pH 8.6; 150 V; 40 minutes) that indicates low percent of free 131-iodine. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using RPC 18 , 10 μm, 4 x 250mm column, was able to separate the different radiochemical species, only when an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (27:73) was used, with 0.5 mL/min. flux. (author)

  20. Development of an encapsulation method using plasma arc welding to produce iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Anselmo; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Somessari, Samir L.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rela, Paulo R., E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: prela@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer is public health problem in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing Iodine-125 radioisotope are implanted into the prostate gland. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed Iodine-125. The Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) is one of the viable techniques for sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes, such as, Laser Beam Welding (LBW). The main purpose of this work was the development of an encapsulation method using PAW. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cutting and cleaning titanium tube, determination of the welding parameters, development of a titanium tube holding device for PAW, sealed sources validation according to ISO 2919 - Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, and metallographic assays. The developed procedure to seal Iodine-125 seeds using PAW has shown high efficiency, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work will give the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC 17 - Good Manufacturing Practices to Medical Products defined by the ANVISA - National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  1. Novel colorimetric sensor for oral malodour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alagirisamy, Nethaji; Hardas, Sarita S. [Hindustan Unilever Research Center, 64 Main Road, Whitefield, Bangalore 560066 (India); Jayaraman, Sujatha, E-mail: sujatha.jayaraman@unilever.com [Hindustan Unilever Research Center, 64 Main Road, Whitefield, Bangalore 560066 (India)

    2010-02-19

    Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of oral malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of oral malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for oral malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling unit for collecting a known volume of mouth air and a photometric detector. The sensing solution was iodine and the depletion of iodine on reaction with hydrogen sulphide was detected colorimetrically using starch. The detection limit of the sensor is 0.05 {mu}g L{sup -1} of hydrogen sulphide, which is fit-for-purpose for oral malodour detection in healthy subjects as well as halitosis patients. Volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air were quantified in healthy human volunteers using this portable sensor and the detected levels were in the range of 0.2-0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1}. There was a good correlation between the VSC levels detected by the colorimetric sensor and halimeter (R{sup 2} = 0.934). The developed sensor can be easily fabricated in the laboratory, and it shows high potential to be used as a clinical evaluation tool for oral malodour assessments.

  2. Novel colorimetric sensor for oral malodour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagirisamy, Nethaji; Hardas, Sarita S.; Jayaraman, Sujatha

    2010-01-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of oral malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of oral malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for oral malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling unit for collecting a known volume of mouth air and a photometric detector. The sensing solution was iodine and the depletion of iodine on reaction with hydrogen sulphide was detected colorimetrically using starch. The detection limit of the sensor is 0.05 μg L -1 of hydrogen sulphide, which is fit-for-purpose for oral malodour detection in healthy subjects as well as halitosis patients. Volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air were quantified in healthy human volunteers using this portable sensor and the detected levels were in the range of 0.2-0.4 μg L -1 . There was a good correlation between the VSC levels detected by the colorimetric sensor and halimeter (R 2 = 0.934). The developed sensor can be easily fabricated in the laboratory, and it shows high potential to be used as a clinical evaluation tool for oral malodour assessments.

  3. Standardization of iodine-129 by the TDCR liquid scintillation method and 4π β-γ coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, P.; Bouchard, J.; Chauvenet, B.

    1994-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a long-lived fission product, with physical and chemical properties that make it a good candidate for evaluating the environmental impact of the nuclear energy fuel cycle. To avoid solid source preparation problems, liquid scintillation has been used to standardize this nuclide for a EUROMET intercomparison. Two methods were used to measure the iodine-129 activity: triple-to-double-coincidence ratio liquid scintillation counting and 4π β-γ coincidence counting; the results are in good agreement.

  4. A comparative study on the iodine-labeled methods of protein and polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huaifen; Niu Huisheng; Yuan Mingyue; Yu Jinghua

    1994-01-01

    There are three methods: chloramine-T, Iodogen and lactoperoxidase(LPO). 125 I-ACTH, 125 I-insulin and 125 I-HSA are prepared by these techniques. The results show that lactoperoxidase is isolated and purified from fresh milk, meanwhile, the enzyme is used in experiments of 125 I-labeled protein, peptide hormone and mono-clone antibody, etc. LPO is a very successful method for it's mild, complete reaction, controllable, high labelling yield, higher purity of iodine-labeled compound and so on. It remains biological activation and stable character more than other two techniques

  5. A comparative study on the iodine-labeled methods of protein and polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huaifen, Li; Huisheng, Niu; Mingyue, Yuan; Jinghua, Yu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin (China). Inst. of Radiation Medicine

    1994-02-01

    There are three methods: chloramine-T, Iodogen and lactoperoxidase(LPO). [sup 125]I-ACTH, [sup 125]I-insulin and [sup 125]I-HSA are prepared by these techniques. The results show that lactoperoxidase is isolated and purified from fresh milk, meanwhile, the enzyme is used in experiments of [sup 125]I-labeled protein, peptide hormone and mono-clone antibody, etc. LPO is a very successful method for it's mild, complete reaction, controllable, high labelling yield, higher purity of iodine-labeled compound and so on. It remains biological activation and stable character more than other two techniques.

  6. Method for removing radioactive iodine and radioactive organic iodides from effluent gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method and composition for removing radioactive and organic iodides from an 131 I-containing off-gas stream is provided. The composition for removal by adsorption is a ceramic material with a surface area of from about 5 m 2 /g to about 250 m 2 /g impregnated with a metallic salt. The method for removing the iodine or iodide is accomplished by passing the off-gas stream over the ceramic material impregnated with the metallic salt. It finds special application in air filters for nuclear power plants

  7. Automatic Method for Controlling the Iodine Adsorption Number in Carbon Black Oil Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous of different inlet process factors in carbon black oil furnaces which must be continuously and automatically adjusted, due to stable quality of final product. The most important six inlet process factors in carbon black oil-furnaces are:1. volume flow of process air for combustion2. temperature of process air for combustion3. volume flow of natural gas for insurance the necessary heat for thermal reaction of conversionthe hydrocarbon oil feedstock in oil-furnace carbon black4. mass flow rate of hydrocarbon oil feedstock5. type and quantity of additive for adjustment the structure of oil-furnace carbon black6. quantity and position of the quench water for cooling the reaction of oil-furnace carbon black.The control of oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity is made with mass flow rate of hydrocarbon feedstock, which is the most important inlet process factor. Oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity in industrial process is determined with laboratory analyze of iodine adsorption number. It is shown continuously and automatically method for controlling iodine adsorption number in carbon black oil-furnaces to get as much as possible efficient control of adsorption capacity. In the proposed method it can be seen the correlation between qualitatively-quantitatively composition of the process tail gasses in the production of oil-furnace carbon black and relationship between air for combustion and hydrocarbon feedstock. It is shown that the ratio between air for combustion and hydrocarbon oil feedstock is depended of adsorption capacity summarized by iodine adsorption number, regarding to BMCI index of hydrocarbon oil feedstock.The mentioned correlation can be seen through the figures from 1. to 4. From the whole composition of the process tail gasses the best correlation for continuously and automatically control of iodine adsorption number is show the volume fraction of methane. The volume fraction of methane in the

  8. Comparison of serum copper determination by colorimetric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods in seven different laboratories. The S.F.B.C. (Société Française de Biologie Clinique) Trace Element Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, J; Chappuis, P; Zawislak, R; Houot, O; Jaudon, M C; Bienvenu, F; Bureau, F

    1993-02-01

    An interlaboratory collaborative trial was conducted on the determination of serum copper using two different methods, based on colorimetry (test combination Copper, Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The general performance of the colorimetric method was below that of FAAS, except for sensitivity and linear range, as assessed by detection limit (0.44 versus 1.32 mumol/L) and upper limit of linearity (150 versus 50 mumol/L). The range of the between-run CVs and the recovery of standard additions were, respectively, 2.3-11.9% and 92-127% for the colorimetric method and 1.1-6.0% and 93-101% for the FAAS method. Interferences were minimal with both methods. The two techniques correlated satisfactorily (the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.945-0.970 among laboratories) but the colorimetric assay exhibited slightly higher results than the FAAS method. Each method was transferable among laboratories.

  9. Photometric and Colorimetric Assessment of LED Chip Scale Packages by Using a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test (SSADT) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaohua; Fan, Xuejun; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    By solving the problem of very long test time on reliability qualification for Light-emitting Diode (LED) products, the accelerated degradation test with a thermal overstress at a proper range is regarded as a promising and effective approach. For a comprehensive survey of the application of step-stress accelerated degradation test (SSADT) in LEDs, the thermal, photometric, and colorimetric properties of two types of LED chip scale packages (CSPs), i.e., 4000 °K and 5000 °K samples each of which was driven by two different levels of currents (i.e., 120 mA and 350 mA, respectively), were investigated under an increasing temperature from 55 °C to 150 °C and a systemic study of driving current effect on the SSADT results were also reported in this paper. During SSADT, junction temperatures of the test samples have a positive relationship with their driving currents. However, the temperature-voltage curve, which represents the thermal resistance property of the test samples, does not show significant variance as long as the driving current is no more than the sample’s rated current. But when the test sample is tested under an overdrive current, its temperature-voltage curve is observed as obviously shifted to the left when compared to that before SSADT. Similar overdrive current affected the degradation scenario is also found in the attenuation of Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs) of the test samples. As used in the reliability qualification, SSADT provides explicit scenes on color shift and correlated color temperature (CCT) depreciation of the test samples, but not on lumen maintenance depreciation. It is also proved that the varying rates of the color shift and CCT depreciation failures can be effectively accelerated with an increase of the driving current, for instance, from 120 mA to 350 mA. For these reasons, SSADT is considered as a suitable accelerated test method for qualifying these two failure modes of LED CSPs. PMID:29035300

  10. Recovery and storage method for radioactive iodine by vacuum freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Ouchi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Toru.

    1990-01-01

    After scrubbing off-gas formed in a re-processing process for spent nuclear fuels, scrubbing liquids after use are subjected, as they are or with addition of additives, to a precipitating treatment. Then, liquid wastes containing radioactive iodine was subjected to freeze-drying treatment by freeze-drying under vacuum to recover radioactive iodine as iodine compounds. Off-gas scrubbing is conducted by using a sodium hydroxide solution and copper or silver ions may be added as additives in the precipitating treatment. Recovered iodine compounds containing radioactive iodine are solidified, either directly or after formulating into a composition of naturally existing iodine-containing ores by means of high pressure pressing into ores. This can prevent radioactive iodine 1 29I of long half-decay time from diffusing into the circumference and store the radioactive iodine stably for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  11. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Josef; Engler, Robert K.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new sorbents, Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels, shows great promise as a potential replacement for Ag-bearing mordenites because of its high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine. Moreover, a feasible consolidation of iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes this aerogel an attractive choice for sequestering radioiodine. This report provides a preliminary assessment of the methods that can be used to consolidate iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels into a final waste form. In particular, it focuses on experimental investigation of densification of as prepared Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels powders, with or without organic moiety and with or without sintering additive (colloidal silica), with three commercially available techniques: 1) hot uniaxial pressing (HUP), 2) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and 3) spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densified products were evaluated with helium gas pycnometer for apparent density, with the Archimedes method for apparent density and open porosity, and with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for the extent of densification and distribution of individual elements. The preliminary investigation of HUP, HIP, and SPS showed that these sintering methods can effectively consolidate powders of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel into products of near-theoretical density. Also, removal of organic moiety and adding 5.6 mass% of colloidal silica to Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel powders before processing provided denser products. Furthermore, the ram travel data for SPS indicated that rapid consolidation of powders can be performed at temperatures below 950°C.

  12. Electrical properties of zirconium diselenide single crystals grown by iodine transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.G.; Agarwal, M.K.; Batra, N.M.; Lakshminarayana, D.

    1998-01-01

    Single crystals of zirconium diselenide (ZrSe 2 ) were grown by chemical vapour transport method using iodine as the transporting agent. The crystals were found to exhibit metallic behaviour in the temperature range 77-300 K and semiconducting nature in 300-443 K range. The measurements of thermoelectric power and conductivity enabled the determination of both carrier mobility and carrier concentration. The variation of carrier mobility and carrier concentration with temperature indicates the presence of deep trapping centres and their reduction with temperature in these crystals. (author)

  13. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  14. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  15. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  16. A new colorimetric DPPH• scavenging activity method with no need for a spectrophotometer applied on synthetic and natural antioxidants and medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Zeynep; Küçük, Murat; Doğan, Hacer

    2017-12-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging, the most commonly used antioxidant method with more than seventeen thousand articles cited, is very practical; however, as with most assays, it has the major disadvantage of dependence on a spectrophotometer. To overcome this drawback, the colorimetric determination of the antioxidant activity using a scanner and freely available Image J software was developed. In this new method, the mixtures of solutions of DPPH • and standard antioxidants or extracts of common medicinal herbs were dropped onto TLC plates, after an incubation period. The spot images were evaluated with Image J software to determine CSC 50 values, the sample concentrations providing 50% colour reduction, which were very similar with the SC 50 values obtained with spectrophotometric method. The advantages of the new method are the use of lower amounts of reagents and solvents, no need for costly spectrophotometers, and thus significantly lowered costs, and convenient implementation in any environment and situation.

  17. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  18. A sensitive method for determining total vanadium in water samples using colorimetric-solid-phase extraction-fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filik, Hayati; Yanaz, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    A selective colorimetric-solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) method for the determination of total vanadium in water samples was developed. This method introduced a new variation of C-SPE. The colour reaction is based on the reaction of vanadium(V) ternary complex formed with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) in the presence hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In this technique, the target analytes in samples are extracted onto solid matrix loaded with a colorimetric reagent and then quantified directly on the adsorbent surface by using a miniature fiber optic reflectance spectrometer. The measurements were carried out at a wavelength of 589.4 nm since it yielded the largest divergence different in reflectance spectra before and after reaction with the vanadium. The overall time required for the C-SPE procedure was ∼20 min. The amount of concentrated V is then determined in a few seconds by using miniature reflectance spectrometer. At the optimal conditions, a calibration curve was constructed, revealing a linear range of 0.05-0.52 mg L -1 and a detection limit as low as 0.01 mg L -1 while the RSD lower than 2.8%. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a certified reference water samples (TMDA) were analysed and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied to the determination of vanadium in tap water, seawater samples with a recovery for the spiked samples in the range of 98-102%.

  19. A Colorimetric Chemodosimeter for Pd(II): A Method for Detecting Residual Palladium in Cross-Coupling Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Ronald J. T.; Wallace, Karl J.; Hewage, Himali S.; Anslyn, Eric V.

    2008-01-01

    A colorimetric chemodosimeter (SQ1) for the detection of trace palladium salts in cross-coupling reactions mediated by palladium is described. Decolorization of SQ1 is affected by nucleophilic attack of ethanethiol in basic DMSO solutions. Thiol addition is determined to have an equilibrium constant (Keq) of 2.9 × 106 M-1, with a large entropic and modest enthalpic driving force. This unusual result is attributed to solvent effects arising from a strong coordinative interaction between DMSO and the parent squaraine. Palladium detection is achieved through thiol scavenging from the SQ1-ethanethiol complex leading to a color “turn-on” of the parent squaraine. It was found that untreated samples obtained directly from Suzuki couplings showed no response to the assay. However, treatment of the samples with aqueous nitric acid generates a uniform Pd(NO3)2 species, which gives an appropriate response. “Naked-eye” detection of Pd(NO3)2 was estimated to be as low as 0.5 ppm in solution, and instrument-based detection was tested as low as 100 ppb. The average error over the working range of the assay was determined to be 7%. PMID:19122841

  20. Evaluation of the Iodine Concentration in Serum and Urine of Hypothyroid Males Using an Inexpensive and Rapid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Kandhro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220 of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01. The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002 respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008. The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism.

  1. Evaluation of the iodine concentration in serum and urine of hypothyroid males an inexpensive and rapid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhro, G.A.; Kazi, T.G.; Sirajuddin; Afridi, H.I.; Baig, J.A.; Shah, A.Q.; Arain, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine) of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs) and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220) of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE) was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs) and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01). The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002) respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008). The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism. (author)

  2. A Novel Method for Detection of Glycoproteins on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Using Radio-Iodinated Tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Draz, Hossam M.; Dole, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel. In this method, radio-iodinated-tyrosine (125I-tyrosine) was conjugated to glycoprotein by schiff's base mechanism on the sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel. Ovalbumin and Concanavalin...... of glycoproteins using 125I-tyrosine selectively detected ovalbumin. Present results showed that MPD enhanced glycoprotein detection method can be used as a sensitive tool for the detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel...

  3. Quantification of Iodine-123-FP-CIT SPECT with a resolution-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbeleir, A.A.; Ham, H.R.; Hambye, A.E.; Vervaet, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate quantification of small-sized objects by SPECT is hampered by the partial volume effect. The present work evaluates the magnitude of this phenomenon with Iodine- 123 in phantom studies, and presents a resolution- independent method to quantify striatal I-123 FP-CIT uptake in patients. At first five syringes with internal diameters varying between 9 and 29mm and an anthropomorphic striatal phantom were filled with known concentrations of Iodine-123 and imaged by SPECT using different collimators and radii of rotation. Data were processed with and without scatter correction. From the measured activities, calibration factors were calculated for each specific collimator. Then a resolution-independent method for FP-CIT quantification using large regions of interest was developed and validated in 34 human studies (controls and patients) acquired in 2 different hospitals, by comparing its results to those obtained by a semi- quantitative striatal-to-occipital analysis. Taking the injected activity and decay into account, the measured counts/volume could be converted into absolute tracer concentrations. For the fan-beam, high resolution and medium energy collimators, the measured maximum activity in comparison to the 29 mm-diameter syringe was respectively 38%, 16% and 9% for the 9 mm-diameter syringe and 82%, 80% and 30% for the 16 mm syringe, and not significantly modified after scatter correction. For the anthropomorphic phantom, the error in measurement in % of the true concentration ranged between 0.3-9.5% and was collimator dependent. Medium energy collimators yielded the most homogeneous results. In the human studies, inter- observer variability was 11.4% for the striatal-to-occipital ratio and 3.1% for the resolution-independent method, with correlation coefficients >0.8 between both. The resolution- independent method was 89%-sensitive and 100%-specific to separate the patients without and with abnormal FP-CIT uptake (accuracy: 94%). Also the

  4. New kinetic-spectrophotometric method for monitoring the concentration of iodine in river and city water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmany, A; Khosravi, A; Abbasi, S; Cheraghi, J; Hushmandfar, R; Sobhanardakani, S; Noorizadeh, H; Mortazavi, S S

    2013-01-01

    A new kinetic method has been developed for the determination of iodine in water samples. The method is based on the catalytic effect of I(-) with the oxidation of Indigo Carmine (IC) by KBrO(3) in the sulfuric acid medium. The optimum conditions obtained are 0.16 M sulfuric acid, 1 × 10(-3) M of IC, 1 × 10(-2) M KBrO(3), reaction temperature of 35°C, and reaction time of 80 s at 612 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the method allowed the quantification of I(-) in a range of 12-375 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.46 ng/mL. The method was applied to the determination of iodine in river and city water samples with the satisfactorily results.

  5. A simple and rapid method for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Toshimasa; Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Yamagata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Irradiated rice powder was decomposed together with an iodide carrier solution containing I-131 on heating in a sodium hypochlorite solution. After decomposition, the solution was acidified with hydrochloric acid, and the insoluble residue was filtered off. To the filtrate sodium sulfite solution and palladium chloride solution were added, and the precipitate of palladium iodide was separated with a glass fiber filter paper. Iodine contents of rice were calculated from the peak areas under the 443 keV γ-ray of I-128 in the precipitate and comparative stand ard. Corrections for the chemical recovery were applied to them by means of the areas under the 365 keV γ-ray of I-131. This method was applied to the certified refe rece materials, IAEA wheat flour RM-V-5 and NBS orchard leaves SRM 1571. The results were in good agreement with the recommended values. Iodine contents of rice samples of two different origins in Japan were found to be of the order of 10 0 ng g -1 (dry weight base). The recovery of iodine in this procedure was about 80%. Decontamination factors for Mn, Cl, Na, and Br in the final fraction were 7 x 10 3 , 2 x 10 4 , 3 x 10 4 , and 2 x 10 2 , respectively. The time required for the chemical procedure was about 15 min, and the limit of determination was 0.7 ng of iodine in a sample of 1 g. (author)

  6. New methods of arene iodination and functional transformation of multiple bonds in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, V.D.; Chajkovskij, V.K.; Krasnokutskaya, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The review summarizes the latest results of organic chemistry and technology of organic synthesis department of Tomsk polytechnical university concerning iodination of arenes and chemical transformations of unsaturated compounds. Preparative possibilities of the new reactions and reagents for iodination, oxidation of alkenes and alkynes to 1,2- and bis-1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, iodonitration of alkynes, and reaction of oxidative dimerization of the terminal alkynes to unsaturated δ-sultones are discussed [ru

  7. Colorimetric Method of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification with the Pre-Addition of Calcein for Detecting Flavobacterium columnare and its Assessment in Tilapia Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kampeera, Jantana; Sirithammajak, Sarawut; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Turner, Warren; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2015-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, affects many economically important freshwater fish species. A colorimetric method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the pre-addition of calcein (LAMP-calcein) was developed and used to detect the presence of F. columnare in farmed tilapia (Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia [Nile Tilapia × Mozambique Tilapia O. mossambicus]) and rearing water. The detection method, based on a change in color from orange to green, could be performed within 45 min at 63°C. The method was highly specific, as it had no cross-detections with 14 other bacterial species, including other fish pathogens and two Flavobacterium species. The method has a minimum detection limit of 2.2 × 10(2) F. columnare CFU; thus, it is about 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. With this method, F. columnare was detected in gonad, gill, and blood samples from apparently healthy tilapia broodstock as well as in samples of fertilized eggs, newly hatched fry, and rearing water. The bacteria isolated from the blood were further characterized biochemically and found to be phenotypically identical to F. columnare. The amplified products from the LAMP-calcein method had 97% homology with the DNA sequence of F. columnare.

  8. Pretreatment method for radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes and pretreatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaida, Yasuo.

    1996-01-01

    Heretofore, radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes have been discharged directly to a storing and decaying storage vessel to conduct a water draining treatment. In the present invention, the radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes to be discharged are not discharged to the storage vessel directly but injected to a filling tank, as a pretreatment, to distinguish whether proteins are mixed in the liquid wastes or not. When proteins are mixed, miscellaneous materials such as proteins are recovered and removed by a protein processing system. When proteins are not mixed, radioactive iodine is recovered and removed directly by an iodine processing system. With such procedures, water draining treatment in the storing and decaying storage vessel is mitigated, and even when the amount of the radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes is increased, the existent maintaining and decaying storage vessel can be used as it is. Accordingly, a safe water draining treatment with good efficiency can be conducted relative to radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes at a reduced cost. (T.M.)

  9. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  10. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  11. Lacrimal system pathology in patients with malignant thyroid tumors after radioactive iodine therapy, and its correction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yu. Beldovskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Radioactive iodine therapy after thyroidectomy is the standard of differentiated thyroid cancer treatment in the modern world. Main dose-dependent side effects described in the literature include: sialadenitis, xerostomia, taste and/or odor loss, swelling of surrounding tissues. Ophthalmic complications are rarely reported. Aim. To assess the lacrimal system condition in patients after radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Material and methods. The study included 17 patients (34 eyes. There were female patients aged 19 to 43 years (mean age was 31 years who underwent a course of radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer. All of them complained of periodic or constant tearing in the period from 2 months to 1 year after therapy course. In four patients, there was a permanent or periodic mucopurulent discharge when pressing on the lacrimal sac area. All patients underwent a standard ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity testing, anterior segment biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, and tear production tests. Dye disappearance test, Jones I and II tests, lacrimal pathways irrigation, and, if necessary, cone-ray computer tomography with preliminary lacrimal pathways contrasting were performed to evaluate the tear outflow abnormalities. Results. Tear production disorders were detected in 20 eyes (58.8% (among them, moderate dry eye syndrome was diagnosed in 3 cases; tear outflow pathology was revealed in 14 eyes (41.2% (namely naso-lacrimal duct obstruction and stenosis, and chronic purulent dacryocystitis. For patients with tear production pathology artificial tears were prescribed, and endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy was performed in cases of tear outflow disturbances. Conclusion. The use of radioactive iodine in doses exceeding 80 mCi leads to the development of lacrimal system pathology: dry eye syndrome of various severity, and tear outflow disorders. Lacrimal system pathology significantly worsens

  12. The effect of preliminary processing and different methods of cooking on the iodine content and selected antioxidative properties of carrot (Daucus carota L. biofortified with (potassium iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta-Duch Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrot is a vegetable that contains many nutrients and has strong antioxidant activity as well as pro-health potential. The level of bioactive compounds is strongly connected with the production chain. The thermal treatment of food products induces several biological, physical and chemical changes. In this study, changes in the levels of iodine, total carotenoids, total polyphenols as well as the antioxidant activity of unpeeled and peeled controls and carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine (KJ during cultivation due to the cooking and steaming process were investigated. The use of thermal processes resulted in a lower concentration of iodine in the roots of the control as well as in carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine. In addition, peeling carrots caused higher losses of this trace element in the control and the biofortified carrots cooked or steamed for various times. In this study, a significant growth of the total carotenoids in peeled carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine and of the total polyphenols in unpeeled carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine under the influence of the cooking and steaming processes was observed compared with raw peeled and unpeeled biofortified carrots, respectively. Antioxidant activity significantly increased in the unpeeled and peeled carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine under all thermal treatments in comparison with the raw unpeeled and peeled biofortified carrots.

  13. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  14. Analysis of methods and reconstruction of iodine doses from the Chernobyl release in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsko, A.M.; Krivoruchko, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation induced pathology of the thyroid gland comprising specifically the cancer cases in children are currently recognized to be the only indisputable health after-effect of the Chernobyl accident. The iodine prophylactics took place neither in Belarus nor in the Ukraine or was effected only too late. Thus with rather full case registers available there is a unique possibility to determine the radiation risk coefficients for NPP large-scale accidents at least for the pathology mentioned above. For the measuring equipment being regretfully inadequate to the scale of the radiation exposure in the early (or so called iodine) phase of the accident, the detailed information on the spreading of the iodine nuclides and the doses to thyroid gland has been irretrievably lost. 13 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Analysis of methods and reconstruction of iodine doses from the Chernobyl release in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutsko, A M; Krivoruchko, K A [International Sakharov College of Radioecology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-09-01

    The radiation induced pathology of the thyroid gland comprising specifically the cancer cases in children are currently recognized to be the only indisputable health after-effect of the Chernobyl accident. The iodine prophylactics took place neither in Belarus nor in the Ukraine or was effected only too late. Thus with rather full case registers available there is a unique possibility to determine the radiation risk coefficients for NPP large-scale accidents at least for the pathology mentioned above. For the measuring equipment being regretfully inadequate to the scale of the radiation exposure in the early (or so called iodine) phase of the accident, the detailed information on the spreading of the iodine nuclides and the doses to thyroid gland has been irretrievably lost. 13 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs.

  16. Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE): Using Color to Monitor Spacecraft Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009, an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE) technology was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The kit, called the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), was launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the suitability of CSPE technology for routine use monitoring water quality on the ISS. CSPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric technique that combines colorimetric reagents, solid-phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water samples. In CSPE, a known volume of sample is metered through a membrane disk that has been impregnated with an analyte-specific colorimetric reagent and any additives required to optimize the formation of the analyte-reagent complex. As the sample flows through the membrane disk, the target analyte is selectively extracted, concentrated, and complexed. Formation of the analyte-reagent complex causes a detectable change in the color of the membrane disk that is proportional to the amount of analyte present in the sample. The analyte is then quantified by measuring the color of the membrane disk surface using a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer (DRS). The CWQMK provides the capability to measure the ionic silver (Ag +) and molecular iodine (I2) in water samples on-orbit. These analytes were selected for the evaluation of CSPE technology because they are the biocides used in the potable water storage and distribution systems on the ISS. Biocides are added to the potable water systems on spacecraft to inhibit microbial growth. On the United States (US) segment of the ISS molecular iodine serves as the biocide, while the Russian space agency utilizes silver as a biocide in their systems. In both cases, the biocides must be maintained at a level sufficient to control bacterial growth, but low enough to avoid any negative effects on crew health. For example, the

  17. Dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine (iodine 131, 123, 125, or 132) as well as their metal and amine salts; methods for the preparation of these compounds and of radioactive functional diagnostics containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the preparation of dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine is described. The initial substances are N,N dimethyl-p-toluene sulfonamide, N,N bis-dimethyl aminosulfon, or dimethyl sulfon, or mixtures of these, which are heated in aqueous solution or in a melt with an alkali or alkaline earth radioiodide as carrier-free as possible. From the water-soluble salts of the obtained iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilides aqueous solutions are produced with 1 mg up to 5 g iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilide per 10 ml and an activity of 0.025 and 25 mCi per ml with physiologically compatible bases as radioactive functional diagnostics. (RB) [de

  18. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  19. Iodine filters in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined

  20. Effect of absorbing impurities on the accuracy of the optical method for the detection of the iodine-containing substances resulting from the processing of waste nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S. V.; Simanovsky, I. G.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    The study is aimed at an increase in the accuracy of the optical method for the detection of the iodine-containing substances in technological liquids resulting form the processing of the waste nuclear fuel. It is demonstrated that the accuracy can be increased owing to the measurements at various combinations of wavelengths depending on the concentrations of impurities that are contained in the sample under study and absorb in the spectral range used for the detection of the iodine-containing substances.

  1. Improved adaptation of test with lanthanum nitrate for the colorimetric estimation of acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumilo, T [Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    A colorimetric method for the determination of acetate based on the production of the blue complex between iodine and lanthanum alkaline acetate has been developed. Optimum concentrations of reagents (acetate, lanthanum nitrate, iodine and ammonia) as well as the volume of acetate were selected to achieve best colour intensity. Coloured complex was stabilized by dilution of reagent mixture with water to the final volume convenient for determinaton. Absorbance of the complex can be measured immediately after dilution and any changes can be observed during at least 15 minutes. Elevation of temperature over 60/sup 0/decreases absorbance. The method fulfills the Beer's law in the range 1,5-3,5 ..mu..moles of acetate, precision of the method 2/sup +/ = 3,7%. Apart from acetate - propionate and fluoroacetate complex is 620 nm, propionate complex - at 590 nm. Propionate complex displayed any relationship between concentration and absorbance. Potassium, sodium, lithium and barium acetates give the identical results as acetic acid, whereas zinc and cupric acetates failed to react. Other derivatives tested, e.g. chloroacetate, trichloroacetate, iodoacetate, chloroporpionate and butyrate are unable to form the coloured complexes. Many compounds interfere with the formation of acetate complex, therefore, in material containing impurities acetate can be determined after purificaton by means of described in literature methods.

  2. Chemisorption of organic iodine compounds forming from fission isotopes of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tot, G.; Galina, F.; Zel'd, E.

    1977-01-01

    Studied is ethyl iodine adsorption, labelled by iodine 131, on palladium black and on aluminium oxide activized by palladium. The desorption of adsorbed iodine in the temperature range of 20-600 deg C by the mass spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric methods was investigated. At the ethyl iodine and palladium interaction the bond between carbon and iodine in the ethyl iodine molecule breaks down and extracting iodine reacts with palladium, forming a stable compound at high temperatures. Desorption of adsorbed iodine is insignificant up to the temperatures of 250-300 deg C. Thus, sorbents, containing palladium, may be successfully applied for iodine absorption from the organic iodine compounds. These compounds spontaneously appear from the iodine fragment ratio isotopes during their interaction with some environmental organic impurities

  3. Electrochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaraliev, Ya.A. (AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Neorganicheskoj i Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    1982-06-01

    The review is devoted to investigations into oxidation-reduction processes in different systems including iodine. The data on adsorption of iodine on metals are discussed; the connection between the nature of iodine adsorption and the mechanism of its electrode reactions is considered. The metals studied can be placed in the following series taking into account the degree of I sorption on them: Cd approximately Tl < Sn approximately Pb < Ga < Bi < Hg < Co approximately Ni < Fe < Ag approximately Rh approximately Pd approximately Ir < Pt. The data are given of standard and equilibrium potentials in iodine systems. Electric oxidation and electric reduction of iodide ions is investigated using the methods of Faraday impedance and rectification, methods of voltamperometry and oscillopolarography, rotating disc electrode, chronopotentiometry. Anode and cathode processes of oxidation-reduction reactions in I/sup -//IO/sub 3//sup -/, I/sub 2//IO/sub 3//sup -/ and I/sub 2//I/sup +/ systems are analyzed.

  4. Optimization, validation and application of UV-Vis spectrophotometric-colorimetric methods for determination of trimethoprim in different medicinal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and accurate methods for determination of trimethoprim in different sulfonamide formulations intended for use in human and veterinary medicine were optimized and validated. The methods are based on the trimethoprim reaction with bromcresol green (BCG and 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB. As extraction solvents we used 10 % N,N-dimethylacetamide in methanol and acetone for both methods, respectively. The colored products are quantified applying visible spectrophotometry at their corresponding absorption maxima. The methods were validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. We tested the method applicability on four different medicinal products in tablet and powder forms containing sulfametrole and sulfamethoxazole in combination with trimethoprim. The results revealed that both methods are equally accurate with recoveries within the range 95-105 %. The obtained between-day precision for both methods, when applied on four different medicinal products, was within in the range 1.08-3.20 %. By applying the F-statistical test (P<0.05, it was concluded that for three medicinal products tested both methods are applicable with statistically insignificant difference in precision. The optimized and validated BCG and DNFB methods could find application in routine quality control of trimethoprim in various formulation forms, at different concentration levels, and in combination with different sulfonamides.

  5. EPA Method 3135.2I: Cyanide, Total and Amenable in Aqueous and Solid Samples Automated Colorimetric With Manual Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, water and wipe samples for detection and measurement of cyanide amendable to chlorination using acid digestion and spectrophotometry.

  6. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  7. Improved removal of iodine-125 from effluents by the soil column method using a laterite soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, S H [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1997-02-01

    The soil column experiments were conducted to treat the liquid wastes from hospitals containing {sup 125}I. Three sorbent samples of laterite clay materials with different content of iron oxides (geothite, {alpha}-FeOOH) and hydroxides were used to sorb anionic iodate. Post-treatment of the liquid wastes with sodium hypochlorite (redox reagent) oxidized the iodide to the desirable iodate ion. pH after treatment ranges between 4.8 to 5.8 that is not very much different from the initial value pH4.5. The results show that 90 to 97% sorption of iodine with the decontamination factor between 10-32 could be obtained after the first two hours of experiments. The concentration has decreased from an initial value of 10 Bq{center_dot}mL{sup -1} to the concentration ranges 0.3 to 0.9 Bq{center_dot}mL{sup -1}. For the soil at pH between 4.5 to 6.0, positive charges predominated on the kaolinite, geothite and aluminum hydroxides. The negative {sup 125}I anions were electrostatically held by the positive charges on the mineral components of the laterite clay materials. The treated effluents could be released to the environment safely after further dilution and decay. The storage period will decrease tremendously providing better management for the disposal of the wastes by generators. The batch experiments conducted using different sorbent masses of soils, show that there was a drop in sorption where the mass of soils falls below approximately between 0 to 0.25 g. The sorption remains constant with the soil mass above 0.25 g. Another batch experiment using different concentration, shows that adsorption capacity of the laterite soil was 1.1 {mu}Ci/g. The adsorption is about 96% with a distribution coefficient of 1170. The experiments conducted show that anionic iodate in the liquid wastes can be removed by the laterite soil material. The column treatment method was more effective, easy to handle, and has low a capital and maintenance cost. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs.

  8. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  9. Method of removing alkyl iodides or mixtures of iodine and alkyl iodides from a gas phase and an aqueous solution phase by utilizing ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Mizuuchi, Noboru; Yokoyama, Fumio.

    1967-01-01

    Alkyl iodides and mixtures of iodine and alkyl iodides are removed from a gas phase and an aquous solution phase by using solely an anion exchange resin containing a tertiary amine or together with an anion exchange resin containing quarternary ammonium compound. The resin containing the quarternary ammonium compound is employed mainly to remove iodine, and the resin containing the tertiary amine serves mainly to remove alkyl iodides. The method can be applied to collecting a majority of the methyl iodide as well as the radioactive iodine produced in the atmosphere of a reactor in case of a fuel accident. In embodiments, it is desirable to maintain the sufficient moisture content of the anion exchange resins at a sufficient moisture level so as not to reduce the migration speed of the iodine and alkyl iodides. The iodine and alkyl iodide can be produced with high efficiency and stability independently of the relative humidity of the gas phase. In examples, a solution which consists of 20.5 mg/l of iodine and 42.2mg/l of methyl iodide flew through a column of Amberite IRA-93 alone or blended with IRA-900 at a speed of 15 /hr. respectively. The resins were able to treat 400 times their equivalent in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. A novel colorimetric method based on copper nanoclusters with intrinsic peroxidase-like for detecting xanthine in serum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Niu, Qianqian; Mou, Mingyao; Wu, Yi; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Liao, Shenghua

    2017-07-01

    A facile strategy for detecting xanthine in serum samples by copper nanocluster (CuNCs) with high intrinsic peroxidase-like activity was reported. Firstly, a simple, mild and time-saving method for preparing CuNCs was developed, in which dithiothreitol (DTT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as reductant and stabilizer, respectively. The as-prepared CuNCs exhibited a fluorescence emission at 590 nm with a quantum yield (QY) of approximately 5.29%, the fluorescence intensity of the as-prepared CuNCs exhibited no considerable change when stored under ambient condition with the lifetime is 1.75 μs. Moreover, the as-prepared CuNCs exhibited high intrinsic peroxidase-like activity with lower K m ( K m = 8.90 × 10-6 mol L-1) for H2O2, which indicated that CuNCs have a higher affinity for H2O2. Compared with natural enzyme, the as-synthesized CuNCs are more catalytic stable over a wide range of pH (4.0 13.0) and temperature (4 80 °C). Finally, an indirect method for sensing xanthine was established because xanthine oxidase can catalyse the oxidation of xanthine to produce H2O2. Xanthine could be detected as low as 3.8 × 10-7 mol L-1 with a linear range from 5.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1. These results proved that the proposed method is sensitive and accurate and could be successfully applied to the determination of xanthine in the serum sample with satisfaction.

  11. Iodine filters in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1977-04-01

    On the basis of calculated and recorded release rates of nuclear power plants, the significance of iodine releases in the invironmental impact relative to other nuclides is discussed. The release pathways for iodine in LWR-type reactors and the efficiency of various methods to lower the activity release are given. The airborne species of iodine are discussed with regard to their removal in iodine sorption filters and environmental impact. The technical status of iodine removal by means of iodine sorption filters is studied for normal operation and accident conditions in nuclear power stations on the basis of the data given in the relevant literature for the efficiency of a number of iodine sorption materials. The applicability of concepts for ventilation and containment and their influence on iodine filter systems are discussed. Design, structure, and testing of iodine sorption filters are treated in detail; recommendations for design are given, and failure sources are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  12. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Iodine is also used during the production of methamphetamine. Note: This list may not be all inclusive. ... breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests Chest x-ray EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids through a ...

  13. Separation and retention of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    Caustic and mercuric nitrate scrubbers have been used for iodine recovery from process offgas, but they exhibit low decontamination factors for organic iodide removal and produce liquid wastes that are unsuitable for final storage. The Iodox process gives high decontamination factors for both organic iodides and elemental iodine. The liquid waste can be evaporated to a solid or concentrated and fixed in cement. Efficient separation and retention of gaseous iodine species can be obtained with silver-loaded adsorbents. The waste is a dry solid easily handled and stored. Adsorbents containing cheaper metals appear to have lower iodine-loading capacities and may be unsuitable for bulk iodine removal from process offgas because of the large amounts of solid waste that would be generated. A potential method for regenerationg and recycling silver-loaded adsorbents is being evaluated. In conjunction with the regeneration, lead-exchanged zeolite is used as a secondary adsorbent for the final fixation and storage of the iodine

  14. Iodination of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and radiotherapy using a convenient one vial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.J.; Hilgers, J.; Zurawski, V.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a convenient system that can be used to iodinate monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis or therapy. A vial, previously coated with 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3a, 6a-diphenyl glycouril (iodogen), is used as a reaction vessel. Iodination and separation of bound and free iodide, using AG1-X8 ion exchange resin, are both accomplished in this vial. We found 90 +/- 4% of the iodide which was added was incorporated, respectively, into each of four different monoclonal antibodies evaluated. Approximately 90% of labeled antibody was recovered in each case. The monoclonal antibody OC125 was labeled to specific activities up to 25 mCi/mg. Immunoreactivities of 82 +/- 2% using 125 I and 66 +/- 5% using 131 I were achieved. As the radioiodination is done in one sealed vial and takes less than 15 min, this procedure is safe and can be performed in any nuclear medicine laboratory. The final product, which is sterile and apyrogenic, is suitable for diagnostic and radiotherapeutic applications

  15. Calibration of the identiFINDER detector for the iodine measurement in thyroid using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos M, D.; Yera S, Y.; Lopez B, G. M.; Acosta R, N.; Vergara G, A.

    2014-08-01

    This work is based on the determination of the detection efficiency of 125 I and 131 I in thyroid of the identiFINDER detector using the Monte Carlo method. The suitability of the calibration method is analyzed, when comparing the results of the direct Monte Carlo method with the corrected, choosing the latter because the differences with the real efficiency stayed below 10%. To simulate the detector their geometric parameters were optimized using a tomographic study, what allowed the uncertainties minimization of the estimates. Finally were obtained the simulations of the detector geometry-point source to find the correction factors to 5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm, and those corresponding to the detector-simulator arrangement for the method validation and final calculation of the efficiency, demonstrating that in the Monte Carlo method implementation if simulates at a greater distance than the used in the Laboratory measurements an efficiency overestimation can be obtained, while if simulates at a shorter distance this will be underestimated, so should be simulated at the same distance to which will be measured in the reality. Also, is achieved the obtaining of the efficiency curves and minimum detectable activity for the measurement of 131 I and 125 I. In general is achieved the implementation of the Monte Carlo methodology for the identiFINDER calibration with the purpose of estimating the measured activity of iodine in thyroid. This method represents an ideal way to replace the lack of patterns solutions and simulators assuring the capacities of the Internal Contamination Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones are always calibrated for the iodine measurement in thyroid. (author)

  16. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total

  17. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  18. A new HPLC method for the detection of iodine applied to natural samples of edible seaweeds and commercial seaweed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-04-01

    Rich in micronutrients and considered to contain high iodine levels, seaweeds have multiple applications as food/supplements and nutraceuticals with potential health implications. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new analytical method to quantify iodine as iodide (I(-)) using an isocratic HPLC system with UV detection; algal iodine was converted to I(-) via dry alkaline incineration. The method was successfully applied to 19 macroalgal species from three taxonomic groups and five commercially available seaweed food products. Fesh kelps contained highest levels, reaching >1.0% per dry weight (DW), but concentrations differed amongst thallus parts. In addition to kelps, other brown (Fucales: ∼ 0.05% DW) and some red species (∼ 0.05% DW) can also serve as a rich source of iodine; lowest iodine concentrations were detected in green macroalgae (∼ 0.005% DW), implying that quantities recommended for seaweed consumption may require species-specific re-evaluation to reach adequate daily intake levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  20. Effect of Nitrates, Thiocyanates and Selenium on the Iron and Iodine Status of Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarska, Anelia V; Maneva, Ana I; Gatseva, Penka D; Katsarova, Mariana N

    2016-09-01

    To find correlations between high thiocyanate and nitrate levels and low selenium levels and the indicators of the iodine and iron status of postpartum women. The study included 41 mothers aged 26.4±5.9 yrs from Asenovgrad and nearby villages. Urinary iodine was determined by the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction and thiocyanate - by the interaction of these ions with acidic solution of KMnO4; for serum nitrates we used the colorimetric method; serum selenium was assessed by electro-thermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry; thyroxin (FT4), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum ferritin (SF), and serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) were determined using ELISA; Hb levels were determined by hematology analyzer. Assessing the iodine status, we found a negative correlation between the levels of iodine and thiocyanates in urine (R=-0.717, рnitrates and TSH (R=0.487, р=0.003) and a negative correlation between nitrates and FT4 (R=-0.312, р=0.06). For the iron status, we found a negative correlation between nitrates and SF (R=-0.429, р=0.009) and between nitrates and Hb (R=-0.383, р=0.021). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that in women with nitrate levels higher than the mean value there was low FT4 level (р=0.06), high TSH level (р=0.013), low Hb concentration (р=0.061) and low SF concentration (р=0.005). The combined effects of environmental factors (elevated nitrate levels and low selenium level) on the iodine and iron status are manifested by low concentrations of FT4 (р=0.033), Hb (р=0.06) and SF (р=0.05) and high level of TSH (р=0.05). In conclusion, we found that environmental factors, especially when combined, have a negative impact on the iron and iodine status of females.

  1. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  2. Separation of iodine-131 from water using isotopic exchange with iodine-starch compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Kolomejtseva, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    Conditions of iodine isotopic exchange with iodine-starch compound (ISC) were studied with the aim of compound utilizatoin for radioactive iodine separation from solution. It is shown that in pH range from 2 to 7 the degree of iodine extraction and coefficient of its distribution practically do not depend on pH, at pH>7 ISC destruction (decolorizing) starts and iodine extraction decreases. Rapid method of iodine separation from solution is suggested. The method can be used in radiochemical techniques. The degree of extraction equals 80 %, a higher degree of extraction can not be achieved owing to ISC formation peculiarities

  3. Principles and applications of colorimetric solid-phase extraction with negligible depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Neil C.; Porter, Marc D.; Fritz, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) is an integrated technique in which an analyte is selectively concentrated onto a disk and then quantitated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This paper describes the results of an investigation that applies the concept of negligible depletion (ND) to C-SPE, representing the first application of ND concepts to solid-phase extractions. The approach relies on passing the minimal volume of sample through the disk required to reach an equilibrium in which the concentration of analyte in the sample entering and exiting the disk are equal. At this point, the amount of analyte extracted by the disk is proportional to the sample concentration but is independent of the sample volume passed through the disk. With this new method, called C-SPE/ND, the precise measurement of sample volume is no longer necessary. The work herein details the general principles of this new methodology, and validates its basic tenets in an investigation of the extraction of the organic dye methyl violet. The analytical capabilities of C-SPE/ND are then demonstrated by its application to measurements of iodine. Iodine is a biocide increasingly used as a simple and effective disinfectant for water in locations where municipal water treatment systems are potentially compromised. Thus, the ability to operate C-SPE in an ND mode notably enhances the broad-based utility of this methodology as a reliable and an easy-to-use analysis tool for water quality assessments. Since iodine is also the biocide used on NASAs Space Shuttle, C-SPE/ND has the potential to overcome problems associated with the removal of air bubbles entrapped in a water sample in the microgravity environment encountered in space exploration. Extensions of C-SPE/ND to facile determinations of other water quality parameters with respect to both earth- and space-based needs are briefly discussed

  4. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, TsingHai; Jian, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Han; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences; Tsai, Tsuey-Lin [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Chemical Analysis Div.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  5. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages, are con...

  6. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  7. Method for investigation of various iodine species in the primary coolant of the nuclear power plant in Paks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volent, G.; Gimesi, O.; Solymosi, J.

    1996-01-01

    Iodine isotopes formed in the course of fission in nuclear reactors may be present in the primary coolant in different oxidation states, i.e., in different chemical forms. It is important to know the chemical forms and their proportions in order to asses the environmental effect of the emitted iodine and the performance of air filters used in the primary circuit for binding iodine, species, since both depend on the chemical forms in which it is present. Volatile components were separated from water samples taken separately from each block of the nuclear power station by purging with inert gas, then the aerosol, iodine vapour and alkyl iodides were selectively bound on the filter system of the 'KOMBI' sampler. I 3 - , I - , IO - , IO 3 - and IO 4 - left in the aqueous phase after purging were separated by consecutive physical and chemical procedures (extraction, isotope exchange, reduction). The results of the investigations have shown that the water technology used in the Nuclear Power Plant in Paks is appropriate with respect to the radioiodine balance. Iodine was found to be predominant species, and no volatile iodine species were found to be present in the primary coolant. Volatile iodine species sometimes appearing in emissions may be formed from leaching waters due to secondary effects. (author)

  8. Cost Effective Paper-Based Colorimetric Microfluidic Devices and Mobile Phone Camera Readers for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesdjojo, Myra T.; Pengpumkiat, Sumate; Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Huynh, Daniel; Remcho, Thomas P.; Remcho, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple and direct method to fabricate paper-based microfluidic devices that can be used for a wide range of colorimetric assay applications. With these devices, assays can be performed within minutes to allow for quantitative colorimetric analysis by use of a widely accessible iPhone camera and an RGB color reader application…

  9. Analytical properties of some commercially available nitrate reductase enzymes evaluated as replacements for cadmium in automated, semiautomated, and manual colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    A multiyear research effort at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) evaluated several commercially available nitrate reductase (NaR) enzymes as replacements for toxic cadmium in longstanding automated colorimetric air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer (CFA) methods for determining nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) in water. This research culminated in USGS approved standard- and low-level enzymatic reduction, colorimetric automated discrete analyzer NOx methods that have been in routine operation at the NWQL since October 2011. The enzyme used in these methods (AtNaR2) is a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouseear cress) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Because the scope of the validation report for these new automated discrete analyzer methods, published as U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 5–B8, was limited to performance benchmarks and operational details, extensive foundational research with different enzymes—primarily YNaR1, a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Pichia angusta in the yeast Pichia pastoris—remained unpublished until now. This report documents research and development at the NWQL that was foundational to development and validation of the discrete analyzer methods. It includes: (1) details of instrumentation used to acquire kinetics data for several NaR enzymes in the presence and absence of known or suspected inhibitors in relation to reaction temperature and reaction pH; and (2) validation results—method detection limits, precision and bias estimates, spike recoveries, and interference studies—for standard- and low-level automated colorimetric CFA-YNaR1 reduction NOx methods in relation to corresponding USGS approved CFA cadmium-reduction (CdR) NOx methods. The cornerstone of this validation is paired sample statistical and graphical analysis of NOx concentrations from more than 3,800 geographically and seasonally diverse surface

  10. Simple methods via Mid-IR or {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy for the determination of the iodine value of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamoto, Gustavo G.; Favaro, Martha M.A.; Tubino, Matthieu, E-mail: tubino@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2015-07-01

    Two methods for determining the iodine value in vegetable oils are described. One employs mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy and the other uses hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The determination of the iodine value is based on either the transmittance intensity of mid-IR signals or on the {sup 1}H NMR signal integration and multivariate calibration. Both of the methods showed adequate coefficients of determination (r{sup 2} = 0.9974 and 0.9978, respectively) when compared to Wijs method, which is recommended by the norm EN 14111. A statistical comparison between the results from the proposed methods and from Wijs method shows that both instrumental methods offer equivalent results and greater precision compared to Wijs method. The regressions obtained from the constructed models were considered statistically significant and useful for making predictions. The proposed methods present several advantages compared to Wijs method because they significantly reduce analysis time, reagent consumption and waste generation. Furthermore, an analyst can choose between the mid-IR or {sup 1}H NMR to determine the iodine value. (author)

  11. Analysis of DNA Hydroxymethylation Using Colorimetric Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC or 5-hmC) is a nitrogen base occurring as a result of cytosine methylation followed by replacing a methyl group with a hydroxyl group through active oxidation. 5-hmC is considered to be one of the forms of epigenetic modification and is suggested as an intermediate step in a semi-active loss of DNA methylation mark. 5-hmC plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in animals, although its role in plants remains controversial. Here, we present a colorimetric method of quantification of 5-hmC using Brassica rapa DNA.

  12. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  13. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zava, Theodore T., E-mail: ttzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Kapur, Sonia, E-mail: soniak@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Zava, David T., E-mail: dzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R{sup 2} = 0.9483; creatinine: R{sup 2} = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs.

  14. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zava, Theodore T.; Kapur, Sonia; Zava, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R 2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R 2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  15. Iodine isotopes and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, B.; Nedvekajte, T.; Filistovich, V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of concentration determination of stable and radioactive iodine isotopes in the Earth's different geospheres are described. Iodine isotopes concentration data, chemical forms and transformations as well as their exchange among separate geospheres of their global biochemical circulation (ocean, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere) are presented. Information on iodine isotopes as after-effects of nuclear installations accident (in particular, the Chernobyl accident) is generalized. The book is intended for scientists and practical workers in ecology and radioactivity protection and for a students of physics. 442 refs.; 82 figs.; 36 tabs

  16. Colorimetric detection for paper-based biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, C.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Research on affordable point-of-care health diagnostics is rapidly advancing1. Colorimetric biosensor applications are typically qualitative, but recently the focus has been shifted to quantitative measurements2,3. Although numerous qualitative point-of-care (POC) health diagnostic devices are available, the challenge exists of developing a quantitative colorimetric array reader system that complies with the ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and Robust, Equipment-free, Deliverable to end-users) principles of the World Health Organization4. This paper presents a battery powered 8-bit tonal resolution colorimetric sensor circuit for paper microfluidic assays using low cost photo-detection circuitry and a low-power LED light source. A colorimetric 3×3-pixel array reader was developed for rural environments where resources and personnel are limited. The device sports an ultralow-power E-ink paper display. The colorimetric device includes integrated GPS functionality and EEPROM memory to log measurements with geo-tags for possible analysis of regional trends. The device competes with colour intensity measurement techniques using smartphone cameras, but proves to be a cheaper solution, compensating for the typical performance variations between cameras of different brands of smartphones. Inexpensive methods for quantifying bacterial assays have been shown using desktop scanners, which are not portable, and cameras, which suffer severely from changes in ambient light in different environments. Promising colorimetric detection results have been demonstrated using devices such as video cameras5, digital colour analysers6, flatbed scanners7 or custom portable readers8. The major drawback of most of these methods is the need for specialized instrumentation and for image analysis on a computer.

  17. A simple method for the quantification of benzodiazepine receptors using iodine-123 iomazenil and single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoui; Koyama, Masamichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ono, Shuichi; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Iodine-123 iomazenil (Iomazenil) is a ligand for central type benzodiazepine receptors that is suitable for single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method for the quantification of its binding potential (BP). The method is based on a two-compartment model (K 1 , influx rate constant; k 2 ', efflux rate constant; V T '(=K 1 /k 2 '), the total distribution volumes relative to the total arterial tracer concentration), and requires two SPET scans and one blood sampling. For a given input function, the radioactivity ratio of the early to delayed scans can be considered to tabulate as a function of k 2 ', and a table lookup procedure provides the corresponding k 2 ' value, from which K 1 and V t ' values are then calculated. The arterial input function is obtained by calibration of the standard input function by the single blood sampling. SPET studies were performed on 14 patients with cerebrovascular diseases, dementia or brain tumours (mean age ±SD, 56.0±12.2). None of the patients had any heart, renal or liver disease. A dynamic SPET scan was performed following intravenous bolus injection of Iomazenil. A static SPET scan was performed at 180 min after injection. Frequent blood sampling from the brachial artery was performed on all subjects for determination of the arterial input function. Two-compartment model analysis was validated for calculation of the V T ' value of Iomazenil. Good correlations were observed between V T ' values calculated by three-compartment model analysis and those calculated by the present method, in which the scan time combinations (early scan/delayed scan) used were 15/180 min, 30/180 min or 45/180 min (all combinations: r=0.92), supporting the validity of this method. The present method is simple and applicable for clinical use. (orig.)

  18. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  19. A method to quantitate cerebral blood flow using a rotating gamma camera and iodine-123 iodoamphetamine with one blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hidehiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bloomfield, P.M.; Munaka, Masahiro; Higano, Shuichi; Murakami, Matsutaro; Inugami, Atsushi; Eberl, S.; Aizawa, Yasuo; Kanno, Iwao; Uemura, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitate regional cerebral blood blow (rCBF) using iodine-123-labelled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP). This technique requires only two single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans and one blood sample. Based on a two-compartment model, radioactivity concentrations in the brain for each scan time are calculated. A standard input function has been generated by combining the input functions from 12 independent studies prior to this work to avoid frequent arterial blood sampling, and one blood sample is taken at 10 min following IMP administration for calibration of the standard arterial input function. This calibration time was determined such that the integration of the first 40 min of the calibrated, combined input function agreed best with those from 12 individual input functions (the difference was 5.3% on average). This method was applied to eight subjects (two normals and six patients with cerebral infarction), and yielded rCBF values which agreed well with those obtained by a positron emission tomography H 2 15 O autoradiography method. This method was also found to provide rCBF values that were consistent with those obtained by the non-linear least squares fitting technique and those obtained by conventional microsphere model analysis. The optimum SPET scan times were found to be 40 and 180 min for the early and delayed scans, respectively. These scan times allow the use of a conventional rotating gamma camera for clinical purposes. V d values ranged between 10 and 40 ml/g depending on the pathological condition, thereby suggesting the importance of measuring V d for each ROI. In conclusion, optimization of the blood sampling time and the scanning time enabled quantitative measurement of rCBF with two SPET scans and one blood sample. (orig.)

  20. A Mild Method for Regioselective Labeling of Aromatics with Radioactive Iodine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nissen, Felix; Pedersen, Palle Jacob

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique to label ortho‐, meta‐, and para‐trimethylsilyl‐substituted aryl substituents with radioactive iodide is described. The method takes advantage of the ipso‐directing and activating properties of trimethylsilyl substituents on the arenes. The method was demonstrated on a griseoful...

  1. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  2. Colorimetric characterization of LED luminaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C L M; Vieira, R R; Pereira, R C; Silva, P V M; Oliveira, I A A; Sardinha, A S; Viana, D D; Barbosa, A H; Souza, L P; Alvarenga, A D

    2015-01-01

    The Optical Metrology Division of Inmetro – National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology has recently started the colorimetric characterization of lamps by implementing Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) and Color Rendering Index (CRI) measurements of incandescent lamps, followed by the CFL, and LED lamps and luminaires. Here we present the results for the verification of the color characterization of samples of SSL luminaires for public as well as indoor illumination that are sold in Brazil

  3. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  4. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  5. Iodine intake in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.A.; Hetherton, A.M.; O'Carroll, D.; Smith, D.F.; O'Halloran, M.J.; O'Donovan, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A study of urinary iodine excretion and thyroid gland uptake of radioactive iodine 131 I was undertaken in the Dublin area with a view to providing data on the current iodine status in Ireland. A mean urinary iodine excretion of 118±82μg/gram creatinine (Median 96) obtained from 821 subjects attending general hospital outpatient clinics in the Dublin area in 1987, while excluding severe iodine deficiency in this particular cohort, obscured the fact that 250 (30%) had iodine excretion values ≤70 μ/g creatinine, a value approximating to the minimum daily iodine requirement. The results provide sufficient evidence of sporadic iodine deficiency to justify a more widespread study of the iodine status of the Irish population with a view to making recommendations on the possible need for iodine prophylaxis

  6. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Q.; Moran, J.E.; Blackwood, V.

    2007-01-01

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic 129 I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils

  7. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  8. Electrochemical reductive dehalogenation of iodine-containing contrast agent pharmaceuticals: Examination of reactions of diatrizoate and iopamidol using the method of rotating ring-disc electrode (RRDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Chen, Zhanghao; Li, Na; Zhou, Yuxuan; Zhang, Chenyang; Korshin, Gregory

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the electrochemical (EC) reduction of iodinated contrast media (ICM) exemplified by iopamidol and diatrizoate. The method of rotating ring-disc electrode (RRDE) was used to elucidate rates and mechanisms of the EC reactions of the selected ICMs. Experiments were carried at varying hydrodynamic conditions, concentrations of iopamidol, diatrizoate, natural organic matter (NOM) and model compounds (resorcinol, catechol, guaiacol) which were used to examine interactions between products of the EC reduction of ICMs and halogenation-active species. The data showed that iopamidol and diatrizoate were EC-reduced at potentials < -0.45 V vs. s.c.e. In the range of potentials -0.65 to -0.85 V their reduction was mass transfer-controlled. The presence of NOM and model compounds did not affect the EC reduction of iopamidol and diatrizoate but active iodine species formed as a result of the EC-induced transformations of these ICMs reacted readily with NOM and model compounds. These data provide more insight into the nature of generation of iodine-containing by-products in the case of reductive degradation of ICMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) labelling with iodine-131 by direct method; Marcacao do peptideo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) com iodo-131 por metodo direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Araujo, E.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2002-07-01

    The Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide with a great numbers of receptors in tumoral cells, including adenocarcinomas and pancreatic and colon carcinomas. The VIP molecule contains two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to iodination, The VIP was labeled with 131-iodine by direct method using Iodogen as oxidant agent: 15.03 mmol VIP + 0.10 nmol KI + [{sup 131} I]NaI + 13.9 mmol Iodogen; the final volume was adjust to 100 {mu}L using 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 and the reaction proceed with stirring for 30 minutes at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined by electrophoresis (Whatman 1MM paper; 0.05 M barbital buffer; pH 8.6; 150 V; 40 minutes) that indicates low percent of free 131-iodine. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using RPC{sup 18}, 10 {mu}m, 4 x 250mm column, was able to separate the different radiochemical species, only when an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (27:73) was used, with 0.5 mL/min. flux. (author)

  10. Improvement of the decision efficiency of the accuracy profile by means of a desirability function for analytical methods validation. Application to a diacetyl-monoxime colorimetric assay used for the determination of urea in transdermal iontophoretic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozet, E; Wascotte, V; Lecouturier, N; Préat, V; Dewé, W; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2007-05-22

    Validation of analytical methods is a widely used and regulated step for each analytical method. However, the classical approaches to demonstrate the ability to quantify of a method do not necessarily fulfill this objective. For this reason an innovative methodology was recently introduced by using the tolerance interval and accuracy profile, which guarantee that a pre-defined proportion of future measurements obtained with the method will be included within the acceptance limits. Accuracy profile is an effective decision tool to assess the validity of analytical methods. The methodology to build such a profile is detailed here. However, as for any visual tool it has a part of subjectivity. It was then necessary to make the decision process objective in order to quantify the degree of adequacy of an accuracy profile and to allow a thorough comparison between such profiles. To achieve this, we developed a global desirability index based on the three most important validation criteria: the trueness, the precision and the range. The global index allows the classification of the different accuracy profiles obtained according to their respective response functions. A diacetyl-monoxime colorimetric assay for the determination of urea in transdermal iontophoretic extracts was used to illustrate these improvements.

  11. Criteria for safe working with iodine-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    Radio-immunoassay and other saturation assay tests involving the use of iodine-125 are finding wide application for the determination of hormone concentrations in biological fluids. In such tests, iodinations involving concentrations of a milli-curie per micro-litre are common. Iodine-125 presents a problem from the monitoring standpoint because of its low energy photon emission (27 and 35 keV). Iodine is preferentially taken up by the thyroid gland and work involving moderate amounts of radio-iodine may give rise to a significant hazard in an accident situation. The general precautions which should be taken in work with unsealed radioactive substances are briefly summarized, working limits for iodine-125 are identified, and methods of personal protection and monitoring in an emergency situation described. (author)

  12. Comparative EPMA and μXRF methods for mapping micro-scale distribution of iodine in bio-carbonates of the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation at Bure, Eastern part of the Paris Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, C.; Claret, F.; Wille, G.; Beny, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C.; Denecke, M.A.; Falkenberg, G.; Ramboz, C.; Giffaut, E.

    2010-01-01

    celestite. EPMA analyses performed along transects in the shell provided evidence of an heterogeneous iodine distribution in the shell, with 17% of recorded values in the Rhynchonella shell and 32% of values in the bivalve shell lying above the detection limit. 4 and 8 % of values in Rhynchonella and bivalve shells, respectively, are above 1000 ppm, i.e. five-fold above the detection limit. It is important to note that for the same analytical conditions, the impact of the beam was larger and deeper in preserved bio-carbonate than in recrystallized calcite. Principal component analysis (PCA) method applied to the EPMA data did not give evidence of any correlation between iodine and the other probed elements. The μ-XRF experiments were performed at Beamline L of the DORIS III synchrotron ring, which is operated by the Hamburg Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory HASYLAB at the German Electron Synchrotron DESY. An incident beam from a Ni/C multi-player, with a narrow wavelength range centered at 0.34 A, focused using a single bounce elliptical capillary is used for excitation. Ca (Kα), Fe (Kα), Sr (Kα) and S (Kα) distribution maps were measured using a Si-drift detector, whereas iodine (Kα) maps were performed using a Si(Li) detector with a 400 μm Al-filter. Iodine was measured using its Kα X-ray emission line to avoid the interference between I-L and Ca-K X-ray lines. Elemental maps were recorded on polished thin sections at areas previously analysed by EPMA, a 420 μm x 620 μm area of well-preserved Rhynchonella shell and a 360 μm x 280 μm of recrystallized bivalve shell. The I-Kα map showed a homogeneous distribution of iodine in the well-preserved Rhynchonella shell. In contrast, a heterogeneous distribution of iodine was observed in recrystallized calcite. The intensity of the I-Kα X-ray emission line was generally higher in spectra from well-preserved Rhynchonella shell compared to pixels exhibiting iodine content in the recrystallized bivalve shell. In the

  13. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  14. Feature extraction using distribution representation for colorimetric sensor arrays used as explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Raich, Raviv; Kostesha, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    is required. We present a new approach of extracting features from a colorimetric sensor array based on a color distribution representation. For each sensor in the array, we construct a K-nearest neighbor classifier based on the Hellinger distances between color distribution of a test compound and the color......We present a colorimetric sensor array which is able to detect explosives such as DNT, TNT, HMX, RDX and TATP and identifying volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air. To analyze colorimetric sensors with statistical methods, a suitable representation of sensory readings...

  15. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  16. Speciation of Bio-Available Iodine in Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Hyphenated with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Using an In Vitro Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Han Sol; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-06-01

    Abalone is one of the most valuable marine products found in East Asia because it is rich in nutritious substances including iodine. In this study, the in vitro dialyzability approach was used to assess the bio-available iodine species in abalone. Iodide, iodate, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine (MIT), and 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine (DIT) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). To assure the consistency, reliability, and accuracy of the data, the method was validated. Comparison of the total iodine in abalone muscle and viscera indicated that abalone muscle showed greater digestion/absorption efficiency than abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 68.13 ± 2.59% and 47.88 ± 5.76% and absorption efficiency: 59.78 ± 2.93% and 35.12 ± 1.43% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). However, evaluation of the sum of the analyzed iodine species targeted in this study by HPLC-ICP-MS indicated that abalone muscle showed lower digestion efficiency and similar absorption efficiency compared to that of abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 35.52 ± 5.41% and 28.84 ± 1.83%; absorption efficiency: 23.56 ± 4.38% and 27.56 ± 1.51% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). The main forms of iodine detected in abalone muscle were iodide and MIT, whereas iodide was the major form in abalone viscera. The bio-available iodine in abalone was quantified via an in vitro method employing HPLC-ICP-MS. The results of this study indicated that abalone is feasible as a new iodine source and may prospectively find application in iodine-fortified foods. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, L.; Chopin, J.

    1996-01-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40 o C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H + ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I 2 ], [IO 3 - ], [H 2 O 2 ] and [H + ]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs

  18. Iodine and thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Rim Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency causes hypothyroidism that results in impaired somatic growth and motor development in children. Mild and moderate iodine deficiencies cause multifocal autonomous growth of thyroid, which results in thyrotoxicosis. On the other hand, iodine excess is associated with the development of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. In areas of iodine deficiency, a sudden increase in iodine intake is associated with transient hyperthyroidism. Recent studies demonstrated that long-term thyroid function of subjects who experienced both iodine deficiency and iodine excess during childhood tended to be abnormal despite optimization of their current iodine intake. Iodine status in the Korean Peninsula is very unique because people in the Republic of Korea have been shown to have predominantly excessive iodine levels, whereas the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is known to be an iodine-deficient area. Further research is warranted to verify the optimal ranges of iodine intake and to clarify the effects of iodine intake on thyroid disorders in the Korean Peninsula.

  19. Evaluation method of iodine re-evolution from an in-containment water pool after a loss of coolant accident, Part I: pH estimation of a solution with various chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is required to evaluate re-evolved iodine from sump water after LOCA. • pH evaluation based on Gibbs free energy minimization. • Program was developed to evaluate chemical equilibrium and pH solutions. • Predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: Radioactive iodine, which is released into the atmosphere of the containment building, is absorbed into the containment spray water and dissolved to be ionized. This iodine-rich water is then transported to the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) in APR1400 nuclear power plants. When the pH of the water is below 7, the dissolved iodine converts to molecular iodine and re-evolves from the water and returns to the atmosphere. A series of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the iodine re-evolution from the IRWST. This study consists of two parts: the pH evaluation method and the evaluation of the iodine re-evolution. This paper presents the first part, i.e. the pH evaluation method. The equilibrium concentrations of various chemicals in a solution are determined at the minimum Gibbs’ free energy. This method is useful for complex reactant problems rather than equilibrium constants method because the latter method requires numerous equilibrium constants and there might be missing equilibrium constants associated with the solution. The calculated pH values of solutions are compared with the experimental measurements in order to validate this method and the thermodynamic data of the chemicals incorporated into the program. The estimated values for solutions are in good agreement with the experimental measurements within a difference of less than 3.3%.

  20. Urinary Iodine Clearance following Iodinated Contrast Administration: A Comparison of Euthyroid and Postthyroidectomy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice D. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare iodine clearance following iodinated contrast administration in thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and euthyroid individuals. Methods. A convenience population (6 thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and 7 euthyroid controls was drawn from patients referred for iodinated contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT studies. Subjects had sequential urine samples collected up to 6 months (50 samples from the thyroidectomised and 63 samples from the euthyroid groups. t-tests and generalised estimating equations (GEE were used to test for group differences in urinary iodine creatinine ratios. Results. Groups had similar urinary iodine creatinine ratios at baseline, with a large increase 2 weeks following iodinated contrast (P=0.005. Both groups had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline by 4 weeks, with no significant group differences overall or at any time point. Conclusions. Thyroidectomised patients did not have a significantly different urinary iodine clearance than euthyroid individuals following administration of iodinated contrast. Both had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline within 4 weeks.

  1. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  2. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  3. Iodination of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Feldthus, A.; Carlsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol is iodinated in aqueous solution at pH 5 (acetate buffer) by elemental iodine or, if the iodine is present as iodide, enzymatically controlled by peroxidases. Generally mono-, di- and triiodophenols are obtained, the overall product composition being virtually identical for the two iodination modes. However, there is a tendency to a higher para to ortho ratio for the enzymatically controlled reaction. The mutual ratios of the single iodophenols depends on the initial concentration ratio between phenol and the iodinating species. The first step in the iodination leads preferentially to substitution in the ortho position rather than in the para position in contract to e.g. the corresponding bromination. The relative rates of the competive reactions in the combined iodination scheme has been derived. (author) 2 tabs., 3 ills., 15 refs

  4. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  5. A review of methods for immobilizing iodine-129 arising from a nuclear fuel recycle plant, with emphasis on waste-form chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1990-07-01

    Possible methods for the separation and immobilization of iodine (mainly iodine-129) in a fuel recycle plant are reviewed, with special emphasis placed on the evaluation of waste forms. A distinction is drawn between waste forms selected by thermodynamic (solubility) or kinetic (dissolution rate) considerations. The most promising solubility-limited waste forms appear to be AgI (or AgI + AgCl) and a combination of Bi 2 O 3 and Bi 5 O 7 I. These materials use relatively scarce metals, Ag and Bi. They also have substantial chemical limitations, such as susceptibility to reductive dissolution and anion-displacement reactions; this calls for special care in the choice of a disposal site. All other organic iodides and iodates considered here and elsewhere appear to be still more limited in this respect. The most promising kinetically limited candidate waste form appears to be iodide-sodalite, but further information is needed on both the fabrication and leaching behaviour of this material. The possibility of disposal in a more soluble but isotopically dilute waste form, employing abundant raw materials, also warrants further consideration

  6. Advanced analytical methods for the structure elucidation of polystyrene-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymers prepared by reverse iodine transfer polymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Trevor Gavin; Pfukwa, Helen; Pasch, Harald, E-mail: hpasch@sun.ac.za

    2015-09-10

    Reverse iodine transfer polymerisation (RITP) is a living radical polymerisation technique that has shown to be feasible in synthesising segmented styrene-acrylate copolymers. Polymers synthesised via RITP are typically only described regarding their bulk properties using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. To fully understand the complex composition of the polymerisation products and the RITP reaction mechanism, however, it is necessary to use a combination of advanced analytical methods. In the present RITP procedure, polystyrene was synthesised first and then used as a macroinitiator to synthesise polystyrene-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PBA) block copolymers. For the first time, these PS-b-PBA block copolymers were analysed by a combination of SEC, in situ{sup 1}H NMR and HPLC. {sup 1}H NMR was used to determine the copolymer composition and the end group functionality of the samples, while SEC and HPLC were used to confirm the formation of block copolymers. Detailed information on the living character of the RITP process was obtained. - Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of novel block copolymers. • Polymers were prepared for the first time by reverse iodine transfer polymerisation. • Combination of SEC, NMR, kinetic NMR, HPLC and comprehensive 2D-HPLC was used. • Detailed information about complex molecular composition and polymerisation kinetics was obtained.

  7. A sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 35 micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Scheurer, Marco; Iglesias, Mònica; Sacher, Frank; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Salvadó, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive, multi-residue method using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine a representative group of 35 analytes, including corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and pharmaceuticals such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, five iodinated contrast media, β-blockers and some of their metabolites and transformation products in water samples. Few other methods are capable of determining such a broad range of contrast media together with other analytes. We studied the parameters affecting the extraction of the target analytes, including sorbent selection and extraction conditions, their chromatographic separation (mobile phase composition and column) and detection conditions using two ionisation sources: electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). In order to correct matrix effects, a total of 20 surrogate/internal standards were used. ESI was found to have better sensitivity than APCI. Recoveries ranging from 79 to 134 % for tap water and 66 to 144 % for surface water were obtained. Intra-day precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, was below 34 % for tap water and below 21 % for surface water, groundwater and effluent wastewater. Method quantification limits (MQL) were in the low ng L(-1) range, except for the contrast agents iomeprol, amidotrizoic acid and iohexol (22, 25.5 and 17.9 ng L(-1), respectively). Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 56 real water samples as part of the validation procedure. All of the compounds were detected in at least some of the water samples analysed. Graphical Abstract Multi-residue method for the determination of micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in waters by LC-MS/MS.

  8. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Instrumental determination of iodine in milk by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac Olive, K.; Chatt, A.

    2006-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element. It is related to thyroid functions and its deficiency or excess can be harmful. Deficiency of iodine leads to brain damage including cretinism, excess of iodine blocks the thyroid gland ultimately producing iodine deficiency as well. World Health Organization has set a daily iodine intake dose of 150 μg d -1 . Currently there are 740 million people in the world at risk of iodine deficiency disorders; therefore the monitoring of iodine intake is necessary. Although the iodized salt policy has been adopted in many countries, milk is also one of the major natural sources of iodine and it is also the principal food in children. Therefore, the determination of iodine in milk is needed. This work deals with the determination of iodine in milk by neutron activation analysis. Different methods of irradiation-counting are compared in terms of sensitivity and detection limits. The quantification of iodine was calculated using also two methods, the classic relative one and the standardization of k 0 parameter. A brief analysis of the uncertainty sources in the analytical method is also discussed.(Full text)

  10. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods...

  11. Clinical application of iodine 123 with special consideration of radionuclide purity, measuring accuracy and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.J.; Ammon, J.; Winkel, K. zum; Haubold, U.

    1975-01-01

    Iodine 123 is a nearly 'ideal' radionuclide for thyroid imaging. The production of Iodine 123 requires cyclotrons or accelerators. The production of multicurie amounts of Iodine 123 has been suggested through the use of high-energy accelerators (> 60 MeV). Most of the methods for the production of Iodine 123 using a compact cyclotron result in contamination with f.e. Iodine 124 which reduces the spatial resolution of imaging procedures and increases the radiation dose to the patient. The radiation dose has been calculated for three methods of production. The various contamination with Iodine 124, Iodine 125 and Iodine 126 result in comparable radiation dose of Iodine 131, provided that the time between production and application is more than four half-live-times of Iodine 123. (orig.) [de

  12. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  13. Colorimetric detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhanmin; Xia, Xueying; Yang, Cuiyun; Huang, Junyi; Wan, Sibao

    2017-05-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction. Normally, species-specific probes attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. The concentration of sodium, probes in the reaction system and evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a novel assay, visual detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified AuNPs has been carried out with simple preparation of samples in our study. Through this assay, as low as 30pg/μL of CGMMV RNA was thus detected visually, by the naked eye, without the need for any sophisticated, expensive instrumentation and biochemical reagents. The specificity was 100% and exhibited good reproducibility in our assays. The results note that this assay is highly species-specific, simple, low-cost, and visual for easy detection of CGMMV in plant tissues. Therefore, visual assay is a potentially useful tool for middle or small-scales corporations and entry-exit inspection and quarantine bureau to detect CGMMV in cucumber seeds or plant tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Iodine deficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).

  15. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  16. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification...... in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg...

  17. A new colorimetric chemosensors for Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions detection: Application in environmental water samples and analytical method validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekuri, Venkatadri; Trivedi, Darshak R., E-mail: darshak_rtrivedi@yahoo.co.in

    2017-06-15

    A new heterocyclic thiophene-2-caboxylic acid hydrazide based chemosensor R1 to R4 were designed, synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, Mass and SC-XRD. The chemosensor R3 showed a significant color change from colorless to yellow in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} ions and chemosensor R4 showed a significant color change from colorless to yellow in the presence of Cd{sup 2+} ions over the other tested cations such as Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Ag{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}. The high selective and sensitivity of R3 towards Cu{sup 2+} and R4 towards Cd{sup 2+} ions was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopic study. The R3 showed a red shift in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} ions by Δλ{sub max} 67 nm and R4 showed a red shift in the presence of Cd{sup 2+} ions by Δλ{sub max} 105 nm in the absorption spectrum. The binding stoichiometric ratio of the complex between R3 - Cu{sup 2+} and R4 - Cd{sup 2+} ions have been found to be 1:1 using the B-H plot. Under optimized experimental conditions, the R3 and R4 exhibits a dynamic linear absorption response range, from 0 to 50 μM for Cu{sup 2+} ions and 0 to 30 μM for Cd{sup 2+} ions, with the detection limit of 2.8 × 10{sup −6} M for Cu{sup 2+} and 2.0 × 10{sup −7} M for Cd{sup 2+} ions. The proposed analytical method for the quantitative determination of Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions was validated and successfully applied for the environmental samples with good precision and accuracy. - Highlights: • Detection of Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions has gained significance by virtue of its key role in biological and environmental science. • The R3 and R4 showed instantaneous color change from colorless to yellow in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions respectively. • The proposed detection methods were validated and

  18. A facile method to prepare fluorescent carbon dots and their application in selective colorimetric sensing of silver ion through the formation of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; P, Suresh Kumar; Veerappan, Anbazhagan, E-mail: anbazhagan@scbt.sastra.edu

    2016-09-15

    Herein, we report a laboratory convenient method for the preparation of blue color emitting fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) in 60 min by boiling the alkaline solution of pectin. The C-dots derived from pectin detects selectively silver ion by forming silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) without any irradiation or heating or additional reducing agents. As prepared AgNPs appears yellow in color and showed the characteristic surface plasmon resonance maximum at 410 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed crystalline, spherical AgNPs with size range from 10–15 nm. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed that the lower reduction potential of C-dots than that of silver ion favors the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag°. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed the charge transfer value for the redox reaction of C-dots as 200 Ωcm{sup 2}. In the presence of Ag{sup +}, C-dots fluorescence emission was turned from blue to cyan to green to colorless, accompanying the quenching and red shift in emission maximum at 450 nm. Interference study clearly showed that the C-dots have high preference for Ag{sup +} ion than the other interfering metal ions. The proposed sensor system selectively senses Ag{sup +} ion in water at micromolar concentration and also offers an easy procedure to prepare AgNPs in the presence of other interfering metal ions. - Highlights: • Blue color emitting C-dots was prepared by boiling alkaline pectin solution. • C-dots sense silver ion at micromolar concentration. • C-dots recognize silver ion in the presence of interfering metal ions. • Reduction potential of C-dots was estimated by cyclic voltammeter as – 0.2 V.

  19. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  20. Hemoglobin radiolabeling: in vitro and in vivo comparison of iodine labeling with iodogen and a new method for technetium labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, W.K.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Plas, J. van der; Agterberg, J.; Rigter, G.; Bakker, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation compares the suitability of two radiolabeling techniques for hemoglobin. 125 I labeling of hemoglobin with Iodogen as iodinating agent caused major changes in the chromatographic behaviour and an accelerated plasma clearance of the labeled hemoglobin in rats. A recently developed two-step procedure for 99m Tc labeling gave better results. The label had only minimal influence on the chromatographic behaviour of hemoglobin. In vivo, no free label occurred in the circulation and no transfer of the label to other plasma proteins took place. The plasma clearance of 99m Tc-labeled hemoglobin in rats was slowed. However, this could be explained entirely by diminishing glomerular filtration, probably by inhibition of the dissociation of the hemoglobin molecule into dimers. The plasma clearance of hemoglobin modified by intramolecular cross-linking, which prevents dissociation of the molecule into dimers and thus excretion by the kidney, was not influenced by the label. We conclude that the 99m Tc labeling procedure is suitable for in vivo distribution studies of hemoglobin when it is taken into account that the urinary excretion is underestimated. For cross-linked hemoglobin, which is more promising as plasma expander, no such restriction exists. (author)

  1. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Li; Chen, Jing; Li, Na; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL −1 can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples

  2. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Li [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); Chen, Jing; Li, Na [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); He, Pingli [State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-08-11

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples.

  3. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  4. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  5. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  6. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  7. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  8. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of illegal materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Boisen, Anja; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2012-01-01

    The detection of low pressure illegal compounds is an important analytical problem which requires reliable, selective and sensitive detection methods which provide the highest level of confidence in the result. Therefore, to contribute in the successful development of the recognition technology...... and signal processing enhancements to sensing methods, recognition ability, data acquisition time and data processing algorithms are necessary. In this research we work towards the development of a rapid, easy in use, highly sensitive, specific (minimal false positives) sensor based on a colorimetric sensing...

  9. Headspace-Sampling Paper-Based Analytical Device for Colorimetric/Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Dual Sensing of Sulfur Dioxide in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Duan, Huazhen; Ma, Yadan; Deng, Wei

    2018-05-01

    This study demonstrates a novel strategy for colorimetric/surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode sensing of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) by coupling headspace sampling (HS) with paper-based analytical device (PAD). The smart and multifunctional PAD is fabricated with a vacuum filtration method in which 4-mercaptopyridine (Mpy)-modified gold nanorods (GNRs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids (rGO/MPy-GNRs), anhydrous methanol, and starch-iodine complex are immobilized into cellulose-based filter papers. The resultant PAD exhibits a deep-blue color with a strong absorption peak at 600 nm due to the formation of an intermolecular charge-transfer complex between starch and iodine. However, the addition of SO 2 induces the Karl Fischer reaction, resulting in the decrease of color and increase of SERS signals. Therefore, the PAD can be used not only as a naked-eye indicator of SO 2 changed from blue to colorless but also as a highly sensitive SERS substrates because of the SO 2 -triggered conversion of Mpy to pyridine methyl sulfate on the GNRs. A distinguishable change in the color was observed at a SO 2 concentration of 5 μM by the naked eye, and a detection limit as low as 1.45 μM was obtained by virtue of UV-vis spectroscopy. The PAD-based SERS method is effective over a wide range of concentrations (1 μM to 2000 μM) for SO 2 , and the detection limit for SO 2 is found to be 1 μM. The HS-PAD based colorimetric/SERS method is applied for the determination of SO 2 in wine, and the detection results match well with those obtained from the traditional Monier-Williams method. This study not only offers a new method for on-site monitoring of SO 2 but also provides a new strategy for designing of paper-based sensing platform for a wide range of field-test applications.

  10. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  11. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  12. Iodine leaflets in chapter D5 'Distribution of iodine pills'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Jodine leaflet A will be distributed together with iodine pills in a nuclear disaster. Iodine leaflet B is suitable for informing the public in advance. Iodine leaflet C informs physicians in a scientific way on the benefits and risk of iodine pills. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  14. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  15. Rapid colorimetric assay for gentamicin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbutton, P

    1987-01-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for determining gentamicin concentration in commercial preparations of gentamicin sulfate injection was developed. Methods currently available for measuring gentamicin concentration via its colored complex with cupric ions in alkaline solution were modified to reduce the time required for a single analysis. The alkaline copper tartrate (ACT) reagent solution was prepared such that each milliliter contained 100 mumol cupric sulfate, 210 mumol potassium sodium tartrate, and 1.25 mmol sodium hydroxide. The assay involves mixing 0.3 mL gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL (of gentamicin), 1.0 mL ACT reagent, and 0.7 mL water; the absorbance of the resulting solution at 560 nm was used to calculate the gentamicin concentration in the sample. For injections containing 10 mg/mL of gentamicin, the amount of the injection was increased to 0.5 mL and water decreased to 0.5 mL. The concentration of gentamicin in samples representing 11 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL and 8 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 10 mg/mL was determined. The specificity, reproducibility, and accuracy of the assay were assessed. The colored complex was stable for at least two hours. Gentamicin concentration ranged from 93.7 to 108% and from 95 to 109% of the stated label value of the 40 mg/mL and the 10 mg/mL injections, respectively. No components of the preservative system present in the injections interfered with the assay. Since other aminoglycosides produced a colored complex, the assay is not specific for gentamicin. The assay was accurate and reproducible over the range of 4-20 mg of gentamicin. This rapid and accurate assay can be easily applied in the hospital pharmacy setting.

  16. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrel, L [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPNS, CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chopin, J [Laboratoire d` Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40{sup o}C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H{sup +} ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I{sub 2}], [IO{sub 3}{sup -}], [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [H{sup +}]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs.

  17. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  18. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  19. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il; Yim, Mansung

    2014-01-01

    129 I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10 7 years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of 129 I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous 129 I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing 129 I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping 129 I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling

  20. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  1. V(2)O(5) nanowires with an intrinsic iodination activity leading to the formation of self-assembled melanin-like biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natalio, F.; André, R.; Pihan, S.A.; Humanes, M.; Wever, R.; Tremel, W.

    2011-01-01

    V2O5 nanowires act as biomimetic catalysts resembling vanadium haloperoxidases (V-HPO). The nanowires display iodinating activity as confirmed by a colorimetric assay using thymol blue (TB), UV/Vis spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry (FD-MS). In the presence of dopamine these nanowires catalyze

  2. Micromethod of Iodine Measurement in Vrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbuzova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine concentration in urine is the direct quantity indicator of the current consumption of iodine in the population. The most widespread method of determination of iodine in urine is cerium-arsenic method with preliminary processing samples of urine using the solution ammonium persulfate. The purpose of work was to develop updating of the given method for reduction of the formation of toxic products of the reaction. Described method has good characteristics (the limit of the detection of this method 11 ug/l, CV < 10 %, the coefficient of the correlation with reference method 0.99, the amount of toxic substances formed during reaction decreases in 3 times, the cost price of research is reduced owing to reduction of the volume of reagents and water.

  3. The Study of Iodine Status among Schoolchildren from Kyiv and Ways to Correct the Revealed Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Stroi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Lack of iodine in the environment is one of the topical medico-social problems in many countries of the world. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for the developmental delay, memory loss, or the ability for analysis and abstract thinking. Traditionally in Ukraine the problem of iodine deficiency was relevant in Western regions, but recent studies indicate the existence of moderate iodine deficiency in all areas. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status of primary schoolchildren from Kyiv. Materials and methods. The examination of 52 children aged 6–12 years was performed, which involved a survey of families on awareness of the consequences of iodine deficiency and frequency of consumption of foods containing iodine, objective and ultrasound thyroid investigation, determination of urine iodine content in single portions of urine. Results. Iodine deficiency was detected in 87 % of pupils, mostly mild. Diffuse goiter grade 1 was diagnosed in 23 % of patients. To correct iodine deficiency, we have used new generation product — jodis-concentrate as an aqueous solution. Conclusions. Research of iodine status in schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in Kyiv showed the presence of mild iodine deficiency in 87 % of them (in 68 and 19 %, respectively. In 12 (23 % children, we have diagnosed thyroid volume increase under normal echogenicity and homogeneous echostructure. Lack of iodine nutrition is caused by poor nutrition, lack of mass, group and individual iodine prophylaxis, low sanitary hygienic culture of the population. Pupils with iodine deficiency were administered an individual subsidy of iodine in the form of an aqueous solution of jodis-concentrate for 12 months, which has significantly improved the iodine status of children, normalized the level of urine iodine content. Early detection of iodine deficiency and its correction are the promising directions of modern pediatrics in terms of the prevention of thyroid

  4. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    sought to identify, if possible, groups at risk of thyroid disease because of their food choices. Design: This cohort study included 4649 randomly selected subjects with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency; the subjects lived in 2 cities in Denmark. Iodine intake was estimated by using a food...... some measures of iodine intake were significantly related to the prevalence of thyroid nodules. Conclusions: Even in a geographic area where mild iodine deficiency is common, a significant relation between iodine intake and thyroid volume was found. All measures of iodine intake, except iodine......Background: Iodine intake can be measured in various ways, and each method may have advantages and disadvantages. Objective: We sought to investigate the potential associations of various measures of iodine intake with thyroid volume, prevalence of thyroid nodules, and serum thyroglobulin. We also...

  5. Development and validation of a colorimetric sensor array for fish spoilage monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsy, Mohamed K.; Zor, Kinga; Kostesha, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    their color changes in response to compounds present in fresh products (hexanal, 1-octane-3-ol) used as negative controls. The colorimetric sensor array was used to follow fish spoilage over time at room temperature for up to 24 h as well as at 4 °C for 9 days. Additionally, fish decay was monitored using......Given the need for non-destructive methods and sensors for food spoilage monitoring, we have evaluated sixteen chemo-sensitive compounds incorporated in an array for colorimetric detection of typical spoilage compounds (trimethylamine, dimethylamine, cadaverine, putrescine) and characterized...

  6. Needle Decompression of Tension Pneumothorax with Colorimetric Capnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Nimesh D; Hernandez, Matthew C; Anderson, Jeff R; Ross, Erika K; Zielinski, Martin D; Aho, Johnathon M

    2017-11-01

    The success of needle decompression for tension pneumothorax is variable, and there are no objective measures assessing effective decompression. Colorimetric capnography, which detects carbon dioxide present within the pleural space, may serve as a simple test to assess effective needle decompression. Three swine underwent traumatically induced tension pneumothorax (standard of care, n = 15; standard of care with needle capnography, n = 15). Needle thoracostomy was performed with an 8-cm angiocatheter. Similarly, decompression was performed with the addition of colorimetric capnography. Subjective operator assessment of decompression was recorded and compared with true decompression, using thoracoscopic visualization for both techniques. Areas under receiver operating curves were calculated and pairwise comparison was performed to assess statistical significance (P pneumothorax, that is, the absence of any pathologic/space-occupying lesion, in 100% of cases (10 of 10 attempts). Standard of care needle decompression was detected by operators in 9 of 15 attempts (60%) and was detected in 3 of 10 attempts when tension pneumothorax was not present (30%). True decompression, under direct visualization with thoracoscopy, occurred 15 of 15 times (100%) with capnography, and 12 of 15 times (80%) without capnography. Areas under receiver operating curves were 0.65 for standard of care and 1.0 for needle capnography (P = .002). Needle decompression with colorimetric capnography provides a rapid, effective, and highly accurate method for eliminating operator bias for tension pneumothorax decompression. This may be useful for the treatment of this life-threatening condition. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of proteins using a colorimetric bio-barcode assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Groves, Jay T

    2007-01-01

    The colorimetric bio-barcode assay is a red-to-blue color change-based protein detection method with ultrahigh sensitivity. This assay is based on both the bio-barcode amplification method that allows for detecting miniscule amount of targets with attomolar sensitivity and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric DNA detection method that allows for a simple and straightforward detection of biomolecules of interest (here we detect interleukin-2, an important biomarker (cytokine) for many immunodeficiency-related diseases and cancers). The protocol is composed of the following steps: (i) conjugation of target capture molecules and barcode DNA strands onto silica microparticles, (ii) target capture with probes, (iii) separation and release of barcode DNA strands from the separated probes, (iv) detection of released barcode DNA using DNA-modified gold nanoparticle probes and (v) red-to-blue color change analysis with a graphic software. Actual target detection and quantification steps with premade probes take approximately 3 h (whole protocol including probe preparations takes approximately 3 days).

  8. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  9. Color digital halftoning taking colorimetric color reproduction into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Shimoyama, Nobukatsu; Miyake, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    Taking colorimetric color reproduction into account, the conventional error diffusion method is modified for color digital half-toning. Assuming that the input to a bilevel color printer is given in CIE-XYZ tristimulus values or CIE-LAB values instead of the more conventional RGB or YMC values, two modified versions based on vector operation in (1) the XYZ color space and (2) the LAB color space were tested. Experimental results show that the modified methods, especially the method using the LAB color space, resulted in better color reproduction performance than the conventional methods. Spatial artifacts that appear in the modified methods are presented and analyzed. It is also shown that the modified method (2) with a thresholding technique achieves a good spatial image quality.

  10. [A cross-sectional study on iodine nutrition in general population from Zhejiang province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhe; Lou, Xiao-ming; Zhu, Wen-ming; Wang, Xiao-feng; Mao, Guang-ming; Zhou, Jin-shui; Ding, Gang-qiang

    2013-05-01

    To understand the current status of iodine nutrition among the community residents to compare the level of iodine nutrition in different areas and groups of populations in Zhejiang province. Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted and residents from twenty-two communities in Zhejiang province were selected. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using questionnaires, laboratory tests, on urinary iodine, water iodine and the concentration of the iodine in salt, which had played positive roles in the calculation of the level of iodine nutrition. of the iodine nutrition in this cross-sectional survey were as follows: the median water iodine and salt iodine of Zhejiang were 2.42 µg/L and 28.8 mg/kg, respectively. The coverage of iodized salts was 79.54%, with the ingesting rate of qualified iodized-salt as 76.65% and the median content of urinary iodine in the population of Zhejiang was 161 µg/L. The average iodine content among pregnant women was 138 µg/L, with the percentage of samples less than 100 µg/L as 25.92%, more than 300 µg/L as 15.30%. The proportions of iodine intake through water, salt and other foods were 1.70%, 76.41% and 21.89%, respectively. The status of iodine nutrition in Zhejiang province in general seemed to be appropriate, but the level of iodine nutrition in pregnant women was less than the requirement, which should call for attention.

  11. Investigating an organ-targeting platform based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using a novel in situ method of radioactive ¹²⁵Iodine labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, Nenad; Vranješ Djurić, Sanja; Mitić, Zarko; Janković, Drina; Uskoković, Dragan

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the synthesis of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and hydroxyapatite coated with chitosan (HAp/Ch) and the chitosan-poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer blend (HAp/Ch-PLGA) as an organ-targeting system. We have examined and defined the final destination, as well as the dynamics and the pathways of the synthesized particles following intravenous administration in vivo. The XRD, ZP, FT-IR and SEM analyses have confirmed that the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with d50=72 nm are coated with polymers. Radioactive 125-Iodine ((125)I), a low energy gamma emitter, was used to develop a novel in situ method for the radiolabeling of particles and investigation of their biodistribution. (125)I-labeled particles exhibited high stability in saline and serum over the second day, which justified their use in the following in vivo studies. The biodistribution of (125)I-labeled particles after intravenous injection in rats differed significantly: HAp particles mostly targeted the liver, HAp/Ch the spleen and the liver, while HAp/Ch-PLGA targeted the lungs. Twenty-four hours post injection, HAp particles were excreted completely, while both (125)I-HAp/Ch and (125)I-HAp/Ch-PLGA were retained in the body for a prolonged period of time with more than 20% of radioactivity still found in different organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Colorimetric detection of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong Jin; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Jaemyeon; Lee, Doyeon; Park, Hun-Kuk; Lee, Gi-Ja

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has received great attention as a third gaseous signal transmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. In particular, H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cancer cell biology. Therefore, the detection of endogenous H2S concentrations within biological systems can be helpful to understand the role of gasotransmitters in pathophysiology. Although a simple and inexpensive method for the detection of H2S has been developed, its direct and precise measurement in living cells remains a challenge. In this study, we introduced a simple, facile, and inexpensive colorimetric system for selective H2S detection in living cells using a silver-embedded Nafion/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membrane. This membrane could be easily applied onto a polystyrene microplate cover. First, we optimized the composition of the coating membrane, such as the PVP/Nafion mixing ratio and AgNO3 concentration, as well as the pH of the Na2S (H2S donor) solution and the reaction time. Next, the in vitro performance of a colorimetric detection assay utilizing the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane was evaluated utilizing a known concentration of Na2S standard solution both at room temperature and at 37 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. As a result, the sensitivity of the colorimetric assay for H2S at 37 °C in the incubator (0.0056 Abs./μM Na2S, R2 = 0.9948) was similar to that at room temperature (0.0055 Abs./μM Na2S, R2 = 0.9967). Moreover, these assays were less sensitive to interference from compounds such as glutathione, L-cysteine (Cys), and dithiothreitol than to the H2S from Na2S. This assay based on the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane also showed excellent reproducibility (2.8% RSD). Finally, we successfully measured the endogenous H2S concentrations in live C6 glioma cells by s-(5‧-adenosyl)-L-methionine stimulation with and without Cys and L-homocysteine, utilizing the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane. In summary, colorimetric assays using silver

  13. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Possibility for Construction of an Iodine Cleaning System Based on Doping for π-Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Goto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An iodine accumulation method using polyaniline (PANI and a textile composite is proposed. PANI/pulp paper sheets prepared by a paper making technique are suitable for iodine adsorption, because of good processability. The PANI-based paper sheets can be applied for iodine cleanup as air filters, water filters, and floorcloth. This concept may lead to a development of an iodine cleaning machine or iodine shield cloth based on π-conjugated polymer composites. In-situ vapor phase doping of iodine, observation of surface images, and IR measurements are carried out to examine iodine doping function for the PANI/pulp paper sheets.

  15. A fast, sensitive and easy colorimetric assay for chitinase and cellulase activity detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Gaber, Yasser; Fraaije, Marco

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most of the current colorimetric methods for detection of chitinase or cellulase activities on the insoluble natural polymers chitin and cellulose depend on a chemical redox reaction. The reaction involves the reducing ends of the hydrolytic products. The Schales' procedure and the

  16. A rapid colorimetric assay for mold spore germination using XTT tetrazolium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Current laboratory test methods to measure efficacy of new mold inhibitors are time consuming, some require specialized test equipment and ratings are subjective. Rapid, simple quantitative assays to measure the efficacy of mold inhibitors are needed. A quantitative, colorimetric microassay was developed using XTT tetrazolium salt to metabolically assess mold spore...

  17. Assessment of Dietary Supplement from Iodine by Milk Intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, A.A.; Labib, A.A.; Challan, B.M.; Challan, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low level concentration of iodine was determined in various milk products for adult and baby milk powders by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. It is a reliable method for the determination of iodine in milk samples, using alkaline digestion with potassium hydroxide KOH solution in an oven. After digestion, a stabilizer is added and the solution is taken to volume , then filtered and analysed by ICP-MS either directly or after dilution. Samples for investigation were collected from domestic market of Egypt. The detection limits of current Iodine are not affected by interfering from milk gradient. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of about 10 ppb Iodine was achieved. This method showed excellent results for aqueous iodide solutions, although the complex milk digest matrix made the method unsuitable for such samples. So, investigation of the iodine species is achieved through the oxidation and extraction of iodine milk sample s, the digest ion was carried out to control the iodine chemistry. Iodine concentrations ranged from 0.1 7 to 5 .1 mg / kg for various samples , The accuracy of the method ranged from 95 to 100%

  18. Mobile Iodine Mineralization Based on Malachite Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Our new method that is proposed here, however, offer drastic cost cutting by using copper. Moreover, the selectivity of iodine in anion-rich water is advantage to lower the disposal cost by reducing the radioactive waste volume. Iodide (I{sup -}) is soluble and mobile in water, so it is very difficult to capture and precipitate it with common adsorbents. Until now, various exchanger and getter materials have been developed to capture radioactive iodine in wastewater. The materials developed generally showed a good performance under acidic conditions. However, the adsorption amounts were not relatively large in neutral and high pH conditions. Furthermore, the capacity to capture iodine is limited by their properties, such as the specific surface area and adsorbing affinity. Recently, Ag-coated materials have attracted attention as adsorbents. They have shown higher uptake for I- compared to other substances, but they are costly. Our new method that is proposed here, however, offer drastic cost cutting by using copper. Moreover, the selectivity of iodine in anion-rich water is advantage to lower the disposal cost by reducing the radioactive waste volume. Radioactive iodine isotopes are characterized as volatile and mobile species that are difficult to capture by adsorbents. In our study, we developed a new way to uptake and crystallize the mobile iodide as cuprous iodide (CuI). This method will be a promising way to simply stabilize iodide in a solid form with compacted volume.

  19. Colorimetric evaluation of irradiated red beet roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The red beetroot contain antioxidant and anticancer activity and have been consumed all over the world. In order to increase the consumption of beetroot the food industry has created a practical alternative, a beetroot shaped like a small ball, minimally processed with the convenience in meal preparation. Food irradiation is in consonance with the proposal to increase the consumption of beetroot whilst maintaining quality and product safety. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in colorimetric properties in beetroot after the irradiation process. Samples of minimally processed beetroot were purchased at a local supermarket. The samples were exposed to gamma rays with doses of 1.0kG y , 2.0kG y , 3.0kG y and 4.0 kG y and were stored at 5 deg C. Colorimetric characteristics were analyzed such as L * , a * , b * , C * , h * , δE and WI. The results of the colorimetric evaluation showed no significant difference among the samples. The authors concluded that the treatment with low doses of gamma radiation keeps the quality of beetroot. (author)

  20. Colorimetric evaluation of irradiated red beet roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: thaisecfnunes@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The red beetroot contain antioxidant and anticancer activity and have been consumed all over the world. In order to increase the consumption of beetroot the food industry has created a practical alternative, a beetroot shaped like a small ball, minimally processed with the convenience in meal preparation. Food irradiation is in consonance with the proposal to increase the consumption of beetroot whilst maintaining quality and product safety. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in colorimetric properties in beetroot after the irradiation process. Samples of minimally processed beetroot were purchased at a local supermarket. The samples were exposed to gamma rays with doses of 1.0kG{sub y}, 2.0kG{sub y}, 3.0kG{sub y} and 4.0 kG{sub y} and were stored at 5 deg C. Colorimetric characteristics were analyzed such as L{sup *}, a{sup *}, b{sup *}, C{sup *}, h{sup *}, δE and WI. The results of the colorimetric evaluation showed no significant difference among the samples. The authors concluded that the treatment with low doses of gamma radiation keeps the quality of beetroot. (author)

  1. Gravimetric determination of the iodine number of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a gravimetric method for the determination of the iodine adsorption number of carbon black. It comprises determining the concentration of an accurately weighed iodine blank solution by adding a standardized titrant to the iodine solution until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the iodine solution by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, accurately weighing an amount of carbon black and adding an appropriate amount of an accurately weighed portion of the iodine solution, equilibrating the carbon black-iodine solution mixture, adding the standardized titrant to an accurately weighed portion of the supernatant from the carbon black-iodine mixture until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the supernatant by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, wherein the titration endpoint of the supernatant is obtained using an indicating and a reference electrode, and calculating the iodine adsorption number of the carbon black based on the gravimetrically determined concentration of the titrant, the iodine solution, and the supernatant

  2. Development of anion-exchange/reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods for the speciation of bio-available iodine and bromine from edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2012-05-04

    Anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry has been novelly applied to assess inorganic (iodide and iodate) and organic (3-iodotyrosine - MIT, and 3,5-diiodotyrosine - DIT) iodine species in a single chromatographic run. The optimized operating conditions (Dionex IonPac AS7, gradient elution with 175 mM ammonium nitrate plus 15% (v/v) methanol, pH 3.8, as a mobile phase and flow rates within the 0.5-1.5 mL min(-1) range) have also been used to perform inorganic bromine speciation analysis (bromide and bromate). The developed method has been applied for determining the bio-available contents of iodine and bromine species in dialyzates from edible seaweed. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8, gradient elution with 0.2% (m/m) acetic acid, and 0.2% (m/m) acetic acid in methanol, as mobile phases, and a constant flow rate of 0.75 mL min(-1)) also hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of organic iodine species (MIT and DIT) in the dialyzates. The verification of the presence of iodinated amino acids (MIT and DIT) in the extracts was also performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap). The developed methods have provided good repeatability (RSD values lower than 10% for both anion exchange and reverse phase separations) and analytical recoveries within the 90-105% range for all cases. The in vitro bio-availability method consisted of a simulated gastric and an intestinal digestion/dialysis (10 kDa molecular weight cut-off - MWCO) two-stage procedure. Iodide and MIT were the main bio-available species quantified, whereas bromide was the major bromine species found in the extracts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Charge Transfer Based Colorimetric Detection of Silver Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Choul; Kim, Kwang Seob; Choi, Soon Kyu; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jae Wook [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We have demonstrated the colorimetric chemosensor for detection of Ag{sup +} via formation of nanoparticles which is based on the intramolecular CT interaction between the electron-rich (2,6-dialkoxynaphthalene; Np) moiety and the electron-deficient (methyl viologen; MV{sup 2+}) moiety of a single sensor molecule. Under irradiation of light, Ag{sup +} was reduced to very small silver nanoparticle by CT interaction in the presence of OEGs as flexible recognition moiety of Ag{sup +} and stabilizer for Ag nanoparticles, thus Ag nanoparticles resulted to reddish brown in the color change of sensor solution, gradually. Therefore, the charge-transfer interaction between an electron-deficient and an electron-rich units existing at a sensor molecule can be regarded as a new and efficient method to construct various colorimetric chemosensors. Donor.acceptor interactions or charge transfer (CT) interactions are an important class of non-covalent interactions and have been widely exploited in self-assembling systems. Beyond molecular chemistry, supramolecular chemistry aims at constituting highly complex, functional chemical systems from components held together by intermolecular forces. Chemosensors are the molecules of abiotic origin that bind selectively and reversibly with the analyte with concomitant change in one or more properties of the system. The recognition and signaling of ionic and neutral species of varying complexity is one of the most intensively studied areas of contemporary supramolecular chemistry.

  4. Spectro colorimetric and GC-MS Models, Used to Determine the Changes in the Natural Compounds of the Sea Buck thorn Leaves Sterilized with Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minea, R.; Popescu, M.I.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Culea, M.; Manea, St.; Mazilu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Spectro colorimetric and GC-MS methods were developed for the quantitative and quality analyze of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and of some natural compounds extracted from the Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) leaves sterilized by treating them with accelerated electron beams, generated by a linear accelerator. The spectro colorimetric models describe and easy controls the color as it relies on the psycho physics of the color perception and on the simple colorimetric models. Hunter Lab, CIELAB, CIELCH simple colorimetric models are used in developing complex colorimetric models and for the calculation of simple colorimetric models expressed as the total color difference between a sample and a witness, ΔΕ * , ΔΕ C MC, ΔΕ * D IN99, ΔΕ * C IE2000. They provide qualitative data on the deterioration of the active compounds by irradiation. If they are validated by GC-MS methods, they can also provide quantitative data on the radioinduced changes caused to the Sea Buckthorn leaves. The developed GC-MS methods allow the validation of the spectro colorimetric methods for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the radioinduced changes in the Sea Buckthorn leaves, reducing both the analyze times and the analyze cost, respectively the random errors of the procedures for extraction and derivation applied to samples preparation

  5. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Chen, Jing; Li, Na; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2014-08-11

    A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV-vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL(-1) can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Colorimetric detection of ammonia using smartphones based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjani, Amirmostafa; Fatmehsari, Davoud Haghshenas

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a rapid and straightforward method was developed for colorimetric determination of ammonia using smartphones. The mechanisms is based on the manipulation of the surface plasmon band of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via the formation of Ag (NH 3 ) 2 + complex. This complex decreases the amount of AgNPs in the solution and consequently, the color intensity of the colloidal system decreases. Not only the variation in color intensity of the solution can be tracked by a UV-vis spectrophotometer, but also a smartphone can be employed to monitor the color intensity variation by RGB analysis. Ammonia, in the concentration range of 10-1000mgL -1 , was successfully measured spectrophotometrically (UV-vis spectrophotometer) and colorimetrically (RGB measurement) with the detection limit of 180 and 200mgL -1 , respectively. Linear relationships were also developed for both methods. Also, the response time of the developed colorimetric sensor was around 20s. Both of the colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods showed a reliable performance for determination of ammonia in the real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Mao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  8. Determination of the sanguine iodine content by activation analysis (1962); Determination de l'iode sanguin par analyse d'activation (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C; Comar, D; Le Poec, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Two methods of measuring the iodine content of the blood by activation analysis after 30 min irradiation in a flux of 6.10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}.s are described. One method includes a chemical separation of iodine before irradiation. The radioactivity of this specimen is determined on the basis of the amplitude of the iodine 128 photoelectric peak measured by {gamma}-spectrometry. The sensitivity of this method is about 10{sup -8} g. The other includes chemical separation after irradiation, and radioactivity is subsequently measured with a Geiger-Muller counter. The sensitivity of this second method is about 10{sup -10} g, sufficient for determination of the plasmatic mineral content. The advantages of activation analysis over the conventional method based on colorimetric measurement of the catalytic action of iodine in the oxidation of arsenious anhydride with ceric sulphate are discussed. Initial results obtained with this new form of analysis are detailed as are also the possibilities of measuring plasmatic proteic iodine by scintillation spectrometry without prior chemical separation. (authors) [French] Deux methodes de dosage de l'iode sanguin par analyse d'activation apres irradiation de 30 minutes a 6.10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s sont decrites. L'une comprend une separation chimique de l'iode avant l'irradiation et la mesure de la radioactivite est effectuee a partir de l'amplitude du pic photo-electrique de l'iode 128 obtenu par spectrometrie-{gamma}. Sa sensibilite est de l'ordre de 10{sup -8} g. L'autre comprend une separation chimique de l'iode apres l'irradiation et la radioactivite de l'iode-128 est mesuree par comptage-{beta} avec un compteur Geiger. Sa sensibilite est de l'ordre de 10{sup -10} g, permettant d'envisager le dosage de l'iode mineral plasmatique. Les avantages de l'analyse d'activation sur la methode classique, basee sur la mesure colorimetrique de l'action catalytique de l'iode dans l'oxydation de l'anhydride arsenieux par le sulfate cerique

  9. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  10. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omomo, Yoichiro

    1974-01-01

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  11. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  12. Haussdorff and hellinger for colorimetric sensor array classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Development of sensors and systems for detection of chemical compounds is an important challenge with applications in areas such as anti-terrorism, demining, and environmental monitoring. A newly developed colorimetric sensor array is able to detect explosives and volatile organic compounds......; however, each sensor reading consists of hundreds of pixel values, and methods for combining these readings from multiple sensors must be developed to make a classification system. In this work we examine two distance based classification methods, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Gaussian process (GP......) classification, which both rely on a suitable distance metric. We evaluate a range of different distance measures and propose a method for sensor fusion in the GP classifier. Our results indicate that the best choice of distance measure depends on the sensor and the chemical of interest....

  13. Release of iodine radionuclides from gas media in a system of selective block sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Miroshnikov, V.S.; Mel'nikov, V.A.; Chetverikov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme of extracting iodine radionuclides from gas flows in a system of selective sorbents has been developed. The method provides separation of three forms of iodine: the aerosol component, the elementary iodine and organic-iodine compounds. Aerosols are trapped by a mechanical filter made of porous polytetrafluoroethylene with pores of no more than 1 μm. Silver-based sorbents for the elementary iodine are made by sintering the granular polytetrafluoroethylene (the size of granules is 0.1-0.5 mm) with of finely dispersed solver (5% mass). Organic iodine compounds are extracted by a silica sorbent impregnated with silver nitrate. The efficiency of sorbents was tested in gas flows with a known content of 131 I in the form of elementary iodine and methyl iodide. The results of experiments show that the efficiency of sorption of elementary iodine by a metallic-silver sorbent and of methyl iodide by a SiO 2 /AgNO 3 sorbent constitutes no less than 99% at a flow rate of up to 200 l/h. The iodine has been extracted at a flow rate of 100 l/h during 100 hours and for that time the efficiency of the iodine sorbtion has not changed. The suggested variant of extracting iodine radionuclides from gaseous media can be used both for fast control of iodine content in gas blowoffs and for researches aimed at studying the distribution of iodine forms in steam-and-gas media depending on nuclear plant operating conditions

  14. Investigating an organ-targeting platform based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using a novel in situ method of radioactive {sup 125}Iodine labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignjatović, Nenad [Centre for Fine Particles Processing and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vranješ Djurić, Sanja [Laboratory for Radioisotopes, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitić, Žarko [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, University of Niš, Bulevar dr Zorana Đinđića 81, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Janković, Drina [Laboratory for Radioisotopes, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Uskoković, Dragan, E-mail: dragan.uskokovic@itn.sanu.ac.rs [Centre for Fine Particles Processing and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the synthesis of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and hydroxyapatite coated with chitosan (HAp/Ch) and the chitosan-poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide polymer blend (HAp/Ch-PLGA) as an organ-targeting system. We have examined and defined the final destination, as well as the dynamics and the pathways of the synthesized particles following intravenous administration in vivo. The XRD, ZP, FT-IR and SEM analyses have confirmed that the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with d{sub 50} = 72 nm are coated with polymers. Radioactive 125-Iodine ({sup 125}I), a low energy gamma emitter, was used to develop a novel in situ method for the radiolabeling of particles and investigation of their biodistribution. {sup 125}I-labeled particles exhibited high stability in saline and serum over the second day, which justified their use in the following in vivo studies. The biodistribution of {sup 125}I-labeled particles after intravenous injection in rats differed significantly: HAp particles mostly targeted the liver, HAp/Ch the spleen and the liver, while HAp/Ch-PLGA targeted the lungs. Twenty-four hours post injection, HAp particles were excreted completely, while both {sup 125}I-HAp/Ch and {sup 125}I-HAp/Ch-PLGA were retained in the body for a prolonged period of time with more than 20% of radioactivity still found in different organs. - Highlights: • An organ-targeting carrier based on nano-hydroxyapatite • In situ labeling • Biodistribution of {sup 125}I-labeled HAp particles.

  15. Mock iodine-125 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    An intimate mixture of americium-241 and iodine-129 provides an energy spectrum that reliably simulates the spectrum of iodine-125 in a well-type detector. As such, it may be used as a long-lived standard to calibrate instruments such as well scintillation spectrometers in which measurements are to be made involving iodine-125

  16. Determination of iodine to compliment mass spectrometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-11-01

    The dose of iodine-129 to facility personnel and the general public as a result of past, present, and future activities at DOE sites is of continuing interest, WINCO received about 160 samples annually in a variety of natural matrices, including snow, milk, thyroid tissue, and sagebrush, in which iodine-129 is determined in order to evaluate this dose, Currently, total iodine and the isotopic ratio of iodine-127 to iodine-129 are determined by mass spectrometry. These two measurements determine the concentration of iodine-129 in each sample, These measurements require at least 16 h of mass spectrometer operator time for each sample. A variety of methods are available which concentrate and determine small quantities of iodine. Although useful, these approaches would increase both time and cost. The objective of this effort was to determine total iodine by an alternative method in order to decrease the load on mass spectrometry by 25 to 50%. The preparation of each sample for mass spectrometric analysis involves a common step--collection of iodide on an ion exchange bed. This was the focal point of the effort since the results would be applicable to all samples

  17. Iodine-129 separation and determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bate, L.C.; Stokely, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for analysis of iodine-129 in fission product mixtures originating from fuel reprocessing studies and low-level wastes. The method utilizes conventional iodine valence adjustment and solvent extraction techniques to chemically separate iodine-129 from most fission products. The iodine-129 is determined by neutron irradiation and measurement of the 12.4 hour iodine-130 produced by the neutron capture reaction. Special techniques were devised for neutron irradiation of iodine-129 samples in the pneumatic tube irradiation facilities at the High Flux Isotope (HFIR) and Oak Ridge Research (ORR) Reactors. Chemically separated iodine-129 is adsorbed on an anion exchange resin column made from an irradiation container. The loaded resin is then irradiated in either of the pneumatic facilities to produce iodine-130. Sensitivity of the analysis with the HFIR facility (flux: 5x10 14 n/cm 2 /s) and a 100 second irradiation time is approximately 0.03 nanograms. Samples up to 250 ml in volume can be easily processed. (author)

  18. Fluorescent and Colorimetric Electrospun Nanofibers for Heavy-Metal Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelma A. A. Terra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of heavy metals in the human body and/or in the environment can be highly deleterious for mankind, and currently, considerable efforts have been made to develop reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection. Among the detection methods, chemical sensors appear as a promising technology, with emphasis on systems employing optically active nanofibers. Such nanofibers can be obtained by the electrospinning technique, and further functionalized with optically active chromophores such as dyes, conjugated polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials and nanoparticles, in order to produce fluorescent and colorimetric nanofibers. In this review we survey recent investigations reporting the use of optically active electrospun nanofibers in sensors aiming at the specific detection of heavy metals using colorimetry and fluorescence methods. The examples given in this review article provide sufficient evidence of the potential of optically electrospun nanofibers as a valid approach to fabricate highly selective and sensitive optical sensors for fast and low-cost detection of heavy metals.

  19. The Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine exertion in school-aged children in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mozhgan Padyab

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency and its related disorder such as goiter are endemic in Lorestan province. Following initiation of iodine deficiency control program in 1989, production, distribution and consumption of iodinated salt were begun. This survey was conducted in the framework of national monitoring survey in 2001 to find out the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine level in order to evaluate the iodine status of school- aged children in Lorestan. Materials and Methods: 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Lorestan. The grade of goiter in 600 boys and 600 girls, was determined according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren. Findings: Total goiter rate was 7.8% 7.8% in girls and 7.7% in boys. Median urinary iodine was 17 μg/dl. Urinary iodine was above 10 μg/dl in 85.7% and less than 5 μg/dl in 1.7%. No one had urinary iodine below 2 μg/dl. Conclusion: It is concluded that the rate of goiter in Lorestan has decreased significantly since 1996 and urinary iodine levels in schoolchildren are indicative of adequate iodine intake. Therefore Lorestan province can be considered as an 'iodine deficiency free' zone.

  20. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  1. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  2. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  3. Colorimetric on-line control of U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Boisde, G.; Dedaldechamp, P.; Dureault, B.

    The instrumentation developed for the automatic colorimetric control of U is presented. Two techniques are used: absorptiometry of U ions using optical probes enabling to measure in situ the solutions containing 0.5 g U(IV)/l or 1 g U(VI)/l; colorimetry of the U-DBM complexe after separation of U by TOPO (this technique is applied to the control of U at the ppm level). The automatic devices used are described. They are experimented in laboratory or in pilot-plant [fr

  4. Fósforo extraído pela solução de Mehlich-1 determinado por colorimetria e ICP em solos do Sul do Brasil Phosphorus extracted with Mehlich-1 determined by colorimetric and ICP methods in South Brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bortolon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A adoção do ICP para análise de fósforo tem apresentado controvérsias, pois o valor determinado por essa técnica, muitas vezes, não é comparável com o obtido por colorimetria. Nos EUA, alguns laboratórios apresentam restrições à adoção dessa técnica, pelas seguintes razões: as recomendações de adubação em uso foram desenvolvidas empregando-se o método colorimétrico para a determinação do P; e as diferenças significativas têm sido obtidas entre os teores determinados por colorimetria e por ICP, pois, devido à alta temperatura do plasma, o ICP mede outras formas de P além do ortofosfato, atribuída ao P orgânico na solução. Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar os teores de P extraído do solo pela solução de Mehlich-1, determinado por colorimetria (COL e por ICP, em 595 amostras de solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, com amplas variações nas características físicas, químicas e mineralógicas. Os teores de P extraído, determinado por ICP e por COL, não diferiram estatisticamente (r = 0,94; p The adoption of ICP technique to determine P in soil testing has been questioned, due the values determined with this technique is not comparable that those determined with colorimetric method. In the USA, some laboratories are restricted to adopt the ICP technique due the follow reasons: the nutrient recommendations to plants were developed for colorimetric method for P determination; significantly differences have been obtained between P determined with colorimetric and ICP techniques, because the high plasma temperature can measure other P forms besides orthophosphate, attributed to organic P in solution. This study compared the P amounts extracted by Mehlich-1 solution and determined by COL and ICP techniques, in 595 soil samples from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil with s wide range of soil physic, chemistry and mineralogic properties. The P amounts determined by ICP and COL did not differ statistically

  5. A new method for studying iodine metabolism; the isotopic equilibrium method - kinetic and quantitative aspects of measurements made on rats; Une nouvelle methode d'etude du metabolisme de l'iode: la methode d'equilibre isotopique - aspects cinetiques et quantitatifs obtenus chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    The isotopic equilibrium method which has been developed in the case of the rat has made it possible to measure the absolute values of the principal parameters of iodine metabolism in this animal. The quantities and concentrations of iodine have been measured in the thyroid gland and in the plasma with a sensitivity of 0.001 {mu}g of {sup 127}I. This sensitivity has made it possible to measure pools as small as the iodide and the free iodotyrosines of the thyroid and to demonstrate the absence of free iodotyrosines in the plasma of the normal rat. In vivo, the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the iodine content of the thyroid gland and to calculate the intensity of this gland's secretion without removing it. By double labelling with {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the flux, intensity of the intrathyroidal recycling as well as the turnover rates of all the iodine containing compounds of the thyroid gland. For this gland no precursor-product relationship has been found between The iodotyrosines (MIT and DIT) and the iodothyronines (T{sub 4} and T{sub 3}). The absence of this relationship is due to the heterogeneity of the thyroglobulin turnover. It has been shown furthermore that there exists in the plasma an organic fraction of the iodine which is different to thyroglobulin and which is renewed more rapidly than the circulating hormones T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}. The isotopic equilibrium method is very useful for series measurements of iodine. It makes it possible furthermore to improve the biochemical fractionations by adding carriers without affecting the subsequent {sup 127}I measurements. (author) [French] La methode d'equilibre isotopique, mise au point chez le rat, a permis de mesurer en valeur absolue les principaux parametres du metabolisme de l'iode chez cet animal. Les quantites ou les concentrations d'iode ont ete mesurees pour la thyroide et pour le

  6. A new method for studying iodine metabolism; the isotopic equilibrium method - kinetic and quantitative aspects of measurements made on rats; Une nouvelle methode d'etude du metabolisme de l'iode: la methode d'equilibre isotopique - aspects cinetiques et quantitatifs obtenus chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    The isotopic equilibrium method which has been developed in the case of the rat has made it possible to measure the absolute values of the principal parameters of iodine metabolism in this animal. The quantities and concentrations of iodine have been measured in the thyroid gland and in the plasma with a sensitivity of 0.001 {mu}g of {sup 127}I. This sensitivity has made it possible to measure pools as small as the iodide and the free iodotyrosines of the thyroid and to demonstrate the absence of free iodotyrosines in the plasma of the normal rat. In vivo, the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the iodine content of the thyroid gland and to calculate the intensity of this gland's secretion without removing it. By double labelling with {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the flux, intensity of the intrathyroidal recycling as well as the turnover rates of all the iodine containing compounds of the thyroid gland. For this gland no precursor-product relationship has been found between The iodotyrosines (MIT and DIT) and the iodothyronines (T{sub 4} and T{sub 3}). The absence of this relationship is due to the heterogeneity of the thyroglobulin turnover. It has been shown furthermore that there exists in the plasma an organic fraction of the iodine which is different to thyroglobulin and which is renewed more rapidly than the circulating hormones T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}. The isotopic equilibrium method is very useful for series measurements of iodine. It makes it possible furthermore to improve the biochemical fractionations by adding carriers without affecting the subsequent {sup 127}I measurements. (author) [French] La methode d'equilibre isotopique, mise au point chez le rat, a permis de mesurer en valeur absolue les principaux parametres du metabolisme de l'iode chez cet animal. Les quantites ou les concentrations d'iode ont ete mesurees pour la thyroide et pour le plasma avec une

  7. The study of iodine in Chinese total diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Chai, Chifang; Qian, Qinfang; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Yongbao; Wang, Ke

    1997-01-01

    In this work, China was divided into four area groups according to their geographical positions and dietary habits. All foods were divided into 12 types and the iodine contents in various diets were determined using epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The intakes for China were evaluated. The results indicate that the intakes of iodine in northern areas are slightly higher and in south areas lower than the lowest recommended intake, and the average intake in China is 166 μg/person per day, which is within the recommended range. In addition, one province was chosen from each area groups. The dietary intakes of iodine were investigated in different ages and sex using total mixed diet method. Our results indicate that the average iodine intake of four provinces was lower than the recommended value, which suggests that it is necessary to supplement iodine in foods in China

  8. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  9. Direct evaluation of thyroid 127I and iodine overload: in vivo study by X-ray fluorescence and in vitro by SIMS microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briancon, C.; Jeusset, J.; Halpern, S.; Fragu, P.

    1992-01-01

    This review describes the two methods which allow direct estimation of stable iodine ( 127 I) within thyroid gland either in vivo by X-ray fluorescence or in vitro by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) microscopy on tissue section. Although the measurement of thyroid iodine content (TIC) by X-ray fluorescence has little relevance for routine explorations of thyroid function, this is a valuable method for understanding complex pathophysiological conditions such as the thyroid adaptation to iodine overload. On the other hand, SIMS microscopy which is able to characterize the functional activity of thyroid tissue by measuring 127 I concentration within the thyroid follicles, can be used to determine the extent to which exogeneous iodine affects the regulation of iodine within the thyroid follicles. Both methods were used to evaluate the quantitative changes in thyroid 127 I induced by amiodarone iodine overload. TIC measurements shows that hyperthyroidism occured only in patients who increased their iodine stores, while the patients who developed hypothyroidism has low iodine stores. The SIMS microscopy data obtained in mice demonstrated that the thyroid response to amiodarone is related to dietary iodine intake leading to an increase in local iodine concentration in iodine deficient mice and to a decrease in iodine supplemented mice. This response is specific and different from that induced by an iodine overload. These results could explain that hyperthyroidism with high thyroid iodine content occured in areas with low thyroid iodine content in areas with a supplemented iodine diet

  10. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  11. Concentrations of arsenic in brackish lake water : Application of tristimulus colorimetric determination

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Seike, Yasushi; Okumura, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of a simple and rapid tristimulus colorimetric method for the determination of arsenic in brackish waters and its application to brackish water samples taken from brackish Lake Nakaumi are described. The determinations of arsenic in brackish water samples were made satisfactorily independent of sample salinity. By applying this method to lake water samples, the distributions and behaviors of arsenic in the lake and their controlling factors were clarified, such as seasonal vari...

  12. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1990-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author) [pt

  13. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1989-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of gliomas and glioblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment of levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 S H must be known in several compartments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumin was established. This method is simples, reproducible and has adequate sensitivity for this control. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. The speciation of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The speciation of iodine in the environment is discussed under the following topics: (i) sea surface to atmosphere, (ii) chemistry in bulk seawater, (iii) iodine in rocks, (iv) iodine in soils, (v) iodine in plants and (vi) iodine in solidified wastes. (author)

  15. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, Vit; Spalek, Otomar; Censky, Miroslav; Pickova, Irena; Kodymova, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    A method of the chemical generation of atomic iodine for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) using atomic fluorine as a reaction intermediate was studied experimentally. This method is based on the reaction between F 2 and NO providing F atoms, and the reaction of F with HI resulting in iodine atoms generation. Atomic iodine was produced with efficiency exceeding 40% relative to initial F 2 flow rate. This efficiency was nearly independent on pressure and total gas flow rate. The F atoms were stable in the reactor up to 2 ms. An optimum ratio of the reactants flow rates was F 2 :NO:HI = 1:1:1. A rate constant of the reaction of F 2 with HI was determined. The numerical modelling showed that remaining HI and IF were probably consumed in their mutual reaction. The reaction system was found suitable for employing in a generator of atomic iodine with its subsequent injection into a supersonic nozzle of a COIL

  16. Disposal of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  17. Atomic iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program

  18. Hyperthyroidism and radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The study details the results of treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism using a combination of fractionated low doses radioactive iodine and anthithyroid drug therapy. The patients studied were treated according to this regimen after August 1968 and all reached euthyroidism before March 1979. None of the patients had been treated with radioactive iodine prior to the start of the protocol. A subgroup of the patients had received an unsuccessfull course with antithyroid drug therapy and, or, surgical therapy before the start of the protocol. Patients who had never been treated for hyperthyroidism were given antithyroid drug therapy for at least 6 months in an attempt to reach euthryroidism without the use of 131 I therapy. Therefore, all patients had experienced a course of unsuccessfull therapy prior to the start of the treatment protocol using combined fractionated low doses of 131 I and antithyroid drug therapy. (Auth.)

  19. Evaluation of iodine content of some selected fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... survival, reproductive failure, goiter and socio-economic stagnation ... 5 g of each dried sample was pulverized using mortar and pestle. 2 ... The iodine content was analyzed by Elmslie Caldwell's method as modified by ...

  20. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  1. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  2. Achromatic-chromatic colorimetric sensors for on-off type detection of analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Hui Hun; Lee, Jin Woong; Lee, Jung Heon

    2014-12-21

    We report the development of achromatic colorimetric sensors; sensors changing their colors from achromatic black to other chromatic colors. An achromatic colorimetric sensor was prepared by mixing a general colorimetric indicator, whose color changes between chromatic colors, and a complementary colored dye with no reaction to the targeted analyte. As the color of an achromatic colorimetric sensor changes from black to a chromatic color, the color change could be much easily recognized than general colorimetric sensors with naked eyes. More importantly, the achromatic colorimetric sensors enable on-off type recognition of the presence of analytes, which have not been achieved from most colorimetric sensors. In addition, the color changes from some achromatic colorimetric sensors (achromatic Eriochrome Black T and achromatic Benedict's solution) could be recognized with naked eyes at much lower concentration ranges than normal chromatic colorimetric sensors. These results provide new opportunities in the use of colorimetric sensors for diverse applications, such as harsh industrial, environmental, and biological detection.

  3. Chemical generation of iodine atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, Kevin B. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States)]. E-mail: kevin.hewett@kirtland.af.mil; Hager, Gordon D. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Crowell, Peter G. [Northrup Grumman Information Technology, Science and Technology Operating Unit, Advanced Technology Division, P.O. Box 9377, Albuquerque, NM 87119-9377 (United States)

    2005-01-10

    The chemical generation of atomic iodine using a chemical combustor to generate the atomic fluorine intermediate, from the reaction of F{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, followed by the production of atomic iodine, from the reaction of F + HI, was investigated. The maximum conversion efficiency of HI into atomic iodine was observed to be approximately 75%, which is in good agreement with the theoretical model. The conversion efficiency is limited by the formation of iodine monofluoride at the walls of the combustor where the gas phase temperature is insufficient to dissociate the IF.

  4. Colorimetric Recognition of Aldehydes and Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Fang, Ming; LaGasse, Maria K; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2017-08-07

    A colorimetric sensor array has been designed for the identification of and discrimination among aldehydes and ketones in vapor phase. Due to rapid chemical reactions between the solid-state sensor elements and gaseous analytes, distinct color difference patterns were produced and digitally imaged for chemometric analysis. The sensor array was developed from classical spot tests using aniline and phenylhydrazine dyes that enable molecular recognition of a wide variety of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes and ketones, as demonstrated by hierarchical cluster, principal component, and support vector machine analyses. The aldehyde/ketone-specific sensors were further employed for differentiation among and identification of ten liquor samples (whiskies, brandy, vodka) and ethanol controls, showing its potential applications in the beverage industry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Colorimetric gold nanoparticles-based aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezavn Yazdian-Robati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of different agents including chemical and biological plays important role in forensic, biomedical and environmentalfield.In recent decades, nanotechnology and nano materials had a high impact on development of sensors. Using  nanomaterials in construction of biosensors can effectively improve the Sensitivity and other features of biosensors. Different type of nanostructures including nanotubes, nanodiamonds, thin films ,nanorods, nanoparticles(NP, nanofibers andvarious clusters have been explored and applied in construction of biosensors. Among nanomaterials mentioned above, gold nanoparticle (GNPas a new class of unique fluorescence quenchers, is receiving significant attention in developing of optical biosensors because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. In this mini review, we discussed the use of GNPs in construction of colorimetric aptasensorsas a class of optical sensors for detection of antibiotics, toxins and infection diseases.

  6. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  7. Combined Colorimetric and Gravimetric CMUT Sensor for Detection of Phenylacetone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Mathias Johannes Grøndahl; Laustsen, Milan; Thygesen, Ida Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    The detection of phenylacetone is of interest as it is a common precursor for the synthesis of (meth)amphetamine. Resonant gravimetric sensors can be used to detect the mass and hereby the concentration of a gas while colorimetric arrays typically have an exceptional selectivity to the target...... analyte if the right colorimetric dyes are chosen. We present a sensor system consisting of a Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) and a colorimetric array for detection of phenylacetone. The CMUT is used as a resonant gravimetric gas sensor where the resonance frequency shift due to mass...

  8. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...... in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg....../l) were measured. Predictors of iodine supplement use were examined by multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The pregnant women from Eastern Denmark had a median age of 30 years and the median gestational week at which they were included in the study was week 19. The majority took iodine...

  9. Analysis of iodinated quorum sensing peptides by LC–UV/ESI ion trap mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorick Janssens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Five different quorum sensing peptides (QSP were iodinated using different iodination techniques. These iodinated peptides were analyzed using a C18 reversed phase HPLC system, applying a linear gradient of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% (m/v formic acid as mobile phase. Electrospray ionization (ESI ion trap mass spectrometry was used for the identification of the modified peptides, while semi-quantification was performed using total ion current (TIC spectra. Non-iodinated peptides and mono- and di-iodinated peptides (NIP, MIP and DIP respectively were well separated and eluted in that order. Depending on the used iodination method, iodination yields varied from low (2% to high (57%.

  10. Observation on the adverse reactions of different concentrations of povidone-iodine applied before cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Jun Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of 50g/L povidone-iodine solution in preventing postoperative endophthalmitis through comparing the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis and adverse reactions after conjunctival sac washing with povidone-iodine of different concentrations.METHODS: Totally 500 cataract patients were divided into 50g/L povidone-iodine group and 25g/L povidone-iodine group. All the operated eyes were observed during and after surgery.The patients' subjective discomfort was inquired and their signs of eyes were recorded. RESULTS: The eye irritation of 50g/L povidone-iodine group was more significant than 25g/L povidone-iodine group. No significant difference in the corneal epithelial loss and endophthalmitis was observed between two groups.CONCLUSION:Conjunctival sac washing with 50g/L povidone-iodine is an effective and safe measure to prevent endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

  11. Activation energies for iodine-exchange systems containing organic iodine compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, N. (Takyo Univ. of Education (Japan). Faculty of Science) Takahashi, Yasuko

    1976-01-01

    In studies on the nonequilibrium isotopic exchange method for determining iodine in organic iodine compounds, activation energies have been measured to find systems having appropriate rate of exchange reactions. Activation energies are discussed by considering the effect of the structure of organic iodine compounds, the concentrations of reactants and solvent, etc. In homogeneous systems, activation energy is found to become larger in the order of CH/sub 3/Iiodine ratio between I/sub 2/ and organic iodine is a predominant factor in determining the rate of the exchange reaction.

  12. Chapter 5: Measurements of iodine-131 in milk supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.; Kotler, L.H.; Wilks, M.J.; Wise, K.N.

    1974-01-01

    As with previous series of French nuclear tests in Polynesia, a program was instituted to monitor major milk supplies for iodine-131. This program extended from 25 July to 23 October 1973, and was terminated only after there was no further possibility of iodine-131 reaching the milk supplies. The program covered the nine major population centres and effectively monitored the milk consumed by 80 per cent of the entire Australian population. The method employed for iodine-131 assay of milk supplies is described, and the final results obtained are presented. (author)

  13. Nursing of patients with hyperthyroidism treated by using iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongju; Cao Guoxiang

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism was a common endocrine disease, its clinic treatment mainly include anti thyroid drug treatment, surgical operation and iodine-131 therapy. The latter have unique superiority, which was adapted by clinic doctors. The nursing method was distinguished from that of others because the principle of iodine-131 therapy was different from other therapy in course of the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Combining the nursing experiences with related documents, this article was about to sum up briefly the nursing and matters needing attention in course of treatment of iodine-131 in patients with hyperthyroidism

  14. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  15. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  16. Improving colorimetric assays through protein enzyme-assisted gold nanoparticle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoji; Xu, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2012-09-18

    and function with high specificity, offering substantial advantages in both sensitivity and specificity over conventional detection methods. The screening of nuclease, methyltransferase, protease, and kinase activities can be colorimetrically performed in a straightforward manner. Finally, we discuss examples of colorimetric assays for metal ions and small molecules that constitute important advances toward visual monitoring of enzyme catalytic functions and gene expression. Although these enzyme-assisted assay methods hold great promise for myriad applications in biomedicine and bioimaging, the application of the described techniques in vivo faces formidable challenges. In addition, researchers do not fully understand the interactions of gold nanoparticles with enzyme molecules. This understanding will require the development of new techniques to probe enzyme substrate dynamics at the particle interface with higher spatial resolution and chemical specificity.

  17. Iodine excretion during stimulation with rhTSH in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, M.; Weckesser, M.; Franzius, C.; Kies, P.; Schober, O.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Elevated iodine intake is a serious problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic application of 131 iodine in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Therefore, iodine avoidance is necessary 3 months in advance. Additionally, endogenous stimulation requires withdrawal of thyroid hormone substitution for 4 weeks. Exogenous stimulation using recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) enables the continuous substitution of levothyroxine, which contains 65.4% of its molecular weight in iodine. Thus, a substantial source of iodine intake is maintained during exogenous stimulation. Although this amount of stable iodine is comparable to the iodine intake in regions of normal iodine supply, it may reduce the accumulation of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the iodine excretion depending on different ways of stimulation. Methods: Iodine excretion was measured in 146 patients in the long term follow up after differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Patients were separated into 2 groups, those on hormone withdrawal (G I) and rhTSH-stimulated patients on hormone substitution (G II). Results: Iodine excretion was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients (G I, median 50 μg/l, range: 25-600 μg/l) than in those under levothyroxine medication (G II, median 75 μg/l, 25-600 μg/l, p [de

  18. Modelling the chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have assembled a kinetic model, based on elementary chemical reactions, that describes the chemical behaviour of iodine in aqueous solution as a function of time and various parameters such as pH, concentration and radiation field. The model is conceptually divided into six section: aqueous iodine chemistry, aqueous organic iodide chemistry, water radiolysis, radiolysis of iodine solutions, radiolysis of organic iodide solutions and mass transfer. The model indicates that, in the absence of a radiation field, the rate of production of volatile iodine species is controlled by the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion. The volatile iodine species are dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. The single most important parameter controlling iodine volatility is the pH of the solution; high pH values tend to minimize iodine volatility. In the presence of a radiation field, the volatility of iodine is controlled by the radiation-induced oxidation of the iodide ion. Again, iodine volatility is dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. High pH values minimize iodine volatility. A sensitivity analysis has been performed on some sections of the model to identify reactions to which the volatility of iodine is most sensitive. In the absence of a radiation field, the volatility is most sensitive, first, to the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion, and, second, to the rate of mass transfer of volatile species between the aqueous and the gaseous phases. This approach should be useful in identifying reactions for which accurate rate constants are required and in decreasing the complexity of the model. 37 refs

  19. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  20. Study on gold concentrate leaching by iodine-iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-xia; Sun, Chun-bao; Li, Shao-ying; Fu, Ping-feng; Song, Yu-guo; Li, Liang; Xie, Wen-qing

    2013-04-01

    Gold extraction by iodine-iodide solution is an effective and environment-friendly method. In this study, the method using iodine-iodide for gold leaching is proved feasible through thermodynamic calculation. At the same time, experiments on flotation gold concentrates were carried out and encouraging results were obtained. Through optimizing the technological conditions, the attained high gold leaching rate is more than 85%. The optimum process conditions at 25°C are shown as follows: the initial iodine concentration is 1.0%, the iodine-to-iodide mole ratio is 1:8, the solution pH value is 7, the liquid-to-solid mass ratio is 4:1, the leaching time is 4 h, the stirring intensity is 200 r/mim, and the hydrogen peroxide consumption is 1%.

  1. Labelling of olive oil with radioactive iodine and radioactive technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dayel, O.A.F.

    1988-03-01

    Investigates labelling of olive oil with 125 iodine and with the radioactive 99mTC. A radio analytical study for 99Mo-99mTC generator is also presented. Iodine monochloride and chlormine-T methods are used for labelling olive oil and oleic acid with radioactive iodine. Diethyl ether, benzene and n-heptane have been used as solvents, with diethyl ether giving best results using iodine monochloride method. Infrared spectroscopic studies show that labelling took place at the double bond. Use of milked 99mTc gave very low yield only. A fairly higher labelling yield was achieved when 20 mg of tin chloride has been added in acetone medium than diethyl ether medium. Thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography technique were used as quality control systems. The labelled oil can be used for diagnostic and study purposes. 140 Ref

  2. CFD Analyses of Re-Evolved Iodine from an In-containment Water Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Woo Sung; Jung, Ji Hwan [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A good understanding of the behavior of iodine is required to evaluate the safety and emergency procedures after a LOCA. The quantity of re-evolved iodine is related to pH level, temperature, and iodine concentration of water pool. In the calculation of pH for water pool, sequence calculations must consider this variable if any aqueous iodine is present, even if it is initially present in stable forms. The present study consists of two parts: the pH evaluation and the evaluation of the iodine re-evolution. The current paper focuses on the pH evaluation method, the development of a user-defined function (UDF) and the iodine re-evolution from the water pool. CFD that incorporates the UDF was used in this study to calculate the local pH level in the transient condition. The amount of re-evolved iodine was calculated based on the iodine concentration, temperature, and pH. The transportation and resulting distribution of the iodine concentration, temperature, and pH were calculated using transient analyses with CFD. The quantity of reevolved iodine was obtained with several assumptions. The quantitative evaluation of re-evolved iodine during a LOCA in a commercial nuclear power plants is done in two stages. The first stage is to calculate the pH in the water pool, and the second stage is to calculate the quantity of re-evolved iodine. Evaporated iodine, from the water pool water to the containment atmosphere, can be estimated from characteristic iodine behaviors and pH calculations. The 3D CFD analysis results show that the pH reached 7.0 after 149.5 minutes. Near the spillway, the change in averaged pH was faster than the change in wholevolume averaged pH. Evaluating the amount of reevolved iodine were examined using four different methods. As a result of our evaluation of iodine reevolution, the initial molecular iodine concentration of a water pool has a significant impact on the amount of gaseous iodine, more so than the pH or temperature, due to the locally similar

  3. CFD Analyses of Re-Evolved Iodine from an In-containment Water Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Yoon, Woo Sung; Jung, Ji Hwan

    2016-01-01

    A good understanding of the behavior of iodine is required to evaluate the safety and emergency procedures after a LOCA. The quantity of re-evolved iodine is related to pH level, temperature, and iodine concentration of water pool. In the calculation of pH for water pool, sequence calculations must consider this variable if any aqueous iodine is present, even if it is initially present in stable forms. The present study consists of two parts: the pH evaluation and the evaluation of the iodine re-evolution. The current paper focuses on the pH evaluation method, the development of a user-defined function (UDF) and the iodine re-evolution from the water pool. CFD that incorporates the UDF was used in this study to calculate the local pH level in the transient condition. The amount of re-evolved iodine was calculated based on the iodine concentration, temperature, and pH. The transportation and resulting distribution of the iodine concentration, temperature, and pH were calculated using transient analyses with CFD. The quantity of reevolved iodine was obtained with several assumptions. The quantitative evaluation of re-evolved iodine during a LOCA in a commercial nuclear power plants is done in two stages. The first stage is to calculate the pH in the water pool, and the second stage is to calculate the quantity of re-evolved iodine. Evaporated iodine, from the water pool water to the containment atmosphere, can be estimated from characteristic iodine behaviors and pH calculations. The 3D CFD analysis results show that the pH reached 7.0 after 149.5 minutes. Near the spillway, the change in averaged pH was faster than the change in wholevolume averaged pH. Evaluating the amount of reevolved iodine were examined using four different methods. As a result of our evaluation of iodine reevolution, the initial molecular iodine concentration of a water pool has a significant impact on the amount of gaseous iodine, more so than the pH or temperature, due to the locally similar

  4. Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medda, Emanuela [National Centre for Epidemiology Surveillance and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Santini, Ferruccio [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); De Angelis, Simona [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Franzellin, Fabrizio [Nuclear Medicine of Bolzano Hospital, Bolzano (Italy); Fiumalbi, Carla [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Perico, Andrea [Public Health Laboratory, ASL Firenze (Italy); Gilardi, Enzo [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Mechi, Maria Teresa [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Marsili, Alessandro [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); Citroni, Angela [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Leandri, Adaniele [Public Health Laboratory, ASL Firenze (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Vitti, Paolo [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); Olivieri, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.olivieri@iss.it [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Introduction: Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods: One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results: Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions: These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program. - Highlights: • Thyroid is vulnerable to endocrine disrupting effects due to environmental exposures. • Mancozeb is a fungicide widely used in agriculture worldwide. • Mancozeb is broken down into ethylenthiourea (ETU) which has anti-thyroid activity. • Iodine

  5. Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medda, Emanuela; Santini, Ferruccio; De Angelis, Simona; Franzellin, Fabrizio; Fiumalbi, Carla; Perico, Andrea; Gilardi, Enzo; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Marsili, Alessandro; Citroni, Angela; Leandri, Adaniele; Mantovani, Alberto; Vitti, Paolo; Olivieri, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods: One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results: Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions: These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program. - Highlights: • Thyroid is vulnerable to endocrine disrupting effects due to environmental exposures. • Mancozeb is a fungicide widely used in agriculture worldwide. • Mancozeb is broken down into ethylenthiourea (ETU) which has anti-thyroid activity. • Iodine

  6. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiro, B D; Johnston, F L [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na {sup 125}I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author).

  7. Iodine metabolism and food needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, R.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine is an element that is necessary for the growth and mental development of a child and for the maintenance of the activity of all cells at all ages. In this article, the author recalls the iodine sources, its metabolism and the food needs and contributions

  8. Improved detection of chemical substances from colorimetric sensor data using probabilistic machine learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Buus, Ole Thomsen; Larsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We present a data-driven machine learning approach to detect drug- and explosives-precursors using colorimetric sensor technology for air-sampling. The sensing technology has been developed in the context of the CRIM-TRACK project. At present a fully- integrated portable prototype for air sampling...... of the highly multi-variate data produced from the colorimetric chip a number of machine learning techniques are employed to provide reliable classification of target analytes from confounders found in the air streams. We demonstrate that a data-driven machine learning method using dimensionality reduction...... in combination with a probabilistic classifier makes it possible to produce informative features and a high detection rate of analytes. Furthermore, the probabilistic machine learning approach provides a means of automatically identifying unreliable measurements that could produce false predictions...

  9. Enzyme-free colorimetric detection systems based on the DNA strand displacement competition reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhao; Birkedal, Victoria; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2016-01-01

    The strand displacement competition assay is based on the dynamic equilibrium of the competitive hybridization of two oligonucleotides (A and B) to a third oligonucleotide (S). In the presence of an analyte that binds to a specific affinity-moiety conjugated to strand B, the equilibrium shifts, w...... G-quadruplex DNAzyme for colorimetric readout of the detection of streptavidin by the naked eye. Finally, we integrate the whole G-quadruplex DNAzyme system in a single DNA strand and show that it is applicable to colorimetric detection......., which can be detected by a shift in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal between dyes attached to the DNA strands. In the present study we have integrated an ATP aptamer in the strand B and demonstrated the optical detection of ATP. Furthermore we explore a new readout method using a split...

  10. Enzyme-free colorimetric detection systems based on the DNA strand displacement competition reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Birkedal, V.; Gothelf, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    The strand displacement competition assay is based on the dynamic equilibrium of the competitive hybridization of two oligonucleotides (A and B) to a third oligonucleotide (S). In the presence of an analyte that binds to a specific affinity-moiety conjugated to strand B, the equilibrium shifts, which can be detected by a shift in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal between dyes attached to the DNA strands. In the present study we have integrated an ATP aptamer in the strand B and demonstrated the optical detection of ATP. Furthermore we explore a new readout method using a split G-quadruplex DNAzyme for colorimetric readout of the detection of streptavidin by the naked eye. Finally, we integrate the whole G-quadruplex DNAzyme system in a single DNA strand and show that it is applicable to colorimetric detection.

  11. Special syntheses of certain organic iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.; Debuchy, D.; Junod, E.

    1960-01-01

    The technical difficulties encountered in working on radioactive products force us to choose the simplest methods of chemical synthesis possible. For iodine compounds, two special methods have been chosen: - by using fission recoil, we can prepare simple iodine compounds such as iodobenzene or methyl iodide in high yields and having a good degree of purity. The method consists in the irradiation of mixtures of uranium oxide and benzoic acid or ammonium acetate. The iodised product is separated by distillation, after dissolving the recoil medium in a solvent. - by isotopic exchange between the inorganic iodine of different valencies and complex molecules such as Bengal pink, and diodone, it is also possible to obtain satisfactory labelling yields. These reactions have been adapted so as to give a minimum time for isotopic exchange. In the case of Bengal pink, we have found a yield of 90 per cent after 60 minutes by exchange between Nal and the organic molecule in aqueous solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide. For diodone the method proposed by Liebster has been modified so as to reduce losses during purification. The analytical methods adopted for these different compounds are described. (author) [fr

  12. Plasmon-Based Colorimetric Nanosensors for Ultrasensitive Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Longhua; Li, Jinghong

    2017-07-28

    Colorimetric detection of target analytes with high specificity and sensitivity is of fundamental importance to clinical and personalized point-of-care diagnostics. Because of their extraordinary optical properties, plasmonic nanomaterials have been introduced into colorimetric sensing systems, which provide significantly improved sensitivity in various biosensing applications. Here we review the recent progress on these plasmonic nanoparticles-based colorimetric nanosensors for ultrasensitive molecular diagnostics. According to their different colorimetric signal generation mechanisms, these plasmonic nanosensors are classified into two categories: (1) interparticle distance-dependent colorimetric assay based on target-induced forming cross-linking assembly/aggregate of plasmonic nanoparticles; and (2) size/morphology-dependent colorimetric assay by target-controlled growth/etching of the plasmonic nanoparticles. The sensing fundamentals and cutting-edge applications will be provided for each of them, particularly focusing on signal generation and/or amplification mechanisms that realize ultrasensitive molecular detection. Finally, we also discuss the challenge and give our future perspective in this emerging field.

  13. [Colorimetric detection of HPV6 and HPV16 by loop mediated isothermal amplification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-bin; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-jie; Nie, Kai; Wang, Miao; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was established to detect HPV6 and HPV 16 respectively. The method employed a set of four specially designed primers that recognized six distinct sequences of HPV6-E6 or HPV16-E7 for amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for one hour. The amplification process of LAMP was monitored by the addition of HNB (hydroxy naphthol blue) dye prior to amplification. A positive reaction was indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue and confirmed by real-time turbidimeter and agarose electrophoresis. Thirteen cervical swab samples having single infection with 13 different HPV genotypes were examined to evaluate the specificity. A serial dilution of a cloned plasmid containing HPV-E6 or HPV-E7 gene was examined to evaluate the sensitivity. The results showed that no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes was observed. The colorimetric LAMP assay could achieve a sensitivity of 1000 copies, 10-20 times lower than that of real-time PCR. The assay was further evaluated with 62 clinical specimens and consistent results were obtained compared with the detection using Kai Pu HPV Genotyping Kit. We concluded that this colorimetric LAMP assay had potential usefulness for the rapid screening of the HPV6 or HPV16 infection in the laboratories and hospitals of provincial and municipal region in China.

  14. Droplet-based microscale colorimetric biosensor for multiplexed DNA analysis via a graphene nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xia; Luo Ming; Shi Liyang; Ji Xinghu; He Zhike

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: With a microvalve manipulate technique combined with droplet platform, a microscale fluorescence-based colorimetric sensor for multiplexed DNA analysis is developed via a graphene nanoprobe. Highlights: ► A quantitative detection for multiplexed DNA is first realized on droplet platform. ► The DNA detection is relied on a simple fluorescence-based colorimetric method. ► GO is served as a quencher for two different DNA fluorescent probes. ► This present work provides a rapid, sensitive, visual and convenient detection tool for droplet biosensor. - Abstract: The development of simple and inexpensive DNA detection strategy is very significant for droplet-based microfluidic system. Here, a droplet-based biosensor for multiplexed DNA analysis is developed with a common imaging device by using fluorescence-based colorimetric method and a graphene nanoprobe. With the aid of droplet manipulation technique, droplet size adjustment, droplet fusion and droplet trap are realized accurately and precisely. Due to the high quenching efficiency of graphene oxide (GO), in the absence of target DNAs, the droplet containing two single-stranded DNA probes and GO shows dark color, in which the DNA probes are labeled carboxy fluorescein (FAM) and 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), respectively. The droplet changes from dark to bright color when the DNA probes form double helix with the specific target DNAs leading to the dyes far away from GO. This colorimetric droplet biosensor exhibits a quantitative capability for simultaneous detection of two different target DNAs with the detection limits of 9.46 and 9.67 × 10 −8 M, respectively. It is also demonstrated that this biosensor platform can become a promising detection tool in high throughput applications with low consumption of reagents. Moreover, the incorporation of graphene nanoprobe and droplet technique can drive the biosensor field one more step to some extent.

  15. Calibration of the identiFINDER detector for the iodine measurement in thyroid using the Monte Carlo method; Calibracion del detector identiFINDER para la medicion de yodo en tiroides utilizando el metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos M, D.; Yera S, Y.; Lopez B, G. M.; Acosta R, N.; Vergara G, A., E-mail: dayana@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/ 41 y 47, Playa, 10600 La Habana (Cuba)

    2014-08-15

    This work is based on the determination of the detection efficiency of {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I in thyroid of the identiFINDER detector using the Monte Carlo method. The suitability of the calibration method is analyzed, when comparing the results of the direct Monte Carlo method with the corrected, choosing the latter because the differences with the real efficiency stayed below 10%. To simulate the detector their geometric parameters were optimized using a tomographic study, what allowed the uncertainties minimization of the estimates. Finally were obtained the simulations of the detector geometry-point source to find the correction factors to 5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm, and those corresponding to the detector-simulator arrangement for the method validation and final calculation of the efficiency, demonstrating that in the Monte Carlo method implementation if simulates at a greater distance than the used in the Laboratory measurements an efficiency overestimation can be obtained, while if simulates at a shorter distance this will be underestimated, so should be simulated at the same distance to which will be measured in the reality. Also, is achieved the obtaining of the efficiency curves and minimum detectable activity for the measurement of {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I. In general is achieved the implementation of the Monte Carlo methodology for the identiFINDER calibration with the purpose of estimating the measured activity of iodine in thyroid. This method represents an ideal way to replace the lack of patterns solutions and simulators assuring the capacities of the Internal Contamination Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones are always calibrated for the iodine measurement in thyroid. (author)

  16. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  17. Iodine removing means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Masaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To employ exhaust gas from an incinerator to effect regeneration of an adsorbent such as active carbon which has adsorbed a radioactive gas such as iodine contained in the ventilating system exhaust gas of a boiling water reactor power plant. Structure: Radioactive exhaust gas such as iodine, xenon and krypton is led to an active carbon adsorbing means for removal through adsorption. When the adsorbing function of the active carbon adsorption means is reduced, the exhaust gas discharged from the incinerator is cooled down to 300 0 C and then caused to flow into the active carbon layer, and after depriving it of sulfur dioxide gas, oxides of nitrogen, daughter nuclides resulting from attenuation of radioactive gas and so forth, these being adsorbed by the carbon active layer, it is led again to the incinerator, whereby the radioactivity accompanying the regenerated gas is sealed as ash within the incinerator. Further, similarly accompanying fine active carbon particles and the like are utilized as a heat source for the incinerator. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Characterization of iodinated adrenomedullin derivatives suitable for lung nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Yan; Letourneau, Myriam; Chatenet, David [Laboratoire d' etudes moleculaires et pharmacologiques des peptides, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Ville de Laval, Qc, H7V 1B7 (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Fournier, Alain, E-mail: alain.fournier@iaf.inrs.ca [Laboratoire d' etudes moleculaires et pharmacologiques des peptides, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Ville de Laval, Qc, H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of 99m-technetium adrenomedullin (AM) as a new molecular lung imaging agent that could provide significant advantages for the diagnosis and follow-up of disorders affecting the pulmonary circulation such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension. Having the possibility to conjugate the targeting molecule with different radionuclides would offer more flexibility and potential advantages depending on clinical situations. Since various iodine isotopes are currently used in nuclear medicine and in pharmacological studies, we have evaluated which iodination method should be privileged in order to produce a good iodinated AM-derived nuclear medicine agent. Methods: Synthetic AM was labeled with iodine through chemical and lactoperoxidase oxidation methods. Position of the iodine atom on the peptide was determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis following cyanogen bromide cleavage and carboxypeptidase Y digestion. Binding affinity of iodinated AM analogues was evaluated by competition and saturation binding experiments on dog lung preparations. Results: In this study, we demonstrated that, upon lactoperoxidase oxidation, iodination occurred at Tyr{sup 1} and that this radioligand retained higher binding affinity and specificity over preparations obtained through chemical oxidation. Conclusions: These results emphasize the fact that even a small chemical modification, i.e. iodination, might deeply modify the pharmacological profile of a compound and support observations that the C-terminal tail of human AM plays an important role in the AM receptor binding process. Consequently, incorporation of a radionuclide to produce an AM-based nuclear medicine agent should privilege the N-terminus of the molecule.

  19. Distribution of Iodine and Selenium in Selected Food Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the contents of iodine and selenium in selected food commodities. Fresh food commodities were mineralized and analysed for their iodine and selenium content by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry using the calibration curve as the method for determining the contents of the elements. The average fruit and vegetables concentrations of iodine were very low. The cow’s milk, other dairy products, eggs, poultry, fresh water fish, beef, liver, and mushrooms are frequently regarded as the most important natural source of dietary iodine from common foods. The higher concentrations of selenium were recorded in the kidney, liver, pork, beef, poultry, fresh water fish, hen’s eggs, cow’s milk, other dairy products, wheat flour, fats, coffee, peppers, mushrooms and potatoes.

  20. Iodinated Contrast Media and the Alleged "Iodine Allergy": An Inexact Diagnosis Leading to Inferior Radiologic Management and Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Ingrid; Nairz, Knud; Morelli, John N; Keller, Patricia Silva Hasembank; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2017-04-01

    Purpose  To test the hypothesis that the incomplete diagnosis "iodine allergy" is a possibly dangerous concept for patients under routine radiologic conditions. Materials and Methods  300 patients with a history of an "iodine allergy" were retrospectively screened and compared with two age-, sex-, and procedure-matched groups of patients either diagnosed with a nonspecific "iodine contrast medium (ICM) allergy" or an allergy to a specific ICM agent. For all groups, the clinical symptoms of the most recent past adverse drug reaction (ADR), prophylactic actions taken for subsequent imaging, and ultimate outcome were recorded and analyzed. Results  The diagnosis "iodine allergy" was not otherwise specified in 84.3 % patients. For this group, in most cases, the symptoms of the previous ADRs were not documented. In contrast, the type of ADR was undocumented in only a minority of patients in the comparison groups. In the group of patients with an "iodine allergy" the percentage of unenhanced CT scans was greater than within the other two groups (36.7 % vs. 28.7 %/18.6 %). ADRs following prophylactic measures were only observed in the "iodine allergy" group (OR of 9.24 95 % CI 1.16 - 73.45; p contrast media containing covalently bound iodine.. · There is a clear correlation between the exactness of the diagnosis - from the alleged "iodine allergy" to "contrast media allergy" to naming the exact culprit CM - and the quality of documentation of the symptoms.. · Management of patients diagnosed with "iodine allergy" was associated with uncertainty leading to unenhanced scans and sometimes unnecessary prophylactic actions.. · The term "iodine allergy" should be omitted, because it is potentially dangerous and can decrease the quality of radiology exams.. Citation Format · Böhm Ingrid, Nairz Knud, Morelli John N et al. Iodinated Contrast Media and the Alleged "Iodine Allergy": An Inexact Diagnosis Leading to Inferior Radiologic Management and

  1. Performance evaluation of a colorimetric hydrazine dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Karen P.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    1994-06-01

    A dosimeter for real-time, colorimetric detection of hydrazine in air has been developed. The passive badge consists of a dosimeter card containing a vanillin solution coated on a thin paper substrate. The active patch consists of a thick cellulose substrate coated with a vanillin solution. When placed in a plastic sample holder attached to a personnel pump, up to 5 L/min can be drawn through the active badge substrate. Through a condensation reaction, vanillin reacts with hydrazine to form a colored product that absorbs in the visible region. The hydrazone formed in the reaction is yellow; its intensity is proportional to the dose. When exposed passively to hydrazine, the experimental detection limit is less than 20 ppb-hrs. Extrapolated results indicate a detection limit of less than 5 ppb-hrs for long sampling periods. Actively sampling of hydrazine vapors gives an experimental detection limit of less than 100 ppb-L at a sample rate of 5 L/min. Relative humidity effects on badge response were minor. High humidity enhanced the color development on the vanillin badge; while low humidity had no effect on badge response. Interference testing of the dosimeters revealed a tobacco smoke interference. Preliminary shelf life tests indicated no decrease in sensitivity to hydrazine when stored at room temperature for 6 months.

  2. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  3. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  4. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  5. Electrospun nanofiber based colorimetric probe for rapid detection of Fe{sup 2+} in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondigo, D.A. [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Tshentu, Z.R. [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa); Torto, N., E-mail: N.Torto@ru.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Colorimetric probe for the detection of Fe{sup 2+} was developed. •Polymeric electrospun nanofibers were used as host for the signaling reagent. •The functionalized electrospun nanofibers exhibited a selective color change in the presence of Fe{sup 2+}. •The mechanism was based on spin crossover (SCO) from high spin Fe{sup 2+} to low spin Fe{sup 2+} upon interaction with the embedded ligand. -- Abstract: An imidazole derivative, 2-(2′-pyridyl)imidazole (PIMH), was developed as a colorimetric probe for the qualitative analysis of Fe{sup 2+} in aqueous solution. PIMH was then used to post-functionalize poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBC) nanofibers after electrospinning so as to afford a solid state colorimetric probe. Upon treatment with Fe{sup 2+} the probe displayed a distinctive color change both in liquid and solid platforms. The linear dynamic range for the colorimetric determination of Fe{sup 2+} was 0.0988–3.5 μg mL{sup −1}. The ligand showed a high chromogenic selectivity for Fe{sup 2+} over other cations with a detection limit of 0.102 μg mL{sup −1} in solution (lower than the WHO drinking water guideline limit of 2 mg L{sup −1}), and 2 μg mL{sup −1} in the solid state. The concentration of Fe{sup 2+} in a certified reference material (Iron, Ferrous, 1072) was found to be 2.39 ± 0.01 mg L{sup −1}, which was comparable with the certified value of 2.44 ± 0.12 mg L{sup −1}. Application of the probe to real samples spiked with Fe{sup 2+} achieved recoveries of over 97% confirming accuracy of the method and its potential for on-site monitoring.

  6. Improved detection of chemical substances from colorimetric sensor data using probabilistic machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Lasse L.; Buus, Ole T.; Larsen, Jan; Babamoradi, Hamid; Thygesen, Ida L.; Laustsen, Milan; Munk, Jens Kristian; Dossi, Eleftheria; O'Keeffe, Caroline; Lässig, Lina; Tatlow, Sol; Sandström, Lars; Jakobsen, Mogens H.

    2017-05-01

    We present a data-driven machine learning approach to detect drug- and explosives-precursors using colorimetric sensor technology for air-sampling. The sensing technology has been developed in the context of the CRIM-TRACK project. At present a fully- integrated portable prototype for air sampling with disposable sensing chips and automated data acquisition has been developed. The prototype allows for fast, user-friendly sampling, which has made it possible to produce large datasets of colorimetric data for different target analytes in laboratory and simulated real-world application scenarios. To make use of the highly multi-variate data produced from the colorimetric chip a number of machine learning techniques are employed to provide reliable classification of target analytes from confounders found in the air streams. We demonstrate that a data-driven machine learning method using dimensionality reduction in combination with a probabilistic classifier makes it possible to produce informative features and a high detection rate of analytes. Furthermore, the probabilistic machine learning approach provides a means of automatically identifying unreliable measurements that could produce false predictions. The robustness of the colorimetric sensor has been evaluated in a series of experiments focusing on the amphetamine pre-cursor phenylacetone as well as the improvised explosives pre-cursor hydrogen peroxide. The analysis demonstrates that the system is able to detect analytes in clean air and mixed with substances that occur naturally in real-world sampling scenarios. The technology under development in CRIM-TRACK has the potential as an effective tool to control trafficking of illegal drugs, explosive detection, or in other law enforcement applications.

  7. Development of a novel colorimetric sensor based on alginate beads for monitoring rainbow trout spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem; Sepidname, Marziyeh; Negahdarifar, Manizheh; Li, Peiwu

    2018-05-01

    Alginate is a non-toxic, renewable, and linear copolymer obtained from the brown algae Laminaria digitata that can be easily shaped into beads. Its good gel forming properties have made it useful for entrapping food and pharmaceutical ingredients. In this study, alginate beads were used in a novel application as a colorimetric sensor in food intelligent packaging. Colorimetric sensor was developed through entrapping red cabbage extract as a pH indicator in alginate beads. The pH indicator beads were used in rainbow trout packaging for monitoring fillets spoilage. Color change of beads during fish storage was measured using the CIELab method. The alginate bead colorimetric sensor is validated by measuring total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels and microbial populations in fish samples. Moreover, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated during storage. Results indicated that increasing the bacterial population during storage and production of proteolytic enzymes resulted in protein degradation, accumulation of volatile amine compounds, increase in the pH and finally color change of alginate beads. The values of TVB-N, pH, PV and TBARS increased with time of storage. The results of TVB-N and microbial growth were in accordance with color change of beads and CIELab data. Therefore, the proposed system enjoys a high sensitivity to pH variations and is capable of monitoring the spoilage of fish or other protein-rich products through its wide range of color changes. The alginate beads containing the red cabbage extract can, thus, be used as a low-cost colorimetric sensor for intelligent packaging applications.

  8. Ultrasensitive colorimetric detection of Cu2+ ion based on catalytic oxidation of L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kun; Li, Bowei; Wang, Xiaochun; Zhang, Weiwei; Chen, Lingxin

    2015-02-15

    As an essential element, copper ion (Cu(2+)) plays important roles in human beings for its participation in diverse metabolic processes as a cofactor and/or a structural component of enzymes. However, excessive uptake of Cu(2+) ion gives rise to the risk of certain diseases. So, it is important to develop simple ways to monitor and detect Cu(2+) ion. In this study, a simple, facile colorimetric sensor for the ultrasensitive determination of Cu(2+) ion was developed based on the following principle: L-cysteine and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) could be conjugated to form the yellow product 2,4-dinitrophenylcysteine (DNPC), which was measurable at 355nm; however, upon addition of Cu(2+) ion, the absorbance of DNPC would be decreased owing to the Cu(2+) ion catalytic oxidation of L-cysteine to L-cystine in the presence of O2. Thus, the colorimetric detection of Cu(2+) ion could be achieved. The optimal pH, buffer, temperature and incubation time for the colorimetric sensor were obtained of pH 6.8 in 0.1M HEPES solution, 90 °C and 50 min, respectively. A good linearity within the range of 0.8-10 nM (r = 0.996) was attained, with a high detectability up to 0.5nM. Analyses of Cu(2+) ion in drinking water, lake water, seawater and biological samples were carried out and the method performances were found to agree well with that obtained by ICP-MS. The developed simple colorimetric sensor proved applicable for Cu(2+) ion determination in real samples with high sensitivity and selectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  10. Application of Chemometric Techniques to Colorimetric Data in Classifying Automobile Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Awatif Rosli; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim; Mohd Zuli Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of paint chips is of great interest to forensic investigators, particularly in the examination of hit-and run cases. This study proposes a direct and rapid method in classifying automobile paint samples based on colorimetric data sets; absorption value, reflectance value, luminosity value (L), degree of redness (a) and degree of yellowness (b) obtained from video spectral comparator (VSC) technique. A total of 42 automobile paint samples from 7 manufacturers were analysed. The colorimetric datasets obtained from VSC analysis were subjected to chemometric technique namely cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Based on CA, 5 clusters were generated; Cluster 1 consisted of silver color, cluster 2 consisted of white color, cluster 3 consisted of blue and black colors, cluster 4 consisted of red color and cluster 5 consisted of light blue color. PCA resulted in two latent factors explaining 95.58 % of the total variance, enabled to group the 42 automobile paints into five groups. Chemometric application on colorimetric datasets provide meaningful classification of automobile paints based on their tone colour (L, a, b) and light intensity These approaches have the potential to ease the interpretation of complex spectral data involving a large number of comparisons. (author)

  11. Povidone-Iodine-Based Polymeric Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianyi; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Xinjie; Gao, Yangyang; Liu, Wenxin; Chen, Wanjun; Dong, Alideertu; Wang, Yan-Jie

    2017-08-09

    As microbial contamination is becoming more and more serious, antibacterial agents play an important role in preventing and removing bacterial pathogens from microbial pollution in our daily life. To solve the issues with water solubility and antibacterial stability of PVP-I 2 (povidone-iodine) as a strong antibacterial agent, we successfully obtain hydrophobic povidone-iodine nanoparticles (povidone-iodine NPs) by a two-step method related to the advantage of nanotechnology. First, the synthesis of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles, i.e., P(NVP-MMA) NPs, was controlled by tuning a feed ratio of NVP to MMA. Then, the products P(NVP-MMA) NPs were allowed to undergo a complexation reaction with iodine, resulting in the formation of a water-insoluble antibacterial material, povidone-iodine NPs. It is found that the feed ratio of NVP to MMA has an active effect on morphology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of the P(NVP-MMA) copolymer after some technologies, such as SEM, DLS, elemental analysis, 1 H NMR, GPC, and the contact angle test, were used in the characterizations. The antibacterial property of povidone-iodine NPs was investigated by using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) as model bacteria with the colony count method. Interestingly, three products, such as glue, ink, and dye, after the incorporation of povidone-iodine NPs, show significant antibacterial properties. It is believed that, with the advantage of nanoscale morphology, the final povidone-iodine NPs should have great potential for utilization in various fields where antifouling and antibacterial properties are highly required.

  12. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  13. Quercetin as colorimetric reagent for determination of zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, F.S.; White, C.E.

    1953-01-01

    Methods described in the literature for the determination of zirconium are generally designed for relatively large amounts of this element. A good procedure using colorimetric reagent for the determination of trace amounts is desirable. Quercetin has been found to yield a sensitive color reaction with zirconium suitable for the determination of from 0.1 to 50?? of zirconium dioxide. The procedure developed involves the separation of zirconium from interfering elements by precipitation with p-dimethylaminoazophenylarsonic acid prior to its estimation with quercetin. The quercetin reaction is carried out in 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution. Under the operating conditions it is indicated that quercetin forms a 2 to 1 complex with zirconium; however, a 2 to 1 and a 1 to 1 complex can coexist under special conditions. Approximate values for the equilibrium constants of the complexes are K1 = 0.33 ?? 10-5 and K2 = 1.3 ?? 10-9. Seven Bureau of Standards samples of glass sands and refractories were analyzed with excellent results. The method described should find considerable application in the analysis of minerals and other materials for macro as well as micro amounts of zirconium.

  14. Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on enzyme modified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Narsingh R.; Saxena, Preeti S.; Srivastava, Anchal

    2018-02-01

    We develop a simple colorimetric method for determination of free cholesterol in aqueous solution based on functionalized gold nanoparticles with cholesterol oxidase. Functionalized gold nanoparticles interact with free cholesterol to produce H2O2 in proportion to the level of cholesterol visually is being detected. The quenching in optical properties and agglomeration of functionalized gold nanoparticles play a key role in cholesterol sensing due to the electron accepting property of H2O2. While the lower ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 0.2 mg/dL) can be effectively detected using fluorescence study, the absorption study attests evident visual color change which becomes effective for detection of higher ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 19 mg/dL). The shades of red gradually change to blue/purple as the level of cholesterol detected (as evident at 100 mg/dL) using unaided eye without the use of expensive instruments. The potential of the proposed method to be applied in the field is shown by the proposed cholesterol measuring color wheel.

  15. Colorimetric determination of reducing normality in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1983-07-01

    Adjustment of the valence state of plutonium from extractable Pu(IV) to nonextractable Pu(III) in the Purex process is accomplished by addition of reductants such as Fe(II), hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN), or U(IV). To implement on-line monitoring of this reduction step for improved process control at the Savannah River Plant, a simple colorimetric method for determining excess reductant (reducing normality) was developed. The method is based on formation of a colored complex of Fe(II) with FerroZine (Hach Chemical Company). The concentration of Fe(II) is determined directly. The concentration of HAN or U(IV), in addition to Fe(II), is determined indirectly as Fe(II), produced through reduction of Fe(III). Experimental conditions for a HAN-Fe(III) reaction of known stoichiometry were established. The effect of hydrazine, which stabilizes U(IV), was also determined. Real-time measurements of color development were made that simulated on-line performance. A laboratory analytical procedure is included. 5 references, 8 figures

  16. Gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric and visual creatinine assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yi; Zhang, Xianhui; Yu, Haili

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a selective and sensitive method for determination of creatinine using citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a colorimetric probe. It is based on a direct cross-linking reaction that occurs between creatinine and AuNPs that causes aggregation of AuNPs and results in a color change from wine red to blue. The absorption peak is shifted from 520 to 670 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the shift in the absorption peak is related the logarithm of the creatinine concentration in the 0.1 to 20 mM range, and the instrumental detection limit (LOD) is 80 μM. This LOD is about one order of magnitude better than that that of the Jaffé method (720 μM). The assay displays good selectivity over interfering substances including various inorganic ions, organic small compounds, proteins, and biothiols. It was successfully employed to the determination of creatinine in spiked human urine. (author)

  17. Immobilisation of fission iodine by reaction with insoluble natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmett, G.T.; Kimble, G.M.; Steinberg, S.M.; Emerson, D.W.; Cerefice, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants produce Iodine-129 ( 129 I) as a fission by-product. Iodine-129, along with other stable isotopes of iodine, is released during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Silver-impregnated activated carbon, activated carbon, cinnabar and chalcocite have been used in the past to remove iodide and iodine from waste streams. There is environmental and geological evidence that iodine can become associated with natural organic matter (NOM). For example, a number of previous studies have shown that iodine (including 129 I) can be strongly retained in organic-rich surface soils and humic material. This research explores the use of NOM (sphagnum peat) to sequester iodine from acid vapour and aqueous solution. NOM may be stable for geological storage or the sequestered iodine can be recovered to prepare target materials for transmutation. The nature of the sphagnum iodine association has been explored as well as method that can be used to concentrate and recover sequestered iodine from the peat moss. (authors)

  18. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  19. Preparation of iodine - 125 - labeled insulin for radioimmunoassay: comparison of chloramine T and iodogen iodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Giannella Neto, D.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1988-05-01

    Stoichiometric iodination of porcine insulin was performed to the general method of Hunter and Greenwood with modifications recommended by Roth. These method was compared with radioidination using Iodogen. Films of Iodogen react rapidly in the solid phase with aqueous mixtures of I - and proteins. For two methods satisfactory activity of the labeled porcine insulin was obtained and characteristics of the radioimmunoassay were studied. (author) [pt

  20. The determination of iodine in biological media using radioactivation analysis (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.

    1962-06-01

    The object of this study is to show that the application of radioactivation analysis to the determination of iodine in biological media makes it possible to measure iodine concentrations of the order of 0.0001 μg. After a review of the chemical methods with a mention of the difficulties they present, the optimum conditions for the determination of iodine in biological liquids are given. Three methods are described: - the first consists of a chemical treatment which liberates the protein bound iodine in an inorganic form. After distillation this iodine is irradiated in a flux of thermal neutrons. The induced radioactivity is compared to that of a standard sample irradiated in the same conditions by γ spectrometry. - the second method which is of more general application consists in irradiating the sample and then extracting the iodine; its induced radio-activity is then measured by β-counting. - the third method measures the iodine directly in the thyroid tissue by anti-compton spectrometry. The sensitivity, the reproducibility and the accuracy are discussed. Some applications are described: determination of iodine in its various organic forms in serum, determination of iodine in urines, in food-stuffs, etc., in the thyroid tissue, etc. (author) [fr

  1. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  2. Radiochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures

  3. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  4. Separation of iodine species by adsorption chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.; Bellido Jr, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the different properties of iodide and iodate species in some sorption materials a new chromatographic method was developed to study the speciation of iodine in a mangrove system. Two sorption materials, alumina and silica, were investigated and several distribution coefficients for iodide and iodate were determined at different concentrations of NaOH, NaNO 3 and NaHCO 3 solutions. The best separation results were obtained percolating sea water samples, containing iodide species, through a glass column filled with alumina. The iodine passed through the column after washing the column with 0.1M sodium nitrate solution, and the iodate was eluted with a 0.5M sodium bicarbonate solution. (author)

  5. Investigation of the radioecology of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Very sensitive analytical methods for I-129 were developed for different sample materials. - The behaviour of I-129 in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant and its release was completely investigated. - A longterm risk for the population caused by I-129 is not excpected. An existing environmental contamination with I-129 is reduced by a half-life of 0,3 y. The exposure of the population via the pasture-cow-milk path until now was overstimated at least by a factor 45. - In the environmental air of Kiel, Stade, Karlsruhe, Gundremmingen and Munich elemental iodine and iodine aerosols were measured. In the environmental air of Karlsruhe CH 3 127 I was determined. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  7. Enhanced delivery of iodine for synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy by means of intracarotid injection and blood-brain barrier disruption: Quantitative iodine biodistribution studies and associated dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Jean-Francois; Biston, Marie-Claude; Joubert, Aurelie; Charvet, Anne-Marie; Le Bas, Jean-Francois; Esteve, Francois; Elleaume, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSR) is a binary cancer treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of a high Z element, such as iodine, in tumors, followed by stereotactic irradiation with kilovoltage X-rays from a synchrotron source. The success of SSR is directly related to the absolute amount of iodine achievable in the tumor. The purposes of this preclinical study were to determine whether the delivery of iodine to brain tumor models in rats could be enhanced by the means of its intracarotid injection with or without a hyperosmotic solution and to evaluate corresponding absorbed X-ray doses. Methods and materials: Experiments were performed on four groups of F98 glioma-bearing rats, which received either intracarotid (IC) or intravenous (IV) infusions of a mixture (6 mL in 12 min) of an iodinated contrast agent associated or not with a transient blood-brain barrier opener (mannitol). The mixture volumetric proportions were 8/13 of Iomeron (C = 350 mg/mL) for 5/13 of mannitol or saline, respectively. Absolute iodine concentration kinetic was measured in vivo in the tumor, blood, contralateral and ipsilateral brain, and muscle by monochromatic computed tomography. Associated dosimetry was performed by computing the iodine dose enhancement factor (DEF) in each region and building dose distribution maps by analytical simulations. Results: Infusion of mannitol significantly enhanced iodine tumor uptake compared with the control values (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0138, for IC and IV protocols, respectively). The mean iodine concentrations (C) reached 20.5 ± 0.98 mg/mL (DEF = 4.1) after administration of iodine and mannitol vs. 4.1 ± 1.2 mg/mL i.c. with serum (DEF = 1.6). The tumor iodine uptakes after jugular injection with mannitol (C = 4.4 ± 2.1 mg/mL, DEF = 1.7) were not significantly different from IC injection of iodine without mannitol (p = 0.8142). The IV injection of iodine with saline led to an iodine concentration in the tumor

  8. Determination of iodine 129 in vegetables using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Eduardo E.; Thyssen, Sandra M.; Bruno, Hector A.

    1999-01-01

    The developed methodology allows the determination of iodine 129 in vegetables, using neutron activation analysis. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in these matrixes, as well as the bromine 82 originated in the activation process. The experimental method for the determination of iodine 129 by neutron activation analysis involves five steps: 1- digestion by alkaline fusion; 2- pre-irradiation purification of iodine 129 by distillation followed by solvent extraction, and adsorption on activated charcoal by distillation; 3- neutron irradiation; 4- post-irradiation purification of iodine 130 by distillation followed by solvent extraction; 5- gamma spectrometry. A chemical recovery of 95 % is obtained in the distillations, measured using iodine 131 as tracer. The whole process recovery is within 70 % and 85 %. The detection limit is 2 mBq/kg of sample, but several factors affect this value, such as type of vegetable, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. The methodology developed is applied at environmental surveillance with safeguards proposes, in the detection of undeclared reprocessing of irradiated fuel. (authors)

  9. Low cost iodine intercalated graphene for fuel cells electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoiu, Adriana; Raceanu, Mircea; Carcadea, Elena; Varlam, Mihai; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2017-12-01

    On the theoretical predictions, we report the synthesis of iodine intercalated graphene for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) applications. The structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, specific surface area by BET method, Raman investigations. The presence of elemental iodine in the form of triiodide and pentaiodide was validated, suggesting that iodine was trapped between graphene layers, leading to interactions with C atoms. The electrochemical performances of iodinated graphenes were tested and compared with a typical PEMFC configuration, containing different Pt/C loading (0.4 and 0.2 mg cm-2). If iodinated graphene is included as microporous layer, the electrochemical performances of the fuel cell are higher in terms of power density than the typical fuel cell. Iodine-doped graphenes have been successfully obtained by simple and cost effective synthetic strategy and demonstrated new insights for designing of a high performance metal-free ORR catalyst by a scalable technique.

  10. Challenges in the evaluation of urinary iodine status in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Sørensen, Louise Kolding; Motavaf, Anne Krejbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the recommended method to evaluate iodine status in pregnancy, but several factors may challenge the interpretation of the results. We evaluated UIC in pregnant women according to (1) sampling in the hospital versus at home, (2) time...... of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling, and (3) members of their household. Study Design: Danish crosssectional study in the year 2012. Pregnant women (n = 158), their male partners (n = 157) and children (n = 51) provided a questionnaire with detailed information on iodine supplement.......042), but not estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion (p = 0.79), were higher when sampling was at home. Median UIC was dependent on the time of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling [same day (n = 79): 150 μg/l (95% CI 131-181 μg/l), the day before (n = 51): 105 μg/l (78-131 μg/l), several days...

  11. Discovering the enzyme mimetic activity of metal-organic framework (MOF) for label-free and colorimetric sensing of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Yingjing; Binyam, Atsebeha; Liu, Misha; Wu, Yinan; Li, Fengting

    2016-12-15

    A label-free sensing strategy based on the enzyme-mimicking activity of MOF was demonstrated for colorimetric detection of biomolecules. Firstly obvious blue color was observed due to the high efficiency of peroxidase-like catalytic activity of Fe-MIL-88A (an ion-based MOF material) toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Then in the presence of target biomolecule and corresponding aptamer, the mimetic activity of Fe-MIL-88A can be strongly inhibited and used directly to realize the colorimetric detection. On the basis of the interesting findings, we designed a straightforward, label-free and sensitive colorimetric method for biomolecule detection by using the enzyme mimetic property of MOF coupling with molecular recognition element. Compared with the existed publications, our work breaks the routine way by setting up an inorganic-organic MOF-aptamer hybrid platform for colorimetric determination of biomolecules, expanding the targets scope from H2O2 or glucose to biomolecules. As a proof of concept, thrombin and thrombin aptamer was used as a model analyte. The limit of detection of 10nM can be achieved with naked eyes and ultrahigh selectivity of thrombin toward numerous interfering substances with 10-fold concentration was demonstrated significantly. Of note, the method was further applied for the detection of thrombin in human serum samples, showing the results in agreement with those values obtained in an immobilization buffer by the colorimetric method. This inorganic-organic MOF-aptamer sensing strategy may in principle be universally applicable for the detection of a range of environmental or biomedical molecules of interests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Colorimetric determination of neomycin using melamine modified gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Can; Liu, Junfeng; Yang, Ankang; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Li, Xiangjun; Yuan, Zhuobin

    2015-01-01

    The colorimetric assay for neomycin presented here is based on melamine-modified gold nanoparticles (mel-AuNPs) and the finding that hydrogen bonding between melamine and neomycin results in the aggregation of mel-AuNPs. This results in a change in the color of the solution from wine red to blue and in a red-shift of the absorption maximum of the mel-AuNPs. The concentration of neomycin can be determined by spectrophotometry. The ratio of absorptions at 680 nm and 520 nm is linearly related to the logarithm of the concentration of neomycin in the 0.1 to 5.0 nM range and in the 5 to 100 nM range, with regression coefficients of 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. The detection limit (at an S/N ratio of 3) is 30 pM. This is far below the usual safety limit. The method was applied to the detection of trace levels of neomycin in milk samples and gave recoveries between 98 and 105 %. (author)

  13. Total iodine quantification in fluids and tissues from iodine- or iodide-supplemented rats by ion chromatography following microwave-assisted digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Guadalupe; Muñoz-Torres, Carolina; Orozco-Esquivel, Teresa; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Iodine is a crucial component of thyroid hormones, and several reports have shown that iodine per se is implicated in the physiopathology of other organs. Innovative ion chromatography detection following a four-step temperature ramp microwave digestion in 25-50 mM nitric acid was developed to measure total iodine in biological fluids and tissue samples from female Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented with 0.05% molecular iodine (I2) or 0.05% potassium iodide (I(-)) in drinking water. The reported method allows the measurement of total iodine with a limit of quantification of 13.7 μg L(-1), recoveries of 96.3-100.3%, and intra- and inter-assay variations, of 3.5% and 7.4% respectively. Analysis of biological fluids showed that after 48 hours, iodine-supplemented animals exhibited significantly higher levels of total iodine in both serum and urine compared with those supplemented with iodide. The half-life of iodine in serum and urine measured over the first 48 h showed similar patterns for both the I2 (7.89 and 7.76 hours) and I(-) (8.27 and 8.90 hours) supplements. Differential uptake patterns were observed in tissues after 6 days of supplements, with I(-) preferentially retained by thyroid, lactating mammary gland, and milk, and a slightly but significantly higher capture of I2 in pituitary, ovary, and virgin mammary gland. We developed a rapid, selective, and accurate digestion method to process fluid and tissue samples that permits reproducible measurements of total iodine by ion chromatography; iodine or iodide supplement show a similar serum and urine half-life, but organ-specific uptake depends on the chemical form of the iodine supplement.

  14. Exploiting pH-Regulated Dimer-Tetramer Transformation of Concanavalin A to Develop Colorimetric Biosensing of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiahong; Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Wang, Xiangyun; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin; Yang, Hua

    2017-05-03

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) aggregation-based colorimetric biosensing remains a challenge for bacteria due to their large size. Here we propose a novel colorimetric biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) in milk samples based on pH-regulated transformation of dimer/tetramer of Concanavalin A (Con A) and the Con A-glycosyl recognition. Briefly, antibody-modified magnetic nanoparticles was used to capture and concentrate E. coli O157:H7 and then to label with Con A; pH adjusted to 5 was then applied to dissociate Con A tetramer to release dimer, which was collected and re-formed tetramer at pH of 7 to cause the aggregation of dextran-modified AuNPs. The interesting pH-dependent conformation-transformation behavior of Con A innovated the design of the release from the bacteria surface and then the reconstruction of Con A. Therefore, we realized the sensitive colorimetric biosensing of bacteria, which are much larger than AuNPs that is generally not suitable for this kind of method. The proposed biosensor exhibited a limit of detection down to 41 CFU/mL, short assay time (~95 min) and satisfactory specificity. The biosensor also worked well for the detection in milk sample, and may provide a universal concept for the design of colorimetric biosensors for bacteria and virus.

  15. A highly sensitive and selective aptamer-based colorimetric sensor for the rapid detection of PCB 77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruojie; Liu, Siyao; Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-01-05

    A highly sensitive, specific and simple colorimetric sensor based on aptamer was established for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 77). The use of unmodified gold nanoparticles as a colorimetric probe for aptamer sensors enabled the highly sensitive and selective detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 77). A linear range of 0.5nM to 900nM was obtained for the colorimetric assay with a minimum detection limit of 0.05nM. In addition, by the methods of circular dichroism, UV and naked eyes, we found that the 35 base fragments retained after cutting 5 bases from the 5 'end of aptamer plays the most significant role in the PCB 77 specific recognition process. We found a novel way to truncated nucleotides to optimize the detection of PCB 77, and the selected nucleotides also could achieve high affinity with PCB 77. At the same time, the efficient detection of the PCB 77 by our colorimetric sensor in the complex environmental water samples was realized, which shows a good application prospect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PRINCIPLE OF VALIDATION OF MULTILEVEL RGB COLORIMETRIC SYSTEMS OF REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Rustam Bekirova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of development of two-level RGB colorimetric systems of remote sensing is analyzed. The principle of validation in multi-level RGB colorimetric systems taking into account the effect of metamerizm is formulated

  17. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  18. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  19. Adaptations of the Saker-Solomons test: simple, reliable colorimetric field assays for chloroquine and its metabolites in urine.

    OpenAIRE

    Mount, D. L.; Nahlen, B. L.; Patchen, L. C.; Churchill, F. C.

    1989-01-01

    Two field-adapted colorimetric methods for measuring the antimalarial drug chloroquine in urine are described. Both are modifications of the method of Saker and Solomons for screening urine for phencyclidine and other drugs of abuse, using the colour reagent tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester. One method is semiquantitative, detecting the presence of chloroquine (Cq) and its metabolites in urine with a 1 microgram/ml detection limit; it is more sensitive and reliable than the commonly used...

  20. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and colorimetric determination of total and extractable phosphorus in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Krasimir; Zaprjanova, Penka; Petkova, Milena; Stefanova, Violeta; Kmetov, Veselin; Georgieva, Deyana; Angelova, Violina

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used method for determination of total phosphorus in soils is perchloric acid digestion, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The first part of this study compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia (ISO 11466 and EPA Method 3052), with perchloric acid digestion procedure, and also compares inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with colorimetry for the measurement of P on the basis of five internationally certified standard soils and 20 real-life soils with widely different extractability of phosphorus. The phosphorus concentration was determined by means of the reduced phosphomolybdenum blue and ICP-MS. The relationship between methods has been examined statistically. Good agreement of the results from colorimetry and ICP-MS was established for all certified soils. The microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia was comparable, both in precision and accuracy, with the hot plate aqua regia method. The phosphorus concentration found with the HF + HClO 4 digestion method was in good agreement with the certified mean values, while the superiority in extracting phosphorus, when compared to other methods, was obvious. Soil testing for plant-available phosphorus in Bulgaria and many European countries is most commonly conducted using acid Ca-lactate extraction (Egner–Riehm test) and alkaline sodium bicarbonate extraction (BDS ISO 11263:2002), based on Olsen test, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The second part of this study reports the differences between Egner–Riehm test and BDS ISO 11263:2002 measured colorimetrically and by ICP-MS. Fifty soils were selected from South Bulgaria to represent a wide range of soil properties. It was established that ICP-MS consistently yielded significantly higher P concentrations than the colorimetric method in both extraction tests, and the relative differences were greatest in soils with lower P

  1. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and colorimetric determination of total and extractable phosphorus in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Krasimir, E-mail: kivanov1@abv.bg [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Zaprjanova, Penka [Tobacco and Tobacco Products Institute, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Petkova, Milena [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Stefanova, Violeta; Kmetov, Veselin; Georgieva, Deyana [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Plovdiv University ' Paisii Hilendarski,' Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Angelova, Violina [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2012-05-15

    The most widely used method for determination of total phosphorus in soils is perchloric acid digestion, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The first part of this study compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia (ISO 11466 and EPA Method 3052), with perchloric acid digestion procedure, and also compares inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with colorimetry for the measurement of P on the basis of five internationally certified standard soils and 20 real-life soils with widely different extractability of phosphorus. The phosphorus concentration was determined by means of the reduced phosphomolybdenum blue and ICP-MS. The relationship between methods has been examined statistically. Good agreement of the results from colorimetry and ICP-MS was established for all certified soils. The microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia was comparable, both in precision and accuracy, with the hot plate aqua regia method. The phosphorus concentration found with the HF + HClO{sub 4} digestion method was in good agreement with the certified mean values, while the superiority in extracting phosphorus, when compared to other methods, was obvious. Soil testing for plant-available phosphorus in Bulgaria and many European countries is most commonly conducted using acid Ca-lactate extraction (Egner-Riehm test) and alkaline sodium bicarbonate extraction (BDS ISO 11263:2002), based on Olsen test, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The second part of this study reports the differences between Egner-Riehm test and BDS ISO 11263:2002 measured colorimetrically and by ICP-MS. Fifty soils were selected from South Bulgaria to represent a wide range of soil properties. It was established that ICP-MS consistently yielded significantly higher P concentrations than the colorimetric method in both extraction tests, and the relative differences were greatest in soils with lower

  2. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  3. A simple colorimetric assay for detection of amplified Mycobacterium leprae DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vliet, G. M.; de Wit, M. Y.; Klatser, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    A colorimetric assay for the detection of PCR-products is described. The assay is based on amplification of DNA in the presence of digoxigenin-dUTP. After immobilization of the PCR products to a microtitre plate, amplified DNA could be detected colorimetrically. The sensitivity of this colorimetric

  4. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results indicated iodine sufficiency in schoolchildren from the

  5. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  6. The radiotoxicology of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty radioisotopes of iodine are known but only those with mass numbers from 123 to 135 are of major radiotoxicological interest. Exposure of animals or man to inorganic 131 I or 125 I may result in the induction of benign or malignant thyroid tumors or depression of thyroid function; Bq for Bq 125 I is less toxic than 131 I. However, the shorter lived radioiodines 132 I, 133 I, and 135 I appear to be 10 to 100 times more toxic than 131 I alone. Little information is available about the toxicity of radioiodine containing organic compounds. The DNA precursor, iododeoxyuridine when labelled with 125 I becomes incorporated into the cell nucleus and produces severe and often irreparable damage due to the emission of Auger electrons. The risk estimate for the induction of thyroid carcinoma or adenoma by inorganic 131 I is considered to be 10 to 20x10 -6 persons Gy -1 y -1 , but may be up to 100 times larger for persons exposed to mixtures of short-lived radioiodines. (author)

  7. A Comparison of the Use of Contrast Media with Different Iodine Concentrations for Multidetector CT of the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Chai; Cho, Jeong Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimal iodine concentration of contrast media for kidney multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing the degree of renal parenchymal enhancement and the severity of the renal streak artifact with contrast media of different iodine concentrations. Materials and Methods A 16-row MDCT was performed in 15 sedated rabbits by injection of 2 mL contrast media/kg body weight at a rate of 0.3 mL/sec. Monomeric nonionic contrast media of 250, 300, and 370 mg iodine/mL were injected at 1-week intervals. Mean attenuation values were measured in each renal structure with attenuation differences among the structures. The artifact was evaluated by CT window width/level and three grading methods. The values were compared with iodine concentrations. Results The 370 mg iodine/mL concentration showed significantly higher cortical enhancement than 250 mg iodine/mL in all phases (p < 0.05). There was however no significant difference in the degree of enhancement between the 300 mg iodine/mL and 370 mg iodine/mL concentrations in all phases. There is a significant difference in attenuation for the cortex-outer medulla between 250 mg iodine/mL and 300 mg iodine/mL (p < 0.05). The artifact was more severe with a medium of 370 mg iodine/mL than with 250 mg iodine/mL by all grading methods (p < 0.05). Conclusion The 300 mg iodine/mL is considered to be the most appropriate iodine concentration in an aspect of the enhancement and artifact on a kidney MDCT scan. PMID:22043154

  8. Determination of dissolved inorganic species of iodine by spectrophotometric titration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesavento, Maria; Profumo, Antonella; Biesuz, Raffaela

    1987-09-01

    A method for determining iodate and iodine (+1) in aqueous solutions is proposed. The assay is similar to a previously described method for the determination of iodide and iodine (O), which were titrated with standard iodate in hydrochloric acid solution. A sample solution made 0.5-1.5 M in hydrochloric acid is titrated with a standard iodide solution and monitored spectrophotometrically at 230 nm. The species involved have strong absorbances that are well differentiated at this wavelength. By combining the two titrations it is possible to resolve any mixture of species of iodine in different oxidation states. The precision of the method (standard deviation) is the same both when determining a single species (IO/sub 3/-,I+,1/sub 2/ or I-) and a mixture, and is equal to 2 x 10/sup -7/ M. Chloride and bromide, even at very high concentrations, do not interfere.

  9. Determination of dissolved inorganic species of iodine by spectrophotometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesavento, Maria; Profumo, Antonella

    1987-01-01

    A method for determining iodate and iodine (+1) in aqueous solutions is proposed. The assay is similar to a previously described method for the determination of iodide and iodine (O), which were titrated with standard iodate in hydrochloric acid solution. A sample solution made 0.5-1.5 M in hydrochloric acid is titrated with a standard iodide solution and monitored spectrophotometrically at 230 nm. The species involved have strong absorbances that are well differentiated at this wavelength. By combining the two titrations it is possible to resolve any mixture of species of iodine in different oxidation states. The precision of the method (standard deviation) is the same both when determining a single species (IO 3 -,I+,1 2 or I-) and a mixture, and is equal to 2 x 10 -7 M. Chloride and bromide, even at very high concentrations, do not interfere. (author)

  10. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO 3 -impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables

  11. Investigation on efficiency of stable iodine distribution around Golfech nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payoux, P.; Simon, J.; Campana Briault, H.; Fenolland, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background. In order to prevent thyroid cancer radio induced during civil nuclear accident french regulations plan stable iodine distribution for populations living near nuclear power stations. We evaluate availability of stable iodine and understanding of such measure with investigation around Golfech nuclear power station. Methods. In 2001, 1148 families living in a 10 km perimeter around power station were questioned through their schooled child. Our anonymous questionnaire (22 questions, 91 items) was linked with stable iodine availability, organ protection, most exposed persons, dosage and time of stable iodine ingestion. Results. 72,1 % families replied. Among them, 60,8% could easily and quickly find stable iodine in case of emergency, 87,8% know that such measure is to protect thyroid, 80,5% know that children and pregnant women (62,7%) are the most exposed people, 82,3% know that such ingestion is allowed by Prefect order. Conclusion. Answer rate and stable iodine prophylaxis knowledge are satisfactory. On the other hand, in case of necessity about 40% of the concerned families don't have a rapid access to stable iodine, which will forced authorities to distribute as a matter of urgency supplementary stable iodine. Statistical analysis of the answers demonstrate that the most iodine prophylaxis ignorant people are the most refractory to this approach. (author)

  12. Spectrophotometric investigation into iodine-electron donor systems at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodyskij, V.A.; Morachevskij, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Iodine-sec. butanol (n-donor) and iodine - hexene - 1 (π-donor) have been investigated for the first time by the spectrophotometric method in the wide temeprature range (77-293 K). The existence of complexes with a charge transfer of the type, which is characterized by the long-wave absorption band in electron spectra, is determined in the systems

  13. The effect of povidone–iodine on normal bacteria conjunctival flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodine on the flora in adult patients at the Guinness Eye Centre Onitsha Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Each randomly recruited new adult patient had conjunctival swab taken from one eye; then a drop of 5% povidone–iodine solution was ...

  14. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L M.C.; Grindon, E; Handy, B J; Sutherland, L [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W G; Sims, H E [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C; Jacquemain, D [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  15. A Comparison of the Use of Contrast Media with Different Iodine Concentrations for Multidetector CT of the Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Chai; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To determine the optimal iodine concentration of contrast media for kidney multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing the degree of renal parenchymal enhancement and the severity of the renal streak artifact with contrast media of different iodine concentrations. A 16-row MDCT was performed in 15 sedated rabbits by injection of 2 mL contrast media/kg body weight at a rate of 0.3 mL/sec. Monomeric nonionic contrast media of 250, 300, and 370 mg iodine/mL were injected at 1-week intervals. Mean attenuation values were measured in each renal structure with attenuation differences among the structures. The artifact was evaluated by CT window width/level and three grading methods. The values were compared with iodine concentrations. The 370 mg iodine/mL concentration showed significantly higher cortical enhancement than 250 mg iodine/mL in all phases (p < 0.05). There was however no significant difference in the degree of enhancement between the 300 mg iodine/mL and 370 mg iodine/mL concentrations in all phases. There is a significant difference in attenuation for the cortex-outer medulla between 250 mg iodine/mL and 300 mg iodine/mL (p < 0.05). The artifact was more severe with a medium of 370 mg iodine/mL than with 250 mg iodine/mL by all grading methods (p < 0.05). The 300 mg iodine/mL is considered to be the most appropriate iodine concentration in an aspect of the enhancement and artifact on a kidney MDCT scan.

  16. Silver nanoplates-based colorimetric iodide recognition and sensing using sodium thiosulfate as a sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xinyan; Chen, Shu, E-mail: chenshumail@gmail.com; Tang, Jian; Xiong, Yuan; Long, Yunfei, E-mail: l_yunfei927@163.com

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A new colorimetric iodide detection strategy based on triangular Ag nanoplate. • Sodium thiosulfate performed as a sensitizer. • Formation of insoluble AgI on the surface of Ag nanoplate. • This method has the advantages of good selectivity and high sensitivity. Abstract: A colorimetric method for the recognition and sensing of iodide ions (I⁻) has been developed by utilizing the reactions between triangular silver nanoplates (TAg-NPs) and I⁻ in the presence of sodium thiosulfate (Na₂S₂O₃). Specifically, I⁻ together with Na₂S₂O₃ can induce protection of TAg-NPs owing to the formation of insoluble AgI, as confirmed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the absence of Na₂S₂O₃, the etching reactions on TAg-NPs were observed not only by I⁻ but also other halides ions. The Na₂S₂O₃ plays as a sensitizer in this system, which improved the selectivity and sensitivity. The desired colorimetric detection can be achieved by measuring the change of the absorption peak wavelength corresponding to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) with UV–vis spectrophotometer or recognized by naked eye observation. The results show that the shift of the maximum absorption wavelength (Δλ) of the TAg-NPs/Na₂S₂O₃/I⁻ mixture was proportional to the concentration of I⁻ in the range 1.0 × 10⁻⁹–1.0 × 10⁻⁶ mol L⁻¹. Moreover, no other ions besides I⁻ can induce an eye discernible color change as low as 1.0 × 10⁻⁷ mol L⁻¹. Finally, this method was successfully applied for I⁻ determination in kelp samples.

  17. Iodine sorption of bentonite - radiometric and polarographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konirova, R.; Vinsova, H.; Koudelkova, M.; Ernestova, M.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments focused on kinetics of iodine retardation on bentonite, influence of aqueous phase pH, buffering properties of bentonite, etc. were carried out by batch method. Distribution coefficient KD was the criterion applied for evaluation of iodine interaction with solid phase. High sorption potential of bentonite to cationic forms of various radionuclides, resulting from relatively high cation exchange capacity, is generally known. On the other hand the inorganic anions are not adsorbed strongly to mineral surface of clays thus uptake of iodine (occurring mainly at iodide (I - ) or iodate (IO 3 - ) form under oxoic conditions) is limited. The distribution coefficients of iodine anions' sorption on bentonite R reach order of magnitude 10 -1 mL/g. In order to increase the sorption capacity of the solid phase, several additives were added to bentonite. Most of them didn't provide satisfactory results except of the addition of activated carbon, which has high surface area. Electromigration and polarographic methods were used for investigation of the redox state of iodine in aqueous phase and determination of KD values as well. Acquired results were compared with data obtained by radiometric measurements. (authors)

  18. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrous, Matthew George; Adamic, Mary Louise; Olson, John Eric; Baeck, D. L.; Fox, R. V.; Hahn, P. A.; Jenson, D. D.; Lister, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the project, New Paradigms for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Raising the Scientific Profile and Improved Performance for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is to ensure that the ongoing isotope ratio determination capability within the U.S. Department of Energy complex is the world's best for application to nonproliferation. This report spells out the progress of Task 4, Transition of TIMS to AMS for Iodine Analysis, of the larger project. The subtasks under Task 4 and the accomplishments throughout the three year project life cycle are presented in this report. Progress was made in optimization of chemical extraction, determination of a detection limit for 127Iodine, production of standard materials for AMS analysis quality assurance, facilitation of knowledge exchange with respect to analyzing iodine on an AMS, cross comparison with a world-leading AMS laboratory, supercritical fluid extraction of iodine for AMS analysis and electrodeposition of seawater as a direct method of preparation for iodine analysis by AMS--all with the goal of minimizing the time required to stand up an AMS capability for iodine analysis of exposed air filters at INL. An effective extraction method has been developed and demonstrated for iodine analysis of exposed air filters. Innovative techniques to accomplish the cathode preparation for AMS analysis were developed and demonstrated and published. The known gap of a lack of available materials for reference standards in the analysis of iodine by AMS was filled by the preparation of homogenous materials that were calibrated against NIST materials. A minimum limit on the amount of abundant isotope in a sample was determined for AMS analysis. The knowledge exchange occurred with fantastic success. Scientists engaged the international AMS community at conferences, as well as in their laboratories for collaborative work. The supercritical fluid extraction work has positive

  19. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Matthew George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adamic, Mary Louise [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Olson, John Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baeck, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, R. V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hahn, P. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jenson, D. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lister, T. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the project, New Paradigms for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Raising the Scientific Profile and Improved Performance for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is to ensure that the ongoing isotope ratio determination capability within the U.S. Department of Energy complex is the world’s best for application to nonproliferation. This report spells out the progress of Task 4, Transition of TIMS to AMS for Iodine Analysis, of the larger project. The subtasks under Task 4 and the accomplishments throughout the three year project life cycle are presented in this report. Progress was made in optimization of chemical extraction, determination of a detection limit for 127Iodine, production of standard materials for AMS analysis quality assurance, facilitation of knowledge exchange with respect to analyzing iodine on an AMS, cross comparison with a world-leading AMS laboratory, supercritical fluid extraction of iodine for AMS analysis and electrodeposition of seawater as a direct method of preparation for iodine analysis by AMS--all with the goal of minimizing the time required to stand up an AMS capability for iodine analysis of exposed air filters at INL. An effective extraction method has been developed and demonstrated for iodine analysis of exposed air filters. Innovative techniques to accomplish the cathode preparation for AMS analysis were developed and demonstrated and published. The known gap of a lack of available materials for reference standards in the analysis of iodine by AMS was filled by the preparation of homogenous materials that were calibrated against NIST materials. A minimum limit on the amount of abundant isotope in a sample was determined for AMS analysis. The knowledge exchange occurred with fantastic success. Scientists engaged the international AMS community at conferences, as well as in their laboratories for collaborative work. The supercritical fluid extraction work has positive

  20. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  1. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  2. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  3. X-ray fluorescent analysis of iodin traces in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.F.; Baturin, A.A.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Borisova, S.S.; Reshetnyak, M.V.; Shlyakhova, N.V.; Budrejko, E.A.; Galata, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Using XFA method, determination of iodine concentration in urine for 35 children of 10-15 with endocrine pathology (delay of sexual development, diffuse goiter, obesity) and 10 practically healthy children being observed under conditions of the consultative polyclinic and the department of endocrinology of SI ''ISHCJ NAMSU''. The proposed optimized XFA method allows by 1-2 orders increasing detection sensitivity for micro-elements measurements in biology objects and attaining the iodine trace contents in urine in the range from 50 to 200 gg/dm 3

  4. Developing and Demonstrating an Augmented Reality Colorimetric Titration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Nicholas Yee Kwang; Gan, Hong Seng; Li, Jonathan; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2018-01-01

    The handling of chemicals in the laboratory presents a challenge in instructing large class sizes and when students are relatively new to the laboratory environment. In this work, we describe and demonstrate an augmented reality colorimetric titration tool that operates out of the smartphone or tablet of students. It allows multiple students to…

  5. Electrospun fibre colorimetric probe based on gold nanoparticles for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... pump operated at a flow rate of 0.300 mℓ/h and a high-voltage power supply with a ..... Y (2012) A simple colorimetric sensor based on anti-aggregation of ... inside polystyrene domains dispersed in an epoxy matrix. Eur.

  6. Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors. PMID:23539027

  7. A colorimetric tetrathiafulvalene-calix 4 pyrrole anion sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and colorimetric sensing properties of a tetrathiafulvalene substituted calix[4]pyrrole sensor with anions were investigated using H-1 NMR and absorption spectroscopic techniques. Visual color changes were observed upon addition of different anions (Cl-, Br-, CN-, and Ac......O-) to a solution of the sensor. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Qin Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

  9. Determination of iodine in diverse botanical and dietary matrices by pre-irradiation combustion followed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.R.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1994-01-01

    The method chosen for determination of iodine in this investigation is an extension of an existing analytical technique to food samples which was developed for environmental samples. The method is based on pre-irradiation combustion of the sample to liberate iodine, trapping the iodine on charcoal, and quantitating the element by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Existing botanical and dietary reference materials were used to check the validity of the method. Several mixed diet samples with high fat content from the U.S. Total Diet Study and composites of cereals with both low and high iodine content were analyzed. This method of pre-irradiation combustion followed by NAA has been shown to be a viable technique for the determination of iodine in dietary samples. However, with a detection limit of about 50 ng of iodine, large amounts of sample (> 1 g) are typically required for each determination. (orig.)

  10. Experimental reproduction of iodine deficiency in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, M A; Smyth, J A; Ellis, W A; Arthur, J R; Kennedy, D G

    1997-11-22

    The role of iodine deficiency in stillbirth/perinatal weak calf syndrome was investigated in pregnant heifers. Five heifers were fed an iodine deficient diet (mean [sd] iodine concentration 0.06 [0.01] mg/kg dry matter [DM]) and six received an iodine sufficient diet (mean [sd] iodine concentration 1.45 [0.27] mg/kg DM). The diets consisted of wheat and soyabean meal with added minerals and vitamins (with or without iodine) and were fed to the heifers over the final four to five months of pregnancy. The iodine deficient diet produced clinicopathological changes and pathological changes in the thyroid glands of both the heifers and their offspring. However, all the calves in the iodine deficient group were born clinically normal.

  11. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency...

  12. Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.

  13. Automatic colorimetric determination of low concentrations of sulphate for measuring sulphur dioxide in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, G A

    1966-01-01

    An automatic colorimetric method for the determination of low concentrations of sulphate (0-10 microgram/ml) using the thoron indicator is described. Total amounts of sulphate as small as 0.3 micrograms can be determined. The sulphate is precipitated with barium perchlorate and the excess of barium is indicated with 1-(o-arsenophenylazo)-2-naphthol-3-6-disulfonic acid(thoron). The procedure is worked out primarily for the determination of sulphur dioxide in air after absorption in diluted hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Colorimetric determination of the fluoride ion - application to uranium metal and to uranous fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, H.; Hure, J.; Legrand, S.

    1949-12-01

    In the determination described for fluoride in U metal, the U is brought into H 2 SO 4 solution by anodic oxidation, the fluo-silicic acid is distilled by entrainment in water vapor, and the F ion is determined in the distillate by using the fact that it complexes Zr and thus prevents the formation of the Zr-alizarin S lake. For F ion in UF 4 , the compound is dissolved in a Na 2 CO 3 -H 2 O 2 mixture, and F is determined in the solution by the colorimetric method described. (author)

  15. Styrene and Azo-Styrene Based Colorimetric Sensors for Highly Selective Detection of Cyanide

    OpenAIRE

    Prestiani, Agustina Eka; Purwono, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    A novel styrene (1) and azo-styrene (2) based chemosensor from vanillin has been successfully synthesized. Sensor 1 was obtained by one step Knoevenagel condensation of Ultrasound method and sensor 2 by coupling diazo and Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Both of sensors showed high sensitivity and selectivity to detect CN- in aqueous media, even the presence of other anions, such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, CO32-, SO42-, H2PO4-, and AcO-. Colorimetric sensing of sensor 1 is inclined to be deproton...

  16. Colorimetric microwell plate reverse-hybridization assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Tosi Michelon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct smear examination using Ziehl-Neelsen staining for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB diagnosis is inexpensive and easy to use, but has the major limitation of low sensitivity. Rapid molecular methods are becoming more widely available in centralized laboratories, but they depend on timely reporting of results and strict quality assurance obtainable only from costly commercial kits available in high burden nations. This study describes a pre-commercial colorimetric method, Detect-TB, for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in which an oligonucleotide probe is fixed onto wells of microwell plates and hybridized with biotinylated polymerase chain reaction amplification products derived from clinical samples. The probe is capable of hybridising with the IS6110 insertion element and was used to specifically recognise the M. tuberculosis complex. When combined with an improved silica-based DNA extraction method, the sensitivity of the test was 50 colony-forming units of the M. tuberculosis reference strain H37Rv. The results that were in agreement with reference detection methods were observed in 95.2% (453/476 of samples included in the analysis. Sensitivity and specificity for 301 induced sputum samples and 175 spontaneous sputum samples were 85% and 98%, and 94% and 100%, respectively. This colorimetric method showed similar specificity to that described for commercially available kits and may provide an important contribution for PTB diagnosis.

  17. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  18. Formation and behaviour of organic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.; Koukkar, P.; Karjunen, T.; Sjoevall, H.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents experimental studies on the formation of organic iodine in severe reactor accidents. The analyses were performed to evaluate the amount of alkaline chemical needed for effective pH control of containment water during the accidents. The formation of organic iodine in solutions used in the filtered venting system and the absorption of iodine compounds in the solutions were studied. Experiments for the formation of organic iodine on painted surfaces were also performed. (au)

  19. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  20. Iodine Prophylaxis and Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine is a highly volatile element therefore being very mobile in the environment. It enters the metabolism of living organisms and is selectively taken up and concentrated in the thyroid gland. The plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive material that might be released in the environment in the case of a serious nuclear accident, primarily consists of the radioactive isotopes of iodine. Among those, due to its decay properties, is the most important 131 I. The effective means of protecting the thyroid gland against exposure to radioactive iodine is an intake of stable iodine. Therefore, one of the central issues in the emergency planning is to determine whether and at which projected thyroid radiation dose stable iodine should be given to the population. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set the generic optimized intervention value for iodine prophylaxis to 100 mGy of avertable committed dose to a thyroid.The prophylaxis is implemented by utilizing the pills of pills of potassium iodine (KI). The efficacy of KI in protecting the thyroid gland depends upon the time of intake relative to the start of exposure to radioactive iodine. The best results are obtained if KI is taken 1-2 hours before or immediately after the start of exposure. The recommended dosage, based upon the study performed by Il'in et.al. is 130 mg/day. KI should be taken at least three days after the acute exposure to radioiodine, to prevent accumulation in a thyroid gland of radioiodine excreted from the other compartments of the body. The largest epidemiological study on the effects of KI prophylaxis ever performed was the one in Poland after the Chernobyl accident. Stable iodine was given as single dose of KI solution to 10.5 million of children and 7 millions of adults. Among children no serious side effects were seen while only two adults (with previously recorded iodine sensitivity) had severe respiratory distresses. Polish experiences showed that rapid response to such

  1. Quality evaluation of Hypericum ascyron extract by two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Mei; Luo, Xue-Gang; Zhang, Chao-Zheng; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a heart-cutting two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was established for controlling the quality of different batches of Hypericum ascyron extract for the first time. In comparison with the common one-dimensional fingerprint, the second-dimensional fingerprint compiled additional spectral data and was hence more informative. The quality of H. ascyron extract was further evaluated by similarity measures and the same results were achieved, the correlation coefficients of the similarity of ten batches of H. ascyron extract were >0.99. Furthermore, we also evaluated the quality of the ten batches of H. ascyron extract by antibacterial activity. The result demonstrated that the quality of the ten batches of H. ascyron extract was not significantly different by MTT. Finally, we demonstrated that the second-dimensional fingerprint coupled with the MTT method was a more powerful tool to characterize the quality of samples of batch to batch. Therefore the proposed method could be used to comprehensively conduct the quality control of traditional Chinese medicines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  3. Epidemiological evaluation of iodine deficiencyand thyroid disorders in the megalopolis of western Siberia in 1995–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O D Rymar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze iodine sufficiency and to evaluate thyroid structural and functional status in Novosibirsk citizens for the 1995–2010 periods.Methods and materials. Thyroid structural and functional status, as well as iodine deficiency, were evaluated in Novosibirsk population of adults and adolescents within the international projects MONIСA (1994–1995 and HAPIEE (2004–2005 and cross-sectional populational screening of random representative sample of school students. Results. In 1994–1995 iodine deficiency (mainly minor or moderate was revealed at 83% of adult Novosibirsk citizens at age 25–34. Median urinary iodine concentration was 47 μg/l. In adolescent population subclinical hypothyreosis was initially revealed in 1,5%. Another 1,5% of adolescents had initially diagnosed subclinical hyperthyreosis. In 2005 median urinary iodine concentration in adult (45–69 years old was 107 μg/l. Among all urine samples median urinary iodine concentration of more than 100 μg/l (100–360 μg/l was revealed in 54%, 13% had median urinary iodine concentration less than 50 μg/l. During the period 2009–2010 median urinary iodine concentration in adolescents (14–17 years old was 93 μg/l. Among all urine samples median urinary iodine concentration of more than 100 μg/l (100–360 μg/l was revealed in 39%, 7% had median urinary iodine concentration less than 50 μg/l. According to the above mentioned results mass iodine deficiency preventive actions lead to the increase of urinary iodine concentration in Siberian. However to the moment iodine deficiency in Novosibirsk is still exists. Persistent community oriented measures are necessary for the prevention of iodine deficiency.

  4. The importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinoer, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    To examine the importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy. Review of existing literature of iodine in pregnancy. Population surveys and metabolic studies. Pregnant women. The main changes in thyroid function associated with pregnancy are due to an increase in hormone requirements that begin in the first trimester of gestation. This increase can only be met by a proportional increase in hormone production, something that depends directly upon the availability of iodine. When dietary iodine is lacking, an adequate physiological adaptation is difficult to achieve and is progressively replaced by pathological alterations that occur in parallel with the degree and duration of iodine deprivation. Iodine prophylaxis should be given systematically to women during pregnancy. In most public health programmes dealing with the correction of iodine deficiency disorders, iodised salt has been used as the preferred means to deliver iodine to households. Iodised salt, however, is not the ideal means of delivering iodine in the specific instances of pregnancy, breast-feeding and complementary feeding because of the need to limit salt intake during these periods. In European countries, presently it is proposed that iodine is given to pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers by systematically administering multivitamin tablets containing iodine in order to reach the recommended dietary allowance of 250 microg iodine day-1.

  5. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  6. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  7. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  8. Chemical species of iodine in some seaweeds. Pt. 2. Iodine-bound biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin Hou; Chifang Chai; Xiaojun Yan

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of iodine in various biological macromolecules in Sargassum kjellmanianum was studied using neutron activation analysis combined with chemical and biochemical separation techniques. The results indicate that iodine is mainly bound with protein, part of iodine with pigment and polyphenol, and little with polysaccharides, such as algin, fucoidan and cellulose. This result is significant for the mechanism of enriching iodine of algae and utilization of alga iodine. (author)

  9. Serum thyroglobulin as a biomarker of iodine deficiency in adult populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejbjerg, Anne; Bjergved, Lena; Bülow Pedersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify which factors may influence the serum Tg level in an adult population and how this may affect Tg as a biomarker of iodine deficiency (ID). DESIGN AND METHODS: Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (C1a: 1997-98, n = 4649) and after (C2: 2004-05, n = 3570......) the Danish mandatory iodine fortification (IF) of salt (2000). Additionally, a follow-up study of C1a was performed after IF (C1b: 2008-10, n = 2465). The studies took place in two regions with mild (Copenhagen) and moderate (Aalborg) ID before IF. Serum Tg was measured by immunoradiometric method...... and investigated as outcome variable in multivariate models. RESULTS: Multiple factors were associated with serum Tg. Some were directly related to iodine intake (cohort, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level and region), and some were likely mediators of iodine intake effects on Tg (thyroid nodularity, thyroid...

  10. On-line separation of iodine species in reactor water using mixer-settlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmbeck, R.; Skarnemark, G.

    1995-01-01

    A method for separation of iodine species from water has been developed. It is based on liquid-liquid extraction and separation is achieved in four extraction steps. A system based on this method for continuous separation of iodine species using mixer-settlers has been developed. It consists of four mixer-settler batteries with 4,4,6 and 6 mixer-settler stages each. As organic phase an aliphatic kerosene is used and the separation is improved if the organic solvent has been pretreated with iodine carrier, stripped and washed. With an aqueous feed flowrate of 10 ml/min and mixer-settler battery phase flowratios of approximately 0.1 except for the elementary iodine strip battery with a phase flowratio of 1, the system separation performance is 92% for methyl iodide, 97% for iodate and elementary iodine and 99% for iodide. (orig.)

  11. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  12. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  13. A high-throughput colorimetric assay for glucose detection based on glucose oxidase-catalyzed enlargement of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanmei; Zhang, Yuyan; Rong, Pengfei; Yang, Jie; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dingbin

    2015-09-01

    We developed a simple high-throughput colorimetric assay to detect glucose based on the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalysed enlargement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Compared with the currently available glucose kit method, the AuNP-based assay provides higher clinical sensitivity at lower cost, indicating its great potential to be a powerful tool for clinical screening of glucose.We developed a simple high-throughput colorimetric assay to detect glucose based on the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalysed enlargement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Compared with the currently available glucose kit method, the AuNP-based assay provides higher clinical sensitivity at lower cost, indicating its great potential to be a powerful tool for clinical screening of glucose. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03758a

  14. Iodinated derivatives of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), PHI and PHM: purification, chemical characterization and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Rorstad, O.; Lederis, K.

    1987-01-01

    The iodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied, using a variety of enzymatic and chemical iodination methods. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to purify the reaction products. The lactoperoxidase-glucose oxidase method gave excellent results in terms of reproducibility, iodine incorporation, and yield of the non-oxidized products [Tyr(I)10]VIP and [Tyr(I)22]VIP, and was used to prepare both 125 I and 127 I labelled derivatives. In both cases, direct application to HPLC and a single column system were used. Although the oxidized peptides [Tyr(I)10,Met(O)17]VIP and [Tyr(I)22,Met(O)17]VIP could be generated to varying degrees directly by iodination of VIP, these were most conveniently prepared by iodination of [Met(O)17]VIP. Iodinated derivatives of the homologous peptides PHI and PHM were likewise prepared by rapid, one-step HPLC procedures. The site and degree of iodination were determined by HPLC peptide mapping of tryptic digests and amino acid analyses, and in the case of [Tyr(I)10]VIP also by sequencing. The vasorelaxant activities of the iodinated peptides in bovine cerebral artery preparations did not differ significantly from those of the corresponding noniodinated peptides, with the exception of [Tyr(I)10,Met(O)17]VIP and [Tyr(I)22,Met(O)17]VIP which, unlike [Met(O)17]VIP itself, had slightly lower potency than VIP

  15. Roles of microbial activities on the distribution and speciation of iodine in the soil environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Amachi, Seigo

    2000-01-01

    The chemical species of iodine in the environment are expected to be influenced by the activities of microorganisms. In this paper, the roles of microbial activities in the accumulation and loss of iodine in soils were studied. Concentrations of stable iodine in several types of soils were determined by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy). High iodine concentrations were found in upland soils, particularly in Andosol, while the concentrations in lowland soils were considerably lower. Accumulation of iodine in soils was explained by the effects of microorganisms and/or their products (e.g. enzymes). Iodine was observed to be desorbed from the flooded soils due to the reducing conditions (low Eh) created by the microbial activities. From the soil-rice plant system biogenesis methyliodide was found to be evaporated into the atmosphere. In order to study the mechanisms of volatile iodine production from the soil environment, a reliable method using 125 I tracer was established. Soil solution and bacterial cell suspension were incubated using this method, and it was found that volatile organic iodine was produced due to microbial activities (including bacterial activities). (author)

  16. A comparison of the effect of alcohol and povidone-iodine mixture with alcohol after povidon-iodine in prevention of vascular access inflammation in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The quality of hemodialysis can be promoted through reducing vascular access complications in these patients. One of the crucial roles of nurses in hemodialysis wards is reducing inflammation and infection of the vascular access. This study was conducted to compare the incidence of inflammation around the vascular access area in patients undergoing hemodialysis between two antiseptic methods of alcohol after povidone-iodine and the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was performed under the supervision of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, after gaining ethical committee approval in 2014. In the present study, 100 participants were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into three groups of combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine (n = 37, alcohol after using povidone-iodine (n = 32, and control group (n = 31. In the intervention groups 1 and 2, vascular access was disinfected using a combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine and alcohol after povidone-iodine, respectively. In the control group, vascular access was disinfected using the method of the related ward. Patients were fully observed for phlebitis occurrence for 12 hemodialysis sessions (1 month. Vascular access was controlled using the Iranian Nurses Association's phlebitis criteria. Data were analyzed using chi-square, ANOVA test, and Fisher's exact test in SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence rate of inflammation in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine, alcohol after povidone-iodine, and control groups, respectively, were 46%, 87.9%, and 100%. The incidence rate of inflammation was significantly lower in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine compared to the alcohol after povidone-iodine group (P < 0.001. However, no significant differences existed between the alcohol after povidone-iodine and control group. Conclusion: The combination of alcohol and

  17. Comparison of tritiated and iodinated tracers in the radioimmunoassay of progesterone in cow milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R M; Redshaw, M R [Hoechst Pharmaceuticals Research Ltd., Milton Keynes (UK); Holdsworth, R [Milk Marketing Board, Worcester (UK). Veterinary Research Unit

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone levels in the milk of cows were determined by two radioimmunoassay methods. Excellent correlation (r = 0.95) was found between the method using an iodinated radioligand and that using a conventional tritiated tracer.

  18. Urinary Colorimetric Sensor Array and Algorithm to Distinguish Kawasaki Disease from Other Febrile Illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute pediatric vasculitis of infants and young children with unknown etiology and no specific laboratory-based test to identify. A specific molecular diagnostic test is urgently needed to support the clinical decision of proper medical intervention, preventing subsequent complications of coronary artery aneurysms. We used a simple and low-cost colorimetric sensor array to address the lack of a specific diagnostic test to differentiate KD from febrile control (FC patients with similar rash/fever illnesses.Demographic and clinical data were prospectively collected for subjects with KD and FCs under standard protocol. After screening using a genetic algorithm, eleven compounds including metalloporphyrins, pH indicators, redox indicators and solvatochromic dye categories, were selected from our chromatic compound library (n = 190 to construct a colorimetric sensor array for diagnosing KD. Quantitative color difference analysis led to a decision-tree-based KD diagnostic algorithm.This KD sensing array allowed the identification of 94% of KD subjects (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] area under the curve [AUC] 0.981 in the training set (33 KD, 33 FC and 94% of KD subjects (ROC AUC: 0.873 in the testing set (16 KD, 17 FC. Color difference maps reconstructed from the digital images of the sensing compounds demonstrated distinctive patterns differentiating KD from FC patients.The colorimetric sensor array, composed of common used chemical compounds, is an easily accessible, low-cost method to realize the discrimination of subjects with KD from other febrile illness.

  19. Application of a colorimetric technique in quality control for printed pediatric orodispersible drug delivery systems containing propranolol hydrochloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vakili, Hossein; Nyman, Johan O; Genina, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    and the excipients. The inkjet printing technique deposited precise and uniform escalating doses (0.08-3.16mg) of the active pharmaceutical ingredient onto the substrates (R(2)≥0.9934). A disintegration test with clear end-point detection confirmed that all the substrates meet the requirements of the Ph. Eur....... to disintegrate within 180s. The colorimetric technique proved to be a reliable method to distinguish the small color differences between formulations containing an escalating dose of propranolol hydrochloride....

  20. Colorimetric DNAzyme Biosensor for Convenience Detection of Enterotoxin B Harboring Staphylococcus aureus from Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bhairab; N, Bhavanashri; Ramlal, Shylaja; Kingston, Joseph

    2018-02-14

    In the present study, a colorimetric DNAzymes biosensor strategy was devised in combination with immunomagnetic separation for rapid and easy detection of enterotoxin B harboring Staphylococcus aureus from food and clinical samples. The method employs immunocapture of S. aureus and amplification of seb gene by DNAzyme complementary sequence integrated forward primer and with specific reverse primer. The DNAzyme sequence integrated dsDNA PCR products when treated with hemin and TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine) in the presence of H 2 O 2 produce colorimetric signal. A linear relationship of optical signal with the initial template of seb was obtained which could be monitored by visually or spectrophotrometrically for qualitative and quantitative detection. The limit of detection for the assay was approximately 10 2 CFU/mL of seb gene harboring target. This method is convenient compared to gel based and ELISA systems. Further, spiking studies and analysis on natural samples emphasized the robustness and applicability of developed method. Altogether, the established assay could be a reliable alternative, low-cost, viable detection tool for the routine investigation of seb from food and clinical sources.

  1. Colorimetric determination of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) through ion-associate complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S; Moustafa, Moustafa E; El-Dosoky, Reham

    2009-01-01

    A simple, quick, accurate, and sensitive colorimetric method is described for the determination of sildenafil citrate (SLD). The method is based on the reaction of SLD with Congo Red, Sudan II, and Gentian Violet in buffered aqueous solutions at pH 2.5, 6.5, and 11.0, respectively, to give highly colored soluble ion-associate complex species; the colored products are quantitated colorimetrically at 523, 554, and 569 nm, respectively. The various experimental conditions were optimized. The stoichiometric ratio was found to be 1:1 for all ion associates; the calculated logarithmic stability constants were 8.51, 7.79, and 5.58, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range of 0.2-7.0 microg/mL, whereas the Ringbom optimum concentration range was 0.4-6.5 microg/mL. Values for molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, and detection and quantification limits were also calculated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SLD in Viagra tablets and in serum samples by using the technique of standard additions with mean accuracy values of 100.06 +/- 1.14, 99.87 +/- 0.70, and 99.86 +/- 0.97% for Viagra tablets and 99.88 +/- 0.60, 99.90 +/- 0.90, and 100.24 +/- 0.80% for serum samples, respectively.

  2. Production of 131 Iodine in research reactors from elementary tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Constancia Pagano Goncalves da

    1970-01-01

    Presents the history of the production of iodine-131 in the Institute of Atomic Energy (IEA), SP, Brazil), the preliminary works for the development of the method, which were done in small scale and it was not necessary protection for the operators, the evolution of these operations until the final assembling of the equipment in shielded cells, the efficiency of operations and product purity. The problems linked to the presence of iodate in the preparations and the changes made for elimination of that ion, harmful to many types and use of iodine-131 are examined. The quality of the product delivered today, an average of 140 departures per month, and the number of departures, per year since the beginning of iodine-131 production were indicated

  3. Highly efficient capture of iodine by Cu/MIL-101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bingbing; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Tao; Gao, Qianhong; Yan, Xuewu; Jiao, Yan; Yang, Yi

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the uptake capacity of MIL-101 for iodine, Cu nanoparticles doped MIL-101 were successfully synthesized through a facile method. The obtained Cu/MIL-101 was characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS, TEM, IR, TGA and BET to examine the chemical and thermal stabilities. The capture experiments for the adsorbents showed that the capture capacity of Cu/MIL-101 for volatile iodine is 342 wt%, which is higher than that of pure MIL-101. An I2 uptake of 342 wt% is the highest value reported among metal-organic frameworks. Furthermore, Cu/MIL-101 has a cycle ratio of 95% after three cycles and exhibits a better cyclicity than pure MIL-101. Meanwhile, Cu/MIL-101 shows an excellent reversible adsorption of iodine in solution.

  4. Changes is radioactive iodine metabolism in acute chemical intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyutitskij, G.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Volkova, N.V.; Zvonova, I.A.; Ostryakova, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the response of the endocrine system (iodine-absorbing and hormone-secreting fUnctions of the thyroid) as studied by the radioactive iodine test may be a reasonably versatile indicator of the response of the thyroid component of the endocrine system to acute intoxication of the organism. Trials of this test using seven chemical substances have confirmed that the radioiodine test is a sufficienty universal method to be used in setting sanitary and hygienic standards for permissible levels of chemical substances

  5. Genetic effects of iodine 131 incorporation in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrakova, A.

    1988-01-01

    The translocation yield after single treatment of male mice with iodine 131 (55,5 - 222,0 kBq/g b.w.) was investigated. The results of the cytogenetic analysis of the gonad cells revealed the effectiveness only of the highest activity, distroying the thyroid gland. The so-called direct method was also used for determination of the risk coefficients for the expected new carriers of balanced and unbalanced translocations in the first generation - the genetic effects which could be expected from the use of iodine-131-diagnostics in a hypothetic population

  6. Transfer of gaseous iodine to Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuji; Ohmomo, Yoichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Transfer rates of gaseous elemental iodine and methyliodide from atmosphere to Tradescantia were investigated in relation to supposed genetic mutation due to radioactive iodine released from nuclear facilities. The estimated transfer rate of elemental iodine to the young buds of Tradescantia, which was given as the ratio of iodine uptake rate per unit weight of the plant to the concentration of the element in the air, was approximately 7 x 10 -2 cm 3 /g.sec, about 30 to 40 times higher than that of methyliodide. The contribution of direct deposition of elemental iodine was suggested to be significant, although methyliodide was mainly absorbed by respiration through stomata of the plant. (author)

  7. Sensitive determination of iodine species, including organo-iodine, for freshwater and seawater samples using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    In order to more effectively use iodine isotope ratios, 129 I/ 127 I, as hydrological and geochemical tracers in aquatic systems, a new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of iodine speciation. The dissolved iodine species that dominate natural water systems are iodide, iodate, and organic iodine. Using this new method, iodide was determined directly by combining anion exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry. Iodate and the total of organic iodine species are determined as iodide, with minimal sample preparation, compared to existing methods. The method has been applied to quantitatively determine iodide, iodate as the difference of total inorganic iodide and iodide after reduction of the sample by NaHSO 3 , and organic iodine as the difference of total iodide (after organic decomposition by dehydrohalogenation and reduction by NaHSO 3 ) and total inorganic iodide. Analytical accuracy was tested: (1) against certified reference material, SRM 1549, powdered milk (NIST); (2) through the method of standard additions; and (3) by comparison to values of environmental waters measured independently by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been successfully applied to measure the concentrations of iodide species in rain, surface and ground water, estuarine and seawater samples. The detection limit was ∼1 nM (0.2 ppb), with less than 3% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for samples determined by standard additions to an iodide solution of 20 nM in 0.1 M NaCl. This technique is one of the few methods sensitive enough to accurately quantify stable iodine species at nanomolar concentrations in aquatic systems across a range of matrices, and to quantitatively measure organic iodine. Additionally, this method makes use of a very dilute mobile phase, and may be applied to small sample volumes without pre-column concentration or post-column reactions

  8. The Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Exertion in 7 – 10 year old School Children of Qom 2001 - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sheikholeslam

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesIodine deficiency was a public health problem in Iran before the start of iodine supplementation program in 1989. This study has been conducted in the framework of the national monitoring survey in 2001 to find the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine levels in order to evaluate the effect of national supplementation program on the iodine status of school-aged children in the city of Qom. MethodsIn a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Qom, and the grade of goiter was determined in 600 boys and 600 girls according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren.ResultsGoiter was observed in 26% of children (24.3% of girls and 27.7% of boys. The average urinary iodine level was 15.2 µg/dl. Urinary iodine levels higher than 10 μg/dl was measured in 71.7% and less than 5 µg/dl in 8.1% of children. Urinary iodine levels less than 2 μg/dl has not been observed in any of the cases. No significant difference was observed in prevalence of goiter and the urinary iodine level between males and females, and students in living in urban or rural areas.ConclusionComparison of these results with those of the year 1996 shows that prevalence of goiter has significantly decreased in these students. Also, it shows that in the city of Qom, the urinary iodine levels of schoolchildren fall in the standard range determined by WHO. This indicates that the iodine intake is adequate in the province of Qom. Therefore, this province can be considered as an “iodine deficiency-free” zone.Keywords: Goiter; Goiter Endemic; Iodine.

  9. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  10. Localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes for determination of Isoniazid in pharmacological formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Behrooz; Hatamie, Amir

    2013-04-01

    Isoniazid is an important antibiotic, which is widely used to treat tuberculosis. This study presents a colorimetric method for the determination of Isoniazid based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of gold nanoparticles. An LSPR band is produced by reducing gold ions in solution using Isoniazid as the reducing agent. Influences of the following relevant variables were examined and optimized in the experiment, formation time of gold nanoparticles, pH, buffer and stabilizer. These tests demonstrated that under optimum conditions the absorbance of Au nanoparticles at 530 nm related linearly to the concentration of Isoniazid in the range of 1.0-8.0 μg mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.98 μg mL-1. This colorimetric method has been successfully applied to the determine Isoniazid in tablets and spiked serum samples. The proposed colorimetric assay exhibits good reproducibility and accuracy, providing a simple and rapid method for analysis of Isoniazid.

  11. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  12. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  13. Prophylactic iodine treatment in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1980-01-01

    Prophylactic iodine treatment is to prevent accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid. This is done by administering a large amount of stable iodine before uptake of radioactive iodine so that further accummulation of iodine in the thyroid will be impossible. This blocking effect should be as complete as possible. This is achieved by administering an initial dose of 200 mg potassium iodide. As the release of radioactive iodine may last several hours or even days; for this reason, maintenance doses of 100 mg potassium iodide should be administered in 8-hour intervals. The risk of prophylactiv iodine treatment is rather low; however, provocation of latent hyperthyreoses must be expected in, at the most, 0.2% of the exposed population. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Investigations concerning the exchange of iodine from non-volatile organic iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarros, N.; Duschner, H.; Molzahn, D.; Schmidt, L.; Heise, S.; Jungclas, H.; Brandt, R.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-10-01

    The iodine produced by nuclear fission is removed during the reprocessing of exhausted nuclear fuel elements by desorption achieving good decontamination factors. Nevertheless the further optimization of the process requires detailed information about the iodine speciation during fuel reprocessing, and about possible reactions. For the study of decomposition reactions of iodo-alcanes, which are built up during the fuel recycling process, we developed a method for the synthesis of labelled iodo-dodecane, which was used as tracer. In order to identify the iodo species in the organic phase of the reprocessing cycle we applied plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The problem of the volatility of the iodo-compounds in the ultra vacuum of the mass spectrometer was overcome by derivatization of the iodo-alcanes with dithizon, which yielded non-volatile ionic alcyltetrazolium iodides. Beta-spectrometric analysis of the exhaust condensates collected from the organic phase of the WAK reprocessing cycle revealed beside iodine-129 the existence of a low-energetic beta emitter, which has yet to be identified. A literature survey on the topic was also performed. (orig.) With 42 refs., 9 figs [de

  15. A comparative study of simple methods to quantify cerebral blood flow with acetazolamide challenge by using iodine-123-IMP SPECT with one-point arterial sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Masaki [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Odano, Ikuo

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of simplified methods for quantifying rCBF with acetazolamide challenge by using {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT with one-point arterial sampling. After acetazolamide administration we quantified rCBF in 12 subjects by the following three methods: (a) the modified microsphere method, (b) the IMP-autoradiographic (ARG) method based on a two-compartment one-parameter model, and (c) the simplified method based on a two-compartment two-parameter model (functional IMP method). The accuracy of these methods was validated by comparing rCBF values with those obtained by the standard method: the super-early microsphere method with continuous withdrawal of arterial blood. On analyzing rCBF in each flow range (0-0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-0.75 and more than 0.75 ml/g/min), rCBF values obtained by both methods (a) and (c) showed significant correlations (p<0.01) with those obtained by the standard method in every range, but rCBF values obtained by method (b) did not significantly correlated in the high flow range (0.5-0.75 and more than 0.75 ml/g/min). Method (c) was found to be the most accurate, even though it needs two serial SPECT scans. When requiring one SPECT scan, method (a) was considered to be superior to method (b) because of its accuracy, especially in high flow regions loaded with acetazolamide. (author)

  16. Thyroglobulin as a marker of iodine nutrition status in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    of iodine status in the population. Methods: Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (1997-1998, n=4649) and after (2004-2005, n=3570) the initiation of the Danish iodization programme in two areas with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Serum Tg was measured from blood samples....... Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. Results: Before iodization, the median serum Tg was considerably higher in moderate than in mild iodine deficiency. Iodization led to a lower serum Tg in all examined age groups. The marked pre-iodization difference in Tg level between the regions......Objective: The iodine status of a population is traditionally evaluated by either urinary iodine (UT) excretion or by some measure of thyroid volume and the prevalence of goitre. In this prospective study of a mandatory iodization programme, we aimed to evaluate serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as a marker...

  17. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  18. Adsorption of iodine from COIL waste gas on soaked coal-based activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping

    2014-04-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has wide application prospects in military, industrial and medical treatment fields as a second generation gas chemical laser to follow the first HF/DF chemical laser. However, a COIL releases large amounts of gas, such as helium, oxygen, chlorine and iodine. Chlorides have a serious corrosive effect on the system, especially iodine vapor crystallization, which seriously endangers the normal use of vacuum systems, and radioactive methyl iodide, which is hazardous to operators and pollutes the environment. The use of soaked coal-based activated carbon as an adsorbent for removing methyl iodine is proposed, while it is proposed that coal-based activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for removing stable iodine. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues are less than 0.5 μg ml-1 after the adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing stable iodine is more than 1000. Using this method can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, satisfy the requirements for engineering applications, and also be applied to other nuclear power plant flue gas treatments.

  19. Longitudinal study of iodine in market milk and infant formula via epiboron neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, T.A.; Morris, J.S.; Spate, V.L.; Tharp, C.J.; Baskett, C.K.; Horsman, T.L.; Mason, M.M.; Cheng, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Its primary role is expressed as a component of thyroxine (T4) and the corresponding deiodinated triiodothyronine (T3) hormones produced by the thyroid as part of the system that regulates growth, mental development and metabolism. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iodine ranges from 50 μg/day for infants to 150 μg/day for adults. Reports over the last 15 years have indicated that the U.S. diet provides 2 to 7 times the iodine RDA and that dairy products typically provide 20 to 60 percent of the dietary iodine intake. Measurements of iodine in dietary components and composites reported in FDA studies have been done calorimetrically. These studies have, according to the authors, both under reports (by up to -50%) and over reports (by up to +80%) the iodine, depending on food type, compared to a radiochemical NAA reference method. Milk is typically under reported by -20%. The objective of this study was to utilize epiboron neutron activation analysis (EBNAA) to study the iodine concentrations, and seasonal variations of iodine, and market milk and infant formula, collected 15 years apart, in comparison with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) market-basket reports. (author)

  20. Accessory spleen versus lymph node: Value of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lambert, Jack W.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether iodine quantification with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) improves the differentiation of accessory spleens (AS) from lymph nodes (LN) compared to CT number measurements. Methods: Abdominal DECT images of 75 patients with either AS (n = 35) or LN (n = 48) (benign entity) were retrospectively evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HU) and iodine concentrations of AS, LN and the main spleen were measured. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were performed to calculate an optimal threshold for distinguishing AS from LN. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for distinguishing AS from LN by iodine concentration measurements. Results: Mean CT numbers and iodine concentrations were higher for AS (148 ± 29 HU and 48.2 ± 11 × 100 μg/cc) than LN (83 ± 19 HU and 31.5 ± 6.2 × 100 μg/cc, respectively, P < 0.001 each). Mean CT numbers were lower for AS compared to the main spleen (161 ± 29HU, P < 0.01), whereas mean iodine concentrations (47.7 ± 10 × 100 μg/cc) were not significantly different (P = 0.095). An iodine concentration greater than 38 × 100 μg/cc suggested AS with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91%, 85%, and 88%, respectively (Area under ROC curve 0.941). Conclusions: Iodine measurements might contribute to the differentiation of AS from LN. Iodine concentrations similar to that of the main spleen may help to confirm the diagnosis of AS.

  1. Assessment of iodine nutrition in pregnant north Indian subjects in three trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Grewal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the iodine status of pregnant women, using median urinary iodine concentration (MUI as the measure of outcome, to document the impact of advancing gestation on the MUI in normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the MUI in casual urine samples from 50 pregnant subjects of each trimester and 50 age-matched non-pregnant controls. Results: The median (range of urinary iodine concentration (UIC in pregnant women was 304 (102-859 μg/L and only 2% of the subjects had prevalence of values under 150 μg/L (iodine insufficiency. With regard to the study cohort, median (range UIC in the first, second, and third trimesters was 285 (102-457, 318 (102-805, and 304 (172-859 μg/L, respectively. Differences between the first, second, and third trimesters were not statistically significant. The MUI in the controls (305 μg/L was not statistically different from the study cohort. Conclusion: The pregnant women had no iodine deficiency, rather had high median urinary iodine concentrations indicating more than adequate iodine intake. Larger community-based studies are required in iodine-sufficient populations, to establish gestation-appropriate reference ranges for UIC in pregnancy.

  2. Accessory spleen versus lymph node: Value of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian, E-mail: Sebastian.winklhofer@usz.ch [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Lin, Wei-Ching, E-mail: d7466@mail.cmuh.org.tw [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2, Yuh-Der Rd., Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological science, China Medical University, No. 91, Syueshih Rd., Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lambert, Jack W., E-mail: Jack.Lambert@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail: Benjamin.Yeh@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate whether iodine quantification with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) improves the differentiation of accessory spleens (AS) from lymph nodes (LN) compared to CT number measurements. Methods: Abdominal DECT images of 75 patients with either AS (n = 35) or LN (n = 48) (benign entity) were retrospectively evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HU) and iodine concentrations of AS, LN and the main spleen were measured. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were performed to calculate an optimal threshold for distinguishing AS from LN. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for distinguishing AS from LN by iodine concentration measurements. Results: Mean CT numbers and iodine concentrations were higher for AS (148 ± 29 HU and 48.2 ± 11 × 100 μg/cc) than LN (83 ± 19 HU and 31.5 ± 6.2 × 100 μg/cc, respectively, P < 0.001 each). Mean CT numbers were lower for AS compared to the main spleen (161 ± 29HU, P < 0.01), whereas mean iodine concentrations (47.7 ± 10 × 100 μg/cc) were not significantly different (P = 0.095). An iodine concentration greater than 38 × 100 μg/cc suggested AS with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91%, 85%, and 88%, respectively (Area under ROC curve 0.941). Conclusions: Iodine measurements might contribute to the differentiation of AS from LN. Iodine concentrations similar to that of the main spleen may help to confirm the diagnosis of AS.

  3. Single Gold Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Detection of Picomolar Mercury Ion with Dark-Field Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Zhangjian; Zhang, Qingquan; Zhao, Wenfeng; Zong, Chenghua; Gai, Hongwei

    2016-02-16

    Mercury severely damages the environment and human health, particularly when it accumulates in the food chain. Methods for the colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) have increasingly been developed over the past decade because of the progress in nanotechnology. However, the limits of detection (LODs) of these methods are mostly either comparable to or higher than the allowable maximum level (10 nM) in drinking water set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, we report a single Au nanoparticle (AuNP)-based colorimetric assay for Hg(2+) detection in solution. AuNPs modified with oligonucleotides were fixed on the slide. The fixed AuNPs bound to free AuNPs in the solution in the presence of Hg(2+) because of oligonucleotide hybridization. This process was accompanied by a color change from green to yellow as observed under an optical microscope. The ratio of changed color spots corresponded with Hg(2+) concentration. The LOD was determined as 1.4 pM, which may help guard against mercury accumulation. The proposed approach was applied to environmental samples with recoveries of 98.3 ± 7.7% and 110.0 ± 8.8% for Yuquan River and industrial wastewater, respectively.

  4. Colorimetric test-systems for creatinine detection based on composite molecularly imprinted polymer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyeva, T A; Gorbach, L A; Piletska, E V; Piletsky, S A; Brovko, O O; Honcharova, L A; Lutsyk, O D; Sergeeva, L M; Zinchenko, O A; El'skaya, A V

    2013-04-03

    An easy-to-use colorimetric test-system for the efficient detection of creatinine in aqueous samples was developed. The test-system is based on composite molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membranes with artificial receptor sites capable of creatinine recognition. A thin MIP layer was created on the surface of microfiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes using method of photo-initiated grafting polymerization. The MIP layer was obtained by co-polymerization of a functional monomer (e.g. 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid, itaconic acid or methacrylic acid) with N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker. The choice of the functional monomer was based on the results of computational modeling. The creatinine-selective composite MIP membranes were used for measuring creatinine in aqueous samples. Creatinine molecules were selectively adsorbed by the MIP membranes and quantified using color reaction with picrates. The intensity of MIP membranes staining was proportional to creatinine concentration in an analyzed sample. The colorimetric test-system based on the composite MIP membranes was characterized with 0.25 mM detection limit and 0.25-2.5mM linear dynamic range. Storage stability of the MIP membranes was estimated as at least 1 year at room temperature. As compared to the traditional methods of creatinine detection the developed test-system is characterized by simplicity of operation, small size and low cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simple colorimetric detection of doxycycline and oxytetracycline using unmodified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Shumin; Li, Zhigang; Xie, Yuanzhe; Wang, Rui; Ge, Baoyu; Wu, Jing; Wang, Ruiyong

    2014-08-01

    The interaction between tetracycline antibiotics and gold nanoparticles was studied. With citrate-coated gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probe, a simple and rapid detection method for doxycycline and oxytetracycline has been developed. This method relies on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles. In weakly acidic buffer medium, doxycycline and oxytetracycline could rapidly induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, resulting in red-to-blue (or purple) colour change. The experimental parameters were optimized with regard to pH, the concentration of the gold nanoparticles and the reaction time. Under optimal experimental conditions, the linear range of the colorimetric sensor for doxycycline/oxytetracycline was 0.06-0.66 and 0.59-8.85 μg mL-1, respectively. The corresponding limit of detection for doxycycline and oxytetracycline was 0.0086 and 0.0838 μg mL-1, respectively. This assay was sensitive, selective, simple and readily used to detect tetracycline antibiotics in food products.

  6. Silver nanoparticles-based colorimetric array for the detection of Thiophanate-methyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingda; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Chenge; Wei, Wei; Ma, Shuang; Sun, Xiaohan; He, Jiang

    2018-06-01

    A simple and selective colorimetric sensor based on citrate capped silver nanoparticles (Cit-AgNPs) is proposed for the detection of Thiophanate-methyl (TM) with high sensitivity and selectivity. The method based on the color change of Cit-AgNPs from yellow to cherry red with the addition of TM to Cit-AgNPs that caused a red-shift on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band from 394 nm to 525 nm due to the hydrogen-bonding and substitution. The density functional theory (DFT) method was also calculated the interactions between the TM and citrate ions. Under the optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the absorption ratio (A525nm/A394nm) and TM concentration was found in the range of 2-100 μM with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.988. The detection limit of TM was 0.12 μM by UV-vis spectrometer. Moreover, the applicability of colorimetric sensor is successfully verified by the detection of TM in environmental samples with good recoveries.

  7. Blue emitting copper nanoclusters as colorimetric and fluorescent probe for the selective detection of bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Aparna; J. S., Anjali Devi; John, Nebu; Abha, K.; S. S., Syamchand; George, Sony

    2018-06-01

    Hurdles to develop point of care diagnostic methods restrict the translation of progress in the health care sector from bench side to bedside. In this article a simple, cost effective fluorescent as well as colorimetric nanosensor was developed for the early and easy detection of hyperbilirubinemia. A stable, water soluble bovine serum albumin stabilised copper nanocluster (BSA CuNC) was used as the fluorescent probe which exhibited strong blue emission (404 nm) upon 330 nm excitation. The fluorescence of the BSA CuNC can be effectively quenched by the addition of bilirubin by the formation of copper-bilirubin complex. Meanwhile the copper-bilirubin complex resulted in an observable colour change from pale violet to green facilitating colorimetric detection. The prepared sensor displayed good selectivity and sensitivity over other co-existing molecules, and can be used for quantifying bilirubin with a detection limit down to 257 fM. Additionally, the as-prepared probe was coated on a paper strip to develop a portable paper strip sensor of bilirubin. Moreover, the method was successfully applied in real sample analysis and obtained promising result.

  8. Colorimetric Detection of Some Highly Hydrophobic Flavonoids Using Polydiacetylene Liposomes Containing Pentacosa-10,12-diynoyl Succinoglycan Monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Deokgyu; Jeong, Daham; Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of plant secondary metabolites including polyphenolic molecules, and they are well known for antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral propertied. In general, flavonoids are detected with various non-colorimetric detection methods such as column liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and electrochemical analysis. For the first time, we developed a straightforward colorimetric detection system allowing recognition of some highly hydrophobic flavonoids such as alpha-naphthoflavone and beta-naphthoflavone, visually using 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) derivatized with succinoglycan monomers isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti. Besides changes in visible spectrum, we also demonstrate fluorescence changes using our detection system in the presence of those flavonoids. The succinoglycan monomers attached to PCDA molecules may function as an unstructured molecular capturer for some highly hydrophobic flavonoids by hydrophobic interactions, and transmit their molecular interactions as a color change throughout the PCDA liposome. PMID:26600071

  9. Labeling of indocyanine green with carrier-free iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.N.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Redvanly, C.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    The method is described for labeling indocyanine green (ICG) with carrier-free iodine-123 by condensing xenon-123 on crystals of ICG followed by permitting decay of the 123 Xe a sufficient length of time to produce 123 I-electronically excited ions and atoms which subsequently label ICG. 4 claims, no drawings

  10. Colorimetric measurements as control elements in wood conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia Soto-Martín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a methodological proposal for the study of altarpieces on wooden supports. The process was implemented to study the altarpiece of San Antonio de Padua in Garachico, Tenerife. For this, we conducted a review of key aspects appropriate to the discipline of wood identification carried out by macroscopic examination and for the characterization of the status of deterioration by colorimetric analysis. For the evaluation of the wood conservation status, the samples were subjected for the first time to colorimetric measurement. As a result we have created an online database to provide information for conservation professionals permitting them to design a proposal for preventive conservation and intervention individually for each object.

  11. Folic acid functionalized silver nanoparticles with sensitivity and selectivity colorimetric and fluorescent detection for Hg2+ and efficient catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongyue; Yang, Xin; Xia, Qingdong; Zhang, Qi; Chai, Fang; Wang, Chungang; Qu, Fengyu

    2014-09-05

    In this research, folic acid functionalized silver nanoparticles (FA-AgNPs) were selected as a colorimetric and a 'turn on' fluorescent sensor for detecting Hg(2+). After being added into Hg(2+), AgNPs can emit stable fluorescence at 440 nm when the excitation wavelength is selected at 275 nm. The absorbance and fluorescence of the FA-AgNPs could reflect the concentration of the Hg(2+) ions. Thus, we developed a simple, sensitive analytical method to detect Hg(2+) based on the colorimetric and fluorescence enhancement of FA-AgNPs. The sensor exhibits two linear response ranges between absorbance and fluorescence intensity with Hg(2+) concentration, respectively. Meanwhile, a detection limit of 1 nM is estimated based on the linear relationship between responses with a concentration of Hg(2+). The high specificity of Hg(2+) with FA-AgNPs interactions provided the excellent selectivity towards detecting Hg(2+) over other metal ions (Pb(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Cd(2+), Ba(2+), Cr(6+) and Cr(3+)). This will provide a simple, effective and multifunctional colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for on-site and real-time Hg(2+) ion detection. The proposed method can be applied to the analysis of trace Hg(2+) in lake water. Additionally, the FA-AgNPs can be used as efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III).

  12. Colorimetric assay of copper ions based on the inhibition of peroxidase-like activity of MoS2 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Li, Zhihong; Liu, Xueting; Zhong, Jianhai; Lin, Tianran; Guo, Liangqia; Fu, Fengfu

    2017-10-01

    The peroxidase-like catalytic activity of MoS2 nanomaterials has been utilized for colorimetric bioassays and medical diagnostics. However, the application of peroxidase-like catalytic activity of MoS2 nanomaterials in environmental analysis was seldom explored. Herein, copper ions were found to inhibit the peroxidase-like catalytic activity of MoS2 nanosheets, which can catalyze the oxidation of 3, 3‧, 5, 5‧-tetramethylbenzidine by H2O2 to produce a colorimetric product. Based on this finding, a simple sensitive colorimetric method for the detection of copper ions was developed. In the presence of copper ions, the absorbance and color of the solution decreased with the increasing concentration of copper ions. The color of the solution can be used to semi-quantitative on-site assay of copper ions by naked eyes. A linear relationship between the absorbance and the concentration of copper ions was observed in the range of 0.4-4.0 μmol L- 1 with a detection limit of 92 nmol L- 1, which was much lower than the maximum contaminant level of copper in drinking water legislated by the Environmental Protection Agency of USA and the World Health Organization. The method was applied to detect copper ions in environmental water samples with satisfactory results.

  13. The effect of iodine uptake on radiation dose absorbed by patient tissues in contrast enhanced CT imaging. Implications for CT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Spanakis, Kostas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hatzidakis, Adam [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the effect of iodine uptake on tissue/organ absorbed doses from CT exposure and its implications in CT dosimetry. The contrast-induced CT number increase of several radiosensitive tissues was retrospectively determined in 120 CT examinations involving both non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT imaging. CT images of a phantom containing aqueous solutions of varying iodine concentration were obtained. Plots of the CT number increase against iodine concentration were produced. The clinically occurring iodine tissue uptake was quantified by attributing recorded CT number increase to a certain concentration of aqueous iodine solution. Clinically occurring iodine uptake was represented in mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms. Standard 120 kV CT exposures were simulated using Monte Carlo methods and resulting organ doses were derived for non-enhanced and iodine contrast-enhanced CT imaging. The mean iodine uptake range during contrast-enhanced CT imaging was found to be 0.02-0.46% w/w for the investigated tissues, while the maximum value recorded was 0.82% w/w. For the same CT exposure, iodinated tissues were found to receive higher radiation dose than non-iodinated tissues, with dose increase exceeding 100% for tissues with high iodine uptake. Administration of iodinated contrast medium considerably increases radiation dose to tissues from CT exposure. (orig.)

  14. Radio-iodine therapy and Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholamrezanezhad, A.; Mirpour, S.; Saghari, M.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Pourmoslemi, A.; Yarmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most important cause of gastritis and related morbidities. Following consumption, radioactive iodine accumulates considerably in the stomach. On the basis of this observation, we decided to determine whether the high radiation induced by radio-iodine in the stomach is effective in the eradication of this infection. All consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who were referred for radio-iodine therapy [dose 117.1±24.4 mCi (4.3±0.9 GBq), range 100-200 mCi (3.7-7.4 GBq)], were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urease breath test (UBT) was performed 1-2 h before radio-iodine consumption and the test was repeated 2 months later. Of 88 patients, 71 had pre-treatment positive UBT. Of these, 23 patients had negative post-treatment result, which means a significant reduction (26.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.8-35.5%) in the number of positive UBT results in our treated population (32.4% of UBT-positive cases became UBT-negative). Considering the high prevalence of reinfection in developing countries, the therapeutic benefit would have been more considerable if the second UBT had been done with a lag time of less than 2 months. Although radio-iodine therapy is not a logical method for the treatment of patients suffering from H. pylori, our finding provides indirect evidence about the radiosensitivity of bacteria, the future clinical applications of which need to be further evaluated. Also this finding can be useful for the food industry, where radiation is used widely to sterilize food. Regarding the possibility of H. pylori suppression, we recommend not using UBT for screening for the infection for at least within 2 months following radio-iodine therapy. (author)

  15. Fluorescent and Colorimetric Molecular Recognition Probe for Hydrogen Bond Acceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Sarah Jane; Hunter, Christopher Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The association constants for formation of 1 : 1 complexes between a H-bond donor, 1-naphthol, and a diverse range of charged and neutral H-bond acceptors have been measured using UV/vis absorption and fluorescence emission titrations. The performance of 1-naphthol as a dual colorimetric and fluorescent molecular recognition probe for determining the H-bond acceptor (HBA) parameters of charged and neutral solutes has been investigated in three solvents. The data were employed to establish sel...

  16. Production of high specific activity 123I for protein iodination for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legoux, Y.; Cieur, M.; Crouzel, C.; Syrota, A.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine-123 is produced via xenon-133 by irradiation of a sodium iodide target with 108 MeV deuterons from the synchrocyclotron of IPN. The on-line production method is described. The specific activity of the iodine is determined by neutron activation analysis and by a radioimmunological method. The conditions labelling different proteins (insulin, angiotensin) are given and also the purification method to obtain a product ready for injection to patients. (author)

  17. Production of high specific activity /sup 123/I for protein iodination for medical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legoux, Y; Cieur, M [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Goutheraud, R; Drouet, J [Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine, 75 - Paris (France); Crouzel, C; Syrota, A [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot

    1985-01-01

    Iodine-123 is produced via xenon-133 by irradiation of a sodium iodide target with 108 MeV deuterons from the synchrocyclotron of IPN. The on-line production method is described. The specific activity of the iodine is determined by neutron activation analysis and by a radioimmunological method. The conditions labelling different proteins (insulin, angiotensin) are given and also the purification method to obtain a product ready for injection to patients.

  18. Label-free aptamer-based colorimetric detection of mercury ions in aqueous media using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li; Li, Baoxin; Qi, Yingying; Jin, Yan [Shaanxi Normal University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Xi' an (China)

    2009-04-15

    We report a simple and sensitive aptamer-based colorimetric detection of mercury ions (Hg{sup 2+}) using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probe. It is based on the fact that bare gold nanoparticles interact differently with short single-strand DNA and double-stranded DNA. The anti-Hg{sup 2+} aptamer is rich in thymine (T) and readily forms T-Hg{sup 2+}-T configuration in the presence of Hg{sup 2+}. By measuring color change or adsorption ratio, the bare gold nanoparticles can effectively differentiate the Hg{sup 2+}-induced conformational change of the aptamer in the presence of a given salt with high concentration. The assay shows a linear response toward Hg{sup 2+} concentration through a five-decade range of 1 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} to 1 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1}. Even with the naked eye, we could identify micromolar Hg{sup 2+} concentrations within minutes. By using the spectrometric method, the detection limit was improved to the nanomolar range (0.6 nM). The assay shows excellent selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} over other metal cations including K{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Fe{sup 3+}. The major advantages of this Hg{sup 2+} assay are its water-solubility, simplicity, low cost, visual colorimetry, and high sensitivity. This method provides a potentially useful tool for the Hg{sup 2+} detection. (orig.)

  19. Colorimetric characterization of three wood species from the amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Valéria dos Santos Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze wood color variability in the (radial, tangential and transversal anatomic sections of Breu-vermelho, Tauari-vermelho and Pequiarana species through quantitative colorimetry using CIELAB color system. Such species come from a forest sustainable area of Thousand Precious Woods Company, located in Itacoatiara in the Amazon region of Brazil. Five wood samples from each species were selected so as to determine the following colorimetric parameters: L*, a*, b*, C e h*. In addition, 225 measurements were carried out with Konica Minolta CM-5 spectrophotometer connected to the computer. Results pointed out to statistical differences in the colorimetric parameters and also a low saturation in a* in the analyzed species. According to the cluster gathering, Breu-vermelho wood presents olive and/or grayish pink color, Tauari-vermelho is pinkish-gray and Pequiarana is grayish-pink and/or pinkish-gray. Such species presented differences in color among the three anatomic sections cited above and were also influenced by the yellow color defined in b* parameter. To summarize, colorimetric analysis to establish wood color is a simple procedure which may be used from the sawing of the logs until their final exploitation enabling value aggregation to the final product.

  20. [Determination of iodine and its species in plant samples using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Chen, Guang; Chen, Yuhong

    2011-07-01

    A method was established for the determination of iodine and its species in plant samples using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP/ MS). Alkaline extraction and IC-ICP/MS were applied as the sample pre-treatment method and the detection technique respectively, for iodate and iodide determination. Moreover, high-temperature pyrolysis absorption was adopted as the pre-treatment method for total iodine analysis, which finally converted all the iodine species into iodide and measured the iodide by IC-ICP/MS. The recoveries of iodine for alkaline extraction and high-temperature pyrolysis absorption were 89.6%-97.5% and 95.2%-111.2%, respectively. The results were satisfactory. The detection limit of iodine was 0.010 mg/kg. The iodine and its speciation contents in several kinds of plant samples such as seaweeds, kelp, cabbage, tea leaf and spinach were investigated. It was shown that the iodine in seaweeds mainly existed as organic iodine; while the ones in kelp, cabbage, tea leaf and spinach mainly existed as inorganic iodine.

  1. Colorimetric determination of TOPO during synthesis process by complexation with thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achache, A.; Meddour, L.; Azzouz, A.

    1990-09-01

    We have shown up a method which permits to dose tri-n-octyl phosphine oxid (TOPO) dissolved into the cyclohexan by colorimetric technique. This leads to find out a method capable to follow the evolution of the process of the synthesis for the tri-n-octyl phosphine oxid. This method consists in mixing up TOTO-cyclohexan with thiocyanate salts, and the formation of a complex of red colour occurs. Further, the complex amount was determined by spectrophotometry U.V. under the following conditions: =487nm; the concentration of the TOPO into the cyclohexan varies in range 1 to 5 10 -4 M/L. This method previously tested on the commercial TOPO (Flukz) was further used for the titration of synthetizied TOPO

  2. Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Research Labs.); Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake

    1989-05-01

    For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and /sup 125/I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author).

  3. Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao; Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake.

    1989-01-01

    For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and 125 I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author)

  4. Rapid recognition of volatile organic compounds with colorimetric sensor arrays for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianhua; Li, Dan; Du, Wei; Yan, Mengqiu; Wang, You; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun

    2018-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can be used as biomarkers to identify early stages of lung cancer. Herein, we report a disposable colorimetric array that has been constructed from diverse chemo-responsive colorants. Distinguishable difference maps were plotted within 4 min for specifically targeted VOCs. Through the consideration of various chemical interactions with VOCs, the arrays successfully discriminate between 20 different volatile organic compounds in breath that are related to lung cancer. VOCs were identified either with the visualized difference maps or through pattern recognition with an accuracy of at least 90%. No uncertainties or errors were observed in the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Finally, good reproducibility and stability of the array was achieved against changes in humidity. Generally, this work provides fundamental support for construction of simple and rapid VOC sensors. More importantly, this approach provides a hypothesis-free array method for breath testing via VOC profiling. Therefore, this small, rapid, non-invasive, inexpensive, and visualized sensor array is a powerful and promising tool for early screening of lung cancer. Graphical abstract A disposable colorimetric array has been developed with broadly chemo-responsive dyes to incorporate various chemical interactions, through which the arrays successfully discriminate 20 VOCs that are related to lung cancer via difference maps alone or chemometrics within 4 min. The hydrophobic porous matrix provides good stability against changes in humidity.

  5. Recovery of iodine as iodine-125 from biological materials prior to assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.B.; Belling, G.B.; Buckley, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    In biological tissues iodine is usually present as iodoamino acids or iodoproteins. The organic material must be oxidised and the iodine converted into iodate prior to the final spectrophotometric determination. At parts per billion (10 9 ) levels, recoveries of added iodine are difficult to measure precisely as iodine can easily be lost from the sample and added inorganic iodine may not be recovered in the same proportions as the naturally occurring iodine. Iodine-125 provides a much more sensitive, specific and accurate means of testing the recovery of nanogram amounts of iodine from biological tissues and it can be incorporated into tissues in the naturally occurring compounds. Plants can be grown in a solution culture containing iodine-125 and animals can be injected with iodine-125 to provide tissues where naturally occurring iodine compounds are labelled with radioactive iodine. These tissues can be used to examine the recovery of iodine after oven drying, freeze drying, alkali ashing and acid digestion of the samples. Experimental details are given for spinach, tobacco, oats, cauliflower and thyroid. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  6. Determination of Ultralow Level 129I/127I in Natural Samples by Separation of Microgram Carrier Free Iodine and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Chen, Ning

    2010-01-01

    of 129I/127I, and a detection limit of this method for 129I is calculated to be 105 atoms. This will allow us to accurately determine 129I in prenuclear geological samples of low iodine concentration with 129I/127I of 10−12, such as loess, soil, coral, rock, sediment, and groundwater. Some samples......Separation of carrier free iodine from low iodine level samples and accurate measurement of ultralow level 129I in micrograms of iodine target are essential but a bottleneck in geological dating of terrestrial system and tracer research using naturally produced 129I. In this work, we present...... a carrier free method using coprecipitation of AgI with AgCl for preparing micrograms of iodine target, associated with combustion using a tube furnace for separating iodine from solid samples and anion exchange chromatography for preconcentrating iodine from a large volume of water. An accelerator mass...

  7. Heterogeneous equilibrium in mplybdenum-iodine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkova, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Heterogeneous equilibrium in the Mo-J system is studied to reveal regions of existence of molybdenum iodides, is studied. The investigation is performed for atomic ratio I/Mo=0.02-7.5 in the temperature range of 300-1370 K using methods of thermographic, X-ray phase, chemical and optical analyses of phases quenched after isothermal annealing. It is shown that higher molybdenum iodides (Mo1 4 , MoJ 5 , MoJ 6 ) are thermally unstable compounds and exist in the Mo-J system at low temperatures (360-490 K). Above 470 K higher iodides dissociate up to molybdenum triiodide. MoJ 3 under the pressure of iodine vapors is stable up to 970 K. Molybdenum diiodide is the product of triiodide decomposition and forms in the Mo-J system in the 700-1270 K range. At the J/Mo>>3 ratio the product of triiodide decomposition is MoJsub(2.87) which is thermally unstable up to 570 K, while in iodine atmosphere - up to 1170 K

  8. Assessment of Iodine Status among Hostel Employees and Students of a University in Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, M.; Tufail, M.; Chaudhry, M.M.; Irfan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and related disorders are the major health hazard in the world, especially along the Himalayas. A study has been carried out to assess the status of iodine in students and employees living in the hilly area in the premises of a university in Islamabad, Pakistan. The study was carried out for 76 students living in university hostels and 32 employees serving in the hostels. Urinary iodide excretion (UIE) was used as the biochemical marker of iodine concentration in the donors. Catalytic kinetic method based on Sandell-Kolthoff reaction was employed for the measurement of iodine concentration in the samples of urine. Out of 76 students, 8% had UIE greater or equal to 100 mg/L, while 39% had between 50-99 mg/L, 49% had between 20-49 mg/L and 4% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Similarly, out of 32 employees, 22% had UIE greater or equal 100 mg/L while 28% had between 50-99 mg/L, 44% had between 20-49 mg/L and 6% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Target groups of the study area were iodine deficient, indicating mild to severe iodine deficiency. The iodine level in the employees was relatively better than that in the students. Improvement of iodine status is recommended among the students and employees by the mandatory use of iodized salt in all the cafeterias of the university. (author)

  9. Rapid Colorimetric Detection of Cartap Residues by AgNP Sensor with Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Microspheres as Recognition Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The overuse of cartap in tea tree leads to hazardous residues threatening human health. A colorimetric determination was established to detect cartap residues in tea beverages by silver nanoparticles (AgNP sensor with magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric microspheres (Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs as recognition elements. Using Fe3O4 as supporting core, mesoporous SiO2 as intermediate shell, methylacrylic acid as functional monomer, and cartap as template, Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs were prepared to selectively and magnetically separate cartap from tea solution before colorimetric determination by AgNP sensors. The core-shell Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs were also characterized by FT-IR, TEM, VSM, and experimental adsorption. The Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs could be rapidly separated by an external magnet in 10 s with good reusability (maintained 95.2% through 10 cycles. The adsorption process of cartap on Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs conformed to Langmuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 0.257 mmol/g and short equilibrium time of 30 min at 298 K. The AgNP colorimetric method semi-quantified cartap ≥5 mg/L by naked eye and quantified cartap 0.1–5 mg/L with LOD 0.01 mg/L by UV-vis spectroscopy. The AgNP colorimetric detection after pretreatment with Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs could be successfully utilized to recognize and detect cartap residues in tea beverages.

  10. Facile Colorimetric Determination of Duloxetine in Formulations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX). Methods: Ion-pair spectrophotometric method was employed for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations using acidic dye methyl orange (MO) as ion-pairing agent at pH 4 (phthalate buffer). The yellow ion-pair complex ...

  11. Studies of iodine concentration in steel and transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, C.; Kozlowski, W.; Oleksi-Frenzel, J.; Nachtigall, K.; Neste, A. van; Welsh, M.; Titze-Zaeske, B.; Plieth, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive iodine which originates from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants as a fission product and consists mainly of the radioactive isotopes 129 I, 131 I, and of the inactive 127 I, must be quantitatively adsorbed at the end of the process for the purpose of safe waste disposal. Inspite of using high-alloy austenitic chrome nickel steels, major corrosion effects were observed at tubes and containers of the PASSAT dissolver waste gas purifier. This research project serves to clarify the question in which parts of the installation iodine concentration is to be expected under certain conditions. Furthermore it serves to identify the redox state of iodine in the various installation components. For this purpose steel (1.4306esu and 1.4563N), zirconium and titanium were studied in nitric iodic media. With the objective of calculating iodine adsorption isotherms, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: FTIR, ellipsometry, 131 I radiotracer method, cyclo-voltametry, closed circuit potential measurements, ion chromatography. (orig./DG) [de

  12. The development of advanced gas cooled reactor iodine adsorber systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddings, P.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGRs) are provided with plants to process the carbon dioxide coolant prior to its discharge to atmosphere. Included in these are beds of granular activated charcoal, contained within a suitable pressure vessel, through which the high pressure carbon dioxide is passed for the purpose of retaining iodine and iodine-containing compounds. Carry-over carbon dust from the adsorption beds was identified during active in-situ commissioning testing, radio-iodine being transported with the particulate material due to gross disturbance of the adsorber carbon bed and displacement of the vessel internals. The methods used to identify the causes of the problems and find solutions are described. A development programme for the Heysham-2 and Torness reactors iodine adsorber units was set up to identify a method of de-dusting granular charcoal and develop it for full-scale use, of assess the effect under conditions of high gas density of approach velocity on charcoal fines production and to establish the pressure drop characteristics of a packed granular bed and to develop an effective design of inlet gas diffuser manifold to ensure an acceptable velocity distribution. This has involved the construction of a small scale high pressure carbon dioxide rig and development of an air flow model. This work is described. (UK)

  13. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260-300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  14. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  15. Production of high quality sodium iodide preparations labelled with carrier free iodine-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, M.N.; Chistyakov, P.G.; Shilin, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Work is related to the problem of high-quality Sodium Iodide preparation production and to the choice of the peptids iodination methods with the purpose of control test developing to determine the Biological activity of the above mentioned preparation

  16. In-Flight Water Quality Monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS): Measuring Biocide Concentrations with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    The colorimetric water quality monitoring kit (CWQMK) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) on STS-128/17A and was initially deployed in September 2009. The kit was flown as a station development test objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the acceptability of colorimetric solid phase extraction (CSPE) technology for routine water quality monitoring on the ISS. During the SDTO experiment, water samples from the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA), the U.S. potable water dispenser (PWD), and the Russian system for dispensing ground-supplied water (SVO-ZV) were collected and analyzed with the CWQMK. Samples from the U.S. segment of the ISS were analyzed for molecular iodine, which is the biocide added to water in the WPA. Samples from the SVOZV system were analyzed for ionic silver, the biocide used on the Russian segment of the ISS. In all, thirteen in-flight analysis sessions were completed as part of the SDTO experiment. This paper provides an overview of the experiment and reports the results obtained with the CWQMK. The forward plan for certifying the CWQMK as operational hardware and expanding the capabilities of the kit are also discussed.

  17. The colorimetric analysis of anti-tuberculosis fixed-dose combination tablets and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellard, G A

    1999-11-01

    The perceived need to demonstrate whether or not the actual amounts of rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in fixed-dose combination tablets or capsules correspond to their stated drug contents. To adapt specific, robust and simple colorimetric methods that have been previously applied to measuring plasma and urinary rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations to estimate tablet and capsule drug contents. The methods were applied to the analysis of 14 commercially manufactured fixed-dose combinations: two capsule and three tablet formulations containing rifampicin and isoniazid; seven tablet formulations containing rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide; and two tablet formulations containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. All the combined formulations contained near to their stated drug contents. Replicate analyses confirmed the excellent precision of the drug analyses. Such methods are not only rapid to perform but should be practical in many Third World situations with relatively modest laboratory facilities.

  18. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  19. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs

  20. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D A [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.