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Sample records for iodine 131

  1. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  2. Iodine 131 and 133 as Fission Indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1944-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in September 1944 and is about the possible use of Iodine 131 and 133 as fission indicators. Additionally, the description of the chemical procedure for I 131 and I 133 and the corresponding results can be found in this report. (nowak)

  3. Malignant disease after iodine-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.; Hall, P.; Lundell, G.

    1991-01-01

    Iodine-131 therapy is one of the most common treatments for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Data on man exposed to 131-I are still scarce, and there is concern as to its possible genetic and carcinogenic effects. No overall increased cancer risk has been observed in patients receiving 131-I therapy for hyperthyroidism. Two studies have reported increased risks for leukemia after 131-I therapy for throid cancer. Different sites have been demonstrated to be at increased cancer risk in different record-linkage studies of thyroid cancer patients, e.g. bone-marrow, breast and kidney, nervous tissue, and connective tissue. However, the findings are not consistent. This article presents results from a Swedish multicenter cohort study analyzing risks of second primary tumors in patients treated with 131-I for hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer. 10 refs

  4. Radiosensitizers action on Iodine 131 therapeutical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agote, Marcos; Kreimann, Erica L.; Bocanera, Laura V.; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.

    1999-01-01

    Present studies were aimed to research the possible application of a radiosensitizer, nicotinamide, to increase the therapeutical effect of radioiodine. There were used goitrous and normal rats with growing dose of Iodine 131, with and without simultaneous treatment with nicotinamide. The obtained results show that the nicotinamide treatment importantly increases the thyroid radio destructive effect induced by radioiodine. Under these experimental conditions, nicotinamide induces to a significant increase of thyroid vascularisation, without changes in the proteins ADP-ribosylation activity. These results show, for the first time, the radiosensitizer effect of nicotinamide in front of Iodine 131 and give the possibility of using it in the treatment of hyperthyroid or thyroid difference cancer patients. (author)

  5. Source of Iodine-131 in Europe Identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA has received information from the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) that the source of the iodine-131 (I-131) detected in Europe was most probably a release to the atmosphere from the Institute of Isotopes Ltd., Budapest. The Institute of Isotopes Ltd. produces radioisotopes for healthcare, research and industrial applications. According to the HAEA, the release occurred from September 8 to November 16, 2011. The cause of the release is under investigation. As previously mentioned, the levels of I-131 that have been detected in Europe are extremely low. There is no health concern to the population. If any member of the public were to breathe iodine for a whole year at the levels measured in European countries, then they would receive a dose in the range of 0.01 microsieverts for the year. To put this into perspective, the average annual background is 2 400 microsieverts per year. The IAEA was first notified of the presence of trace levels of I-131 by authorities from the Czech Republic on 11 November. Since this notification, the IAEA contacted several member states throughout the region to determine the cause and origin. The IAEA also worked with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to conduct air dispersion modelling, as part of efforts to determine the source. (IAEA)

  6. Contamination with iodine-131 in metabolic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Luis, J.; Gomez, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Herrador, M.; Rogriguez, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    High-dose radioactive iodine therapy using 131 I is the treatment of choice for patients with thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. Because of the large amount of activity which is excreted during hospitalization, contamination harzard from 131 I excretion via perspiration, saliva, breath and urine may arise. In twelve patients treated with doses of 131 I ranging from 1.85-7.4GBq activity levels were measured in room surface, the toilet, patients saliva and skin. Removable activity from skin reached a maximum at 24h post-therapy. Removable activity from room surfaces exceed the level of contamination which requires clean-up in a public area during patient's hospitalization. The relatively high activities present in the saliva and skin of these patients emphasizes the need for all individuals coming in contact with these patients to be made aware of the contamination hazard present. (author)

  7. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, D R; Crawley, M T; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J

    2014-01-01

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  8. Radiation exposure in I-131 iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years, the applied I-131 radioactivity quantity has doubled with a constant number of beds. In 1984, it was 925 GBq (25 Ci). Despite this development, no changes in the professional radiation exposure were made out. The evaluation shows a dose smaller than 0.04 man Sv/TBq (0.16 man rem/Ci) of I-131 applied. This value is below the traceability limit of the film badges. The incorporation load of the personnel (27 members) was determined by monthly body counter measurements. Only in one measurement thyroid gland activity of 5 kBq (140 nCi) was detected. Most measurements did not show any incorporation; and the few positive results were below 0.74 kBq (20 nCi). The environmental load due to unfiltered release from patients' rooms was determined at the fence of the nuclear research plant. The maximum was 0.24 mSv/a thyroid gland dose of a small child in 1982 taking into account the measured 90% partion of organic compound iodine. The waste water is decayed following chemical treatment in storage tanks. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Merkel cell carcinoma and iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnoli, A.; Biti, G.; De Cristofaro, M.T.R.; Papi, M.G.; Ferri, P.; Magrini, S.M.; Bianchi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, a neuroendocrine neoplasia of the skin, investigated with iodine, 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-mIBG) scintigraphy, are reported. Uptake in the tumor was evident only in 1 case. The possible diagnostic and therapeutic role of 131 I-mIBG in patients with this rare neoplasm is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Chapter 5: Measurements of iodine-131 in milk supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.; Kotler, L.H.; Wilks, M.J.; Wise, K.N.

    1974-01-01

    As with previous series of French nuclear tests in Polynesia, a program was instituted to monitor major milk supplies for iodine-131. This program extended from 25 July to 23 October 1973, and was terminated only after there was no further possibility of iodine-131 reaching the milk supplies. The program covered the nine major population centres and effectively monitored the milk consumed by 80 per cent of the entire Australian population. The method employed for iodine-131 assay of milk supplies is described, and the final results obtained are presented. (author)

  11. Nursing of patients with hyperthyroidism treated by using iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongju; Cao Guoxiang

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism was a common endocrine disease, its clinic treatment mainly include anti thyroid drug treatment, surgical operation and iodine-131 therapy. The latter have unique superiority, which was adapted by clinic doctors. The nursing method was distinguished from that of others because the principle of iodine-131 therapy was different from other therapy in course of the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Combining the nursing experiences with related documents, this article was about to sum up briefly the nursing and matters needing attention in course of treatment of iodine-131 in patients with hyperthyroidism

  12. Production of 131 Iodine in research reactors from elementary tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Constancia Pagano Goncalves da

    1970-01-01

    Presents the history of the production of iodine-131 in the Institute of Atomic Energy (IEA), SP, Brazil), the preliminary works for the development of the method, which were done in small scale and it was not necessary protection for the operators, the evolution of these operations until the final assembling of the equipment in shielded cells, the efficiency of operations and product purity. The problems linked to the presence of iodate in the preparations and the changes made for elimination of that ion, harmful to many types and use of iodine-131 are examined. The quality of the product delivered today, an average of 140 departures per month, and the number of departures, per year since the beginning of iodine-131 production were indicated

  13. Genetic effects of iodine 131 incorporation in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrakova, A.

    1988-01-01

    The translocation yield after single treatment of male mice with iodine 131 (55,5 - 222,0 kBq/g b.w.) was investigated. The results of the cytogenetic analysis of the gonad cells revealed the effectiveness only of the highest activity, distroying the thyroid gland. The so-called direct method was also used for determination of the risk coefficients for the expected new carriers of balanced and unbalanced translocations in the first generation - the genetic effects which could be expected from the use of iodine-131-diagnostics in a hypothetic population

  14. Contamination of pasture by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio

    1980-08-01

    The reassessment of the experimental data on the transfer of iodine to aerial parts of rye-gras leads to the following significant findings: 1 - Water content of herbage depending markedly on time and location, the contamination of the vegetals has to be expressed on a dry weight basis. 2 - The value of the geometrical mean of the deposition velocity of iodine vapour as derived from 19 experiments carried out over 4 years is 0.76 cm/s. This value agrees very well with the value of V(d)=0.80 obtained in the USA during experiments comparable as to the number of tests and their duration. Consequently we propose a value of V(d)=0.76 cm/s for the evaluation of pasture land contamination by iodine resulting from routine releases. For accidental releases, however, we propose a value of V(d)=2 cm/s, which was the upper limit in about 90% of our experimental results. 3 - The analysis of data on wet deposition of iodine on the aerial parts of rye-grass shows that the initial retention when expressed as percent of the total deposit decreases with aspersion intensities. If expressed as retention factor, the initial retention is constant, for all aspersion intensities. The average initial iodine retention being lower by a factor of 2.3 than water retention the value of the latter will therefore be the upper limit for this radionuclide [fr

  15. Some methods of detection of atmospheric contamination by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Chevalier, Gerard; Gaillard, Pierre; Pradel, Jacques

    1964-01-01

    Due to the extensive use of iodine, risks of contamination by iodine 131 are increasing. Moreover, the increase of reactor power requires venting installations equipped with efficient safety filters which must be tested. The authors thus report the study of iodine trapping in filters, and its atmospheric detection and measurement. They report studies and achievements in the field of measurement of atmospheric pollution, and tests performed on iodine trapping by activated coals. After having outlined key qualities of an apparatus for atmospheric control, the authors indicate the various sampling methods. They discuss the method and calibration for the measurement of radioactivity of filters and coal which have trapped iodine 131. They discuss measurement sensitivity. They report how the efficiency of coals has been checked. They describe the experimental installation, and report the tests of some detectors of atmospheric contamination: sampling cartridges full of activated coal, gas mask cartridge, continuous control apparatus ('coffee machine' type), and detector of gaseous iodine. Appendices indicate the calculation of error on a cartridge counting rate, iodine generation methods (discontinuous method, continuous method) [fr

  16. Axillary iodine-131 accumulation due to perspiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camponovo, E.J.; Goyer, P.F.; Silverman, E.D.; Kistler, A.M.; Yudt, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    A case of spurious axillary uptake of I-131 proven to be caused by perspiration is presented. False-positive localizations of radioiodine, both pathologic and physiologic, are reviewed to avoid confusion of these entities with functioning thyroid carcinoma metastases

  17. Iodine-131 therapy for parotid oncocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Tamura, K.; Mukai, M.; Kubo, A.; Hashimoto, S.

    1988-06-01

    We present a rare case of a patient with coexisting parotid oncocytoma and chronic thyroiditis who received two therapeutic doses of (/sup 131/I)iodide for a recurrent oncocytoma (oxyphilic granular cell adenoma), resulting in a definite reduction in tumor volume. We suggest that radioiodine therapy for a recurrent oncocytoma is an effective form of tumor therapy.

  18. Thyroid cancer following diagnostic iodine-131 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.; Holm, L.-E.; Boice, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following 131 I exposure, 34104 patients administered 131 I for diagnostic purposes were followed for up to 40 years. Mean thyroid dose was estimated as 1.1 Gy, and 67 thyroid cancers occurred in contrast to 49.7 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.71]. Excess cancers were apparent only among patients referred because of a suspected thyroid tumor and no increased risk was seen among those referred for other reasons. Further, risk was not related to radiation dose to the thyroid gland, time since exposure, or age at exposure. The slight excess of thyroid cancer, then appeared due to the underlying thyroid condition and not radiation exposure. Among those under age 20 years when 131 I was administered, a small excess risk (3 cancers vs 1.8 expected) was about 2-10 times lower than that predicted from A-bomb data. These data suggest that protraction of dose may result in a lower risk than acute x-ray exposure of the same total dose

  19. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Mao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  20. Treatments of hyperthyroidism with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuniyasu, Yoshio

    1978-01-01

    The results of treatment 131 I were reported, and hypothyroidism as a late disturbance was described. The therapeutic results of a standard dose of 6000 rad and the incidence of hypothyroidism were discussed. Of the 117 patients followed up (80% were 21-50 years of age, and 30% were followed up for more than 10 years), 98 (83.8%) were euthyroid (cured), and 19 (16.2%) had hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurred 6 months and 2 years later in one case each, 5 years later in 9, and more than 10 years later in 6; the onset increased with increasing years. Sixty patients (55%) were cured by the first treatment, and 36 were relieved by the second a total of 96 patients (87.2%) were relieved by two irradiations. Of all hypothyroidism was observed in 12 patients (10%). The incidence of hypothyroidism increased among the patients given more than 3 irradiations. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hypothyroidism between single 131 I treatment and 131 I treatment following the internal use of antithyroid drugs. Hypothyroidism did not occur in cases given less than 5000 rad, but occurred in 8.5% of those given 5000-10000 rad and 18.9% of those given 10000-15000 rad. With a standard dose of 6000 rad, 109 (82%) of the 133 patients followed up for less than 4 years were relieved or cured; hypothyroidism appeared in 13 cases (9.8%) including transient one immediately after recovery and this result is less satisfactory than that obtained with 9000 rad previously. (Chiba, M.)

  1. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48 h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  2. Guidelines on the management of patients treated with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to assist health care institutions establish protocols for the management of patients treated with iodine-131. These guidelines are written primarily for the use of Na 131 I in the treatment of benign and malignant thyroid disease. The principles have some application for the use of complex 131 I-labelled radiopharmaceuticals in that the treated patient will become a temporary radiation source and since contamination with body fluids of treated patients must be guarded against. The document outlines radiation protection and logistical concerns associated with the management of 131 I patients before, during and after therapy. These concerns include the safety of health care personnel, visitors, and any other persons who are at risk; and protection of the environment. (L.L.) 23 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Iodine-125 and Iodine-131 in the Thames Valley and other areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.R.; Lloyd, M.K.; Bowlt, C.

    1985-01-01

    Part of the Iodine-125 and Iodine-131 waste from hospitals and research centres is discarded down drains and passes through sewage and water reclamation works into the river system. Relatively high concentration of radioiodine occur in outfalls that discharge into the river Thames, lower levels are found in the mainstream river and less still in the reservoirs and tap water supplies abstracted from the river. The pathway from waste to drinking water could account for the low levels of Iodine-125 found in the thyroid glands of some farm animals and human beings in the Thames valley

  4. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1992-10-01

    Detailed results of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) iodine-131 release reconstruction are presented in this volume. Included are daily data on B, D, and F Plant, reactor operations from the P-Department Daily Reports (General Electric Company 1947). Tables of B and T Plant material processed from the three principal sources on separations plant operations: The Jaech report (Jaech undated), the 200 Area Report (Acken and Bird 1945; Bird and Donihee 1945), and the Metal History Reports (General Electric Company 1946). A transcription of the Jaech report is also provided because it is computer-generated and is not readily readable in its original format. The iodine-131 release data are from the STRM model. Cut-by-cut release estimates are provided, along with daily, monthly, and yearly summations. These summations are based on the hourly release estimates. The hourly data are contained in a 28 megabyte electronic file. Interested individuals may request a copy

  5. Radiation doses by therapeutical practices with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Trano, J.L.; Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.M.; Grassi, E.; Gatica, N.; Kunst, J.J.; Gonzalez, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this document is to estimate the doses to workers and public due to therapeutical practices with iodine 131. Environmental and personal doses by external irradiation were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The environmental dosimetry resulted in an equivalent dose H * (10) of approximately 0,1 mSv. The calculated personal equivalent dose Hp (10) was of the order of 0,1 mSv. The exposition rate was measured, being the values obtained in the range of 0,20 and 0,35 mSv/h. (1m from the abdominal wall). Concentrations of iodine 131 were determinate in the air of the room, during the first day in the hospital. Values obtained were between 0,04 Bq/l and 0,20 Bq/l. Surface samples were taken in the service, obtaining levels of contamination in the range of 0,001 and 0,4 Bq/cm 2 . The surface samples obtained in the hospital room were about 0,15 Bq/cm 2 . Urine samples were collected resulting in an eliminated activity of iodine 131, during the first 24 hours, of about 60 % of the administered activity. Samples of sweat of different cutaneous regions were obtained, the maximum values of the activity measured reached 200 Bq/cm 2 . According to the obtained results it is important to elaborate guides to be given to patients as an instrument to reduce the external exposure and to avoid internal contamination. (author)

  6. Inquiry about 131 Iodine use in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, Claudio Cordeiro; Takahashi, Mirian Hideko; Senhorini Junior, Sidney; Graf, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is an effective and widely accepted therapy for Graves disease (G D) and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), but there still are some controversies about the criteria for its use. To establish the present tendency for radioiodine indication, we have sent questionnaires for members of The Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Latin American Thyroid Society, with 3 index cases: G D, toxic nodular goiter (TNG) and DTC. For each case, questions were proposed about diagnostic procedures and therapy with some clinical variants, which could modify the therapeutic choice. From the almost 2000 questionnaires sent only 82 replies (3.4%) were analyzed. Most of respondents defined themselves as general endocrinologists (85%), working in South and Southeast regions of Brazil (80%), with more than 20 years of professional activity and working mainly at University Hospitals (40%). In case index 1 (G D), 95% of the respondents used arrays of T 3, T 4 and TSH for the diagnosis and 25% added TRAb and thyroid scan. Antithyroid drugs (ATD) were the first choice for 72%, followed by radioiodine and surgery (26% and 1.3% respectively). None of clinical variants such as severe exophthalmos, older age or goiter size modified the therapy. In case 2 (TNG), radioiodine was the first therapy for 84% of professionals and the presence of compressive symptoms was the only variant that changed this tendency, when surgery was the main option. In case 3 (DTC), almost all indicated total thyroidectomy. Radioiodine for thyroid remnants was proposed by 45% of respondents, independent of residual uptake, while the remaining did so depending of different values of uptake, giving 30 to 100 mCI. These data show that radioiodine use is increasing for hyperthyroidism, but still less than observed in other countries and that we do not have uniformity for treatment of DTC. (author)

  7. Status of urinary iodine and I-131 uptake after universal iodination of common salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, F.; Begum, F.; Haque, M.; Karim, M.A.; Faruque, O.; Ali, L.; Khan, A.K.A.

    2002-01-01

    This work was carried out in the Institute of Institute of Nuclear Medicine (INM), Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Dhaka. Here we have tried to explore present status of urinary iodine and uptake status in Bangabandhu. Period study was from 1998 to 2000. Total study population was 300, of them 84 was male and 216 was female. Populations of all social and economic strata have been studied, starting from bottoms to top-level income groups as well as urban, rural and suburban populations are included randomly. We studied I-131 uptake and urinary iodine. I-131 given orally in liquid form and the quantity accumulated by the thyroid gland at 24 hours intervals of time is measured using a gamma scintillation counter. Gamma-ray emission of 364 keV energy by I-131 is detected gamma scintillation counter. Urinary iodine is estimated by CIS-BIO kit. Urine is digested with chloric acid under mild conditions and determined manually by its catalytic role in the reduction of ceric ammonium sulfate in the presence of arsenious acid. The uptake was grouped into four categories according to their uptake percentage. Group-A; (lowest uptake group) 99 subject, have uptake between 0 to 4.9%, Group-B; 100 subjects, (relatively low uptake) who have uptake between 4.91-9.9%, group-C; 73 subjects, who have uptake between 10-30% and in-group D, there was 28 subjects their uptake was above 30%. We have also found in group-A median uptake is 3.0% and urinary iodine level is 43.31 μg/dl, in group-B median uptake is 7.0% and urinary iodine level is 33.95 μg/dl, in group-C median uptake is 23.0% and urinary iodine level is 12.97 μg/dl, in group-D median uptake is 34.0% and urinary iodine level is 9.35 μg/dl. We have found 1.04% have severe type low urinary iodine, 3.48% moderate type of low urinary iodine, 3.48%, 16.72% mild type of low urinary iodine and 78.74% have normal

  8. Alteration of radioactive iodine uptake after treatment of hyperthyroidism with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.C.; Gossain, V.V.; Rovner, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether a therapeutic dose of iodine 131 affects the results of 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) testing, we reviewed records of hyperthyroid patients previously treated with 131 I at Michigan State University and its affiliated hospitals. We identified 26 patients who had had clinical evaluation and determination of the serum thyroxine (T4) level, triiodothyronine resin uptake (T3RU), and RAIU (using 131 I) within two weeks before and several months after the therapeutic dose of 131 I. Before treatment, all patients had clinical hyperthyroidism, with an elevated T4 level and increased T3RU and RAIU. After treatment with 131 I, eight patients (31%) had an RAIU that was discordant with their clinical and biochemical (T4 and T3RU) assessment. In six patients (23%) of the RAIU was inappropriately high, and in two patients (8%) it was inappropriately low. Since we did not identify any other factors known to interfere with the results of RAIU testing, we conclude that a therapeutic dose of 131 I, may by itself increase or decrease a subsequent RAIU determination; therefore, after treatment with 131 I, RAIU is not a good diagnostic index of thyroid activity

  9. Immunotoxic effects of iodine-131 in prenatally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.A.; Stevens, R.H.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Present results suggest that offspring exposed in utero to radioactive iodine-131 develop a measureable cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Regnant Fischer F344 inbred rats were exposed to 370 kBg to 3.7 MBg (10 to 100 μCi) Na 131I on 16 to 18 days of gestation and evaluated for CMI responsiveness 2 to 3 months post exposure using an 125I radiolabeled membrane release assay. Current data suggest that not only the F1, but also the F2 pups develop a measureable CMI response. In order to determine whether other immune functions are altered studies have been initiated to evaluate the immunotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to 131I. These studies include the evaluation of the delayed hypersensitivity response and the blastogenic responses to phytoheemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide

  10. Iodine-131: optimal therapy for hyperthyrodism in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Gross, M.D.; Sisson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the medium- to long-term effects of I-131 therapy of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents, we studied 51 patients (age range 6 to 18; 8 boys, 43 girls) treated with I-131 for Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism at the University of Michigan Medical Center (1951 to 1972). Patients received total doses ranging from 3 to 81.6 mCi. The mean followup period was 14.6 +- 7.9 yr. Hyperthyroidism was effectively treated in 49 within 1 to 12 months. One patient failed to respond to three treatment doses, and hyperthyroidism recurred in two patients: 2 and 11 yr after initial therapy. Of these three patients, two were treated by thyroidectomy and was retreated successfully with I-131. There were no cases of thyroid cancer, other malignancies or leukemia. The patients' reproductive histories and the health of their offspring were as in the general population. At the time of study, the prevalence of hypothyroidism was 92%, with no recurrent goiters or thyroid nodules. Iodine-131 is found to be safe and effective treatment of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents and should be the preferred mode of therapy

  11. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with fixed dose form Iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Torres, P.; Cerquera, A.M.; Acosta, F.; Sierra, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: Evaluation of the response to therapy with fixed dose of Iodine-131 in patients with hyperthyroidism. One hundred seventeen patients with hyperthyroidism were tested and sent for treatment with Iodine-131. The dose of the therapy was calculated according to the pathology (Diffuser goiter (DG): Multinodular goiter (MNG) and Single toxic nodule (NST). Values of TSH confirmed hyperthyroidism by laboratory methods. The thyroid-blocking agents were discontinued: methimazole for five days and propylthiouracil two days prior to therapy. The pregnancy tests were routinely conducted in females of reproductive age group. Patients reported fasting for therapy. The doses were administered in capsule form after obtaining informed consent from the patients. The patients were normally instructed to eat only after two hours after administration of iodine to promote gastric absorption of the radionuclide. Normally a post therapy thyroid scan is performed four days after treatment. Patients are usually followed up by the endocrinologists. A three- month post therapy evaluation is done by the nuclear medicine physician by telephone. The demographic data of our patients treated are as follows: Total number of patients: 117 Female: 88 (75.21%) Male: 29 (24.79%) Age average: 45 years. Diffuse Goiter= 94 (80.34%), Multinodular Goiter= 17 (14.52%) and Toxic Adenoma (NST) = 6 (5.12%). The average administered dose was 22.5 mCi to DG, 41.8 mCi to MNG and 37.5 mCi to NST. 102 (87.14%) patients at the control at 2 years after treatment presented stable response to therapy, 15 (12.86%) required a second therapy, 11 (11.70%) with BD and 4 (23.52%) with BMN; and any patient with NST required a second therapy. 83 (88.29%) of the patients with BD; 13 (76.48%) with BMN and 6 (100%) with NST the therapy was successful. Conclusion: Fixed dose of I-131 in hyperthyroidism is useful in patients with DG (11.70%). In patients with MNG whom a fixed dose is supplied, 23.52% require a

  12. Iodine-131 therapy for the treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkhtuya, B.; Tsevelmaa, L.; Erdenechimeg, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Since 1997, radioactive iodine (I-131) has become the most widely used therapy for patients with hyperthyroidism cased by Graves' disease in the Mongolia. Our seven years clinical experience was reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of the therapy. We treated 150 patients (119 female and 31 male) with hyperthyroidism with I-131 (mean dose 8.2 mCi) between 1997 and 2004. The dose calculation was based on 24 hours thyroid uptake, thyroid gland size and degree of toxicity. We determined their thyroid status after 1 year in relation to age, pretreatment with an antithyroid drug, pretreatment thyroid size and whether or not there are thyroid nodules. Out of the 150 patients, 87(58%) were euthyroid, 30 (20%) hypothyroid at 1 year after treatment, and 33 patients (22%) had persistent hyperthyroidism and required second treatment. The patients who had persistent hyperthyroidism were younger in age, had larger thyroid glands, some of them had thyroid nodules and 27 patients (81%) pretreatment with anti-thyroid drugs for more than 6 months. Our results showed that the majority of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism had a effective treatment. However, 22% of patients with younger age, larger thyroid glands, patients with thyroid nodules and who had anti-thyroid drugs for more than 6 months had undergone repeated treatment. A higher dose of I-131 maybe advisable in such patients. In order to establish correct treatment dose we may need more precise dosimetry study. (author)

  13. Radiation safety considerations for post-iodine-131 hyperthyroid therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, C.M.; Dworkin, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines based on patient measurements as to when iodine-131- (131I) treated hyperthyroid patients may resume close personal contact. External exposure rates were measured on 59 patients using an ionization survey meter in the upright position. The initial measurement was recorded within 20 min post-dose administration at one meter. Exposure rates were measured 2-11 days post-dose administration at 1, 0.6, and 0.3 meters from the patient's thyroid. In the administered dose range of 3 to less than 12 mCi of 131I, all 40 patients measured less than or equal to 2.0 mR/hr at one meter on Day 0, and 25 patients (25/29) were less than or equal to 2.0 mR/hr at 0.6 meter on Days 2-4. Guidelines can be prepared based on the administered dose that are rational and in conformity with existing radiologic health standards

  14. Hyperthyroidism treatment by iodine 131: about a study on 270 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    This study constitutes a starting point for a thought about the use of iodine 131 in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The therapies are different depending on the teams, for the iodine 131 activities to deliver and their calculation modes; The use of synthesis anti-thyroid drugs before therapy is discussed. The radiation protection is an important factor in the decision of a metabolic radiotherapy. The indications of the treatment by radioactive iodine are different in Europe and in Usa. (N.C.)

  15. Chemical treatment of wastewaters produced during separation of iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Marcaillou, J.; Amavis, R.

    1959-01-01

    The authors report the development and assessment of a chemical treatment of radioactive wastewaters by co-precipitation. This treatment is aimed at replacing a treatment based on the use of calcium phosphate which proved to be insufficient for wastewaters resulting from the production of iodine 131. After a presentation of the characteristics of the effluents to be processed, the authors report co-precipitation tests performed on effluents before release in the storage vessel (by using barium hydroxide, lead acetate or lead sulfate) and on effluents diluted on the storage vessel. They show that a co-precipitation method based on the use of lead sulfate in alkaline medium gives the best results

  16. Activity concentrations of iodine-131 and radiocesium in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitsch, H.; Kahr, G.; Oswald, K.

    1991-12-01

    We have measured the activity concentrations of iodine-131 and radiocesium in pasteurized fresh milk following the Chernobyl accident. Average monthly concentrations of radiocesium are given until December 1991. Samples originated from the local dairy (Milchhof Graz, Austria) and the measured activities in milk represent a large part of the total intake in the population of Graz. Observed activities are also compared with the activity levels obtained after the earlier nuclear contaminations. From the data of our measurements for radiocesium we have estimated the internal effective dose equivalent due to the intake of contaminated milk during the first year after the fallout. Results indicate that the averaged consumer rates for milk, usually used for predictions of dose, were too high. We have also observed great differences in the activity levels of raw milk and the activities in milk consumed by the population. (authors)

  17. Labeling of DOTATATE with 131-iodine for therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.B.; Nagamati, L.T.; Caldeira Filho, J.S.; Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT) and peptide receptor imaging (PRI) of malignant neoplasms have become a primary focus of interest in nuclear medicine. [111In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide is routinely used as diagnostic tool and promising therapeutic results have been reported with [90Y] DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide in patients with somatostatin (sst) receptor-positive advanced tumours. The radio-iodinated analogue, [123I] Tyr3-octreotide was the first sst-directed radiotracer to be clinically evaluated. The diagnostic and therapeutic usefulness of radio-iodinated sst ligands has been limited by their unfavourable biokinetics, in vivo deiodination and resulting dosimetry. The radio-iodination of sst derivatives is often time-consuming multi step procedure and needs final product purification. However, comparative studies with the radioiodinated sst analogues Tyr3-octreotide and Tyr3-Thr8-octreotide (octreotate) showed that the substitution of Thr(ol)8 by Thr8 reduces the lipophilicity and also dramatically improves the biodistribution in nude mice bearing AR42J rat pancreatic tumour xenografts. Favourable pharmacokinetic of DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate labeled with 90Y and 177Lu was observed, including rapid renal clearance and high focal uptake in sst receptor positive tumors. This work studied the labelling of DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (Pichem) with 131-iodine (Nordion/CNEN - 2.9 x 1016 Bq/mol), quality control and purification procedures to evaluate the production viability of 131I-labeled sst analogue in radiotherapeutic amounts. 131I radiolabeling of DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate was performed using the Chloramine T method. A solution of 1.5-10 mg of peptide in 40 ml of PBS (0.1M phosphate buffered saline pH 7.5) was transferred to an Eppendorf. After the addition of 5 ml of Chloramine T solution (5 mg/PBS) and 5-10 ml of radioiodine solution (37-740 MBq, molar peptide to radionuclide ratios varying from 0.8 to 45), the cap was carefully vortexed and the labelling reaction was

  18. [Thyroid cancer after Chernobyl: is iodine 131 the only culprit ? Impact on clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud-Vitaux, Françoise; Elbast, Mouhamad; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Hindie, Elif

    2008-02-01

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major preoccupation for endocrinologists and nuclear physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine 131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine 131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada, and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation), raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine 131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one need to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine 131, and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects.

  19. Immunothyropathy with hyperthyroidism following /sup 131/iodine treatment for toxic thyroid nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.W.; Schneider, C.; Schroeder, S.

    1985-06-01

    The rare case of a diffuse immunothyropathy with hyperthyroidism 3 weeks after /sup 131/Iodine treatment for a toxic thyroid nodule is presented. Diagnosis of 'toxic thyroid nodule' has been established by /sup 131/Iodine scintiscan and suppression test. The diagnosis 'immunothyropathy' is based on thyroid-antibody-determinations (TAK, MAK), ultrasound, histology, and clinical course. Corresponding to the knowledge of pathogenesis in immunothyropathies (Graves' disease, Hashimoto's disease) /sup 131/Iodine therapy is considered as inducing factor of the recorded immunothyropathy.

  20. Investigations on the retention of 131I by an iodine filter of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.; Gerlach, K.

    1983-09-01

    The retention of 131 I by an equipment room exhaust filter of a German pressurized water reactor was determined by various methods to particularly obtain reliable results. Moreover, investigations were performed to clarify the reason for aging of the carbon contained in the iodine filter mentioned. The actual retention of the organic 131 I, corresponding to a value of 99.9%, was limited by 131 I in the form of penetrating iodine compounds. It was lower than the retention of CH 3 131 I under layout conditions by more than one order of magnitude. The aging was essentially caused by the adsorption of low-volatile organic compounds. (orig.) [de

  1. Investigations on the retention of I-131 by an iodine filter of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.; Gerlach, K.

    1984-01-01

    The retention of I-131 by an equipment room exhaust filter of a German pressurized water reactor was determined by various methods to particularly obtain reliable results. Moreover, investigations were performed to clarify the reason for aging of the carbon contained in the iodine filter mentioned. The actual retention of the organic I-131, corresponding to a value of 99.9%, was limited by I-131 in the form of penetrating iodine compounds. It was lower than the retention of CH 3 I-131 under layout conditions by more than one order of magnitude. The aging was essentially caused by the adsorption of low-volatile organic compounds. (orig.) [de

  2. Radiation protection data sheets for the use of iodine 131 in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This radiation protection data sheet is intended for supervisors and staff in the different medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, university and industrial laboratories and departments where Iodine 131 is handled, and also for all those involved in risk prevention in this field. It provides essential data on radiation protection measures during the use of Iodine 131 in unsealed sources: physical characteristics, risk assessment, administrative procedures, recommendations, regulations and bibliography

  3. Manual on therapeutic uses of iodine-131. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet contains information about procedures to protect hospital staff and visitors and families of patients treated with iodine 131 from exposure to radiation from I-131. It also includes a basic guide to the principles of the production of ionizing radiation and to methods of radiation protection and dosimetry

  4. Treatment of hyperthyroidism by 131-iodine; Traitement des hyperthyroidies par l'iode 131: dose calculee versus dose fixe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieffe, S.; Cuif-Joba, A.; Testard, A.; Fortuna, I.; Pocharta, J.M.; Papathanassioua, D.; Schvartz, C. [Service d' endocrinologie et medecine nucleaires, institut Jean-Godinot, 1, rue du General Koeing, 51056 Reims, (France)

    2009-05-15

    In a first time, we chose to modify the dose to be administered, on using always the Marinelli formula but on increasing the absorbed dose. In a second time, we wanted to simplify the determination of the dose to be administered by modulating it only in function of the thyroid volume. Two groups of patients were managed for hyperthyroidism recurrence. In a first group the iodine dose ({sup 131}I) was determined with the help of the simplified Marinelli formula: chosen absorbed dose was 150 Gy, gland volume determined by echography, measurement of the fixation at the sixth hour. In the second group, the thyroid volume was determined by echography. The patients with a thyroid from 5 to 30 g received 185 MBq, from 30 to 50 g 370 MBq and superior to 50 g 555 MBq of iodine 131. The two groups of patients have the same characteristics. the results of treatment by iodine 131, evaluated on the dosages of T4L and TSH at three and six months, show the preservation of euthyroidism or the passage in hypothyroidism among 94% of patients in the group 1 and 80% of patients in the group 2. These results are not significantly different. The easiness of the realisation of the treatment in the group 2 lead us to continue this simplified therapy scheme that allows equally to improve the radiation protection of medical personnel by avoiding the use of iodine 131. (N.C.)

  5. Uptake of Iodine-131 in mussel (Mytilus smaragdinns) and algae (caulerpa racemosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Banzon, R.B.; de la Mines, A.S.; Bautista, E.Rb.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of radionuclides in the environment has been the subject of research. Iodine-131, a beta emitter as one of the radionuclides has been studied. This study describes Iodine-131 uptake in mussel and algae. The bioaccumulation factor C was determined which gave the relationship between the concentration of radioactivity in biota relative to the water environment. Results of the experiments showed that the mussels steadily accumulated I-131 from radioactive medium. Much higher bioaccumulation factor was obtained in algae than in mussel. No attempt was made to measure activity in the soft parts. (ELC)

  6. Iodine-131 in milk 1961-62 and in thyroid glands of cattle and sheep 1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvinden, T.; Lillegraven, A.

    1976-03-01

    Cases of late effects from radioactive iodine uptake in children have renewed interest in this contaminant. I-131 data collected in Norway during periods following the nuclear weapons test series in 1961 and 1962 have been re-examined and collated with more recent data on natural iodine in the milk and thyroid glands from domestic animals. Some of the measured values may be interpreted as indications of an inverse relationship between the level of natural iodine and the uptake of I-131, but the material is too small and inconsistent to draw any conclusions. Obviously the uptake and concentration of I-131 in animal milk and thyroid glands are influenced by many factors besides the fallout amounts; at present it is not possible to determine their relative importance and set up a satisfactory model for the I-131 uptake. (Auth.)

  7. Putting to point the production process of iodine-131 by dry distillation (Preoperational tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis M, J.

    2002-12-01

    With the purpose of putting to point the process of production of 131 I, one of the objectives of carrying out the realization of operational tests of the production process of iodine-131, it was of verifying the operation of each one of the following components: heating systems, vacuum system, mechanical system and peripheral equipment that are part of the production process of iodine-131, another of the objectives, was settling down the optimal parameters that were applied in each process during the obtaining of iodine-131, it is necessary to point out that this objective is very important, since the components of the equipment are new and its behavior during the process is different to the equipment where its were carried out the experimental studies. (Author)

  8. Decreased uptake after fractionated ablative doses of iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hurng-Sheng [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Changhua, Taiwan (Taiwan); Hseu, Huey-Herng [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Education and Research, Taichung (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu; Wang, Shyh-Jen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Liu, Yao-Chi [Department of Surgery, General Surgery, National Defense Medical Center, Taipe (Taiwan)

    2005-02-01

    In an attempt to obviate the necessity for hospitalisation, the ablative dose of {sup 131}I in the treatment of thyroid cancer is divided into two or three fractions at weekly intervals in some hospitals with no special bed for {sup 131}I treatment. Thyroid stunning has been observed in patients receiving a {sup 131}I dose between 74 and 370 MBq (2-10 mCi). However, the influence of {sup 131}I uptake after administration of a higher dose, such as 1,110-1,850 MBq of {sup 131}I, has never been reported. In this study, we evaluated the degree of reduction in {sup 131}I uptake after patients received 1,480 MBq of {sup 131}I and evaluated the clinical value of fractionated ablative doses of {sup 131}I. Thirty-five patients with functional thyroid cancer received a total of 4,440 MBq (120 mCi) of {sup 131}I which was divided into three fractions administered at weekly intervals. In all patients two {sup 131}I whole-body scans were performed. The first scan was performed directly prior to the second dose of {sup 131}I (7 days after the first administration of {sup 131}I), and the second scan was performed 7 days after the second administration of {sup 131}I and directly prior to the third administration. Regions of interest including the neck and lungs were drawn to calculate the uptake of {sup 131}I in the thyroid remnant and possible cervical lymph node and lung metastases. The mean uptake of {sup 131}I was 2.73% 7 days after the first administration, and decreased significantly to 0.26% 7 days after the second administration. The mean decrease was as high as 80.7%. The decrease in {sup 131}I uptake was significant in all patients except the two with lung metastases. In the two patients with lung metastases, no definite evidence of decreased uptake was noted; the uptake of {sup 131}I in the lung metastases even increased on the second {sup 131}I image in one of these patients. After administration of 1,480 MBq of {sup 131}I, the decreased uptake was significant in all

  9. Incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients who had diagnostic iodine-131 tests during childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Schnell-Inderst, P.; Haenseler, G.J.; Kandziora, C.; Meyer, G.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the carcinogenic effects of diagnostic amounts of radioactive iodine-131 on the infantile thyroid gland a multi-center retrospective cohort study was conducted which included data of 4973 subjects who had either been referred to diagnostic iodine-131 uptake tests (2262 subjects) or had had a diagnostic procedure of the thyroid without 131-iodine (2711 subjects) until the age of 18 years. Follow-up examinations of 35 percent of the subjects in the iodine-131 group and 41 percent of the subjects in the control group took place after a mean time period of 20 years after the first examination. Dosimetry of the thyroid burden of iodine-131 was carried out according to ICRP 53. The median of the thyroid organ dose was 1012 mGy. The report compares prevalences or incidences of thyroid disorders resp. occurring in both groups and gives a stratified analysis of primary diagnosis, age at exposure, and organ dose. A total number of five carcinomas of the thyroid was found. In the radioiodine group two carcinomas were assessed in a period of 16500 person-years. The control group yielded three carcinomas over 21000 person-years (Relative rate: 0,89, 95% confidence interval: 0,14-5,13). (orig.) [de

  10. Separation of iodine-131 from water using isotopic exchange with iodine-starch compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Kolomejtseva, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    Conditions of iodine isotopic exchange with iodine-starch compound (ISC) were studied with the aim of compound utilizatoin for radioactive iodine separation from solution. It is shown that in pH range from 2 to 7 the degree of iodine extraction and coefficient of its distribution practically do not depend on pH, at pH>7 ISC destruction (decolorizing) starts and iodine extraction decreases. Rapid method of iodine separation from solution is suggested. The method can be used in radiochemical techniques. The degree of extraction equals 80 %, a higher degree of extraction can not be achieved owing to ISC formation peculiarities

  11. Iodine-131 in breast milk following therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.S.; Barker, P.; Campbell, A.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates breast milk secretion of 131 I following therapeutic adminstration of 4000 MBq of 131 I-iodide during lactation. Breast milk 131 I activity concentration was measured over a 32-day period. Dosimetry calculations were undertaken to estimate the period for discontinuation of breast feeding and the equivalent dose to the breasts. To achieve an infant effective dose 131 I-iodide adminstration is not undertaken during lactation and that breast feeding is discontinued several days prior to administration. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Experimental results concerning the metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Capelle, A.; Tricaud, Y.; Nizza, P.

    1967-01-01

    The authors give the results of a series of experiments on metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation; the measurement were carried out over a number of years from 1961 to 1966. The work was concerned initially with the fixation of iodine 131 in the thyroid gland, with the calculation of radiation doses absorbed and with ways of showing up any possible radiation damage in the gland. The modes of absorption of iodine 131 and its elimination through milk, urine and the faeces were then considered. Finally, a last chapter is devoted to changes in the radioactivity of the blood and of the milk, to variations of the PBI level of the blood serum as to different methods for measuring this level. (authors) [fr

  13. Treatment's results of hyperthyroid patients with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastan-Hagh, M.H.; Larijani, B.; Rahim-Tabrizi, P.; Khalili-Fard, A.R.; Baradar-Jalili, R.; Saghari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: radioiodine ( 131 I) is an effective and inexpensive alternative to surgery in the treatment of thyroid hyper function. The debate today concerns the maximum and minimum ablative doses, and factors leading to hypothyroidism. Patients and method: 1035 hyperthyroid patients treated with weight-adjusted ablative doses of 131 I were retrospectively assessed for treatment outcome or correlated with sex, age, underlying pathology, and administrated dose of 131 I . Results: Thyroid hyper function was more common in women. The greatest proportions of patients were in the 31-40 years age group and the smallest proportion over -70. The commonest underlying pathology was Grave's disease. Men had a lower response rate to 131 I therapy, with 2.4-fold greater probability of persistent hyperthyroidism (P 131 I hypothyroidism decreased with increasing age (P 131 I therapy was seen in patients with toxic adenoma, (P=0.0001). The incidence of hypothyroidism did not show a positive correction with increased administered dose of 131 I (P 131 I was effective in reducing thyroid nodule size. There were 18 cases of temporary hyperthyroidism, all of which recovered to euthyroid status within 12 months. Conclusion: one dose of radioiodine was effective in treatment of hyperthyroid patients in 91.2 % of cases. Age, sex and underlying pathology were determining factors. In most cases the average time to hypothyroidism was reasonably short, obviating the need for long time follow up in these patients

  14. 131I-iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of 131 I-iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents. Methods: Twenty-nine, patients aged 11-18 years (mean 15.9±2.32 years old), with hyperthyroidism received 131 I-iodine treatment in a dose of 25-90μCi/g (median 50μCi/g) of thyroid. Of the 29 patients, 3 patient required 2 doses, 14 received ATD therapy before 131 I, 11 patients suffered from TAO(thyroid associated ophthalmopathy). The total maximum and minimum doses were 15 and 1.6 mCi respectively. Results: All patients treated with 131 I-iodine, follow-up after the most recent treatment (median 14, range 4 to 60 months), 15 patients were euthyroid, 5 suffered from late-onset hypothyroidism, 9 were still hyperthyroidism, but their symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism were improved or markedly. Of the 16 patients with TAO, TAO in 11 patients disappeared or were improved, TAO in 5 patients didn't or mildly change. The size of thyroid in all patients had largely been reduced. Conclusions: 131 I-iodine is effective for initial treatment of hyperthyroidism, the treatment of medical treatment failures and the patients with TAO in children and adolescents. (authors)

  15. Internal contamination of nurses as a result of the therapeutic use of iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Termorshuizen, W; Gerritsen, A J.M.

    1988-02-01

    The internal contamination of nurses with sodium iodide-131 is studied in two different housing situations. Before moving, the therapy unit was an unventilated double room with a lock. In the new building, the unit consists of three single rooms and one double room with a lock and air conditioning. Also the concentration of iodine-131 in the air is measured. 2 figs.; 1 table.

  16. The absorption of iodine-131 on a ceramic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.S.; Park, U.J.; Dash, A.

    2004-01-01

    The retention of 131 I on ceramic rod coated with silver nitrate followed by coating with a polyurethane membrane to be applied in brachytherapy was studied. The concentration of silver nitrate (20 g/l), the volume of 131 I as a sodium iodide solution (100 μl), the pH of the reaction mixture (pH 9) etc., were optimized to get a maximum uptake on the ceramic rod. The concentration of coating solution (5%, polyurethane in tetrahydrofuran) was also optimized to obtain a minimum leaching of 131 I activity in normal saline solution. After coating with a polyurethane membrane, the 131 I absorbed on the ceramic rod exhibited low leachability (0.03%). This method can be applied for the preparation of 125 I interstitial sources to be used in eye and prostate cancer therapy. (author)

  17. Iodine-131 labelled octreotide: not an option for somatostatin receptor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, W.H.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Pluijm, M.E. van der; Jong, M. de; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    This study deals with the radioiodination of very small amounts of peptide on a therapeutic scale, the required purification procedures after radioiodination, and the influence of high beta fluxes from 131 I on a peptide during radioiodination and purification. Based on the regularly used therapeutic doses of 131 I in cancer treatment and out previous experience with [ 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 ]-octreotide, it was assumed that a minimal effective therapeutic dose of 3.7 GBq 131 I has to be coupled to a maximum of ∼100 μg peptide, representing only a slight excess of peptide over 131 I. This contrasts with non-peptide radiopharmaceuticals in which high compound to radionuclide ratios are usually used. Labelling at low peptide to radionuclide ratios (low labelling yields) results in the formation of di-iodinated compounds, whereas at high peptide to radionuclide ratios mono-iodinated products of low specific activity are formed. Thus, after radioiodination the desired mono-iodinated peptide has to be separated form unreacted iodide, and from di-iodinated and unreacted peptide, as both compounds compete for the receptors. Possible radiolysis of the peptide during labelling and separation steps were investigated by irradiating 30 μg unlabelled peptide with 370 MBq 131 I in a small volume. The peptide composition of the incubation mixtures was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography after irradiation for 30 min to 24 h. The results showed that the peptide was degraded with a half-life of less than 1 h. During the preparation of a real therapeutic dose (at much higher β-flux) the peptide will be degraded even faster during the various steps required. In conclusion, intact mono-iodinated 131 I-labelled somatostatin analogues for peptide receptor therapy will be difficult to obtain. (orig./VHE)

  18. Comparison of short-term effects between interventional embolization treatment and iodine-131 therapy for graves'hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Gaohong; Zhao Wei; Yuan Weihong; Wang Bailing; Yi Gengfa; Yang Shumin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the short-term effects between interventional arterial embolization and iodine-131 therapy in treating Graves' disease. Methods: A total of 84 patients with Graves' disease (GD), confirmed by clinical data and laboratory tests, were divided into two groups: interventional group (n = 42) receiving arterial embolization and iodine-131 group (n = 42)receiving iodine-131 therapy. Before and after the treatment thyroid angiography and SPECT / CT imaging were performed to determine the shape and size of the thyroid, and radioimmunoassay method was used to measure serum levels of FT3, FT4, TSH and TRAb at 3, 6 and 12 months after the therapy. The results were compared and statistically analyzed. The occurrence of complications was observed. Results: No statistically significant difference in short-term therapeutic effects was found between interventional group and iodine-131 group. The occurrence of early severe complication was much higher in interventional group than that in iodine-131 group, while the occurrence of hypothyroidism was obviously higher in iodine-131 group than that in interventional group. Conclusion: Both interventional embolization and iodine-131 therapy have reliable effect for the treatment of Graves' disease. Iodine-131 therapy may be used in patients who plan to receive initial treatment or in patients who failed to effectively respond to other kinds of therapies, while interventional embolization may be employed in patients who are not able to receive surgery or in patients who have failed to respond to anti-thyroid drug treatment, or in patients whose iodine-131 intake rate is too low to undergo iodine-131 therapy, especially in patients with refractory and intractable hyperthyroidism. Interventional embolization can be regarded as an alternative treatment for Graves' disease. (authors)

  19. Thyroid cancer from occupational exposures to iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of external irradiation, primarily of children, suggest that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive sites for carcinogenesis. However, it has generally been thought that 131 I confers much less risk (per rad) than external radiation because of its low dose-rate. A review of the epidemiologic literature indicates that age at irradiation is also an important variable in defining thyroid cancer risk, with a lesser risk at older ages. The available human studies are reasonably consistent in affirming that risks following 131 I are small. However, the data on 131 I exposure are too sparse, particularly for childhood exposure, to determine how much of the observed diminution in risk is due to older ages at exposure and how much is attributable to the characteristics of 131 I exposure per se, such as low dose-rate. Since most of the existing studies have inadequacies in design, dose levels, dosimetry or number of subjects, additional studies are needed before the risk assessment of 131 I at lower dose levels in adult workers can be regarded as definitive

  20. A review of best practice in relation to iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, A.; Kruse, P.; Smith, K

    2010-03-01

    This report was produced by Enviros Consulting Ltd under contract to the RPII. It presents a review of best practice in relation to the management of iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer and recommends a waste management strategy that could be adopted in the Republic of Ireland

  1. Production of fusion radionuclides: Molybdenum-99/ Iodine - 131 and Xenon-133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Carrillo, D.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a new radiochemical method for industrial production of the radionuclides: molybdenum-99, iodine-131 and xenon-133. The above mentioned method based on the alkaline metathesis reaction of irradiated uranium (IV) fluoride, presents the best characteristics for the proposed objective. The study deals with the analysis of that reaction and the separation and purification processes. (Author) 71 refs

  2. Scintigraphic disagreement in the study of thyroid nodules using technetium 99m and iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    116 patients with thyroid nodules, iso or hyperfixing, heterogeneous or scintigraphically indistinct after administration of pertechnetate 99mTc, were systematically re-examined with iodine 131. The results of this study are as follows: 1) 99mTc, while its advantages justify its extensive application, is an imperfect tracer and cannot replace iodine 131 altogether. In fact in 12% of the cases the results were conflicting. 2) The technological conditions may sometimes be to blame but the hypothesis of a special metabolic behavior of the nodule examined seems plausible in certain cases of disagreement (blocking of hormone synthesis and escape of non-hormonal iodine). 3) These observations correspond to no particular anatomo-clinical factors. The legitimate conclusion therefore is that the exclusive use of 99mTc could result in failure to recognise a non-functional nodule (1 case in about 10), a possibility not to be neglected because of the risk of cancer [fr

  3. Quality control procedures for iodinated radiopharmaceuticals 131I-Hippuran and 131I-Risa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Pereira, N.P.S. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid miniaturized chromatography system was developed for fast determination of the proportion of inorganic radioactive iodide from radiopharmaceutical 131 I-Hippuran and 131 I-Risa. The technical parameters associated with miniaturized chromatography system were evaluated. One of the problems found in this system was the movement of the 131 I-Risa from the origin with consequent overestimation of the inorganic iodide. A correct spot placement eliminated this problem. (Author) [pt

  4. Iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy of the extremities in metastatic pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulkin, B.L.; Shen, S.W.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-01-01

    Iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy may be used to determine the presence or absence of metastases to the appendicular skeleton in malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Normal bones show no uptake of [ 131 I]MIBG and the joints are seen as photon-deficient areas surrounded by background muscle activity. Discrete concentrations of radioactivity in bone are often seen in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Bone marrow involvement in neuroblastoma may be indicated by diffuse uptake of [ 131 I]MIBG or focal accumulation at the metaphyses. Uncommonly, bone involvement may not be displayed by the [ 131 I]MIBG images. Since conventional bone scanning agents may also fail to detect these tumors, skeletal scintigraphy with both [ 131 I]MIBG and [/sup 99m/Tc]MDP is necessary to reliably stage malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

  5. Chromosomal damage after Iodine-131 treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer: in vivo dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, V.K.; Nguyen, X.P.; Truong, Q.X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Although it is well known that radiation induces chromosomal aberrations, there is a lack of information on the in- vivo dose-effect relationship in patients receiving Iodine-131 treatment and the results of previous studies are controversial. In this study, the dicentric chromosomal aberrations (DCA) analysis method was employed to investigate acute and late chromosomal damage (CD) in the peripheral lymphocytes of 58 differentiated thyroid cancer patients who received dose 1,1 GBq of Iodine-131 (group A), and 34 patients who received dose 3,7 GBq of Iodine- 131 (group B). The mean 100 metaphase spreads were scored for each subject. The DCA frequencies in cultured peripheral lymphocytes were determined before treatment to assess basal DCA frequencies, on the 3rd day to assess acute DCA frequencies and 6 months later to assess late DCA frequencies. The basal, acute and late DCA frequencies were divided into two groups: 0,18%, 2,14% and 0,53% (group A) and 0,18%, 2,12 % and 0,89% (group B), respectively, and these values differed significantly at various time after treatment (p 2 = 0,987), and group B as Y= 32,71 + 0,189 X. (r = 0,9381, R 2 = 0,880). However, there was an interesting difference in comparison with in- vitro studies, in that we found the coefficient β to have a negative value, suggesting the disappearance of damaged lymphocytes from peripheral circulation in a dose- dependent manner following Iodine-131 treatment. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the effect of the negative β value on biological dosimetry approach in continuous internal low LET radiation, as in the case of Iodine-131 treatment. (author)

  6. Mortality in patients treated for hyperthyroidism with iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P.; Lundell, G.; Holm, L.E. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1993-03-01

    Causes of death were studied in 10552 Swedish hyperthyroid patients treated with [sup 131]I diagnosed between 1950 and 1975. The patients were followed for an average of 15 years and were matched with the Swedish cause of death register. A total of 5400 deaths were observed and the overall standardized mortality ratio was 1.47. The standardized mortality ratio for females was 1.50 compared to 1.31 in males. The most common cause of death was from cardiovascular diseases. Significantly elevated risks were also seen for tumours, diseases of the endocrine system, respiratory system, gastro-intenstinal system, and congenital malformations. In all causes of death, except tumours and trauma, decreasing standardized mortality ratios over time were seen. Patients followed for more than 10 years had significantly elevated risks for tumours, diseases of the endocrine, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Patients given higher [sup 131]I activity and younger patients had higher standardized mortality ratios than those given lower activity and older patients. The hyperthyroidism per se, rather than the [sup 131]I treatment, appeared to be the major explanation for the elevated mortality. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Mortality in patients treated for hyperthyroidism with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.; Lundell, G.; Holm, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Causes of death were studied in 10552 Swedish hyperthyroid patients treated with 131 I diagnosed between 1950 and 1975. The patients were followed for an average of 15 years and were matched with the Swedish cause of death register. A total of 5400 deaths were observed and the overall standardized mortality ratio was 1.47. The standardized mortality ratio for females was 1.50 compared to 1.31 in males. The most common cause of death was from cardiovascular diseases. Significantly elevated risks were also seen for tumours, diseases of the endocrine system, respiratory system, gastro-intenstinal system, and congenital malformations. In all causes of death, except tumours and trauma, decreasing standardized mortality ratios over time were seen. Patients followed for more than 10 years had significantly elevated risks for tumours, diseases of the endocrine, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Patients given higher 131 I activity and younger patients had higher standardized mortality ratios than those given lower activity and older patients. The hyperthyroidism per se, rather than the 131 I treatment, appeared to be the major explanation for the elevated mortality. 20 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Evaluation of radiation exposure from patients with thyroid disease by iodine-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianfeng; Lu Keyi; Duan Lian

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiation exposure to the individuals other than patients with thyroid disease, who had received radioiodine (iodine-131) therapy and had turned into a specific 'radiant point'. Methods: 107 outpatients or inpatients, with iodine-131 therapy had been investigated and followed up by telephone and outpatients. There were 117 times treatment (68 females, 49 males, mean age 41 years old), including the patients with hyperthyroidism (39 females, 40 males), thyroid cancer (27 females, 8 males), toxic thyroid adenoma (1 female and 1 male) and nontoxic nodular goiter(1 female). According to the personal condition of the patients, we attained the percentage of thyroid iodine-131 uptake (U), the iodine-131 dose (Q), the duration of constrained social activity, and the occupancy factor (OF) for the 3 periods (the preequilibrium, OFp; the constrained, OFc; and the unconstrained, OFuc), and the time of exposure to individuals other than patients, and to calculate the exposure dose (mSv) to the individuals. The formula is E (mSv) = Q[OFP(0.0173)+ OFC(0.537)U(1-e-0.095C)+0.023(1-U)(1-e-2.08C ) +OFUC (0.537) Ue-0.095C +0.0236(1-U)e-2.08C]. In accordance with the new recommendations of the national criteria from GB18871-2002, we evaluated the radiation safety to the individuals other than patients Results: Based on the national criteria the total effective dose equivalent to the individuals other than patients may not exceed 5 mSv. For all patients, including 79 hyperthyroidism, 2 toxic thyroid adenoma and 16 times treatment of thyroid cancer, the exposure doses to the individuals were not likely to exceed 5 mSv, but the others, including 19 times treatment of thyroid cancer and 1 nontoxic nodular goiter, the exposure doses were higher than 5 mSv. There were no difference between the part of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer of inpatients were compared with outpatients (P>0.05, respectively). we found that occupancy factor during the preequilibrium period

  9. Study on the damage effect of 131I-iodinated oil internal radiation in SMMC-7721 hepatoma model in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuyan; Zhang Xuguang; Wang Xiangying; Li Su'an; Mao Dihua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the damage effect of 131 I-iodinated oil internal radiation in hepatoma. Methods: SMMC-7721 rat hepatoma model was used to evaluate the damage of 131 I-iodinated oil internal radiation in carcinoma. 131 I-iodinated oil was injected sector-shapely into tumor model of SMMC-7721 hepatoma with arc-needle, matched with routine straight-needle injection. Tumor damage induced by 131 I-iodinated oil intralesion radiation in the carcinoma models are recorded through survival time, weight of rat, local carcinoma, pathology, electron microscopy. Results: Arc-needle injection 131 I-iodinated oil in SMMC-7721 hepatoma at subcutis could increase rat's survival time, the body weight kept less descent, the lumps necrosed wholly. Pathology and ultrastructure detection revealed cell necrosis and collapse, sever nuclear damage was observed in the death cells. The early characteristics of necrosis such as margination of heterochromatin was also found in some tumor cells. Besides, well differentiated tumor cells, degenerative tumor cells and some lymphocytes were seen. Conclusion: Arc-needle injection 131 I-iodinated oil step-by step sector-shapely into tumor is a better method and necrosis is the major effect of 131 I-iodinated oil internal radiation in carcinoma at the level of treated dosage

  10. Improved monitoring procedure for Iodine -131 in radiochemical process laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pratap; Yadav, R.K.B.; Anilkumar, S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Chakraborty, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Hazard Control Unit at Isotope wing provides radiological safety support and advises for safe processing and production of radiopharmaceuticals. Tellurium Oxide (TeO 2 ), irradiated in a nuclear reactor, is processed in a process laboratory for separating 131 I using dry distillation technique. The workplace environment is being assessed for airborne radioactivity using installed Static Air Samplers (SASs). SASs contains two filter media (glass fibre and charcoal impregnated paper) to collect airborne 131 I radioactivity and laboratory air sampled at 50 litres per minutes (lpm). Personal Air Sampler (PAS) consists of three types of filters viz. a glass fibre, charcoal impregnated paper and cartridges containing activated charcoal granules. Three combinations were studied at a sampling rate of 5 lpm

  11. Radionuclide therapy of Sipple syndrome using iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Shimomura, Osamu; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Yamauchi, Jyoji; Iwaoka, Daisuke; Satoh, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    A 40-years-old female who had lung and liver metastases from malignant pheochromocytoma was treated with 3.7 GBq 131 I-MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine). After the treatment, 131 I-MIBG showed increased uptake in the metastatic lesions of the lung and liver. The size of tumor was no significant change on CT and MRI, but the intensity of liver metastases decreased gradually on MRI. Prior to the treatment, the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were high. One to three days after treatment, the level of these laboratory data further increased, but they gradually decreased in 1 to 3 months. These changes may be due to necrosis of tumor tissue. (author)

  12. Iodine 131 therapy patients: radiation dose to staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.; Beh, R.A.; Veilleux, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    Metastasis to the skeletal system from follicular thyroid carcinoma may be treated with an oral dose of 131 I-NaI. Radiation exposures to hospital personnel attending these patients were calculated as a function of administered dose, distance from the patient and time after administration. Routine or emergency patient handling tasks would not exceed occupational radiation protection guidelines for up to 30 min immediately after administration. The emergency handling of several patients presents the potential for exceeding these guidelines. (author)

  13. Cancer risk after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.; Hall, P.; Wiklund, K.; Lundell, G.; Berg, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Cederquist, E.; Ericsson, U.B.; Hallquist, A.; Larsson, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer incidence was studied in 10,552 patients (mean age, 57 years) who received 131I therapy (mean dose, 506 MBq) for hyperthyroidism between 1950 and 1975. Follow-up on these patients was continued for an average of 15 years. Record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register for the period 1958-1985 identified 1543 cancers occurring 1 year or more after 131I treatment, and the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.11). Significantly increased SIRs were observed for cancers of the lung (SIR = 1.32; n = 105) and kidney (SIR = 1.39; n = 66). Among 10-year survivors, significantly elevated risks were seen for cancers of the stomach (SIR = 1.33; n = 58), kidney (SIR = 1.51; n = 37), and brain (SIR = 1.63; n = 30). Only the risk for stomach cancer, however, increased over time (P less than .05) and with increasing activity administered (P = not significant). The risk for malignant lymphoma was significantly below expectation (SIR = 0.53; n = 11). Overall cancer risk did not increase with administered 131I dose or with time since exposure. The absence of any increase in leukemia adds further support to the view that a radiation dose delivered gradually over time is less carcinogenic than the same total dose received over a short time. Only for stomach cancer was a possible radiogenic excess suggested

  14. Study of thyroid function, using iodine 131, in leprosy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatit, E.D.; Carvalho, N.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made in a group of 117 leprosy patients in differents clinical conditions, under treatment, in drug rest or virgins of treatment. They were divided in sub-groups for the following tests: the radioiodine uptake of 2-24 hours; neck-thigh ratio; thyrobinding index; protein-bound radioiodine (PB 131 I) levels of plasma. The results led to the following conclusions: 1) Leprosy patients present a low uptake in conjunction with a decrease in the velocity of thyroid clearance in the majority of the cases. Even the remaining presented values within the low limit of normality; 2) In view of these results, the tests were repeated after thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with exogenous TSH, in the sub-group of patients virgin of treatment. With the positive response observed (increase in the uptake, in the neck-thigh ratio and the PB 131 I) the low uptake was considered secondary with regard to a deficit of the endogenous TSH; 3) The TBI and PB 131 I tests were not in sufficient agreement for an appraisal of the phase of organic binding and release of hormone [pt

  15. [Prevention of recurrent amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism by iodine-131].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, J S; Jarry, G; Tcheng, E; Moullart, V; Arlot, S; Rey, J L; Schvartz, C

    2004-03-01

    Amioradone-induced hyperthyroidism is a common complication of amiodarone therapy. Although definitive interruption of amiodarone is recommended because of the risks of aggravation of the arrhythmias, some patients may require the reintroduction of amiodarone several months after normalisation of thyroid function. The authors undertook a retrospective study of the effects of preventive treatment of recurrences of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism with I131. The indication of amiodarone therapy was recurrent, symptomatic, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in 13 cases and ventricular tachycardia in 5 cases (M = 14, average age 64 +/- 13 years). The underlying cardiac disease was dilated cardiomyopathy (N = 5), ischaemic heart disease (N = 3), hypertensive heart disease (N = 2), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (N = 2) or valvular heart disease (N = 2). Two patients had idiopathic atrial fibrillation. An average dose of 576 +/- 184 MBq of I131 was administered 34 +/- 37 months after an episode of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Amiodarone was reintroduced in 16 of the 18 patients after a treatment-free period of 98 +/- 262 days. Transient post-radioiodine hyperthyroidism was observed in 3 cases (17%). Sixteen patients (89%) developed hypothyroidism requiring replacement therapy with L-thyroxine. There were no recurrences of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. After 24 +/- 17 months follow-up, the arrhythmias were controlled in 13 of the 16 patients (81%) who underwent the whole treatment sequence. The authors conclude that preventive treatment with I131 is an effective alternative to prevent recurrence of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism in patients requiring reintroduction of amiodarone to control their arrhythmias.

  16. Iodine-131 therapy for the treatment of multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, R.L.; Howarth, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of 131 l therapy for toxic and non-toxic multinodular goitre (MNG)in the patients treated with the standard dose of 4 x 555 MBq (total 2.2 Bq) and therefore give some indication as to the adequacy of this therapy. This was a retrospective study using information from patients' notes. All patients with large multinodular goitres who had radioiodine therapy for treatment of MNG since 1991 were selected. Data obtained included age, gender, pre, peri and post therapy symptoms and serial biochemical thyroid function results. Each patient was followed for a minimum of six months. The subjects were 35 patients (32 female, three male) with an age range of 37 - 87 years. 26 patients had non-toxic MNG, nine patients had toxic MNG, 24 patients had retrosternal or obstructive symptoms and five patients had had previous thyroid therapy. The patients with retrosternal or obstructive symptoms experienced a reduction in those symptoms. 8.6 per cent of the patients experienced no change at all in symptoms. 2.8 per cent of the patients experienced non-transient side effects (sore throat). 32.8 per cent of the patients experienced transient hyperthyroidism during 131 I therapy. In the toxic group, 77.8 per cent became euthyroid. 11.1 per cent became hypothyroid and 11.1 per cent remained hyperthyroid and required additional treatment. In the non-toxic group, 42.3 per cent became hypothyroid and 57.7 per cent remained euthyroid. The overall incidence of hypothyoidism was 34.4 per cent. The results of this study suggests 131 l therapy in the form of 4 x 555 MBq oral doses (one dose per month for four months) is effective, efficient, relatively risk-free, easy and generally well-tolerated treatment for toxic and non-toxic multinodular goitre

  17. Iodine-131 therapy for the treatment of multinodular goitre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerman, R.L.; Howarth, D.M. [John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of {sup 131}l therapy for toxic and non-toxic multinodular goitre (MNG)in the patients treated with the standard dose of 4 x 555 MBq (total 2.2 Bq) and therefore give some indication as to the adequacy of this therapy. This was a retrospective study using information from patients` notes. All patients with large multinodular goitres who had radioiodine therapy for treatment of MNG since 1991 were selected. Data obtained included age, gender, pre, peri and post therapy symptoms and serial biochemical thyroid function results. Each patient was followed for a minimum of six months. The subjects were 35 patients (32 female, three male) with an age range of 37 - 87 years. 26 patients had non-toxic MNG, nine patients had toxic MNG, 24 patients had retrosternal or obstructive symptoms and five patients had had previous thyroid therapy. The patients with retrosternal or obstructive symptoms experienced a reduction in those symptoms. 8.6 per cent of the patients experienced no change at all in symptoms. 2.8 per cent of the patients experienced non-transient side effects (sore throat). 32.8 per cent of the patients experienced transient hyperthyroidism during {sup 131}I therapy. In the toxic group, 77.8 per cent became euthyroid. 11.1 per cent became hypothyroid and 11.1 per cent remained hyperthyroid and required additional treatment. In the non-toxic group, 42.3 per cent became hypothyroid and 57.7 per cent remained euthyroid. The overall incidence of hypothyoidism was 34.4 per cent. The results of this study suggests {sup 131}l therapy in the form of 4 x 555 MBq oral doses (one dose per month for four months) is effective, efficient, relatively risk-free, easy and generally well-tolerated treatment for toxic and non-toxic multinodular goitre.

  18. Treatments with radioactive iodine, 131 I. How, when and where?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.; Gonzalez T, O.

    2006-01-01

    A great variety of approaches exists in the application of the treatments with radioactive materials, as the 131 I, but it is necessary to standardize them for the patient's benefit, because their doctor doesn't always know the principle that it bases this therapy, called metabolic therapy or radioiodine therapy (RYT). In this work the experience that was acquired by more of 50 years of RYT management in the Thyroid and Nuclear Medicine Clinic in patients with thyroid pathologies is informed, so that their management fulfills its function and it was carried out inside the corresponding juridical frame and the physicochemical and endocrinological principles that should take implicit. (Author)

  19. Thyroid uptake and imaging with iodine-123 at 4-5 hours: replacement of the 24-hour iodine-131 standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, J.L.; Rosen, P.R.; Borchert, R.D.; Jackson, D.E.; Weiland, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the suitability of utilizing a 4 to 5 hr interval from administration of Iodine-123 to imaging and uptake measurement as a replacement for the 24-hr standard originally established with Iodine-131. In 55 patients who underwent scintigraphy at 4 and 24 hr, there was no discrepancy between paired images. In 55 patients who had uptake measured at 4 and 24 hr and in 191 patients who had uptake measured at 5 and 24 hr, the early measurements proved equal or better discriminants of euthyroid from hyperthyroid patients. In our institutions, these findings and the logistical advantages of completing the exam in 4-5 hr led us to abandon the 24-hr study in the majority of patients

  20. Sub-stoichiometric isotope dilution analysis method for the determination of iodine in common salts using iodine-131 tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vivek; Garg, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    A sub-stoichiometric isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) method was developed for the determination of iodine in different brands of common salts. An aqueous salt solution containing 131 I tracer and NaI as carrier is oxidized by tartaric acid and KIO 3 and the liberated iodine is extracted with CCl 4 . To the extract an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 is added in substoichiometric amount to obtain a colloidal solution of AgI. On adding sodium thiosulfate solution, the NaI so formed passes into aqueous solution, which is then counted. Several different brands of salt were analysed. The method is especially suitable for the determination of microgram amounts of iodide in the presence of excess of chloride. (Author)

  1. The influence of physical parameters on the adsorption of iodine 131 by activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Chevalier, G.; Caron, J.; Van Der Meersch, J.

    1966-01-01

    Following an outline of the means of generating iodine 131 in the gas phase and a brief description of the apparatus used, the authors analyse the experimental results obtained on the trapping of iodine 131 by activated charcoal. The efficiency depends concurrently on the relative humidity and the iodine concentration of the air. While it is independent of this concentration in dry air, it does not exceed 50 in moist air, whatever the bed depth, when the concentration is less than 1 mCi/m 3 , then it increases with the concentrations to reach values close to those obtained in dry air for concentrations of around 1000 Ci/m 3 . At the same time the efficiency of a dust filter with respect to iodine remains very low in dry air whatever the iodine concentration; in moist air this efficiency, which is high at low concentrations, decreases when the latter increases. In addition if a charcoal bed is divided into several beds, separated by an amount corresponding to a passage time of about a second, it is found that the efficiency of the whole is appreciably higher than that of the initial bed. These results appear to establish the existence of at least two forms of iodine, one molecular form and one particulate form probably formed by clusters, the forms equilibrium being functions of the relative concentrations of iodine and water vapour in the air. The third form evidence, a gaseous form compound, remains hypothetical; the experimental curves can be explained either by the molecular and particular forms reversibility or by the increase of clusters size with the relative humidity of the air. (authors) [fr

  2. Low dose iodine-131 therapy in solitary toxic thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Rajeev

    1999-01-01

    Forty patients with solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were treated with relatively low dose radioiodine therapy, 131 I doses were calculated taking into account thyroid mass and radioiodine kinetics to deliver 100 μCi/g of estimated nodule weight corrected for uptake. Patients remaining persistently hyperthyroid at four months after the initial therapy were retreated with a similarly calculated dose. Cure of the hyperthyroid state was achieved in all patients, total administered dose in individual cases ranging from 3-17 mCi. 28 of the 40 patients required a single therapy dose. 36 patients were euthyroid after a 4.5 year mean follow-up period. Four cases developed post therapy hypothyroidism requiring replacement therapy. Nodules regressed completely in nine cases following 131 I treatment, with partial regression in size in 19 patients. Control of hyperthyroid state in cases of solitary toxic thyroid nodules can be satisfactorily achieved using relatively low dose radioiodine therapy with low incidence of post therapy hypothyroidism. (author)

  3. Iodine-131 distribution on the territory of the Republic of Belarus during the first period of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Shagalova, E.D.; Matveenko, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    To reconstruct space distribution of iodine-131 on the territory of Belarus we used the following data: (i) contents of iodine-131 in soil measured by gamma spectrometry method in May-July, 1986; (ii) contents of iodine-131 in samples of radioactive atmospheric fall-outs measured by gamma spectrometry method in May, 1986; (iii) daily measurements of exposure dose power levels on the territory of Belarus obtained in April-July, 1986; (iv) results of aerial gamma radiation mapping, obtained in May, 1986; (v) daily measurements of radioactive contamination of milk on the territory of Belarus obtained in May-July, 1986; (vi) measurements of iodine-131 content in links of biological chain 'soil-grass-milk' sampled from 15 reference farms; (vii) maps of specific activity of natural hayfields grass on the territory of Belarus (for every district) obtained on June 2 and 5, on July 3, 1986. Dose commitments on thyroid gland caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2.5 months after the accident. Local irradiation of this organ was stipulated by high accumulation factor of iodine isotopes in thyroid gland that caused increasing of malignant thyroid tumors incidences, including children, on all over the territory of Belarus. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland tumor incidences among children on the territory of Belarus map shows that the more level of iodine contamination the more malignant thyroid gland tumor incidence

  4. Introduction of iodine 131 and bromine 82 in antibiotics of tetracycline group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.P.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Grushevich, L.E.; Kuz'mina, T.S.

    1983-01-01

    Chloline- and oxytetracycline reactions with iodide-131-and bromide-82-ions in methanol and acetone are studied. It is established that labelled compounds reveal tetracycline (TC) properties in pharmacokinetic experiments on laboratory animals for 20-25 hours after synthesis; the yield of purposeful preparations for radioactive isotopes is 90-95%. Kinetic dependences of iodine-131 and bromine-82-TC yield on acidity and temperature of medium are presented. TC radiation resistance in solutions and in solid state at different temperatures in the range of absorbed doses of 1-10 Mrad is investigated. The possibility of TC radiation sterilization is shown

  5. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine synthesis and labelling with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Herrera, J.; Robles, A.; Caballero, J.; Portilla, A.; Ticona, L.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-iodo-benzylguanidine (MIBG) synthesis is carried out through m-iodo benzylamine condensation and subsequent formation of the hemisulfate salt. The synthesized product is characterized and identified by IR spectroscopy and m.p. determination. Acute toxicity tests conducted in mice demonstrated that the synthesized product is not toxic. MIBG hemisulfate labelling methods with I-131 is carried out by nucleophilic isotopic exchange; the reaction is catalyzed with cooper sulfate in the presence of ammonium sulfate at temperatures ranging between 140 and 150 o C . Biological distribution tests in wistar rats present an average value of 1,54% of injected dose/organ gram in suprarenal glands. These values show promise for the application of this radiopharmaceutical in radiodiagnosis of suprarenal tumors and procurement of adrenal medulla, myocardium and salivary gland images

  6. Treatment by iodine 131 and thyroid pathologies 14 Nfs iatrogenic 'Around France of that particular medical treatment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldet, L.

    2000-01-01

    In the case of hyperthyroidism bound to amiodarone, the iodine 131 prescription appears able to cure this disease in 84% of cases; the use of iodine 131 before amiodarone to prevent a hyperthyroidism, in case of goiter or thyroid nodules is little used (17% of practitioners) when it is more used in case of past history of induced hyperthyroidism (34% of physicians). This prescription is nevertheless efficient in the both cases. The use of iodine 131 is little used in the case of hyperthyroidism appeared during the use of cytokines (22% of physicians). The induction of hypothyroidism by iodine 131 in the case of severe cardiopathies is becoming little frequent (9% of physicians). (N.C.)

  7. Manual on therapeutic uses of iodine-131. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This publication is part of practical radiation safety manual series for different fields of application aimed primarily at persons handling radiation sources on a daily routine basis, which could at same time be used by the competent authorities, supporting their efforts in the radiation protection training of workers or medical assistance personnel or helping on-site management to set up local radiation protection rules. It is dedicated to therapeutic uses of Iodine-131: its application and procedures guides.

  8. Implementation of the protocol on treatment of outpatients and hospitalized patients with iodine 131r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildred De Mendoza, L.

    1996-01-01

    In Nuclear medicine different working protocols are used which are adequate for the treatment of patients with radioactive materials and which at the same time prevent the contamination of the occupationally exposed workers In Guatemala (the implementation of these protocols aims at keeping a records all the personal and centers that make use of iodine 131, improving the quality of diagnostic information; utilizing the necessary amount of radionuclide activity so as to ensure a good diagnosis and effectively utilizing economic resources

  9. The method of obtaining of sodium orthoiodohippurate labelled with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripov, D.; Abdukayumov, M.; Shukurov, A.Sh.

    1994-01-01

    The method of labelling of sodium orthoiodohippurate was elaborated with the purpose of increasing the preparation quality. Method includes the reaction of isotopic exchange between orthoiodhippur acid and sodium iodide solution labelled with iodine-131 with volume activity 150-200 mCu/mL and pH=6,5-7,0. Reaction occurs at temperature 120-130 C during 1,1-1,3 hours and the compound obtained is dissolved in 1% sodium bicarbonate solution. (author)

  10. Thyroid dose from 131 iodine of the population in Poland following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzesniak, J.W.

    1987-11-01

    The following studies were carried out in the period from 28 April to 20 June 1986 in the Central Laboratory of radiological Protection (C.L.O.R.) in Poland: atmosphere monitoring in the period from 28 April to 22 May evaluating 131 I environmental concentration with the percentage of iodine in elementary, aerosol and organic compound form; determination of thyroid dose in 1049 persons from mine regions in Poland [fr

  11. Manual on therapeutic uses of iodine-131. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication is part of practical radiation safety manual series for different fields of application aimed primarily at persons handling radiation sources on a daily routine basis, which could at same time be used by the competent authorities, supporting their efforts in the radiation protection training of workers or medical assistance personnel or helping on-site management to set up local radiation protection rules. It is dedicated to therapeutic uses of Iodine-131: its application and procedures guides

  12. Influence of surgical or propylthiouracil pretreatment on the efficacy of iodine-131 therapy in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Genming; Xu Qin; Yang Yili; Ye Anfang; Zhu Chengyi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of surgical or propylthiouracil(PTU) pretreatment on the efficacy of radioactive iodine therapy in hyperthyroidism. Methods: A group (group 1) of 41 hyperthyroidism patients relapsed after surgery were treated with 131 I in our department from 2003 through 2004. During that period, another group (group 2) of 41 cases were selected randomly from patients untreated either surgically or chemically before oral administration of 131 I, and a third group (group 3) of 41 cases were selected randomly from those pretreated only with PTU. We analysed the results of these three groups of patients after followed-up for 3 and 6 months separately after 131 I therapy. Results: Approximately 90.24% (37/41 cases) and 92.68% (38/ 41 cases) of patients in group 2 without any pretreatment were cured 3 months and 6 months after 131 I treatment, respectively, and 9.76% (4/41 cases) and 7.32% (3/41 cases) of them did not respond to 131 I treatment. About 43.90% (18/41 cases) and 53.66 % (22/41 cases) of patients pretreated with PTU (group 3) were cured at 3 and 6 months, respectively, and approximately 56.10% (23/41 cases) and 46.34% (19/41 cases) of this group patients did not respond to 131 I treatment at 3 and 6 months, respectively (P 131 I treatment, respectively, and 31.71% (13/41) and 29.27% (12/ 41) of them did not respond to 131 I treatment (P 131 I treatment can affect the efficacy of 131 I therapy, resulting in reduction of the cure rate. (authors)

  13. Model of iodine metabolism in a T3-thyrotoxic patient undergoing I-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, S.; Price, R.; Brill, A.B.; Dobyns, B.M.; Berman, M.

    Data on radioactivity in the thyroid, urine, serum, butanol-extractable iodine (BEI) and chromatographic fractionations of BEI, obtained during four I-131 therapeutic treatments of a T 3 -thyrotoxic patient, have been analyzed and simulated with the help of a 7-compartment model. Good fits to most of the data can be obtained with both the dose-independent and dose-dependent models. A model with 3 or 4 compartments, which provides adequate fits to iodine kinetic data in most euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients is not satisfactory in the case of this patient. Thus, to represent iodine metabolism during T 3 -thyrotoxicosis therapy, we find that it is necessary to provide for separate biochemical pathways for the BEI components as well as the butanol-insoluble compounds released by the thyroid gland

  14. Intra-arterial injection of iodine-131-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Eveline; Garin, Etienne; Guylligomarc'h, Anne; Olivie, Damien; Boudjema, Karim; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim: The therapeutic effect of intra-arterial injection of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in palliative or adjuvant settings has been promising. We report, the results of an open study of this therapy in cirrhotic patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients and method: Forty patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were given intra-arterial injections of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol. These injections were repeated if necessary every 3 months. Tumor response (WHO criteria) was determined on CT scans performed after each treatment and every 3 months during the follow-up. Side effects and the cause of death were recorded. Therapeutic response and survival were analyzed. Results: The median number of treatment was 2 (1-4). There was one complete response, 18 partial responses (47.5% response rate); 19 had stable disease and 2 progressions. Overall survival rates (±CI 95%) at 1, 2 and 3 years were: 90 ± 4.7%, 60.3 ± 8%, and 39 ± 8.3%, respectively. Median survival was 27 months; 25 patients have died (4-56 months), 8 of tumor progression with a multifocal spread in the liver. Tolerance was good except for 2 patients who develop a fatal drug-related pulmonary insufficiency. Conclusion: These data suggest that intra-arterial therapeutic injection of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma can provide high rate response and long survival for individuals not eligible for surgery or local treatment

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) labelling with iodine-131 by direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Araujo, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide with a great numbers of receptors in tumoral cells, including adenocarcinomas and pancreatic and colon carcinomas. The VIP molecule contains two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to iodination, The VIP was labeled with 131-iodine by direct method using Iodogen as oxidant agent: 15.03 mmol VIP + 0.10 nmol KI + [ 131 I]NaI + 13.9 mmol Iodogen; the final volume was adjust to 100 μL using 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 and the reaction proceed with stirring for 30 minutes at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined by electrophoresis (Whatman 1MM paper; 0.05 M barbital buffer; pH 8.6; 150 V; 40 minutes) that indicates low percent of free 131-iodine. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using RPC 18 , 10 μm, 4 x 250mm column, was able to separate the different radiochemical species, only when an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (27:73) was used, with 0.5 mL/min. flux. (author)

  16. Optimizing a single fixed dose of Iodine-131 in Graves' Disease (An Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Kashmir is a Himalayan mountain state of India enclosed by high snow capped ridges of Pir Panjal Mountains at an average height of 4000-5000 meters above the sea level. For most of the 4 million inhabitants in this land locked valley, agriculture horticulture and handcrafts are the main source of income. Due to long and severe winters the terraced farming on the mountain slopes yield just a single crop of rice which is barely sufficient to meet the local needs of this staple diet. People are relatively poor with low annual per capita income. Goiter is endemic in the Valley of Kashmir. In a published report the overall prevalence of goiter among the school going children in Kashmir between the ages of 5 years is 45.2% (+ SEM) with urinary iodine excretion of 49 + 3.55 μg per gram of creatinine. The extremely shy people of Kashmir are casual towards the aesthetic aspects of their goiters but nevertheless seek medical advice when associated with physical symptoms. In a published study of 203 patients of thyrotoxicosis from Kashmir, Graves' disease was the commonest cause, accounting for 63% of patients. One hundred and twentyone patients of Graves' disease were prospectively studied for their response to a single fixed dose of I-131. Patients were randomly treated with two different fixed doses of I- 131. Sixty four patients belonging to Group-I received a fixed dose of 185 MBq (Low Dose) and 57 patients belonging to Group -2 received 370 MBq (High Dose) of I- 131. Following therapy all patients were evaluated at 3 months. Patients with normal or reduced thyroid hormone levels were termed as responders and those with persistently elevated levels of thyroid hormone were termed as non responders. The response rates among the two groups were analyzed for their statistical significance. Patients treated with the high fixed dose of 370 MBq revealed good response to therapy achieving a rate of 91.22%, while the response rate in the group of patients treated with

  17. Occupational and public radiation protection in the treatment with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Trano, Jose L.; Rojo, Ana M.; Kunst, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    A common radionuclide therapy carried out by nuclear medicine departments is the administration of 131 I for thyroid ablation and for hyperthyroid treatment. The administration of 140 a 600 MBq for hyperthyroid treatment and 3700 a 7400 MBq for carcinoma diseases is made after surgery to ablate thyroid tissues and metastasis. The revision of radiological protection was done on the occupational exposure of workers, members of the public and relatives of patients treated with 131 I. This paper presents the results of area and individual dosimetry to external exposure, surface activity and air concentration of 131 I carried out during the practice in the nuclear medicine department. An area survey in the isolation room allowed to determine exposure rate from surface activity and air concentration of 131 I. The patient clothes activity was determined as well as the activity excreted in urine and sweat. On the basis of this analysis, can be concluded that the annual effective dose for workers due to external and internal exposure, considering 40 iodine practice per year, reach values from 4 up to 30 mSv per year. The patients with cancer therapy treatment must be hospitalized during the first 48 hrs after iodine administration, in an isolated room taking into account the radioprotection of the staff, others patients and public during the isolation. The patients with hyperthyroid treatment do not need hospitalization but they must to follow the instructions given by the physician, which will take into account socioeconomic conditions. (author)

  18. Using ion-selective electrode for determining iodine-131 preparation specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnik, M.I.; Nazirova, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot facility was developed in 2000 for the production of iodine-131. The parameters of the preparation are as follows: chemical form: sodium iodide solution (NaI-131) in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (or in 0.001M NaOH); specific activity: carrier free (> 5 Ci/mg); solution pH: 7-10; radionuclide purity: > 99.9%; radiochemical purity: > 97%; bulk activity: 0.15 Ci/ml. The experimental results of investigation aimed at the determination of the specific activity of the I-131 preparation using a iodine-selective electrode are described. The method enables the analytical concentration of iodide ions in the carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH = 8-11) and NaOH solution (0.01 mol/l, pH = 8-11) to be determined. A micro-cell has been developed for the analysis of the I-131 solution allowing the sample volume to be reduced to below 0.3 ml. The relative error of determination of the analytical concentration of iodide (10 -6 to 10 -1 mol/l) does not exceed 1%

  19. Effect of decicurie doses of radioactive iodine 131 on parathyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazebrook, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although parathyroid deficiency has been reported after administration of relatively small doses of iodine 131, reports of such deficiency after the much larger doses given in the management of thyroid cancer are notable by their absence in the literature. We observed one such patient, then instituted a prospective study. We observed a 58 percent incidence of apparently diminished parathyroid reserve among 53 patients given high doses of I 131. Susceptibility does not appear to be related to age, sex, extent of thyroid operation, operative technique, the amount of thyroidal I 131 uptake, the use of external radiation to the neck, or to the presence of parathyroid glands or of Hashimoto's disease in the operative specimen; however, susceptibility may be related to the anatomic location of the parathyroid glands in relation to the thyroid gland. The administered dose of I 131 almost reached significant levels (p = 0.1) in the present study. The initial pretreatment serum calcium levels were consistently lower among affected patients (p = 0.01), suggesting the presence of a preexisting latent impairment of parathyroid reserve which was subsequently unmasked after the administration of I 131. Thyroid cancer is compatible with very long-term survival, and therefore, there is a considerable risk of delayed chronic hypocalcemia among patients who have received large doses of I 131, particularly female patients in the premenopausal age group. These patients deserve special management surveillance

  20. Metastatic phaeochromocytoma with a long-term response after iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, P.; Bringer, J.; Faurous, P.; Jaffiol, C.

    1995-01-01

    Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ([ 131 I] MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical agent, is used for treating malignant phaeochromocytoma. [ 131 I]MIBG therapy results in a hormone response rate of approximately 50%, but generally it yields only a partial or no tumour response. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman with a familial history of von Hippel-Lindau disease, who was treated with [ 131 I]MIBG for a metastatic phaeochromocytoma involving the lungs, liver and bones. The patient received a cumulative dose of 33.3 GBq (900 mCi) and a complete hormone response was observed, as evaluated on the basis of catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Conventional radiography, computerized tomography and [ 131 I]MIBG scintigraphy indicated that a near-complete tumour regression was achieved, with no evidence of relapse during a 4-year follow-up period. This case thus demonstrates that treatment with [ 131 I]MIBG may lead to a dramatic tumour response in malignant phaeochromocytoma presenting both soft tissue and bone metastases. (orig.)

  1. Iodine-131 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy for Neuroblastoma: Reports So Far and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Kayano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma, which derives from neural crest, is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood. The tumors express the norepinephrine (NE transporters on their cell membrane and take in metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG via a NE transporter. Since iodine-131 (I-131 MIBG therapy was firstly reported, many trails of MIBG therapy in patients with neuroblastoma were performed. Though monotherapy with a low dose of I-131 MIBG could achieve high-probability pain reduction, the objective response was poor. In contrast, more than 12 mCi/kg I-131 MIBG administrations with or without hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT obtain relatively good responses in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. The combination therapy with I-131 MIBG and other modalities such as nonmyeloablative chemotherapy and myeloablative chemotherapy with HCT improved the therapeutic response in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. In addition, I-131 MIBG therapy incorporated in the induction therapy was proved to be feasible in patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. To expand more the use of MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma, further studies will be needed especially in the use at an earlier stage from diagnosis, in the use with other radionuclide formations of MIBG, and in combined use with other therapeutic agents.

  2. Iodine metabolism and thyroid functions in various species of domestic animals and poultry birds. II - Distribution of iodine-131 in developing ova in poultry birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshad, Omkar; Setia, M.S.; Rattan, P.J.S.; Sodhi, S.P.S.; Varman, P.N.

    1974-01-01

    To study the distribution of iodine in different stages of developing ova in relation to iodine metabolism, twentyfour healthy laying birds were randomly distributed into four groups of 6 birds each. Each bird was injected with 25.26 μCi. of carrier-free iodine-131. Afterwards, birds of group I, II, III and IV were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. The results have revealed that : (i) the state of development of ovum may be an important factor in controlling the distribution of iodine in ova; (ii) the iodine may be found distributed in both the lipid as well as non-lipid fractions of the ova; (iii) most of the iodine in the ova may be present in the form of inorganic iodine whereas very minor amount of the iodine may be as butanol-extractable iodine and (iv) the changes in iodine content in different stages of development of ova observed during the present study may be considered to have a direct effect on the overall metabolism of iodine in the poultry birds. (author)

  3. Guide-line of the radio-iodine (131I) therapy in Graves' disease and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yutaka; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    2005-01-01

    Radio-iodine ( 131 I) therapy has been using in Graves' disease and well differentiated thyroid cancer. The rules of control in the discharge from radio-isotope hospital were notified in 1999 in Japan. Guideline of the 131 I therapy in Graves' disease and thyroid cancer were prepared by sub-group of Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  4. Following-up the efficiency of 131-Iodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (excluding medullary) - Moroccan situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rais Aouad, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Since 1985, the department of nuclear medicine of IBN SINA Hospital in the Rabat University hospital centre is the only centre in Morocco, where all patients of differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery are treated with 3.7 GBq of Iodine-131. The number of patients on follow-up is more than two thousands. The endemic zone represents the main origin of thyroid carcinoma. The sex ratio (F/M) is 3.5/1; the mean age is 42.5 years. The papillary carcinoma constitutes about 65.5% of the 26% of well-differentiated carcinoma and 12.5 of moderately differentiated carcinoma (MDC). The tumour size at diagnosis was more than 2 cm in 70% of cases. Prognosis factors are the age, the histology and tumour size. After the surgery, the patients receive 131-Iodine therapy (3.7 GBq) and a regular follow-up by clinical examination, neck ultrasonography and thyroglobulin (Tg) blood level. The aim is to obtain a negative whole body scan (WBS) and undetectable Tg. All the patients also receive a suppressive hormone therapy (thyroxin: 2.4 μg/kg/day). In the same patient, the Tg level is also compared with and without suppression therapy, but taking TSH levels into account. The efficiency of 131-Iodine treatment and the following up, depends on the type of patients: (a) Patients without metastasis: the success of Iodine-131 therapy depended on surgery and it was more than 92% (b) Patients with local metastasis to lymph nodes: the success of 131-Iodine therapy depended of nodal status and complete dissection is possible in 70% cases only. (c) Patients with distant metastasis: The efficiency of 131-Iodine therapy depended on the uptake, the homogeneity and the size of metastasis. In lung metastasis, the efficiency of 131-Iodine is about 40-42% (70%: miliary and micro nodules) and only 6.6% in bone metastasis. After treatment, the patients were regularly followed-up clinically till the next WBS and Tg estimation. In some cases, it was interesting to compare WBS and MIBI

  5. Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Braverman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1 pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2 prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3 utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4 distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5 education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6 continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7 support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD, the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental to consider these critical recommendations.

  6. Factors Predicting Treatment Failure in Patients Treated with Iodine-131 for Graves’ Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Kuruva; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bhoil, Amit; Bhattacharya, Anish; Dutta, Pinaki; Bhansali, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of Graves' disease with iodine-131 ( 131 I) is well-known; however, all patients do not respond to a single dose of 131 I and may require higher and repeated doses. This study was carried out to identify the factors, which can predict treatment failure to a single dose of 131 I treatment in these patients. Data of 150 patients with Graves' disease treated with 259-370 MBq of 131 I followed-up for at least 1-year were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict factors which can predict treatment failure, such as age, sex, duration of disease, grade of goiter, duration of treatment with anti-thyroid drugs, mean dosage of anti-thyroid drugs used, 99m Tc-pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 - ) uptake at 20 min, dose of 131 I administered, total triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels. Of the 150 patients, 25 patients required retreatment within 1 year of initial treatment with 131 I. Logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex and 99m TcO 4 - uptake were associated with treatment failure. On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, area under the curve (AUC) was significant for 99m TcO 4 - uptake predicting treatment failure (AUC = 0.623; P = 0.039). Optimum cutoff for 99m TcO 4 - uptake was 17.75 with a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 66% to predict treatment failure. Patients with >17.75% 99m TcO 4 - uptake had odds ratio of 3.14 (P = 0.014) for treatment failure and male patients had odds ratio of 1.783 for treatment failure. Our results suggest that male patients and patients with high pre-treatment 99m TcO 4 - uptake are more likely to require repeated doses of 131 I to achieve complete remission

  7. Place of synthesis anti thyroids in the hyperthyroidism treatment by iodine 131; Place des antithyroidiens de synthese dans le traitement par iode 131 des hyperthyroidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, J. [Hopital Necker, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-01-01

    The prescription of synthesis anti thyroids allows to get a fast control of hyperthyroidism when the average time of curing after iodine 131 varies from 6 to 12 weeks, according to the level of radiation doses. It allows to treat the patients in euthyroidism and to avoid aggravation of thyrotoxicosis in the following of the iodine and is particularly useful for the old patients with a cardio vascular risk.

  8. Using medically-derived iodine-131 to track sewage effluent in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenero, Michael P; Dilbone, Elizabeth K; Waples, James T

    2017-10-15

    Tracking sewage wastewater in a large lake is difficult. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals that can be used as indicator compounds are quickly diluted and not easy to measure. In this study, we examined the potential of using medically-derived iodine-131 ( 131 I, t ½  = 8.02 d) as a tracer for Milwaukee sewage effluent in Lake Michigan. 131 I activities in sewage effluent from two Milwaukee wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were measured in conjunction with 131 I activities in water, sediment and biota in the Milwaukee Outer Harbor and Lake Michigan. 131 I discharge rates from both WWTPS ranged from 34 ± 15 to 1807 ± 24 MBq d -1 , with average and median 131 I discharges of 278 and 129 MBq d -1 . A budget of 131 I in the Milwaukee Outer Harbor - based on measured sediment and water column inventories - showed that ∼11% of the 131 I discharged to the harbor was scavenged to bottom sediments, ∼19% decayed in the harbor water column, and ∼70% was flushed out of the harbor to Lake Michigan. From this budget, we derived a harbor flushing rate of 3.1 days. In Lake Michigan, 131 I activity was found in Cladophora algae (undetected to 91 ± 2 Bq kg -1 ) along ∼40 km of shoreline. Benthic trawl samples showed 131 I activity up to 8 km from shore. Calculated 131 I length scales were 30 km alongshore and 3.4 km offshore and corresponded to sewage effluent dispersion rates of ∼2.6 km d -1 and ∼0.3 km d -1 in along- and offshore directions. Using 131 I as a tracer of sewage effluent from other coastal municipalities to the Laurentian Great Lakes appears feasible, particularly for larger (>10 5 ) population centers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of eating salt with iodine on the normal values of thyroid 131I uptake rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Wang Huawen; Li Guirong; Chen Chunmei; Zhang Lixia; Yu Yuehua

    2002-01-01

    131 I uptake rates of control group, which stop eating salt with iodine for over six weeks, eating salt with iodine group, the hyperthyroidism group are determined in 2 h, 6 h and 24 h respectively. The results show 131 I uptake rate of eating salt with iodine group are (7.7 +- 4.2)% in 2 h, (13.8 +- 5.3)% in 6 h and (21.9 +- 7.7)% in 24 h. There are no difference between sex. There is significance of difference (P 131 I uptake rates between the hyperthyroidism group of eating salt with iodine and control group is 5.0%, and eating salt with iodine group is 22.5%. To determine the thyroid iodine uptake rate in the patients who did not stop eating salt with iodine, the ranges of normal values must be defined. This result could be as a standard to diagnose the patients of hyperthyroidism of eating salt with iodine

  10. RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL IODINE-131 FALLOUT FOR THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF IODINE-129 CONTENT IN THE SOIL DETERMINATION IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gavrilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  11. Evaluation of biological analysis program for iodine 131; Avaliacao do programa de bioanalise para Iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Todo, A.S.; Potiens Junior, A.; Oliveira, E.M.; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A program for the occupational control of internal contamination for the Radioisotopes Division workers of the IPEN-CNEN/SP has been performed by in vitro and in vivo bioassay techniques, every two weeks. From the assessment of the monitoring program, two groups of workers were identified in accordance with their activities and handling frequency {sup 131} I. The groups A and B are exposed five and three days respectively every week. In this program, urinalysis methods, thyroid and whole body measurements have been evaluated over the year. The sampling scheme, performed every two week, was altered for weekly, in order to minimize the interpretation errors and to get a better estimative of the intake. This study also provides and evaluation of the cost for the weekly urinalysis sampling method. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig.; e-mail: janetegc at net.ipen.br

  12. Labeling of Salmonella typhimurium with iodine-131 to study phagocytic function in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.K.; Rodrigues Junior, A.J.; Camargo, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    The present study descibes a method for labeling Salmonella tyhymurium with iodine-131 to evaluate both the morphological and the functional characteristics of the reticulo-endothelial system. A suspension containing 2 x 10 9 bacteria per ml was labeled with carrier-free Na 131 I without reductor, with a labeling yield of 46.5 +- 3% and 3.5 +- 1.3% of free Iodine-131. The biodistribution of the labeled bacteria in rats was studied with a large-field-of-view scintillation camera equiped with a pinhole collimator. Whole body images were obtained 15 and 30 minutes after intravenous injection of the labeled microorganisms. Images showed accumulation of bacteria in the liver and both normal and transplanted spleens of the animals. Autoradiographs of liver and spleen demonstrated labeled bacteria within the cells of the reticulo-endothelial system. The method described is easy to perform, has a good labeling yield and allows the function of the reticulo-monophagocytic system, including transplanted spleens. (author) [pt

  13. Scintigraphic imaging and turnover studies with iodine-131 labelled serum amyloid P component in systemic amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.N.; Pepys, M.B.; Aprile, C.; Capri, G.; Vigano, L.; Munzone, E.; Gianni, L.; Merlini, G.

    1998-01-01

    Radiolabelled serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a specific tracer for amyloid. Iodine-123 has ideal physical characteristics for scintigraphy but is expensive and not widely available. Here we report serial imaging and turnover studies in which we labelled SAP with iodine-131, a cheap alternative isotope which would be expected to yield poorer images but permit more prolonged turnover measurements. Imaging and plasma clearance and whole body retention (WBR) of tracer were studied for up to 7 days in ten patients with proven systemic AL amyloidosis and two patients in whom the diagnosis was suspected, after i.v. administration of about 37 MBq of 131 I-SAP. Normal blood pool images were obtained in the latter two subjects and amyloidosis was subsequently refuted histologically. WBR at 48 h was 65% of the injected dose (i.d.). Among the other ten patients, amyloid deposits were identified in the spleen in eight cases, liver in five and kidneys in four; other sites that gave positive results included bone, joints and soft tissues, and the myocardium in one case. Up to 95% of the tracer localised into amyloid within 6-h, and the values for WBR became progressively more discriminating during the study period, exceeding the normal reference value ( 131 I-SAP produced diagnostic scans in every patient in this series and, coupled with the detailed turnover information, is adequate for monitoring disease progress. (orig.)

  14. Observation of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I, {sup 129}I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Hideshi, E-mail: hfuji@affrc.go.jp

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of {sup 131}I deposited on the ground and of {sup 131}I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ({sup 129}I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing {sup 131}I levels from the levels of accident-derived {sup 129}I. The exceptionally high levels of {sup 131}I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited {sup 131}I and {sup 129}I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The {sup 131}I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the {sup 131}I concentrations reconstructed from the {sup 129}I concentrations in the soil. - Highlights: • A high level of {sup 131}I contamination occurs through rainfall-related deposition. • Only a small loss of deposited radioactive iodine occurs via volatilization. • The {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I ratio in soil corresponds to the ratio in atmospheric deposit. • The feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing {sup 131}I is confirmed.

  15. Therapeutic applications of radioactive 131iodine: Procedures and incidents with capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Aamri, Marwa; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Treatments for thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma thyroid are carried out by oral administration of radioactive iodine ( 131 I) in the form of liquid or capsules. The liquid form of 131 I has higher risk factors such as vapourization, spillage and need for management of higher activity wastes. Use of 131 I in capsule form simplify procedures of handling compared to liquid form of 131 I. The guidelines of safe handling and quality assurance aspects for therapeutic use 131 I are well outlined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports. A few unusual incidents with I-131 capsules encountered in the past need to be highlighted from health physics point of view. In Royal Hospital, Oman, I-131 is imported in capsules, and the total activity handled/year steadily increased over 10 years. Discrete activities range from 185 MBq (5 mCi) up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). In four incidents deviations in standard operational procedures were recorded. Nature of incidents is described as follows: (1) After assay of activity, the capsule was directly put in the lead container with missing of inner cap. (2) Patient poured water in the Perspex tube, when the capsule was handed over to her, making an emergency situation. (3) In 3 high activity capsules (2 nos 2.96 GBq, 1 no. 4.26 GBq), observed sticky behavior in capsule holder on the 2 nd day post receipt, which were in order on the 1 st day. (4) A capsule could not be swallowed by a patient, which was taken back from the mouth. Monitoring of patient later did not show residual ingested activity. The report documents some of the unusual incidents for information to other centers engaged in such radioactive administrations

  16. Iodine-131 treatment strategy in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers at Centre Antoine Lacassagne (Nice)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussiere, F.

    2003-01-01

    We report on iodine-131 treatment strategy in 1207 papillary and 250 follicular thyroid cancers admitted at our institution between 1976 and 2001. At the time of diagnosis, 51 patients (3.5%) had already metastases. The rest were 155 (11 %) pT4, 619 (44.6 %) pT1 588 (42,6 %) pT2, 26 pT3, 5 pT0 and 4 pTx. All patients underwent quasi-total thyroidectomy. Lymph node dissection was performed in most patients except in 49.7 %n of pT1 and 33% of pT2. Lastly, multifocal thyroid lesions were found in 28.5% of pT1 and 27,6 % of pT2. 80 patients did not receive radio-iodine (among them 60 were pT1 pN0 or pNx). 1114 patients received one therapeutic dose of 3.7 GBq of 131-iodine 6 to 8 weeks post surgery. 181 patients were treated twice (89 for remnants and 92 for disease progression). 82 patients received at least 3 doses and 5 up to 7 doses. 116 deaths were recorded, 59 (4 %) were related to thyroid cancer. The relatively poor prognosis of the follicular form is confirmed with 15.2 % deaths. This study needs to be further analysed focusing oil the follow-up of pT1 patients in order to redefine the indications of iodine therapy in that group. (author)

  17. Inquiry about 131 Iodine use in Brazil; Inquerito sobre o uso do Iodo-131 no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, Claudio Cordeiro; Takahashi, Mirian Hideko; Senhorini Junior, Sidney; Graf, Hans [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Inst. de Diabetes e Endocrinologia de Maringa, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccalbino@uol.com.br

    2001-12-01

    Radioactive iodine is an effective and widely accepted therapy for Graves disease (G D) and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), but there still are some controversies about the criteria for its use. To establish the present tendency for radioiodine indication, we have sent questionnaires for members of The Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Latin American Thyroid Society, with 3 index cases: G D, toxic nodular goiter (TNG) and DTC. For each case, questions were proposed about diagnostic procedures and therapy with some clinical variants, which could modify the therapeutic choice. From the almost 2000 questionnaires sent only 82 replies (3.4%) were analyzed. Most of respondents defined themselves as general endocrinologists (85%), working in South and Southeast regions of Brazil (80%), with more than 20 years of professional activity and working mainly at University Hospitals (40%). In case index 1 (G D), 95% of the respondents used arrays of T 3, T 4 and TSH for the diagnosis and 25% added TRAb and thyroid scan. Antithyroid drugs (ATD) were the first choice for 72%, followed by radioiodine and surgery (26% and 1.3% respectively). None of clinical variants such as severe exophthalmos, older age or goiter size modified the therapy. In case 2 (TNG), radioiodine was the first therapy for 84% of professionals and the presence of compressive symptoms was the only variant that changed this tendency, when surgery was the main option. In case 3 (DTC), almost all indicated total thyroidectomy. Radioiodine for thyroid remnants was proposed by 45% of respondents, independent of residual uptake, while the remaining did so depending of different values of uptake, giving 30 to 100 mCI. These data show that radioiodine use is increasing for hyperthyroidism, but still less than observed in other countries and that we do not have uniformity for treatment of DTC. (author)

  18. Evaluation of radiation safety from patients with thyroid disease undergoing iodine-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, K.-Y.; Li, X.F.; Liu, J.-Z.; Li, S.-J.; Hu, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: By calculating the dose equivalent of patients with thyroid disease who had received iodine-131 therapy, based on the China national criteria, we evaluate the radiation safety of the individuals other than the patients who had turned into a specific 'radiant source'. Methods: 152 outpatients and inpatients, with iodine-131 therapy had been investigated and followed-up. There were 162 treatments which included patients with hyperthyroidism (HT)-124, 35 thyroid cancers (TC), 2 toxic thyroid adenomas and 1 nontoxic nodular goiter. In addition, we had achieved the practical measures and contact instance with household members and the general public, including 37 HT (contact with 37 adults and 8 infants) and 3 TC. According to the personal condition of the patients and the time of exposure to individuals other than patients, and to calculate the exposure dose (mSv) to the individuals with formulae. Results: Based on the national criteria the total dose equivalent to the individuals other than patients may not exceed 5 mSv. For most patients, including 124 HT, 2 toxic thyroid adenomas and 16 times treatment of TC, the exposure doses to the individuals were not likely to exceed 5 mSv, but the others, including 19 treatments of TC and 1 nontoxic nodular goiter, the exposure doses were higher than 5 mSv. There was no difference between the part of HT and TC of inpatients when compared with outpatients (P>0.05, respectively). We found that occupancy factor during the preequilibrium period play an important role on the exposure doses to the individuals, especially TC patients. With the dose equivalent to the same HT patient, practical measures for accumulating doses is higher and more practical than the simplistic formula calculating ones (P 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the outpatients with iodine- 131 therapy were safe to the individuals surrounding them within 1 meter, but the part of TC patients needed to be treated in the hospital and took a dose

  19. Radiochemical studies on the separation of iodine-131 and radioiodination of some organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is constituted of three chapters:Chapter I: It deals with the theoretical consideration of the subject. The chapter deals with the importance of radioisotopes in medical applications, and the physical and biological properties of these isotopes. Also, this part deals with the chemical and physical properties of both tellurium and iodine and the methods of the production of radioiodine from tellurium targets especially dry distillation method and ion exchange method. It deals with general methods of labeling, chemistry of iodine especially the most frequently used in nuclear medicine, their methods of production and applications. It includes also the techniques used for the preparation of the radioiodinated compounds, especially the electrophilic technique or the oxidative radioiodination technique. In this technique, oxidizing agents are used to oxidize iodide ions to iodonium ions capable of electrophilic attack on the aryl group of the organic compound. This chapter deals also with the receptor tracers, their types and the effects that can occur due to the binding of these receptors to the cell membrane. Since these radiopharmaceuticals are used for diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of human diseases, quality control tests such as chemical purity, radionuclidic purity, radiochemical purity, sterility, apyrogenicity and biodistribution are performed to ensure the purity, the safety and efficiency of these products for the intended nuclear medicine application.Chapter II:It contains detailed information concerning the chemicals, reagents, the radionuclides, the equipment and the counting systems used in the study. It describes production technique of iodine-131 using dry distillation method. It describes also the electrophilic radioiodination for each of Y-indole and epidepride. Analysis of the labeled products was performed using two chromatographic techniques. The first technique is thin layer chromatography in which the compound was identified by

  20. Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis M, J.

    2003-07-01

    With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

  1. Considerations of food hygiene in the case of mussels accidentally contaminated by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battani, N.; Chambost, Marie-Daniel; Leandri, Marcel

    1969-09-01

    As the transfer to mankind of radioactive pollution by food chains is a matter of concern, the authors report the study of the use of mussels contaminated by iodine 131 in a food preparation in order to follow the evolution of this radionuclide. After their contamination in seawater, mussels are prepared either with or without their shell. Counting is performed after cooking. Results are discussed in terms of presence of the radionuclide in the different parts of the crude or cooked mussels (shell, body, liquid) [fr

  2. Identifying best practice in relation to Iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewers in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Fennell, Stepehn; McGarry, Ann; Punt, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In line with a commitment in Ireland's strategy on the implementation of the Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) as well as recent developments in the provision of national oncology services, best practice in relation to Iodine-131 (I-131) ablation discharges to sewers in Ireland is under review. Preparatory to this review the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) commissioned a study of current practices in Ireland and associated doses as well as a review of international best practice and advice. Currently, there are three hospitals in Ireland at which thyroid ablation therapy procedures (large therapeutic administrations of I-131 for thyroid cancer treatment) are carried out. Only one facility has a limited capacity for delay and decay storage prior to discharge. Based on current administrations and discharges, the potentially most exposed workers comprises hospital plumbers dealing with specific incidents with estimated doses in the order of 50 to 70 μSv per incident. Doses to sewage workers and fishing communities are estimated at less than 4 μSv y -1 and 0.4 μSv y -1 respectively. Based on anticipated future service requirements in Ireland, a marginal increase in doses to some of these groups is estimated. Iodine-131 discharges to the environment and associated doses to workers and members of the public may be significantly reduced by the introduction of state-of-the-art delay and decay tanks using multi-tank vacuum systems. The justification for the introduction of a regulatory requirement to install such systems is examined taking account of: discharges to the environment, concentrations in the environment, doses to workers and members of the public, best available techniques (BAT), international best practice and advice as well as the financial implications for medical facilities. The case for retrofitting delay and decay tanks to existing medical facilities is also examined as well as the option of including such tanks in the

  3. Production of fusion radionuclides: Molybdenum-99/ Iodine - 131 and Xenon-133; Produccion de los radionucleidos de fision: Molibdeno-99, Yodo-131 y Xenon-133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, M; Carrillo, D

    1982-07-01

    This report presents a new radiochemical method for industrial production of the radionuclides: molybdenum-99, iodine-131 and xenon-133. The above mentioned method based on the alkaline metathesis reaction of irradiated uranium (IV) fluoride, presents the best characteristics for the proposed objective. The study deals with the analysis of that reaction and the separation and purification processes. (Author) 71 refs.

  4. Radiation exposure and radiation protection of the physician in iodine-131 Lipiodol therapy of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risse, J.H.; Ponath, C.; Palmedo, H.; Biersack, H.J.; Menzel, C.; Gruenwald, F.

    2001-01-01

    Intra-arterial iodine-131 labelled Lipiodol therapy for liver cancer has been investigated for safety and efficacy over a number of years, but data on radiation exposure of personnel have remained unavailable to date. The aim of this study was to assess the radiation exposure of the physician during intra-arterial 131 I-Lipiodol therapy for liver malignancies and to develop appropriate radiation protection measures and equipment. During 20 intra-arterial administrations of 131 I-Lipiodol (1110-1924 MBq), radiation dose equivalents (RDE) to the whole body, fingers and eyes of the physician were determined for (a) conventional manual administration through a shielded syringe, (b) administration with an automatic injector and (c) administration with a lead container developed in-house. Administration by syringe resulted in a finger RDE of 19.5 mSv, an eye RDE of 130-140 μSv, and a whole-body RDE of 108-119 μSv. The injector reduced the finger RDE to 5 mSv. With both technique (a) and technique (b), contamination of angiography materials was observed. The container allowed safe transport and administration of the radiopharmaceutical from 4 m distance and reduced the finger RDE to 131 I-Lipiodol was administered by syringe or injector, but was significantly reduced with the lead container. (orig.)

  5. Prostaglandins as biochemical markers of radiation injury to the salivary glands after iodine-131 therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.; Havlik, E.; Sinzinger, H. [Univ. Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Peskar, B. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. Pharmakologie

    1998-03-01

    Because salivary glands, as well as thyroid tissue, are able to concentrate radioiodine, the treatment of thyroid diseases with iodine-131 may have secondary effects on salivary gland function which seriously impair the quality of life. Such effects include sialoadenitis and xerostomia. Salivary secretion is stimulated by prostaglandins (PGs). In this study we evaluate whether {sup 131}I therapy influences the levels of PGs in saliva. Patients who had previously received {sup 131}I for treatment of hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer and healthy volunters were studied. Levels of PGs [6-oxo-PGF{sub 1{alpha}}, bicyclo-PGEm, thromboxane B{sub 2} (TXB{sub 2}), PGF{sub 2{alpha}}], in unstimulated saliva were measured using enzyme immunoassay. Significantly lower levels of 6-oxo-PGF{sub 1} {sub {alpha}}, bicyclo-PGEm and PGF{sub 2{alpha}} and higher levels of TXB{sub 2} were found in the group of patients in comparison with the controls. Differences between patients and controls were more pronounced in smokers. This study demonstrates that salivary gland uptake of {sup 131}I significantly affects PG levels in saliva. (orig.)

  6. Prostaglandins as biochemical markers of radiation injury to the salivary glands after iodine-131 therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Havlik, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Peskar, B.

    1998-01-01

    Because salivary glands, as well as thyroid tissue, are able to concentrate radioiodine, the treatment of thyroid diseases with iodine-131 may have secondary effects on salivary gland function which seriously impair the quality of life. Such effects include sialoadenitis and xerostomia. Salivary secretion is stimulated by prostaglandins (PGs). In this study we evaluate whether 131 I therapy influences the levels of PGs in saliva. Patients who had previously received 131 I for treatment of hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer and healthy volunters were studied. Levels of PGs [6-oxo-PGF 1α , bicyclo-PGEm, thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ), PGF 2α ], in unstimulated saliva were measured using enzyme immunoassay. Significantly lower levels of 6-oxo-PGF 1 α , bicyclo-PGEm and PGF 2α and higher levels of TXB 2 were found in the group of patients in comparison with the controls. Differences between patients and controls were more pronounced in smokers. This study demonstrates that salivary gland uptake of 131 I significantly affects PG levels in saliva. (orig.)

  7. Iodine-131 treatment and chromosomal damage: in vivo dose-effect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erselcan, Taner; Sungu, Selma; Ozdemir, Semra; Turgut, Bulent; Dogan, Derya; Ozdemir, Ozturk

    2004-05-01

    Although it is well known that radiation induces chromosomal aberrations, there is a lack of information on the in vivo dose-effect relationship in patients receiving iodine-131 treatment, and the results of previous studies are controversial. In this study, the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) method was employed to investigate acute and late chromosomal damage (CD) in the peripheral lymphocytes of 15 patients who received various doses of (131)I (259-3,700 MBq), either for thyrotoxicosis (TTX) or for ablation treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The SCE frequencies in cultured peripheral lymphocytes were determined before treatment (to assess basal SCE frequencies), on the 3rd day (to assess acute SCE frequencies) and 6 months later (to assess late SCE frequencies). The basal, acute and late SCE frequencies (mean+/-SD) were 3.19+/-0.93, 10.83+/-1.72 and 5.75+/-2.06, respectively, in the whole group, and these values differed significantly from each other ( Pdisappearance of damaged lymphocytes from the peripheral circulation in a dose-dependent manner following (131)I treatment. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the effect of the negative beta value on the biological dosimetry approach in continuous internal low LET radiation, as in the case of (131)I treatment.

  8. Scoping calculation for components of the cow-milk dose pathway for evaluating the dose contribution from iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations have been undertaken to evaluate The absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 001) examined the contributions of the various exposure pathways associated with environmental transport and accumulation of iodine-131 in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants and adult from (1) the ingestion by dairy cattle of various feedstuffs (pasturage, silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay) in four different feeding regimes; (2) ingestion of soil by dairy cattle; (3) ingestion of stared feed on which airborne iodine-131 had been deposited; and (4) inhalation of airborne iodine-131 by dairy cows

  9. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation 1948--1951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Mart, E.I.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    This report is a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The key radionuclide emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131 (Napier 1992). Because the early methods of measuring iodine-131 were not comparable to later techniques, conversion and correction factors are needed to convert the historical measurement data into concentration values that would be determined using today's knowledge and technologies. This report describes the conversion and correction factors developed for reconstructing historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, which was collected from 1948 through the end of December 1951

  10. Iodine-131 Therapy and Nasolacrimal Duct Obstructions: What We Know and What We Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Javed

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current review are to summarize the etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, management, complications, and outcomes of iodine-131-induced nasolacrimal duct obstructions, to propose a screening protocol and elucidate the potential avenues of future research. The authors performed an electronic database (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) search of all articles published in English on nasolacrimal duct obstructions following radioiodine therapy. These articles were reviewed along with their relevant cross references. Data reviewed included demographics, presentations, investigations, management, complications, and outcomes. In addition, based on relevant unanswered questions and current lacunae in literature, potential avenues for further research have been elucidated. The frequency of nasolacrimal duct obstruction is reported to range from 2.2% to 18% following I-131 therapy. They are mostly bilateral and noted in patients who receive more than 150 mCi radioiodine. Exact etiopathogenesis is unknown but radiotoxicity to lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct is believed to be mediated through a sodium-iodine symporter protein. Although uncommon, it is important to increase awareness among treating physicians and patients receiving radioiodine therapy about the potential side effect of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Imaging modalities are useful adjuncts in the diagnosis. Dacryocystorhinostomy is the most common modality of management with good outcomes. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction following radioiodine treatment is a distinct clinical entity. Increased awareness would facilitate timely diagnosis, management, and an enhanced quality of life for the patients.

  11. Proposal of a methodology for individualized iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Francisco de; Melo, Rossana Corbo de; Rebelo, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder Augusto de

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several methods are utilized for determining the radioiodine activity in the treatment of Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism). Some of this methods do not take into consideration the thyroid absorbed dose or the necessary parameters for this estimation. The association between absorbed dose and administered activity depends on effective half-life, iodine uptake and thyroid mass of each patient. The present study was aimed at developing a methodology for individualized 131 I therapy for Graves' disease in patients with hyperthyroidism of the Graves' disease. Materials and methods: A neck-thyroid phantom developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, containing a standard solution of 131 I, was utilized for calibrating the scintillation gamma camera and uptake probe installed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Results: The view angle of the collimator/detector assembly presented values compatible with the thyroid gland size for distances of 25 cm (uptake probe) and 45.8 cm (scintillation gamma camera). Calibration factors were 39.3 ± 0.78 and 4.3 ± 0.17 cpm/kBq, respectively. The 14-30-hour interval in the retention curve allows the estimation of activity between two points for determining the effective iodine half-life in the thyroid. Conclusion: The utilization of equipment usually available in nuclear medicine clinics is feasible, so this is a simple, effective and low cost methodology. (author)

  12. Long term follow-up observation of /sup 131/Iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ch' en, C.

    1977-07-20

    This paper reports the 5 to 13 years follow-up conditions of 241 cases of hyperthyroidism treated with /sup 131/iodine, with emphasis on the side-effect of incidence of hypothyroidism. Of the group, 192 cases were cured; 25 cases were improved; there were 3 cases of recurrence and 5 cases remained the same as before the treatment. Hypothyroidism yroidism occurred to the remaining 16 cases. The rate of incidence of hypothyroidism at the end of one year after treatment was 3.3%; at the end of 9 years 9.5%, with an average yearly increase of 0.8%. In foreign countries, the reported yearly increase rate of hypothyroidism has been reported to be 1 to 6%, and the ten-year aggregate may be as high as 30.2 to 70%, much higher than the observed data here reported. There was no incidence of thyroid nodules, cancer, or leukemia among the group of 241 cases treated with /sup 131/iodine, and the reproductive capacity was not observed to be affected by the treatment.

  13. Iodine-131 induced hepatotoxicity in previously healthy patients with Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhummon, Navina Priya; Tohooloo, Bhavna; Qu, Shen

    2013-01-01

    To describe the association of the rare and serious complication of liver toxicity in previously healthy Grave's disease (GD) patients after the treatment with radioactive iodine (131)I (RAI). We report the clinical, laboratory and pathologic findings of 2 cases of severe liver toxicity associated with the treatment with RAI in previously healthy patients with GD. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations excluded viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatous disease, primary biliary disease, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and heart failure. Case 1: A previously healthy 52-years old man reportedly having a typical GD but following RAI treatment, concomitantly developed severe liver toxicity that required 1 week of treatment in hospital. Case 2: A previously healthy 34-years old woman is reported as having a typical GD but developed jaundice following RAI treatment that required several weeks of in hospital treatment in the hepato-biliary department. In both cases, the liver dysfunction resolved after intensive treatment with hepato-protective agents. In this report the therapeutic considerations as well as the pathogenetic possibilities are reviewed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the association observed, which is rare but may be severe and should be considered in any case of thyrotoxicosis where a liver dysfunction develops after the treatment with radioactive iodine (131)I.

  14. Iodine-131 induced hepatotoxicity in previously healthy patients with Grave’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the association of the rare and serious complication of liver toxicity in previously healthy Grave’s disease (GD) patients after the treatment with radioactive iodine 131I (RAI). Case presentation We report the clinical, laboratory and pathologic findings of 2 cases of severe liver toxicity associated with the treatment with RAI in previously healthy patients with GD. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations excluded viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatous disease, primary biliary disease, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and heart failure. Case 1: A previously healthy 52-years old man reportedly having a typical GD but following RAI treatment, concomitantly developed severe liver toxicity that required 1 week of treatment in hospital. Case 2: A previously healthy 34-years old woman is reported as having a typical GD but developed jaundice following RAI treatment that required several weeks of in hospital treatment in the hepato-biliary department. In both cases, the liver dysfunction resolved after intensive treatment with hepato-protective agents. In this report the therapeutic considerations as well as the pathogenetic possibilities are reviewed. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the association observed, which is rare but may be severe and should be considered in any case of thyrotoxicosis where a liver dysfunction develops after the treatment with radioactive iodine 131I. PMID:23497434

  15. Uncertainty of inhalation dose coefficients for representative physical and chemical forms of iodine-131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard Paul, III

    Releases of radioactive material have occurred at various Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities and facilities associated with the nuclear fuel cycle in the generation of electricity. Many different radionuclides have been released to the environment with resulting exposure of the population to these various sources of radioactivity. Radioiodine has been released from a number of these facilities and is a potential public health concern due to its physical and biological characteristics. Iodine exists as various isotopes, but our focus is on 131I due to its relatively long half-life, its prevalence in atmospheric releases and its contribution to offsite dose. The assumption of physical and chemical form is speculated to have a profound impact on the deposition of radioactive material within the respiratory tract. In the case of iodine, it has been shown that more than one type of physical and chemical form may be released to, or exist in, the environment; iodine can exist as a particle or as a gas. The gaseous species can be further segregated based on chemical form: elemental, inorganic, and organic iodides. Chemical compounds in each class are assumed to behave similarly with respect to biochemistry. Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratories have demonstrated that 131I is released as a particulate, as well as in elemental, inorganic and organic chemical form. The internal dose estimate from 131I may be very different depending on the effect that chemical form has on fractional deposition, gas uptake, and clearance in the respiratory tract. There are many sources of uncertainty in the estimation of environmental dose including source term, airborne transport of radionuclides, and internal dosimetry. Knowledge of uncertainty in internal dosimetry is essential for estimating dose to members of the public and for determining total uncertainty in dose estimation. Important calculational steps in any lung model is regional estimation of deposition fractions

  16. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). One of the radionuclides emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131. This report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947

  17. Phaeochromocytoma and functioning paraganglioma in childhood and adolescence: Role of iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafagi, F.A.; Shapiro, B.; Fischer, M.; Sisson, J.C.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Hutchinson, R.

    1991-01-01

    Phaeochromocytomas and functioning paragangliomas are rare tumours in childhood and adolescence. We review our experience of 43 cases (24 men, 19 women) who were first diagnosed at the age of ≤ 18 years. All patients were evaluated at some point in their illness, with iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-mIBG) scintigraphy. Eight patients (19%) had bilateral adrenal tumours, 12 (28%) had solitary extraadrenal tumours, and 8 (19%) had multiple tumours. In 10 patients (23%), the tumours were associated with a familial neurocristopathic syndrome. Thirteen of 24 (54%) unifocal tumours which were initially considered to be benign ultimately proved to be multi-focal and/or malignant. The final prevalence of malignancy was 60% - 26 patients, of whom only 15 (57%) had obviously malignant tumours at the time of diagnosis. Primary tumour size ≥ 5 cm was more commonly associated with a malignant course in adrenal but not extra-adrenal tumours. No other clinical, biochemical or morphological characteristic was significantly associated with malignancy. Although the high prevalence of malignancy in this series at least partly reflects referral bias, the need for lifelong follow-up of these patients is underscored. 131 I-mIBG scintigraphy was positive in 36 patients (84%), with a somewhat lower false-negative rate (12%) than X-ray computed tomography (20%). Eight patients with malignant tumours received therapeutic doses of 131 I-mIBG, with partial tumour responses in 3. Thus, 131 I-mIBG is an efficacious, non-invasive, localising agent and may be considered as a palliative therapeutic agent when alternatives have failed. (orig.)

  18. Cytogenetic damage after 131-iodine treatment for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, S.; Carbonell, E.; Creus, A.; Marcos, R.

    1999-01-01

    To detect the incidence and persistence of potential chromosome damage induced by iodine-131 therapy, we applied the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to peripheral blood lymphocytes from hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer patients treated with 131 I. Two groups of patients were evaluated in a longitudinal study; one group was composed of 47 hyperthyroid patients and the other of 39 thyroid cancer patients. In the hyperthyroidism group, the micronuclei frequency was determined before 131 I therapy and 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after it. Furthermore, an additional sample was taken from a subgroup of 17 hyperthyroidism patients 6 months after treatment. In the thyroid cancer group, the analysis was also conducted over time, and four samples were studied: before treatment and 1 week, 6 months and 1 year later. Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study was performed with 70 control subjects and 54 thyroid cancer patients who had received the last therapeutic dose 1-6 years before the present study. In the hyperthyroidism group a significant increase in the micronuclei average was found over time. In the sample obtained 6 months after therapy, the micronuclei mean frequency was practically the same as in the sample taken 3 months before. In the thyroid cancer group a twofold increase in the frequency of micronuclei was seen 1 week after therapy. Although this value decreased across time, the micronuclei frequency obtained 1 year after 131 I therapy remained higher than the value found before it. Concerning the data from the cross-sectional study, a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei was detected in the subgroup of thyroid cancer patients treated between 1 and 3 years before the current study. These results indicate that exposure to 131 I therapy induces chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes and that the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay is sensitive enough to detect the genetic damage by exposure to sufficiently high levels of radiation

  19. Pregnancy after high therapeutic doses of iodine-131 in differentiated thyroid cancer: potential risks and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casara, D.; Rubello, D.; Saladini, G.; Piotto, A.; Pelizzo, M.R.; Girelli, M.E.; Busnardo, B.

    1993-01-01

    Seventy female patients who had been treated with high doses of iodine-131 for differented thyroid cancer (DTC) and who had a subsequent pregnancy were evaluated. The global 131 I dose ranged from 1.85 to 16.55 GBq (mean±SD=4.39±25.20 GBq). Age at first therapy ranged from 15 to 36 years (mean±SD=24.3±5.0 years) and the interval from 131 I therapy to pregnancy varied from 2 to 10 years (mean±SD=5.3±2.8 years). The estimated radiation dose to the gonads ranged from 10 to 63 cGy (mean±SD=24.0±13.5 cGy). All patients were treated with L-thyroxine at doses capable of suppressing thyroid-stimulating hormone. Seventy-three children were followed-up and seven pregnancies are still in progress. One child was affected by Fallot's trilogy and three had a low birth weight though with subsequent regular growth; the others were healthy with subsequent regular growth. No newborn with clinical or biochemical thyroid dysfunctions was found. Two spontaneous abortions during the second month of pregnancy were recorded. One of two patients in question subsequently had two healthy children. On the basis of these data, previous administration of high 131 I doses does not appear to be a valid reason for dissuading young female DTC patients from considering pregnancy. However, patients should be advised to avoid pregnancy after 131 I administration for a period sufficient to ensure complete elimination of the radionuclide and to permit confirmation of complete disease remission, i.e. at least 1 year in our opinion. (orig.)

  20. Cytogenetic damage after 131-iodine treatment for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, S.; Carbonell, E.; Creus, A.; Marcos, R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Genetica i de Microbiologia; Galofre, P. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-12-01

    To detect the incidence and persistence of potential chromosome damage induced by iodine-131 therapy, we applied the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to peripheral blood lymphocytes from hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer patients treated with {sup 131}I. Two groups of patients were evaluated in a longitudinal study; one group was composed of 47 hyperthyroid patients and the other of 39 thyroid cancer patients. In the hyperthyroidism group, the micronuclei frequency was determined before {sup 131}I therapy and 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after it. Furthermore, an additional sample was taken from a subgroup of 17 hyperthyroidism patients 6 months after treatment. In the thyroid cancer group, the analysis was also conducted over time, and four samples were studied: before treatment and 1 week, 6 months and 1 year later. Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study was performed with 70 control subjects and 54 thyroid cancer patients who had received the last therapeutic dose 1-6 years before the present study. In the hyperthyroidism group a significant increase in the micronuclei average was found over time. In the sample obtained 6 months after therapy, the micronuclei mean frequency was practically the same as in the sample taken 3 months before. In the thyroid cancer group a twofold increase in the frequency of micronuclei was seen 1 week after therapy. Although this value decreased across time, the micronuclei frequency obtained 1 year after {sup 131}I therapy remained higher than the value found before it. Concerning the data from the cross-sectional study, a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei was detected in the subgroup of thyroid cancer patients treated between 1 and 3 years before the current study. These results indicate that exposure to {sup 131}I therapy induces chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes and that the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay is sensitive enough to detect the genetic damage by exposure to sufficiently high

  1. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum L after high-dose {sup 131}Iodine exposure in mice: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhartiya, Uma S; Raut, Yogita S; Joseph, Lebana J [Laboratory Nuclear Medicine Section, Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tata Memorial Hospital Annexe, Parel, Mumbai (India); Rao, Badanidiyoor S [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2006-08-15

    Radioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (40 mg/kg body weight, for 15 days) in mice exposed to high-doses (3.7 MBq) of oral {sup 131}Iodine was investigated by studying the organ weights, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense enzymes in various target organs like liver, kidneys, salivary glands and stomach at 24 hr after exposure in adult Swiss mice. The mean weight of the salivary glands showed significant increase after {sup 131}Iodine administration. {sup 131}Iodine exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation in kidneys and salivary glands in comparison to control animals. Pretreatment with O. sanctum in radioiodine exposed group showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation in both kidneys and salivary glands. In liver, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels showed significant reduction after radioiodine exposure while pretreatment with O. sanctum exhibited less depletion in GSH level even after {sup 131}Iodine exposure. However, no such changes were observed in stomach. The results indicate the possibility of using aqueous extract of O. sanctum for ameliorating {sup 131}lodine induced damage to the salivary glands. (author)

  2. [Metabolic therapy with iodine 131 in patients with chronic renal failure. Clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez Barbero, Inmaculada; Espadas-Maeso, María José; Muñoz-Morales, Ana; Flores-Gómez, Pilar; Serrano-Carretero, María Belén; Castedo-Sal, Juan José; Sánchez Rey-Castro, Elena; Zamorano-Córdoba, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    62 year-old male with CKD stage 5 in dialysis program since 2012 who underwent surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. Subsequently, the patient was admitted to the Unit of Metabolic Therapy at his reference hospital, where he is administered 80 millicuries of iodine-131 as a treatment associated with the surgery, unable to have his conventional dialysis, nursing interventions required in various stages of implementation of the continuous extrarenal clearance techniques (TCDE) were performed. The following care values were addressed targeted to patients undergoing treatment with I(131): specific equipment, personal protective measures and major diagnoses and nursing interventions. TCDE, despite being attributed to very critical patients, they can be extrapolated to other patients in a given time. TCDE allowed these patients to undergo dialysis in a safe environment for staff, ensuring proper disposal of contaminated liquids. TCDE were an effective treatment for the removal of I131, a single ssesion being necessary to normalize the levels of radioactivity. Coordination between services allewed ensure proper and effective treatment for the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperthyroidism treatment by iodine 131: about a study on 270 patients; Traitement de l'hyperthyroidie par l'iode 131: a propos d'une etude sur 270 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, M.A

    2005-07-01

    This study constitutes a starting point for a thought about the use of iodine 131 in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The therapies are different depending on the teams, for the iodine 131 activities to deliver and their calculation modes; The use of synthesis anti-thyroid drugs before therapy is discussed. The radiation protection is an important factor in the decision of a metabolic radiotherapy. The indications of the treatment by radioactive iodine are different in Europe and in Usa. (N.C.)

  4. Iodine-131 treatment and chromosomal damage: in vivo dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Turgut, Bulent; Dogan, Derya; Sungu, Selma; Ozdemir, Ozturk

    2004-01-01

    Although it is well known that radiation induces chromosomal aberrations, there is a lack of information on the in vivo dose-effect relationship in patients receiving iodine-131 treatment, and the results of previous studies are controversial. In this study, the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) method was employed to investigate acute and late chromosomal damage (CD) in the peripheral lymphocytes of 15 patients who received various doses of 131 I (259-3,700 MBq), either for thyrotoxicosis (TTX) or for ablation treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The SCE frequencies in cultured peripheral lymphocytes were determined before treatment (to assess basal SCE frequencies), on the 3rd day (to assess acute SCE frequencies) and 6 months later (to assess late SCE frequencies). The basal, acute and late SCE frequencies (mean±SD) were 3.19±0.93, 10.83±1.72 and 5.75±2.06, respectively, in the whole group, and these values differed significantly from each other (P 131 I dose in the whole group, but a negative correlation was found between the 131 I dose and the RR at the 6th month (r=-0.60, P=0.04). The best fit for this relationship was obtained by a linear-quadratic model, as y=104.89x-28.4x 2 +38.1 (R 2 =0.51, P=0.04). On the other hand, comparative analysis with the results of previous studies with comparable sampling times revealed that the best fit for the relationships between the administered dose of 131 I and DR and RR were obtained with a linear-quadratic model (Y=αD+βD 2 ) rather than a linear one. However, there was an interesting difference in comparison with in vitro studies, in that we found the coefficient β to have a negative value, suggesting the disappearance of damaged lymphocytes from the peripheral circulation in a dose-dependent manner following 131 I treatment. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the effect of the negative β value on the biological dosimetry approach in continuous internal low LET radiation, as in the case

  5. Rapid clearance of iodine-131 MIBG from the heart and liver of patients with adrenergic dysfunction and pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, M.; Shimabukuro, K.; Miyaji, N.; Shimada, J.; Shirono, K.; Sakata, H.; Yoshimura, H.; Yonekura, R.; Shinohara, S.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine-131 MIBG, a radiolabeled adrenergic neuron-blocking agent, decreased rapidly from the heart and liver of patients with adrenergic dysfunction and pheochromocytoma when compared with eight controls. However, there was no significant difference in the rate of [ 131 I]MIBG decrease in these organs between controls and patients in the intervals subsequent to 4 hr. These findings suggest that adrenergic neuronal uptake of [ 131 I]MIBG in these organs is smaller in the patients than in the controls. Measurements of time-activity relationships of radioiodinated MIBG may be useful for assessment of adrenergic function of these organs and thus of generalized disorders of adrenergic innervation

  6. Long-term follow-up study of the therapeutic effect after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changjiang; Li Long; Gao Jianqing; Xu Sumei; Chen Linna; Zhou Jianming

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect through long-term visit and analyze the affecting factors of cure rate after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, a long-term follow-up has been undertaken for the patients with hyperthyroidism after iodine-131 treatment. The following results have been obtained. (1) The cure rate of iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism is 74.4%, and the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism is 7.5%. (2) There is no significant difference in the cure rate and incidence of hypothyroidism between the groups of male and female or 'not take ATD' and 'ATD withdrawn longer than 2 weeks' (P>0.05). (3) The difference of the cure rate among the groups of the courses of disease 3 a are significant (P 55 g are significant (P 0.05). The course of disease, age and thyroid mass are the major factors which influence the cure rate. Meanwhile, age and thyroid mass are the major factors which influence the incidence of hypothyroidism. To get high cure rate, the patients with hyperthyroidism should be treated with iodine-131 as early as possible. In the meantime, the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism must be paid attention to. (authors)

  7. Determination of intake and internal radiation dose for occupationally exposed workers to iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Maghrabi, M.; Sadyya, A.

    2004-12-01

    Workers who prepare and inject radioactive Iodine I 131 doses at the medical centers in Syria are potentially exposed to the radioactive intake by ingestion or inhalation during preparation or injection processes. The received amount of the radioactive intake differs according to the amount of the I 131 that released during the preparation or injection processes, and to the work conditions and the applying ways of the radiation protection principles. Because of this radioactive intake, the thyroid gland may expose to amounts of I 131 which may negatively affect the health of the workers, so it is necessary to make routine monitoring for all workers who receive an intake of more than 10% of the annual intake limit which is (2*10 6 Bq/y) for I 131 . To make this monitoring process, it is necessary to use either the thyroid gland counter in order to know the concentrated amount of the radioactivity in the gland, or the analysis of a 24 hours urine sample of the exposed workers to determine the eliminated amount of the radioactivity using gamma spectrometry, also the two processes can be applied at the same time. Since the thyroid gland counter is not available, the analysis of urine sample was done to determine the concentrated amount of the radioactivity in urine, then to estimate the radioactive intake and the internal radioactive dose. The results of applying this method dictated that some workers work in safe conditions according to the radiation protection and there is no need for them to make routine monitoring . But the other workers receive a radioactive intake of about 10% yearly of the annual intake limit and that requires a routine periodical monitoring for those workers in addition to the necessity of applying the principles of the radiation protection during the work with I 131 . These principles and systems should indicate the basic requirement of radiation protection that must be available in the laboratory that deal with I 131 either for therapy or for

  8. [Iodine 131 joint radio frequency ablation treatment for child with hyperthyroidism goiter: one case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Liang, Li; Fang, Yanlan; Wang, Chunlin; Li, Linfa; Jiang, Tian'an

    2017-01-25

    A 12-year-old girl presented with a history of cervical mass, and one week of throat discomfort and dyspnea. Five years ago, the patient was diagnosed as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hyperthyroidism; she received antithyroid drug treatment, but the result was not satisfactory. B-ultrasonic showed that the size of thyroid gland was 8.1 cm×3.2 cm in the left and 8.2 cm×4.8 cm in the right. After iodine 131 combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment, throat discomfort and recumbent breathing difficulties disappeared, and B-ultrasonic showed that the size of thyroid reduced to 2.3 cm×1.7 cm (left) and 2.8 cm×2.0 cm (right). No recurrence was observed during the two and a half years of follow-up.

  9. Gold-198 and rose bengal marked with iodine-131 in the diagnostic of hepatic vesicular affections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manambelona Razafimalaza, J.

    1961-06-01

    Colloidal gold-198 makes it possible to obtain clear images of hepatic parenchyma; the examination can be repeated from different angles thus demonstrating the presence of pathologically inert regions, whether they be hydatic cysts, abscesses or neoplasia. The study of the disappearance curve for the colloid, together with a measurement of the blood volume, makes it possible also to calculate the hepatic flow. Using Rose Bengal marked with iodine-131, it is possible to obtain images of the liver and of the bile ducts, and to follow the elimination of the dye in the intestines. The simultaneous recording of the disappearance curves for the blood and of the appearance of the dye in the intestines constitutes an useful working test which is particularly sensible for evaluating the permeability of the bile ducts and, to a certain degree, the site of an obstruction. (author) [fr

  10. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) labelling with iodine-131 by direct method; Marcacao do peptideo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) com iodo-131 por metodo direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Araujo, E.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2002-07-01

    The Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide with a great numbers of receptors in tumoral cells, including adenocarcinomas and pancreatic and colon carcinomas. The VIP molecule contains two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to iodination, The VIP was labeled with 131-iodine by direct method using Iodogen as oxidant agent: 15.03 mmol VIP + 0.10 nmol KI + [{sup 131} I]NaI + 13.9 mmol Iodogen; the final volume was adjust to 100 {mu}L using 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 and the reaction proceed with stirring for 30 minutes at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined by electrophoresis (Whatman 1MM paper; 0.05 M barbital buffer; pH 8.6; 150 V; 40 minutes) that indicates low percent of free 131-iodine. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using RPC{sup 18}, 10 {mu}m, 4 x 250mm column, was able to separate the different radiochemical species, only when an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (27:73) was used, with 0.5 mL/min. flux. (author)

  11. Colon transit scintiraphy in health and constipation using oral iodine-131-cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, R.G.; Smart, R.C.; Gaston-Parry, D.; Barbagallo, S.; Baker, J.; Lyons, N.R.; Bruck, C.E.; King, D.W.; Lubowski, D.Z.; Talley, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess if a new scintigraphic method for noninvasive assessment of colonic transit could differentiate between subjects with normal bowel transit and those with constipation. Eleven normal subjects and 29 constipated patients were given 4 MBq iodine-131-cellulose ( 131 I-cellulose) orally and sequential abdominal scans were performed at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr from which total and segmental percent retentions were calculated. There were clear differences between the normal subjects and the constipated patients for the total percent retention at all time intervals, on a segmental basis in the right colon at 24 hr, and in all segments at 48 and 72 hr. Three-day urinary excretion of radioiodine was minimal; 2.4% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- s.d.) in constipated patients and 3.1% +/- 0.8% in normals, with approximately 75% occurring in the first day. The use of oral radiotracers in the investigation of constipation appears promising

  12. Impact of iodine 131 release from an anti cancerous center on the activity present in the channel of waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjardins, E.; Laugle, S.; Houy, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Iodine 131 has been detected in the incineration waste. This iodine 131 would come from the muds of the water treatment by plant of Beaurade. This plant treats the waste water of Rennes. This radioactivity is caused by iodine 131 used in the medical medium for the diagnosis and the treatment of liver and thyroid neoplasms. The urines are stocked in tanks until a decrease of activity to 7 Bq/l and the waste waters used to wash the clothes are at delayed evacuation. The iodine comes from the patients feces. This study consists in defining the activity levels of iodine 131 in the channel of waste water treatment, from the purification station of Beaurade to the incinerator of Villejean. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation of the Basedow disease treatment by a iodine 131 fixed dose; Evaluation du traitement de la maladie de Basedow par une dose fixe d'iode 131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ajmi, W.; Slim, I; Rmadi, S.; Yeddes, I.; Krimi, S.; Ltaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, M.F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, institut Salah Azeiz, Tunis, (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    The treatment of the basedow disease by iodine 131 is more and more used. however, the doses used stay variable. In order to reduce the treatment failure, we chose a protocol with strong fix doses of iodine 131. We give our preliminary results for 63 patients. The treatment by strong fix dose of iodine 131 is simple, safe and efficient for the control of hyperthyroidism in the Basedow disease. This protocol has for advantage to be simpler comparatively to these ones using adjusted doses according the weight of the thyroid and its fixation rate. (N.C.)

  14. Histopathological Studies of Mice after Administration of Radioactive Iodine ({sup 131}I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Chae Song; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    Histopathological changes of various organs of the mice after intra-peritoneal injections of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) were experimentally observed. Sixty healthy female mice, weighing average 25 gm, divided into 6 groups, were used. The various doses of {sup 131}I were injected intraperitoneally at different intervals. The histopathological changes after these treatments were observed in organs such as thyroids, parathyroids, livers, kidneys and gonads. Following were the results; 1) Thyroid: In the group A given {sup 131}I with a single dose of 10{mu}C per gm body weight, it was observed that the protoplasms of follicular epithelial cells were destroyed, the nuclei were expanded or dissoluted, showing pyknotic changes of nuclei and vacuolizations of protoplasms. In the group B given {sup 131}I with a single dose of 5{mu}C per gm body weight, hyperemias, hemorrhages and hyaline degenerations in the whole area were observed. In the group C given {sup 131}I with 3 doses of 2.5{mu}C per gm body weight every week, the thyroid parenchyma were destroyed and epithelial cells of varing size were observed in the filbrinous tissues. In the group D given {sup 131}I with 6 doses of 0.5{mu}C per gm body weight every week, some destroyed follicles and new borne follicles were observed. But the histopathological changes resemble the follicles of the normal thyroid gland. In the group E and F given {sup 131}I with 8 and 10 doses of 0.2{mu}C and 0.01{mu}C for each group per gm body weight every two days, both pyknotic changes of nuclei and cytoplasmic vacuolizations of the follicular epithelia, hypertrophies of follicles and abnormal irregular follicular structures were observed, and in the group F, lymphocytes appeared around the thyroid glands. 2) Parathyroid: In the group A, hyperemia, proliferations of connective tissues, karyorrhexes and vacuolizations were observed. In other experimental groups, no particular pathological change was observed. 3) Liver: The degenerative

  15. Radiation protection measures for reduction of incorporations of iodine-131 by the staff of a radionuclide therapy ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, J.; Meyer, K.; Lincke, T.; Sabri, O.; Alborzi, H.; Lorenz, J.; Schoenmuth, T.; Keller, A.

    2009-01-01

    The air in patient's rooms with thyroid therapies is loaded with iodine 131, which is to be seen as a cause for the incorporation of iodine 131 by the staff. The patients exhale a part of the iodine applied for their intended radionuclide therapy. The activity is concentrated in the saliva and, thereby, the breath air is moistened and iodine reaches the exhaled and compartment air. The detection of iodine in the form of contaminations and/or incorporations with the staff succeeds only after a longer stay in the patient's room. With this, a clear relation between the particular type of work performed in the room and therapy of malignant thyroid disease with high amounts of radioactivity can be found. The measured values of incorporations, obtained with an whole-body counter, are in the range of up to 400Bq. The activity concentration in the compartment air some hours after application of the therapeutic activity reaches a maximum and then decreases with a half-life of about 15 hours. As a protection measure we asked the patients wearing a mask up to 30 hours after application to (orig.)

  16. Destruction of post-surgery thyroid remnants by 19 mCi (703 MBq) of iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassy, D.; Lonchampt, M.F.; Minebois, A.; Antigny, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    The adjuvant treatment by iodine 131 in good prognostic forms of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) makes not the object of a general consensus. There is no study demonstrating the benefit from such a treatment. Administration of an elevated iodine 131 activity and the constraint of a supplementary hospitalization are in these conditions questionable. In 6 patients, presenting the criteria of good prognostic and in post-operation, ambulatory conditions, administration of 19 mCi (703 MBc) of iodine 131 was done without previous administration of tracing dosage, followed after 72 hours by a whole-body scintigraphy, in the usual pause conditions. This administration was repeated 6 to 12 months later and followed by a new scintigraphic examination. The cervical fixation of iodine 131 was established qualitatively and quantitatively (as compared with a control zone). Five/six patients presented initially a cervical intense fixation with the star-like usual image and 1/6 patient a moderated fixation. Beginning with the second administration no cervical fixation was noted in 4/6 patients and a very low fixation in 2/6 patients. The concomitantly measured thyroglobulin, under simulation by TSH endogenous, was 131 I after quasi-total thyroidectomy in good-prognostic forms of DTC, without administration of previous tracing dosage to avoid possible phenomena of thyroid tissue blocking, allows probably, in overwhelming majority of cases, both a full or quasi-full destruction of the thyroid remnants and a severe reduction in the thyroglobulin rate measured in the conditions of pause of hormone-therapy

  17. Reduced radioiodine uptake at increased iodine intake and {sup 131}I-induced release of ''cold'' iodine stored in the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, B.; Haase, A.; Richter, E.; Baehre, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Seyfarth, M. [Inst. of Clinical Chemistry, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Wenzel, B.E. [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Aim: the extent of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) provides information about iodine supply and release. In the present study we investigated correlations between UIE and radioiodine uptake (RIU) as well as effects of radioiodine therapy on UIE in patients with autonomous goitre. Patients, methods: In 197 consecutive patients with thyroid autonomy, UIE was measured twice during radioiodine test (RITe) and correlated with RIU. In 98 of these patients, thyroglobulin and thyroid volume (V) were determined prior to therapy. Individual changes in urinary iodine excretion ({delta}UIE) and TG ({delta}TG) could be investigated four weeks (4W) and six months (6M) after radioiodine therapy. Additionally, {delta}V was determined 6M after therapy. {delta}UIE, {delta}TG and {delta}V were correlated with target dose and target volume. Results: patients with higher iodine excretion exhibited significantly lower thyroidal radioiodine uptake values. Twofold increased UIE prior to therapy decreased radioiodine uptake by 25%. Compared with pretherapeutic values, UIE and TG were significantly increased four weeks after radioiodine therapy (p < 0.001). Median values of both parameters were found to be doubled. The product of target dose and target volume was not only correlated with a decrease of thyroid volume 6M after therapy, but also with an increase of UIE and TG in the early phase after therapy. Conclusions: it was confirmed that UIE during RITe is a measure for iodine intake and can be used to investigate the competition between stable iodine and radioiodine. The increase of UIE and TG four weeks after therapeutic administration of radioiodine can be explained by disintegrated thyroid follicles. The therapy-induced iodine release may be one important cause for the development of hyperthyroidism in some patients during the first weeks after radioiodine therapy. It may contribute to the known decrease of radioiodine uptake after preapplications of {sup 131}I in various thyroid

  18. Status of thyroidal radioiodine (I-131) uptake and urinary iodine in Bangladesh population: A re-look following implementation of universal iodination of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, F.; Sultana Haque, F.; Karim, M.A.; Faruque, O.; Ali, L.; Azad Khan, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Iodide plays a central role in thyroid physiology and in the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal vertebrate growth and development. Radioiodine uptake test is one of the oldest radionuclide investigations for evaluation of thyroid function. On the other hand useful information about the nutritional status of a population can be obtained by measuring the prevalence of deficiency in a population. The main aim of this study was to find out the present status of urinary iodine and thyroid uptake status of people living in and around Dhaka City (Bangladesh). The present study was carried out over a period of three years from 1999 to 2002 involving 300 subjects inclusive of 216 females and 84 males. Efforts were made to randomly include people from a broad spectrum of social and economic strata, starting from people belonging to the lowest to the highest income groups; as well as people representing the urban, rural and suburban populations. Urinary iodine levels and 24 hour percentage radioiodine uptake by the thyroid were estimated in all subjects included in this study. Subsequently patients were grouped into four categories based on the values of their percentage 24-hour radioiodine uptake; e.g., Group-A (N-99) with lowest uptake (0-5%), Group-B (N=100) with uptake ranging between 5-10%, Group-C (N=73) with uptake ranging between 10-30% and Group D (N=28) with uptake above 30%. The median 24 hours RAIU values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, 23 and 34% respectively. The corresponding mean urinary iodine levels in the four groups were 43.31, 33.95, 12.97 and 9.35μgm/dl respectively. The results have shown that 1.04, 3.48, 16.72 and 78.74% people studied had levels of urinary iodine indicating severe, moderate, mild or no iodine deficiency respectively as per the WHO Criteria (Severe: <2 μgm /dl, Moderate: 2-4.9 μgm /dl, mild: 5.0-9.9μgm /dl, normal: ≥ 10 μgm /dl). It may be noted that the normal values of Thyroidal I-131 uptake were

  19. Iodine-131 in sewage sludge from a small water pollution control plant serving a thyroid cancer treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence

    2013-08-01

    Iodine-131 (half-life = 8.04 d) is the most widely used radionuclide in medicine for therapeutic purposes. It is excreted by patients and is discharged directly to sewer systems. Despite considerable dilution in waste water and the relatively short half-life of I, it is readily measured in sewage. This work presents I concentrations in sewage sludge from three water pollution control plants (WPCPs) on Long Island, NY. Iodine-131 concentrations ranged from 0.027 ± 0.002 to 148 ± 4 Bq g dry weight. The highest concentrations were measured in the Stony Brook WPCP, a relatively small plant (average flow = 6.8 × 10 L d) serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY. Preliminary radiation dose calculations suggested further evaluation of dose to treatment plant workers in the Stony Brook WPCP based on the recommendations of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards.

  20. The evaluation of functioning thyroid nodules using sodium pertechnetate TC-99m scan in comparison with iodine-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghari M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid scintigraphy has been helpful in detecting and evaluation of thyroid nodules. Sodium pertechnetate Tc-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide for thyroid imaging because of its general availability, favorable dosimetric characteristics and low cost. But, there are reports of occasional disparity in isotope uptake in lesions compared with radioiodide. In order to determine percentage and clinical significance of this disparity, we screened 101 patients with solitary functioning nodules using sodium pertechnetate TC-99m in comparison with subsequent Iodine-131 scan in research institute for nuclear medicine. We conclude that sodium pertechnetate TC-99m is a reliable radiotracer for the detection and evaluation of thyroid nodules and there is no need for the subsequent Iodine-131 scan.

  1. Transient hypothyroidism in iodine-131 treated thyrotoxicosis - a review of cases from 1970-1984 at JRRMMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, E.B.; de la Cruz, C.; Gonzales, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    This review was conducted to determine the minimum dose of radioactive iodine necessary to show signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis among Filipinos, to determine the incidence of hypothyroidism secondary to radioactive treatment and to determine if some cases of hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine treatment are only transient and replacement therapy could be withheld or not. A total of 212 patients who had I-131 therapy was evaluated (177 female and 35 male). Of this number 19 or 8.9% developed hypothyroidism. After three years, 14 or 74% of the hypothyroids were noted. Easy fatigability ranked first of the patients complaints, followed by dry skin, sleepiness, numbness of extremities, and joint pains. Results of this study indicate that there is a definite, although low incidence of hypothyroidism following I-131 therapy (8.9%). (ELC). 6 refs.; 6 tabs

  2. Dose {sup 131}I radioactivity interfere with thyroglobulin measurement in patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy with recombinant human TSH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Bang, Ji In; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Sang Eun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high 131I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of 131I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of 131I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients’ sera were sampled 2 days after 131I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after 131I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student’s paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the 131I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using 125I did not show interference from 131I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  3. Skin eruptions following treatment with Iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism. A rare and un-reported early/intermediate side effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A. K.; AL-Nahhas, A.; Ansari, S. M.; Islam, N.

    2005-01-01

    Iodine-131 ( 131I ) is a well-established method for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Following such therapy, patients may experience symptoms relating to early or delayed side effects that can be prevented or minimized if necessary measures are taken. We have noticed an unusual side effect of 131I therapy in the form of a skin eruption (iododerma) and aimed at assessing the frequency and severity of this side effect. Retrospective review of 141 patients treated with 131I between January 1994 to December 2000 (86 F, 55 M; mean age 41.35±11.02 years) was performed. The dose of 131I ranged from 250.500 MBq. Post therapy clinical and biochemical evaluation of thyroid function was done at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 9 months then annually. Of the 141 treated patients, 3 patients (2.1%) presented with iododerma 4.6 weeks after 131I therapy administration. Lesions were observed at both ankles and lower legs in all 3 cases. All lesions disappeared within 6 months with no residual effect. No other skin lesions were seen thereafter during the follow-up period. Iododerma is a rare complication of 131I therapy that has not been reported before. It appears within 4.6 weeks after therapy and is a self-limiting condition. (author)

  4. Comparison of two spreadsheets for calculation of radiation exposure following hyperthyroidism treatment with iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrigneaud, J.M. [CHU Bichat, nuclear medicine department, 75 - Paris (France); Carlier, T. [CHU Hotel Dieu, nuclear medicine department, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2006-07-01

    Comparison of the two spreadsheets did not show any significant differences provided that proper biological models were used to follow 131 iodine clearance. This means that even simple assumptions can be used to give reasonable radiation safety recommendations. Nevertheless, a complete understanding of the formalism is required to use correctly these spreadsheets. Initial parameters must be chosen carefully and validation of the computed results must be done. Published guidelines are found to be in accordance with those issued from these spreadsheets. Furthermore, both programs make it possible to collect biological data from each patient and use it as input to calculate individual tailored radiation safety advices. Also, measured exposure rate may be entered into the spreadsheets to calculate patient-specific close contact delays required to reduce the dose to specified limits. These spreadsheets may be used to compute restriction times for any given radiopharmaceutical, provided that input parameters are chosen correctly. They can be of great help to physicians to provide patients with guidance on how to maintain doses to other individuals as low as reasonably achievable. (authors)

  5. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens in rats having an ancestry of a perinatal iodine-131 insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Cheng, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The possible existence of a genealogical memory consisting of altered lymphocyte proliferative responses to a perinatal iodine-131 insult has been investigated in two generations of inbred Fischer F344 rat offspring. The studies which involved exposure to the radioiodine during late pregnancy with concentrations ranging from 1.85 MBq (50 μCi) to 7.4 MBq (200 μCi) revealed that only the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of the first generation male animals were significantly affected. These animals were found to possess T lymphocytes which exhibited increased proliferative responses expressed toward the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohemagglutin; however, no significant changes were noticeable in their B cell population following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Neither the first generation females nor the male and female offspring of the second generation developed through sibling interbreeding seemed to be affected, this was unlike the cellular, humoral, and natural immunity which had previously been observed to be changed in both the second and third generation animals. These observations suggest that the effects of the radiation insult upon immunocompetency as measured by lymphocyte proliferation do not appear to be inherited

  6. Management of fear of radiation exposure in carers of outpatients treated with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, P.J.; Turner, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise potential fear of radiation exposure in a normal population of individuals who have volunteered to care for a radioactive family member or friend after outpatient radioimmunotherapy (RIT) treatment for cancer, and obtain their knowing and willing acceptance of the risk. Over 750 carers of 300 patients confined to their homes for 1 week following outpatient iodine-131 rituximab RIT of lymphoma were interviewed by a nuclear medicine physicist according to a multi-visit integrated protocol designed to minimise radiation exposure, define risk and gain informed consent. Median radiation exposure of carers was 0.49 mSv (range 0.01-3.7 mSv) which is below the Western Australian regulatory limit of 5 mSv for consenting adult carers of radioactive patients. After signing a declaration of consent, only 2 carers of 750 abrogated their responsibility and none of those who carried out their duties expressed residual concerns at the end of the exit interview with respect to their radiation exposure. Fear of radiation exposure in a normal population may be characterised as a normal emotional response. In the special case of carers of radioactive patients, this fear may be successfully managed by rational, authoritative and empathic explanation to define the risk and gain willing acceptance within the context of domiciliary patient care. (author)

  7. Comparison of two spreadsheets for calculation of radiation exposure following hyperthyroidism treatment with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrigneaud, J.M.; Carlier, T.

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of the two spreadsheets did not show any significant differences provided that proper biological models were used to follow 131 iodine clearance. This means that even simple assumptions can be used to give reasonable radiation safety recommendations. Nevertheless, a complete understanding of the formalism is required to use correctly these spreadsheets. Initial parameters must be chosen carefully and validation of the computed results must be done. Published guidelines are found to be in accordance with those issued from these spreadsheets. Furthermore, both programs make it possible to collect biological data from each patient and use it as input to calculate individual tailored radiation safety advices. Also, measured exposure rate may be entered into the spreadsheets to calculate patient-specific close contact delays required to reduce the dose to specified limits. These spreadsheets may be used to compute restriction times for any given radiopharmaceutical, provided that input parameters are chosen correctly. They can be of great help to physicians to provide patients with guidance on how to maintain doses to other individuals as low as reasonably achievable. (authors)

  8. Management of fear of radiation exposure in carers of outpatients treated with iodine-131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, Phillipe J; Page, Andrew C; Turner, J Harvey

    2012-07-01

    To characterise potential fear of radiation exposure in a normal population of individuals who have volunteered to care for a radioactive family member or friend after outpatient radioimmunotherapy (RIT) treatment for cancer, and obtain their knowing and willing acceptance of the risk. Over 750 carers of 300 patients confined to their homes for 1 week following outpatient iodine-131 rituximab RIT of lymphoma were interviewed by a nuclear medicine physicist according to a multi-visit integrated protocol designed to minimise radiation exposure, define risk and gain informed consent. Median radiation exposure of carers was 0.49 mSv (range 0.01-3.7 mSv) which is below the Western Australian regulatory limit of 5 mSv for consenting adult carers of radioactive patients. After signing a declaration of consent, only 2 carers of 750 abrogated their responsibility and none of those who carried out their duties expressed residual concerns at the end of the exit interview with respect to their radiation exposure. Fear of radiation exposure in a normal population may be characterised as a normal emotional response. In the special case of carers of radioactive patients, this fear may be successfully managed by rational, authoritative and empathic explanation to define the risk and gain willing acceptance within the context of domiciliary patient care.

  9. Practical recommendations for outpatients after differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, T.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Ansquer, C.; Couturier, O.; Lisbona, A.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Couturier, O.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies on radiation protection recommendation for patients leaving hospitalization area after thyroid carcinoma treatment with iodine-131 are based on experimental determination of effective half life. The aim of this work was to calculate times of adhesion to restrictions for patients using one dose rate measurement at 30 cm the last day, just before leaving hospital. Dose rate measurements were achieved every day at two localizations (abdomen mid trunk and neck) during hospitalization. Data were fitted by a monoexponential or a biexponential model in order to derive the effective half life. We considered 7 exposure states between patient and neighboring. We showed, according to our realistic scatter state, a dose rate variation inversely proportional to the distance from patient. Effective half life is equal to 16 ± 6 h whatever the measurement localization. Thus the times of adhesion to restrictions is never greater than 2 days after 3 days of hospitalization. A simple table is given to allow the computation of restrictions times according to the dose rate measurement before the patient is discharged. This protocol is applied in our institution and gives whole satisfaction as far as the ALARA principle and the patient information are concerned. (author)

  10. Model of iodine metabolism in a T3-thyrotoxic patient undergoing I-131 therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, S.; Price, R.; Brill, A. B.; Dobyns, B. M.; Berman, M.

    1975-06-01

    Data on radioactivity in the thyroid, urine, serum, butanol-extractable iodine (BEI) and chromatographic fractionations of BEI, obtained during four I-131 therapeutic treatments of a T3-thyrotoxic patient, have been analyzed and simulated with the help of a 7-compartment model. Good fits to most of the data can be obtained with both the dose-independent and dose-dependent models. A model with 3 or 4 compartments, which provides adequate fits to iodine kinetic data in most euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients is not satisfactory in the case of this patient. Thus, to represent iodine metabolism during T3-thyrotoxicosis therapy, we find that it is necessary to provide for separate biochemical pathways for the BEI components as well as the butanol-insoluble compounds released by the thyroid gland. (auth)

  11. A Study on Labelling of Linolenic Acid as A Model of Isolated Benalu Teh for Cancer Diagnosis with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isti Daruwati; Eva Maria Widyasari; Nanny Kartini Oekar

    2009-01-01

    A study on active fraction of benalu teh has been carried out at Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology - BATAN. This benalu teh active fraction has inhibition capability about 99% to the cancer cell. The isolated fraction is octadeca-8,10,12-triyonic acid compound which have long chain unsaturated fatty acid compound with three triple bonds. The Benalu teh active fraction has similar structure with linolenic acid which is a long chain unsaturated fatty acid with three triple bonds. Based on this similarity, the study of labelling of linolenic acid with iodine-131 has been conducted. The research was focused on optimum conditions for labelling of linolenic acid using Iodine-131 radionuclide. Labelling with iodine-131 was conducted using KIO 3 as an oxidizing agent, which can additionated linolenic acid and sodium metabisulfite for ending the reaction. Labelling efficiency determination was conducted using paper chromatography technique. The result showed that the optimum condition achieved by using KIO 3 as an oxidizing agent that gave radiochemical purity of 99,44% in virgin coconut oil, and labelling efficiency of about 69,9%. The labelled compound has high radiochemical purity i.e 96,85% in chloroform and 98,33% virgin coconut oil that was stable until 10 days in refrigerator. (author)

  12. Detriments of radioactive Iodine 131 in managing thyroid carcinoma - a retrospective study with review of the current scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Agnihotri, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation following thyroidectomy is recommended for most patients diagnosed with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. We performed a literature search on MEDLlNE and EMBASE, using keywords, such as, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy, "1"3"1I complications, adverse effects and side effects, and chose the most relevant studies till date to prepare this work on the side effects of RAIT (Radioactive Iodine Therapy) for thyroid cancer. We contacted authors of published studies where appropriate for further information. Also, the percentage incidence of the hazards was determined for North Indian population accessing data from Govt. Medical Colleges of Punjab, Haryana, and Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. The most prominent side effect came out to be xerostomia with an incidence of 47%, followed by local neck pain and swelling (39%). The incidence of gastritis was also common (34%). Radioactive iodine therapy complications have been divided into early and late effects. Early complications include gastrointestinal symptoms, radiation thyroiditis, sialadenitis/xerostomia, bone marrow suppression, gonadal damage, dry eye, and nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Late complications include secondary cancers, pulmonary fibrosis, permanent bone marrow suppression, and genetic effects. As "1"3"1I is an efficacious form of treatment that can significantly decrease the rate of mortality, recurrence and metastasis, and as the side effects are often minor and well-tolerated, radio iodine therapy remains the principal mode of treatment for patients. (author)

  13. Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation; Prueba de irradiacion de dioxido de telurio para obtener yodo-131 por destilacion seca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-15

    With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

  14. The therapeutic threesome, Iodine 131, Lutetium-111 and Rhenium-188 Radionuclide Trifecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Affordable, available, cost-effective, safe, efficacious therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are required for clinical application throughout the world. In-house preparation of non-proprietary therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals at tertiary referral hospitals in all countries following appropriate technology transfer and training at key research and development centres can potentially supply this need. Illustrative examples of novel therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals currently under development in physician sponsored phase II clinical trials and candidates for contemplation of translation to developing countries include: (1) I-131 Rituximab radioimmunotherapy of relapsed/refractory and first-line treatment of non- Hodgkin's lymphoma; (2) Lu-177 octreotate radiopeptide therapy of neuroendocrine malignancy with capecitabine tumour radiosensitization; (3) Re-188 lipiodol intrahepatic arterial therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition to presentation of preliminary clinical results, the logistics and techniques of preparation, quality control and administration of each of these therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals will be described and the calculation of individual patient dosimetry and issues of radiation safety will also be addressed. 1. Iodine-131 rituximab: I-131 rituximab may be prepared in a hospital department of nuclear medicine equipped with a shielded fume cupboard, using commercially available single-use sterile pyrogen-free labelling kits (Go Medical Industries Pty Ltd, Subiaco, Australia) (1). Individualized prospective dosimetry is performed on each patient by quantitative whole body gamma imaging, to determine the therapeutic administered activity, to provide a maximum safe whole body radiation absorbed dose of 0.75 Gy, which equates to less than 2 Gy to red marrow (2). More than 200 patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been treated at Fremantle Hospital without infection or haemorrhagic incident. Myelosuppression is self

  15. Biological dosimetry of patients with differenced carcinoma of thyroid treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, M. B.; Rojo, A.M.; Taja, M.R.; Deluca, G.; Di Giorgio, M.; Fadel, A.; Cabrejas, M.; Valdivieso, C.

    2006-01-01

    The administration of I-131 to patient with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (CaDiT) it is used inside the therapeutic outline as later step to the thyroidectomy. However, the good activity to give is of difficult determination due to factors such as, the variability in the capacity of tumoral reception of the I-131, distribution of the pharmaceutical, physiologic status, other associate pathologies, grade of advance of the illness, and previous treatments. Additionally, the activity to administer is dependent of the dose of tolerance in the healthy tissues; superior dose to 2 Gy in bone marrow, its could drive to myelotoxicity. At the moment, the form more extended of administration it is the empiric prescription that considers clinical parameters and of laboratory for their determination. Presently work, the protocol of applied treatment incorporates the evaluation for internal dosimetry and biological dosimetry to estimate absorbed dose in bone marrow. The biological estimate of the dose of these patients is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations whose frequency is referred to a curve-dose response in which the lymphocytes is irradiated in vitro with I-131, allowing to determine the in vivo dose to the patient's circulating lymphocytes. The objective of the present work is to determine the applicability of different cytogenetic essays in the estimate of the absorbed dose to the whole body or specific organs. Three patients were evaluated with CaDiT. Their treatment protocol consisted on a tracer administration of radioactive iodine of 74 - 111 MBq (2 - 3 mCi) and a therapy 7,4 - 11,1 GBq (200 - 300 mCi). Previous to the tracer administration and 8 days post-therapeutic administration took samples of veined blood that were evaluated by biological dosimetry by means of the application of the techniques: conventional cytogenetic Micronucleus and FISH (Hybridization in situ by Fluorescence). Starting from the frequencies of observed chromosomal

  16. Putting to point the production process of iodine-131 by dry distillation (Preoperational tests); Puesta a punto el proceso de produccion de yodo-131 por destilacion seca (Pruebas preoperacionales)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-12-15

    With the purpose of putting to point the process of production of {sup 131}I, one of the objectives of carrying out the realization of operational tests of the production process of iodine-131, it was of verifying the operation of each one of the following components: heating systems, vacuum system, mechanical system and peripheral equipment that are part of the production process of iodine-131, another of the objectives, was settling down the optimal parameters that were applied in each process during the obtaining of iodine-131, it is necessary to point out that this objective is very important, since the components of the equipment are new and its behavior during the process is different to the equipment where its were carried out the experimental studies. (Author)

  17. Evaluation of the uncertainties associated to the in vivo monitoring of iodine-131 in the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The internal dose from the incorporation of radionuclides by humans can be estimated by in vivo direct measurements in the human body and in vitro analysis of biological indicators. In vivo techniques consist on the identification and quantification of radionuclides present in the whole body and in specific organs and tissues. The results obtained in measurements may present small uncertainties which are within pre-set limits in monitoring programs for occupationally exposed individuals. This study aims to evaluate the sources of uncertainty associated with the results of in vivo monitoring of iodine 131 in the thyroid. The benchmarks adopted in this study are based on the criteria suggested by the General Guide for Estimating Effective Doses from Monitoring Data (Project IDEAS/European Community). The reference values used were the ones for high-energy photons (>100 keV). Besides the parameters suggested by the IDEAS Guide, it has also been evaluated the fluctuation of the counting due to the phantom repositioning, which represents the reproducibility of the counting geometry. Measurements were performed at the Whole Body Counter Unit of the IRD using a scintillation detector NaI (Tl) 3'' x 3'' and a neck-thyroid phantom developed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD. This phantom contains a standard source of barium-133 added to a piece of filter paper with the dimension and shape of a thyroid gland. Scattering factors were calculated and compared in different counting geometries. The results show that the technique studied presents reproducibility equivalent to the values suggested in the IDEAS Guide and measurement uncertainties compatible to international quality standards for this type of in vivo monitoring. (author)

  18. Renal excretion of iodine-131 labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine and metabolites after therapeutic doses in patients suffering from different neural crest-derived tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafelman, A.R.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Maessen, H.J.M.; Maes, R.A.A.; Beijnen, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine-131 labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine ([ 131 I[MIBG) is used for diagnostic scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy of neural crest-derived tumours. After administration of therapeutic doses of [ 131 I[MIBG (3.1-7.5 GBq) to 17 patients (n=32 courses), aged 2-73 years, 56%±10%, 73%±11%, 80%±10% and 83%±10% of the dose was cumulatively excreted as total radioactivity in urine at t=24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h, respectively. Except for two adult patients, who showed excretion of 14%-18% of [ 131 I[meta-iodohippuric acid ([ 131 I[MIHA), the cumulatively excreted radioactivity consisted of >85% [ 131 I[MIBG, with 6% of the dose excreted as free [ 131 I[iodide, 4% as [ 131 I[MIHA and 2.5% as an unknown iodine-131 labelled metabolite. Cumulative renal excretion rates of total radioactivity and of [ 131 I[MIBG appeared to be higher in neuroblastoma and phaeochromocytoma patients than in carcinoid patients. Based on the excretion of small amounts of [ 131 I[meta-iodobenzoic acid in two patients, a possible metabolic pathway for [ 131 I[MIBG is suggested. The degree of metabolism was not related to the extent of liver uptake of radioactivity. (orig.). With 2 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Three-dimensional noninvasive monitoring iodine-131 uptake in the thyroid using a modified Cerenkov luminescence tomography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Ma, Xiaowei; Qu, Xiaochao; Yang, Weidong; Liang, Jimin; Wang, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) provides the three-dimensional (3D) radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in small living animals, which is vital to biomedical imaging. However, existing single-spectral and multispectral methods are not very efficient and effective at reconstructing the distribution of the radionuclide tracer. In this paper, we present a semi-quantitative Cerenkov radiation spectral characteristic-based source reconstruction method named the hybrid spectral CLT, to efficiently reconstruct the radionuclide tracer with both encouraging reconstruction results and less acquisition and image reconstruction time. We constructed the implantation mouse model implanted with a 400 µCi Na(131)I radioactive source and the physiological mouse model received an intravenous tail injection of 400 µCi radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 (I-131) to validate the performance of the hybrid spectral CLT and compared the reconstruction results, acquisition, and image reconstruction time with that of single-spectral and multispectral CLT. Furthermore, we performed 3D noninvasive monitoring of I-131 uptake in the thyroid and quantified I-131 uptake in vivo using hybrid spectral CLT. Results showed that the reconstruction based on the hybrid spectral CLT was more accurate in localization and quantification than using single-spectral CLT, and was more efficient in the in vivo experiment compared with multispectral CLT. Additionally, 3D visualization of longitudinal observations suggested that the reconstructed energy of I-131 uptake in the thyroid increased with acquisition time and there was a robust correlation between the reconstructed energy versus the gamma ray counts of I-131 (r(2) = 0.8240). The ex vivo biodistribution experiment further confirmed the I-131 uptake in the thyroid for hybrid spectral CLT. Results indicated that hybrid spectral CLT could be potentially used for thyroid imaging to evaluate its function and monitor its treatment for thyroid cancer.

  20. Iodine prophylaxis intensification. Influence on radioiodine uptake and activity of {sup 131}I used in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczyk, M.; Ziemnicka, K.; Sowinski, J. [Karol Marcinkowski Univ. School of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases; Junik, R. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology and Diabetology

    2005-07-01

    Poland, a country with mild/moderate iodine deficiency introduced an obligatory iodination salt system in 1996. Aim: To compare the results of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) uptake after 5 h and 24 h with the activity of radioiodine used in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease in the years 1995 and 2003. Patients, methods: The marker of iodine content in the diet was urinary iodine excretion. 1000 randomly chosen patients (average age: 46{+-}12 years) were included in the study. Every patient had routinely estimated radioiodine uptake after 5 h and 24 h and the activity of {sup 131}I was calculated using scintigraphy and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland. Urinary iodine excretion in samples from year 1995 and 2003 was also determined in some patients and healthy volunteers. Results: The iodine load in the diet increased from 66 {mu}g (average) in the year 1995 to 115 {mu}g in the year 2003. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was 40% lower in comparison with the results from 1995. The average activity of {sup 131}I given in the year 2003 (10 mCi) was about 40% higher than in the year 1995 (7 mCi). Conclusion: There was significant negative correlation between higher iodine content in the diet and lower values of radioiodine uptake, which led to the application of the higher activity of {sup 131}I during treatment. (orig.)

  1. Iodine prophylaxis intensification. Influence on radioiodine uptake and activity of 131I used in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baczyk, M.; Ziemnicka, K.; Sowinski, J.; Junik, R.

    2005-01-01

    Poland, a country with mild/moderate iodine deficiency introduced an obligatory iodination salt system in 1996. Aim: To compare the results of radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake after 5 h and 24 h with the activity of radioiodine used in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease in the years 1995 and 2003. Patients, methods: The marker of iodine content in the diet was urinary iodine excretion. 1000 randomly chosen patients (average age: 46±12 years) were included in the study. Every patient had routinely estimated radioiodine uptake after 5 h and 24 h and the activity of 131 I was calculated using scintigraphy and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland. Urinary iodine excretion in samples from year 1995 and 2003 was also determined in some patients and healthy volunteers. Results: The iodine load in the diet increased from 66 μg (average) in the year 1995 to 115 μg in the year 2003. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was 40% lower in comparison with the results from 1995. The average activity of 131 I given in the year 2003 (10 mCi) was about 40% higher than in the year 1995 (7 mCi). Conclusion: There was significant negative correlation between higher iodine content in the diet and lower values of radioiodine uptake, which led to the application of the higher activity of 131 I during treatment. (orig.)

  2. The optimization of treatment with radioactive iodine (131I) of the hypersecretive ''hot'' tumors of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorowski, T.; Zgliczynski, S.

    1987-01-01

    The studies have been carried out in 50 patients with hyperthyroidism associated with the presence of ''hot'' thyroid tumor. The effectiveness of treatment with a standard dose of radioactive iodine, a dose which after 48 hours following the administration caused an appearance of 5.55 MBq (150 μCi) of 131 I in 1 cubic centimeter of the tumor, has been determined. In each case the condition of the patient was evaluated several times before and after the treatment, basing on clinical examination, scintigraphy of the thyroid, the determinations of T 3 , T 4 and TSH concentrations and, when needed, also the determination of TSH after stimulation with TRH. The period of observation after the administration of the first therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine was between 2 and 19 years (mean 6.5 years). The results obtained indicated that in 40 among 50 patients (80%) hyperthyroidism disappeared after administration of a single dose of radioactive iodine calculated as specified above. In two of these patients (4%) hypothyroidism resulted. In the remaining 10 patients (20%) the treatment with radioactive iodine had to be repeated. This resulted in disappearance of hyperthyroidism also in these 10 patients, bringing the total amount of cured patients to 50 (100%), and increasing the amount of patients with hypothyroidism to barely 3 cases (6%). 23 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  3. Risk factors of hepatic dysfunction in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism and the efficacy of 131iodine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfei; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; Zheng, Wei; Li, Chengxia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic dysfunction is often observed in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. The aims of this study were to investigate the risk factors for hepatic dysfunction and to analyze the efficacy of 131I (radioactive iodine-131) treatment. In total, 2385 patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism (478 males, 1907 females; age 42.8 ± 13.5 years) were involved in our study. Of these, 1552 cases with hepatic dysfunction received 131I treatment. All clinical data were retrospectively reviewed to explore the risk factors associated with hepatic dysfunction using logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, we observed thyroid and liver function indices for the 1552 subjects at 3, 6 and 12 months after 131I treatment, in order to evaluate efficacy. Overall, 65% patients were affected by hepatic dysfunction. The most common abnormality was elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP), of which the prevalence was 52.3%. The percentages of hepatocellular injury type, bile stasis, and mixed type were 45.8%, 32.4%, and 21.8%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that age, duration of Graves hyperthyroidism, free triiodothyronine (FT3)level, and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) concentration were the most significant risk factors predicting hepatic dysfunction. Additionally, the patients with mild hepatic dysfunction, or hepatocellular injury type were more likely to attain normal liver function after 131I treatment. Furthermore, after 131I treatment, liver function was more likely to return to normal in the cured group of patients compared with the uncured group. Older patients and cases with a longer history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, higher FT3 or TRAb concentration were more likely to be associated with hepatic dysfunction, and the prognosis of hepatic dysfunction was closely associated with the outcomes of Graves’ hyperthyroidism after 131I treatment. PMID:28151911

  4. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Making Decisions What you Need To Know About Supplements Dietary ... mild iodine deficiency and of iodine supplements on cognitive ... breasts. It mainly affects women of reproductive age but can also occur ...

  5. Measurement of the increase in the capillary permeability in skin with Evans blue labelled with iodine-125 or 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarava, S.; Goncalves, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of bradykinin and histamine with Evans blue labelled with iodine -125 or 131 is described. The activity upon vascular permeability was performed in the abdominal wall of rats injecting intravenously solution of labelled Evans blue and 0,1 ml of vasoactive drugs solution intradermally. Skin discs were cut with circular punch for external counting, quantitative results being compared with control discs. By using this method, satisfactory log dose-reponse curves were obtained for bradykinin and histamine that followed the general trend of S - shaped curves [pt

  6. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gomez, Francisco Javier; Riva-Perez, Pablo Antonio de la; Calvo-Moron, Cinta; Bujan-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montano, Juan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Sevilla (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results. (author)

  7. Use of Iodine-131 to Tellurium-132 Ratios for Assessing the Relationships between Human Inhaled Radioactivity and Environmental Monitoring after the Accident in Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Uchiyama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant differences in findings were seen between the intake amounts of iodine-131 that were derived from direct measurements and the estimated intake from environmental monitoring data at the Fukushima accident. To clarify these discrepancies, we have investigated the iodine-131 and tellurium-132 body burdens of five human subjects, who after being exposed to a radioactive plume, underwent 21.5 h whole body counter measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital, so clear intake scenario and thyroid counter measurement data were available. To determine the iodine-131 and tellurium-132 body burdens, we introduced a new method of whole body counter calibration composed of a self-consistent approach with the time-dependent correction efficiency factors concept. The ratios of iodine-131 to tellurium-132, ranging from 0.96 ± 0.05 to 2.29 ± 0.38, were consistent with results of the environmental measurements. The 24 h iodine uptake values ranging from 12.1–16.0% were within euthyroid range in Japanese people. These results suggest, even if the relatively low thyroid iodine uptake in the Japanese population was taken into consideration, that there is no doubt about the consistency between direct measurements and environmental monitoring data. Adequate intake scenario is suggested to be principally important to estimate the inhaled radioactivity in areas in or around nuclear accidents.

  8. Radiation exposure of the families of outpatients treated with radioiodine (iodine-131) for hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, S.F.; O`Doherty, M.J.; Seed, P. [Guy`s, King`s and St. Thomas` Schools of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Kettle, A.G. [Kent and Canterbury NHS Trust, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Thomson, W.H.; Harding, L.K. [City Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mountford, P.J.; Farrell, R.J. [North Staffordshire Hospital NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Burrell, D.N. [University Hospital, Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Batchelor, S. [Guy`s and St. Thomas` Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Patients who receive radioiodine (iodine-131) treatment for hyperthyroidism (195-800 MBq) emit radiation and represent a potential hazard to other individuals. Critical groups amongst the public are fellow travellers on the patient`s journey home from hospital and members of the patient`s family, particularly young children. The dose which members of the public are allowed to receive as a result of a patient`s treatment has been reduced in Europe following recently revised recommendations from ICRP. The annual public dose limit is 1 mSv, though adult members of the patient`s family are allowed to receive higher doses, with the proviso that a limit of 5 mSv should not be exceeded over 5 years. Unless the doses received during out-patient administration of radioiodine can be demonstrated to comply with these new limits, hospitalisation of patients will be necessary. The radiation doses received by family members (35 adults and 87 children) of patients treated with radioiodine at five UK hospitals were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted in wrist bands. Families were given advice (according to current practice) from their treatment centre about limiting close contact with the patient for a period of time after treatment. Doses measured over 3-6 weeks were adjusted to give an estimate of values which might have been expected if the dosimeters had been worn indefinitely. Thirty-five passengers accompanying patients home after treatment also recorded the dose received during the journey using electronic (digital) personal dosimeters. For the ``adjusted`` doses to infinity, 97% of adults complied with a 5-mSv dose limit (range:0.2-5.8 mSv) and 89% of children with a 1-mSv limit (range: 0.2-7.2 mSv). However 6 of 17 children aged 3 years or less had an adjusted dose which exceeded this 1 mSv limit. The dose received by adults during travel was small in comparison with the total dose received. The median travel dose was 0.03 mSv for 1 h travel (range: 2 {mu

  9. Radiation exposure of the families of outpatients treated with radioiodine (iodine-131) for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, S.F.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Seed, P.; Kettle, A.G.; Thomson, W.H.; Harding, L.K.; Mountford, P.J.; Farrell, R.J.; Burrell, D.N.; Batchelor, S.

    1999-01-01

    Patients who receive radioiodine (iodine-131) treatment for hyperthyroidism (195-800 MBq) emit radiation and represent a potential hazard to other individuals. Critical groups amongst the public are fellow travellers on the patient's journey home from hospital and members of the patient's family, particularly young children. The dose which members of the public are allowed to receive as a result of a patient's treatment has been reduced in Europe following recently revised recommendations from ICRP. The annual public dose limit is 1 mSv, though adult members of the patient's family are allowed to receive higher doses, with the proviso that a limit of 5 mSv should not be exceeded over 5 years. Unless the doses received during out-patient administration of radioiodine can be demonstrated to comply with these new limits, hospitalisation of patients will be necessary. The radiation doses received by family members (35 adults and 87 children) of patients treated with radioiodine at five UK hospitals were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted in wrist bands. Families were given advice (according to current practice) from their treatment centre about limiting close contact with the patient for a period of time after treatment. Doses measured over 3-6 weeks were adjusted to give an estimate of values which might have been expected if the dosimeters had been worn indefinitely. Thirty-five passengers accompanying patients home after treatment also recorded the dose received during the journey using electronic (digital) personal dosimeters. For the ''adjusted'' doses to infinity, 97% of adults complied with a 5-mSv dose limit (range:0.2-5.8 mSv) and 89% of children with a 1-mSv limit (range: 0.2-7.2 mSv). However 6 of 17 children aged 3 years or less had an adjusted dose which exceeded this 1 mSv limit. The dose received by adults during travel was small in comparison with the total dose received. The median travel dose was 0.03 mSv for 1 h travel (range: 2

  10. Permanent Hypothyroidism after Radioactive Iodine(131I) Treatment in Diffuse Toxic Goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Yang; Lee, Jung Sang; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI), principally 131 I, effectively controls hyperthyroidism in the majority of patients. The subsequent development of hypothyroidism, however, has been of increasing concern since it was first pointed out by Chapman and Maloof in 1955. And the steady increase of late hypothyroidism during the passage of time was known with its relation with dosage of RAI. The authors have investigated the development of hypothyroidism in 935 patients with diffuse toxic goiter (DTG) who were treated with RAI ( 131 I) at the Seoul National University Hospital from 1960 to 1977 to reveal its relation with the number of RAI treatments, dosage of RAI, age of patients and exophthalmos with the following results. 1) The incidence of hypothyroidism by year after RAI therapy among 631 patients with DTG who were treated with single RAI regimen was 7.4% (1 year), 11.8% (2 year), 16.2% (3 year), 22.1% (4 year) and 25.5% (5 year), and that among 163 patients given multiple RAI treatments was 8.6% (1 year), 10.4% (2 year), 13.3% (3 year), 29.1% (4 year), and 54.1% (5 year) respectively showing much higher yearly increments from 4 years after RAI treatment in comparison with the former. 2) Among 550 patients in the lower dose group treated with single RAI regimen less than 5.0 mCi (Mean±S.D.: 4.3±0.6 mCi), the incidence of hypothyroidism by year after RAI treatment was 6.8% (1 year), 11.4% (2 year), 15.4% (3 year), while among 81 patients in the higher dose group given single RAI treatment not less than 5.5 mCi (Mean±S.D.: 6.3±0.5 mCi) it was 12.0% (1 year), 15.4% (2 year) and 20.4% (3 year) respectively. However, the duration till euthyroid state after RAI therapy in the two groups was 5.1±3.6 months and 4.8±2.8 months respectively showing no statistically significant difference (p>0.1). 4) The incidence of hypothyroidism after RAI treatment in patients younger than 30 years of age was 4.3% (1 year) and 7.7% (2 year); in patients from 30 years to 49 years of age, 5

  11. Experimental dosimetry and kinetics of radioactive tracers for human applications: example of therapeutic injection of Lipiodol labelled with Iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Mahidi, N.

    1992-10-01

    We have evaluated the radiation dose received by the liver and lungs for 10 patients with a hepatic carcinoma after surgical operation followed by a therapeutic dose of Lipiodol labelled with iodine 131. The cumulated activities have been obtained by using a calibrated gamma camera. Fixation and kinetics of the I 131 Lipiodol in normal and cancers livers have been measured with the determination of the effective and biological half-lives. The calculated doses are based on the MIRD method. Results confirm that Lipiodol fixation is important in the liver at J1 (about 74% of the injected activity). Its elimination is essentially urinary, pulmonary fixation remained low, the dose received by the healthy part of liver is acceptable. These values have been compared with those obtained by another method using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (LiF) installed on the skin over the liver. Comparison between results obtained by the 2 methods shows a good correlation

  12. A model for determination of human foetus irradiation during intrauterine development when the mother incorporates iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, V.; Doncheva, B.

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented for irradiation calculation of human foetus during weeks 8-15 of the intrauterine development, when the mother chronically incorporates iodine 131. This period is critical for the nervous system of the foetus. Compared to some other author's models, the method proposed eliminates some uncertainties and takes into account the changes in the activity of mother's thyroid in time. The model is built on the base of data from 131 I-kinetics of pregnant women and experimental mice. A formula is proposed for total foetus irradiation calculation including: the internal γ and β irradiation; the external γ and β irradiation from the mother as a whole; and the external γ irradiation from the mother's thyroid

  13. Chemical treatment of wastewaters produced during separation of iodine 131; Traitement chimique des eaux residuaires provenant de la preparation d'iode-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P.; Marcaillou, J.; Amavis, R.

    1959-06-22

    The authors report the development and assessment of a chemical treatment of radioactive wastewaters by co-precipitation. This treatment is aimed at replacing a treatment based on the use of calcium phosphate which proved to be insufficient for wastewaters resulting from the production of iodine 131. After a presentation of the characteristics of the effluents to be processed, the authors report co-precipitation tests performed on effluents before release in the storage vessel (by using barium hydroxide, lead acetate or lead sulfate) and on effluents diluted on the storage vessel. They show that a co-precipitation method based on the use of lead sulfate in alkaline medium gives the best results.

  14. Effects of Glycosylation on Biodistribution and Imaging Quality of Necrotic Myocardium of Iodine-131-Labeled Sennidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Dongjian; Yang, Shengwei; Song, Shaoli; Li, Jindian; Wang, Qin; Wang, Cong; Feng, Yuanbo; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei; Yin, Zhiqi

    2016-12-01

    Sennidins are necrosis-avid agents for noninvasive assessment of myocardial viability which is important for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). However, high accumulation of radioactivity in the liver interferes with the assessment of myocardial viability. In this study, we compared sennidins with sennosides to investigate the effects of glycosylation on biodistribution and imaging quality of sennidins. Sennidin A (SA), sennidin B (SB), sennoside A (SSA), and sennoside B (SSB) were labeled with I-131. In vitro binding to necrotic cells and hepatic cells and in vivo biodistribution in rats with muscular necrosis were evaluated by gamma counting, autoradiography, and histopathology. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images were acquired in rats with acute MI. The uptake of [ 131 I]SA, [ 131 I]SSA, [ 131 I]SB, and [ 131 I]SSB in necrotic cells was significantly higher than that in viable cells (p sennosides than those with [ 131 I]sennidins (p < 0.01). Autoradiography showed preferential accumulation of these four radiotracers in necrotic areas of muscle, confirmed by histopathology. SPECT/CT imaging studies showed better image quality with [ 131 I]SSB than with [ 131 I]SB due to less liver interference. Glycosylation significantly decreased the liver uptake and improved the quality of cardiac imaging. [ 131 I]SSB may serve as a promising necrosis-avid agent for noninvasive assessment of myocardial viability.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of a carcinoid tumor using iodine-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Den Hartog Jager, F.C.; Van Gennip, A.H.; Marcuse, H.R.; Taal, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scintigraphy using I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine has been introduced as an effective method to detect pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas, and the radiopharmaceutical also is applied in therapy of these tumors. The authors present a case of a metastatic gastric carcinoid tumor, another neural crest tumor, concentrating I-131 MIBG, which was documented by conventional scintigraphy and SPECT in correlation with CT scans and colloid scintigrams of the liver. Two therapeutic attempts in this patient, using I-131 MIBG, are described. The metabolic basis of this phenomenon is discussed, and the importance of I-131 MIBG imaging in the detection of neural crest tumors is underlined

  16. Proposal of a methodology for individualized iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisco de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: faraujo@ird.gov.br; Melo, Rossana Corbo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rebelo, Ana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder Augusto de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Several methods are utilized for determining the radioiodine activity in the treatment of Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism). Some of this methods do not take into consideration the thyroid absorbed dose or the necessary parameters for this estimation. The association between absorbed dose and administered activity depends on effective half-life, iodine uptake and thyroid mass of each patient. The present study was aimed at developing a methodology for individualized {sup 131}I therapy for Graves' disease in patients with hyperthyroidism of the Graves' disease. Materials and methods: A neck-thyroid phantom developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, containing a standard solution of {sup 131}I, was utilized for calibrating the scintillation gamma camera and uptake probe installed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Results: The view angle of the collimator/detector assembly presented values compatible with the thyroid gland size for distances of 25 cm (uptake probe) and 45.8 cm (scintillation gamma camera). Calibration factors were 39.3 {+-} 0.78 and 4.3 {+-} 0.17 cpm/kBq, respectively. The 14-30-hour interval in the retention curve allows the estimation of activity between two points for determining the effective iodine half-life in the thyroid. Conclusion: The utilization of equipment usually available in nuclear medicine clinics is feasible, so this is a simple, effective and low cost methodology. (author)

  17. Effects of hemodialysis on iodine-131 biokinetics in thyroid carcinoma patients with end-stage chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeyin, Nami; Cavdar, Iffet; Uslu, Lebriz; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Demir, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Radioiodine therapy could be challenging in chronic renal failure patients requiring hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of hemodialysis on elimination of radioiodine from the body in thyroid carcinoma patients with end-stage chronic renal failure and to determine its effects on environmental radiation dose. Three end-stage chronic renal failure patients (four cases) diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma requiring radioiodine therapy were included in our study. Each patient was given 50-75 mCi (1850-2775 MBq) iodine-131 with 50% dose reduction. Dose rate measurement was performed at the 2nd, 24th, and 48th hour (immediately before and after hemodialysis) after radioiodine administration. The Geiger-Müller probe was held at 1 m distance at the level of the midpoint of the thorax for the dose rate measurement. The effective half-life of iodine-131 for three patients was found to be 44 h. In conclusion, the amount of radioiodine excreted per hemodialysis session was calculated to be 51.25%.

  18. Image findings of a false positive radioactive iodine-131 uptake mimicking metastasis in pulmonary aspergillosis identified on single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaleshwaran Koramadai Karuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High doses of iodine-131 are commonly used in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after total or subtotal thyroidectomy, in order to ablate the remaining cancer or normal thyroid tissue. Multiple different false-positive scans can occur in the absence of residual thyroid tissue or metastases. The authors present a case of abnormal uptake of radioactive iodine in the aspergilloma, potentially masquerading as pulmonary metastases.

  19. Iodine-131 uptake in a patient with thyroid cancer and rheumatoid arthritis during acupuncture treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Nagai, K.; Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Morita, R.

    1990-01-01

    A patient with thyroid carcinoma had abnormal accumulation of I-131 in the areas of both feet and hands on whole body scan. The sites of abnormal accumulation of I-131 were similar to those on bone scintigraphy. The radiographic examination of the lesions showed characteristic findings of rheumatoid arthritis, and the presence of small gold needles for acupuncture treatment was demonstrated. There were no findings of bone metastases. Although the mechanism of accumulation of I-131 in this patient is unknown, interpreters of I-131 whole body scintigraphs should keep this case in mind when acupuncture treatment has been done. The authors can only speculate on a common blood flow mechanism for enhanced HMDP and I-131 uptake in this arthritic patient who had been treated by acupuncture

  20. Plant iodine-131 uptake in relation to root concentration as measured in minirhizotron by video camera:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    Glass viewing tubes (minirhizotrons) were placed in the soil beneath native perennial bunchgrass (Agropyron spicatum). The tubes provided access for observing and quantifying plant roots with a miniature video camera and soil moisture estimates by neutron hydroprobe. The radiotracer I-131 was delivered to the root zone at three depths with differing root concentrations. The plant was subsequently sampled and analyzed for I-131. Plant uptake was greater when I-131 was applied at soil depths with higher root concentrations. When I-131 was applied at soil depths with lower root concentrations, plant uptake was less. However, the relationship between root concentration and plant uptake was not a direct one. When I-131 was delivered to deeper soil depths with low root concentrations, the quantity of roots there appeared to be less effective in uptake than the same quantity of roots at shallow soil depths with high root concentration. 29 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Labelling of human serum albumin with iodine-131 for diagnosis in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Valente Goncalves, R. da.

    1979-01-01

    Labelling of 131 I-human serum albumin with I-131 from a solution of 131 I-sodium iodide using chloramine T as an oxidant agent is studied. Parameters which can influence on the labelling yield like mass of human serum albumin, and chloramine T, pH of the reaction, reaction time and activity of 131 I are also studied. The purification of the labeled product by means of IRA-410 Amberlite ion-exchange resin in chloride form and the sterilization of the 131 I-human serum albumin by its passage through a 0,22μ millipore filter are carried out. The radiochemistry control of the final product by paper chromatography and the microbiological control by cultivation of microorganisms in fluid medium: nutrient broth, sodium thioglycollate broth and Sabouraud, are performed. The stability of the radiopharmaceutical until ten days after its preparation is analysed by means of radiochemical control. (Author) [pt

  2. Iodine-131 uptake in a patient with thyroid cancer and rheumatoid arthritis during acupuncture treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Nagai, K.; Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Morita, R. (Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    A patient with thyroid carcinoma had abnormal accumulation of I-131 in the areas of both feet and hands on whole body scan. The sites of abnormal accumulation of I-131 were similar to those on bone scintigraphy. The radiographic examination of the lesions showed characteristic findings of rheumatoid arthritis, and the presence of small gold needles for acupuncture treatment was demonstrated. There were no findings of bone metastases. Although the mechanism of accumulation of I-131 in this patient is unknown, interpreters of I-131 whole body scintigraphs should keep this case in mind when acupuncture treatment has been done. The authors can only speculate on a common blood flow mechanism for enhanced HMDP and I-131 uptake in this arthritic patient who had been treated by acupuncture.

  3. Radioiodine uptake following iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease: an early indicator of need for retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, W.R.; Gilliland, P.F.; Piziak, V.K.; Petty, F.C.; McConnell, B.G.; Verdonk, C.A.; Ibarra, J.D.; Thompson, J.Q.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five patients with Graves' disease were studied prospectively to determine if 24-hour I-131 uptake measurements alone or in combination with serum thyroid hormone levels at six weeks would determine the necessity for retreatment of the thyrotoxicosis. All patients with an I-131 uptake greater than 30% at six weeks required retreatment. No patient with an I-131 uptake of less than 15% required retreatment. Patients with uptakes between 15% and 30% were variable. An elevated free thyroxin index at 6 weeks is not helpful to determine which patients will remain thyrotoxic. Patients with a free thyroxin index within the normal range at six weeks can be predicted to be euthyroid by 12 weeks if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is between 15% and 30% and to be hypothyroid if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is below 15%. There was no difference between patient groups treated initially with antithyroid medication and those who were not

  4. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). One of the radionuclides emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131. This report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  5. Exposure rates (versus time after administration), in relation with clinical factors, for thyroid carcinoma patients treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, D.; Oros, L.; Manetou, A.; Perris, A.; Molfetas, M.; Kottou, S.

    2002-01-01

    While the therapeutic use of iodine-131 for thyroid carcinoma patients offers enormous benefit to them, it contributes also significantly to the radiation exposure of individuals and population. A critical quantity for decisions relating radiation protection system based on restrictions recommended by authorities is the residual I-131 activity in patient's body. When this value is larger than a threshold level, it may keep the patient hospitalised for a short period of usually 2 to 3 days with an additional period of 7 days at home, where he must sleep separately and avoid close contact with other people. Essential for radiation protection issues is the careful collection of radioactive urine, radioactive waste and avoidance of any contaminations by perspiration and saliva. Longer hospital stay would increase the total cost of the treatment and limit the availability of the isolation room. So the patient has then to return home, having always in mind that in spite of the fast washout of the I-131 from his body, even the second week still contributes significantly to the total radiation burden to relatives and friends. Radiation hazards concerning relatives and friends can be kept to a truly negligible level (a small fraction of the annual dose limit of only 1mSv), only if it is provided that: a) reasonable standards of personal hygiene and cleanliness are followed, b) urine or saliva contaminations are avoided and c) patient's close contact with relatives or friends is kept to a minimum. These measures should be followed for a time period of 2-8 days after hospital discharge, a period that depends on administered and retained I-131 activity. This work tries to estimate the correlation between several clinical factors and the residual activity of I-131 in patient's body and proposes a method for a more simple measurement of the total body activity during patient's stay in the treatment centre - hospital

  6. Kinetics of Iodine 131 labelled fibrinogen in cancerous patients. Pharmacological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu-Valmalette, Andree; Bugat, Roland; David, J.-F.; Combes, P.-F.

    1977-01-01

    The results obtained in a previous study using 131 I fibrinogen in cancerous patients suggested a local intravascular clotting process. In order to elucidate the mechanism of fibrinogen kinetic abnormalities different drugs including heparin, prednisone, ticlopidin, aspirin and indomethacin were administred in 68 patients and their effects evaluated by change in the 131 I fibrinogen disappearance rate. The results suggest that these drugs may counteract with the early stages of coagulation (kinin-forming system, factor XII) and that abnormal 131 I fibrinogen kinetic in cancer would be a non specific phenomenon [fr

  7. Incidence of hypothyroidism occurring long after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.; Lundell, G.; Israelsson, A.; Dahlgvist, I.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the long-term incidence of hypothyroidism in 4,473 formerly hyperthyroid patients given I-131 therapy between 1951 and 1975. The mean age at the first I-131 treatment was 56 yr. Six percent developed hypothyroidism within one year of therapy, and 72% within 26 yr. Prior antithyroid medication did not affect the incidence of hypothyroidism. Patients cured with one dose of I-131 had a lower cumulative long-term incidence of hypothyroidism than those requiring more than one dose

  8. A False Positive I-131 Metastatic Survey Caused by Radioactive Iodine Uptake by a Benign Thymic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avneet K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy in the United States with increasing incidence and diagnosis but stable mortality. Differentiated thyroid cancer rarely presents with distant metastases and is associated with a low risk of morbidity and mortality. Despite this, current protocols recommend remnant ablation with radioactive iodine and evaluation for local and distant metastasis in some patients with higher risk disease. There are several case reports of false positive results of metastatic surveys that are either normal physiologic variants or other pathological findings. Most false positive findings are associated with tissue that has physiologic increased uptake of I-131, such as breast tissue or lung tissue; pathological findings such as thymic cysts are also known to have increased uptake. Our case describes a rare finding of a thymic cyst found on a false positive I-131 metastatic survey. The patient was taken for surgical excision and the final pathology was a benign thymic cyst. Given that pulmonary metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer are rare, thymic cysts, though also rare, must be part of the differential diagnosis for false positive findings on an I-131 survey.

  9. Effect of technetium-99m on iodine-131 thyroid uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, H.J.; Klopper, J.F.; Erlank, P.

    1985-01-01

    Following administration of 2.5-5.0 mCi[/sup 99m/Tc]pertechnetate, several hundred microcuries may be present in the necks of hyperthyroid patients after 6 hr. Coincidence summing of Tc-99m photons may disturb I-131 uptake measurements in such patients if an oral diagnostic dose of I-131 is administered immediately after completion of a [/sup 99m/Tc]pertechnetate scintigram. Using a lower discriminator level of 300 keV, false increases of 10%-50% may occur at 6 hr. The 24-hr uptake is also affected if an I-131 predose measurement is performed after administration of the Tc-99m dose. The authors have shown that these errors may be prevented by using a 1-mm lead filter in front of the scintillation detector. The attenuation of Tc-99m photons by the filter effectively eliminates summation pulses while it reduces the I-131 count rate by approximately 28%

  10. Iodine-131 treatment of hyperthyroidism in the elderly. Results in 180 patients. Radioprotection and waste management in 131-iodine therapy; Traitement de l'hyperthyroidie du sujet age par l'iode 131. A propos de 180 patients. Problemes de radioprotection et de gestion des dechets lies au traitement par l'iode 131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejax, C.; Freitas, D. de; Leroux, M.A.; Aubert, B. [Centre Jean-Perrin, Medecine Nucleaire, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Vennat, J.C. [Centre Jean-Perrin, Radiopharmacie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Kwiatkowski, F. [Centre Jean-Perrin, Biostatistiques, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2005-09-15

    A retrospective study has been performed in patients treated by iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism between April 1999 and February 2004..Among the 270 patients, 180 were more than 65 years old. After 65 years, hyperthyroidism is most often the consequence of a toxic adenoma or multi-nodular goiter while Graves' disease is most frequent in young patients. Iodine-131 is usually proposed as first line treatment in the elderly, at the opposite of young patients. With a mean follow-up of 12 months, return to euthyroidism is observed in 56.5% of the older patients and in 73.6% of the young patients. We explain this results by the lower incidence of Graves' disease in the elderly. Nuclear medicine physicians are legally obliged to provide patients with a proper information about radioprotection. Recommendations should nevertheless not induce overdue nor illegitimate fear. They should not only be written and standardized, but also given orally and adapted to each patient. Urinary incontinence is not specific to the old patients, but it is more frequent after 65. Collection and storage of contaminated waste is sometimes difficult and has often to be solved on a case by case basis. (author)

  11. A comparison of the radiochemical stability of different iodine-131 labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine formulations for therapeutic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafelman, A.R.; Beijnen, J.H.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Maes, R.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a stability study of three commercially available formulations of [ 131 I]MIBG for therapeutic use and an unstabilized formulation, stored under various conditions, are presented. The stability was followed for 20 days. In all formulations tested, free [ 131 I]iodide, formed by radiolysis, was the most important radiochemical impurity. The pharmaceutical formulation with the largest amount of stabilizer was radiochemically - but not chemically -most stable. (author)

  12. Clinical Investigation and Treatment of Thyroid Disease with Radioactive Iodine (131I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Koh, Chang Soon; Ro, Heung Kyu; Koo, In Seu; Suh, Whan Jo; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lee, Chung Sang

    1970-01-01

    A summary of the clinical data of the 131 I-thyroid function tests and the therapeutic results of 131 I among the 2,658 patients of various thyroid diseases treated over the past 10 years from May 1960 to Oct. 1969 at the Radioisotope Clinic and Laboratory, SNUH were presented and discussed. 1) The patients examined consisted of 929 cases (34.9%) of diffuse toxic goiter, 762 cases (28.7%) of diffuse nontoxic goiter, 699 cases (26.3%) of nodular nontoxic goiter, 58 cases (2.2%) of nodular toxic goiter and 210 cases (7.9%) of hypothyroidism. 2) There were 300 (11.4%) male and 2358 (88.6%) female, showing a ratio of 1 : 8. 3) The majority of patients (79.1%) were in the 3rd-5th decade of their lives. 3) The normal ranges, diagnostic values of 131 I uptake test, 48 hrs serum activity, BMR and main subjective symptoms of various thyroid diseases were discussed. 5) In the 579 patients among 867 cases with hyperthyroidism treated with 131 I, 47.8% were confirmed to be cured completely after single therapeutic doses. 6) The complications of 131 I therapy were discussed and myxedema had developed in 6.75% of our patients. 7) The results of 131 I thyroid function tests were analysed among the 160 cases of thyroid diseases which were confirmed the diagnosis with histopathological measures.

  13. A cause of false positive of the whole body scanning with iodine 131: obstructive hydronephrosis; Une cause de faux-positif du balayage corps entier a l'iode 131: l'hydronephrose obstructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellem, A.; Elbez, I.; Rejeb, O.; Elkadri, N.; Hammami, H. [Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Militaire, Tunis, (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to report the case of a differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid with a false positive aspect to the whole-body scanning with iodine 131 in relation with an accumulation of the tracer at the level of an obstructive appearance hydronephrosis. (N.C.)

  14. The exposure of relatives to patients of a nuclear medical ward after radio iodine therapy by inhalation of 131I in their home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, U.; Eschner, W.; Hillger, H.W.; Schicha, H.

    1998-01-01

    From a model of iodine metabolism exhalation coefficients shall become derived to calculate 131 I exhalation by patients after a radioiodine treatment. The validity of these exhalation coefficients shall be reviewed by whole body activity measurements of relatives of patients, who inhaled the radioiodine exhaled by the patients in their homes. The exposure of relatives to patients of a nuclear medical ward after release by exhalation of iodine-131 is investigated. Methods: Iodine 131 I-activity of 17 relatives to patients who had to undergo a radioiodine therapy became measured in a whole body counter only a few days after release of the patient form the nuclear medical ward. The results of the measurements have been compared with the results of calculations according to the model of iodine metabolism. Results: The calculated values of incorporated radioiodine in the relatives of the patient at time of measurement (A model ) correlate with the measured whole body activity (A GK ) according to the regression: A model = A GK -47.3 (r 2 =0.959). This relation holds if 2.1 μg of iodine become exhaled per day of the 60 μg of iodine which are the daily intake of iodine by food. The exposure of all relatives did never exceed 100 μSv eff . Using the same model parameters the effective dose equivalent of the relatives to our patients rises up to 6.5 mSv under ambulant radio therapy conditions. Conclusion: the daily exhalation of 131 I is able to be calculated by a mathematical model of iodine metabolism. After staying of patients at least 3 days in a nuclearmedical ward the exposure of relatives to patients in their home does not exceed the value of 100 μSv eff by inhalation of iodine-131. This are 10% of the limit of 1 mSv eff according to the Recommendations of the Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60). Radioiodine therapy outside of a hospital and 'iodine therapy tourisme' of German patients to other countries cannot be accepted. (orig.) [de

  15. Iodine-131 saliva secretion in ablation treatment for thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ana C.H.; Brandao, Luis E.; Candeiro, Ricardo E.; Rebelo, Ana M.O.; Corbo, Rossana; Dutra, Janaina

    2008-01-01

    In general, well-differentiated thyroid cancer treatment consists in Na 131 I administration following total or a near total thyroidectomy. The activity of a single administration in the majority of nuclear centers ranges from 1 to 4 GBq for residual thyroid tissue elimination and ranges from 4 to 8 GBq for residual thyroid tissue as well as metastases elimination. The high magnitude of 131 I activities administered for thyroid cancer treatment can lead to side effects, where salivary gland dysfunctions are the most common observed. In the absence of thyroid gland, secondary tissues - iodide specific uptake, mainly the salivary glands, rise at the element body retention process. In addition, among nuclear medicine professionals, there is no consensus about suitable restrictions that must be observed by the hospital released patient to avoid 131 I contamination by saliva. The aim of this study is to evaluate qualitatively the secretion of 131 I by salivary glands after the administration of the radionuclide to thyroid cancer patients for ablation purposes. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) followed-up in the present study are female, adult and without additional health diseases detected. After 131 I administration for ablation purposes, saliva samples were collected systematically and counting rate was assessed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. As the study is at an early stage, the preliminary results concern the possibility of conducting an evaluation of 131 I secreted in saliva using the proposed protocol. It can be seen that many factors have potential to influence the behaviour of 1 31 I secretion in saliva, for example the use of Na 131 I in solution or in capsules. It was observed two standards that can be defined according to these variables. (author)

  16. Synthesis and Bioevaluation of Iodine-131 Directly Labeled Cyclic RGD-PEGylated Gold Nanorods for Tumor-Targeted Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Radiolabeled gold nanoparticles play an important role in biomedical application. The aim of this study was to prepare iodine-131 (131I-labeled gold nanorods (GNRs conjugated with cyclic RGD and evaluate its biological characteristics for targeted imaging of integrin αvβ3-expressing tumors. Methods. HS-PEG(5000-COOH molecules were applied to replace CTAB covering the surface of bare GNRs for better biocompatibility, and c(RGDfK peptides were conjugated onto the carboxyl terminal of GNR-PEG-COOH via EDC/NHS coupling reactions. The nanoconjugate was characterized, and 131I was directly tagged on the surface of GNRs via AuI bonds for SPECT/CT imaging. We preliminarily studied the characteristics of the probe and its feasibility for tumor-targeting SPECT/CT imaging. Results. The [131I]GNR-PEG-cRGD probe was prepared in a simple and rapid manner and was stable in both PBS and fetal bovine serum. It targeted selectively and could be taken up by tumor cells mainly via integrin αvβ3-receptor-mediated endocytosis. In vivo imaging, biodistribution, and autoradiography results showed evident tumor uptake in integrin αvβ3-expressing tumors. Conclusions. These promising results showed that this smart nanoprobe can be used for angiogenesis-targeted SPECT/CT imaging. Furthermore, the nanoprobe possesses a remarkable capacity for highly efficient photothermal conversion in the near-infrared region, suggesting its potential as a multifunctional theranostic agent.

  17. Iodine-131 dose dependent gene expression in thyroid cancers and corresponding normal tissues following the Chernobyl accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abend

    Full Text Available The strong and consistent relationship between irradiation at a young age and subsequent thyroid cancer provides an excellent model for studying radiation carcinogenesis in humans. We thus evaluated differential gene expression in thyroid tissue in relation to iodine-131 (I-131 doses received from the Chernobyl accident. Sixty three of 104 papillary thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in the Ukrainian-American cohort with individual I-131 thyroid dose estimates had paired RNA specimens from fresh frozen tumor (T and normal (N tissue provided by the Chernobyl Tissue Bank and satisfied quality control criteria. We first hybridized 32 randomly allocated RNA specimen pairs (T/N on 64 whole genome microarrays (Agilent, 4×44 K. Associations of differential gene expression (log(2(T/N with dose were assessed using Kruskall-Wallis and trend tests in linear mixed regression models. While none of the genes withstood correction for the false discovery rate, we selected 75 genes with a priori evidence or P kruskall/P trend <0.0005 for validation by qRT-PCR on the remaining 31 RNA specimen pairs (T/N. The qRT-PCR data were analyzed using linear mixed regression models that included radiation dose as a categorical or ordinal variable. Eleven of 75 qRT-PCR assayed genes (ACVR2A, AJAP1, CA12, CDK12, FAM38A, GALNT7, LMO3, MTA1, SLC19A1, SLC43A3, ZNF493 were confirmed to have a statistically significant differential dose-expression relationship. Our study is among the first to provide direct human data on long term differential gene expression in relation to individual I-131 doses and to identify a set of genes potentially important in radiation carcinogenesis.

  18. A comparison of physical and cytogenetic estimates of radiation dose in patients treated with iodine-131 for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Dolphin, G.W.; Horton, P.W.; Halnan, K.E.; Scott, J.S.; Mair, G.

    1976-01-01

    Physical and cytogenetic estimates of the whole-body radiation doses have been compared in 11 patients receiving large doses of iodine-131 for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The physical estimate was based on the measurement of thyroid uptake, of the plasma activity variation, and of urinary activity. The cytogenetic estimate was obtained from the analysis of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Good agreement between the estimates was observed in patients whose thyroid glands had previously be ablated by radioiodine. In patients who had varying degrees of thyroid function, there were considerable differences between the estimates with the cytogenetic value always being higher. It is suggested that these differences might be due in part to non-uniform irradiation of lymphocytes by local sources of activity in the thyroid and in the liver. (author)

  19. Accidental release of iodine 131 by the IRE of the Fleurus site: return on experience by the Belgian safety authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Sonck, M.; Degueldre, D.

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the activities of the IRE, the Belgian National Institute of Radio-elements, i.e. the production of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, this report describes the process and chemical reaction which caused an accidental release of iodine 131. It analyzes the causes of this incident, and how the incident has been managed by the Belgian safety authority. It discusses the first assessment of radiological consequences, describes how the incident has been managed at the federal level, and how population and media have been informed. It discusses the actual radiological consequences through measurements performed on grass and vegetables (graphs and maps indicate contamination levels and contaminated areas), and through the assessment of exposure of adults and children by different ways. Lessons learned are then discussed

  20. Comparative study for small computer supported clearance determination with 131iodine hippuran using CdTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, G.

    1986-01-01

    With the goal to work out a simple, non-invasive method for the total clearance determination also for immobile patients, we carried out this clearance study with CdTe semi-conductor detectors. The 131 iodine hippuran clearance determination was carried out on 69 patients in the nuclear medicine department of the Radiological Policlinic in the framework of a routine diagnosis with ambulant and stationary patients with a gamma camera and a connecting evaluation system. At the same time we recorded the shoulder curves using two CdTe semi-conductor detectors and deposited the data in a portable semi-conductor memory. Next the hypotheses for the routine use with the inclusion of commercially common small computers was worked out. The plasma disappearance curves which were recorded over the shoulder region were evaluated with a small computer according to the method of the modified Oberhausen tables and the Oberhausen formula. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Measurements of iodine uptake in thyroid after diagnostic administration of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osko, J.; Pliszczynski, T.

    2003-01-01

    The measurements performed up to now, showed that the spectrometric measurements can be useful in selection of the patients who need special consideration during the 131 I diagnostics and treatment. The next step of the work will include the measurements of the real activity of 131 I in thyroid gland, after the therapeutic administration of radioiodine. A special collimator was designed for this purpose and the thyroid counter was calibrated using a phantom with inserts simulating different shapes of pathologically changed thyroid glands. It can be expected that the improvement of accuracy of the diagnostic measurements and better control of real activity of 131 I in thyroid gland after the therapeutic administration will contribute to the process of optimisation of radiation doses to the patients and medical personnel. (authors)

  2. Diet low in iodine as well as goitrogens (LILGD) enhanced radioiodine (I-131) uptake in treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaro, Erik; Gebre-Medhin, Mehari; Lindahl, Sten-AAke

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Low iodine diet (LID) is accepted as an adjuvant to post-thyroidectomy radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer since it is held to enhance radioiodine uptake in thyroid remnants and thyroid cancer tissue. However, in the few clinical investigations performed only an indirect and weak evidence of a positive effect of the LID has been demonstrated. Also we had discouraging experience in the application of a strict LID using the same design as in the present study. We therefore decided to investigate the effect of a diet low in iodine as well as in goitrogens (LILGD). Methods: Six patients with differentiated thyroid cancer entered the study and they were their own control. After thyroid hormone withdrawal (TSH > 30 m U/L) and on regular diet a diagnostic whole body scan was performed 24 h after administration of 50 MBq (1,4 mCi) 123 I. The day following diagnostic scan the patients were put on LILGD for 4 days prior and two days after radioiodine therapy. In LILGD beverages, fruits and vegetables containing flavonoids, glucosinolates, cyanides and thiocyanates were avoided and spices and smoking prohibited. Therapeutic radioiodine was administered one week after diagnostic procedures and in the morning after over-night fasting with an activity range of 3,7-5,4 GBq (100 -150 mCi) 131 I. A 24-h therapeutic whole body scan and calculations of percentage uptake U(24) were performed. Diagnostic (basal) D U(24)% and subsequent therapeutic T U(24)% uptake were compared and expressed as therapeutic/diagnostic uptake ratios T/D U(24). Results: A significant increase in therapeutic versus diagnostic uptake T/D U(24) was observed (mean 2,53, median 2,30, range 1,40 - 4,46, p 131 I uptake in radio-ablation of normal and thyroid cancer tissue. (author)

  3. Patient release criteria following radioactive iodine-131 treatment in the light of international practice: where does South Africa fit in?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongane, Modisenyane S; Rae, William I D

    2017-10-01

    The release from hospital of patients treated with radioactive iodine-131 (I) remains a controversial issue as a result of the range of guidelines implemented by national regulatory bodies responsible for radiation protection in various countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to review and analyse the literature on patient release criteria (PRC) applied internationally in an attempt to achieve a justifiable approach to setting equivalent criteria in South Africa. In 2016, the South African Department of Health, Directorate: Radiation Control added conditions (numbers 50 and 90), to licences to use radioactive nuclides. These conditions state that patients must be hospitalized when the dose rate at 1 m is above 25 μSv/h, or more than 555 MBq of iodine-131 was administered to the patient. However, these criteria do not consider patients' socioeconomic conditions. A literature survey was carried out of articles detailing PRC from high-income countries as well as those in the middle-income and lower-income groups. Socioeconomic conditions within countries were determined using the International Monetary Fund lists of gross domestic product. The results from the literature have shown that in setting PRC, several countries have considered the socioeconomic conditions prevailing in their countries to achieve harmony between public protection and cost associated with hospitalization. The South African authority conditions must be seen in the context of the approach followed by other countries. Considering the international context, a justifiable, and potentially implementable, guideline or policy for improving individualized and more caring patient management is advocated.

  4. Measurement of the thyroid's iodine absorption utilizing minimal /sup 131/I dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz A, B.; Villegas A, J.; Delgado B, C. (Universidad Nacional San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru). Departamento de Bioquimica)

    1981-03-01

    We utilize a minimal dose of /sup 131/I thus limiting the contact of the thyroid tissues with the isotopic materials to determine the absorption of /sup 131/I by the thyroid from 6 to 24 hours in 90 pupils of the locality of Arequipa. The average rate of absorption in 6 and 24 hours in the case considered are of 24.15% and 35.42% respectively, with a standard deviation of 6.93% and 9.61%. No significant differences were reported from the results of those of adults and our own results in all the probes which were undertaken.

  5. Transfer of iodine-131 from deposition-to-milk : estimation of pasture intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    In assessments of radiological transport of I-131 from fallout deposition to cow's milk, knowledge of the fraction of the dairy cow's diet that is due to fresh pasture is essential because it is the only portion of the feed that may be contaminated to a substantial extent. For studies involving past fallout events covering large geographic areas, such as the current effort by the National Cancer Institute to assess the exposure to I-131 received by the American people during the Nevada Test Site atmospheric weapons tests conducted during the 1950's, it is necessary to derive this estimate of pasture consumption from past records

  6. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg ulcers and reduce the chance of a future infection. Conjunctivitis (pinkeye). Research suggests that using eye ... National Institute of Medicine has set Adequate Intake (AI) of iodine for infants: 0 to 6 months, ...

  7. Fatty acids labelled with iodine 123 or 131 in. omega. position; myocardial evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Vidal, M. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)); Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Comet, M. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 - La Tronche (France)); Coornaert, S.; Bardy, A. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Office des Rayonnements Ionisants); Godart, J. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France). Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires)

    A simple and rapid method of labelling a number of saturated acetylenic and Z or E ethylenic acids has been developed. The fatty acids are labelled with /sup 123/I- or /sup 131/I- in the ..omega.. position by isotopic exchange labelled NaI in acetone. Myocardial metabolism was studied by injecting the labelled fatty acids into mice.

  8. Age and its influence on effects of iodine-131 in guinea pig thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; McNeill, D.A.; Spangler, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    To identify the differences in age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, we exposed fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs to single graded doses of 131 I. Injected quantities ranged from 1 to 100 μCi 131 I, depending on the age group, and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rad. At approximately 100 days of age (or 100 days after dosing for adults), a single microcurie of 131 I was given and animals were killed 1 day later to provide data on thyroid weight and percentage 131 I uptake. Analysis of these data and information on pathology suggested that the fetal and weanling guinea pig thyroid glands were more radiosensitive than the adult thyroid; the neonatal thyroid appeared less radiosensitive than that of the adult. The increase in radiosensitivity of the young thyroid glands over the adults, however, did not appear to be greater than twofold. Nevertheless, the demonstration of age-related radiosensitivity requires that it be considered by those who assess radiologic risks to human populations

  9. Thyroid γ ray measurement after iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Guo Qingling; Ye Genyao; Li Xin; Wang Anyu; Wang Ying; Zhu Hui; He Ling; Yuan Chao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the thyroid 131 I uptake within 24 hours following 131 I therapy for Graves' disease. Methods: Eighteen hyperthyroidism patients were divided into two groups according to thyroid weight and radiotherapy dosage. Low-dose group and high-dose group received the mean dose 162.8 MBq (4.4 mCi) and 255.3 MBq (6.9 mCi), respectively. The γ ray dose rates from thyroids were measured in all patients at 1, 2, 4, 8,12 and 24 h after 131 I therapy. Results: γ ray dose rates were elevated rapidly at 1 hour and continued at high level between 2-12 h and slowly fell in 24 h after 131 I therapy. γ Rat curve of low-dose group was lower than that of high-dose group. Conclusion: There was a rapid absorption and concentration period in 1 h and slow metabolism and release period after 12 h in thyroid following radioiodine therapy of Graves' disease. The thyroids of hyperthyroidism patients displayed different γ ray curves. (author)

  10. Late effects of iodine-131 in utero exposure: Toxicological effects in first generation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.T.; Stevens, R.H.; Cole, D.A.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have initiated studies to evaluate the possible immunotoxic effects to both the mother and offspring following an in utero exposure to /sup 131/I, and initial observations suggest induction of antitumor immunity as measured by cell-mediated immune (CMI) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The animal model selected for these studies was the Fischer F344 female rat intraperitoneally exposed to concentrations ranging from 4 to 3700 kBq of Na/sup 131/I during the gestation period of 16 to 18 days. The CMI results suggested the male offspring were 1.7 times more immunologically responsive than their sisters with a threshold detection level in the range of 9.25 kBq being observed. The parents of F/sub 1/ generation exposed to the /sup 131/I are now being evaluated for possible immunotoxicity according to: host resistance to E. coli endotoxin and blastogenenic responses to phytohemagglutin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide. The results of these studies suggest that perinatal /sup 131/I exposure exerts an immunotoxic effect upon the first generation

  11. New bisphosphonate labeled with Iodine-131 for the palliative therapy for bone metastases pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prats Capote, Anaís; Perera Pintado, Alejandro; León, Mariela; Hernández González, Ignacio; Leyva Montaña, René; Mocelo Castell, Raúl; O'Reilly, Beatriz; Calderón, Osmar; Griffith Pérez, Yoel; García Batle, Marisé; Rodríguez Tanty, Chryslaine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain new bisphosphonate marked with 131I suitable for palliative treatment of bone metastases pain characteristics. Materials and Methods: It started with aromatic amino acids and the synthesis consisted of three stages: 1) Protection of amino groups by acetylation; 2) phosphonation protected amino acids with a mixture of phosphorous acid and phosphorus pentachloride; 3) Lack of protection of the amino groups by basic hydrolysis. The compounds obtained were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, RMN13-C mass. Los spectrometry bisphosphonic acids obtained were labeled with 131I using chloramine T and iodogen as oxidants. Stability of labeled compounds in aqueous solution was studied serum. 3 mg of 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid labeled of 131I were administered to male wistar rats (170-190 g) through a lateral tail vein. The scintigraphic study was conducted at 2, 6 and 12 hours. Results: The yield of the reactions of the amino group protection four compounds ranged from 75 to 80%, while the phosphonation was between 50 and 60%. The radiochemical purity of 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1- bisphosphonic acid labeled with 131I was (91.5 ± 1.4)% and its stability was satisfactory for 72h. Scintigraphic images suggest excretion by the kidneys of the compound and from 12 h post-administration begin to visualize bone structures of the animal, suggesting that the compound exhibits affinity for these tissues. Conclusions: A novel synthesis method with modifications that yielded the sodium salts of bisphosphonic acids starting from the respective aromatic amino acids was developed. 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid 131I labeled was stable up to 72h and showed affinity for bone tissue. (author)

  12. Rhenium-188 as an alternative to Iodine-131 for treatment of breast tumors expressing the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadachova, E.; Bouzahzah, B.; Zuckier, L.S.; Pestell, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which transports iodine into the cell, is expressed in thyroid tissue and was recently found to be expressed in approximately 80% of human breast cancers but not in healthy breast tissue. These findings raised the possibility that therapeutics targeting uptake by NIS may be used for breast cancer treatment. To increase the efficacy of such therapy it would be ideal to identify a radioactive therapy with enhanced local emission. The feasibility of using the powerful beta-emitting radiometal 188 Re in the form of 188 Re-perrhenate was therefore compared with 131 I for treatment of NIS-expressing mammary tumors. In the current studies, using a xenografted breast cancer model induced by the ErbB2 oncogene in nude mice, 188 Re-perrhenate exhibited NIS-dependent uptake into the mammary tumor. Dosimetry calculations in the mammary tumor demonstrate that 188 Re-perrhenate is able to deliver a dose 4.5 times higher than 131 I suggesting it may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy

  13. Targeting radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with iodine (131I) metuximab injection: Clinical Phase I/II trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhinan; Mi Li; Xu Jing

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: HAb18G/CD147 is a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated antigen. We developed iodine ( 131 I) metuximab injection (Licartin), a novel 131 I-labeled HAb18G/CD147-specific monoclonal antibody F(ab') 2 fragment, and evaluated its safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy on HCC in Phase I/II trials. Methods and Materials: In a Phase I trial, 28 patients were randomly assigned to receive the injection in 9.25-, 18.5-, 27.75-, or 37-MBq/kg doses by hepatic artery infusion. In a multicenter Phase II trial, 106 patients received the injection (27.75 MBq/kg) on Day 1 of a 28-day cycle. Response rate and survival rate were the endpoints. Results: No life-threatening toxic effects were found. The safe dosage was 27.75 MBq/kg. The blood clearance fitted a biphasic model, and its half-life was 90.56-63.93 h. In the Phase II trial, the injection was found to be targeted and concentrated to tumor tissues. Of the 73 patients completing two cycles, 6 (8.22%) had a partial response, 14 (19.18%) minor response, and 43 (58.90%) stable disease. The 21-month survival rate was 44.54%. The survival rate of progression-free patients was significantly higher than that of patients with progressive disease after either one or two cycles (p 131 I) metuximab injection is safe and active for HCC patients

  14. An 131I iodotamoxifen: no carrier added iodination via a diazonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.H.; Strickland, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    An 131 I-labeled iodotamoxifen has been prepared by a ''no carrier added'' procedure in a 40% radiochemical yield via an aryl diazonium ion salt intermediate. Two approaches were used to produce high specific activity iodotamoxifen: nonaqueous solvents and copper catalysis. The use of the nonaqueous solvent acetonitrile has proved successful while neither copper powder, copper-bronze, copper(I)oxide nor Cu(II) sulphate showed any catalytic effects. (author)

  15. Biodistribution and tolerance of intravenous iodine-131-labelled hypericin in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, E; Peremans, K; De Vos, F; Bosmans, T; Kitshoff, A M; Daminet, S; Ni, Y; Dockx, R; de Rooster, H

    2018-01-04

    Hypericin (Hyp) is a necrosis-avid compound that can be efficiently labelled with radioiodine for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before 131 I-Hyp can be considered as a clinically useful drug in a combination therapy for canine cancer patients, evaluation of its toxicity is necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution and tolerance of a single dose administration of 131 I-Hyp. Three healthy dogs were included. 131 I-Hyp at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg and an activity of 185 MBq was intravenously injected. The effects on physical, haematological and biochemical parameters were characterized and the biodistribution and elimination pattern, the effective half-life and dose rate were assessed. Drug-related adverse events were limited to mild gastrointestinal signs, resolving within 48 hours. No significant differences were found in blood haematology and serum biochemistry before and after treatment. Following administration, highest percentage of injected dose (%ID ± SD) was found in the liver (5.5 ± 0.33), the lungs (4.17 ± 0.14) and the heart (3.11 ± 0.78). After 24 hours, highest %ID was found in colon (4.25 ± 1.45) and liver (3.45 ± 0.60). Clearance from all organs was effective within 7 days. Effective half-life was established at 80 hours, and the dose rate fell below <20 μSv/h at 1 m within 1 day. The current study reveals that single dose treatment with 131 I-Hyp at the described dose is well tolerated by healthy dogs and supports the use of radioiodinated hypericin in a combination therapy for canine cancer patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Endobronchial administration of iodine-131 B72.3 monoclonal antibody in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vecchio, S.; Mansi, L.; Petrillo, A.; Camera, L.; Salvatore, M.; Sofia, M.; Marra, A.; Carratu, L.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of endobronchial administration of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and the biodistribution of the radiotracer. Ten patients with histological confirmed adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma were studied. Nine received 470 μCi (103 μg) of 131 I-B72.3, a monoclonal antibody reacting against TAG 72 antigen, while one patient received 502 μCi (291 μg) of 131 I-4C4, an indifferent antibody used for comparison in a negative control study. The radiolabelled antibody was administered through a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope and placed on the tumour mass under visual monitoring. Scans with a large field-of-view gamma-camera showed retention of 131 I-B72.3 at the tumour site up to 6-9 days in six of eight patients. No other organs were visualized with the exception of faint activity in the gastrointestinal tract, bladder and thyroid. On the contrary, the indifferent antibody 131 I-4C4 was not retained at the tumour site 6 days after MoAbs administration, and more prominent activity was found in the gastrointestinal tract. In one patient the study was not technically adequate because of failure of the delivery system. The vascular compartment contained less than 3% of the administered dose. We conclude that endobronchial administration is a feasible technique and allows stable and specific targetting of bronchial tumours. Furthermore, the low activity found in the plasma and other organs suggests that this approach may be used to deliver therapeutic doses of MoAbs to lung cancers. (orig.)

  17. Biological dosimetry in patients with differenced thyroid carcinoma treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, M.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, A.; Rojo, Ana M.; Deluca, G.; Di Giogio, Marina; Fadel, A.; Chebel, G.; Oneto, A.; Cabrejas, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    The differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), constitutes the 90 % of the thyroid gland cancers. 80% of patients are cured after the initial therapy and 12% remained disease-free after successive treatments. The 24 patients included in this study represent a sample of the aforementioned 12% and 8%, with recurrence in the first decade post-treatment (local disease and/or recurrence at distance). The internal radiotherapy with 131 I in patients with DTC is used within the therapeutic schema as a step post-thyroidectomy. The success of the therapy is to get a lethal dose in the tumor tissue, which depends on the therapeutic activity and the retention of 131 I, without exceeding the dose of tolerance in healthy tissues. The most widespread way of administration is the empirical prescription which considers the clinical and laboratory parameters for its determination. In this work, the treatment protocol applied incorporates assessment by biological (DB) and internal (DI) dosimetry for estimating absorbed dose to the whole body and bone marrow to manage a personalized therapeutic dose for each patient. The biological dose estimation is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations, which is often referred to a dose-response curve in which lymphocytes are irradiated in vitro with 131 I, allowing to determine the dose in vivo of circulating lymphocytes patients [es

  18. Thyroid cancer incidence among Swedish patients exposed to diagnostic doses of iodine-131: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    The level of risk associated with I-131 is not well defined but appears lower than equivalent doses of x-rays. To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following I-131 exposure, 34,104 patients surviving ≅ 5 years after I-131 administration between 1950-69 for diagnostic purposes were studied. The mean thyroid dose was estimated to be 1.1 Gy (range 0-40.5). A significantly increased risk of a subsequent thyroid cancer was found, however, the excess rates were based entirely on patients referred because of a suspicion of a thyroid tumor. There was no suggestion of an increasing risk with increasing dose or time since exposure. No significant excess risk was found among those less than 20 years of age at exposure. The absence of a risk among those over age 20 is consistent with studies of A-bomb survivors and implies that any type of exposure to ionizing radiation later in life is associated with a minimal cancer risk. (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs

  19. Thyroid cancer incidence among Swedish patients exposed to diagnostic doses of iodine-131: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P E [Karolinska Hospital, Stockhom (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology; Holm, L E [National Inst. of Public Health, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    The level of risk associated with I-131 is not well defined but appears lower than equivalent doses of x-rays. To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following I-131 exposure, 34,104 patients surviving {approx_equal} 5 years after I-131 administration between 1950-69 for diagnostic purposes were studied. The mean thyroid dose was estimated to be 1.1 Gy (range 0-40.5). A significantly increased risk of a subsequent thyroid cancer was found, however, the excess rates were based entirely on patients referred because of a suspicion of a thyroid tumor. There was no suggestion of an increasing risk with increasing dose or time since exposure. No significant excess risk was found among those less than 20 years of age at exposure. The absence of a risk among those over age 20 is consistent with studies of A-bomb survivors and implies that any type of exposure to ionizing radiation later in life is associated with a minimal cancer risk. (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs.

  20. Iodine-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody detection of gastrointestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, H.A.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.; Haagensen, D.A.; Thurston, M.O.; Mojzisik, C.; Houchens, D.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To localize gastrointestinal tumor, 31 patients were injected with 1.7-2.1 mCi I-131 anti-CEA baboon polyclonal antibody. Whole body imaging at 48, 72, and occasionally 96 hrs was performed with a Signa Camera (Technicare) peaked at 364 keV with 20% window. Additional spot views were usually obtained. No subtraction methods were used. All patients had surgical and pathological confirmation of the nuclear medicine studies. Labeled antibody images were positive in 15 (8 recurrent or metastatic colorectal, 2 gastric, 1 pancreatic, 1 primary colon, and 1 breast metastatic to chest wall). In 1, antibody images were positive for metastatic deposits in para-aortic lymph nodes, but negative for primary rectal tumor. True negative images were observed in 6; false negative images in 9 (4 liver metastases, 2 rectal, 1 pancreatic, 1 mesenteric lymph node metastasis, 1 bone metastasis). In all cases, no correlation existed between preoperative CEA serum levels and imaging. I-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody imaging proved highly efficient in detecting gastric cancer (2/2) and moderately efficient in detecting recurrent colorectal cancer (8/15). On the other hand, the I-131 labeled polyclonal anti-CEA antibody imaging was of limited value in detecting colon cancer (1/9), pancreatic cancer (1/4) and metastatic liver disease

  1. Iodine-131 thyroid uptake results in travelers returning from Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Thyroid screening measurements for 131 I were performed on 58 travelers returning from Eastern and Western Europe to Boston after the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986. The travelers consisted of both Americans arriving home after business or vacation and European nationals visiting relatives in the Boston area. For purposes of dosimetry the population was divided into three subpopulations--adult (greater than 18 yr old), children (less than or equal to 18 yr old), and two individuals, 17 and 26 wk pregnant. Seventy-four percent of the population had detectable quantities of 131 I thyroid burdens, ranging from 1 nCi (37 Bq) to 900 nCi (33,300 Bq). The highest adult radiation dose equivalent was 5.18 mrem (51.8 mSv). The children, however, had considerably higher dose equivalents with one infant receiving 37 rem (370 mSv). Several other children were above 1 rem (10 mSv). The fetal dose equivalents were less than 14 mrem (140 mu Sv). The presence of rain dominated those testing positive for 131 I. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident contaminated a wide range of Europe and a large population subsequently ingested radioactivity. The children exhibited the highest thyroid radiation dose equivalents of the individuals monitored in the present study. The significance of this is presently unknown

  2. Liquid dynamic in the retroperitoneum: study of albumin labelled with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, E.

    1990-01-01

    The retroperitoneal region in not very well-known, specially what concerns its behavior and dynamics, when there is presence of blood and other collections. Therefore, we decided to study the dissemination of the absorption of liquids, using for that a radioactive indicator deposited in different areas of the retroperitoneum. The chosen indicator was iodinated albumin (RIHSA). This study was performed in patients submitted to different types of surgical procedures, but in those who did not present retroperitoneum affections or previous surgeries. In all patients, the blood concentration rate of the indicator in determined times was determined and also the scintilografic image with 24, 48 and 72 hours after finished the surgical procedure was undertaken. It was observed that in the retroperitoneum, the indicator tend to be concentrated in the same place as it was injected at least up to 72 hours and that in the peritoneum the indicator migrates earlier to the abdominal cavity. Besides, the blood transference in retroperitoneum is performed on a slower manner when compared to the peritoneum, except for the anterior para renal area. Radioactive iodine injected in the retroperitoneum was earlier captured by the thyroid. The adopted technique is inocuous, simple, reproductible and quantified. (author)

  3. Biological dosimetry of patients with differenced carcinoma of thyroid treated with Iodine-131; Dosimetria biologica de pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides tratados con Iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallerga, M. B.; Rojo, A.M.; Taja, M.R.; Deluca, G.; Di Giorgio, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP). Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fadel, A. [Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Carlos Durand Av. Diaz Velez 5044. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabrejas, M.; Valdivieso, C. [Hospital de Clfnicas Jose de San Martin Av. Cordoba 2351 (CP1120). Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mvallerg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The administration of I-131 to patient with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (CaDiT) it is used inside the therapeutic outline as later step to the thyroidectomy. However, the good activity to give is of difficult determination due to factors such as, the variability in the capacity of tumoral reception of the I-131, distribution of the pharmaceutical, physiologic status, other associate pathologies, grade of advance of the illness, and previous treatments. Additionally, the activity to administer is dependent of the dose of tolerance in the healthy tissues; superior dose to 2 Gy in bone marrow, its could drive to myelotoxicity. At the moment, the form more extended of administration it is the empiric prescription that considers clinical parameters and of laboratory for their determination. Presently work, the protocol of applied treatment incorporates the evaluation for internal dosimetry and biological dosimetry to estimate absorbed dose in bone marrow. The biological estimate of the dose of these patients is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations whose frequency is referred to a curve-dose response in which the lymphocytes is irradiated in vitro with I-131, allowing to determine the in vivo dose to the patient's circulating lymphocytes. The objective of the present work is to determine the applicability of different cytogenetic essays in the estimate of the absorbed dose to the whole body or specific organs. Three patients were evaluated with CaDiT. Their treatment protocol consisted on a tracer administration of radioactive iodine of 74 - 111 MBq (2 - 3 mCi) and a therapy 7,4 - 11,1 GBq (200 - 300 mCi). Previous to the tracer administration and 8 days post-therapeutic administration took samples of veined blood that were evaluated by biological dosimetry by means of the application of the techniques: conventional cytogenetic Micronucleus and FISH (Hybridization in situ by Fluorescence). Starting from the frequencies of observed chromosomal

  4. Is radioactive iodine-131 treatment related to the occurrence of non-synchronous second primary malignancy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Marcelo Cruzick de; Momesso, Denise P.; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Vaisman, Mario; Vaisman, Fernanda; Corbo, Rossana; Martins, Rosangela Aparecida Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Much controversy relates to the risk of non-synchronous second primary malignancies (NSSPM) after radioactive iodine treatment (RAI-131) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. This study evaluated the relationship between RAI-131 and NSSPM in DTC survivors with long-term follow-up. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 413 DTC cases was performed; 252 received RAI-131 and 161 were treated with thyroidectomy alone. Exclusion criteria were: prior or synchronous non-thyroidal malignancies (within the first year), familial syndromes associated to multiple neoplasms, ionizing radiation exposure or second tumors with unknown histopathology. Results: During a mean follow-up of 11.0 ± 7.5 years, 17 (4.1%) patients developed solid NSSPM. Patients with NSSPM were older than those without (p = 0.02). RAI-131 and I-131 cumulative activity were similar in patients with and without NSSPM (p = 0.18 and p = 0.78, respectively). Incidence of NSSPM was 5.2% in patients with RAI-131 treatment and 2.5% in those without RAI-131 (p = 0.18). Using multivariate analysis, RAI-131 was not significantly associated with NSSPM occurrence (p = 0.35); age was the only independent predictor (p = 0.04). Under log rank statistical analysis, after 10 years of follow-up, it was observed a tendency of lower NSSPM-free survival among patients that received RAI-131 treatment (0.96 vs. 0.87; p = 0.06), what was not affected by age at DTC diagnosis. Conclusion: In our cohort of DTC survivors, with a long-term follow-up period, RAI-131 treatment and I-131 cumulative dose were not significantly associated with NSSPM occurrence. A tendency of premature NSSPM occurrence among patients treated with RAI-131 was observed, suggesting an anticipating oncogenic effect by interaction with other risk factors. (author)

  5. Is radioactive iodine-{sup 131} treatment related to the occurrence of non-synchronous second primary malignancy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Marcelo Cruzick de; Momesso, Denise P.; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Vaisman, Mario, E-mail: dmomesso@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia; Vaisman, Fernanda; Corbo, Rossana [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia; Martins, Rosangela Aparecida Gomes [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Pesquisa

    2016-02-15

    Objective: Much controversy relates to the risk of non-synchronous second primary malignancies (NSSPM) after radioactive iodine treatment (RAI-131) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. This study evaluated the relationship between RAI-131 and NSSPM in DTC survivors with long-term follow-up. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 413 DTC cases was performed; 252 received RAI-131 and 161 were treated with thyroidectomy alone. Exclusion criteria were: prior or synchronous non-thyroidal malignancies (within the first year), familial syndromes associated to multiple neoplasms, ionizing radiation exposure or second tumors with unknown histopathology. Results: During a mean follow-up of 11.0 ± 7.5 years, 17 (4.1%) patients developed solid NSSPM. Patients with NSSPM were older than those without (p = 0.02). RAI-131 and I-131 cumulative activity were similar in patients with and without NSSPM (p = 0.18 and p = 0.78, respectively). Incidence of NSSPM was 5.2% in patients with RAI-131 treatment and 2.5% in those without RAI-131 (p = 0.18). Using multivariate analysis, RAI-131 was not significantly associated with NSSPM occurrence (p = 0.35); age was the only independent predictor (p = 0.04). Under log rank statistical analysis, after 10 years of follow-up, it was observed a tendency of lower NSSPM-free survival among patients that received RAI-131 treatment (0.96 vs. 0.87; p = 0.06), what was not affected by age at DTC diagnosis. Conclusion: In our cohort of DTC survivors, with a long-term follow-up period, RAI-131 treatment and I-131 cumulative dose were not significantly associated with NSSPM occurrence. A tendency of premature NSSPM occurrence among patients treated with RAI-131 was observed, suggesting an anticipating oncogenic effect by interaction with other risk factors. (author)

  6. Experimental results concerning the metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation; Resultats experimentaux relatifs au metabolisme de l'iode 131 ingere chez la brebis adulte en lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F.; Capelle, A.; Tricaud, Y.; Nizza, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de la Protection Sanitaire, Laboratoire-etable de Radiobiologie Appliquee

    1967-07-01

    The authors give the results of a series of experiments on metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation; the measurement were carried out over a number of years from 1961 to 1966. The work was concerned initially with the fixation of iodine 131 in the thyroid gland, with the calculation of radiation doses absorbed and with ways of showing up any possible radiation damage in the gland. The modes of absorption of iodine 131 and its elimination through milk, urine and the faeces were then considered. Finally, a last chapter is devoted to changes in the radioactivity of the blood and of the milk, to variations of the PBI level of the blood serum as to different methods for measuring this level. (authors) [French] Les auteurs rapportent les resultats d'une serie d'experimentations relatives au metabolisme de l'iode 131 ingere chez la brebis adulte en lactation, et qui se sont etalees sur plusieurs annees, de 1961 a 1966. Les etudes ont porte d'abord sur les aspects de la fixation de l'iode 131 dans la thyroide, avec le calcul des doses de rayonnements absorbees et les moyens de mettre en evidence les radiolesions eventuelles de la glande. Ensuite ont ete traitees les modalites de l'absorption de l'iode 131 et de son elimination par le lait, les urines et les feces. Enfin un dernier chapitre a ete consacre a l'evolution de la radioactivite du sang et du lait, aux variations ainsi qu'aux divers moyens d'evaluation du taux de PBI du serum sanguin. (auteurs)

  7. Experimental results concerning the metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation; Resultats experimentaux relatifs au metabolisme de l'iode 131 ingere chez la brebis adulte en lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F; Capelle, A; Tricaud, Y; Nizza, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de la Protection Sanitaire, Laboratoire-etable de Radiobiologie Appliquee

    1967-07-01

    The authors give the results of a series of experiments on metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation; the measurement were carried out over a number of years from 1961 to 1966. The work was concerned initially with the fixation of iodine 131 in the thyroid gland, with the calculation of radiation doses absorbed and with ways of showing up any possible radiation damage in the gland. The modes of absorption of iodine 131 and its elimination through milk, urine and the faeces were then considered. Finally, a last chapter is devoted to changes in the radioactivity of the blood and of the milk, to variations of the PBI level of the blood serum as to different methods for measuring this level. (authors) [French] Les auteurs rapportent les resultats d'une serie d'experimentations relatives au metabolisme de l'iode 131 ingere chez la brebis adulte en lactation, et qui se sont etalees sur plusieurs annees, de 1961 a 1966. Les etudes ont porte d'abord sur les aspects de la fixation de l'iode 131 dans la thyroide, avec le calcul des doses de rayonnements absorbees et les moyens de mettre en evidence les radiolesions eventuelles de la glande. Ensuite ont ete traitees les modalites de l'absorption de l'iode 131 et de son elimination par le lait, les urines et les feces. Enfin un dernier chapitre a ete consacre a l'evolution de la radioactivite du sang et du lait, aux variations ainsi qu'aux divers moyens d'evaluation du taux de PBI du serum sanguin. (auteurs)

  8. Radiation Exposure to Relatives of Patients Treated with Iodine-131 for Thyroid Cancer at Siriraj Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnonchiang, S.; Sritongkul, N.; Chaudakshetrin, P.; Tuntawiroon, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma patients treated with I-131 are potential source of high radiation exposure to relatives who are knowingly and willingly exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of providing support and comfort to patients undergoing radionuclide therapy. The purpose of this study is to present the results of measurements of radiation doses to relatives who designated to care fornon self-supporting patients treated with radioiodine at Radionuclide Therapy Ward, Siriraj Hospital. Twenty caregivers of 20 patients underwent radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancers with a standard protocol were given specific instructions with regard to radiation safety and provided with electronic digital dosimeter (PDM 112) to continuously measure radiation dose received on the daily basis, during three days in the hospital. On the day of patients' release, in vivo bioassays were performed on caregivers to determine the thyroid uptake estimates. The 3-day accumulative doses to caregivers to patients receiving 5.55 GBq (n=11) and 7.4 GBq (n=9) of I-131 ranged from 37 to 333 μSv and 176 to 1920 μSv respectively depending on the extent and level of supports required. The thyroid uptake estimates in all caregivers were undetectable. Electronic dosimeters indicated a maximum whole-body effective dose of 1920 μSv was more than the public dose limit of 1 mSv but within the general dose constraint of 5 mSv. Radiation dose to caregivers of a non self-supporting hospitalized patient undergoing radioiodine therapy were well below the limits recommended by the ICRP and the IAEA. The patients can be comforted with confidence that dose to caregivers will be below the 5- mSv limit. This study provides guidance for medical practitioners to obtain practical radiation safety concerns associated with hospitalized patients receiving I-131 therapy especially when patients are comforted in the hospital ward by caregivers. (author)

  9. Normal values of iodine - 131 uptake in 24 hours, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Filho, T.F. de; Oliveira, C.F.F. de

    Thorough clinical exams on all patients come to the radioisotope Laboratory at UFRN, where carried out attempting to select those patients with thyroids considered to be clinically normal. After wayne tests for hypo and hyperthyroidism were carried out, 100 patients were considered to be fit for the research. All of them had an impalpable and asympitomatic thyroid. Waynes clinical indices were precisely revealed in 93% of cases. It was concluded that the normal values of uptake of 131 I during the 24 hours in RGN varied between 14% and 44% [pt

  10. Leak detection on underground fuel oil transfer line using radio tracer iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramanayake, D.G.L.; Ranjith, H.L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Leak detection study was carried out on the fuel oil transfer line of the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation using 131 I tracer. The study was carried out to determine whether the technique developed can be used in the field and to monitor the condition of the pipeline. Radiation safety assessment was made prior to the test. The dynamic pressurization technique was used. Any detectable leak was not shown at the detecting sensitivity of 0.40 mm 2 under the test conditions. The method reported is considered to be successful and economically viable. (author)

  11. Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine intra- and extravesicular accumulation in the rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, M.; Shimabukuro, K.; Yoshimura, H.; Yonekura, R.; Nakabeppu, Y.; Tanoue, P.; Shinohara, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to establish the appropriate time for [ 123 I]MIBG human myocardial imaging to assess the adrenergic nerve activity, the time courses of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) intra- and extravesicular accumulation in the rat heart were estimated by using [ 131 I]MIBG and reserpine. In the heart, the intravesicular accumulation was relatively constant, while the extravesicular accumulation decreased rapidly from 5 min to 6 hr. The intravesicular percentage of the total cardiac tissue concentration reached a plateau value of 50% at 4 hr after i.v. injection of [ 131 I]MIBG. In the spleen, similar time courses were observed as those in the heart, both of these organs being richly innervated by adrenergic nerves. Along with the time activity difference previously observed in the human hearts, these results suggest that at 4 hr post i.v. injection, [ 123 I]MIBG myocardial imaging will best express the neuronal accumulation of the tracer and may be useful for the assessment of adrenergic function in various pathological conditions of the human heart

  12. Numerical simulations of atmospheric dispersion of iodine-131 by different models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Leelőssy

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several dispersion models are available to simulate the transport processes of air pollutants and toxic substances including radionuclides in the atmosphere. Reliability of atmospheric transport models has been demonstrated in several recent cases from local to global scale; however, very few actual emission data are available to evaluate model results in real-life cases. In this study, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I emitted to the atmosphere during an industrial process was simulated with different models, namely the WRF-Chem Eulerian online coupled model and the HYSPLIT and the RAPTOR Lagrangian models. Although only limited data of 131I detections has been available, the accuracy of modeled plume direction could be evaluated in complex late autumn weather situations. For the studied cases, the general reliability of models has been demonstrated. However, serious uncertainties arise related to low level inversions, above all in case of an emission event on 4 November 2011, when an important wind shear caused a significant difference between simulated and real transport directions. Results underline the importance of prudent interpretation of dispersion model results and the identification of weather conditions with a potential to cause large model errors.

  13. Chloridrate of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine labeled with Iodine-131. Biological distribution in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza; Muramoto, Emiko; Carvalho, Olga Goncalves de

    2000-01-01

    The development of this work was based on a great interest from the medical class in the utilization of chloridrate of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) labeled with 123 I, for brain perfusion evaluation. Studies were performed to optimize the labeling parameters of IMP with 131 I using nucleophilic substitution: temperature and, time reaction, ascorbic acid mass, pH and relation IMP mass/radioiodo activity, and stability of the final product. Radiochemistry purity method used showed to be efficient, quick and of easily handling for routine production. Biological distribution studies were performed in mice to determine the percent administered dose in the blood, different organs and whole body after intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The product crossed the intact blood brain barrier, allowing a follow up of further studies after the intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The principal elimination route 131 I-IMP was the urinary. Based on the results from radiochemical purity, stability and biological behavior in laboratory animals, we concluded that the studied radiopharmaceutical presents all ideal characteristics for clinical use in brain studies in nuclear medicine. (author)

  14. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan. Current issues with historical review and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, 131 I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of ''radiophobia ''. There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. (author)

  15. Biological dosimetry study in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients treated with 131Iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, Maria Belen

    2008-11-01

    Biological Dosimetry allows individual dose assessments based on the effect produced by ionizing radiation on a given biological parameter. The current biological endpoint being scored is chromosomal aberrations, relying on a lymphocytes culture from the patient's blood. The measured yield of chromosome aberrations is referred to a calibration curve obtaining the whole body dose. Different scenarios of overexposure can be taken into account by modifying the calculations leading to the dose estimate. Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma patients undergo thyroidectomy followed by internal radiotherapy with 131 I. The treatment's success entails the delivery of a lethal dose to the tumour within the maximum tolerable dose to a critical organ (blood doses over 2 Gy could lead to bone marrow depression). Currently, there is no established agreement for the selection of radioiodine dosage. Historically, the empiric approach, based on clinical and biochemical data, has been recommended. Nevertheless, this method may not be associated with optimal outcomes. On the other hand, the dosimetric approach attempts to determine the maximum allowable activity to be administered, establishing its biokinetics by a diagnostic 131 I study. The methodology may be modified to further individualized treatment, however it requires validation. Biological dosimetry provides an independent measure of radiotherapy effect, as such it might aid in the validation process. Nonetheless, biological dosimetry has traditionally been applied in cases of external and accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation. Accordingly, it is mandatory to assess its value in medical internal incorporations (main objective of the present study). The applied treatment strategy comprises whole body dose assessment by biological and internal dosimetry in order to administer a personalized therapeutic activity. Overall, 20 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included in the study. For biological dosimetry

  16. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report, April 1975 -- March 1976. [Rats, mice, cattle, /sup 125/I, /sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations during the past twelve months have included the following subjects: factors which influence release of radioiodine from thyroid glands; contamination of commercially available low-iodine diets; effects of hypoxia on release of iodine from thyroid glands of rats and mice; development of practical tests for available iodine in low-iodine diets; reproduction and abnormal thyroglobulin of rats maintained on low-iodine diets; observations on radioactivity in animal thyroids; collaboration with other laboratories regarding radium in bovine thyroids.

  17. Do the benefits of iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for HCC outweigh the radiation safety issues?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchener, M.I.; Barnden, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: lodine-131 Lipiodol is a well recognised palliative treatment option for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable for surgical resection/transplantation. However, the biological and physical half-life of lodine-131 Lipiodol in this situation has significant implications for radiation protection. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the practical radiation issues and treatment efficacy. 22 patients were referred for assessment and 12 received Lipiodol therapy, 5 having multiple doses. Administered doses ranged from 1.0-2.2 GBq. Results: Patients were hospitalised between 4 and 8 days, with discharge rates ranging between 16 and 61uSv/hr at 1 metre. The shorter hospital stays and highest discharge rates related to 2 patients (multiple doses) who had difficulty tolerating the in-hospital isolation. Only 4 patients had discharge rates < 25uSv/hr at 1 metre. 2 with reduced doses. Special exemption was required from the State Radiation Protection Branch (RPB) to allow early discharge. Patients were given a radiation precaution sheet on discharge (as per the FMC program) and asked to observe the restrictions including not returning to work for 14-24 days and avoiding close contact with young children for 25-44 days post-discharge. The measured radiation dose for a patient's spouse/carer was < lOOuSv on 2 occasions. The mean exposure for nurses per patient admission was 9.1 uSv. The TLD readings for the Interventional Radiologist and treating Nuclear Physician remained well within acceptable levels. 4 of the 12 patients have died at a mean of 16.25 months (range 13-20 months) after their first dose of lodine-131 Lipiodol. Of the other 7, 3 now have progressive disease but are alive 18, 36 and 41 months following their first dose. 4 are less than 12 months post-therapy. With the co-operation of the State RPB. the issues relating to radiation protection are manageable and these patients do receive a therapeutic benefit

  18. Iodinated bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunghi, F.; Riva, P.; Assone, F.; Villa, M.; Plassic, G.

    1978-01-01

    Bleomycin was labelled with iodine-131 by the iodine monochloride method. Iodination did not alter the chemical and chromatographic features and ''in vitro'' stability studies on freeze-dried 131 I-Bleomycin having a specific activity of 1 mCi/mg, stored at different temperatures, showed no appreciable variation of the free-iodine content. Tissue distribution of 131 I-Bleomycin has been evaluated in tumor bearing rats. Patients have been injected with 0.5-1.0 mCi of 131 I-Bleomycin corresponding to a maximum of 1.5 mg. No adverse reactions have been observed. Total body scans have been performed at 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after injection. The iodinated Bleomycin was rapidly distributed and cleared from the body and showed an early uptake in the neoplastic tissue. A diagnostic accuracy of 90% has been observed in malignant deseases, while no false positive results have been, at the moment, recorded. (author)

  19. Age- and sex-specific estimation of dose to a normal thyroid from clinical administration of iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the data available consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The model was made to conform to these data requirements by the use of age-specific estimates of the biological half-time of iodine in the thyroid and an age- and sex-dependent representation of the mass of the thyroid. Also, it was assumed that the thyroid burden was maximum at 24 hours after administration (the 131 I dose is not critically sensitive to this assumption). The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K x (exp(-μ 1 t) - exp(-μ 2 t)) μCi where μ/sub i/ = λ/sub r/ + λ/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), λ/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and the λ/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal-rate coefficients. The values of λ/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time of maximum uptake and the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). An addendum (Appendix C) extends the method to other radioiodines and gives age- and sex-dependent dose conversion factors for most isotopes

  20. Evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by simple urine analysis after oral administration of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Weyenberg, A.; McPherson, D.W.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Bergmann, K. von; Biersack, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    A new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue called ''MIPAG'' [1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-[(15-p-iodophenyl) pentadecan-1-oyl]rac-glycerol] has been prepared in which 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is attached to position-3. MIPAG has been developed for the evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function by simple urine analysis and has been evaluated in rats and humans. After oral administration, IPPA is released from the triglyceride by the action of pancreatic lipases followed by intestinal absorption and the principal IPPA metabolite (p-iodobenzoic acid. IBA) is primarily excreted in the urine. Excretion in the urine and feces was evaluated in rats, as well as the biodistribution in various organs over 21 days. Twenty patients without pancreatic disease (normals) and four patients with pancreatic insufficiency were also investigated. Following oral administration of 30 μCi of MIPAG, urine was collected for two successive 24-h periods. Blood samples were drawn and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis was performed on the serum lipid extracts. Urine from normals contained 44.9%±7.7% and 61.8%±8.4% of the administered activity after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The patients with pancreatic insufficiency excreted 13.1%±5.6% and 18.9%±6.2%, respectively, which was significantly decreased (P<0.001) compared with normals. The TLC profiles showed an increasing proportion of IBA with time. Urine analysis after oral administration of MIPAG thus appears to be an attractive new technique for the evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by a simple urine analysis. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary study of the distribution of dose in patients with Graves' disease undergoing examination of uptake of iodine-131 using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarcke, Marcelo; Marques, Tatiana; Nicolucci, Patricia; Baffa, Oswaldo; Bornemann, Clarissa

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Graves disease have a high hormonal disorder, which causes behavioral changes. One way to treat this disease is the use of high doses of 131 Iodine, requiring that the patient carries out the examination of 131 I uptake to estimate the activity to be administered. Using these data capture and compared with the simulated data using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE is possible to determine a distribution of dose to the region surrounding the thyroid. As noted the difference between the simulated values and the experimentally obtained were 10.36%, thus showing the code of simulation for accurate determination of absorbed dose in tissue near the thyroid. (author)

  2. Changing annual incidence of hypothyroidism after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, 1951-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism was analyzed in 4,553 hyperthyroid patients treated with I-131 between 1951 and 1975. The average annual rate of hypothyroidism during the first 7 yr after therapy increased continuously for each 5-yr period of treatment, from 3.6% for patients treated between 1951 and 1955 to 7.7% for patients treated during the period from 1971 through 1975 (p<0.001). The increase in the incidence of hypothyroidism was seen before the introduction of TSH assays and when allowance was made for thyroid gland size, the age of the patient, and the experience of the radiotherapist. The use of TSH assays has probably resulted in an earlier recognition of hypothyroidism, which may explain why the most marked rise in the incidence of hypothyroidism was observed after the introduction of TSH assays

  3. Radiological accident with Iodine-131 in the Radioisotope Division at IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Matias Puga; Rodrigues, Demerval Leonidas

    1997-01-01

    The accident occurred in the first week of May 1995, in the Radioisotope Division-TPI, involving two tubes containing a total volume of 3 ml, aqueous solution of N Al 1 31, with 370 MBq and 1480 MBq activity is reported. Part of installation and six workers involved in the distribution process were contaminated with 131 I, but there were no contamination outside the building. The workers were decontaminated and the received radiation doses were evaluated by the Radiotoxicological Laboratory of IPEN-CNEN/SP together with IRD-CNEN/RJ. The building involved was closed and the activities stopped until the complete decontamination by the Radioprotection experts of IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  4. Changing annual incidence of hypothyroidism after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, 1951-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism was analyzed in 4,553 hyperthyroid patients treated with I-131 between 1951 and 1975. The average annual rate of hypothyroidism during the first 7 yr after therapy increased continuously for each 5-yr period of treatment, from 3.6% for patients treated between 1951 and 1955 to 7.7% for patients treated during the period from 1971 though 1975 (p less than 0.001). The increase in the incidence of hypothyroidism was seen before the introduction of TSH assays and when allowance was made for thyroid gland size, the age of the patient, and the experience of the radiotherapist. The use of TSH assays has probably resulted in an earlier recognition of hypothyroidism, which may explain why the most marked rise in the incidence of hypothyroidism was observed after the introduction of TSH assays

  5. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal

  6. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-04-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal.

  7. Biodistribution and scintigraphy of iodine-131-iododeoxyadenosine in rats bearing breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Gu; Kim, Chang Guhn; Lee, Kang Mo

    1998-01-01

    I-131 labeled (2'-deoxy-2'-iodo-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) adenine (IAD) may be involved in DNA synthesis during active proliferation of tumor cells. We conducted this study to find out the biodistribution of IAD and it's feasibility for scintigraphic tumor imaging. Tosyl acetyl-adenosine was dissolved in acetonitrile, and I-131-NaI was added and heated to synthesize IAD. Female Fisher 344 rats inoculated with breast tumor cells were injected with 0.27 MBq of IAD. Rats were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 24h and the % of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) was determined. For scintigraphy, rats bearing breast cancer were administered with 1.11 MBq of IAD and imaging was performed after 2 and 24h. Then, rat body was fixed and microtomized slice was placed on radiographic film for autoradiography. %ID/g of tumor was 0.74 (0.5h), 0.73 (1h), 0.55 (2h), 0.38 (4h), and 0.05 (24h), respectively. At 1h after injection, %ID/g of tumor was higher than that of heart (0.51). However, %ID/g of tumor was lower than blood (1.06), lung (0.77), and thyroid (177.71). At 4h, %ID/g of tumor in comparison with other tissue did not change. Tumor contrast expressed by tumor to blood ratio was 0.69 and tumor to muscle ratio was 5.11 at 1h. However, these ratios did not improve through 24h. On autoradiogram and scintigraphy at 2 and 24 hour, the tumor was well visualized. This results suggest that IAD may have a potential for tumor scintigraphy. However, further work is needed to improve localization in tumor tissue

  8. Estimation of the activity and doses to personnel which intake Iodine 131 by coffee consumption in a cabinet of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Alfaro L, M.; Salinas, J.A.; Molina, G.

    2003-01-01

    Soon after an incident in a cabinet of nuclear medicine, its were carried out in the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico (ININ), a series of bio essays measurements by whole-body counting to six people attributed to this cabinet. Of six people, five are classified as Occupational Exposed Personnel (POE), and the other one that works as secretary, according to the General Regulation of Radiological Safety, is classified as public member. Six people that were involved in this incident, the one which presumably it took place among November 15 and 18, 2002 and that it consisted on the effusion of a vial containing an unknown quantity of Iodine-131 to a coffeepot, they ingested coffee in diverse quantities. The Iodine-131 is used in nuclear medicine, so much for the illnesses diagnostic like in the treatment of thyroid cancer and of hyperthyroidism. (Author)

  9. Contribution of radio-iodine 131 in the treatment of Grave's Basedow disease in the department of nuclear medicine of Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbodj, M.; Amjad, I.; Guerrouj, H.; Ben Rais, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine Grave's Basedow diseases in any gender and variable age patients, coming from several cities of Morocco, were randomized in a study of radio-iodine treatment who took place at the nuclear medicine department of Ibn Sina Hospital (Rabat, Morocco) during the period (from January 2001 to December 2008). The radio-iodine treatment was a first, second or third option and radio-iodine activities delivered varied (from 222 to 555 MBq 6 to 15 mCi) according to the age, the thyroid volume, the degree of hyperthyroidism and socio-economical situation. The high amounts of 131 I were reserved especially to the patients who live far and whose socio-economic level is low with an aim of quickly obtaining an easily controllable state of hypothyroidism by a substitute treatment. The results showed that: (1) 57.36% of patients reverted to euthyroidism (n = 74) with a patient having received two 131 I cures. The second cure was justified by recurrence of hyperthyroidism after the first cure; (2) 34.88% passed in hypothyroidism (n = 45) with three patients having received two cures of 131 I, the second cure was justified by recurrence of hyperthyroidism after the first cure in two patients and by the persistence of the hyperthyroidism after the first cure for the third patient. The average time of passage in hypothyroidism was 4.5 months; (3) 7.76% had remained in hyperthyroidism after the radioactive iodine treatment. Finally, 92.24% of our patients treated by radioactive iodine had passed in euthyroidism or hypothyroidism against 7.76% whose hyperthyroidism had persisted or occurred. (authors)

  10. Effect on thyroid function and serum PTH, BGP, CT of small dose of iodine 131 combined with Methimazole in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yin Qiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect on thyroid function and serum PTH, BGP, CT of small dose of iodine 131 combined with Methimazole in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 104 patients with hyperthyroidism willing be incorporated into the study were randomly divided into the observation group (54 cases and the control group (50 cases. The control group was treated with Methimazole, and the observation group was given a small dose of iodine 131 the basised on the control group. For 2 months, to observe the changes of thyroid function (TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH and bone metabolism related indexes (PTH, BGP and CT of the two groups. Results: (1 After treatment, TT3, FT3, TT4 and FT4 of the two groups decreased with before, and the observation group improved more significantly than the control group, with statistical difference; TSH of the two groups had no significant change. (2 After treatment, BGP and CT of the two groups decreased and PTH increased, the observation group improved more significantly than the control group, with statistical difference. Conclusion: small dose of iodine 131 combined with Methimazole can correct thyroid function and bone metabolism quickly in patients with hyperthyroidism.

  11. Radiation exposure to family members of patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelen, Tone; Amundsen, Anne Lise; Kravdal, Gunnhild; Unhjem, Jan Frede; Foelling, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to measure the radiation exposure to family members of out-patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with radioiodine, 131 I, using the recommendations from the European Commission (EC) guidance and age-specific periods for behaviour restrictions; (2) to use the results to identify necessary restrictions to ensure recommended dose constraints. The study population comprised 76 family members (46 adults and 30 children below the age of 18) of 42 patients. The patients were treated with an average activity of 417 MBq (range 260-600 MBq). They received oral and written EC recommendations about behaviour restrictions (translated into Norwegian). On the day of treatment we repeated the oral instructions to the patient and an adult family member. The time periods for restrictions were 14 days for children aged 0-10 years, 7 days for persons aged 11-59 years and 3 days for persons aged 60 years and older. Family members wore a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) on each wrist day and night for 2 weeks. The doses received were adjusted to give an estimate of the expected values if the TLDs had been worn indefinitely. Radiation doses well below the recommended dose constraints were measured for all adult family members and children, except one 2-year-old child; in the latter case the mother probably did not comply with the instructions given. The radiation dose to family members of thyrotoxic patients treated with up to 600 MBq of radioiodine is well below recommended dose constraints if EC instructions are given and compliance is adequate. The duration of restrictions for various age groups used in this study may be considered when establishing guidelines in Norway. (orig.)

  12. An estimation of Iodine 131 intakes for occupational workers of nuclear medicine group at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino, Nelcy Yasmin; Lagares, Luis Carlos; Veloza, Luz Stella; Martinez, Maria Cristina; Reyes, Amelia de los

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In nuclear medicine, unsealed radioactive substances are administered to patients for diagnosis, treatment or research. The manipulation of these radionuclides, particularly those volatile, like iodine 131 (I-131), generates a risk of internal contamination by ingestion and inhalation. The inhaled radioactive particles are retained in the lungs or uptake by the thyroid tissue and could produce health effects. The IAEA provides regulatory practices in handling radioactive material to reduce internal contamination in the staff, based on the radiation protection principle to achieve occupational doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A quality assurance program in radioprotection should include the monitoring of occupational intakes. This paper describes a pilot study which determined quantitative methods to monitoring the nuclear medicine staff. The estimates of intakes and doses of I-131 were derived from the review and interpretation of urine monitoring data, using a Ludlum model 203 Shielded Well Scintillator (2 inches diameter x 1.8 inches thick), with a ratemeter model 2200. This study included workers occupationally exposed to I-131: physicians, technicians, radio pharmacists and physicists. The initial tests of the activity levels of I-131 in urine showed an average MPBB (Maximum Permissible Body Burden) of 0.035%, i.e. 0.025 μCi. Comparing with the maximum value of whole body 0.7μCi, the percentages of I-131 MPBB indicate the presence of small activities of I-131 in the urine, suggesting low-level chronic exposures from occupational workers in Nuclear Medicine. The higher values are the medical personnel who perform treatments for thyroid disorders. Conclusion: To do statistically significant the sampling and to protect individuals in each area it should be considered the daily urinary excretion, which is due to implement a protocol for regular assessment of the levels of incorporation of iodine 131 for jobs and activities, personnel in

  13. Age dependency in the absorption of radioactive Iodine (131I) in the thyroid and total body of newborn, pubertal and adult fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Endo, Satoru; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Ohtaki, Megu; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1998-01-01

    In this study, activities of 131 I in the thyroid, total body and blood were measured for rats of three different ages to estimate the movement of 131 I in the body, the absorbed doses were calculated in the thyroid and total body under the exposed condition of iodine deficiency and sufficiency, and the standard curves for the determination of absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body were obtained for rats of newborn, pubertal and adult. Authors used female rats of Fisher 344 strain in this experiment and set up twelve experimental group of different ages (1, 4 and 9 weeks old), and divided each age group into one standard diet (SD) group and three iodine deficient diet (IDD) groups. Rats were intravenously injected once with 131 I in 0.9% saline with the activity of 0.38, 1.03 and 9.42 kBq per g weight. In the thyroid and total body, the absorbed dose values increased in an injected activity-dependent manner, and those of 1-week-old rats were significantly higher than those of 4- and 9-weeks old rats. The absorbed dose values in IDD-treated groups were higher than those in the SD-treated groups. The speed of 131 I accumulation into the thyroid and that of 131 I excretion from the body was slow in 1-week-old groups. The data also showed that most of injected 131 I distributed in the thyroid and blood in 4- and 9-week-old groups but not in the 1-week-old group, indicating that 131 I is pooled in certain tissues or organs except the thyroid in rats of the 1-week-old group at which the development of the thyroid has not been completed. Standard curves were obtained for the estimation of absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body on the bases of injected activity of 131 I for each age group of rats. These standard curves are to be used in the carcinogenesis experiment which compare the effectiveness of internal with external irradiation under the condition of iodine deficiency or sufficiency in the rats of different ages. (K.H.)

  14. Radioablative therapy with Iodine-131 on a patient with thyroid cancer and chronic renal failure in hemodialysis first experience in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apaza Veliz, D. G.; Herrera Vera, R. D.; Cardenas Abarca, C. A.; Oporto Gonzales, C. A.; Aguilar Ramírez, C.; Urquizo Baldomero, R. M.; Vega Ramírez, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine-131 (I-131) is a radioisotope used as a standard treatment for radioablation of thyroid remnants. Among thyroid cancer patients, the ones undergoing hemodialysis represent a specific group. The dose of I-131 is given orally to these patients, part of it is absorbed by the thyroid remnants and the rest of it, largely not incorporated, is excreted primarily by renal excretion. The use of a high dose of radioactivity in the process, and the inability of excretion, represents a high risk of exposure to the patient, medical staff and hemodialysis equipment. This work describes the procedure applied on the radioablation therapy for thyroid cancer while receiving hemodialysis, minimizing the risks for the patient and the staff involved. This clinical procedure will establish the dosimetric measures, a plan on radiation protection and a treatment protocol for this specific type of patients.

  15. Iodine metabolism and thyroid functions in various species of domestic animals and poultry birds. I - Species difference in thyroid status as reflected by triiodothyronine 131I uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setia, M.S.; Parshad, Omkar; Varman, P.N.

    1974-01-01

    In vitro triiodothyronine- 131 I uptake, by red blood cells was studied in buffaloes, buffaloe calves, cross-bred calves, rams, goats, piglets and also in pure white leg horn and cross-bred birds. Results revealed that buffalo calves have the lowest uptake values, whereas piglets appeared to have the highest values as compared to other species. Distinct differences in the uptake of T 3 - 131 I by the erythrocytes were observed to exist within as well as amongst the species of farm animals and poultry birds studied. Cross-breds exhibited higher degree of T 3 - 131 I uptake as compared to pure-breds. This test offers promise where more tedious methods may not be possible for conducting the survey on the thyroid status and iodine metabolism on large population of live-stock. (author)

  16. Radioablative therapy with Iodine-131 on a patient with thyroid cancer and chronic renal failure in hemodialysis first experience in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaza Veliz, D. G., E-mail: dgav02@gmail.com [Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguin Escobedo, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Arequipa, Perú, Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Escuela de Física, Arequipa (Peru); Herrera Vera, R. D.; Cardenas Abarca, C. A.; Oporto Gonzales, C. A.; Aguilar Ramírez, C.; Urquizo Baldomero, R. M. [Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguin Escobedo, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Arequipa (Peru); Vega Ramírez, J. L. [Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Escuela de Física, Arequipa (Peru)

    2016-07-07

    The Iodine-131 (I-131) is a radioisotope used as a standard treatment for radioablation of thyroid remnants. Among thyroid cancer patients, the ones undergoing hemodialysis represent a specific group. The dose of I-131 is given orally to these patients, part of it is absorbed by the thyroid remnants and the rest of it, largely not incorporated, is excreted primarily by renal excretion. The use of a high dose of radioactivity in the process, and the inability of excretion, represents a high risk of exposure to the patient, medical staff and hemodialysis equipment. This work describes the procedure applied on the radioablation therapy for thyroid cancer while receiving hemodialysis, minimizing the risks for the patient and the staff involved. This clinical procedure will establish the dosimetric measures, a plan on radiation protection and a treatment protocol for this specific type of patients.

  17. Radioablative therapy with Iodine-131 on a patient with thyroid cancer and chronic renal failure in hemodialysis first experience in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaza Veliz, D. G.; Herrera Vera, R. D.; Cardenas Abarca, C. A.; Oporto Gonzales, C. A.; Aguilar Ramírez, C.; Vega Ramírez, J. L.; Urquizo Baldomero, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    The Iodine-131 (I-131) is a radioisotope used as a standard treatment for radioablation of thyroid remnants. Among thyroid cancer patients, the ones undergoing hemodialysis represent a specific group. The dose of I-131 is given orally to these patients, part of it is absorbed by the thyroid remnants and the rest of it, largely not incorporated, is excreted primarily by renal excretion. The use of a high dose of radioactivity in the process, and the inability of excretion, represents a high risk of exposure to the patient, medical staff and hemodialysis equipment. This work describes the procedure applied on the radioablation therapy for thyroid cancer while receiving hemodialysis, minimizing the risks for the patient and the staff involved. This clinical procedure will establish the dosimetric measures, a plan on radiation protection and a treatment protocol for this specific type of patients.

  18. Optimization of SPECT calibration for quantification of images applied to dosimetry with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Samira Marques de

    2018-01-01

    SPECT systems calibration plays an essential role in the accuracy of the quantification of images. In this work, in its first stage, an optimized SPECT calibration method was proposed for 131 I studies, considering the partial volume effect (PVE) and the position of the calibration source. In the second stage, the study aimed to investigate the impact of count density and reconstruction parameters on the determination of the calibration factor and the quantification of the image in dosimetry studies, considering the reality of clinical practice in Brazil. In the final step, the study aimed evaluating the influence of several factors in the calibration for absorbed dose calculation using Monte Carlo simulations (MC) GATE code. Calibration was performed by determining a calibration curve (sensitivity versus volume) obtained by applying different thresholds. Then, the calibration factors were determined with an exponential function adjustment. Images were performed with high and low counts densities for several source positions within the simulator. To validate the calibration method, the calibration factors were used for absolute quantification of the total reference activities. The images were reconstructed adopting two approaches of different parameters, usually used in patient images. The methodology developed for the calibration of the tomographic system was easier and faster to implement than other procedures suggested to improve the accuracy of the results. The study also revealed the influence of the location of the calibration source, demonstrating better precision in the absolute quantification considering the location of the target region during the calibration of the system. The study applied in the Brazilian thyroid protocol suggests the revision of the calibration of the SPECT system, including different positions for the reference source, besides acquisitions considering the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the images. Finally, the doses obtained with the

  19. Does remnant from differentiated thyroid micro-carcinoma patients really not be treated with Iodine-131 ablation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Antuono, F.; Gallicchio, R.; Venetucci, A.; Giacomobono, S.; Tempone, A.; Di Leo, A.; Storto, G.; Nardelli, A.; Pellegrino, T.; Gattozzi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Remnant ablation by radioiodine is generally not recommended in patients presenting uni- or multifocal cancer <1 cm, without other higher risk features. We retrospectively studied low-risk patients (pts) with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) less than 1 cm recruited for radioiodine therapy (RAI). Methods: 91 pts (79 women, age 49.4 ± 10 years) with DTC were recruited for RAI. Pts underwent pre-therapy ultrasonography (US), those with suspected/ambiguous lymph-nodes were excluded and proposed for cytology. Treated pts underwent post-therapeutic whole body scan (WBSt) completed by neck/chest SPECT-CT, when necessary (e.g. evidence of uptake outside of thyroid bed). A target lesion on SPECT-CT was defined as an identifiable lymph-nodal site presenting a matched significant iodine uptake. Patients were followed up for 13 ± 2 months thereafter. Results: All pts/cancers were pT1. Mean histological diameter was (0.66 ± 0.25) cm. Six patients were excluded because of clear nodal involvement at US. Thirty (35%) out of 85 pts had suspicious WBSt as per lymph-nodal involvement which was confirmed at the following SPECT-CT acquisition in most part of pts (25/30; 83 %). Overall detected target lesions was 34, ten (29%) had interim positive fine needle cytology. Conclusions: a significant part of low risk DTC patients, for whom RAI is not recommended, presents an incidental evidence of lymph-nodal involvement at WBSt confirmed by SPECT-CT, when performed. Such setting would have not been treated by I-131. Indications for RAI in DTC low risk patients could be revised at least considering a different dimensional cut-off for the primary lesion. (authors)

  20. Long-term follow-up studies on iodine-131 treatment of hyperthyroid Graves' disease based on the measurement of thyroid volume by ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Masako; Nagayama, Yuji; Yokoyama, Naokata; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1993-01-01

    In the present series of studies, the long-term (four year) effect of 80 Gy of 131 I treatment was evaluated in patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease whose thyroid volumes have been accurately estimated with a high resolution ultrasound scanner. One year after 131 I treatment, 23.1% (3 out of 13 patients) remained hyperthyroid, 69.2% (9 out of 13) became euthyroid, and 7.7% (1 out of 13) were in a hypothyroid state. Since three patients in a hyperthyroid state one year after treatment were subsequently treated with either antithyroid drugs or additional 131 I treatment, the remaining ten patients (9 euthyroid and 1 hypothyroid patients) have been followed up for three more years. Two patients developed a hypothyroid state three years after treatment and one patient four years after treatment. Overall, 60% (6 out of 10 patients) were in a euthyroid state and 40% (4 out of 10) in a hypothyroid state, four years after 80 Gy 131 I treatment. There was no significant difference between eu- and hypo-thyroid groups in the sex ratio, age, radiation doses, therapeutic dose, thyroid gland volume, 24-hr 131 I uptake, the effective half-life of 131 I in the thyroid or the duration of hyperthyroidism. In our preliminary studies, the incidence of late hypothyroidism in our 131 I treatment is similar to those previously reported. These suggest that uncertain factor(s), such as inhomogeneity of iodine distribution in the thyroid, unequal sensitivity of the thyroid cells to the radiation, and/or persistent destructive effects of the autoimmune process may influence the long-term effect of 131 I treatment of Graves' disease. (author)

  1. Long-term follow-up studies on iodine-131 treatment of hyperthyroid Graves' disease based on the measurement of thyroid volume by ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruta, Masako; Nagayama, Yuji; Yokoyama, Naokata; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-08-01

    In the present series of studies, the long-term (four year) effect of 80 Gy of [sup 131]I treatment was evaluated in patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease whose thyroid volumes have been accurately estimated with a high resolution ultrasound scanner. One year after [sup 131]I treatment, 23.1% (3 out of 13 patients) remained hyperthyroid, 69.2% (9 out of 13) became euthyroid, and 7.7% (1 out of 13) were in a hypothyroid state. Since three patients in a hyperthyroid state one year after treatment were subsequently treated with either antithyroid drugs or additional [sup 131]I treatment, the remaining ten patients (9 euthyroid and 1 hypothyroid patients) have been followed up for three more years. Two patients developed a hypothyroid state three years after treatment and one patient four years after treatment. Overall, 60% (6 out of 10 patients) were in a euthyroid state and 40% (4 out of 10) in a hypothyroid state, four years after 80 Gy [sup 131]I treatment. There was no significant difference between eu- and hypo-thyroid groups in the sex ratio, age, radiation doses, therapeutic dose, thyroid gland volume, 24-hr [sup 131]I uptake, the effective half-life of [sup 131]I in the thyroid or the duration of hyperthyroidism. In our preliminary studies, the incidence of late hypothyroidism in our [sup 131]I treatment is similar to those previously reported. These suggest that uncertain factor(s), such as inhomogeneity of iodine distribution in the thyroid, unequal sensitivity of the thyroid cells to the radiation, and/or persistent destructive effects of the autoimmune process may influence the long-term effect of [sup 131]I treatment of Graves' disease. (author).

  2. Radiation exposure by radio-iodine release of the planned nuclear power plant Wyhl. Expert's opinion on thyroid exposure due to radioactive I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck-Neuhaus, J

    1981-01-01

    The radioecology of iodine-131 in the off-air of a nuclear power plant is subject to investigation of the critical exposure pathway air - pasture ground - cow - milk. According to the findings on the factors influencing the radiation exposure of man presented in scientific publication we have to deviate today from static equilibrium models. Such models can no longer satisfy at the present state of the art. The viewing of the short-term time behaviour of the radioecological parameter that is imperative with iodine-131 shows that the conventional calculation, chiefly with mean values of many years, does not satisfy the requirements to replace the calculation of the radiation exposure at the most unfavourable points of exposure demanded by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. This report proves that in a number of possible events under normal operating conditions the radiation exposure is far more important and the limiting dose rates are unmistakably exceeded. If favourable conditions coincide it can in fact be expected that the radiation exposure by radio iodine remains below the limiting close rate.

  3. Age-dependent exposure to radioactive iodine (131I) in the thyroid and total body of newborn, pubertal and adult fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru

    2001-01-01

    Female rats of the Fischer 344 strain at ages of 1, 4 and 9 weeks were exposed to 131 I intraperitoneally with activities of 0.38, 1.03 and 3.42 kBq per gram of body weight under the condition of iodine deficiency. The absorbed doses in the thyroid increased linearly depending on the injected activities. Irradiation at 1 week old caused heavier exposure than those at 4 and 9 weeks old by 7.5 and 7.7 times, respectively; however, damage of the thyroid tissue was more obvious in the 4-week-old groups than in the 1-week-old groups. The absorbed doses in the total body were proportional to the square root of the injected activities. The one-week-old groups were exposed more heavily than the 4- and 9-week-old groups by 3.6 and 4.7 times, respectively, shown by the slow excretion of 131 I with the values of effective half-life of 131 I activity (T eff ). An IDD-treatment was not so effective to enhance the 131 I absorption in the total body, as in the thyroid. No matter how the iodine concentration in the blood changed, the 1-week-old groups could not react to normalize the level. We drew standard curves, which enabled us to estimate the absorbed doses in the thyroid and the total body in the case of the injected activities of 131 I for the newborn, pubertal and adult rats. (author)

  4. National intercomparison on in vivo measurement of Iodine-131 in the thyroid within a Brazilian Internal Dosimetry Laboratory Network - IAEA PROJECT BRA9055; Intercomparacao nacional de medicao in vivo de Iodo-131 na tireoide - Projeto TC IAEA BRA 9055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cardoso, J.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramos, M.A.P.; Sa, M.S. [Eletrobras Eletronuclear, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Alonso, T.C.; Silva, T.V.; Oliveira, C.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, F.F.; Oliveira, M.L.; Lacerda, I.V.B. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fajgelj, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    In 2011, in Brazil, a National Intercalibration and Intercomparison exercise on in vivo measurement of iodine-131 in the thyroid was carried out in the scope of the Project IAEABRA9055 'Establishing a National Laboratory Network for Internal Individual Monitoring'. The exercise was conducted by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research (IPEN), from National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The objectives of the exercise were to (i) update information on current instrumentation resources available in the in vivo monitoring laboratories in operation in Brazil and to (ii) verify the reliability of the results of measurements of iodine-131 in thyroid provided by those laboratories. The procedure consisted on the measurement of a neck-thyroid anthropomorphic phantom provided by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD, containing two barium-133 standard sources certified by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation. Each participant should measure the phantom in a period of five days. The five laboratories are located in the States of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco, in the following Institutions: Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Nuclear Power Station Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology, Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research, and Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences. The results reported included: activity measured, minimum detectable activity, accuracy and precision. The performance of the laboratories was evaluated according to the criteria suggested by ANSI 13.30 indicating their capacity to provide reliable results of iodine-131 content in the thyroid. (author)

  5. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-07-01

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. {sup 201}Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative {sup 131}I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of {sup 201}Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. {sup 201}Tl imaging was performed before the {sup 131}I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent {sup 201}Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the {sup 201}Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic {sup 131}I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by {sup 201}Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on {sup 131}I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on {sup 131}I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I

  6. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung; Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. 201 Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative 131 I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of 201 Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of 131 I and 201 Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative 201 Tl and 131 I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. 201 Tl imaging was performed before the 131 I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent 201 Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the 201 Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic 131 I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by 201 Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative 201 Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on 131 I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on 131 I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative 201 Tl and 131 I scans, 15 had elevated serum Tg levels. Among these, local recurrence followed by lung

  7. Evaluation of local hospital discharge for thyroid cancer patients treated with Iodine-131; comparison with internationally accepted release criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylianou-Markidou, E.; Peraticou, A.; Constantinou, C.; Giannos, A.; Aritkan, A.V.; Dimitriadou, D.; Frangos, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: Patients with Thyroid Cancer treated with I-131 in our institution, stay in a shielded room for two days, or until they emit less than 40 μSv/hr at 1m, based on the Cyprus legislation for radiation protection. Other countries have different regulations and public dose limits, and their hospital discharge guidelines vary accordingly. The purpose of this study is to evaluate local hospital discharge regulations, make a comparison with other countries' accepted release criteria, and find where improvements can be made. Methods: 267 patients were treated with I-131 (activity 1.8-8.9GBq) from September 2001 to April 2007. The dose equivalent rate (DER) was measured within 30 min of the administration at a distance of 1 m from the patient. Measurements at 1m were also obtained before the release of the patient. For a group of these patients, measurements were also carried out a week after the treatment with I-131. The doses given to members of the public, from each of the above patients, were calculated using the Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) concept, which is based on the line source model. For 10% of these patients, measurements of the dose emitted to surroundings were taken, using two different methods. (a) Doses were measured with TLD dosimeters placed at specific points of the room during the two day restriction of the patient in the shielded room. These points were at bedside, at 1 m from the patient's bed, at 3m from the patient's bed, in the shower area, and at the side of the toilet. (b) On the day of release, personal dosimeters were given to a member of the immediate family (carer) of the patient for a minimum of five days. The skin dose and dose at approximately 10cm depth were measured by the National personnel monitoring for radiation protection authority of Cyprus. Results: Our calculation of the TEDE values indicated that, had the patients been released just after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical, members of the

  8. Experience in the patients management which received treatments with radioactive iodine (131I). Measurements and dosimetry pertaining to the personnel related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the INNSZ there are administering ablative doses of radioactive iodine to patients with problems of the thyroid gland from 40 years ago. Starting from 1992 was initiated the restlessness to inform to the patients verbally and in writing over the measurements of radiological safety that must be followed for the protection of their families. In this work it is commented, the benefits obtained with the patients and the teachings to give to the personnel what attend the patients which receive treatments with iodine-131 and must be hospitalized. It is commented too over the standardization standing of the patients discharged whom received radioactive material and lastly, it was make a dosimetric study of the nurses, radiotherapeutic and control area. (Author)

  9. The true absorption of 131I, and its transfer to milk in cows given different stable iodine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Van Hees, M.; Hardeman, F.; Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the stable iodine content in the diet on the absorption of radioiodine and its transfer to cow's milk was investigated for cows at different stages of lactation. Three different rates of stable iodine: a low intake rate of 4 mg d -1 , a moderate intake of 35 mg d -1 and a high rate of 75 mg d -1 were fed to two groups of three lactating cows in mid- and late-lactation. The transfer to milk of a single oral administration of radioiodine was measured for the three different intake rates. The lactation phase had no significant effect on iodine transfer to milk; therefore, the data from the two lactation groups were pooled for further statistical analyses. The mean transfer coefficient values for oral radioiodine to milk increased from 0.020 d l -1 for the low treatment to 0.024 d l -1 for the moderate stable iodine rate. There was a statistically significant decrease in the transfer to milk for the high stable dietary iodine intake rate (mean transfer coefficient=0.018 d l -1 ) compared with the moderate treatment. These differences were not due to effects on absorption since true absorption was complete for all three stable iodine treatments, but rather to differential affinities and saturation levels of the thyroid and milk pathways competing for the available iodine. The same behaviour and comparable values of transfer coefficients (range 0.015-0.020 d l -1 ) were observed for stable iodine

  10. Evaluation the sources of uncertainty associated to the measurement results of in vivo monitoring of iodine 131 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha

    2011-01-01

    In vivo monitoring techniques consist of identification and quantification of radionuclides present in the whole body and specific organs and tissues. In Vivo monitoring requires the use of detedors which are sensitive to the radiation emitted by radionuclides present in the monitored individual. The results obtained in measurements may present small uncertainties which are within pre-set limits in monitoring programs for occupationally exposed individuais. However, any device used to determine physical quantities present uncertainties in the measured values. The total uncertainty of a measurement result is estimated from the propagation of the uncertainties associated to each parameter of the calculation. This study aims to evaluate the sources of uncertainty associated to the measurement results of in vivo monitoring of iodine 131 in the thyroid, in comparison to the suggested in the General Guide for Estimating Effective Doses from Monitoring Data (Project IDEAS/European Community). The reference values used were the ones for high-energy photons (>100 keV). The measurement uncertainties were divided into two categories: type A and type B. The component of type A represents the statistical fluctuation in the counting of the standard source. Regarding type B, the following variations were presented: detector positioning over the phantom; variation of background radiation; thickness of the overlay tissue over the monitored organ, distribution of the activity in the organ. Besides the parameters suggested by the IDEAS Guide, it has also been evaluated the fluctuation of the counting due to the phantom repositioning, which represents the reproducibility of the measurement geometry. Measurements were performed at the Whole Body Counter Unit of IRD using a scintillation detector Nal (Tl) 3 x3 and a neck-thyroid phantom developed at LABMIVIRD. Scattering factors were calculated and compared in different counting geometries. The results of this study show that the

  11. Comparison of in-vivo kinetics of an antibody cocktail containing 131-iodine anti-CA-19/9 and 131-iodine anti-CEA with 111-indium labelled monoclonal anti-CA-19/9 using a tumor model in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.; Orth, M.; Henze, E.

    1993-01-01

    In this study the potential diagnostic value of an 111-In-labelled CA-19/9-F (ab)-fragment was compared to that of an antibody cocktail of 131-iodine-labelled CA-19/9 and 131-iodine-labelled anti-CEA for identification of pancreas cancer by a nude mice model. 111-In-labelled CA-19/9 and the 131-iodine antibody cocktail were injected into 35 nude mice xenotransplantated with human pancreas cancer. Scintigrams were obtained and the relative distribution of activity in tumor and in several organs were determined by ROI-technique. These values were compared with the in vitro results of organ measurement after dissection of nude mice. Blood pool of 131-iodine-labelled antibodies showed only a nuclide accumulation in the thyroid because of very high rate of dejodination and missing blockade of thyroid. Other organs were not detectabel in scintigraphy because of high nucleotide accumulation of thyroid. The tumor-to-blood-ratio of organ-measurements was 18±4.3, kidneys-background-ratio 2.1±7.3, liver-background-ratio 5.8±2.0. These results are similar to those of 111-In-labelled fragments. Thus it is established that antibody cocktail had no essential advantage over singular antibody in mouse model. It gives a good tumor contrast with tumor-background-quotient of 15±7.4 measured by scintigraphy and tumor background-quotient 18±4.3 in-vitro-organ-measurement. (orig.) [de

  12. Preliminary study of the distribution of dose in patients with Graves disease undergoing examination of uptake of iodine-131 using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarcke, Marcelo; Marques, Tatiana; Alva, Mirko; Baffa, Oswaldo; Nicolucci, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Graves' disease have a high hormonal disorder, which causes the change of behavior in society. One way to treat this disease is the use of doses of Iodine-131, requiring that the patient carries out the examination of uptake of 131 I estimates for completion of the activity to be administered. Using these data capture and compared with the simulated data using the Monte Carlo code Penelope is possible to determine a distribution of dose to the region surrounding the thyroid. As noted the difference between the simulated values and the experimentally obtained were 10.36%, thus showing the code of simulation for accurate determination of absorbed dose in tissue near the thyroid. (author)

  13. Radioactive pollutions by iodine-131 in France, from November 1, 1961 to February 1, 1962; Les pollutions radioactives par l'iode 131 en France du 1er novembre 1961 au 1er fevrier 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Michon, G

    1962-07-01

    The report gives all the results of iodine-131 measurements on 450 milk samples, on 27 animal thyroids, and on 311 human thyroids between November 1, 1961 and February 1, 1962. All these results and their interpretation show that the iodine concentrations, even if they have not attained a critical level have nevertheless come close to it, and that if the Soviet series of explosions had continued it would perhaps have been necessary to take sanitary precautions. The discussion concerns the determination of the moment when such steps should be taken. (authors) [French] Le rapport fournit l'ensemble des dosages d'iode 131 effectues sur 450 echantillons de lait, sur 27 thyroides animales et sur 311 thyroides humaines entre le 1er novembre 1961 et le 1er fevrier 1962. L'ensemble des resultats et leur interpretation montrent que les teneurs en iode, si elles n'ont pas atteint les niveaux critiques, s'en sont toutefois approchees et que si la serie des explosions sovietiques s'etait poursuivie, la situation aurait pu necessiter la mise en place de mesures sanitaires. La discussion porte sur la determination du moment ou de telles mesures doivent etre prises. (auteurs)

  14. Laser ablation and 131-iodine: a 24-month pilot study of combined treatment for large toxic nodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianelli, M; Bizzarri, G; Todino, V; Misischi, I; Bianchini, A; Graziano, F; Guglielmi, R; Pacella, C M; Gharib, H; Papini, E

    2014-07-01

    It is normally recognized that the preferred treatment in large toxic thyroid nodules should be thyroidectomy. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of combined laser ablation treatment (LAT) and radioiodine 131 (131I) treatment of large thyroid toxic nodules with respect to rapidity of control of local symptoms, of hyperthyroidism, and of reduction of administered 131I activity in patients at refusal or with contraindications to surgery. We conducted a pilot study at a single center specializing in thyroid care. Fifteen patients were treated with LAT, followed by 131I (group A), and a series of matched consecutive patients were treated by 131I only (group B). Laser energy was delivered with an output power of 3 W (1800 J per fiber per treatment) through two 75-mm, 21-gauge spinal needles. Radioiodine activity was calculated to deliver 200 Gy to the hyperfunctioning nodule. Thyroid function, thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody, ultrasound, and local symptoms were measured at baseline and up to 24 months. Nodule volume reduction at 24 months was: 71.3 ± 13.4 vs 47.4 ± 5.5%, group A (LAT+131I) vs group B (131I), respectively; P symptom score demonstrated a more rapid reduction in group A (LAT+131I). In three cases, no 131I treatment was needed after LAT. In this pilot study, combined LAT/131I treatment induced faster and greater improvement of local and systemic symptoms compared to 131I only. This approach seems a possible alternative to thyroidectomy in patients at refusal of surgery.

  15. Radioiodine uptake following iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease: an early indicator of need for retreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, W.R.; Gilliland, P.F.; Piziak, V.K.; Petty, F.C.; McConnell, B.G.; Verdonk, C.A.; Ibarra, J.D.; Thompson, J.Q.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five patients with Graves' disease were studied prospectively to determine if 24-hour I-131 uptake measurements alone or in combination with serum thyroid hormone levels at six weeks would determine the necessity for retreatment of the thyrotoxicosis. All patients with an I-131 uptake greater than 30% at six weeks required retreatment. No patient with an I-131 uptake of less than 15% required retreatment. Patients with uptakes between 15% and 30% were variable. An elevated free thyroxin index at 6 weeks is not helpful to determine which patients will remain thyrotoxic. Patients with a free thyroxin index within the normal range at six weeks can be predicted to be euthyroid by 12 weeks if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is between 15% and 30% and to be hypothyroid if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is below 15%. There was no difference between patient groups treated initially with antithyroid medication and those who were not.

  16. [Proposals for the revision of radiation protection measures for doses up to 222 MBq iodine-131 for whole body scintiscan for the detection of metastatic lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Maria; Hatzigiannaki, Anastasia; Dedousi, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the necessary period of time, required for radiation protection instructions to be followed by patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after total thyroidectomy who are given iodine-131 ((131)I) for a whole body scintiscan (WBS) in relation to the instructions of the European Commission and the ICRP. In order to estimate and evaluate the dose received by the family members and the general public, we have studied 30 patients and were given a dose of 92-222 MBq of (131)I for a diagnostic WBS. The patients studied were four men with mean age+/-standard deviation (M+/-SD)=55+/-6 y and 26 women with: M+/-SD=47+/-14 y. Dose rate measurements were carried out at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the AHEPA University Hospital; 1 h after the patients had received the (131)I dose and 48 h later when they returned to the hospital for the WBS. The calculated doses received by the in-living relatives of the patients and by the general public, assuming that radiation protection measures were applied for 2d, ranged between 76-640 microSv and 22-171 microSv respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study, compared to the dose constraints suggested by the European Commission, indicate that the duration of radiation protection guidelines for patients receiving (131)I for diagnostic purposes could be reduced to only two days without any potential risk to family members or to members of the public. The case of children of the immediate family environment, aged less than 3 y, was not investigated in this study.

  17. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis of selected genes in patients with early-stage hypothyroidism induced by treatment with iodine-131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Gao, Rui; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Weixiao; Yang, Yuxuan; Yang, Aimin

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular markers indicative of early-stage hypothyroidism induced by treatment with iodine-131, in order to assist in further investigations of radio iodine‑induced hypothyroidism. A total of 59 patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism (male/female, 16/43; median age, 46.4 years) and 27 healthy subjects (male/female, 7/21; median age, 44.6 years) were included in the present study. All patients were treated with appropriate doses of iodine‑131 and, three months following treatment, the patients were subdivided into two groups: A group with early‑stage hypothyroidism symptoms, and a group with non‑early‑stage hypothyroidism, including euthyroid patients and patients remaining with hyperthyroidism. Tissue samples from the patients and healthy subjects were collected by fine needle biopsies, and the mRNA expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), nuclear factor (NF)‑κB, Ku70, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), early growth response 1 (Egr‑1), TP53 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated were analyzed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction prior to iodine‑131 treatment. The association of the variation of target genes with susceptibility to early‑stage hypothyroidism was analyzed. Compared with normal subjects, the mRNA expression levels of Ku70 (0.768, vs. 3.304, respectively; Ptreatment with iodine‑131, 30 of the 59 (50.8%) patients with hyperthyroidism were diagnosed with early‑stage hypothyroidism, and in the early‑stage hypothyroidism group, the mRNA expression levels of Bcl‑2 were significantly decreased (Phypothyroidism group. The association between the changes in the expression levles of Bcl‑2 and Egr‑1 and susceptibility to early‑stage hypothyroidism was supported by multivariate regression analysis. No significant changes in the expression levels of the other target genes were detected. The opposing changes in the mRNA expression levels of Bcl‑2

  18. Necrosis targeted radiotherapy with iodine-131-labeled hypericin to improve anticancer efficacy of vascular disrupting treatment in rabbit VX2 tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibo; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Ziping; Chen, Feng; Dai, Xu; Li, Yaming; Ni, Yicheng; Xu, Ke

    2015-06-10

    A viable rim of tumor cells surrounding central necrosis always exists and leads to tumor recurrence after vascular disrupting treatment (VDT). A novel necrosis targeted radiotherapy (NTRT) using iodine-131-labeled hypericin (131I-Hyp) was specifically designed to treat viable tumor rim and improve tumor control after VDT in rabbit models of multifocal VX2 tumors. NTRT was administered 24 hours after VDT. Tumor growth was significantly slowed down by NTRT with a smaller tumor volume and a prolonged tumor doubling time (14.4 vs. 5.7 days), as followed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging over 12 days. The viable tumor rims were well inhibited in NTRT group compared with single VDT control group, as showed on tumor cross sections at day 12 (1 vs. 3.7 in area). High targetability of 131I-Hyp to tumor necrosis was demonstrated by in vivo SPECT as high uptake in tumor regions lasting over 9 days with 4.26 to 98 times higher radioactivity for necrosis versus the viable tumor and other organs by gamma counting, and with ratios of 7.7-11.7 and 10.5-13.7 for necrosis over peri-tumor tissue by autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. In conclusion, NTRT improved the anticancer efficacy of VDT in rabbits with VX2 tumors.

  19. Iodine-131 imaging using 284 keV photons with a small animal CZT-SPECT system dedicated to low-medium-energy photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Akihiro; Gotoh, Kumiko; Shimamoto, Masako; Hasegawa, Koki; Okada, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Iodine-131 is widely used for radionuclide therapy because of its β-particle and for diagnostic imaging employing its principal gamma ray. Since that principal gamma ray has the relatively high energy of 364 keV, small animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging systems may be required to possess the ability to image such higher energy photons. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of imaging I-131 using its 284 keV photons instead of its 364 keV photons in a small animal SPECT imaging system dedicated to the detection of low-medium-energy photons (below 300 keV). The imaging system used was a commercially available preclinical SPECT instrument with CZT detectors that was equipped with multi-pinhole collimators and was accompanied by a CT imager. An energy window for I-131 imaging was set to a photopeak of 284 keV with a low abundance compared with 364 keV photons. Small line sources and two mice, one of each of two types, that were injected with NaI-131 were scanned. Although higher counts occurred at the peripheral region of the reconstructed images due to the collimator penetration by the 364 keV photons, the shape of the small line sources could be well visualized. The measured spatial resolution was relatively poor (~1.9 mm for full width at half maximum and ~3.9 mm for full width at tenth maximum). However, a good linear correlation between SPECT values and the level of I-131 radioactivity was observed. Furthermore, the uptake of NaI-131 to the thyroid gland for the two mice was clearly identified in the 3D-SPECT image fused with the X-ray CT image. We conclude that the use of an energy window set on the photopeak of 284 keV and the multi-pinhole collimator may permit I-131 imaging for a preclinical CZT-SPECT system that does not have the ability to acquire images using the 364 keV photons.

  20. 18F-FDG SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with elevated thyroglobulin and negative iodine-131 scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.; Wu, Z.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Shao, M.; Zhao, L.; Jiawei, X.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) but negative iodine-131 scan. This retrospective review of patients with DTC recurrence who had 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT and 18 F-FDG PET/CT for elevated serum Tg but negative iodine-131 scan (March 2007-October 2012). After total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablation, 86 consecutive patients with elevated Tg levels underwent 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT or 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Of these, 45 patients had 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT, the other 41 patients had 18 F-FDG PET/CT 3-4 weeks after thyroid hormone withdrawal. The results of 18 F-FDG PET/CT and SPECT/CT were correlated with patient follow-up information, which included the results from subsequent imaging modalities such as neck ultrasound, MRI and CT, Tg levels, and histologic examination of surgical specimens. The diagnostic accuracy of the two imaging modalities was evaluated. In 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT scans, 24 (24/45) patients had positive findings, 22 true positive in 24 patients, false positive in 2 patients, true-negative and false-negative in 6, 15 patients, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 18F-FDG SPECT/CT were 59.5%, 75% and 62.2%, respectively. Twenty six patients had positive findings on 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans, 23 true positive in 26 (26/41) patients, false positive in 3 patients, true-negative and false-negative in 9, 6 patients, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 79.3%, 81.8% and 78.1%, respectively. Clinical management changed for 13 (29%) of 45 patients by 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT, 14 (34%) of 41 patients by 18F-FDG PET/CT including surgery, radiation therapy, or multi kinase inhibitor. Based on the retrospective analysis of 86 patients, 18F-FDG SPECT/CT has lower sensitivity in the diagnosis of DTC recurrence with elevated Tg and negative iodine-131scan to 18F-FDG PET/CT. The clinical

  1. Evaluation of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy using iodine-131 MIBG autoradiography and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, T.J.; Lee, J.D.; Ha, J.-W.; Yang, W.I.; Cho, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most useful anticancer agents, but its repeated administration can induce irreversible cardiomyopathy as a major complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac sympathetic neurons using iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry, which is a marker of cardiac innervation. Wistar rats were treated with doxorubicin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 4 (n=5), 6 (n=6) or 8 (n=7) weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), calculated by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an indicator of cardiac function. Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 131 I-MIBG uptake of the left ventricular wall (24 ROIs) was measured by autoradiography. 131 I-MIBG uptake pattern was compared with histopathological results, the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry and the degree of myocyte damage assessed using a visual scoring system on haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. LVEF was significantly decreased in the 8-week group (P 131 I-MIBG uptake ratio of subepicardium to subendocardium were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 8-week group as compared with the control group. It may be concluded that radioiodinated MIBG is a reliable marker for the detection of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy; it detects such damage earlier than do other clinical parameters and in this study showed a good correlation with the reduction in the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 stain. The subendocardial layer appeared to be more vulnerable to doxorubicin than the subepicardium. (orig.)

  2. Follow-up of relapsed B-cell lymphoma patients treated with iodine-131-labeled anti-CD20 antibody and autologous stem-cell rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S Y.; Eary, Janet F.; Petersdorf, S H.; Martin, P J.; Maloney, D G.; Applebaum, F. R.; Matthews, D. C.; Bush, S A.; Durack, L. D.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, T A.; Bernstein, I. D.; Press, O. W.

    1997-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for B-cell lymphomas. This is our first opportunity to report long-term follow-up data and late toxicities in 29 patients treated with myeloablative doses of iodine-131-anti-CD20 antibody (anti-B1) and autologous stem-cell rescue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trace-labeled biodistribution studies first determined the ability to deliver higher absorbed radiation doses to tumor sites than to lung, liver, or kidney at varying amounts of anti-B1 protein (0.35, 1.7, or 7 mg/kg). Twenty- nine patients received therapeutic infusions of single-agent (131)I- anti-B1, given at the protein dose found optimal in the biodistribution study, labeled with amounts of (131)I (280 to 785 mCi[10.4 to 29.0 GBq]) calculated to deliver specific absorbed radiation doses to the normal organs, followed by autologous stem-cell support. RESULTS: Major responses occurred in 25 patients (86%), with 23 complete responses (CRs; 79%). The nonhematopoietic do se-limiting toxicity was reversible cardiopulmonary insufficiency, which occurred in two patients at RIT doses that delivered > or = 27 Gy to the lungs. With a median follow-up time of 42 months, the estimated overall and progression-free survival rates are 68% and 42%, respectively. Currently, 14 of 29 patients remain in unmaintained remissions that range from 27+ to 87+ months after RIT. Late toxicities have been uncommon except for elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels found in approximately 60% of the subjects. Two patients developed second malignancies, but none have developed myelodysplasia (MDS). CONCLUSION: Myeloablative (131)I-anti- B1 RIT is relatively well tolerated when given with autologous stem- cell support and often results in prolonged remission durations with few late toxicities

  3. Role of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in diagnostic iodine-131 scintigraphy before initial radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2005-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the incremental value of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over planar radioiodine imaging before radioiodine ablation in the staging, management and stratification of risk of recurrence (ROR) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. Totally, 83 patients (21 male, 62 female) aged 17–75 (mean 39.9) years with DTC were included consecutively in this prospective study. They underwent postthyroidectomy planar and SPECT/CT scans after oral administration of 37–114 MBq iodine-131 (I-131). The scans were interpreted as positive, negative or suspicious for tracer uptake in the thyroid bed, cervical lymph nodes and sites outside the neck. In each case, the findings on planar images were recorded first, without knowledge of SPECT/CT findings. Operative and pathological findings were used for postsurgical tumor–node–metastasis staging. The tumor staging was reassessed after each of these two scans. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography localized radioiodine uptake in the thyroid bed in 9/83 (10.8%) patients, neck nodes in 24/83 (28.9%) patients and distant metastases in 8/83 (9.6%) patients in addition to the planar study. Staging was changed in 8/83 (9.6%), ROR in 11/83 (13.2%) and management in 26/83 (31.3%) patients by the pretherapy SPECT/CT in comparison to planar imaging. SPECT/CT had incremental value in 32/83 patients (38.5%) over the planar scan. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography is feasible during a diagnostic I-131 scan with a low amount of radiotracer. It improved the interpretation of pretherapy I-131 scintigraphy and changed the staging and subsequent patient management

  4. Long-term outcomes of {sup 131}Iodine mIBG therapy in metastatic gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: single administration predicts non-responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Nicola; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Devlin, Lindsey; Kalogianni, Eleni; Corcoran, Ben; Vivian, Gillian [King' s College Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    {sup 131}Iodine (I131)-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is a radionuclide-based treatment option for metastatic gastrointestinal-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NET). This study aimed at identifying prognostic indicators of long-term outcome based on initial evaluation following a first mIBG treatment (7400 MBq) in a patient cohort with such tumours, with a secondary aim of evaluating progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) following mIBG therapy. Retrospective review of the hospital records was performed to identify a cohort of 38 adult patients who underwent {sup 131}Iodine-mIBG therapy over a 9-year period for metastatic GEP NETs and neuroendocrine tumours with an unknown primary. Treatment response was evaluated based on radiological criteria (RECIST1.1), biochemical markers [serum Chromogranin A (CgA)/urinary 5HIAA] and symptomatic response at clinical follow-up, all evaluated at 3-6 months from first mIBG treatment. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from the first mIBG treatment were recorded. At 3-6 months following a single mIBG therapy, 75 %, 67 %, and 63 % of patients showed either a partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) on radiological, biochemical, and symptomatic criteria, respectively. Complete response (CR) was not seen in any patient. OS from the date of diagnosis and from the first therapy was 8 years +/-1.1 (95 % CI 5.7 to 10.2 years) and 4 years+/-0.69 (95 % CI 2.6-5.3 years), respectively. Twenty-nine percent of patients were alive at 10 years. Significant survival advantage was seen in patients with SD/PR as compared to those who had progressive disease (PD) for each of these three criteria. Biochemical, radiological (RECIST 1.1) and symptomatic assessment of disease status at 3 to 6 months after first I131-mIBG therapy stratifies patients with a poor prognosis. This can be used to identify patients who may benefit from alternative strategies of treatment. (orig.)

  5. Long-term follow-up results in children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine (131I) for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safa, A.M.; Schumacher, O.P.; Rodriguez-Antunez, A.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of 131 I therapy for children, the course of 87 patients (three to 18 years old, 24 boys and 63 girls) treated from 1949 through 1968, for hyperthyroidism due to Graves's disease was studied. Dose of 131 I per patient ranged from 2.9 to 31 mCi (mean +- S. D., 9.75 +- 6.5). Patients were followed for five to 24 years (mean, 12.3 +- 3.5). Hyperthyroidism was controlled in 85 within one to 14 months (mean, 3.3 +- 2.6). Recurrence of thyrotoxicosis due to toxic diffuse goiter, observed in only one case after 11 years, was successfully re-treated with 131 I. Reproductive history and health status of the progeny of 131 I-treated patients were not different from those of the general population. No deaths and no cancer or leukemia were observed in patients or their offspring. The major cause of goiter regrowth was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Hypothyroidism developed in 35 of 76 patients (46 percent). 131 I deserves further use in treatment of hyperthyroid children with Graves's disease

  6. The study of labeling with Iodine-131 of monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanji, Akinkunmi Ganiyu

    2006-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignancies of the lymphatic system, described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1932. Traditionally, lymphomas are classified in two basic groups: Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients with NHL were earlier treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with immunotherapy using monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (ex., Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche). However, Radioimmunotherapy is a new modality of treatment for patients with NHL, in which cytotoxic radiation from therapeutic radioisotopes is delivered to tumors through monoclonal antibodies. This study focused on labeling conditions of monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche) with iodine-131, by direct radioiodination method using Chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Labeling parameters investigated were: Radiochemical purity (RP), method of purification, incubation time, antibody mass, oxidative agent mass, stability in vitro, stability in vivo, immunoreactivity and biological distribution performed in normal Swiss mouse. Product of high radiochemical purity was obtained with no notable difference between the methods applied. No clear evidence of direct influence of incubation time on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was observed. Whereas, a clear evidence of direct influence of activity on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was observed when antibody mass was varied. After purification, the labeled product presented radiochemical purity of approximately 100 %. Product of superior radiochemical yield was observed when standard condition of labeling was used. The labeled product presented variation in radiochemical purity using five different stabilizer conditions. The condition in which gentisic acid was combined with freeze appears more suitable and capable of minimizing autoradiolysis of the antibody labeled with high therapeutic activity of iodine-131. The labeled product presented low immunoreactivity when compared to the literature. Biological distribution in

  7. The study of labeling with iodine-131 of monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanji, Akinkunmi Ganiyu

    2006-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignancies of the lymphatic system, described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1932. Traditionally, lymphomas are classified in two basic groups: Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients with NHL were earlier treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with immunotherapy using monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (ex., Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche). However, Radioimmunotherapy is a new modality of treatment for patients with NHL, in which cytotoxic radiation from therapeutic radioisotopes is delivered to tumors through monoclonal antibodies. This study focused on labeling conditions of monoclonal anti-CD20 (ex., Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche) with iodine-131, by direct radioiodination method using Chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Labeling parameters investigated were: Radiochemical purity (RP), method of purification, incubation time, antibody mass, oxidative agent mass, stability in vitro, immunoreactivity and biological distribution performed in normal Swiss mouse. Product of high radiochemical purity was obtained with no notable difference between the methods applied. No clear evidence of direct influence of incubation time on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was observed. Whereas, a clear evidence of direct influence of activity on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was varied. After purification the labeled product presented radiochemical purity of approximately 100 %. Product of superior radiochemical yield was observed when standard condition of labeling was used. The labeled product presented variation in radiochemical purity using five different stabilizer conditions. The condition in which gentisic acid combined with freeze appears more suitable and capable of minimizing autoradiolysis of the antibody labeled with freeze appears more suitable and capable of minimizing autoradiolysis of the antibody labeled with high therapeutic activity of iodine-131. The labeled product presented low immunoreactivity when compared to the

  8. Evaluation of Iodine-131 dispersion after accident in Nuclear Angra Power Plant using the model of aquatic dispersion, SisBahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    It was inserted, in the cooling system of the nucleus, a LOCA, where 431 m 3 of coolant was lost. Such an inventory contained 3,04 x 10 10 Bq / m 3 and iodine was released near the beach Itaorna, Angra dos Reis - RJ. Applying the model in the proposed scenario (Angra 1 and Angra 2 in operation and 3 in with varying capture and discharge with the discharge gradually reduced after the accident), the dilution of the specific activity of radionuclides reached lower values after 22 hours, the reference levels for seawater 131 I (7,40 x 10 2 Bq / m 3 ). After 54 hours, levels of the radionuclide, in the area of indirect influence, are already below minimum activity values detected by the laboratory for environmental monitoring of the CNAAA (5,0 x 10 1 Bq / m 3

  9. Psychological and behavioral intervention improves the quality of life and mental health of patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu HX

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Xia Wu,1,* Hua Zhong,2,3,* Yue-Dong Xu,1 Cui-Ping Xu,4 Ying Zhang,5 Wei Zhang1 1Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 2Department of Oncology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 4Department of Nursing, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 5Department of Nursing, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: We examined the effects of psychological and behavioral intervention on health-related quality of life and mental health among patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131 (RAI.Methods: Sixty patients with DTC, undergoing RAI, were randomly assigned to receive either conventional nursing (n=30 or a 1-year psychological and behavioral intervention based on conventional nursing (n=30. Health-related quality of life and mental health issues, depression, and anxiety were measured using the Quality of Life Core Questionnaire, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Self-rating Anxiety Score, respectively.Results: After RAI treatment, patients in both groups showed improved functional capacities (ie, physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social and global quality of life, along with reduced depression and anxiety (P<0.05. At 1-year follow-up, compared with patients in the routine nursing group, those in the psychological and behavioral intervention group demonstrated greater improvements in functional capacities, global quality of life, and depression and anxiety symptoms (P<0.05.Conclusion: Psychological and behavioral interventions for patients with DTC undergoing RAI facilitated positive outcomes, suggesting that nursing care models that include psychological and behavioral interventions

  10. Radioecology application to electronuclear site studies. Experimental data on uptake and desorption of iodine 131 and molybdenum 99 by Cyprinus carpio (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeau, F.; Baudin, J.P.; Foulquier, L.; Lambrechts, A.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of the carps by the iodine 131 is characterized by a very swift build-up followed by a slight radioactive decay which tends to an equilibrium state; 16 days later, the concentration factor, in terms of the wet weight, is in the order of 6. 37,5% of the fixed radionuclide is concentrated in the muscles and the skeleton and 43% in the viscera. The decontamination study shows a biological half-life of about 33 days and an effective half-life of 6 days. Because of the difficult radioactivity measurements pertaining to the separation of the molybdenum 99, and of its by-product the technetium 99m, the study, then, relates to the mixing of the two elements. The build-up of the two radionuclides essentially takes place in the first hours after introducing the contaminating solution into the medium. 14 days later, the concentration factor, in terms of the wet weight, is about 0,20. The highest 99 Mo+sup(99m)Tc abundance is to be found in the viscera which hold up 50% of the whole radioactivity for fishes. The elimination of the mixing by the carps occurs very fast. The desorption process corresponds to two biological half-lives: Tb 1 approximately 8 hours and Tb 2 approximately 180 hours. The effective half-lives are: Te 1 approximately 8 hours and Te 2 approximately 50 hours. This preliminary data shows a low transfer rate of the iodine 131 and of the mixing molybdenum 99 + technetium 99m between water and fishes. This data must be completed as follows: by knowing the role of the food chain and the influence of the physico-chemical form of these radionuclides [fr

  11. Analysis of changes in the percentage of B (CD19) and T (CD3) lymphocytes, nk cells, subsets CD4, CD8 in differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Quanyong; Yu Yongli; Chen Libo; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes in the percentage of B (CD19) and T (CD3) lymphocytes, NK cells, subsets CD4, CD8 in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) who received iodine-131 for therapeutic purposes. Methods: In this study, 102 DTC patients were divided into three groups. Group A, 8 cases received 1850 MBq of iodine-131 for the remnant thyroid ablation. Group B, 43 cases received 3700 MBq of iodine-131 for the treatment of cervical lymph node metastasis. Group C, 51 cases received 7400 MBq of iodine-131 for remote metastasis. All patients were in a hypothyroid state at the time of administration of iodine-131 and resumed L-thyroxine (2μg/Kg/day) 5 days after iodine-131 administration. The percentage of B and T lymphocytes, NK cells, subsets CD4, CD8 in peripheral blood were serially analyzed at baseline and at days 7, 30 and 90 after iodine-131 administration using a Coulter EPICS XL cytometer. Ten healthy individuals were used as a control group for lymphocyte subset values. Results: Comparing the basal lymphocyte subset levels in groups A, B and C with the control group, only NK cells showed significantly higher levels in patients than in controls (P=0.043). In group A, only the percentage of NK cells (P=0.031) and B cells (P =0.024) were reduced at day 7. In group B, a decrease in the percentage of NK cells at days 7(P=0.005), 30 (P=0.021) was observed, while a significant decrease in the percentage of B cells was only observed at day 7(P=0.006). Among T cells, only CD4+ was obviously affected, resulting in a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at day 30 (P=0.034). In group C, patients showed a decrease in the percentage of NK cells at days 7 (P=0.023), 30 (P=0.006). A decrease in the percentage of both B and T lymphocytes was observed at days 7(P=0.020, 0.018 respectively), 30(P=0.041, 0.025 respectively). Among T cells, a decrease in the percentage of CD4+ and an increase in the percentage of CD8+ were observed, resulting in a marked

  12. Clinical application and observation of curative effect in the near future of iodine-131 therapy in juvenile patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huilin; Liang Jun; Liang Fengyun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess clinical application of 131 I therapy and observation of curative effect in the near future after treatment in juvenile patients with hyperthyroidism Methods: 44 juvenile patients with hyperthyroidism were divided two subgroups of that children and early youths .The dosage of 131 I were respectively 135.1±34.0(3.65±0.92), 200.2±64.0 MBq(5.41±1.73 mCi). The curative effect belonged in four kinds being to fully recovered, quite a lot, fail to respond to medical and hypothyroidism at six month slater or from then. Results: 46 times treatment were gave and therapy effect was same in every subgroups. The effective rate of total was 89.1% and rater on clinical hypothyroidism was 4.3%. Conclusions: It had an obvious effect that 131 I therapy for juvenile patients with hyperthyroidism. 131 I therapy was also a firmly good select because a well ratio effect/cost. (authors)

  13. Synthesis and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Iodine-131-Labeled Folates: Potential Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jammaz, I.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeting imaging has a great potential to be able to image molecular changes that are currently defined as predisease states which facilitate earlier detection of cancer and consequently, the greatest chance of cure. Advancement of scintigraphic imaging and radiotherapy is highly determined by development of more specific radiotracers. The Membrane-associated-folic acid receptor is a glycosylphospstidylinositol protein that overexpressed in approximately 100% of serious ovarian adenocarcinomas and various epithelial cancers including cervical, colorectal and renal cancers. Meanwhile, this receptor is highly restricted in most normal tissues which make these tumors as an excellent candidates for molecular targeting imaging and therapy through the folate receptor system. As part of our on-going research effort to develop prosthetic precursors for radiohalogenation of bioactive molecules, we have previously reported the synthesis and biological characterization of [ 18 F]- fluorobenzene and pyridine carbohydrazide-folate conjugates ([ 18 F]-SFB and [ 18 F]-SFP-folates). We here report the synthesis and biological characterization of [ 131 I]-iodobenzenecarbohydrazide-folate conjugate ([ 131 I]-SIB-folate) as a potential therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. The synthetic approaches for preparation of [ 131 I]iodobenzene carbohydrazide-folates ([ 131 I]-SIB-folate) entailed sequence of reactions. Hydrazide-folate was reacted with N-succinimidyl-m-[131I]-iodobenzoate-carboxylate ([ 131 I]-SIB) to give [ 131 I]-SIB-folate conjugate. Radiochemical yield was greater than 80% and synthesis times were ranging between 40-45 min. Radiochemical purity was also greater than 97% without HPLC purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for the radiohalogenation of folate in high radiochemical yield in short time. In vitro tests on KB cell line has shown that significant amount of the radioconjugate associated with cell

  14. Real-life radiation burden to relatives of patients treated with iodine-131: a study in eight centres in Flanders (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsieurs, M.; Thierens, H.; Dierckx, R.A.; Casier, K.; Simons, M.; Baere, E. de; Ridder, L. de; Saedeleer, C. de; Winter, H. de; Lippens, M.; Imschoot, S. van; Wulfrank, D.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the EURATOM 96/29 regulations, a prospective multicentre study was performed to evaluate the present guidelines given to relatives of patients treated with iodine-131 for both thyroid carcinoma and thyrotoxicosis, based on the real-life radiation burden. This study comprised 166 measurements carried out on a group of 94 relatives of 65 patients. All relatives wore a thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) on the wrist for 7 days. Sixty-one relatives agreed to wear another TLD for an additional 7 days. TLD were placed on nine patients' bedside tables. The eight participating centres were arbitrarily divided into three groups according to the period of time they advised their patients to sleep separately. Groups I, II and III respectively advised their patients to sleep separately for 0, 7-10 and 14-21 days. The median dose received by in-living relatives of thyroid carcinoma patients during the 14 days following hospital discharge was 281 μSv (doses to infinity not calculated); the median dose to infinity received by in-living relatives of ambulatory treated thyrotoxicosis patients was 596 μSv, as compared with 802 μSv for in-living relatives of hospitalised thyrotoxicosis patients. In general the children of patients received a significantly (P 131 I, while still following the ALARA principle. (orig.)

  15. Radioimmunotherapy targeting the extra domain B of fibronectin in C6 rat gliomas: a preliminary study about the therapeutic efficacy of iodine-131-labeled SIP(L19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaeth, Nicolas; Wyss, Matthias T.; Pahnke, Jens; Biollaz, Gregoire; Trachsel, Eveline; Drandarov, Konstantin; Treyer, Valerie; Weber, Bruno; Neri, Dario; Buck, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment protocols, patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme still experience poor outcome. Therefore, new adjuvant therapeutic options such as radioimmunotherapy (RIT) have been studied and have resulted in significant survival benefit. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a novel radioimmunotherapeutic approach targeting the extra domain B (EDB) of fibronectin, a marker of angiogenesis, in glioma-bearing rats. Methods: C6 gliomas were induced intracerebrally in Wistar rats. Ten to 11 days later, 220-360 MBq of iodine-131-labeled anti-EDB SIP(L19) ('small immunoprotein') was administered intravenously into nine animals, yielding a radiation dose of 13-21 Gy. Another nine rats served as controls. Then the following parameters were compared: median survival time, tumor size and histology. Results: Histological examination of the tumors revealed typical glioblastoma characteristics. Eleven of 18 rats developed a tumor size bigger than 150 mm 3 . When these animals were used for survival analysis, median survival did significantly differ between groups [22 days (therapy; n=7) vs. 16 days (control; n=4); P 131 I-SIP(L19)-RIT showed promising potential in treating C6 gliomas, warranting further studies. However, larger trials with preferentially higher doses are needed to confirm this finding and, potentially, to further increase the efficacy of this treatment

  16. [Complete hormonal and metabolic response after iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in a patient diagnosed of malignant pheochromocytoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Alonso, M P; Balsa Bretón, M A; Paniagua Correa, C; Castillejos Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez Pelayo, E; Mendoza Paulini, A; Ortega Valle, A; Penín González, J

    2013-01-01

    Radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine is an analogue of norepinephrine used to localize tumors that express the neurohormone transporters, specifically those derived from the neural crest having a neuroendocrine origin. It is also used to treat non-surgical metastases derived from them. A review of the literature revealed symptomatic improvements associated to a decrease in hormone levels in a significant percentage of patients after (131)I-MIBG treatment. However, complete tumor remission has been described only in very few cases and hardly ever when bone metastases exist. We present a case of a patient diagnosed of malignant pheochromocytoma who achieved complete hormonal and metabolic response after (131)I-MIBG treatment (600 mCi) in spite of the presence of bone metastases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. Iodine capsules in thyroid therapy: An individually controlled study of I-131 uptake kinetics as compared to liquid administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Schulthess, G.K.; Seelentag, W.W.; Pfeiffer, G.; Blauenstein, P.; Bekier, A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the additional radiation dose sustained by parts of the patients gastric mucosa when given I-131 therapy in capsular rather than liquid form, and thus to establish the safety of this procedure. 16 patients with benign thyroid disease were studied by measuring serum radioactivity at 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min. after administration of the capsule (120-200 MBq I131). These serum uptake values were compared to the uptake after administration of a liquid diagnostic dose of I-131 (2 MBq). From the resulting uptake curves the delay due to capsular dissolution was determined. The average dissolution time was found to be 12 min. with a large standard deviation of 7 min. Also, a theoretical curve was computed to indicate the dose rate as a function of the distance from the surface of the capsule. Based on this information the maximum dose to the gastric mucosa is of the order of 250 cGy for a therapeutic activity of 185 MBq, which is the maximum dose which may be given as single application to outpatients in Switzerland. By having the patient swallow some liquid during the first ten minutes, the capsule can be made to move around, and hence, the local radiation dose can be reduced substantially. The authors conclude, that I-131 in capsular form is a safe galenic form for therapeutic use in patients with thyroid disease. When large doses are given, administration of the dose in several capsules may be advisable

  18. Iodine-131-labelled CDR grafted monoclonal antibody huA33 metastatic colorectal carcinoma: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.L.; Lee, F.T.; Scott, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with metastatic colorectal carcinoma two years after initial surgery for sigmoid carcinoma. As part of the staging work-up she was initially referred for a 18 F-FDG PET scan at the PET Centre. FDG PET scans of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated multiple hepatic lesions, but there was no evidence of disease outside the liver. On the basis of extensive hepatic disease, the patient was scheduled for a laparotomy for insertion of an hepatic artery catheter for chemotherapy. In view of her clinical presentation, the patient was eligible for a Phase 1 trial with 131 l-labelled huA33, and agreed to participate. HuA33 is a humanised CDR-grafted recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against an antigen found on >95 per cent of all colorectal carcinomas, and on small bowel and colonic mucosa. The phase 1 trial is a protein dose escalation study designed to examine the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, dosimetry and safety profile of huA33, and sequential gamma camera images of the whole body were obtained daily until seven days post infusion. SPECT images were obtained on day 6. Excellent localisation of 131 l-huA33 was seen in hepatic lesions. Calculation of whole body retention and tumour uptake was performed, and pharmacokinetic analysis also undertaken. Biopsies of tumour obtained at surgery were used to quantitate tumour uptake and cellular trafficking of 131 l-huA33. On the basis of this phase 1 study, future therapeutic trials of 131 I-huA33 are planned

  19. Biological (DB) and internal dosimetry (DI) in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (CaDT) treated with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, Ana M.; Chebel, G.; Oneto, A.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, A.; Rojo, Ana M.; Deluca, G.; Levi de Cabrejas, Mariana; Cabrejas, Raul C.

    2009-01-01

    The internal 131 I radiotherapy in patients with CaDT is used within the therapeutic scheme as a step post-thyroidectomy. The success of therapy is to achieve a lethal dose in the tumor tissue without exceeding the dose of tolerance in healthy tissues (doses greater than 2 Gy in bone marrow could lead to myelotoxicity). In this work, the treatment protocol applied incorporates assessment by biological (DB) and internal dosimetry (DI) for estimating doses to the whole body and bone marrow to administer a therapeutic personalized for each patient. The estimate biological dose is based in the quantification of chromosomal aberrations, which is referred to a dose-response curve. Objectives: 1) To estimate the absorbed dose to the whole body and bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I therapy in patients with CaDT, by applying three different cytogenetic tests: conventional cytogenetics, micronuclei (MN) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); 2) Assess the correlation of the results obtained by DB and DI for personalization of treatment. Materials and methods: We evaluated 24 patients with CaDiT by applying the cytogenetic tests mentioned and internal dosimetry (methodology Mird-Olinda). Internal dosimetry: We administered a tracer dose 74 to 111 MBq. Measurements were made of activity in whole body and blood. By adjusting the scheme was estimated MIRD dose in bone marrow and the maximum therapeutic activity to manage and secure. Through software Olinda was determined absorbed dose to the whole body for each patient. We considered patient-specific data (physical frame size, weight, hematocrit) to adjust the methodology in each particular case. It is assumed that the tracer activity administered has a kinetic in the body similar to the 131 I to be administered in therapeutic amounts. Biology Dosimetry : We performed for each patient taking 2 sequential venous blood samples to estimate the dose due to therapeutic activity in review: the first shows, pre

  20. Iodine intake in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.A.; Hetherton, A.M.; O'Carroll, D.; Smith, D.F.; O'Halloran, M.J.; O'Donovan, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A study of urinary iodine excretion and thyroid gland uptake of radioactive iodine 131 I was undertaken in the Dublin area with a view to providing data on the current iodine status in Ireland. A mean urinary iodine excretion of 118±82μg/gram creatinine (Median 96) obtained from 821 subjects attending general hospital outpatient clinics in the Dublin area in 1987, while excluding severe iodine deficiency in this particular cohort, obscured the fact that 250 (30%) had iodine excretion values ≤70 μ/g creatinine, a value approximating to the minimum daily iodine requirement. The results provide sufficient evidence of sporadic iodine deficiency to justify a more widespread study of the iodine status of the Irish population with a view to making recommendations on the possible need for iodine prophylaxis

  1. Gold-198 and rose bengal marked with iodine-131 in the diagnostic of hepatic vesicular affections; L'or{sup 198} et le rose bengale marque a l'iode{sup 131} dans le diagnostic des affections hepatovesiculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manambelona Razafimalaza, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-06-15

    Colloidal gold-198 makes it possible to obtain clear images of hepatic parenchyma; the examination can be repeated from different angles thus demonstrating the presence of pathologically inert regions, whether they be hydatic cysts, abscesses or neoplasia. The study of the disappearance curve for the colloid, together with a measurement of the blood volume, makes it possible also to calculate the hepatic flow. Using Rose Bengal marked with iodine-131, it is possible to obtain images of the liver and of the bile ducts, and to follow the elimination of the dye in the intestines. The simultaneous recording of the disappearance curves for the blood and of the appearance of the dye in the intestines constitutes an useful working test which is particularly sensible for evaluating the permeability of the bile ducts and, to a certain degree, the site of an obstruction. (author) [French] L'or colloidal-198 permet d'obtenir avec nettete des images du parenchyme hepatique; l'examen peut etre repete sous plusieurs incidences mettant ainsi en evidence les zones muettes pathologiques, qu'il s'agisse de kystes hydatiques, d'abces ou de neoplasies. L'etude de la courbe d'epuration du colloide completee par une mesure du volume sanguin offre en outre la possibilite de calculer le debit hepatique. A l'aide du rose bengale marque a l'iode-131, il est possible d'obtenir des images du foie et de la vesicule biliaire, et de suivre l'elimination intestinale du colorant. L'enregistrement simultane des courbes d'epuration sanguine et d'apparition intestinale constitue une epreuve fonctionnelle particulierement sensible pour apprecier la permeabilite des voies biliaires et dans une certaine mesure le site d'une obstruction. (auteur)

  2. Comparative dual-tracer studies of carbon-14 tryptophan and iodine-131 HIPDM in animal models of pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, K.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C.; Atkins, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that a significant amount of the diamine derivative 131 I-N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3- propanediamine (HIPDM) is taken up and retained by the normal pancreas. Therefore, we studied the uptake of [ 13 1I]HIPDM in various pathophysiological models in mice (chronic alcoholism, diabetes with beta-cell atrophy and obesity with beta-cell hypertrophy) and compared to 14 C-L-Tryptophan (TRY) distribution in order to determine the factors influencing their pancreatic uptake. In normal animals, the pancreas uptake of TRY was generally higher than HIPDM. In diabetes, the relative concentration of both compounds was higher over the controls; however, in obesity, TRY showed lower accumulation than in controls while HIPDM showed no significant difference. Chronic ethanol (20%) ingestion increased TRY uptake in the pancreas compared to controls (36.88 ± 3.21 vs. 30.03 ± 4.17% ID/g; p less than 0.01) after 5 wk study period, but it decreased by 10 wk (22.36 ± 0.95% ID/g; p less than 0.005). There were no significant changes in [ 131 I]HIPDM distribution in alcoholics as compared to the controls. Radioiodinated HIPDM has potential advantages over [ 11 C]TRY for pancreatic imaging since conventional imaging techniques can be employed. Our data, however, suggest that 11 C-L-TRY is a more sensitive indicator of various pancreatic disorders

  3. Iodine-131 treatment of thyroid cancer cells leads to suppression of cell proliferation followed by induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by regulation of B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated JNK/NF-κB pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.M.; Pang, A.X., E-mail: zhaoliming515@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi (China); Department of Urology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi (China)

    2017-10-01

    Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) is widely used for the treatment of thyroid-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the expression of p53 and BTG2 genes following {sup 131}I therapy in thyroid cancer cell line SW579 and the possible underlying mechanism. SW579 human thyroid squamous carcinoma cells were cultured and treated with {sup 131}I. They were then assessed for {sup 131}I uptake, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, p53 expression, and BTG2 gene expression. SW579 cells were transfected with BTG2 siRNA, p53 siRNA and siNC and were then examined for the same aforementioned parameters. When treated with a JNK inhibitor of SP600125 and {sup 131}I or with a NF-kB inhibitor of BMS-345541 and {sup 131}I, non-transfected SW579 cells were assessed in JNK/NFkB pathways. It was observed that {sup 131}I significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Both BTG2 and p53 expression were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in cell viability by up-regulation in Bcl2 gene, a decrease in apoptosis by enhanced CDK2 gene expression and a decrease in cell cycle arrest at G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase were also observed in SW579 cell lines transfected with silenced BTG2 gene. When treated with SP600125 and {sup 131}I, the non transfected SW579 cell lines significantly inhibited JNK pathway, NF-kB pathway and the expression of BTG2. However, when treated with BMS-345541 and {sup 131}I, only the NF-kB pathway was suppressed. {sup 131}I suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and promoted cell cycle arrest of thyroid cancer cells by up-regulating B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated activation of JNK/NF--κB pathways. (author)

  4. Evaluation of radiotherapy of patients with Graves' disease treated with fixed activities of 555 MBq of Iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose M.F. da; Filho, Joao A.; Junior, Manoel R. de S.; Mendonca, Keyla M.C., E-mail: josemarcosfs@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br, E-mail: manoel@de.ufpe.br, E-mail: keylamcm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), e-mail: Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Graves' disease treatment is done by radioiodine therapy (RIT), which destroys cells of the thyroid and reduces the synthesis of T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}; and surgery. In Brazil, applies RIT with fixed activities. Studies show that RIT should be based on individual biokinetics. There is controversy regarding the use of fixed activities or calculated. This study was conducted at the HC-UFPE in the period 2006-2010. Of the overall sample of 132 patients that entered the study, twenty-five of them formed a group chosen to estimate the maximum uptake of {sup 131}I and thyroid mass, to calculate the activity to be administered and the absorbed dose. All the patients were treated with fixed activities of 555 MBq {sup 131}I. Observed that 28% of patients received radioactivities above, 72% received radioactivities below, and nobody received no radioactivity as a real need. The group obtained an average rate of cure of (76 ± 5) % at 24 months of follow up, less than those obtained under the same conditions biokinetics and mean follow-up interval, among many, who have used doses of 250 Gy and 350 Gy and achieved cure rates approximately 90%. Doses received totaled 9,166 Gy, and 6,698 Gy were necessary, therefore were wasted 2,468 Gy. Were risk factors observed: extrapolation of interval of the thyroid function tests of three to six months to one to three years; economic difficulties, interfamily, socio emotional and to perform the tests requested and great distances between homes and hospital; among others; may be limitations that led to the contraposition that higher activities of {sup 131}I promote greater cure rate of GD. Results of univariate analysis - were statistically significant risk factors: female, thyroid mass between 31 g and 60 g and duration of the GD before of RIT > five years (p < 0.05). The factors sex and thyroid mass are consistent with other studies. The results suggest the use of optimized activities based on individual dosimetric parameters and the

  5. Evaluation of radiotherapy of patients with Graves' disease treated with fixed activities of 555 MBq of Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose M.F. da; Filho, Joao A.; Junior, Manoel R. de S.; Mendonca, Keyla M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Graves' disease treatment is done by radioiodine therapy (RIT), which destroys cells of the thyroid and reduces the synthesis of T 3 and T 4 ; and surgery. In Brazil, applies RIT with fixed activities. Studies show that RIT should be based on individual biokinetics. There is controversy regarding the use of fixed activities or calculated. This study was conducted at the HC-UFPE in the period 2006-2010. Of the overall sample of 132 patients that entered the study, twenty-five of them formed a group chosen to estimate the maximum uptake of 131 I and thyroid mass, to calculate the activity to be administered and the absorbed dose. All the patients were treated with fixed activities of 555 MBq 131 I. Observed that 28% of patients received radioactivities above, 72% received radioactivities below, and nobody received no radioactivity as a real need. The group obtained an average rate of cure of (76 ± 5) % at 24 months of follow up, less than those obtained under the same conditions biokinetics and mean follow-up interval, among many, who have used doses of 250 Gy and 350 Gy and achieved cure rates approximately 90%. Doses received totaled 9,166 Gy, and 6,698 Gy were necessary, therefore were wasted 2,468 Gy. Were risk factors observed: extrapolation of interval of the thyroid function tests of three to six months to one to three years; economic difficulties, interfamily, socio emotional and to perform the tests requested and great distances between homes and hospital; among others; may be limitations that led to the contraposition that higher activities of 131 I promote greater cure rate of GD. Results of univariate analysis - were statistically significant risk factors: female, thyroid mass between 31 g and 60 g and duration of the GD before of RIT > five years (p < 0.05). The factors sex and thyroid mass are consistent with other studies. The results suggest the use of optimized activities based on individual dosimetric parameters and the implementation of more

  6. Recombinant human thyrotropin stimulation prior to 131I therapy in toxic multinodular goitre with low radioactive iodine uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorín Belda, M J; Martínez Caballero, A; Figueroa Ardila, G C; Martínez Ramírez, M; Gómez Jaramillo, C A; Dolado Ardit, J I; Verdú Rico, J

    Stimulation with recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) increases thyroid radioiodine uptake, and is an aid to 131 I therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre (MNG). However, there are not many studies using rhTSH prior to 131 I in toxic multinodular goitre to improve hyperthyroidism and compressive symptoms. A prospective study was conducted on patients with MNG and hyperthyroidism. Patients were recruited consecutively and divided into group I, stimulated with 0.3mg of rhTSH before radioiodine therapy, and a control group or group II, without stimulation. Thyroid function, radioiodine thyroid uptake, thyroid weight, and compressive symptoms were measured, and patients were followed-up for 9 months. Group I consisted of 16 patients (14 women), with a mean age 69.7 years, and group II with 16 patients (12 women), with a mean age 70.7 years. After stimulation with 0.3mg rhTSH in group I, 131 I uptake (RAIU) at 24h increased by 78.4%, and the estimated absorbed dose by 89.3%. In group II, the estimated absorbed dose was lower than group I after stimulation with rhTSH (29.8Gy vs. 56.4Gy; P=0.001). At 9 months of follow-up, hyperthyroidism was controlled in 87.5% of patients in group I, and 56.2% in group II (P=0.049). The mean reduction in thyroid weight was higher in group I than in group II (39.3% vs. 26.9%; P=0.017), with a tendency towards subjective improvement of compressive symptoms in group I, although non-significant. Only 2 patients described tachycardias after rhTSH administration, which were resolved with beta-blockers. Stimulation with 0.3mg of recombinant human thyrotropin prior to radioiodine therapy achieves a reduction in thyroid weight and functional improvement in patients with hyperthyroidism and multinodular goitre with low uptake, and with no need for hospital admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of computational models for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose in rainbow trout from uptake of iodine-131 - Comparison of rainbow trout phantoms for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose rates from uptake of iodine-131 in freshwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Nicole E. [Department of Environmental and Engineering Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, 29634 (United States); Johnson, Thomas E.; Ruedig, Elizabeth; Pinder, John E. III [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1681 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Internal radiation dose rates to biota are typically calculated utilizing dose conversion factors (DCF), which are values for absorbed dose rate per activity concentration (i.e. mGy d{sup -1} per Bq g{sup -1}). The current methodology employed by both the ICRP and within the ERICA Integrated Approach for calculating dose conversion coefficients is to use Monte Carlo modeling of a homogeneously distributed radionuclide within an ellipsoidal phantom chosen to represent a particular organism. It has been shown that for whole-body DCF, homogenous distribution is a reasonable assumption for electrons, and is associated with an uncertainty of less than 30% for photons. However, if a radionuclide has a specific tissue tropism (e.g. iodine-131 in thyroid) a much higher dose will be received by the organ or tissue than by the whole body. Internal organs are modeled generically as spheres within the ellipsoid phantom, due to the complex and variable nature of organ structure and arrangement within different types of organisms. Ratios of whole-body to organ mass offer conservative conversions of whole-body to organ specific DCF (Gomez-Ros et al 2008), but may considerably overestimate the organ dose; more accurate estimates can be made based on specific absorbed fractions and activity concentrations. Establishment of appropriate screening levels in the regulatory paradigm requires incorporation of sufficient knowledge of dose effects; the ICRP currently lists no derived consideration reference levels for organs, meaning that specific risks associated with organ dose rates are unavailable (ICRP 108). Model comparison and refinement is important in the process of determining both dose rates and dose effects, and here we develop and compare three models for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): the simple geometry described above, a more specific geometry employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging

  8. Role of post-therapy 131Iodine SPECT-CT in risk stratification and management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Harishankar, C.N.B.; Manohar, K.; Mittal, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    contamination of skin and in 1/13 intermediate risk patient was changed to low risk category (thus changing the post ablation TSH suppression criteria). Conclusion: SPECT/CT data significantly altered the initial risk of recurrence estimates in 4 of 33 patients (12.12%) and changed subsequent patient management in 13 out of 33 patients (39.39%). This study suggests that 131 Iodine SPECT/CT has a significant role in the management strategy of differentiated thyroid cancer

  9. Prognostication of the radioactive contamination with iodine 131, strontium 90 and cesium 137 of the air and soil after commissioning the ''Kozloduj'' nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, M; Paskalev, Z [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1975-01-01

    The content of iodine 131, strontium 90 and cesium 137 in the air (curie/l) and soil (curie/m/sup 2/ sec) in the area of the Kozloduj atomic power station (at a distance from 3 to 75 km from the chimney-stack of the power station) was determined. The concentrations of these radionuclides are determined under different meteorologic conditions: air temperature from -20/sup 0/C to +20/sup 0/C and a wind speed from 2 m/sec to 30 m/sec. The data show that at -20/sup 0/C radionuclide concentrations in the air decrease with increasing distance from the chimney-stack, regardless of the speed of the wind. At +20/sup 0/C radionuclide concentrations in the air increase with the distance from the chimney-stack, peak at a definite distance and then decrease. At 2 m/sec and speed this maximum is at a distance of 50 km from station. As the speed of the air increases, the peak moves nearer and remains about 30 km from the power station. Results on ground surface concentrations show that a trend is observed toward persistent decrease with distance from the power station. In rainy weather they are almost four times higher than in dry weather. The radionuclide concentrations on the ground surface will be comparable to their global deposits.

  10. The influential factors of 131I treatment for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Benxu

    2003-01-01

    Many factors such as iodine-131 uptake, effective half-life, thyroid volume, and antithyroid drugs affect the iodine-131 dose for every hyperthyroid patient. The outcome of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism is decided by all of these factors

  11. Preliminary study of the distribution of dose in patients with Graves' disease undergoing examination of uptake of iodine-131 using Monte Carlo simulation; Estudo preliminar da distribuicao de dose em pacientes com doenca de Graves submetidos a exame de captacao de iodo-131 utilizando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarcke, Marcelo; Marques, Tatiana; Nicolucci, Patricia; Baffa, Oswaldo, E-mail: mschwarcke@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Bornemann, Clarissa [Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear de Santa Maria

    2010-06-15

    Patients with Graves disease have a high hormonal disorder, which causes behavioral changes. One way to treat this disease is the use of high doses of {sup 131} Iodine, requiring that the patient carries out the examination of {sup 131}I uptake to estimate the activity to be administered. Using these data capture and compared with the simulated data using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE is possible to determine a distribution of dose to the region surrounding the thyroid. As noted the difference between the simulated values and the experimentally obtained were 10.36%, thus showing the code of simulation for accurate determination of absorbed dose in tissue near the thyroid. (author)

  12. A comparison of 1850 (50 mCi) and 3700 MBq (100 mCi) 131-iodine administered doses for recombinant thyrotropin-stimulated postoperative thyroid remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Tania; Brianzoni, Ernesto; Capoccetti, Francesca; Castagna, Maria Grazia; Fattori, Sara; Poggiu, Angela; Rossi, Gloria; Ferretti, Francesca; Guarino, Elisa; Burroni, Luca; Vattimo, Angelo; Cipri, Claudia; Pacini, Furio

    2007-09-01

    Recently, a multicenter study in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients showed that 3700 MBq 131-iodine ((131)I) after recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) had a successful thyroid ablation rate similar to that obtained after thyroid hormone withdrawal. We investigated whether 1850 MBq (131)I had a similar successful rate to 3700 MBq in patients prepared with rhTSH. A total of 72 patients with DTC were randomly assigned to receive 1850 (group A, n = 36) or 3700 MBq (group B, n = 36) (131)I after rhTSH. One injection of 0.9 mg rhTSH was administered for 2 consecutive days; (131)I therapy was delivered 24 h after the last injection, followed by a posttherapy whole-body scan. Successful ablation was assessed 6-8 months later. Successful ablation (no visible uptake in the diagnostic whole-body scan after rhTSH stimulation) was achieved in 88.9% of group A and B patients. Basal and rhTSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin was undetectable (<1 ng/ml) in 78.9% of group A and 66.6% of group B patients (P = 0.46). Similar rates of ablation were obtained in both groups also in patients with node metastases. Therapeutic (131)I activities of 1850 MBq are equally effective as 3700 MBq for thyroid ablation in DTC patients prepared with rhTSH, even in the presence of node metastases.

  13. Estimation of the activity and doses to personnel which intake Iodine 131 by coffee consumption in a cabinet of Nuclear Medicine; Estimacion de la actividad y dosis a personal que ingirio Yodo 131 por consumo de cafe en un gabinete de Medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Alfaro L, M.; Salinas, J.A.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Soon after an incident in a cabinet of nuclear medicine, its were carried out in the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico (ININ), a series of bio essays measurements by whole-body counting to six people attributed to this cabinet. Of six people, five are classified as Occupational Exposed Personnel (POE), and the other one that works as secretary, according to the General Regulation of Radiological Safety, is classified as public member. Six people that were involved in this incident, the one which presumably it took place among November 15 and 18, 2002 and that it consisted on the effusion of a vial containing an unknown quantity of Iodine-131 to a coffeepot, they ingested coffee in diverse quantities. The Iodine-131 is used in nuclear medicine, so much for the illnesses diagnostic like in the treatment of thyroid cancer and of hyperthyroidism. (Author)

  14. Contribution of radio-iodine 131 in the treatment of Grave's Basedow disease in the department of nuclear medicine of Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat; Apport de l'iode 131 dans le traitement de la maladie de Basedow dans le service de medecine nucleaire de l'hopital Ibn Sina de Rabat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbodj, M.; Amjad, I. [Faculte de Medecine de Dakar, Lab. de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Guerrouj, H.; Ben Rais, N.A. [Hopital Ibn Sina de Rabat, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco)

    2009-10-15

    One hundred and twenty-nine Grave's Basedow diseases in any gender and variable age patients, coming from several cities of Morocco, were randomized in a study of radio-iodine treatment who took place at the nuclear medicine department of Ibn Sina Hospital (Rabat, Morocco) during the period (from January 2001 to December 2008). The radio-iodine treatment was a first, second or third option and radio-iodine activities delivered varied (from 222 to 555 MBq 6 to 15 mCi) according to the age, the thyroid volume, the degree of hyperthyroidism and socio-economical situation. The high amounts of {sup 131}I were reserved especially to the patients who live far and whose socio-economic level is low with an aim of quickly obtaining an easily controllable state of hypothyroidism by a substitute treatment. The results showed that: (1) 57.36% of patients reverted to euthyroidism (n = 74) with a patient having received two {sup 131}I cures. The second cure was justified by recurrence of hyperthyroidism after the first cure; (2) 34.88% passed in hypothyroidism (n = 45) with three patients having received two cures of {sup 131}I, the second cure was justified by recurrence of hyperthyroidism after the first cure in two patients and by the persistence of the hyperthyroidism after the first cure for the third patient. The average time of passage in hypothyroidism was 4.5 months; (3) 7.76% had remained in hyperthyroidism after the radioactive iodine treatment. Finally, 92.24% of our patients treated by radioactive iodine had passed in euthyroidism or hypothyroidism against 7.76% whose hyperthyroidism had persisted or occurred. (authors)

  15. Study on the metabolism of 15 p-131iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid [p-iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid] as a tracer of free fatty acids in comparison to 1-14C-palmitic acid (C-palmitic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    In an animal experiment under identical metabolic influences the metabolism of a new radiopharmaceutical, 15 p- 131 iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid (IPPA), was compared to the marked physiological fatty acid, 1- 14 C-palmitic acid (PA). The pharmacological kinetics of both tracers in tissues with widely varied turnover rates of fatty acids (heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, small intestine, skeletal muscle) was studied. By alkali extraction of the tissue lipids and then a chromatographic separation of the lipid fractions quantitatively comparable statements about the metabolism of PA and IPPA were made possible. The analyses of autoradiographs of the chromatographically separated lipids show a qualitatively congruous assimilation of both markers in the major lipid fractions. The quantitative evaluation shows minor differences as a result of a preferred assimilation of IPPA in triglycerides and of PA in phospholipids. The fractionated separation of tissue lipids which had been marked with PA and IPPA in vivo agrees very well with values which have been determined by other authors using 14 C- or 3 H-marked fatty acids. The close correlation of the tissue-specific metabolism kinetics of both markers makes it clear that both fatty acids are metabolized by similar, respectively, primarily identical metabolic pathyways. In conclusion, this study makes clear the extensive congruence of the metabolism kinetics of IPPA and the kinetics of the physiological palmitic acid. As a result of the presented results of the γ-radiating radiopharmaceutical IPPA as a free fatty acid analog new possibilities for the non-invasive external comprehension of lipid metabolism are opened up, whose use especially in the diagnostic of heart diseases promises success. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Outpatient thyroid remnant ablation using repeated low 131-iodine activities (740 MBq/20 mCix2) in patients with low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme; Bienvenu-Perrard, Marie; de Malleray, Caroline Pichard; Dagousset, Françoise; Delbot, Thierry; Dreyfuss, Marc; Groussin, Lionel; Marlowe, Robert J; Leger, Françoise Aubène; Chevalier, Alain

    2012-03-01

    In low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), postoperative (131)I remnant ablation should employ a minimum effective activity; reports increasingly suggest efficacy of low activities, e.g. 1110 MBq/30 mCi. OBJECTIVES, DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: We retrospectively studied the ablation capability and diagnostic utility of the Minidose protocol, two 740-MBq/20 mCi outpatient administrations, 6-18 months apart, plus related diagnostic procedures, in 160 consecutive (near-) totally thyroidectomized low-risk DTC (pT1/N0-Nx) patients. Successful ablation comprised negative 740-MBq whole-body scintigraphy with cervical uptake below 0.1%, negative stimulated thyroglobulin (STg) (<1 ng/ml, negative thyroglobulin antibodies), and negative Doppler ultrasonography (performed around Minidose 2). The study took place at a referral center. Minidose imaging found unsuspected nodal or distant metastases in nine of 160 patients (5.6%). Ablation success rates after one (two) 740-MBq activity (activites) were 75.9% (90.2%) in 145 (132) evaluable imaging-negative patients. Compared with thyroid hormone withdrawal, recombinant human TSH stimulation was associated with higher urinary iodine excretion/creatinine, lower cervical uptake, and more frequent ablation success after the first 740 MBq; success rates no longer differed significantly after both administrations. Patients with STg below 10 ng/ml at Minidose 1 were oftener ablated at Minidose 2 (odds ratio=13.9, 95% confidence interval=2.5-76.4, P<0.003), attaining 92.0% final ablation success after recombinant human TSH preparation, suggesting that one 740-MBq activity should suffice in this subgroup. All 81 evaluable patients with prolonged follow-up (mean 41.8±21.9 months after Minidose 1) had no evidence of disease at the last visit. The Minidose outpatient ablation protocol is effective and diagnostically useful in low-risk DTC.

  17. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  18. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow

  19. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  20. Assessment of iodine-131 transfer to cow's milk and to man resulting from the Nevada weapons tests of the 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.; Dreicer, M.; Beck, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The main pathway to man from fallout I-131 is, for most individuals, via the grass-cow-milk chain. In order to assess I-131 exposures for persons in each county of the contiguous U.S. the following estimates must be made : the activities of I-131 deposited on soil and pasture grass, the resulting I-131 concentrations in cow's milk, and the quantity of I-131 ingested by man. The most significant atmospheric weapons tests with respect to fallout occurred in the 1950's, during which time most of the monitoring of environmental radioactivity consisted of gross beta or gamma measurements. Assessments of exposures due to I-131 can be inferred from the original measurements of gross beta or gamma activity, from current or past measurements of radionuclides other than I-131, or from mathematical models

  1. Prediction of iodine-131 biokinetics and radiation doses from therapy on the basis of tracer studies: an important question for therapy planning in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério A; Lima, Beatriz C G D; Sapienza, Marcelo T; Coura-Filho, George B; Buchpiguel, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to present a comparison of iodine-131 (I) biokinetics and radiation doses to red-marrow (rm) and whole-body (wb), following the administration of tracer and therapeutic activities, as a means of confirming whether I clearance and radiation doses for therapy procedures can be predicted by tracer activities. Eleven differentiated thyroid cancer patients were followed after receiving tracer and therapeutic I activity. Whole-body I clearance was estimated using radiation detectors and OLINDA/EXM software was used to calculate radiation doses to rm and wb. Tracer I activity of 86 (±14) MBq and therapeutic activity of 8.04 (±1.18) GBq were administered to patients, thereby producing an average wb I effective half-time and residence time of, respectively, 13.51 (±4.05) and 23.13 (±5.98) h for tracer activities and 13.32 (±3.38) and 19.63 (±4.77) h for therapy. Radiation doses to rm and wb were, respectively, 0.0467 (±0.0208) and 0.0589 (±0.0207) mGy/MBq in tracer studies and 0.0396 (±0.0169) and 0.0500 (±0.0163) mGy/MBq in therapy. Although the differences were not considered statistically significant between averages, those between the values of effective half-times (P=0.906), residence times (P=0.145), and radiation doses to rm (P=0.393) and to wb (P=0.272), from tracer and therapy procedures, large differences of up to 80% in wb I clearance, and up to 50% in radiation doses were observed when patients were analyzed individually, thus impacting on the total amount of I activity calculated to be safe for application in individual therapy. I biokinetics and radiation doses to rm and wb in therapy procedures are well predicted by diagnostic activities when average values of a group of patients are compared. Nonetheless, when patients are analyzed individually, significant differences may be encountered, thus implying that nuclear medicine therapy-planning requires due consideration of changes in individual patient-body status from

  2. Accidental release of iodine-131 by IRE at Fleurus: back experience of Belgium safety authority; Rejet accidentel d'iode-131 par l'IRE sur le site de Fleurus: retour d'experience de l'autorite de surete belge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Sonck, M. [AFCN - Agence federale de controle nucleaire, Bruxelles (Belgium); Degueldre, D. [Bel V, Anderlecht (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    The IRE (National institute for radioelements) produces radionuclides for nuclear medicine from highly enriched uranium irradiated targets. On 22/08/2008, fresh production wastes were transferred into an almost empty decay tank. The mixing of these liquids led to the release of approximately 47 GBq of molecular iodine-131 into the atmosphere. The first conservative assessments of the radiological consequences did not require taking direct protective actions for the population, such as sheltering or stable iodine intake. However, the estimated iodine-131 deposits could locally reach or exceed the derived reference levels for the contamination of milk (4 kBq/m2) and leafy vegetables (10 kBq/m2). For this reason, and because there was a threat of a further release, the federal emergency plan was activated on 28/08 and the population potentially concerned was recommended to avoid consumption of locally produced fruits, vegetables and fresh milk. These protective actions were lifted on 7/09 and the emergency plan was lifted on 12/09. The main lesson learned from this event concerns the paramount importance of the rapid exchange of information that is as accurate and complete as possible between the different stakeholders: from the operator up to the population, through federal and local authorities. (authors)

  3. Experience in the patients management which received treatments with radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I). Measurements and dosimetry pertaining to the personnel related; Experiencia en el manejo de pacientes que recibieron tratamientos con yodo radiactivo ({sup 131}I). Mediciones reglamentarias y dosimetria del personal relacionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz J, A [Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Tlalpan, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the INNSZ there are administering ablative doses of radioactive iodine to patients with problems of the thyroid gland from 40 years ago. Starting from 1992 was initiated the restlessness to inform to the patients verbally and in writing over the measurements of radiological safety that must be followed for the protection of their families. In this work it is commented, the benefits obtained with the patients and the teachings to give to the personnel what attend the patients which receive treatments with iodine-131 and must be hospitalized. It is commented too over the standardization standing of the patients discharged whom received radioactive material and lastly, it was make a dosimetric study of the nurses, radiotherapeutic and control area. (Author)

  4. Exposure to iodine 131 during the supply of capsules used for ira-therapy: comparative study of three measurement systems; Exposition a l'iode 131 lors de la dispensation des gelules utilisees pour l'iratherapie: etude comparative de trois systemes de mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moubarik, C.; Giraud, F.; Bourrelly, M.; Guillet, B.; Pisano, P. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de la Timone, Marseille, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective was to study the efficiency in the field of radiation protection of the new handle elaborated by the Covidien laboratories. In conclusions, this new handle seems to be the most efficient system in term of radiation protection of hands extremities. Indeed, it allows to reduce of 70% the exposure to extremities during the distribution of iodine 131 capsules. This supplementary protection comes from a better ergonomics and from the presence of a lead shield on the new prehension handle of Covidien laboratories. (N.C.)

  5. Dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine (iodine 131, 123, 125, or 132) as well as their metal and amine salts; methods for the preparation of these compounds and of radioactive functional diagnostics containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the preparation of dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine is described. The initial substances are N,N dimethyl-p-toluene sulfonamide, N,N bis-dimethyl aminosulfon, or dimethyl sulfon, or mixtures of these, which are heated in aqueous solution or in a melt with an alkali or alkaline earth radioiodide as carrier-free as possible. From the water-soluble salts of the obtained iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilides aqueous solutions are produced with 1 mg up to 5 g iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilide per 10 ml and an activity of 0.025 and 25 mCi per ml with physiologically compatible bases as radioactive functional diagnostics. (RB) [de

  6. Follow-up and evaluation of the pregnancy outcome in women of reproductive age with Graves’ disease after 131Iodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li-Hua; Li, Jing-Yan; Tian, Qi; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Sheng; Liang, Jiu-Gen; Lu, Xian-Ping; Jiang, Ning-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the outcomes of pregnancy, after 131 I treatment, in patients of reproductive age with Graves’ hyperthyroidism and to investigate the effects, if any, of the 131 I treatment on the mothers and newborns. From 2009 to 2014, 257 pregnant female patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism in the outpatients at the Department of Nuclear Medicine and 166 healthy pregnant women from the Department of Obstetrics at Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital were included in our study. They were divided into a 131 I therapy group (n = 130) and an anti-thyroid drug (ATD) group (n = 127) according to their therapy before conception. The neonatal gender, rate of preterm birth, body weight ratio and occurrence of low birth weight [except for higher rates of abortion (odds ratio; OR = 2.023) and cesarean delivery (OR = 1.552) in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism] showed no statistically significant differences from those of the healthy group (P > 0.05). The level of intrauterine growth restriction did not differ between the Graves’ hyperthyroidism group and the healthy group (8 vs 2, 3.0% vs 1.2%). The outcomes of pregnancy among the 131 I therapy group, ATD group and healthy group also showed no significant differences. Of the patients treated with 131 I, no significant differences were observed in the outcomes of their pregnancies, whether they received propylthiouracil (PTU), levothyroxine or no additional drug treatment during pregnancy. Women with hyperthyroidism who were treated with 131 I therapy could have normal delivery if they ceased 131 I treatment for at least six months prior to conception and if their thyroid function was reasonably controlled and maintained using the medication: anti-thyroid drug and levothyroxine before and during pregnancy.

  7. Thrombus imaging with indium-111 and iodine-131-labeled fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody and its F(ab')2 and Fab fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported successful imaging of fresh (2-4 hr old) and aged (1-5 days old) canine thrombi with 131 I-labeled intact monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for fibrin. We now report thrombus imaging with 131 I-labeled F(ab')2 and Fab and 111 In-labeled intact MAb, F(ab')2, and Fab. Indium-111-labeled F(ab')2 proved to be the best imaging agent due to less nonspecific binding in the liver than whole IgG. Image quality was improved by the higher administered dose permissible with 111 In and its better physical characteristics for imaging, compared to 131 I. Immunofluorescence of fresh human histologic sections showed intact MAb and F(ab')2 binding to thrombi, pulmonary emboli, and atherosclerotic plaques, strengthening the feasibility of clinical thrombus imaging

  8. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (U.S.)

  9. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (auth)

  10. The electrophilic lodi nation with 125 I/ 131 I of gamma globulin: Comparison between a solid-phase oxidizing agent (Iodogen), chloramine-T, iodine mono chloride and N-Bromo succinimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wetery, A.S.; Ayyoub, S.; El-Mohty, A.A.; Raieh, M.; Ghonaim, A.Kh.

    1997-01-01

    A new available oxidizing agent, 1, 3, 4, 6-tetra chloro-3α, diphenyl glycoluril(iodogen) was compared with chloramine-T (Ch-T), Iodine-mono chloride (I Cl) and N-Bromo succinimide (NBS) in the radio-iodination of gamma-globulin (γ-G) with 'no-carrier-added' (nca) Na 131 I (T 1/2=8 d). In Phosphate and acetate buffer solution, the optimum reaction conditions with respect to PH, concentration of oxidizing agent, reaction time and concentration of γ-G were determined. The optimum conditions which were found require 100μ l of buffer (pH 7.4, 0.025 M), 500μg γ-G (0.003 μmol), (10-40) μg of oxidizing agent and the desired amount of carrier-free radioiodine. Highest radiochemical yield (>85-90%) were obtained at pH 7.4. Separation and identification of the labelled products were achieved by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Radiological accident with Iodine-131 in the Radioisotope Division at IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil); Acidente radiologico com iodo-131 nas instalacoes da Divisao de Radioisotopos do IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Matias Puga; Rodrigues, Demerval Leonidas [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The accident occurred in the first week of May 1995, in the Radioisotope Division-TPI, involving two tubes containing a total volume of 3 ml, aqueous solution of N Al{sup 1}31, with 370 MBq and 1480 MBq activity is reported. Part of installation and six workers involved in the distribution process were contaminated with {sup 131} I, but there were no contamination outside the building. The workers were decontaminated and the received radiation doses were evaluated by the Radiotoxicological Laboratory of IPEN-CNEN/SP together with IRD-CNEN/RJ. The building involved was closed and the activities stopped until the complete decontamination by the Radioprotection experts of IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author) 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.; e-mail: msanches at net.ipen.br; dirodri at net.ipen.br

  12. Tests on the measurement of iodine-131 in milk using anionic ion-exchangers; Essais relatifs au dosage de l'iode 131 dans le lait au moyen d'echangeur d'ion anionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Patti, F; Daburon, M L; Gros, R; Bertrand, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The milk produced by a cow contaminated by a single ingestion has been passed over a Dowex 1 resin to fix the iodine it contained, The percentage amount fixed, originally around 100 per cent, falls to 50 per cent after 15 days. (authors) [French] Le lait d'une vache contaminee par ingestion unique a ete passe sur resine Dowex 1 pour fixer l'iode qu'il contenait. Le pourcentage de fixation, qui a l'origine est voisin de 100 pour cent, tombe a 50 pour cent au bout de 15 jours. (auteurs)

  13. Treatment with rhenium-188-perrhenate and iodine-131 of NIS-expressing mammary cancer in a mouse model remarkably inhibited tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: edadacho@aecom.yu.edu; Nguyen, Andrew [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Lin, Elaine Y. [Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Gnatovskiy, Leo [Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Lu, Ping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Pollard, Jeffrey W. [Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Introduction: Novel therapeutic modalities are needed for breast cancer patients in whom standard treatments are not effective. Mammary gland sodium/iodide symporter has been identified as a molecular target in breast cancers in humans and in some transgenic mouse models. We report the results of a therapy study with {sup 131}I{sup -} and {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} of breast cancer in polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) transgenic mice endogenously expressing the Na{sup +}/I{sup -} symporter (NIS). Methods: PyMT mice (12-13 weeks old) with one palpable tumor of 0.5-0.8 cm in diameter were used. For the therapy studies, PyMT mice were (1) treated with two intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mCi of {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} 1 week apart, (2) pretreated for 1 week with 5 {mu}g of triiodothyronine (T3) followed by two intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mCi of {sup 131}I{sup -} 1 week apart or (3) left untreated. The tumor and normal organ uptakes were assessed by scintigraphic imaging. The thyroid function of treated and control animals was evaluated at the completion of the study by measuring the T3/thyroxine (T4) ratio in their blood. Results: There was significant uptake of {sup 131}I{sup -} and {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} in the primary palpable tumors as well as in nonpalpable tumors, stomachs and thyroids. The tumor uptake after the second injection was 10 times lower in comparison with the first injection. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in both the {sup 131}I{sup -} and {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} groups in comparison with the control group, and tumors in the {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} group increased in size significantly less than in the {sup 131}I{sup -} group. The T3/T4 ratios were calculated to be 27 and 25 for the control group and the {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} group, respectively; for {sup 131}I{sup -}, both the T3 and T4 levels were below detection limit, demonstrating much less effect on the thyroids of treatment with {sup 188}ReO{sub 4

  14. Treatment with rhenium-188-perrhenate and iodine-131 of NIS-expressing mammary cancer in a mouse model remarkably inhibited tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Nguyen, Andrew; Lin, Elaine Y.; Gnatovskiy, Leo; Lu, Ping; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Novel therapeutic modalities are needed for breast cancer patients in whom standard treatments are not effective. Mammary gland sodium/iodide symporter has been identified as a molecular target in breast cancers in humans and in some transgenic mouse models. We report the results of a therapy study with 131 I - and 188 ReO 4 - of breast cancer in polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) transgenic mice endogenously expressing the Na + /I - symporter (NIS). Methods: PyMT mice (12-13 weeks old) with one palpable tumor of 0.5-0.8 cm in diameter were used. For the therapy studies, PyMT mice were (1) treated with two intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mCi of 188 ReO 4 - 1 week apart, (2) pretreated for 1 week with 5 μg of triiodothyronine (T3) followed by two intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mCi of 131 I - 1 week apart or (3) left untreated. The tumor and normal organ uptakes were assessed by scintigraphic imaging. The thyroid function of treated and control animals was evaluated at the completion of the study by measuring the T3/thyroxine (T4) ratio in their blood. Results: There was significant uptake of 131 I - and 188 ReO 4 - in the primary palpable tumors as well as in nonpalpable tumors, stomachs and thyroids. The tumor uptake after the second injection was 10 times lower in comparison with the first injection. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in both the 131 I - and 188 ReO 4 - groups in comparison with the control group, and tumors in the 188 ReO 4 - group increased in size significantly less than in the 131 I - group. The T3/T4 ratios were calculated to be 27 and 25 for the control group and the 188 ReO 4 - group, respectively; for 131 I - , both the T3 and T4 levels were below detection limit, demonstrating much less effect on the thyroids of treatment with 188 ReO 4 - than with 131 I - . Conclusions: These results prove that NIS expression in breast tumors in animal models allows specific, efficient and safe treatment with a variety of

  15. Synthesis and biodistribution of novel magnetic-poly(HEMA-APH) nanopolymer radiolabeled with iodine-131 and investigation its fate in vivo for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcıbaşı, Uğur; Avcıbaşı, Nesibe; Akalın, Hilmi Arkut; Ediz, Melis; Demiroğlu, Hasan; Gümüşer, Fikriye Gül; Özçalışkan, Emir; Türkcan, Ceren; Uygun, Deniz Aktaş; Akgöl, Sinan

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we investigated the biological uptake, distribution, and radiopharmaceutical potential of a novel molecule based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and anilinephtalein (APH) in the metabolism of Albino Wistar rats. In order to achieve this, we synthesized APH using organic synthesis methods and copolymerized APH with HEMA using a common polymerization method, surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. In the presence of Fe3O4 particles, we obtained a new generation magnetic-nano-scale polymer, magnetic-poly(HEMA-APH). This new molecule was chemically identified and approved by several characterization methods using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, atomic force microscope, and Zeta particle-size analysis. To evaluate the biological activity in live metabolism and anti-cancer potential of mag-poly(HEMA-APH), molecule was radioiodinated by a widely used labeling technique, iodogen method, with a gamma diffuser radionuclide, 131I. Thin-layer radiochromatography experiments demonstrated that 131I binded to nanopolymer with the labeling yield of 90 %. Lipophilicity and stability experiments were conducted to determine the condition of cold and labeled mag-poly(HEMA-APH) in rat blood and lipid medium. Results demonstrated that radioiodinated molecule stayed as an intact complex in rat metabolism for 24 h and experimental lipophilicity was determined as 0.12 ± 0.02. In vivo results obtained by imaging and biological distribution experiments indicated that mag-poly(HEMA-APH) labeled with 131I [131I-mag-poly(HEMA-APH)] highly incorporated into tissues of the uterus, the ovarian, the prostate, and the lungs in rat metabolism. Based on these results, it may be evaluated that novel mag-poly(HEMA-APH) molecule labeled with 131I is a compound which has a significant potential for being used as an anti-cancer agent. Certain results can only be obtained whether this

  16. Comparison of oral iodine-131-cellulose and indium-111-DTPA as tracers for colon transit scintigraphy: Analysis by colon activity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.C.; McLean, R.G.; Gaston-Parry, D.; Barbagallo, S.; Bruck, C.E.; King, D.W.; Lubowski, D.Z.; Talley, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    In 11 normal subjects and 11 patients with a clinical diagnosis of constipation, oral 131I-cellulose and 111In-DTPA were compared simultaneously as tracers for radionuclide colon transit scintigraphy. Visual assessment of the images revealed no differences between tracers. Quantitation was performed using total and segmental percent retention and the derived value of clearance half-time. In addition, profiles of the activity distribution along the length of the colon were generated and the mean position of the activity in the colon calculated. For all indices, the results were similar in both normal subjects and constipated patients when comparing tracers, although marked differences were present between normal subjects and constipated patients for each tracer. Indium-111-DTPA was easy to administer and dosimetry was more acceptable than for 131I-cellulose, especially in constipated patients. It is concluded that 111In-DTPA is the preferred tracer for oral colon transit scintigraphy

  17. Determination of behaviour of the corn weevil Sitophilus zeamais, Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in corn, rice and wheat grains by using radioactive tracer iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The dispersion behaviour and distribution pattern of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 through a bulk of corn, rice and wheat,leaving from a infestation focus, was investigated by means of tracer methodology. Adults insects were labeled with the gamma emitter 131 I, through bath in Na 131 I solution and released onto the top of grain mass deposited in cylinders each 430 mm height and 195 mm in diameter, filled to 20 mm of the top with grains. The cylinders were enclosed with lids. The insects were detected through the bulk of the grain by means of a crystal scintillator, in fourteen sites, zero 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after releasing. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Iodine-131 dispersion after accident in Nuclear Angra Power Plant using the model of aquatic dispersion, SisBahia; Avaliacao da dispersao de iodo-131 apos um acidente na usina de Angra utilizando o modelo de dispersao aquatica, SisBahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques, E-mail: aguiargm@gmail.com, E-mail: aalvim@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    It was inserted, in the cooling system of the nucleus, a LOCA, where 431 m{sup 3} of coolant was lost. Such an inventory contained 3,04 x 10{sup 10} Bq / m{sup 3} and iodine was released near the beach Itaorna, Angra dos Reis - RJ. Applying the model in the proposed scenario (Angra 1 and Angra 2 in operation and 3 in with varying capture and discharge with the discharge gradually reduced after the accident), the dilution of the specific activity of radionuclides reached lower values after 22 hours, the reference levels for seawater {sup 131}I (7,40 x 10{sup 2} Bq / m{sup 3}). After 54 hours, levels of the radionuclide, in the area of indirect influence, are already below minimum activity values detected by the laboratory for environmental monitoring of the CNAAA (5,0 x 10{sup 1} Bq / m{sup 3}.

  19. Synthesis and biodistribution of novel magnetic-poly(HEMA-APH) nanopolymer radiolabeled with iodine-131 and investigation its fate in vivo for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Ugur, E-mail: uguravcibasi@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science (Turkey); Avc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Nesibe [Ege University, Ege Higher Vocational School (Turkey); Akal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I n, Hilmi Arkut; Ediz, Melis; Demiroglu, Hasan [Celal Bayar University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science (Turkey); Guemueser, Fikriye Guel [Celal Bayar University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Oezcal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Emir; Tuerkcan, Ceren [Ege University, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science (Turkey); Uygun, Deniz Aktas [Adnan Menderes University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science (Turkey); Akgoel, Sinan [Ege University, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    Herein, we investigated the biological uptake, distribution, and radiopharmaceutical potential of a novel molecule based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and anilinephtalein (APH) in the metabolism of Albino Wistar rats. In order to achieve this, we synthesized APH using organic synthesis methods and copolymerized APH with HEMA using a common polymerization method, surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. In the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles, we obtained a new generation magnetic-nano-scale polymer, magnetic-poly(HEMA-APH). This new molecule was chemically identified and approved by several characterization methods using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, atomic force microscope, and Zeta particle-size analysis. To evaluate the biological activity in live metabolism and anti-cancer potential of mag-poly(HEMA-APH), molecule was radioiodinated by a widely used labeling technique, iodogen method, with a gamma diffuser radionuclide, {sup 131}I. Thin-layer radiochromatography experiments demonstrated that {sup 131}I binded to nanopolymer with the labeling yield of 90 %. Lipophilicity and stability experiments were conducted to determine the condition of cold and labeled mag-poly(HEMA-APH) in rat blood and lipid medium. Results demonstrated that radioiodinated molecule stayed as an intact complex in rat metabolism for 24 h and experimental lipophilicity was determined as 0.12 {+-} 0.02. In vivo results obtained by imaging and biological distribution experiments indicated that mag-poly(HEMA-APH) labeled with {sup 131}I [{sup 131}I-mag-poly(HEMA-APH)] highly incorporated into tissues of the uterus, the ovarian, the prostate, and the lungs in rat metabolism. Based on these results, it may be evaluated that novel mag-poly(HEMA-APH) molecule labeled with {sup 131}I is a compound which has a significant potential for being used as an anti-cancer agent. Certain

  20. Development and comparison of computational models for estimation of absorbed organ radiation dose in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from uptake of iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, N.E.; Johnson, T.E.; Capello, K.; Pinder, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and compares different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ absorbed radiation dose and dose rates from 131 I uptake in multiple organs. The models considered are: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing additional organs with anatomically relevant size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O. mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling, and combined with estimated activity concentrations, to approximate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (μGy) to selected organs after several half-lives of 131 I. The different computational models provided similar results, especially for source organs (less than 30% difference between estimated doses), and whole body DCFs for each model (∼3 × 10 −3 μGy d −1 per Bq kg −1 ) were comparable to DCFs listed in ICRP 108 for 131 I. The main benefit provided by the computational models developed here is the ability to accurately determine organ dose. A conservative mass-ratio approach may provide reasonable results for sufficiently large organs, but is only applicable to individual source organs. Although CSUTROUT is the more anatomically realistic phantom, it required much more resource dedication to develop and is less flexible than the stylized phantom for similar results. There may be instances where a detailed phantom such as CSUTROUT is appropriate, but generally the stylized phantom appears to be the best choice for an ideal balance between accuracy and resource requirements. - Highlights: • Computational models (phantoms) are developed for rainbow trout internal dosimetry. • Phantoms are combined with empirical models for 131 I uptake to estimate dose. • Voxel and stylized phantoms predict

  1. Chemisorption of organic iodine compounds forming from fission isotopes of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tot, G.; Galina, F.; Zel'd, E.

    1977-01-01

    Studied is ethyl iodine adsorption, labelled by iodine 131, on palladium black and on aluminium oxide activized by palladium. The desorption of adsorbed iodine in the temperature range of 20-600 deg C by the mass spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric methods was investigated. At the ethyl iodine and palladium interaction the bond between carbon and iodine in the ethyl iodine molecule breaks down and extracting iodine reacts with palladium, forming a stable compound at high temperatures. Desorption of adsorbed iodine is insignificant up to the temperatures of 250-300 deg C. Thus, sorbents, containing palladium, may be successfully applied for iodine absorption from the organic iodine compounds. These compounds spontaneously appear from the iodine fragment ratio isotopes during their interaction with some environmental organic impurities

  2. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer: radiologic impact of out-patient treatment with 100 to 150 mCi Iodine-131 activities; Radioiodoterapia do carcinoma diferenciado da tireoide: impacto radiologico da liberacao hospitalar de pacientes com atividades entre 100 e 150 mCi de iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Willegaignon, Jose; Ono, Carla Rachel; Watanabe, Tomoco; Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Marechal, Maria Helena da Hora [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate exposure and dosimetry to family members and environment due to outpatient radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Twenty patients were treated with 100-150 mCi of iodine-131 on an out-patient basis. Family members dosimetry (n = 27) and potential doses inside the house were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters. Surface contamination and radioactive wastes were also monitored. Results: Less than 1.0 mSv doses were found in 26 co-habitants and 2.8 mSv in a single case (inferior to the acceptable value of 5.0 mSv/procedure). Potential doses in the houses were inferior to 0.25 mSv, excluding the patients bedroom (mean value = 0.69 mSv). Surface contamination (mean = 4.2 Bq.cm{sup -2}) were below clearance levels. Radioactive wastes generated had a volume of 2.5 liters and a total activity estimated in 90 {mu}Ci, with a calculated exposure close to the background radiation levels. Conclusions: No radiological impact was detected after iodine therapy with 100-150 mCi on an out-patient basis followed by experienced professionals. (author)

  3. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  4. Estimation of iodine in soils by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.R.; Iyer, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports the determination of the iodine content of soils by neutron activation analysis. The irradiated sample is fused with alkali in presence of 131 I tracer. From the aqueous extract, iodine activity is extracted into carbon tetrachloride and stripped back to aqueous phase with a high selectivity for iodine. 131 I tracer is used to measure chemical yield. Iodine contents in the range 1 to 20 ppm. have been determined by this technique. (author)

  5. Management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma and detectable thyroglobulin on T4 after thyroidectomy and ablation with iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley Souza [Clinica de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (CEPCEM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisa]. E-mail: pedrorosario@globo.com; Borges, Michelle A.R.; Costa, Graciela B.C.; Resende, Leonardo L.; Padrao, Eduardo L.; Barroso, Alvaro L.; Purish, Saulo [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tireoide. Servico de Endocrinologia; Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2007-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the positive predictive value of detectable Tg during T4 therapy (Tg on T4) in patients with thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation, discussing the work-up in this situation and the empirical indication of {sup 131}I. Patients and methods: Initially, 234 low-risk patients [tumor {<=} 5 cm, completely resected, no extensive extrathyroid invasion (pT4)] submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation with {sup 131}I (3.7-5.5 GBq) who presented no ectopic uptake on RxWBS were studied. Of these, 23 patients with detectable Tg on T4 (> 1 ng/ml) during the first year after initial therapy were selected. Results: Metastases were detected by neck US in 7 patients, by chest CT in 2 and by US and CT in 3. Four of five patients with lung metastases upon CT had a positive RxWBS. Eleven patients with negative US and CT received a new {sup 131}I dose (without DxWBS), and RxWBS showed ectopic uptake in 3 patients. Among the patients with negative RxWBS, 7 remained free of apparent disease and Tg was declining (5 with undetectable Tg on T4 at the end of the study). One patient presented an increase in Tg and FDG-PET was positive for lymph node and bone metastases. Conclusions: All patients with Tg on T4 > 5 ng/ml presented apparent disease. In these cases, even when US and CT are negative, the administration of a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I (without DxWBS) and FDG-PET are recommended. Among patients with detectable Tg on T4 {<=} 5 ng/ml and negative US and CT, only 12% presented ectopic uptake on RxWBS. These cases could be followed up by monitoring Tg on T4, and RxWBS and FDG-PET should only be performed if this marker does not decrease after 1-2 years. (author)

  6. 131/123 iodine labeled benzamides for the detection of melanomas and metastases. Synthesis, labeling, animal experiences and preliminary clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Oscar R.; Edreira, Martin M.; Castiglia, Silvia G.; Soroa, Victoria E.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine labeled benzamides are being studied as radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of melanomas and metastases. With this purpose the synthesis and labeling of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[ 131 I]-4-methoxybenzamide (IMBA) has been carried out. Tissue distribution of the labeled compound has been studied in C 57 mice, showing a fast renal excretion. The labeled benzamide was also injected in mice with previously induced subcutaneous melanomas and lung metastases using B 16-F0 murine melanoma cells. The tumors show a good uptake of the labeled benzamide. The melanoma/other tissues uptake ratio is suitable for scintigraphic detection. Clinical studies in patients are under way. (author)

  7. Management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma and detectable thyroglobulin on T4 after thyroidectomy and ablation with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley Souza; Borges, Michelle A.R.; Costa, Graciela B.C.; Resende, Leonardo L.; Padrao, Eduardo L.; Barroso, Alvaro L.; Purish, Saulo; Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the positive predictive value of detectable Tg during T4 therapy (Tg on T4) in patients with thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation, discussing the work-up in this situation and the empirical indication of 131 I. Patients and methods: Initially, 234 low-risk patients [tumor ≤ 5 cm, completely resected, no extensive extrathyroid invasion (pT4)] submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation with 131 I (3.7-5.5 GBq) who presented no ectopic uptake on RxWBS were studied. Of these, 23 patients with detectable Tg on T4 (> 1 ng/ml) during the first year after initial therapy were selected. Results: Metastases were detected by neck US in 7 patients, by chest CT in 2 and by US and CT in 3. Four of five patients with lung metastases upon CT had a positive RxWBS. Eleven patients with negative US and CT received a new 131 I dose (without DxWBS), and RxWBS showed ectopic uptake in 3 patients. Among the patients with negative RxWBS, 7 remained free of apparent disease and Tg was declining (5 with undetectable Tg on T4 at the end of the study). One patient presented an increase in Tg and FDG-PET was positive for lymph node and bone metastases. Conclusions: All patients with Tg on T4 > 5 ng/ml presented apparent disease. In these cases, even when US and CT are negative, the administration of a therapeutic dose of 131 I (without DxWBS) and FDG-PET are recommended. Among patients with detectable Tg on T4 ≤ 5 ng/ml and negative US and CT, only 12% presented ectopic uptake on RxWBS. These cases could be followed up by monitoring Tg on T4, and RxWBS and FDG-PET should only be performed if this marker does not decrease after 1-2 years. (author)

  8. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  9. Analysis of factors affecting the outcome of Graves disease patients treated with two regimens of fixed Iodine-131 doses (10 mCi and 15 mCi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Ana C.B.; Santos, Roberto B.; Chaves, Fatima R.; Romaldini, Joao H.; Ward, Laura S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The use of fixed doses of radioiodine ( 131 I) simplifies the approach to treatment for Graves' disease (GD) patients with potential cost savings. In order to evaluate factors that may affect the outcome of 2 different regimens of 131 I, we prospectively examined 128 patients with overt thyrotoxicosis from GD, as confirmed by suppressed serum TSH, presence of TRAb, increased serum T 3 and FT 4 values. Group 1 comprised 76 patients who received a fixed dose of 10 mCi and Group 2=52 patients who received a fixed dose of 15 mCi. 36 patients did not use any antithyroid drugs and 92 patients used methimazole that was withdrawn at least 5 days before radioiodine administration. Antithyroid drugs treatment was restarted at least 7 days following 131 I therapy when needed. Baseline serum TSH and FT 4 levels were measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. The groups were similar concerning age, gender, smoke, eye disease, goiter size, serum T 3 , FT 4 , TRAb, anti-Tg and anti-TPO levels as well as 24-hour 131 I or Tec-uptake values and thyroid scan. Clinical outcome was evaluated at the end of 1-year follow-up and cure of hyperthyroidism was defined as clinical and laboratory evidence of either euthyroidism or hypothyroidism in the absence of antithyroid drugs. The cure rate obtained was similar in groups 1 and 2: 73.7% and 80.8%, respectively (p=0.35). Hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 56.5% and 71.15% of the patients from groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.13). There was no correlation between clinical features, thyroid uptake, antibodies, serum hormones and outcome. However, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients with larger thyroids (weight >60 g) that, consequently, received a lower dose of radioiodine in MBq/g, had 2.4 times less chance to cure (95% Cl=1.18-4.96). The use of fixed doses of radioiodine ( 131 I) simplifies the approach to treatment for Graves' disease (GD) patients with potential cost savings. In order to evaluate

  10. Localization of hypefunctioning parathyroid glands by means of thallium-201 and iodine-131 subtraction scintigraphy in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Mitsuko; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of the preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands by subtraction scintigraphy with 201 Tl and 131 I was evaluated by comparison with the operative findings. The subjects were 67 consecutive patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT), including 24 with primary and 43 with secondary HPT. In primary HPT, surgery revealed 26 adenomas weighing 0.26-15.80 g (mean±SD; 3.01±3.04 g). Two patients had double adenomas. Scintigraphy correctly localized 25/26 adenomas (96.2%) in primary HPT for a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96.2%, 98.5%, and 97.9%, respectively. In secondary HPT, 163 hyperplastic glands weighing 0.03-5.08 g (0.85±0.93 g) were found. Scintigraphy correctly localized 79 glands (48.5%) weighing 0.03-5.08 g (1.19±1.10 g), but 84 glands (51.5%) weighing 0.04-2.70 g (0.51±0.50 g) were not detected. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of scintigraphy were respectively 48.5%, 100%, and 51.2%, in secondary HPT. These results show that scintigraphy with 201 Tl and 131 I can be used to locate abnormal parathyroid glands with an efficacy equal to or better than that of the conventional methods with 201 Tl and 99m Tc or 201 Tl and 123 I. (author)

  11. Iodine-131 production by a dry method using reactor-irradiated elementary tellurium. Part 1 - Conditions for obtaining iodine emanation and its capture. Part 2 - comparative study of preparation conditions using Pyrex, stainless steel and alumina equipment. Part 3 - production on a semi-industrial scale; Production de l'iode 131 par voie seche a partir de tellure elementaire irradie a la pile. 1ere partie - Etudes des conditions pour obtenir l'emanation de l'iode et le capter. 2eme partie - Etude comparee des conditions pour effectuer cette preparation avec des appareils en Pyrex, en acier inoxydable et en alumine. 3eme partie - production a l'echelle semi-industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardy, A; Beydon, J; Murthy, T S; Doyen, J B; Lefrancois, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    A previous report has described how iodine 131 can be prepared from elementary tellurium by a dry method which consists in treating irradiated tellurium at 400 degrees in argon. The possibility of carrying out this treatment in a stainless steel or alumina apparatus has been considered. The behavior of gaseous iodine 131 towards these materials has thus been studied. If the adsorption of iodine on stainless steel is superficial desorption is rapid at 250 degrees in oxygen or 400 degrees in argon. If the adsorption is chemical in nature it becomes necessary to heat to higher temperatures. Adsorption of iodine on alumina is very weak and the iodine can be desorbed rapidly. With these materials tests have been carried out on 300 gms of tellurium containing 41 curies of iodine 131; the yields were very satisfactory ( 98 per cent). (author) [French] La methode de preparation de l iode 131 par voie seche a partir de tellure elementaire decrite dans un precedent rapport consiste a traiter le tellure irradie a 400 degres sous argon. Nous avons examine la possibilite d effectuer ce traitement dans un appareil en acier inoxidable ou en alumine. Le comportement de l iode 131 gazeux vis a vis de ces materiaux a donc ete etudie. Si l adsorption de l iode sur l acier inoxidable est superficielle la desorption est rapide a 250 degres sous oxygene ou 400 degres sous argon. Si la fixation est de nature chimique il est necessaire de chauffer a des temperatures plus elevees. L adsorption de l iode sur l alumine est res faible et l iode peut etre desorbe rapideemnt. En employant ces materiaux des essais ont ete obtenus sur 300 g de tellure contenant 41 curies d iode 131 avec un bon rendement (98 pour cent). (auteur00.

  12. Clinical comparison of technetium-99m-EC, technetium-99-m-MAG3 and Iodine-131-OIH in renal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabasakal, L.; Turoglu, T.; Oensel, C.

    1995-01-01

    Technetium-99m-ethylenedicysteine has recently been developed for renal function studies. The pharmacokinetics of 99m Tc-EC were studied by constant infusion technique and compared with 99m Tc-MAG3 and 131 I-OIH in 11 patients with various renal disorders. After giving a 7.4 MBq 131 I-OIH and 90-110 MBq 99m Tc-EC or 99m Tc-MAG3 bolus, a constant infusion (MBq/ml) 99m Tc--agent and 0.07 MBq/m 131 I-OIH was started. Sixteen blood and five urine samples were obtained over three hr. The renal clearance of 99m Tc-EC was higher than than of 99m Tc-MAG3. The 99m Tc-EC/OIH and 99m Tc-MAG3/OIH ratios were 0.75 ± 0.05 and 0.55 ± 0.10 (p=0.00087), respectively. The distribution volume of 99m Tc-EC was also higher than that of 99m Tc-MAG3 (15722 ± 4644 and 9509 ± 2788 ml/1.73m 2 , respectively; p=0.072). The 99m Tc-EC/OIH and 99m Tc-MAG/OIH distribution volume ratios were 1.03 ± 0.14 and 0.55 ± 0.10, respectively (p = 0.0003). The 60-min excretion values of 99m Tc-EC and 99m Tc-MAG3 were compared to that of OIH. The 99m Tc-EC/OIH and 99m Tc-MAG3/OIH excretion ratios were 0.96 ± 0.06 and 1.07 ± 0.10, respectively (p=0.162). The protein binding of 99m -EC and OIH were found to be 34% ±4 and 66% ±5, respectively (p 99m Tc-EC was negligible (3% ±1.2) in comparison to OIH (27% ±3; p 99m Tc-EC. This agent has good potential for renal function evaluation. 32 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Representation of a model of radionuclide transfer in food chains following deposition of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 on areas for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.

    1990-09-01

    The 'SINK' model (contaminants in food chains - FORTRAN 77) was used in an attempt to predict the amounts of radioactivity building up in animal and vegetable foods after one single deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and I-131. The model is described in detail. The input quantities include such factors as time-integrated concentration of activity in the air just above the ground, physicochemical form of the radionuclides, activity deposited with precipitation and amount of rain to fall in any particular case. The model was so designed as to take account of 18 different plants, 11 animal products and 14 kinds of processed nutrients. The radionuclide contents of vegetable foods were calculated with reference to the season of the year, at which deposition took place. The estimations of the activity concentrations in animal foods were in each case based on different fudder rations. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Radiation protection of people in contact with patient treated with metabolic radiotherapy using iodine-131 in nuclear medicine - case of the Laboratoire des Radio-Isotopes(LRI) Anpandrianomby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMAROJAONA, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the aim to propose recommendations for radiation protection of those in contact with patients, simulations were performed for restricting the radiation hazards to the family and the members of the public coming into contact with a patient treated with 131 Iode for a thyroid pathology. The simulated dose constraint was 0,3 mSv for the family. According to the regulation in radiation protection in Madagascar, annual dose limit for the public is 1mSv and 20 mSv for the workers. Several contact patterns were tested: contact to the workers, daily visits, public transports, return to work, sleeping with partner and close contact with children. The recommendations duration was evaluated both as a function of the administered activity (out-patient) or the residual activity (discharged inpatient) by measuring the dose rate at 1 m distance from the patient. [fr

  15. Long term atmospheric radioxenon measurements and iodine-131 detections over Europe in 2011 and 2012; Langzeitmessungen von Radioxenon in der Atmosphaere und Jod-131 Nachweis in Europa in 2011 und 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, C.; Bieringer, J.; Krais, R.; Konrad, M.; Kumberg, T.; Schmid, S. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Freiburg (Germany); Ross, J.O. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) continuously monitors the activity concentration of {sup 133}Xe in ground level air in Germany since 1976. Since 2004, Xenon is measured at Schauinsland in samples with 24 hours sampling time with the automated system SPALAX as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Furthermore the BfS operates two high air volume samplers, one in Freiburg and one at the monitoring station Schauinsland. The surveillance of radioactive traces in the atmosphere is part of the German monitoring program of the Integrated Measurement and Information System (IMIS). The available data set allow the study of trends over long time periods and therefore the influence of different sources. Possible sources and their contribution could be investigated by the methods of Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM). Beside radioactive xenon isotopes also the medical isotope {sup 131}I is released in traces into the atmosphere and the detection at single trace analysis stations is not exceptional. However, in autumn 2011 and spring 2012 traces of this radioisotope were detected over longer periods over Europe. These events clearly showed the importance of a fast, transboundary and comprehensive data exchange between institutions to identify and localize the source.

  16. Application of computational models to estimate organ radiation dose in rainbow trout from uptake of molybdenum-99 with comparison to iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, N.E.; Johnson, T.E.; Pinder, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares three anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ radiation dose and dose rates from molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) uptake in the liver and GI tract. Model comparison and refinement is important to the process of determining accurate doses and dose rates to the whole body and the various organs. Accurate and consistent dosimetry is crucial to the determination of appropriate dose-effect relationships for use in environmental risk assessment. The computational phantoms considered are (1) a geometrically defined model employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, (2) voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging, and (3) a new model utilizing NURBS surfaces to refine the model in (2). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O. mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling and combined with empirical models for predicting activity concentration to estimate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (μGy) to selected organs after several half-lives of 99 Mo. The computational models provided similar results, especially for organs that were both the source and target of radiation (less than 30% difference between all models). Values in the empirical model as well as the 14 day cumulative organ doses determined from 99 Mo uptake are compared to similar models developed previously for 131 I. Finally, consideration is given to treating the GI tract as a solid organ compared to partitioning it into gut contents and GI wall, which resulted in an order of magnitude difference in estimated dose for most organs. - Highlights: • Existing computational models for the internal dosimetry of trout are applied to 99 Mo uptake. • Consideration is given to the effect of alternate source distribution in the gut. • A hybrid computational phantom is developed. • At 14 days post-release, 99 Mo and 131 I provide similar

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation Volume 3. Records relating to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Operations Office: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the documents and record series pertaining to the production, release, and disposal of radioactive barium-lanthanum (RaLa), iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role. It provides information on the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), particularly ORNL. Specific attention is given to the production of RaLa and the fission products iodine-131 and cesium-137. This introduction also describes the methodologies HAI used in the selection and inventorying of documents and record series pertaining to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137, and in the production of this guide. Concluding paragraphs describe the arrangement of the record series, explain the information contained in the record series descriptions, and indicate restrictions on access to the records

  18. Therapeutical uses of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Graciela.

    1994-01-01

    Physiology of thyroid gland, pathology of thyroid , papillary, follicular cancer is considered together as differentiated thyroid cancer with very good results under therapy with iodine, invitro determination of calcitonin, search of metastasis, anaplastic carcinoma, as indifferentiated carcinoma with similar results as medullary carcinoma. This work gives a protocol for therapeutical use of 131I , in hyperthyroidism due to Graves-Basedow disease, thyrotoxic adenoma or Plummer disease, toxic multi nodular goiter, subacute thyroiditis. Is studied too the treatment with pharmaceuticals, surgery and radioactive iodine. A recommended use of each and protocol for iodine administration, fixed dose technique, dose estimation,absorbed dose, recommendations about when to use and not use 131I are included in this work

  19. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  20. Hyperthyroidism and radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The study details the results of treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism using a combination of fractionated low doses radioactive iodine and anthithyroid drug therapy. The patients studied were treated according to this regimen after August 1968 and all reached euthyroidism before March 1979. None of the patients had been treated with radioactive iodine prior to the start of the protocol. A subgroup of the patients had received an unsuccessfull course with antithyroid drug therapy and, or, surgical therapy before the start of the protocol. Patients who had never been treated for hyperthyroidism were given antithyroid drug therapy for at least 6 months in an attempt to reach euthryroidism without the use of 131 I therapy. Therefore, all patients had experienced a course of unsuccessfull therapy prior to the start of the treatment protocol using combined fractionated low doses of 131 I and antithyroid drug therapy. (Auth.)

  1. Radioiodine 131I metabolism in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Toru

    1976-01-01

    Metabolic fate of orally administered 131 I in human was studied. Chronological observations of whole body radioactivity distribution and thyroid 131 I uptake curve revealed that 131 I metabolism was greatly affected by the amount of dietary iodine intake. Under the high iodine intake exceeding 1 mg per day, uptake curve showed biphasic descending type, that is, rapid accumulation during 3 to 6 hours and rapid fall up to 48 hours and gradual decrease afterwards. While, ascending type, monophasic and maximal at 24 hours, was found universary under low iodine intake less than 500 μg per day. Thyroid function should not be affected by the amount of iodine intake, and we analysed 131 I metabolism using a new four compartments which included intrathyroidal inorganic iodine pool. The results, especially hormone production rate, were found quite useful even under high iodine intake. Thyroidal organic iodine contents were calculated as approximately 2.5 mg and this value was much less than previously reported values from other countries. Administered radioiodine were mixed up with stable body iodine and reached equilibration by around 10 days. From seroimmunological, histological (microscopic and electron microscopic) studies, and irradiation studies to the cultured human thyroid cells, we concluded that this unexpected phenomenon was derived from chromosomal damage which induced gradual decrease in cell population because of inability to reproduce. Carcinogenic and genetic effects were not serious, and only three leukemic patients were reported in this country and 484 normal babies were born from 7,500 treated parents. Thus, therapeutic dose of 131 I was proved rather safe, and even when exposed to radioiodine, administration of perchlorate or thiocyanate, excessive iodine and TSH seemed effective to avoid radiation injuries. (auth.)

  2. The role of FDG-PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and elevated anti-Tg level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sertac; Aksoy, Sabire Yılmaz; Vatankulu, Betül; Aliyev, Anar; Uslu, Lebriz; Ozhan, Meftune; Sager, Sait; Halac, Metin; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2014-12-01

    In the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after a successful total-near total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg) may be persistently or progressively increased in the patients with an undetectable serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level. In these cases, further investigation was performed to search for recurrence/metastases. The aim of our study was clarifying the role of FDG-PET/CT in detecting recurrence/metastasis in patients with DTC with negative serum Tg and elevated anti-Tg level. A total of 40 patients (32 female, 8 male; mean age: 43.15 years (22-65); mean age at diagnosis: 39.08 (16-64)) with DTC who had undetectable serum Tg and elevated anti-Tg level after a successful initial therapy were included in the study. All of the patients had serum anti-Tg of >40 IU/ml and underwent FDG-PET/CT to search for recurrence/metastasis. Twenty patients (50 %) had recurrence/metastasis on FDG-PET/CT while the other 20 had no pathologic findings. Of the 20 patients who had positive FDG-PET/CT, 12 had a histopathological final diagnosis of which 11 were true positive (TP) and 1 was false positive (FP). On the other hand, 16 of the 40 patients had a histopathological final diagnosis of which 11/16 had TP, 1/16 FP, 3/16 false negative (FN) and 1/16 true negative (TN) findings by PET/CT. The final diagnosis was made by clinical follow-up in the remaining 24 patients. Of these, 8 patients were PET positive, and in 1 (12.5 %) of 8 patients a decrease in serum anti-Tg level, in 2 (25 %) patients a saw-toothed pattern and in 5 (62.5 %) a progressive increase in the serum anti-Tg level were noted during the follow-up. Of the 16 of 24 patients who were diagnosed by clinical follow-up, in 8 a (50 %) decrease in serum anti-Tg level, in 6 (37.5 %) a saw-toothed pattern, and in 2 (12.5 %) a progressively increased anti-Tg level was seen. Of the 40 patients, 14 (35 %) had a diagnosis of recurrence/metastasis finally, with

  3. Diagnosis of Intracranial Lesions by Gamma-Encephalography using Human Serum Albumin Labelled with Iodine-131; Diagnostic des lesions intracraniennes par la gamma-encephalographie a l'aide de la serumalbumine humaine marquee a l'iode 131; Diagnoz vnutricherepnykh povrezhdenij putem gamma-ehntsefalografii pri pomoshchi mechenoj iodom-131 albuminovoj syvorotki cheloveka; Diagnostico de las lesiones intracraneanas por gammaencefalografia mediante sero- albumina humana marcada con yodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planiol, Therese [Institut National d' Hygiene, Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    Six hundred patients were examined by means of serum albumin labelled with iodine-131. Radioactivity was read twice with an scintillation counter in contact with the skull, two hours and twenty-four hours after the radioactive injection. Of 175 intracranial tumours, 150 were accompanied by a focus of persistent gamma hyperactivity. Of those not detected by the examination, half were tumours of the hemispheres and half of the posterior fossa and pineal body. Abscesses, haematomata and cirsoid aneurisms were detected. In one-third of the cases acute cerebro-vascular lesions produced abnormal readings, half of which had the peculiar appearance pathognomonic of softening (or thrombosis); the others resembled tumour graphs, the only difference being that the abnormal readings associated with acute vascular lesions disappeared in a few weeks. Two-thirds of these acute lesions were associated with a negative gamma-encephalogram. Arterial aneurisms, non-tumourous epileptogenic foci, and various purely neurological conditions gave normal results in 96 per cent of cases. Brain investigation by radioalbumin can provide valuable information not only on the presence and exact location of a neurosurgical injury but also on its nature. In particular, it seems very likely to detect a meningioma, glioblastoma or metastatic growth. These properties, together with information on positive diagnosis and location, make it a specially useful neurodiagnostic method. Gamma-encephalography also seems likely to be one of the most reliable ways of detecting relapses and of following-up the effects of medical treatment or radiotherapy. (author) [French] 600 malades ont ete examines a l'aide de la serumalbumine marquee a l'iode 131, les mesures de radioactivite etant faites par un compteur a scintillations place au contact du crane, en deux seances, deux heures et vingt-quatre heures apres l'injection radioactive. Sur 175 tumeurs intracraniennes, 150 se sont accompagnees d'un foyer d

  4. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  5. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from

  6. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  7. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  8. Phase III Randomized Study of Rituximab/Carmustine, Etoposide, Cytarabine, and Melphalan (BEAM) Compared With Iodine-131 Tositumomab/BEAM With Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Relapsed Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Results From the BMT CTN 0401 Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vose, Julie M.; Carter, Shelly; Burns, Linda J.; Ayala, Ernesto; Press, Oliver W.; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Stadtmauer, Edward A.; Mineshi, Shin; Ambinder, Richard; Fenske, Timothy; Horowitz, Mary; Fisher, Richard; Tomblyn, Marcie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This clinical trial evaluated standard-dose radioimmunotherapy with a chemotherapy-based transplantation regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation versus rituximab with the same regimen in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive persistent or relapsed DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive iodine-131 tositumomab (dosimetric dose of 5 mCi on day −19 and therapeutic dose of 0.75 Gy on day −12), carmustine 300 mg/m2 (day −6), etoposide 100 mg/m2 twice daily (days −5 to −2), cytarabine 100 mg/m2 twice daily (days −5 to −2), and melphalan 140 mg/m2 (day −1; B-BEAM) or rituximab 375 mg/m2 on days −19 and −12 and the same chemotherapy regimen (R-BEAM). Results Two hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 113 patients randomly assigned to R-BEAM and 111 patients assigned to B-BEAM. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates, the primary end point, were 48.6% (95% CI, 38.6% to 57.8%) for R-BEAM and 47.9% (95% CI, 38.2% to 57%; P = .94) for B-BEAM, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65.6% (95% CI, 55.3% to 74.1%) for R-BEAM and 61% (95% CI, 50.9% to 69.9%; P = .38) for B-BEAM. The 100-day treatment-related mortality rates were 4.1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 8.0%) for R-BEAM and 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8% to 9.0%; P = .97) for B-BEAM. The maximum mucositis score was higher in the B-BEAM arm (0.72) compared with the R-BEAM arm (0.31; P < .001). Conclusion The B-BEAM and R-BEAM regimens produced similar 2-year PFS and OS rates for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed DLBCL. No differences in toxicities other than mucositis were noted. PMID:23478060

  9. Treatment of Thyrotoxicosis Using Radioactive Iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAJA, Salvador Bessarione

    1998-01-01

    Throtoxicosis is common in the Sudan, and its management constitute a significant health problem in terms of expenses, in addition to dilemma of best therapy between the physician's choice and the patients' reference. As the role of Radioactive lodine is becoming more acceptable. It is wise to evaluate our experience and compare it to the current literature, aiming to use the treatment more effectively in our setting. The objective is to evaluate the effectively of radioiodine and factors affecting them, and to find out the possible complications, and compare the cost of treatment to that of surgery and antithyroid drugs, as well as to find out the patient attitude and knowledge towards the treatment. 103 thyrotoxic patients referred to Radioisotope center and received Radioiodine therapy in the period between 1986-1997 were considered in the study. Those who received the treatment in 1997 were followed up prospectively for minimum of 12 months. Clinical feature, severity of the disease, size and type of goitre and complications were considered. Patients were treated as out patients and followed up in the referred clinic. 115 patients (88.5%) were female and 15(11.5%) were male. The mean age was (49±)10.7), the majority (43.9%) were fluocortolonum state and the least (1.5%) from Southern states. Most of the patients (58%) were referred from medical units in the hospitals, their mean thyroxine level (212.285±36.753) and mean weight (58.031±8.724)kg. (54.6%) had diffused goitre and 36% multinodular goitre and 9.2% had solitary nodule. 48.5% of the patients had moderate size goitre, 32.3% large size and 19.2% small size goitre. The main indication was replace after medical treatment (40%). Out of the 59 patients interviewed (77.9%) have no knowledge about the therapy, and (48.4%) accepted the treatment without difficulty. 22 patients presented with complications, and most of the complications were cardiac, heart failure with arrhythmia (50%) 15 patients had ophthalmopathy and they had variable response to treatment. (80.7%) of the patients showed clinical response within 6 months. 113 patients gained weight and all had reduction of thyroid size with (100%) disappearance among patients with solitary, and (91.7%) among those with diffused goitre. (23%) of the patients developed early complications. (50%) was transient worsening of the symptoms and (20%) was transient hypothyroidism. Recurrence was mainly seen among patients with diffused gotire (7.04%) and hypothyroidism was in (16.6%) among patients with diffused goitre, which from the highest percentage of hypothyroidism. There was no significant differences in treatment response in relation to initial thyroxine level and size of goitre, but the response was better among diffuse goitre and solitary nodule. Carcinoma of the thyroid and Leukaemia were not seen in our series, genetic effect and infertility were not considered in our study. Radioactive lodine is cheap, effective and safe with exception of hypothyroidism, there was not other significant complication. Excluding children and pregnant women, it can be used in all patients and as a first line in elderly and patients with complications.(Author)

  10. Nodular Hashitoxicosis - treatment with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jara Yorg, J.A.; Ruiz Perez, V.; Acosta, N.

    2004-01-01

    Present case presents a patient of 58 years old of feminine sex with records of Tiroiditis of Hashimoto TSH of15 UI/ml (VN 0.5-4.0) who has been treated orally with sodium levotiroxina (100 ucg/dia) on a daily basis during 3 years with antibodies antimicrosomal or antitiroperoxidasa (TPO ab) with a value of 1/1550 UI/ml, with court 50 UI/ml and antitiroglobuliana (ATG ab) with values of 1/320 UI/ml with court 100 positive UI/ml [es

  11. Uptake of iodine-131 in tropical crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vegetable crops which include sweet potato tops (Ipomoea batatas), kangkong (Ipomoea repitans) and tomato plants were grown in dark-painted jars containing Hoagland-Arnon modified nutrient solution, utilizing the technique of hydroponics. The experiments for sweet potato tops and kangkong plants were duplicated for replicate studies and steady-state conditions were simulated throughout. Tomato plants were grown in the same manner but growth was observed to be hampered when starting from mature plants. Radioiodine was added to the nutrient medium containing 0.5% non-radioactive NaI solution. The solution in the jar was adjusted daily so as to maintain a constant concentration which would simulate routine releases that are essentially continuous. After incorporating the radioiodine to the solution, 10 ml aliquot was taken and counted for radioactivity by means of a 5'' x 5'' NaI(T1) detector connected to the multichannel gamma analyzer. Both plants and solution were counted for radioactivity at different time intervals using the same geometry. Results indicate that the activity in the plants were relatively higher than that of the solution. The activity tends to level off or decrease after a few days. The concentration factor which is the ratio of the activity in the plant (uCi/gm) over the activity in the medium (uCi/ml) varied for each time interval. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  12. Internal Contamination by 131I in nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahed, N.; Mtimet, S.; Hammami, H.; Mhiri, A.

    1998-01-01

    Therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine use high activities of 131 I in sodium iodine liquid from which is volatile at ambient temperature. Besides external exposure there is, for the nuclear medicine personnel, an internal exposure risk induced by 131 iodine inhalation. So we tried to assess this risk among the personnel in a nuclear medicine department. We used direct method for measuring 131 radioactivity in vivo by external counting. Gamma ray detector with a Nal ( TI ) probe positioned near the thyroid gland allows investigation of 131 radioactivity. We realised 34 measurements among the personnel, two times at an interval of one month. The results indicate that an 131 iodine internal contamination is found. Estimated thyroid activities were ranging from 35 to 132 Bq. The highest activities has been found in the thyroid of the technicians involved in the administration of 131 iodine therapy. Therefore this values are lower than norms. This study must lead to the implementation control of the 131 iodine internal contamination in order to optimise the personnel protection in nuclear medicine departments (author)

  13. The radiotoxicology of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty radioisotopes of iodine are known but only those with mass numbers from 123 to 135 are of major radiotoxicological interest. Exposure of animals or man to inorganic 131 I or 125 I may result in the induction of benign or malignant thyroid tumors or depression of thyroid function; Bq for Bq 125 I is less toxic than 131 I. However, the shorter lived radioiodines 132 I, 133 I, and 135 I appear to be 10 to 100 times more toxic than 131 I alone. Little information is available about the toxicity of radioiodine containing organic compounds. The DNA precursor, iododeoxyuridine when labelled with 125 I becomes incorporated into the cell nucleus and produces severe and often irreparable damage due to the emission of Auger electrons. The risk estimate for the induction of thyroid carcinoma or adenoma by inorganic 131 I is considered to be 10 to 20x10 -6 persons Gy -1 y -1 , but may be up to 100 times larger for persons exposed to mixtures of short-lived radioiodines. (author)

  14. Iodine behaviour in the SLOWPOKE nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekeris, P A; Evans, G J [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to measure and attempt to explain the presence and volatility of iodine isotopes present as fission products in the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor. Liquid sampling and extraction procedures developed indicated that approximately 40% of the reactor iodine is in the form of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}), and 60% is in the form of iodide (I{sup -}). No appreciable amount in non-polar forms such as molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) or organic iodides (RI) were detected. This goes contrary to past expectations that all of the iodine in the liquid phase would be in the form of I{sup -}. In addition partition coefficients for I-131 were determined as 2-6x10{sup 6} at a neutral pH. Kr-88 is suspected as a possible interfering isotope in the measurement of I-131 in the liquid and gas phases. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Analysis of 131I therapy in 71 patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Chen Zequan; Wang Yuanzhi; Ye Shiqing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of iodine-131 treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: The dose of 131 I was determined according to thyroid absorption of 131 I at 24 hrs post administration and thyroid weight estimated in ECT examination. Results: One dose cure rate of 131 I treatment was 96% (68/71). Hypothyroidism occurred in 3 of 71 patients (4%) in one year after administration. No other serious complication was observed. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of 131 I in treating hyperthyroidism was quite encouraging. The administration regime was also simple

  16. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Iodine is also used during the production of methamphetamine. Note: This list may not be all inclusive. ... breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests Chest x-ray EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids through a ...

  17. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  18. Novel method of producing radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, E.; Amano, H.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive iodine(I-131) is easily obtained by heating, at a temperature ranging from 600 0 C to 650 0 C, a tellurium oxide intermediate which was obtained by heating telluric acid or tellurium trioxide at a temperature from about 400 0 C to 560 0 C and was irradited with a neutron flux. Thus, pure I-131 is obtained without the complicated operations required in a conventional process for separation and/or purification of the product. 4 claims

  19. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  20. Methodology to administer therapeutic dose of I-131; Metodologia para administrar dosis terapeutica de I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment of the thyroid cancer with Iodine-131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the post-dose administration of liquids to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit is included. (Author)

  1. Radioactive Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... order to limit radiation exposure to others (see chart). I-131 may occasionally cause mild pain in ... Statement on Thyroid Shielding During Diagnostic Medical and Dental Radiology By ATA | 2013 News Releases , News Releases , ...

  2. The use of lithium carbonate in the treatment of Graves' disease with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yuguo; Chen Miao; Kuang Anren

    2004-01-01

    Lithium carbonate involving radioactive iodine uptake, goiter volume, thyroid hormone and applying range is reviewed briefly. Lithium may elongate the T 1/2 of iodine in thyroid gland, decrease 131 I dosage and enhance curative effect. Lithium carbonate inhibit iodine uptake and thyroid hormone synthesize, blocks the release of iodine and thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland, which lead to reduce the 131 I dosage the patients need and to decrease the surge of serum FT 3 and FT 4 levels caused by 131 I therapy. so lithium carbonate can alleviate the symptoms caused by 131 I treatment. For lithium carbonate can increase leucocyte amount, there are some merits with lithium carbonate in treating Graves' disease by 131 I. (authors)

  3. Clinical application of iodine 123 with special consideration of radionuclide purity, measuring accuracy and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.J.; Ammon, J.; Winkel, K. zum; Haubold, U.

    1975-01-01

    Iodine 123 is a nearly 'ideal' radionuclide for thyroid imaging. The production of Iodine 123 requires cyclotrons or accelerators. The production of multicurie amounts of Iodine 123 has been suggested through the use of high-energy accelerators (> 60 MeV). Most of the methods for the production of Iodine 123 using a compact cyclotron result in contamination with f.e. Iodine 124 which reduces the spatial resolution of imaging procedures and increases the radiation dose to the patient. The radiation dose has been calculated for three methods of production. The various contamination with Iodine 124, Iodine 125 and Iodine 126 result in comparable radiation dose of Iodine 131, provided that the time between production and application is more than four half-live-times of Iodine 123. (orig.) [de

  4. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  5. Fatty acids labelled in the. omega. -position with iodine isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Comet, M. (Universite Scientifique et Medicale de Grenoble, 38 - La Tronche (France)); Riche, F.; Vidal, M. (Laboratoire d' Etudes Dynamiques et Structurales de la Selectivite, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Coornaert, S.; Bardy, A. (CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Godart, J. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of saturated acetylenic and olefinic (Z or E) ..omega..-iodinated fatty acids has been carried out and their labelling with iodine-131 or 123 by exchange I/sup -/, *I/sup -/ has been studied. The influence of several parameters -water and fatty acid concentrations, specific activity, labelling solution acidity, iodine carrier presence- on this exchange reaction has been noted, enabling experimental conditions to be defined that produce labelling yields of greater than 95%. These results should lead to widespread clinical use of iodine labelled fatty acids.

  6. Preparation of Labelled I131 Rose-Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayani, Mbutyabo; Chabouri, Galaal.

    1978-01-01

    Rose bengal purified on a Sephadex G-25 column has been labelled with iodine-131. The exchange reaction has been undertaken in an ether - alcohol medium. The influence of different factors (iodine concentration, Psup(h), purity and chemical form of the substratum, reaction rate) on the labelling yield has been studied. Radiochemical yield of 90% have been obtained in some conditions instead of the normal 80% reported in the literature

  7. Determination of I-131 in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez G, I.; Rodriguez C, G.; Quevedo A, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    In our country, in the near future, an isotope center will be in operation, and due to its characteristics, it is possible the discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere during its normal exploitation, as well as in case of accident. Considering the kind and the concentration of the radioactive material released to the atmosphere, the possible ways of contamination were determined, playing the milk the most significant role, because the Iodine-131 is in the radionuclide inventory of this center, being possible to pass to the food-chain soil-grass-milk, due to the fact that the center is located in a cattle zone. Owing to these facts, it is necessary to rely on a method for determining Iodine-131 that allows to control its presence in milk samples, when the isotope center start to operate. The direct absorption of Iodine-131 in an anionic exchange resin and the subsequent analysis of this resin for gamma spectrometry with a Nal (Tl) detector is a cheap, simple and fast method with a recovery average greater than the 95%. (authors). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Measurements of {sup 131}I-Labelled Triiodothyronine Uptake by a Resin as a Means of Diagnosing Iodine-Basedow Produced by Intramuscular Administration of Iodized Oil in an Area of Endemic Goitre; Utilidad de la Prueba de la Captacion de Triyodotironina Marcada con {sup 131}I por Resina en el Diagnostico de Yod-Basedow Producido por la Administracion Intramuscular de Aceite Yodado, en una Area de Bocio Endemico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro-Benitez, R.; Ramirez, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Escuela Politecnica Nacional y Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Central, Quito (Ecuador)

    1970-02-15

    The authors gave intramuscular injections of iodized oil with a view to studying its prophylactic effects on endemic goitre and related defects (such as endemic cretinism) in isolated areas where more traditional techniques have serious limitations. This system had been tried earlier in New Guinea, where the results showed a reduction in the prevalence of goitre and proved the technique to be both safe and practical. However, because of the remoteness of the population in question it was impossible to continue the observations and no information was obtained regarding the effectiveness of iodized oil in reducing the incidence of defects associated with endemic goitre, Ecuador's program, involving studies of the whole population of two rural communities in the Andes, was begun in March 1966. The final control check came three years later. Ethiodol (37% iodized oil, 450 mg iodine per cm{sup 3}, obtained from Fougera, Hicksville, Long Island, N.Y. United States of America) was injected intramuscularly, 2 cm{sup 3} being administered to subjects 12 years of age and older and proportionately smaller doses to younger children. The ethiodol produced extensive changes in the physiological behaviour of the thyroid. {sup 131}I uptake was depressed for six months and afterwards remained normal. Similarly, BEI and T{sub 4} returned to and stayed at normal levels from the very first control checks onwards, which indicated that even during the first few months the thyroid glands of these subjects were maintaining a normal capacity to secrete thyronines, i.e. that they were not exhibiting the effect described by Wolff and Chaikoff, PBI and BII maintained high livels in all the controls. Urinary excretion of iodine followed a double exponential path: calculations indicated that the subjects would still be excreting significant amounts five years after the injection. Six months after injection there was an unequivocal diagnosis of Iodine-Basedow in three older women with large

  9. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  10. Possibilities of long duration generation of vapour of iodine 131 in the air for its trapping in French activated carbons; Possibilites de generation de longue duree dans l'air de vapeur d'iode 131 en vue de son piegeage par les charbons actifs francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billard, F.; Chevalier, G.; Pradel, J.

    1962-12-17

    As previous studies performed on activated carbon showed that it was necessary to possess a long duration iodine generator to determine the scope of application of some advanced theories concerning the trap mechanism of different forms of radio-iodines, the authors present a generator which uses the high temperature oxidation of sodium iodide by an air stream or an oxygen stream. A version of this apparatus using a 5 Curie source is planned to check the operation of a trap of 100.000 m{sup 3}/h with a purification coefficient of 10{sup 4}, and aimed at being mounted on the venting circuit of a nuclear reactor enclosure [French] Les etudes que nous avons effectuees sur les charbons actifs nous ont montre qu'il etait necessaire de posseder un generateur d'iode de longue duree pour preciser le domaine d'application de certaines theories avancees concernant le mecanisme de piegeage des differentes formes de radioiodes. Un generateur utilisant l'oxydation de l'iodure de sodium a chaud par un courant d'air ou d'oxygene est decrit. Une version de cet appareil utilisant une source de 5 curies est prevue pour verifier le bon fonctionnement d'un piege de 100.000 m{sup 3}/h ayant un coefficient d'epuration de 10{sup 4} est destine a etre place sur le circuit de ventilation de l'enceinte d'un reacteur nucleaire. (auteurs)

  11. Facts and fallacies about radioactive iodine therapy for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The therapeutic options available in the hyerthyroidism of Graves' disease are two basic treatments. Firstly antithyroid drugs and secondly one can 'ablate' the thyroid gland by means of thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine ( 131 I). At present 131 I is the current treatment of chioce for Graves' disease. In a follow-up study of 21 714 patients who were treated with 131 I and observed for a period of 8 years, there was no increase in the incidence of thyriod carcinoma. A possible explanation for this is that the dose of 131 I used destroys the ability of the thyroid cells to replicate and thus transmit genetically damaged material

  12. Tests of some methods to remove I-131 from contaminated tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, iodine-131 concentrations in tap water higher than 100 Bq L"-"1 were reported by several local governments in the Kanto Plain in March 2011. To remove iodine-131 from tap water, five methods were tested in this study, that is, (1) boiling, (2) adding charcoals from oak or bamboo, (3) activated charcoals, (4) water purifiers, and (5) reverse osmosis (RO) treatments. Boiling was shown to be not effective in removing iodine-131 from tap water; indeed even higher concentrations may result from the liquid-volume reduction accompanying this process. Adding charcoals and activated charcoal treatment could not remove iodine-131, because no reduction of iodine-131 was observed in tap water samples after these treatments. Only limited effect was found with water purifiers with first several portions; no effect was expected with further water treatment. On the other hand, the RO showed high iodine-131 removal percentage of more than 95%, although the method needs about 5-10 L water to obtain 1 L of RO treated water. (author)

  13. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  14. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cmo@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  15. Iodine Prophylaxis and Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine is a highly volatile element therefore being very mobile in the environment. It enters the metabolism of living organisms and is selectively taken up and concentrated in the thyroid gland. The plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive material that might be released in the environment in the case of a serious nuclear accident, primarily consists of the radioactive isotopes of iodine. Among those, due to its decay properties, is the most important 131 I. The effective means of protecting the thyroid gland against exposure to radioactive iodine is an intake of stable iodine. Therefore, one of the central issues in the emergency planning is to determine whether and at which projected thyroid radiation dose stable iodine should be given to the population. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set the generic optimized intervention value for iodine prophylaxis to 100 mGy of avertable committed dose to a thyroid.The prophylaxis is implemented by utilizing the pills of pills of potassium iodine (KI). The efficacy of KI in protecting the thyroid gland depends upon the time of intake relative to the start of exposure to radioactive iodine. The best results are obtained if KI is taken 1-2 hours before or immediately after the start of exposure. The recommended dosage, based upon the study performed by Il'in et.al. is 130 mg/day. KI should be taken at least three days after the acute exposure to radioiodine, to prevent accumulation in a thyroid gland of radioiodine excreted from the other compartments of the body. The largest epidemiological study on the effects of KI prophylaxis ever performed was the one in Poland after the Chernobyl accident. Stable iodine was given as single dose of KI solution to 10.5 million of children and 7 millions of adults. Among children no serious side effects were seen while only two adults (with previously recorded iodine sensitivity) had severe respiratory distresses. Polish experiences showed that rapid response to such

  16. 131/123 iodine labeled benzamides for the detection of melanomas and metastases. Synthesis, labeling, animal experiences and preliminary clinical studies; Benzamidas marcadas con 131/123 iodo para deteccion de melanomas y metastasis. Sintesis, marcacion, estudio en animales y primeros estudios clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Oscar R; Edreira, Martin M; Castiglia, Silvia G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Dept. de Radioquimica; Zarlenga, Ana C; Arashiro, Jorge G; Parma, P [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soroa, Victoria E [Hospital Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1999-07-01

    Radioiodine labeled benzamides are being studied as radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of melanomas and metastases. With this purpose the synthesis and labeling of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[{sup 131}I]-4-methoxybenzamide (IMBA) has been carried out. Tissue distribution of the labeled compound has been studied in C 57 mice, showing a fast renal excretion. The labeled benzamide was also injected in mice with previously induced subcutaneous melanomas and lung metastases using B 16-F0 murine melanoma cells. The tumors show a good uptake of the labeled benzamide. The melanoma/other tissues uptake ratio is suitable for scintigraphic detection. Clinical studies in patients are under way. (author)

  17. Radioanalytical studies of iodine behaviour in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.J.; Hammad, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The behaviour of iodine in the environment is of interest both in relation to radioecology and human nutrition. Radiochemical techniques were used to evaluate various aspects of the behaviour of iodine in the environment. The natural iodine content of plant, water and soil samples collected from three sites was determined using preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA). The effect of initial chemical speciation on the distribution of iodine between various soils, sediments and waters was evaluated using I-131 tracer. Iodide was found to adsorb more extensively than iodate, although four most of the solid/water systems examined, a substantial portion of the iodate was slowly reduced to iodide. Experiments involving gamma irradiation suggest that much of the sorption of iodide and reduction of iodate involved microbial processes. Distribution coefficients measured using I-131 were comparable with values based on the natural I-127 content. (author) 18 refs.; 5 tabs

  18. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  19. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  20. Methodology for management of therapeutic dose of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment previously described with a therapeutic dose bigger than ablative of Iodine 131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the administration of liquid post-dose is included to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit. (Author)

  1. Methodology to administer therapeutic dose of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment of the thyroid cancer with Iodine-131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the post-dose administration of liquids to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit is included. (Author)

  2. The radio-iodine therapy of the functional autonomy. Indications, findings, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.

    1990-01-01

    The functional autonomy of the thyroid is a disorder, which appears in connection with iodine deficit and befalls the complete organ. An absolute indication for a radio-iodine-therapy is given in case of hyperthyreoidism (these are 25 % of all at the functional autonomy). Contrary to the operation method the advantage of the I-131-therapy is, that all of the functional autonome-cells can be reached. The risk at the I-131-therapy is low. (Botek)

  3. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  4. Methodology for management of therapeutic dose of I-131; Metodologia para administrar dosis terapeutica de I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment previously described with a therapeutic dose bigger than ablative of Iodine 131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the administration of liquid post-dose is included to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit. (Author)

  5. 131I Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Motomori; Morimoto, Isao; Yamashita, Shunichi; Hirayu, Hideshi; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1988-01-01

    A newly developed radiopharmaceutical agent, 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-MIBG) has been reported to be very useful for locating pheochromocytoma and to be specific for pheochromocytoma and safe for humans. The first 131 I-MIBG scintiscanning in Japan which has been carried out in our clinic and the analysis of clinical experience of 131 I-MIBG scanning in Japan are presented

  6. Synthesis labeling and biological studies of 16-131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The increasing interest in obtaining radiopharmaceuticals for metabolic imaging of heart muscle led us to prepare 16-IODINE HEXADECANOIC ACID by tosilation of the corresponding hydroxy acid, following iodination with NaI and finally, introducing radioiodine (Na 131 I) by isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction products were identified by determination of melting point, elementary and spectroscopic analysis such as infra-red absortion and magnetic nuclear resonance. The radiopharmaceutical after radiochemical and other specific control procedures for injetable such as sterility and apyrogenicity, was firstly utilized in dogs: preferencial uptake by the heart, as well as by the liver was confirmed. Then, studies in patients with or without heart diseases were performed. The biodistribution of 16- 131 I-HEXADECANOIC ACID was carried out in Wistar rats. The scintigraphic images in animals and in humans demonstrated that 16- 131 -HEXADECANOIC ACID is suitable for studying viable areas as well as energetic exchange of heart muscle. (author) [pt

  7. The physico-chemical 131I species in the exhaust air of a boiling water reactor (BWR 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1982-12-01

    In a German boiling water reactor, the physico-chemical 131 I species were determined in the plant exhaust and in the individual exhausts during 12 months. These measurements aimed in particular at determining the percentage and the source of the radiologically decisive elemental 131 I released to the environment. The retention of the 131 I species by iodine filters was also investigated. On an average, 45% of the 131 I discharged with the plant exhaust consisted of elemental iodine. This was largely released with the exhaust from the reactor building and from the turbine building. The other 55% consisted almost entirely of organic I. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  9. Measurement of Iodine-129 in surface soil collected near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Honda, Maki

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-129 in soil around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and isotopic ratio of radioiodine was estimated. Surface deposition amount of Iodine-129 resulted in 6.7 to 5500 mBq/m"2. The mean isotopic ratio between Iodine-129 and Iodine-131 at the accident was estimated that "1"2"9"I"/"1"3"1I = 26±6 as of March 11 2011. This result was compared to the calculation result of ORIGEN2 code to test the validity of this estimation. (author)

  10. Iodine and thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Rim Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency causes hypothyroidism that results in impaired somatic growth and motor development in children. Mild and moderate iodine deficiencies cause multifocal autonomous growth of thyroid, which results in thyrotoxicosis. On the other hand, iodine excess is associated with the development of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. In areas of iodine deficiency, a sudden increase in iodine intake is associated with transient hyperthyroidism. Recent studies demonstrated that long-term thyroid function of subjects who experienced both iodine deficiency and iodine excess during childhood tended to be abnormal despite optimization of their current iodine intake. Iodine status in the Korean Peninsula is very unique because people in the Republic of Korea have been shown to have predominantly excessive iodine levels, whereas the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is known to be an iodine-deficient area. Further research is warranted to verify the optimal ranges of iodine intake and to clarify the effects of iodine intake on thyroid disorders in the Korean Peninsula.

  11. Release of iodine radionuclides from gas media in a system of selective block sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Miroshnikov, V.S.; Mel'nikov, V.A.; Chetverikov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme of extracting iodine radionuclides from gas flows in a system of selective sorbents has been developed. The method provides separation of three forms of iodine: the aerosol component, the elementary iodine and organic-iodine compounds. Aerosols are trapped by a mechanical filter made of porous polytetrafluoroethylene with pores of no more than 1 μm. Silver-based sorbents for the elementary iodine are made by sintering the granular polytetrafluoroethylene (the size of granules is 0.1-0.5 mm) with of finely dispersed solver (5% mass). Organic iodine compounds are extracted by a silica sorbent impregnated with silver nitrate. The efficiency of sorbents was tested in gas flows with a known content of 131 I in the form of elementary iodine and methyl iodide. The results of experiments show that the efficiency of sorption of elementary iodine by a metallic-silver sorbent and of methyl iodide by a SiO 2 /AgNO 3 sorbent constitutes no less than 99% at a flow rate of up to 200 l/h. The iodine has been extracted at a flow rate of 100 l/h during 100 hours and for that time the efficiency of the iodine sorbtion has not changed. The suggested variant of extracting iodine radionuclides from gaseous media can be used both for fast control of iodine content in gas blowoffs and for researches aimed at studying the distribution of iodine forms in steam-and-gas media depending on nuclear plant operating conditions

  12. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  13. Iodine sorption by microwave irradiated hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, S.P. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Fetter, G. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Pue (Mexico)]. E-mail: geolarfetter@yahoo.com.mx; Bosch, P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-12-15

    Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HT) were prepared by the microwave method on the one hand with ethoxide-acetylacetonate and on the other with acetylacetonate as precursors. They presented a maximum sorption capacity of 2.179 and 1.517 meq of {sup 131}I{sup -}/g of hydrotalcite respectively. When the hydrotalcites were calcined and rehydrated in a {sup 131}I{sup -} solution, iodine sorption decreased in both samples to 1.515 and 1.446, respectively. The corresponding value for nitrated hydrotalcite which was prepared by the conventional method for comparison purposes, was 0.570. The radionuclide content in hydrotalcites was determined by {gamma}-spectrometry. {sup 131}I{sup -} sorption is dependent on two main parameters: one is the type of the interlayer organic material and the second the surface area. It was found that hydrotalcites prepared with ethoxide-acetylacetonate were better sorbents for {sup 131}I{sup -} than those with acetylacetonate. Still, if the specific surface area increased, {sup 131}I{sup -}sorption increased as well; nitrated HT resulted in low specific surface area and a low sorption capacity. It is, therefore, concluded that organic residues present in the samples prepared by the microwave method favor the sorption of radioactive anions, in particular {sup 131}I{sup -} if compared with nitrated and/or carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites.

  14. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  15. /sup 131/I studies in pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedurappa, K G [K.M. Coll., Hubli (India)

    1975-02-01

    The increased I/sup 131/ uptake in the untreated tuberculous patients is probably due to the complex changes in the entire body metabolic processes as a result of tuberculous infection but not due to thyroid function disorder. Prolonged administration of isoniazid and PAS may depress thyroid hormones production with or without signs of goiter or hypothyroidism when these drugs are commonly used in the treatment of tuberculosis. The blocking effect of INAH and PAS might be in the iodine binding capacity rather than iodide concentrating mechanism.

  16. Study of the short-lived fission products. Separation of iodine and xenon fission radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Villar, M. A.

    1965-01-01

    The separation by distillation in a sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid-hydrogen peroxide medium of the iodine isotopes (8 day iodine-131, 2,3 hour iodine-132 21 hour iodine-133, 53 minute iodine-134 and 6,7 hour iodine-135) present in a uranium sample after different irradiation and cooling times is here described. It is also reported the use of active charcoal columns for the retention of xenon isotopes (5,27 days xenon-133 and 9,2 hours xenon-135) either released during the dissolution of the uranium irradiated samples or generated along the fission isobaric chains in the solutions of distillated iodine. In both cases the radiochemical purity of the separated products is established by gamma spectrometry. (Author) 15 refs

  17. Method for determination of radioactive iodine isotopes in environmental objects and biologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubynin, O.D.; Pogodin, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    The method proposed for determination of radioactive iodine isotopes content in environmental objects and biologic materials is based on the extraction of iodine with carbon tetrachloride and subsequent precipitation of bismuthyl iodine (BiOI) in perchloric medium. Sample preparation for analysis is carried out using conventional alkaline ashing methods. Quantitative iodine separation is hampered if macroquantities of Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2 - , SO 8 2 - , Cr 2 O 7 2 - and other ions are present in the solution. Iodine extraction is carried out before its precipitation. Separated iodine preparation activity is measured using scintillation (NaI) Tl gamma spectrometer. The method's sensitivity when measuring iodine-131 preparations makes up 0.07 Bq per 1 sample with the error +-25 %

  18. Iodine-125 safety procedures in a biochemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes of iodine are of considerable importance in biochemical research and this 14 minute videotape is designed to give workers an introduction to the radiation safety aspects of their use. It deals with I-125, which is now generally used in preference to I-131, but the principles of safe working practice are the same for both isotopes. (author)

  19. Radioactively labelled iodinated insulin and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R; Teetz, V; Eckert, H G

    1977-10-20

    Suitable tracers for RIA and substrates for pharmacokinetic investigations are insulin derivatives where B1 phenylalanine is substituted by a tyrosine derivative and part of the iodine is in the form of I-125 or I-131. The preparation of the insulin derivatives is described.

  20. Optimization of SPECT calibration for quantification of images applied to dosimetry with iodine-131; Otimização da calibração em SPECT para a quantificação de imagens aplicada à dosimetria com iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Samira Marques de

    2018-04-01

    SPECT systems calibration plays an essential role in the accuracy of the quantification of images. In this work, in its first stage, an optimized SPECT calibration method was proposed for {sup 131}I studies, considering the partial volume effect (PVE) and the position of the calibration source. In the second stage, the study aimed to investigate the impact of count density and reconstruction parameters on the determination of the calibration factor and the quantification of the image in dosimetry studies, considering the reality of clinical practice in Brazil. In the final step, the study aimed evaluating the influence of several factors in the calibration for absorbed dose calculation using Monte Carlo simulations (MC) GATE code. Calibration was performed by determining a calibration curve (sensitivity versus volume) obtained by applying different thresholds. Then, the calibration factors were determined with an exponential function adjustment. Images were performed with high and low counts densities for several source positions within the simulator. To validate the calibration method, the calibration factors were used for absolute quantification of the total reference activities. The images were reconstructed adopting two approaches of different parameters, usually used in patient images. The methodology developed for the calibration of the tomographic system was easier and faster to implement than other procedures suggested to improve the accuracy of the results. The study also revealed the influence of the location of the calibration source, demonstrating better precision in the absolute quantification considering the location of the target region during the calibration of the system. The study applied in the Brazilian thyroid protocol suggests the revision of the calibration of the SPECT system, including different positions for the reference source, besides acquisitions considering the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the images. Finally, the doses obtained

  1. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  2. Iodination of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Feldthus, A.; Carlsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol is iodinated in aqueous solution at pH 5 (acetate buffer) by elemental iodine or, if the iodine is present as iodide, enzymatically controlled by peroxidases. Generally mono-, di- and triiodophenols are obtained, the overall product composition being virtually identical for the two iodination modes. However, there is a tendency to a higher para to ortho ratio for the enzymatically controlled reaction. The mutual ratios of the single iodophenols depends on the initial concentration ratio between phenol and the iodinating species. The first step in the iodination leads preferentially to substitution in the ortho position rather than in the para position in contract to e.g. the corresponding bromination. The relative rates of the competive reactions in the combined iodination scheme has been derived. (author) 2 tabs., 3 ills., 15 refs

  3. Radioactive iodine and environmental and sanitary effects - bibliographic study and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetat, Ph.; Armand, P.; Monfort, M.; Fritsch, P.; Flury Herard, A.; Menetrier, F.; Bion, L.; Schoech, C.; Masset, S.

    2004-01-01

    This document is intended to a large public. It reviews the different parameters needed to evaluate the potential act o radioactive releases from the emission to public. Its objectives are to evaluate the importance of different exposure pathways and to assess efficiency of the possible interventions for large public. The main conclusions are summarised hereafter: The radioactive decay chains have to be taken into account to evaluate the iodine source term in the nuclear plants in the case of fission accidents. The physico-chemical forms of iodine are important in order to determine the released activity and deposited activity on the soil. The isotopes to be taken into account are mainly iodine 131 for radiological assessments and also iodine 133 for the nuclear reactor accidents, and the chain Tellurium-Iodine 132 when no particulate filtration exists. Iodine 129 in French reprocessing plant cannot lead to significant accidents. The dominant exposure pathways are related to the consumption of contaminated food products (vegetable, milk) for the inorganic iodine. The iodine transfer to goat and sheep milk is greater than the one to cow milk. The meat production of herbivores at field is the most sensitive. The interest to remove rapidly herbivore from pasture appears relatively clearly. The banning of consumption of local contaminated food products (vegetables and meats) may reduce by about a factor of thirteen the impact due to iodine 131. The youngest the population is, the greatest are the thyroid radiosensitivity and variability within the population. Oral administration of stable iodine limits transfers to maternal milk and foetal thyroid. Ingestion of stable iodine is complementary to consumption banning of local contaminated food products. The earliest the ingestion is, the greatest is the efficiency. 0,1 TBq of 131 iodine released at a low height involves only limited and local actions whereas the release of 10 TBq involves direct and immediate protection

  4. Challenges in the evaluation of urinary iodine status in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Sørensen, Louise Kolding; Motavaf, Anne Krejbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the recommended method to evaluate iodine status in pregnancy, but several factors may challenge the interpretation of the results. We evaluated UIC in pregnant women according to (1) sampling in the hospital versus at home, (2) time...... of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling, and (3) members of their household. Study Design: Danish crosssectional study in the year 2012. Pregnant women (n = 158), their male partners (n = 157) and children (n = 51) provided a questionnaire with detailed information on iodine supplement.......042), but not estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion (p = 0.79), were higher when sampling was at home. Median UIC was dependent on the time of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling [same day (n = 79): 150 μg/l (95% CI 131-181 μg/l), the day before (n = 51): 105 μg/l (78-131 μg/l), several days...

  5. Sodium Iodide-131 (Na131I) AS Gelatin Capsules At TNRC-In Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherief, M. F.; Abudeeb, F. N.; Abudaia, J. A.; Elghanoudy, Y. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution, the production of a capsulated Na 131 I radiopharmaceutical, for treatment of variety of hyperthyroidism diseases, at Tajoura Nuclear Research Center in Tripoli-Libya is described. The process requires the application of a very small volume of iodine-131 (not more than 25μ l in some cases) with radioactivities reaching some 37 GBq per capsule. The application of such volume is necessary to prevent damage to gelatin material. Loading a volume of 100 μ l of radioactive Na 131 I solution containing 37 GBq. radioactivity within a capsule filled with anhydrous sodium hydrogen phosphate as an adsorption material for Na 131 I solution brings such solution into a direct interaction with the gelatin material. This is assumed to have an inadequate effect in therapy. To overcome this problem, the work team has introduced some substantial alterations on the irradiation procedure and the process of the pre-irradiation treatment of the target. As a consequence, that has successfully culminated in production of Na 131 I capsules with proper perspective (e.g. radioactive yield of 74 GBq from 37 GBq previously and radioactive concentration of 37 GBq/ml). (Authors)

  6. Spatial distribution of Iodine-129 in surface soil around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Tagi, Kazuhiro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Tsuchiya, Yoko; Nakano, Chuichiro; Honda, Maki

    2011-01-01

    Due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, a lot of radioactive materials were released into the environment. Among them, Iodine-131, which has a short half-life of 8 days, is thought to be hardly detected after the accident is concluded. It is very important to research how leaked out Iodine-131 was diffused in order to estimate the health impact of radiation at the time of the accident. On the other hand, Iodine-129, which was leaked out and was thought to act chemically-identically as Iodine-131, has an extremely long half-life of 15.7 million years and we are able to measure it equally after the accident. By following the trail of Iodine-129, it is considered to estimate the distribution of Iodine-131. To do this, at first, it is essential to measure simultaneously Iodine-131 and Iodine-129 in the same sample picked from near-the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant and examine the relation between them (for example, the isotopic ratio of Iodine derived from the nuclear power plant (I-129/I-131)). At this study, we measured Iodine-129 in surface soil within 60 kilometers of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was picked by research team of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo. We discuss Iodine-129 derived from the nuclear power plant by considering the concentration range, the relation of a distance or a direction from the nuclear power plant, and the relation between I-129 and other radioactive nuclides (Cs-134, Cs-137, I-131). Since Iodine-129, which had been leaked out from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Europe, was already transferred to Japan by way of the atmospheric transportation before the accident, it is important to distinguish between Iodine-129 from this accident and from the reprocessing plant. Then, we want to obtain the I-129/I-131 ratio originating in the accident precisely and discuss the

  7. Results of the 1982 intercomparison (collaborative test) on J 131 in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1982-01-01

    The quality control of J 131 measurements in milk in the Federal Republik of Germany by an intercomparison performed in March 1982 showed a reasonable result. About two thirds of the laboratories engaged in this intercomparison had no trouble with their analytical tools. To improve the standard of J 131 determinations, laboratories with deviations from the true value were pointed to possible systematic errors. In the Federal Republik of Germany those methods for the determination of J 131 in milk have been successfully used which concentrate the iodine of the milk on an anion exchanger column and measure the J 131 directly by gammaspectrometry. (orig.) [de

  8. Radioactive iodine releases from nuclear power plant, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naritomi, Mitsuo

    1974-01-01

    Internal radiation dose through the respiratory intake of fission products is predominantly due to radioactive iodine not only at the time of reactor accidents but also in normal operation of nuclear facilities. Technological studies in this field have thus been quite active to this day. With the rapid advance of nuclear power generation in recent years, the efforts to reduce environmental release of radioactive iodine and to enhance environmental safety are all the more emphasized. Experiences in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute during past about six years are described concerning the radioactive iodine release to the atmosphere in 131 I production and the measures taken to reduce the release. Then, problems are expounded regarding the radioactive iodine release at the time of reactor accidents and in spent fuel reprocessing. (Mori, K.)

  9. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  10. Radiation exposure estimation from patient treated by I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahfi, Y.; Anjak, O.

    2012-09-01

    Radioactive iodine is the main radiopharmaceutical substance in the nuclear medicine field which used in diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from thyroid cancer; thus it can be considered as the main source of the public and patient relative exposure. In this study, 192 patients were selected randomly and their radiation dose rate was measured at different levels of the patient's body (thyroid, knee, bladder) after one, twenty four and forty eight hours from availing the prescript quantity of the I-131. The collected data may serve in estimating the worker and public exposure related to the patient treated by I-131. (authors)

  11. An estimation of the risk for the use of stable iodine in radiation protection in an iodine deficient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.; Gloebel, H.; Muth, H.; Andres, C.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation risk of the thyroid is estimated by use of data from the literature and our investigations. Comparing these results with the statistical incidence of radiation evoked diseases the risk of a patient to develop thyroid carcinoma receiving 50 μCi 131 I for thyroid diagnostics is about tenfold compared to the spontaneous risk with a twofold risk to develop hypothyroidism. Using sup(99m)Tc or 123 I these risks are minimized to a small percentage. For technicians in the RIA lab or during labelling of proteins the thyroid's radiation risk can be diminished by ingestion of inactive iodine, however, this procedure includes new risks of iodine side-effects. Comparing the pharmacological risks of iodine intake and the radiation risk it seems to be useful to suggest iodine prophylaxis when the expected radiation dose exceeds 10 rad in the thyroid. (author)

  12. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  13. Iodine deficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).

  14. Iodine excretion during stimulation with rhTSH in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, M.; Weckesser, M.; Franzius, C.; Kies, P.; Schober, O.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Elevated iodine intake is a serious problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic application of 131 iodine in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Therefore, iodine avoidance is necessary 3 months in advance. Additionally, endogenous stimulation requires withdrawal of thyroid hormone substitution for 4 weeks. Exogenous stimulation using recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) enables the continuous substitution of levothyroxine, which contains 65.4% of its molecular weight in iodine. Thus, a substantial source of iodine intake is maintained during exogenous stimulation. Although this amount of stable iodine is comparable to the iodine intake in regions of normal iodine supply, it may reduce the accumulation of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the iodine excretion depending on different ways of stimulation. Methods: Iodine excretion was measured in 146 patients in the long term follow up after differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Patients were separated into 2 groups, those on hormone withdrawal (G I) and rhTSH-stimulated patients on hormone substitution (G II). Results: Iodine excretion was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients (G I, median 50 μg/l, range: 25-600 μg/l) than in those under levothyroxine medication (G II, median 75 μg/l, 25-600 μg/l, p [de

  15. Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, 131 I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the 131 I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of 131 I and/or months later and progress in intensity with time. In conjunction with the radiation sialadenitis, secondary complications reported include xerostomia, taste alterations, infection, increases in caries, facial nerve involvement, candidiasis, and neoplasia. Prevention of 131 I sialadenitis may involve the use of sialogogic agents to hasten the transit time of the radioactive iodine through the salivary glands. However, studies are not available to delineate the efficacy of this approach. Treatment of the varied complications that may develop encompass numerous approaches and include gland massage, sialogogic agents, duct probing, antibiotics, mouthwashes, good oral hygiene, and adequate hydration. Recently interventional sialoendoscopy has been introduced an effective tool for the management of patients with 131 I-induced sialadenitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment.

  16. Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, {sup 131}I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the {sup 131}I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I and/or months later and progress in intensity with time. In conjunction with the radiation sialadenitis, secondary complications reported include xerostomia, taste alterations, infection, increases in caries, facial nerve involvement, candidiasis, and neoplasia. Prevention of {sup 131}I sialadenitis may involve the use of sialogogic agents to hasten the transit time of the radioactive iodine through the salivary glands. However, studies are not available to delineate the efficacy of this approach. Treatment of the varied complications that may develop encompass numerous approaches and include gland massage, sialogogic agents, duct probing, antibiotics, mouthwashes, good oral hygiene, and adequate hydration. Recently interventional sialoendoscopy has been introduced an effective tool for the management of patients with {sup 131}I-induced sialadenitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment.

  17. Determination of iodine in biological samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, P.V.; Karunakara, N.; Prabhu, Ujwal; Yashodhara, I.; Ravi, P.M.; Sudhakar, J.; Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    During normal operating conditions of a nuclear reactor, the release of radionuclides to the environment will be extremely low and well within the limits. Radioiodine ( 131 I) is one of the radionuclides likely to get released into the atmosphere in case of a reactor accident. During the short initial phase of release of radioactivity, 131 I is rapidly transferred to milk, leading to significant thyroid dose to those consuming milk, especially infant and children. Hence, studies on Iodine transfer through grass-cow-milk is very important. Extensive studies on transfer for 131 I through grass-cow-milk pathway after Chernobyl accident has been reported. But, under normal operational conditions of the power reactor, 131 I is not present in measurable concentration in environmental matrices of a nuclear power generating station. Stable iodine is present in all environmental samples and from the concentration of stable iodine in grass and milk, one can estimate the transfer factor. The measurement of stable iodine in environmental sample is very challenging because of its extremely low concentration. Neutron activation analysis can be used for estimation of stable iodine in the environment after suitably optimizing the condition to minimize interferences. A method has been developed based on thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) to estimate the iodine concentration present in grass and cow milk

  18. Synthesis, labelling and biodistribution of N-isopropyl 131I-p-iodoamhetamine (131IAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, N.; Reveco, P.; Mena, P.; Gil, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to synthesize N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IAMP) through differents schemes, being the most feasible the iodination of phenylacetic acid. The labelling of this compound with radioidine, by isotope exchange in presence or absence of Cu (II) as catalyst, presents less activity concentration in brain than using Cu (II) with an excess of ascorbic acid as reducing agent of Cu (II). The use of ascorbic acid in excess allow the formation of Cu (I) in-situ, which may form an Ar-Cu-I complex, favouring the isotope nucleophilic substitution reaction, obtaining 131 IAMP higher radiochemical purity and better cerebral uptake. (Author)

  19. Behavior of medically-derived 131I in the tidal Potomac River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Paula S.; Smith, Joseph P.; Cochran, J. Kirk; Aller, Robert C.; Swanson, R. Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-131 (t 1/2 = 8.04 d) is administered to patients for treatment of thyroid disorders, excreted by patients and discharged to surface waters via sewage effluent. Radionuclides generally behave like their stable analogs; therefore, medically-derived 131 I is useful as a transport-reaction tracer of anthropogenic inputs and the aquatic biogeochemistry of iodine. Iodine-131 was measured in Potomac River water and sediments in the vicinity of the Blue Plains Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), Washington, DC, USA. Concentrations measured in sewage effluent from Blue Plains WPCP and in the Potomac River suggest a relatively continuous source of this radionuclide. The range of 131 I concentrations detected in surface water was 0.076 ± 0.006 to 6.07 ± 0.07 Bq L −1 . Iodine-131 concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.3 ± 0.8 to 117 ± 2 Bq kg −1 dry weight. Partitioning in the sewage effluent from Blue Plains and in surface waters indicated that 131 I is associated with colloidal and particulate organic material. The behavior of medically-derived 131 I in the Potomac River is consistent with the nutrient-like behavior of natural iodine in aquatic environments. After discharge to the river via sewage effluent, it is incorporated into biogenic particulate material and deposited in sediments. Solid phase sediment profiles of 131 I indicated rapid mixing or sedimentation of particulate debris and diagenetic remineralization and recycling on short time scales. - Highlights: ► Medically-derived 131 I was measured in sewage effluent, river water, and sediments. ► Sediment 210 Pb and 7 Be profiles help characterize the sedimentary environment. ► 131 I flux to sediments in study area is ∼ 1% of that discharged in sewage effluent. ► 131 I distributions constrain reaction-transport processes to weekly time scales. ► Collectively these data are used to better understand iodine biogeochemistry

  20. Survey of iodine metabolism in man illustrated by an iodide load investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassoee, C.-F.; Langaasdalen, H.

    1977-12-01

    The first part of this report deals with the human metabolism of iodine, its sources, serum iodine, uptake in the thyroid, hormonal thyroid secretion and iodine excretion. The thyroid hormones are discussed as is the regulating of the iodine metabolism. The second part consists of a study performed on six healthy persons over two days. These were given 5mg iodine in aqueous solution rally and series of blood tests taken. Two persons were also given 100mg and 200mg respectively per day for 3weeks. The results are tabulated and discussed. In the third and final section the radiation hygiene aspects are treated. The basis is the uptake of large amounts of I - 131 from radioactive fallout. Carcinogenesis and hypothyroidism following this are discussed and therapy and iodine prophylaxis are described. (JIW)

  1. Micronucleus induction as a measure of I-131 exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuba, V; Horvat, D [Inst. for Medical Recearch and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia). Laboratory for Mutagenesis; Kusic, Z [Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine; Vlatkovic, M [Clinical Hospital Centre, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protection

    1994-10-01

    The change of cell numbers in the peripheral blood following irradiation has been studied for many years, particularly in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Recently, attention is directed towards the use of cytogenetic-mutagenetic methods to estimate the biological effects of received radiation dose. The aim of our study was to identify the difference in number and distribution of micronucleus, depending of applied therapeutic dose of iodine-131. According to their diagnosis, six patients have received iodine-131 in range from 80 to 140 mCi, while in the other group of patients the dose values varied from 7 to 32 mCi. On in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus analyses were carried out before the treatment, 24, 48 and 96 hours after the oral application of radiopharmaceutical. The number of micronucleus is showing increase, depending on applied radioactivity of iodine-131 and duration of exposition. The clear dose response relationship was never found. These results illustrate the problem associated with the inhomogeneous distribution of dose which results from the concentration of incorporated radionuclide into thyroid or other tissues. (author).

  2. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  3. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  4. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  5. Comparison of curative effect of 131I and antithyroid drugs in Graves' disease: a meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ju; Lu, Xiuqing; Yue, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Radioactive 131I is currently reported to be a potential effective intervention for Graves' Disease treatment in China. Whether 131I treatment was associated with effective outcome or reduced risk of side effects, reccurence rate remained unknown. Eligible studies were selected from Chinese VIP, Wangfang, CNKI databases using the keywords "Iodine" and "Graves Disease". Finally, 13 clinical trials met the inclusion criterion and were included this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 1355 patients diagnosed of Graves' Disease with regular anti-thyroid drugs oral administration and 1320 patients with 131I therapy. The results showed that there was significant symptom improvement with radioactive iodine intervention (Odd Ratio (OR)=4.50, 95% CI [3.55, 5.71], PGraves' Disease. Treatment with 131I was associated with better clinical outcome; it reduced side effects and reccurence rate but increased hypothyroidism in Graves' Disease.

  6. Radiolabeling and Preclinical Evaluation of 131I-anti-CD20 for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullaprawittaya, Usa; Khongpetch, Pranom; Ngamprayad, Tippanan; Nuanchuen, Suphatphong

    2007-08-01

    Full text: In this study, a monoclonal anti-CD20 was developed for radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma by reacting anti-CD20 with iodine-131 using iodogen procedure. It was found that radiochemical yield was > 95 % independently of incubation time and the antibody could be conjugated with iodine-131 up to 10 mCi/mg. The radiolabeled antibody exhibited excellent retention of immunoreactivity with radio incorporations >95% for 6 hr at 4 o C. In vitro stability tests showed minimal loss of iodine-131 from the conjugate in the presence of cysteine and in human serum at 37 o C. Biodistribution study in normal ICR mice showed higher uptake by the liver, kidney and intestines but lower thyroid uptake compared to 131 I -MIBG. Biodistribution studies confirmed the in vitro stability of 131 I -anti-CD20. In particular, excellent in vivo retention of iodine-131 was demonstrated by lower thyroid accumulation over 48 hr. A favorable biological distribution of 131 I -anti-CD20 suggests this radiopharmaceutical may be effectively used in the therapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

  7. Evaluation of {sup 131}I retention in several adsorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanoso, Marcela F.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: marcela.forli@gmail.co, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope {sup 131}I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by {beta}{sup -} and its {gamma}-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO{sub 2} targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the {sup 131}I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the {sup 131}I, volatile, is carried by an O{sub 2} gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of {sup 131}I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of {sup 131}I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  8. Evaluation of 131I retention in several adsorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catanoso, Marcela F.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope 131 I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by β - and its γ-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO 2 targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the 131 I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the 131 I, volatile, is carried by an O 2 gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of 131 I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of 131 I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  9. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  10. Iodine leaflets in chapter D5 'Distribution of iodine pills'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Jodine leaflet A will be distributed together with iodine pills in a nuclear disaster. Iodine leaflet B is suitable for informing the public in advance. Iodine leaflet C informs physicians in a scientific way on the benefits and risk of iodine pills. (orig./HP) [de

  11. I-131 Dose Response for Incident Thyroid Cancers in Ukraine Related to the Chornobyl Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; Oliynik, Valery A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zamotaeva, Galina A.; O?Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C.; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V.; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case?control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. Objective: To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose?response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. Methods: The cohort consists of individuals < 18 years of age on 26 April 1986 who ...

  12. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  13. The hepatic handling of 131I-labeled sulfobromophtalein in the dog. Comparison with sulfobromophthalein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasinovic, J.C.; Delage, Y.; Erlinger, S.

    1976-01-01

    131 I-labeled BSP is obtained by the incorporation of one molecule of radioactive iodine in BSP. The influence of the added iodine on the hepatic extraction and biliary excretion of BSP was studied. Two types of experiments were performed. In the first, a compartmental analysis of BSP and 131 I-labeled BSP disappearance curves was performed after the simultaneous injection of 5mg per kg of BSP and 10μCi of 131 I-labeled BSP: both, the plasma to liver and liver to bile transfer rates were significantly lower for 131 I-labelled BSP than for BSP; the liver to plasma transfer rates were not significantly different. In the second series of experiments, the hepatic uptake of BSP and 131 I-labeled BSP was estimated by the multiple indicator dilution technique: the extraction of BSP (59%+-SD 5) was significantly higher that than of 131 I-labeled BSP (35%+-SD5) (P 131 I significantly modified the hepatic handling of the dye; 131 I-labeled BSP cannot therefore be used as a tracer of BSP

  14. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  15. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  16. Determination of iodine 129 in vegetables using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Eduardo E.; Thyssen, Sandra M.; Bruno, Hector A.

    1999-01-01

    The developed methodology allows the determination of iodine 129 in vegetables, using neutron activation analysis. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in these matrixes, as well as the bromine 82 originated in the activation process. The experimental method for the determination of iodine 129 by neutron activation analysis involves five steps: 1- digestion by alkaline fusion; 2- pre-irradiation purification of iodine 129 by distillation followed by solvent extraction, and adsorption on activated charcoal by distillation; 3- neutron irradiation; 4- post-irradiation purification of iodine 130 by distillation followed by solvent extraction; 5- gamma spectrometry. A chemical recovery of 95 % is obtained in the distillations, measured using iodine 131 as tracer. The whole process recovery is within 70 % and 85 %. The detection limit is 2 mBq/kg of sample, but several factors affect this value, such as type of vegetable, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. The methodology developed is applied at environmental surveillance with safeguards proposes, in the detection of undeclared reprocessing of irradiated fuel. (authors)

  17. No impact of dietary iodine restriction in short term development of hypothyroidism following fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Stephen, Charles; Paul, Thomas V; Thomas, Nihal; Oommen, Regi; Seshadri, Mandalam S

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease with increasing dietary iodine intake has been demonstrated both epidemiologically and experimentally. The hypothyroidism that occurs in the first year following radioactive iodine therapy is probably related to the destructive effects of the radiation and underlying ongoing autoimmunity. To study the outcomes at the end of six months after fixed dose I, (131)therapy for Graves' disease followed by an iodine restricted diet for a period of six months. Consecutive adult patients with Graves' disease planned for I(131) therapy were randomized either to receive instructions regarding dietary iodine restriction or no advice prior to fixed dose (5mCi) I(131) administration. Thyroid functions and urinary iodine indices were evaluated at 3(rd) and 6(th) month subsequently. Forty seven patients (13M and 34F) were assessed, 2 were excluded, 45 were randomized (Cases 24 and Controls 21) and 39 patients completed the study. Baseline data was comparable. Median urinary iodine concentration was 115 and 273 μg/gm creat (p = 0.00) among cases and controls respectively. Outcomes at the 3(rd) month were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 6: P = 0.24), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 8: P = 0.64). Outcomes at the end of six months were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 5: P = 0.12), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 9: P = 0.43). Of the hypothyroid patients 5 (cases 1 and controls 4: P = 0.13) required thyroxine replacement. There was no statistical significant difference in the outcome of patients with dietary iodine restriction following I(131) therapy for Graves' disease.

  18. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  19. Aplicaciones clínicas del radioyodo 131 (I131 en las enfermedades del tiroides Clinical applications of radioiodine 131 (I131 in the thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi González Rivero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El radioyodo 131 es un isótopo radioactivo que se emplea exitosamente en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades benignas y malignas del tiroides. Su propiedad de integrarse selectivamente al metabolismo del tiroides y emitir una señal, le permite describir el funcionamiento glandular mediante estudios de captación, y delimitar la morfología y localización de los tejidos que capten yodo, a través de la gammagrafía. Es además una radioterapia sencilla, segura y coste-efectiva, usada como primera línea terapéutica en el control del hipertiroidismo, cuya dosis y momento de aplicación debería individualizarse según la etiología y la clínica de cada paciente. El radioyodo 131 ofrece una alternativa eficaz para reducir el tamaño del bocio no tóxico; además, respalda el tratamiento quirúrgico del carcinoma diferenciado del tiroides, y destruye a dosis ablativa los restos tisulares y las lesiones metastásicas que puede identificar durante el seguimiento gammagráfico. El empleo de radioyodo 131 está sujeto al cumplimiento de regulaciones de protección contra la radioactividad.Radioiodine 131 is a radioactive isotope that is successfully