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Sample records for iodine 125

  1. Mock iodine-125 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    An intimate mixture of americium-241 and iodine-129 provides an energy spectrum that reliably simulates the spectrum of iodine-125 in a well-type detector. As such, it may be used as a long-lived standard to calibrate instruments such as well scintillation spectrometers in which measurements are to be made involving iodine-125

  2. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  4. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula

  5. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  6. Study on iodine-125 production technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu; Han Dongqiao; Lu Changlong; Sun Wenhao; Bao Jianying; Wang Aimin

    1999-11-01

    125 I is produced with natural xenon as target material. The target preparation process is presented. Required xenon is frozen in 100 ml aluminum container by liquid nitrogen and sealed by cold-welding for irradiation in reactor. I - can be adsorbed on Platinum Coated Copper (PCC) in the media of dilute sulfuric acid, pH 3 PCC. In the range of its adsorption capacity, the adsorption efficiency of iodine-125 on PCC is greater than 99.9%. All the radioiodine can be adsorbed on PCC quantifiably and the impurities pass through the column. The elution efficiency of 125 I from PCC column greatly depends on the concentration of eluant NaOH, the amount of adsorbed 125 I - and flow rate as well. The aluminum dissolved from Al container has no apparent effects on both adsorption and elution efficiency. The contents of adsorbent material Cu and Pt is extremely low ( 125 I produced by using PCC chromatographic technique can meet the requirement of RIA kits labelling and other uses

  7. Local radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons of iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, P.; Uenak, T.

    1987-01-01

    High radiotoxicity of iodine-125 has been mainly attributed to the local radiolytic effects of Auger electrons on biological systems. In the present study, experimental and theoretical results are compared. The agreement between the experimental and theoretical results explains that the energy absorption of iodine aggregates has an important role in the radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons and iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  8. Irradiation of malignant eyelid melanoma with iodine 125 plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanowsky, A.; Krey, H.F.; Kopp, J.; Kanitz, W.; Wagner, T.

    1990-01-01

    We used contact irradiation with iodine 125 seeds to treat a large, exulcerative, nodular, amelanotic malignant eyelid melanoma with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes in an 80-year-old man. The procedure was similar to iodine 125 plaque irradiation of malignant choroidal melanoma; special equipment, however, was needed to protect the eye from radiation exposure. The response of the malignant eyelid melanoma to iodine 125 plaque irradiation was similar to that of malignant melanomas of the choroid. No complications were observed in a follow-up period of 15 months

  9. Irradiation of malignant eyelid melanoma with iodine 125 plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanowsky, A.; Krey, H.F.; Kopp, J.; Kanitz, W.; Wagner, T. (Eye Clinic, Central Clinic, Augsburg (West Germany))

    1990-07-15

    We used contact irradiation with iodine 125 seeds to treat a large, exulcerative, nodular, amelanotic malignant eyelid melanoma with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes in an 80-year-old man. The procedure was similar to iodine 125 plaque irradiation of malignant choroidal melanoma; special equipment, however, was needed to protect the eye from radiation exposure. The response of the malignant eyelid melanoma to iodine 125 plaque irradiation was similar to that of malignant melanomas of the choroid. No complications were observed in a follow-up period of 15 months.

  10. Quality asurance of iodinated (125 I) human fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    The radiopharmaceutical iodinated ( 125 I) human fibrinogen is currently used for the detection of deep vein thrombosis in the legs, a fairly common post-surgical complication. A comprehensive quality assurance programme for ( 125 I) - human fibrinogen has been determined for routine use at the Australian Radiation Laboratory, with adaptions necessary for hospital quality control testing

  11. Quality Assurance Procedure Development in Iodine-125 Seeds Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, J.A.; Moura, E.S.; Sprenger, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Brachytherapy using Iodine-125 seeds has been used in prostate cancer treatment. In the quality control routine during seed production, leak tests are made to detect any leakage of radioactive material from inside the titanium shield. Leak tests are made according to the International Standard Organization- Radiation protection - sealed radioactive sources - ISO 9978 standard, and require liquid transfer between recipients. If any leakage happens, there will be contamination of the liquid and tubing. This study aims to establish decontamination routines for tubing, allowing its repeated use, in the automated assay process

  12. Brachytherapy with 125-Iodine sources: transport and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Carla D.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Feher, Anselmo; Hilario, Katia F.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The estimates for the year 2009 show that 466,730 new cancer cases will occur in Brazil. Prostate cancer is the second most incident type. Brachytherapy, a type of radiotherapy, with Iodine-125 sources are an important form of treatment for this kind of cancer. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) created a project to develop a national prototype of these sources and is implementing a facility for local production. The seeds manufacture in Brazil will allow to diminish the treatment cost and make it possible for a larger number of patients. While the laboratory is not ready, the IPEN import and it distributes seeds. This work aim is to present and evaluate the transport procedures and the radiological protection applied to imported sources in order to assist the procedures for the new laboratory implementation. Before sending to hospitals, the seeds are packed by a radioprotector supervisor, in accordance with CNEN NE 5.01 standard 'Radioactive Material Transport'. Despite Iodine-125 presents low energy photons, around 29 keV, local and personal dosimeters are used during the transport process, as described in CNEN NN 3.01 standard 'Radiological Protection Basic Guideline'. All the results show no contamination and very low exposure, proving the method to be valid. The transport procedure used is correct, according to the regulations. As an result of this work, a new dosimeter should be installed and evaluate in future study. (author)

  13. Iodine-125 metaraminol: A new platelet specific labeling agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Kawaii, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Saji, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the search for a platelet specific labeling agent, Metaraminol (MA), which is a sympatomimetic amine used for the treatment of hypotension, cardiogenic shock and well recognized as a drug actively incorporated and accumulated in platelet, attracted the authors' attention. Using the classical chloramine-T iodination method, a high labeling efficiency near 98%, reaching a specific activity up to about 1000 Ci/mmole was obtained. Upon the harvest of platelet, only as platelet rich plasma (PRP), the labeling with this radiopharmaceutical was easily performed by incubation at 37 0 C for 10 min. Labeling efficiency as high as 63.0 +- 3.1% at 24 x 10/sup 8/ cells/ml was obtained. In in-vitro studies, the unaltered state of I-125 MA labeled platelet, with their cellular functions fully retained was demonstrated. Pharmacological study indicated a specific incorporation of I-125 MA by active transport system similar to that of 5-HT, along with passive diffusion. Then the in-vivo study carried out in rabbits with induced thrombi on the femoral artery, showed rather rapid disappearance of the I-125 MA labeled autologous platelet radioactivity, from circulating blood reaching as high thrombus-to-blood activity ratio as 19.8+-4.3 within 30 min post-administration. This new platelet labeling agent, I-125 MA, has many advantages over the use of IN-111 oxine and holds considerable promise for thrombus imaging with single photon emission CT upon the availability of I-123 MA

  14. Reactions of iodine-125 with gaseous ethene induced via EC-decay of xenon-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, K.; Coenen, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    Decay-induced reactions of nucleogenic iodine species in situ via the 125 Xe(EC) 125 I decay were examined in gaseous ethene. Vinyl iodide is the only monomeric compound found in pure ethene with 0.7% radiochemical yield besides 10% radioiodinated oligomers, which were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography. Addition of rare gases increases the yield of C 2 H 3 I up to 3.3% and of oligomers to about 25%. The effect of different rare gasese indicates substitution reactions of thermal iodine cations in 1 D 2 and 1 S 2 excited states with a 25% and in the 2 P 1 and 2 P 0 states with 75% contribution. Endothermic and homolytic reactions could be excluded for vinyl iodide generation. Radical besides ionic induced oligomerization, however, seem to occur since traces of oxygen increase the organic product yields. The chain length of oligomers formed is strongly reduced in the presence of rare gases, oxygen and especially of H-acidic compounds (HX, X = OH, OCH 3 , OC 2 H 5 ). Latter additives were also effective in trapping the intermediately formed ethene-iodonium complex giving rise to 1-iodo-2-X-ethanes. In presence of 1% HCl the production of 125 ICH 2 CH 2 Cl proceeded with preparative radiochemical yields of up to 70%. This occurs by primary formation of 125 ICl and subsequent addition to ethene. (orig.)

  15. Preparation of iodine-125-labeled iothalamate for renal clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.A.; Herold, T.J.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Iothalamate, a derivative of benzoic acid, is used as a contrast medium for renal function studies, particularly for measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Its chemical composition and clearance properties are similar to those of diatrizoate. The structural differences between these groups of iodinated benzoic acid derivatives are dependent on the groups attached at the 3- and 5-positions of 2,4,6-tri-iodobenzoic acid. The renal clearance of sodium iothalamate in humans closely approximates that of inulin, and it is used as a replacement for inulin in determining glomerular filtration rate. /sup 125/I-labeled iothalamate sodium can be prepared by the exchange-labeling method at pH 4.0. Iothalamate must first be isolated from the contrast medium preparation and purified before radioiodination. After radioiodination, the product is purified by means of precipitation and is then converted to the sodium salt

  16. Dosimetric study in iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The demand for iodine-125 seeds for use in brachytherapy treatments has experienced an increase along recent years in Brazil and all over the world. All iodine-125 seed must have its operational parameters measured and/or calculated every time changes in the production process are carried out. A complete dosimetric measurement is very expensive, and it is recommended that this procedure must be repeated at least once a year. Thus, this work developed a methodology for the entire dosimetric process. This methodology is based on the scarce information available in the literature, once almost all the methodology used in large industrial laboratories is commercial secret. The proposed methodology was tested using seeds of Amersham-Oncura-Ge Healthcare, which is the largest seed manufactory in the world. In this new methodology, an automatic reader was employed in order to reduce the time required in the selection process of the TLD-100 dosimeters used and a postprocessing of the obtained spectra was carried out. A total of 142 dosimeters were used and only 29 have been selected using the new methodology. Measurements were performed using slabs of Solid Water RW1 to simulate measuring in the 'water', using three different experimental apparatus and each measurement was repeated at least three times. The TLD-100 calibration was performed using a Dermopan II - Siemens. The measured values showed a good agreement with the ones available in the literature. Finally, these measured values were compared with calculated ones obtained by a semiempirical simulation program, showing a good agreement and, therefore, demonstrating the validity of the proposed methodology regarding dosimetric calculations. (author)

  17. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P., E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: sprenger@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  18. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  19. DOSIMETRIC STUDY IN IODINE-125 SEEDS FOR BRACHYTHERAPY APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Zeituni

    2008-01-01

    A demanda por sementes de iodo-125 para uso em braquiterapia tem crescido muito ao longo dos últimos anos, tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo. Toda semente de iodo-125 deve ter seus parâmetros operacionais medidos e/ou calculados todas as vezes que for efetuada alguma modificação na produção. Um levantamento dosimétrico completo custa bastante caro, e recomenda-se que seja refeito pelo menos uma vez por ano. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho desenvolveu uma metodologia para todo o processo dos...

  20. Brazilian demand for Iodine-125 seeds in cancer treatment after a decade of medical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, João A.; Souza, Carla D.; Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Peleiras Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, CArlos A.; Rostelaro, Maria E.C.M., E-mail: olcosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are radionuclides employed to made medical devices used in cancer treatment known as brachytherapy seeds. These radioactive sealed sources are applied in brain and ophthalmic cancer as a temporary implant to irradiate the tumor and in permanent implants to prostatic cancer. Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has the monopoly in Brazil of iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds distribution which is executed for Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Along a decade of use in Brazil more than 240 thousand seeds were implanted in patients or used to treat cancer tumors. In this article the Brazilian demand for iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds is analyzed. The demand behavior along a decade of using loose, strand, ophthalmic and brain brachytherapy seeds are shown. The annual quantity of seeds demanded by Brazil has dropped since 2012. The loose seeds which represented until 30% from total brachytherapy seeds used in Brazil decreased to less than 3%. The brain brachytherapy seeds had low demand along the decade and presented zero demand in several years. Concurrent treatment techniques are listed and main trends are discussed. The influence of Brazilian economic crisis and the demand behavior of the main hospitals and clinics that use Iodine-125 brachytherapy are shown. (author)

  1. Recurrent primary lumbar vertebra chondrosarcoma: Marginal resection and Iodine-125 seed therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcomas are uncommon in the spinal column. En bloc excisions with wide margins are of critical importance but not always feasible in spine. We report the outcome in a case of recurrent lumbar vertebral chondrosarcoma treated with marginal resection and iodine-125 seeds placed in the resected tumor bed.

  2. Review of options for managing iodine-125 wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, P.J.; Wakerley, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nature, radioactive content and management options used for I-125 wastes that are produced in England and Wales and fall within the provisions of the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 have been collated. The options for, and impacts of the disposal of these wastes have been reviewed and discussed. In addition storage for decay has been reviewed. The necessary storage requirements and methods of storage for the various waste forms have been examined. Conclusions are drawn with respect to the potential/suitability of the various waste management options. (author)

  3. A new inexpensive customized plaque for choroidal melanoma iodine-125 plaque therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, A.K.; Tenhaken, R.K.; Diaz, R.F.; Maxson, B.B.; Lichter, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a new inexpensive precious metal alloy plaque for use in customized iodine-125 plaque therapy. Each plaque is formed from two flat circular gold/palladium foils which are used in dental crown work. Using a simple manual mechanism, the two forms are stamped over a customized acrylic die shaped to the dimensions of the tumor base plus a 2-mm margin. Completed plaques consist of a back wall, a 2-mm side wall, and a 1.5-mm wide lip with holes for suture placement. Advantages include: simple construction from inexpensive components, customized shape, and iodine seeds that are readily visible on plane radiographs

  4. Preparation of iodine - 125 - labeled insulin for radioimmunoassay: comparison of chloramine T and iodogen iodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Giannella Neto, D.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1988-05-01

    Stoichiometric iodination of porcine insulin was performed to the general method of Hunter and Greenwood with modifications recommended by Roth. These method was compared with radioidination using Iodogen. Films of Iodogen react rapidly in the solid phase with aqueous mixtures of I - and proteins. For two methods satisfactory activity of the labeled porcine insulin was obtained and characteristics of the radioimmunoassay were studied. (author) [pt

  5. In vivo imaging of insulin receptors by PET: preclinical evaluation of iodine-125 and iodine-124 labelled human insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iozzo, P.; Osman, S.; Glaser, M.; Knickmeier, M.; Ferrannini, E.; Pike, V.W.; Camici, P.G.; Law, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    [A 14 -*I]iodoinsulin was prepared for studies to assess the suitability of labeled iodoinsulin for positron emission tomography (PET). Iodine-125 was used to establish the methods and for preliminary studies in rats. Further studies and PET scanning in rats were carried out using iodine-124. Tissue and plasma radioactivity was measured as the uptake index (UI={cpm·(g tissue) -1 }/{cpm injected·(g body weight) -1 }) at 1 to 40 min after intravenous injection of either [A 14 - 125 I]iodoinsulin or [A 14 - 124 I]iodoinsulin. For both radiotracers, initial clearance of radioactivity from plasma was rapid (T 1/2 ∼ 1 min), reaching a plateau (UI = 2.8) at ∼ 5 min which was maintained for 35 min. Tissue biodistributions of the two radiotracers were comparable; at 10 min after injection, UI for myocardium was 2.4, liver, 4.0, pancreas, 5.4, brain, 0.17, kidney, 22, lung, 2.3, muscle, 0.54 and fat, 0.28. Predosing rats with unlabelled insulin reduced the UI for myocardium (0.95), liver (1.8), pancreas (1.2) and brain (0.08), increased that for kidney (61) but had no effect on that for lung (2.5), muscle (0.50) or fat (0.34). Analysis of radioactivity in plasma demonstrated a decrease of [ 125 I]iodoinsulin associated with the appearance of labeled metabolites; the percentage of plasma radioactivity due to [ 125 I]iodoinsulin was 40% at 5 min and 10% at 10 min. The heart, liver and kidneys were visualized using [ 124 I]iodoinsulin with PET

  6. Iodine-125 orbital brachytherapy with a prosthetic implant in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, Clare [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Maree, Gert; Munro, Roger [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Physics; Lecuona, Karin [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Sauerwein, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Strahlenklinik, NCTeam

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is one method of irradiating the orbit after enucleation of an eye with a malignant tumor that has a potential to recur. It consists of 6 trains of I-125 seeds placed around the periphery of the orbit, a shorter central train, and a metal disc, loaded with seeds, placed beneath the eyelids. The presence of a prosthetic orbital implant requires omission of the central train and adjustment of the activity of the seeds in the anterior orbit around the prosthesis. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the technical modifications and outcome of 12 patients treated in this manner: 6 with retinoblastoma, 5 with malignant melanoma, and 1 with an intraocular rhabdomyosarcoma. The median dose was 35.5 Gy in 73 hours for retinoblastoma and 56 Gy in 141 hours for malignant melanoma. Patients with retinoblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma also received chemotherapy. Results: The tubes can be placed satisfactorily around the prosthesis. The increased activity in the anterior half of the tubes produced comparable dose distributions. There have been no orbital recurrences, no extrusion of the prosthesis, and cosmesis is good. Conclusion: Insertion of a prosthetic implant at the time of enucleation greatly enhances the subsequent cosmetic appearance. This should be encouraged unless there is frank tumor in the orbit. Orbital brachytherapy without the central train continues to give excellent local control. The short treatment time and good cosmesis are added advantages. The patient is spared the expense and inconvenience of removing and replacing the prosthetic implant. (orig.)

  7. Multistation iodine-125 continuous air monitor with minicomputer alarm and data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfield, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    The components, operation, and calibration are described of a Multistation Continuous Air Monitor for the analysis of Iodine-125 and the functions of the Minicomputer in providing alarm functions and data reduction to units specified by regulation for permanent records. The sensitivity and accuracy, as well as the justification for purchase and comparison of costs with other types of air monitoring systems are also described

  8. Development of an encapsulation method using plasma arc welding to produce iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Anselmo; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Somessari, Samir L.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rela, Paulo R., E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: prela@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer is public health problem in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing Iodine-125 radioisotope are implanted into the prostate gland. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed Iodine-125. The Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) is one of the viable techniques for sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes, such as, Laser Beam Welding (LBW). The main purpose of this work was the development of an encapsulation method using PAW. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cutting and cleaning titanium tube, determination of the welding parameters, development of a titanium tube holding device for PAW, sealed sources validation according to ISO 2919 - Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, and metallographic assays. The developed procedure to seal Iodine-125 seeds using PAW has shown high efficiency, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work will give the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC 17 - Good Manufacturing Practices to Medical Products defined by the ANVISA - National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  9. Development of an encapsulation method using plasma arc welding to produce iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Anselmo; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Somessari, Samir L.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rela, Paulo R.

    2011-01-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer is public health problem in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing Iodine-125 radioisotope are implanted into the prostate gland. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed Iodine-125. The Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) is one of the viable techniques for sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes, such as, Laser Beam Welding (LBW). The main purpose of this work was the development of an encapsulation method using PAW. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cutting and cleaning titanium tube, determination of the welding parameters, development of a titanium tube holding device for PAW, sealed sources validation according to ISO 2919 - Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, and metallographic assays. The developed procedure to seal Iodine-125 seeds using PAW has shown high efficiency, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work will give the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC 17 - Good Manufacturing Practices to Medical Products defined by the ANVISA - National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  10. Development of an automation system for iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production by (Nd:YAG) laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir Luiz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by (Nd:YAG) laser welding, which has been used successfully in Low Dose Rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8mm in diameter and 4.5mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources becomes a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a largest number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), stepper motors, drivers, (Nd:YAG) laser welding machine, photoelectric sensors and supervisory. (author)

  11. Development of an automation system for iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production by ND:YAG laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Costa, Fabio E.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by Nd:YAG laser welding, which has been used successfully in low dose rate brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8 mm in diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources became a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a larger number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with good manufacturing practices. The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing a Programmable Logic Controller, a stepper motor, an Nd:YAG laser welding machine and a supervisory. (author)

  12. Study of CT-guided iodine-125 implantation in the treatment of rabbit VX2 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kewu; Gao Bin; Li Jiajia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of CT-guided iodine-125 seed( 125 I) implantation to rabbit model VX2 tumor cell apoptosis. Methods: VX2 tumor cells were implanted into muscle of 40 rabbits legs, 3 weeks later, as the diameter of tumor reached 2 cm available for test. Randomly selected the sampling tumor on one leg of rabbit as for the test team and tumor on the contralateral leg as for control team. Under CT guidance, 125 I seeds were implanted into 20 tumor lesions of the test team, and hollow seeds were implanted into 20 tumor lesions of the control team. Instantly, 72 h, 1, 2, 3 w after operation, percutaneous tumor tissue sampling was done 0.5-1.0 cm and 1.0-1.5 cm away from seed implanted site under CT guidance; and apoptosis was investigated by FCM. Results: Instantly, 72 h, 1, 2, 3 w after treatment with iodine-125 ( 125 I) implantation, the tissue sampling away from seed 0.5-1.0 cm showed the apoptosis rates of control team and test team were respectively as follows: (5.43±0.67)% and (5.48±0.66)%, (P>0.05), (5.45±0.58)% and (11.60±0.87)%, (P O.05)of the control team and test team. Conclusions: 125 I seeds implantation can induce tumor cell apoptosis, beginning at 72 h and reached peak at 2 w and kept the high level here afterword. The apoptosis rate descended rapidly along with the increase of distance away from the 125 I seedling. (authors)

  13. Efficacy of 2.5 percent and 1.25 percent Povidone-Iodine Solution for Prophylaxis of Ophthalmia Neonatorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Niazi, S. P. K.; Haq, Z. U.; Akhtar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of 2.5 percentage and 1.25 percentage Povidone-Iodine solution for Ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Eye Department, Combined Military Hospital, Sargodha, from May to November 2014. Methodology: A total of 200 eyes of 100 newborn babies were enrolled and divided into two groups of 100 right eyes and 100 left eyes. A conjunctival swab for bacterial culture was taken within 30 minutes after delivery. A single drop of 2.5 percentage Povidone-Iodine was then placed in the right eye while in the left eye a single drop of 1.25 percentage Povidone-Iodine was placed. Thirty minutes after placing Povidone-Iodine, a conjunctival swab was again taken. A bacterial suspension was prepared from each swab in determining bacterial counts. The bacterial suspension was inoculated on yeast extract agar and the number of colony forming units were counted. At each culture, the number of colony forming units before and after instillation of 2.5 percentage Povidone-Iodine and 1.25 percentage Povidone-Iodine were compared. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The 2.5 percentage Povidone-Iodine solution caused a statistically significant decrease in the number of colony forming units (p=0.001). Similarly, the 1.25 percentage Povidone-Iodine solution also reduced the number of colony forming units to a statistically significant level (p=0.001). Conclusion: The 1.25 percentage concentration of Povidone-Iodine is as effective as the 2.5 percentage concentration of Povidone-Iodine in reducing the number of colony forming units in healthy conjunctivae of newborns. (author)

  14. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Iodine Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about iodine? Disclaimer What is iodine and what does it do? Iodine is a ...

  15. Urethral and bladder dosimetry of total and focal salvage Iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy : Late toxicity and dose constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Max; Van Der Voort Van Zyp, Jochem; Hoekstra, Carel; Westendorp, Hendrik; Van De Pol, Sandrine; Moerland, Marinus; Maenhout, Metha; Kattevilder, Rob; Van Vulpen, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Salvage Iodine-125 brachytherapy (I-125-BT) constitutes a curative treatment approach for patients with organ-confined recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy. Currently, focal salvage (FS) instead of whole-gland or total salvage (TS) is being investigated, to reduce severe

  16. Experimental iodine-125 seed irradiation of intracerebral brain tumors in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haveman Jaap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain cancer. However, in preclinical research external beam radiotherapy is limited to heterotopic murine models– high-dose radiotherapy to the murine head is fatal due to radiation toxicity. Therefore, we developed a stereotactic brachytherapy mouse model for high-dose focal irradiation of experimental intracerebral (orthotopic brain tumors. Methods Twenty-one nude mice received a hollow guide-screw implanted in the skull. After three weeks, 5 × 105 U251-NG2 human glioblastoma cells were injected. Five days later, a 2 mCi iodine-125 brachytherapy seed was inserted through the guide-screw in 11 randomly selected mice; 10 mice received a sham seed. Mice were euthanized when severe neurological or physical symptoms occurred. The cumulative irradiation dose 5 mm below the active iodine-125 seeds was 23.0 Gy after 13 weeks (BEDtumor = 30.6 Gy. Results In the sham group, 9/10 animals (90% showed signs of lethal tumor progression within 6 weeks. In the experimental group, 2/11 mice (18% died of tumor progression within 13 weeks. Acute side effects in terms of weight loss or neurological symptoms were not observed in the irradiated animals. Conclusion The intracerebral implantation of an iodine-125 brachytherapy seed through a stereotactic guide-screw in the skull of mice with implanted brain tumors resulted in a significantly prolonged survival, caused by high-dose irradiation of the brain tumor that is biologically comparable to high-dose fractionated radiotherapy– without fatal irradiation toxicity. This is an excellent mouse model for testing orthotopic brain tumor therapies in combination with radiation therapy.

  17. Experimental iodine-125 seed irradiation of intracerebral brain tumors in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeff, Joost JC; Stalpers, Lukas JA; Coumou, Annet W; Koedooder, Kees; Lavini, Cristina; Van Noorden, Cornelis JF; Haveman, Jaap; Vandertop, William P; Furth, Wouter R van

    2007-01-01

    High-dose radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain cancer. However, in preclinical research external beam radiotherapy is limited to heterotopic murine models– high-dose radiotherapy to the murine head is fatal due to radiation toxicity. Therefore, we developed a stereotactic brachytherapy mouse model for high-dose focal irradiation of experimental intracerebral (orthotopic) brain tumors. Twenty-one nude mice received a hollow guide-screw implanted in the skull. After three weeks, 5 × 10 5 U251-NG2 human glioblastoma cells were injected. Five days later, a 2 mCi iodine-125 brachytherapy seed was inserted through the guide-screw in 11 randomly selected mice; 10 mice received a sham seed. Mice were euthanized when severe neurological or physical symptoms occurred. The cumulative irradiation dose 5 mm below the active iodine-125 seeds was 23.0 Gy after 13 weeks (BED tumor = 30.6 Gy). In the sham group, 9/10 animals (90%) showed signs of lethal tumor progression within 6 weeks. In the experimental group, 2/11 mice (18%) died of tumor progression within 13 weeks. Acute side effects in terms of weight loss or neurological symptoms were not observed in the irradiated animals. The intracerebral implantation of an iodine-125 brachytherapy seed through a stereotactic guide-screw in the skull of mice with implanted brain tumors resulted in a significantly prolonged survival, caused by high-dose irradiation of the brain tumor that is biologically comparable to high-dose fractionated radiotherapy– without fatal irradiation toxicity. This is an excellent mouse model for testing orthotopic brain tumor therapies in combination with radiation therapy

  18. Iodine-125 Chitosan-Vitamin C complex. Preparation, characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt). Polymer Chemistry Dept.; Shafik, H.M.; Ebeid, N.H.; Ayoub, S.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center; Othman, Sameh H. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center

    2015-07-01

    In heterogeneous conditions, water soluble Chitosan-Vitamin C Complex (CSVC) is successfully synthesized via the ionic interaction between γ-degraded CS and VC. Chitosan (CS) of low molecular weight (MW) is prepared using γ-irradiation method. The coupling of CS and vitamin C (VC) is carried out by the chemical treatment of VC with the γ-degraded CS. The formation of CSVC complex instead of physical mixture is confirmed by FT-IR and UV spectrometry. Characterization by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) shows the formation of a nanostructure in 40 nm range. The preparation of labeled CSVC was performed using chloramines-T oxidation method. The labeling feasibility of CSVC nanostructure by Iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) is investigated. The optimized conditions of labeling are thought to be 50 μg of oxidizing agent, pH 3, and one minute reaction time. The Biodistribution activity of {sup 125}I radiolabeled CSVC nanostructure ({sup 125}I-CSVC) is examined on a group of different ascites tumor bearing mice. Calculation of the biodistribution percentages shows that the tumor, liver, and kidney are the targeting organs of {sup 125}I-CSVC nanostructure.

  19. Assessment of the risks associated with Iodine-125 handling production sources for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Daiane C.B.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.; Vicente, Roberto; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S.; Batista, Talita Q.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R.; Karam Junior, Dib

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, prostate cancer is the second most frequent disease, with an estimated 68,800 new cases in 2013. This type of cancer can be treated with brachytherapy, which uses sealed sources of Iodine-125 implanted permanently in the prostate. These sources are currently imported at a high cost, making public treatment in large scale impractical. To reduce costs and to meet domestic demand, the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is currently nationalizing the production of this radioisotope. Iodine is quite volatile making the handling of its radioactive isotopes potentially dangerous. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks to which workers are exposed during the production and handling of the sources. The research method consisted initially of a literature review on the toxicity of iodine, intake limits, related physical risks, handling of accidents, generation of radioactive wastes, etc. The results allowed for establishing safety and radioprotection policies in order to ensure efficient and safe production in all stages and the implementation of good laboratory practices. (author)

  20. Computed tomography-guided iodine-125 interstitial implantation as an alternative treatment option for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G; Li, Z; Ding, A; Zhou, F; Jiao, W; Tang, D; Qiu, W; Yue, L; Xu, W

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the safety, feasibility and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using radioactive iodine-125 ( 125 I) seeds for the treatment of lung cancer. Included in this study were 45 male and 35 female patients aged 52-85 years (mean 72-year) who were diagnosed with lung cancer. Of the 80 cases of lung cancer, 38 were pathologically confirmed as squamous cell carcinoma, 29 as adenocarcinoma, 2 as small cell lung cancer, and 11 as metastatic lung cancer. Percutaneous interstitial implantation of radioactive 125 I seeds was performed under CT guidance. The treatment planning system was used to reconstruct three-dimensional images of the tumor to determine the quantity and distribution of 125 I seeds to be implanted. Under CT guidance, 125 I seeds were embedded into the tumor, with the matched peripheral dose set at 100-130 Gy. Follow-up CT scan was done in 2-month to explore the treatment efficacy. The procedure was successful in all patients. No major procedure-associated death occurred. The duration of follow-up was 6-month. Complete response (CR) was seen in 38 cases (47.5%), partial response (PR) in 27 cases (33.75%), stable disease (SD) in 10 cases (12.5%), and progressive disease in 5 cases (6.25%), with a local control rate (CR + PR + SD) of 93.75%. The 2-, 4- and 6-month overall response rate (CR + PR) was 78%, 83% and 81%, respectively. Implantation of CT-guided 125 I seeds is a safe and effective alternative option for the treatment of lung cancer.

  1. Towards in vivo nuclear microscopy: iodine-125 imaging in mice using micro-pinholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, Freek J.; McElroy, David P.; Hoffman, Edward J.; Berger, Frank; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2002-01-01

    Position-sensitive gamma-radiation detectors equipped with collimators have been used for in vivo imaging of the distribution of radiolabelled molecules in laboratory animals and humans for several decades. To date, the best image resolution achieved in a rodent is on the order of 1 mm. Here we demonstrate how a basic and compact gamma camera can be constructed for in vivo radionuclide imaging in small animals, at much higher spatial resolution. Resolution improvements were obtained by combining dense, shaped, micro-pinhole apertures with iodine-125, an isotope with low energy emissions, ease of incorporation into a wide range of molecules, and straightforward translation into the clinic via other isotopes of iodine that are suitable for nuclear medicine imaging. 125 I images of test distributions and a mouse thyroid have been obtained at a resolution of as high as 200 μm using this simple bench-top camera. Possible future applications and extension to ultra-high-resolution emission tomography are discussed. (orig.)

  2. An improved method for computerized tomography-planned transperineal 125iodine prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, K.; Chiu-Tsao, S.T.; Roy, J.; Arterbery, V.E.; Whitmore, W.; Jain, S.; Minsky, B.; Russo, P.; Fuks, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Transperineal 125iodine implants of the prostate can be performed with ultrasound guidance, a simple technique that has met with widespread acceptance. However, ultrasound does not allow good visualization of the pubic bones in relation to the pelvic outlet, and the pubic bones may interfere with needle placement in the anterior peripheral aspect of the prostate. Adequate irradiation of the entire periphery of the prostate is important to assure tumor control, since most tumors are multicentric and may involve the anterior aspect of the prostate. A computerized tomography-based treatment planning procedure that allows for angulation of transperineal needles to avoid the pubic bones and still reaches the most peripheral aspects of the gland is described. The technique also allows for the use of transrectal ultrasound and fluoroscopy to verify correct needle placement in the prostate at the procedure. Early treatment results, based on prostate specific antigen and regression of palpable tumors, are encouraging

  3. Prostate-specific antigen bounce following permanent iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Koji; Kikugawa, Tadahiko; Fukumoto, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a temporary increase in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, so-called PSA bounce, which occurs following permanent iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy. From June 2006 to July 2011, 64 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy by using iodine-125 implants. Seventeen patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy to reduce the prostate volume. After the treatment, patients were followed up with a PSA measurement every 3 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months thereafter. The median follow-up duration was 34.5 months (range, 3.5 to 64.0 months). PSA bounce was noted in 20 (31%) out of the 64 patients. The median time to PSA bounce was 13.3 months (range, 5.8 to 44.7 months), and 18 (90%) out of the 20 patients experienced an initial PSA increase within 24 months. The median bounce magnitude was 0.25 ng/mL (range, 0.10 to 1.36 ng/mL). PSA failure was observed in 2 (3%) out of the 64 patients, and PSA bounce was not a predictor of PSA recurrence. PSA bounce was significantly associated with post-treatment V100 and D90, but not with clinical stage, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy status, or PSA failure. PSA bounce following brachytherapy is considerably common. No significant difference was found in biochemical failure-free survival between patients with and those without PSA bounce. Physicians must take PSA bounce following radiotherapy into consideration in order to avoid unnecessary salvage hormonal treatment. (author)

  4. Computed tomographic-guided iodine-125 interstitial implants for malignant thoracic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiming; Chen, Jin; Chen, Qunlin; Lai, Qingquan; Cai, Siqing; Luo, Kaidong; Lin, Zhengyu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using iodine-125 ( 125 I) radioactive seeds under computed tomographic (CT) guidance for malignant thoracic tumors. Materials and methods: Forty-one patients (34 males, 7 females; 18–90 years; mean, 63.7 years) with 77 lesions (3 in the mediastinum, 7 in the chest wall, 67 in the lung) underwent percutaneous interstitial implantation of 125 I radioactive seeds under CT guidance. A treatment planning system (TPS) was employed to calculate the number and distribution of seeds preoperatively. An 18-G needle was inserted into the lesions under CT guidance and send the seeds according to TPS. Two patients with mediastinal lesions undergoing seed implantation received an artificial pneumothorax. One patient with lung carcinoma adjacent to the anterior mediastinum underwent seed implantation through the sternum. Follow-up CT was done every 2 months postoperatively. Results: The procedure was successful in all patients. No major procedure-associated death occurred. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.4 ± 1.3 months (3–49 months). A complete response (CR) was seen in 49 lesions (63.6%), partial response (PR) in 9 lesions (11.7%), stable disease (SD) in 12 lesions (12.8%), and progressive disease (PD) in 7 lesions (7.4%). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 75.3%; the local control rate (CR + PR + SD) was 90.9%. The 1-, 2- and 3-year progression-free rates for local tumors were 91%, 88% and 88%, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 87%, 74% and 68%, respectively. Conclusion: Implantation of CT-guided 125 I seeds is feasible and effective for patients with malignant thoracic tumors

  5. Outcomes of Iodine-125 Plaque Brachytherapy for Uveal Melanoma With Intraoperative Ultrasonography and Supplemental Transpupillary Thermotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badiyan, Shahed N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Rao, Rajesh C. [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Apicelli, Anthony J.; Acharya, Sahaja; Verma, Vivek; Garsa, Adam A.; DeWees, Todd; Speirs, Christina K.; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Grigsby, Perry W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Harbour, J. William, E-mail: JWHarbour@med.miami.edu [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Ocular Oncology Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact on local tumor control of intraoperative ultrasonographic plaque visualization and selective application of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) in the treatment of posterior uveal melanoma with iodine-125 (I-125) episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB). Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 526 patients treated with I-125 EPB for posterior uveal melanoma. Clinical features, dosimetric parameters, TTT treatments, and local tumor control outcomes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier life table method. Results: The study included 270 men (51%) and 256 women (49%), with a median age of 63 years (mean, 62 years; range, 16-91 years). Median dose to the tumor apex was 94.4 Gy (mean, 97.8; range, 43.9-183.9) and to the tumor base was 257.9 Gy (mean, 275.6; range, 124.2-729.8). Plaque tilt >1 mm away from the sclera at plaque removal was detected in 142 cases (27%). Supplemental TTT was performed in 72 patients (13.7%). One or 2 TTT sessions were required in 71 TTT cases (98.6%). After a median follow-up of 45.9 months (mean, 53.4 months; range, 6-175 months), local tumor recurrence was detected in 19 patients (3.6%). Local tumor recurrence was associated with lower dose to the tumor base (P=.02). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided plaque localization of I-125 EPB is associated with excellent local tumor control. Detection of plaque tilt by ultrasonography at plaque removal allows supplemental TTT to be used in patients at potentially higher risk for local recurrence while sparing the majority of patients who are at low risk. Most patients require only 1 or 2 TTT sessions.

  6. Iodine-125 thin seeds decrease prostate swelling during transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beydoun, Nadine; Bucci, Joseph A.; Chin, Yaw S.; Malouf, David

    2014-01-01

    Prostate swelling following seed implantation is a well-recognised phenomenon. The purpose of this intervention was to assess whether using thinner seeds reduces post-implant swelling with permanent prostate brachytherapy. Eighteen consecutive patients eligible for prostate seed brachytherapy underwent seed implantation using iodine-125 (I-125) thin seeds. Operative time, dosimetry, prostate swelling and toxicity were assessed and compared with standard I-125 stranded seed controls, sourced from the department's brachytherapy database. A learning curve was noted with the thin seeds in terms of greater bending and deviation of needles from their intended path. This translated into significantly longer total operative time (88 vs 103 minutes; P=0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-24.3) and time per needle insertion (2.6 vs 3.7 minutes; P<0.001, 95% CI 0.5-1.3) for the thin seeds. Day 30 prostate volumes were significantly smaller in the thin seed group compared with standard seeds (40.9cc vs 46.8cc; P=0.001, 95% CI 1.5-5.6). The ratio of preoperative transrectal ultrasound to day 30 post-implant CT volume was also smaller in the thin seed group (1.2±0.1 for standard seeds vs 1.1±0.1 for thin seeds). Post-implant dosimetric parameters were comparable for both groups. No significant differences were seen in acute urinary morbidity or quality of life between the two groups. I-125 thin seeds are associated with an initial learning curve, with longer operative time, even for experienced brachytherapists. The significant reduction in day 30 prostate volumes with the thin seeds has useful implications in terms of optimising dose coverage to the prostate in the early period post-implantation, as well as improving the accuracy of post-implant dosimetric assessments.

  7. Immunospecific red cell binding of iodine 125-labeled immunoglobulin G erythrocyte autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masouredis, S.P.; Branks, M.J.; Garratty, G.; Victoria, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary interaction of autoantibodies with red cells has been studied by using labeled autoantibodies. Immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies obtained from IgG antiglobulin-positive normal blood donors were labeled with radioactive iodine and compared with alloanti-D with respect to their properties and binding behavior. Iodine 125 -labeled IgG autoantibody migrated as a single homogeneous peak with the same relative mobility as human IgG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric focusing pattern of labeled autoantibodies varied from donor to donor but was similar to that of alloanti-D, consisting of multiple IgG populations with isoelectric points in the neutral to alkaline range. 125 I-autoantibody bound to all human red cells of common Rh phenotypes. Evidence for immunospecific antibody binding of the labeled autoantibody was based on variation in equilibrium binding to nonhuman and human red cells of common and rare phenotypes, enhanced binding after red cell protease modification, antiglobulin reactivity of cell-bound IgG comparable to that of cell-bound anti-D, and saturation binding in autoantibody excess. Scatchard analysis of two 125 I-autoantibody preparations yielded site numbers of 41,500 and 53,300 with equilibrium constants of 3.7 and 2.1 X 10(8) L X mol-1. Dog, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and baboon red cells were antigen(s) negative by quantitative adsorption studies adsorbing less than 3% of the labeled autoantibody. Reduced ability of rare human D--red blood cells to adsorb the autoantibody and identification of donor autoantibodies that bind to Rh null red blood cells indicated that eluates contained multiple antibody populations of complex specificities in contrast to anti-D, which consists of a monospecific antibody population. Another difference is that less than 70% of the autoantibody IgG was adsorbed by maximum binding red blood cells as compared with greater than 85% for alloanti-D

  8. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed. The thyroid gland needs iodine ... most recognized form of deficiency is goiter. Additionally, across the globe iodine deficiency is thought to be ...

  9. Post-operative treatment of malignant salivary gland tumours of the palate with iodine-125 brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, Clare E.; Hering, Egbert; Hough, Jan; Knowles, Ruth; Munro, Roger; Hille, Jos

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Malignant minor salivary gland tumours are usually small and clinically indistinguishable from benign lesions. Surgery is the treatment of choice with post-operative radiotherapy for involved margins or unfavourable histology. We assessed the results of a series of such patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy in the form of a temporary applicator or implant. Patients and methods: There were nine patients with T1/T2 tumours of the hard and/or soft palate that had been excised. All had close or involved margins. Six were treated with a dental applicator alone, two with an applicator and additional I-125 seeds in tubes and one with an implant alone. The applicator consists of two layers of plastic made from a dental impression enclosing a predetermined number of I-125 seeds, 9-39, glued to one surface and a layer of ash metal to protect the tongue. It was inserted 1-3 months post-operatively and delivered 35-62 Gy, median 56 Gy, at 5-7 mm depth over 58-156 h, median 120 h, at 0.26-0.67 Gy/h, median 0.45 Gy/h. Results: The patients have been followed up for 32-158 months, median 50 months, and there were no recurrences. The applicator was well tolerated. A confluent mucositis developed which lasted 3-4 weeks. One patient developed a mucosal ulcer which healed spontaneously. Conclusions: Brachytherapy is an effective way of delivering post-operative radiotherapy to the hard and soft palate in patients with malignant salivary gland tumours that have been incompletely excised or have unfavourable histology. Local control is excellent, treatment time is short and morbidity is minimal

  10. Iodine-125 brachytherapy as upfront and salvage treatment for brain metastases. A comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romagna, Alexander; Schwartz, Christoph; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Egensperger, Rupert [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Munich (Germany); Watson, Juliana; Belka, Claus; Nachbichler, Silke Birgit [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Radiation-Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Outcome and toxicity profiles of salvage stereotactic ablative radiation strategies for recurrent pre-irradiated brain metastases are poorly defined. This study compared risk-benefit profiles of upfront and salvage iodine-125 brachytherapy (SBT) for small brain metastases. As the applied SBT treatment algorithm required histologic proof of metastatic brain disease in all patients, we additionally aimed to elucidate the value of biopsy before SBT. Patients with small untreated (n = 20) or pre-irradiated (n =28) suspected metastases intended for upfront or salvage SBT, respectively, were consecutively included. Temporary iodine-125 implants were used (median reference dose: 50 Gy, median dose rate: 15 cGy/h). Cumulative biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated and used for risk assessment. Treatment toxicity was classified according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) criteria. Upfront SBT was initiated in 20 patients and salvage SBT in 23. In 5 patients, salvage SBT was withheld because of proven radiation-induced lesions. Treatment groups exhibited similar epidemiologic data except for tumor size (which was slightly smaller in the salvage group). One-year local/distant tumor control rates after upfront and salvage SBT were similar (94 %/65 % vs. 87 %/57 %, p = 0.45, respectively). Grade I/II toxicity was suffered by 2 patients after salvage SBT (cumulative BED: 192.1 Gy{sub 3} and 249.6 Gy{sub 3}). No toxicity-related risk factors were identified. SBT combines diagnostic yield with effective treatment in selected patients. The low toxicity rate in the salvage group points to protective radiobiologic characteristics of continuous low-dose rate irradiation. Upfront and salvage SBT are similarly effective and safe. Histologic reevaluation should be reconsidered after previous radiotherapy to avoid under- or overtreatment. (orig.) [German] Daten zu Risiko und Effizienz ablativer

  11. The development of a human eye model for ophthalmic iodine-125 brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, A.P.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy is used to treat malign tumors. Radiotherapy is an alternative to enucleation in ocular tumors. However, the irradiation of ocular region can bring damages due high doses, mainly in the crystalline lens and in the bone tissue in growth phase. Brachytherapy instead of teletherapy looks for reducing doses in the crystalline lens and the adjacent tissues of the ocular globe (orbital region), minimizing side effects. Herein, some encapsulated radioisotopes in radioactive seeds applied to the ocular brachytherapy are available. Thus, a three-dimensional computational voxel model of the ocular region with its heterogeneous tissues, globe and adjacent tissues is developed. This computational model is used to simulate orbital irradiation with radioactive seeds positioned on the sclera surface through the MCNP5 code. The computational simulation allows evaluating how doses are spatially distributed in the orbital volume in treatments with the radioactive seeds of iodine-125. Therefore, the results allow comparing the spatial doses distribution obtained through the MCNP5 simulation for those two distinct types of radioactive seeds. Bench markets from literature validates the proposed simulations. (author)

  12. Radiation exposure to operating room staff during prostate brachytherapy using iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagna, G.; Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P.; Gauron, C.

    2011-01-01

    The French defense radiation protection service (SPRA) and the French national institute for research and safety (INRS) conducted a joint study to assess the radiation exposure to operating room staff during prostate brachytherapy using iodine-125 seeds at the Val-de-Grace military hospital. The purpose of the study was the assessment of the effective doses, the equivalent doses to the extremities and lens received by a novice team, the different ambient dose equivalent rates measurements and the delineation of areas. After six brachy-therapies, all the recorded doses with whole-body InLight R OSL and nanoDot R dosimeters remained below the detection limit for the whole staff. The dose rate measured at the end of implantation by an AT1123 R survey meter is about 170 μSv/h at the perineum of the patient. The controlled area limit is estimated to be about 20 cm from the patient perineum. From these results, the authors propose recommendations for the categorization of workers, the delineation of areas and the dose monitoring procedures. This study demonstrates that real-time ultrasound-guided trans-perineal prostate brachytherapy delivers low dose to the operators because of the radioactive source characteristics and the instrumentation providing an effective radiation protection for the surgical team. (authors)

  13. Use of brachytherapy with permanent implants of iodine-125 in localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladou, F.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Ternier, F.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 15,000 cases of early stage prostate cancer T1 and T2 are diagnosed every year in France by testing for PSA and performing prostatic biopsies. The treatment of these localized forms is based in most cases on radical prostatectomy or nn external beam radiotherapy. Although the ontological results obtained by these two therapeutic methods are satisfactory and equivalent in the long term, the side effects can be important. For a number of years, trans-perineal brachytherapy using permanent implants of iodine -125 or palladium-103 has proved itself as an alternative therapy with equivalent medium to long-term results. The low urinary, digestive and sexual side effects of prostate brachytherapy are important reasons for the enthusiasm among patients and the medical community for this therapy and the growing number of applications and centres which practice it. In September 1998 we started the prostate brachytherapy programmes- in Marseilles with close collaboration between the department of urology of the Hopital Salvator, and the departments of radiotherapy, medical imaging and medical physics of the Institut Paoli-Calmettes. To date, around 250 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate have benefited from this alternative therapy in our centre. Preliminary results, with a 3 year-follow-up, are comparable to results published in the literature by pioneer teams. (authors)

  14. Patterns of failure after iodine-125 seed implantation for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, David S.; Greig, Lynne; Russell, Grant L.; Nacey, John N.; Broome, Kim; Studd, Rod; Delahunt, Brett; Iupati, Douglas; Jain, Mohua; Rooney, Colin; Murray, Judy; Lamb, Peter J.; Bethwaite, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the site of relapse when biochemical failure (BF) occurs after iodine-125 seed implantation for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: From 2001–2009, 500 men underwent implantation in Wellington, New Zealand. Men who sustained BF were placed on relapse guidelines that delayed restaging and intervention until the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was ⩾20 ng/mL. Results: Most implants (86%) had a prostate D90 of ⩾90%, and multivariate analysis showed that this parameter was not a variable that affected the risk of BF. Of 21 BFs that occurred, the site of failure was discovered to be local in one case and distant in nine cases. Restaging failed to identify the site of relapse in two cases. In nine cases the trigger for restaging had not been reached. Conclusions: If post-implant dosimetry is generally within the optimal range, distant rather than local failure appears to be the main cause of BF. Hormone treatment is therefore the most commonly indicated secondary treatment intervention (STI). Delaying the start of STI prevents the unnecessary treatment of men who undergo PSA ‘bounce’ and have PSA dynamics initially mimicking those of BF

  15. Iodine-125 irradiation of choroidal melanoma: clinical experience from the Prince of Wales and Sydney Eye Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mameghan, H.; Karolis, Ch.; Fisher, R.; Mameghan, J.; Billson, F.A.; Donaldson, E.J.; Giblin, M.E.; Hunyor, A.B.L.

    1992-01-01

    The records of 53 patients treated for choroidal melanoma between 1985 and 1989 were examined. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and short-term results of iodine-125 episcleral plaque therapy. There were 28 males and 25 females aged 20 to 77 years, treated for single tumours with a median diameter of 9 mm (range 5 to 16 mm) and with a median thickness of 4 mm (range 2 to 10 mm). The plaques containing iodine-125 seeds were chosen according to tumour size: 10 mm (16 patients); 15 mm (36 patients); 20 mm (one patient). All patients were alive at last follow-up (median 1.3 years, range 4 months to 3.3 years). Four patients underwent enucleation for melanoma progression. Thirty patients have developed some type of complication (more than one complication occurred in the same eye in 12 patients); retinitis (19), optic neuropathy (7); cataract (4), rubeosis iridis (2). Overall, visual acuity deteriorated in 32 patients, remained stable in 12 patients and improved in 9 patients. It was therefore concluded that iodine-125 plaque therapy appears to offer patients good prospects of tumour control and preservation of useful vision. 16 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Statistical differences and systematic effect on measurement procedure in thermoluminescent dosimetry of the Iodine-125 brachytherapy seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, Carlos A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Moura, Joao Augusto; Feher, Anselmo, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP Leste), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In order to provide the dosimetry for Iodine-125 seed production in Brazil, Harshaw thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) will be used. Even if measurements with TLD-100 of the same batch of fabrication are performed, the response will not be the same. As a consequence, they must be measured one by one. These dosimeters are LiF type with a micro-cube (1 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm) shape. Irradiations were performed using Iodine-125 seeds to guarantee the same absorbed dose of 5 Gy in each dosimeter. It has been used a Solid Water Phantom with three concentrically circle with 20 mm, 50 mm and 70 mm diameters. The angle of positions used was 0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg and 90 deg. Of course there are 2 positions in 0 deg and 90 deg and 4 positions in 30 deg and 60 deg. These complete procedures were carried out five times in order to compare the data and minimize the systematic error. The iodine-125 seed used in the experiment was take off in each measure and put again turning his position 180 deg to guarantee the systematic error was minimized. This paper presents also a little discussion about the statistical difference in the measurement and the calculation procedure to determine the systematic error in these measurements. (author)

  17. Survival benefit of chemoembolization plus Iodine125 seed implantation in unresectable hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma with PVTT: a retrospective matched cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mingsheng; Wang, Haofan; Chen, Junwei; Bai, Mingjun; Wang, Long; Zhu, Kangshun; Jiang, Zaibo; Guan, Shouhai; Li, Zhengran; Qian, Jiesheng; Li, Mingan; Pang, Pengfei; Shan, Hong [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Ling-nan Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University, Interventional Radiology Institute, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Qu [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Oncology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the survival benefit of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus Iodine125 seed implantation (TACE-Iodine125) in hepatitis B-related HCC patients with portal vein tumour thrombus (PVTT) and the underlying prognostic factors. A retrospective matched cohort study was performed on consecutive HCC patients with PVTT from January 2011 to June 2014. Seventy patients (TACE-Iodine125 group) who underwent TACE-Iodine125 were compared with a historical case-matched control group of 140 patients (TACE group) who received TACE alone. The survival of patients and the underlying prognostic factors were analysed. The median survival times of the TACE-Iodine125 and TACE groups were 11.0 and 7.5 months, respectively (p < 0.001). The survival probability at 12, 24, and 36 months was 50 %, 14.5 %, and 14.5 % vs. 25 %, 9 %, and 5 % in the TACE-Iodine125 and TACE groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The PVTT responders had better survival than the PVTT non-responders (p < 0.001). For the PVTT non-responders, there were no differences in the survival curves between the groups (p = 0.353). Multivariate analysis showed that type III PVTT (p < 0.001) and APS (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of poor prognosis. In contrast, the treatment modality of TACE-Iodine125 (p < 0.001) and PVTT response (p = 0.001) were favourable prognostic features. TACE combined with Iodine125 seed implantation may be a good choice for selected HB-HCC patients with PVTT. (orig.)

  18. /sup 125/I-iodinated benzazepines bind to melanin: implications for the noninvasive localization of pigmented melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agui, T.; Bryant, G.; Kebabian, J.W.; Larson, S.; Saavedra, J.M.; Shigematsu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Yokoyama, K.

    1987-01-01

    Both the 5-R and the 5-S enantiomers of (/sup 125/I)2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-iodo-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepin-7-ol bind to melanin. The interaction between the 5-R enantiomer and melanin permits visualization of melanomas in mice with a noninvasive imaging procedure. Two lines of evidence suggest that the interaction between iodinated ligands and melanin is not related to the D-1 dopamine receptor, a known target for the 5-R enantiomer: first, melanin binds both enantiomers of the /sup 125/I-iodinated benzazepine while the D-1 receptor binds only the 5-R enantiomer; second, the melanin binding site displays only a 5-fold difference in affinity towards the R-and S-enantiomers of SCH 23390 while the D-1 receptor displays a 100-fold difference in affinity towards these two molecules. Because both enantiomers of the iodinated benzazepine bind to a human pigmented melanoma, we propose that such compounds may be of use in the diagnosis of pigmented melanoma: in addition, we discuss the possible application of these molecules as a supplement to existing technology for the localization of pigmented melanomas.

  19. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Adrian A, E-mail: a.walsh@nanobiosols.com [Liverpool Science Park, Nano Biosols Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  20. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Adrian A.

    2017-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  1. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Adrian A

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  2. Study and parameters survey for iodine-125 source dosimetry to be applied in brachytherapy; Estudo e levantamentos de parametros para dosimetria de fontes de iodo-125 aplicadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Eduardo Santana de

    2011-07-01

    The use of brachytherapy technique with iodine-125 seeds to prostate cancer treatment has been used for decades with good clinical outcomes. To aim the Brazilian population necessities, IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the iodine-125 seed prototype with national technology. The objectives of this work are the development and the study of dosimetric procedures associates with the experimental acquisition of the useful parameters for the iodine-125 dosimetric characterization and to evaluate if the developed procedures, in this work, have the basic conditions to determinate the dosimetric analysis, that are fundamental for clinical procedures. The dosimeters selected for the analysis are the TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti), initially these dosimeters were submitted for two selection steps to choose the dosimeters more reproducible for the dosimetric analysis. The two steps were the selection by the mass of the dosimeters and the reproducibility after four irradiation series in a Cobalt-60 irradiator (CTR-IPEN). Afterwards these steps, the dosimeters were irradiated in linear accelerator with 6 MV energy (Service of Radiotherapy - Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein) to yield the individual calibration factors to each dosimeter. After, the dosimeters were used to the irradiations with iodine-125 seed, 6711 model, (GE-Healthcare). The irradiations and others analysis with iodine-125 seeds yield the useful values for the determination of the parameters suggested by the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine): constant of dose rate, geometry function, dose radial function and anisotropy function. The results showed good agreement with the values published by the literature, for the same iodine- 125 model, this fact confirms that the realized parameters will be able to be used for the IPEN-CNEN iodine-125 seeds dosimetry and quality control. (author)

  3. Clinical efficacy of computed tomography-guided iodine-125 seed implantation therapy in patients with advanced spinal metastatic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang LY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Liyun Zhang,1,2,* Jian Lu,2,* Zhongmin Wang,3 Yingsheng Cheng,4 Gaojun Teng,5 Kemin Chen4 1Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, 2Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital Luwan Branch, 3Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, 4Department of Radiology, Shanghai the Sixth People Hospital, Shanghai, 5Department of Radiology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and clinical efficacy of computed tomography (CT-guided radioactive iodine-125 (125I seed implantation treatment in patients with spinal metastatic tumors.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 20 cases of spinal metastatic tumors, including nine men and eleven women aged 50–79 years (mean age: 61.1 years. We used treatment planning system (TPS to construct three-dimensional images of the spinal metastatic tumors and to determine what number and dose rate distribution to use for the 125I seeds. The matched peripheral dose of the 125I seed implantation was 90–130 Gy. Twenty-four spinal metastatic tumors were treated by CT-guided radioactive 125I seed implantation. A median of 19 (range: 4–43 125I seeds were implanted.Results: Twenty cases were followed for a median of 15.3 months (range: 7–32 months. The rate of pain relief was 95%. The median control time for all of the patients was 12.5 months. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month cumulative local control rates were 100%, 95%, and 60%, respectively. The median survival time for all of the patients was 16 months. The cumulative 6- and 12-month survival rates were 100% and 78.81%, respectively. No major complications were observed. No 125I seeds were lost or migrated to other tissues or organs.Conclusion: CT-guided radioactive 125I seed implantation is a safe, effective, and minimally

  4. Assessment of corrective factors for the LNHB reference measurement in terms of Kr air for iodine 125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouriou, J.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.; Cutarella, D.; Plagnard, J.

    2010-01-01

    The LNHB (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel) is currently developing a new primary reference for low dose rate curietherapy with iodine 125 in terms of reference kerma in air. This includes an innovative sensor: an ionization chamber with a toroidal air wall. The authors present Monte Carlo calculations performed for the determination of corrective factors to be applied to come down to reference conditions or to correct possible measurement errors. Calculations have been performed for the specific geometries of BEBIG sources which are used for ophthalmic and prostatic curietherapy treatments

  5. Measurement of the increase in the capillary permeability in skin with Evans blue labelled with iodine-125 or 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarava, S.; Goncalves, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of bradykinin and histamine with Evans blue labelled with iodine -125 or 131 is described. The activity upon vascular permeability was performed in the abdominal wall of rats injecting intravenously solution of labelled Evans blue and 0,1 ml of vasoactive drugs solution intradermally. Skin discs were cut with circular punch for external counting, quantitative results being compared with control discs. By using this method, satisfactory log dose-reponse curves were obtained for bradykinin and histamine that followed the general trend of S - shaped curves [pt

  6. Biodistribution and dosimetric study in medullary thyroid cancer xenograft using bispecific antibody and iodine-125-labeled bivalent hapten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, M; Hosono, M N; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Devys, A; Thédrez, P; Fiche, M; Gautherot, E; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate biodistributions and absorbed doses of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/anti-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-indium (anti-DTPA-In) bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb) F6-734 and 125I-labeled DTPA-indium dimer hapten (125I-di-DTPA-In hapten) in athymic mice xenografted with human medullary thyroid cancer. Bispecific monoclonal antibodies F6-679 (anti-CEA/antihistamine) and G7A5-734 (antimelanoma/anti-di-DTPA-In) were used as irrelevant BsMAbs. Athymic mice inoculated with TT medullary thyroid cancer cells expressing CEA were administered BsMAbs F6-734, F6-679 or G7A5-734 and then, 48 hr later, 125I-di-DTPA-In hapten. Iodine-125-labeled F6 F(ab')2 fragment was injected into other groups of mice. Biodistributions were examined at 30 min and 5, 24, 48 and 96 hr after injection of 125I-di-DTPA-In hapten or 125I-labeled F6 F(ab')2. In mice injected with BsMAb F6-734 and 125I-di-DTPA-In hapten, tumor uptake was 9.1%+/-2.1%, 8.7%+/-3.5%, 8.0%+/-2.3%, 5.1%+/-0.9% and 3.5%+/-1.5% of the injected dose/g at 30 min and 5, 24, 48 and 96 hr, and tumor-to-blood, tumor-to-liver and tumor-to-kidney ratios were 37.0+/-12.5, 32.3+/-10.9 and 10.4+/-2.7 at 24 hr. Iodine-125-F6 F(ab')2 fragment showed a tumor uptake of 7.39% injected dose/g and tumor-to-blood, tumor-to-liver and tumor-to-kidney ratios of 1.8+/-0.6, 7.3+/-2.9 and 3.6+/-1.6 at 24 hr. In mice injected with F6-679 or G7A5-734, tumor uptake and tumor-to-normal tissue ratios were much lower than in the mice injected with F6-734. These results were confirmed by autoradiographic studies that demonstrated clear tumor-to-normal tissue contrast. This two-step targeting method seems very potent for the diagnosis and therapy of human medullary thyroid cancer and other CEA-producing tumors because it combines high tumor uptake and low normal tissue background.

  7. Iodine-125 in the fresh water environment in England; measurements along the pathway from sewage discharge to thyroid glands and determinations of absorbed dose to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.R.; Bowlt, C.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine-125 has been measured in the fresh water supply in England, particularly in the Thames Valley. 125 I discarded into the sewage drainage system, travels in the liquid effluent into rivers. When mains water is abstracted downstream from such discharges low levels of 125 I ( 125 I. However it was never possible to establish more than a semi-quantitative relationship between their activity levels and those of their surroundings. In general, levels of 125 I have shown a 3-4 fold increase in the fresh water environment during the 1980's. (Author)

  8. The use of 125iodine-labeled RNA for detection of the RNA binding to ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tomohiko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    1975-01-01

    The in vitro labeling of RNA with radioactive iodine is the efficient method to obtain the RNA with high specific activity. The present paper reports on the application of this technique to the production of iodine-labeled RNA for use in the experiment of binding RNA to ribosomes. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA was used as natural mRNA, and E. coli S-30 preparation was used as a source of ribosomes. The TMV-RNA was prepared by bentonite-phenol extraction from TMV, and the method used for the iodation of RNA was based on the procedure described by Getz et al. The iodine-labeled RNA was incubated in a cell-free protein synthesizing system (S-30) prepared from E. coli K-12. After the incubation, the reaction mixture was layered onto sucrose gradient, centrifuged, and fractionated into 18 fractions. Optical density at 260 nm was measured, and radioactivity was counted, for each fraction. The binding of mRNA to ribosomes occurred even at 0 deg C, and the occurrence of the nonspecific binding was also shown. Consequently, the specific binding, i.e. the formation of the initiation complex being involved in amino acid incorporation, may be estimated by subtracting the radioactivity associated with monosomes in the presence of both rRNA and ATA from that in the presence of rRNA only. It was shown that the iodine-labeled RNA can be used for the studies of binding RNA to ribosomes. (Kako, I.)

  9. Study and methodology development for quality control in the production process of iodine-125 radioactive sealed sources applied to brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Joao Augusto

    2009-01-01

    Today cancer is the second cause of death by disease in several countries, including Brazil. Excluding skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most incident in the population. Prostate tumor can be treated by several ways, including brachytherapy, which consists in introducing sealed radioactive sources (Iodine - 125 seeds) inside the tumor. The target region of treatment receives a high radiation dose, but healthy neighbor tissues receive a significantly reduced radiation dose. The seed is made of a welding sealed titanium capsule, 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, enclosing a 0.5 mm diameter silver wire with Iodine-125 adsorbed. After welded, the seeds have to be submitted to a leak test to prevent any radioactive material release. The aims of this work were: (a) the study of the different leakage test methods applied to radioactive seeds and recommended by the ISO 997820, (b) the choice of the appropriate method and (c) the flowchart determination of the process to be used during the seeds production. The essays exceeded the standards with the use of ultra-sound during immersion and the corresponding benefits to leakage detection. Best results were obtained with the immersion in distilled water at 20 degree C for 24 hours and distilled water at 70 degree C for 30 minutes. These methods will be used during seed production. The process flowchart has all the phases of the leakage tests according to the sequence determined in the experiments. (author)

  10. Red cell autoantibodies characterized by competitive inhibition of iodine 125 Rh alloantibody binding and by immunoprecipitation of membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, S.W.; Victoria, E.J.; Masouredis, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between determinants recognized by warm-type immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies and the Rh antigens was characterized by autoantibody competitive inhibition of iodine 125 Rh alloantibody binding and autoantibody immunoprecipitation of iodine 125 red blood cell membrane proteins. The majority of blood donor autoantibody recognized epitopes that are closely related to Rh antigens as determined by competitive inhibition studies. Eighteen of 20 (90%) autoantibodies inhibited anti-Rh(c) binding, 15 inhibited anti-Rh(E), 5 inhibited anti-Rh(D), and only 2 failed to inhibit any of the three Rh alloantibodies tested. Autoantibodies that inhibited anti-Rh(D) also inhibited anti-Rh(c) and anti-Rh(E) and all those that inhibited anti-Rh(E) also inhibited anti-Rh(c). Autoantibodies that inhibited all three Rh alloantibodies immunoprecipitated 30 kd membrane polypeptides, as did two of the three autoantibodies that inhibited only anti-Rh(c) and anti-Rh(E). One autoantibody in this group and two autoantibodies that inhibited only anti-Rh(c), as well as an autoantibody that did not inhibit any of the Rh alloantibodies, immunoprecipitated only a single membrane polypeptide identified as band 3. The majority of normal donor red blood cell autoantibodies inhibited the binding of Rh alloantibodies, which indicates that they either bound to the Rh polypeptides or to epitopes on band 3 that were closely associated with the Rh complex

  11. Use of iodine-125 brachytherapy in treatment of choroidal melanomas, technic and preliminary analysis of 78 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetin, P.; Schumacher, C.; Schraub, S.; Meyer, L.; Polto, F.; Sahel, J.; Magnenet, P.; Andres, E.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. - Iodine 125 curietherapy is one of the conservative treatments of uveal melanoma. The technique used to achieve these results was simplified through the physical characteristics of the radioelement and the optimized-dosimetry program employed. Patients and methods. - 78 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine 125. About 100 Gy were delivered to the superior pole of the tumour. The minimal length of follow-up was 17 months and the average, 67 months. Results. -There was 88% local control, leading to lowered visual acuity in 76 % of the cases. Radiation retinopathy, directly related to proximity to the macula, is the principle etiology. Seven patients died of hepatic metastasis, five patients were enucleated. Four patients were further treated with proton-therapy to make up for non-control locally. Conclusion. -One dose of 100 Gy to the superior pole of the tumor seemed to lead to good local control, with the exception of complications related to proximity to the macula and the optic nerve. In this attempt to optimize irradiation, the time lapse between any benefit in local control derived from irradiation and post-therapeutic complications observed remains insufficient to evaluate any relationship. (authors)

  12. Iodine-125 induced DNA strand breakage: Contributions of different physical and chemical radiation action mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.

    2002-01-01

    The decay of the radioisotope 125 I into 125 Te is typically followed by the emission of two groups of approximately 10 electrons each. In deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with 125 I incorporated, these electrons produce various types of damage to DNA, e.g. single and double strand breaks. They occur through direct actions of physical tracks, or indirect actions of radicals produced in water. Among the direct actions one should consider not only the excitation and ionization of DNA by electrons but also the neutralization of highly charged 125m Te ions with electrons from neighboring molecules. The present work begins with a detailed description of electron tracks with the use of the PARTRAC code, compares results with recent experiments, and concludes with a firm assessment of the contribution to the strand break yields from the neutralization effect. (orig.)

  13. Relation of immediate and delayed thallium-201 distribution to localization of iodine-125 antimyosin antibody in acute experimental myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.; Fallon, J.T.; Katus, H.A.; Haber, E.

    1983-01-01

    Thallium-201 (TI-201) distribution in acute experimental myocardial infarction (MI) (n . 18) was compared with cardiac-specific antimyosin Fab (AM-Fab) uptake, a specific marker for myocardial necrosis. When antimyosin was injected 4 hours after ligation with TI-201 administered 23 hours 55 minutes later and measurement of myocardial distribution determined 5 minutes after intravenous administration of TI-201, (1) TI-201 distribution closely correlated with microsphere regional blood flow, and (2) an inverse exponential relation to iodine-125 (I-125) AM-Fab uptake was apparent. In another group of 4 animals, TI-201 and AM-Fab were administered intravenously 4 hours after MI, and 36 hours later myocardial distribution was measured. This delayed TI-201 distribution had a close inverse linear correlation with I-125 AM-Fab uptake. This inverse linear relation also was apparent in 28-hour-old MIs in dogs (n . 4) where collateral circulation had been established. TI-201 was administered intravenously at 27 hours after MI, and TI-201 distribution was determined 1 hour later. The present study demonstrated that whereas immediate TI-201 distribution is flow-limited, delayed TI-201 distribution is a marker of cell viability which, due to prolonged circulation time and redistribution, is not flow-limited

  14. Iris melanoma management with iodine-125 plaque radiotherapy in 144 patients: impact of melanoma-related glaucoma on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Shah, Sanket U; Bianciotto, Carlos G; Emrich, Jacqueline; Komarnicky, Lydia; Shields, Jerry A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of iris melanoma managed with plaque radiotherapy on the basis of the initial presence or absence of glaucoma. Retrospective, comparative case series. A total of 144 patients. Custom-designed iodine-125 plaque radiotherapy delivering planned 8000 cGy to melanoma apex using transcorneal application. Tumor control and treatment-related complications. Of 144 patients with iris melanoma, glaucoma was present at the initial visit in 58 (40%). Causes of elevated intraocular pressure included angle infiltration by melanoma in 50 patients (86%), angle neovascularization in 4 patients (7%), and hyphema in 4 patients (7%). At presentation, the eyes displaying iris melanoma with glaucoma (vs. without glaucoma) were statistically more likely to display angle tumor (66% vs. 43%), with minimal thickness (1.9 vs. 2.9 mm), and melanoma seeding in iris stroma (7 vs. 3 clock hours) and angle (5 vs. 2 clock hours). Plaque radiotherapy was performed in all cases. Kaplan-Meier estimates at 7 years post-treatment revealed no statistical differences in outcomes of local recurrence (14% vs. 15%), enucleation (14% vs. 11%), or metastasis (2% vs. 0%) comparing eyes with and without glaucoma. Of the entire group, multivariate analysis for factors predictive of recurrence included partial (vs. complete) anterior segment irradiation and postradiotherapy glaucoma. Factors related to enucleation included diabetes mellitus, poor initial visual acuity, higher radiation dose to tumor apex, and tumor recurrence. There were no factors predictive of metastasis. Iodine-125 plaque radiotherapy provides adequate tumor control for iris melanoma with a low metastatic potential of 1% at 7 years. Iris melanoma with secondary glaucoma showed a statistically significant greater likelihood of flat tumor with iris and angle seeding and no difference in outcomes compared with eyes without glaucoma. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this

  15. Procedure for determination of the decontamination of piping in the production of iodine-125 seeds; Procedimento para determinacao da descontaminacao de tubulacoes, na producao de sementes de iodo-125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, J.A.; Moura, E.S.; Sprenger, F.E.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Zeituni, C.A.; Feher, A.; Manzoli, J.E.; Souza, C.D.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Iodine-125 seeds are radioactive sources used in the prostate cancer treatment. This work objective was to determine the necessary conditions and procedures for decontamination of liquid transfer tubes when a radioactive material leakage occurs during the process of seed quality control

  16. Iodine-125 radioimmunoassay for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, C.P.; Stead, A.H.; Mason, P.A.; Law, B.; Moffat, A.C.; McBrien, M.; Cosby, S.

    1986-05-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine is described. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and an easily synthesised radio-iodinated derivative of clonazepam that allows the use of relatively simple gamma-counting procedures. The assay can detect low therapeutic levels of all of the benzodiazepines currently available in the UK in 50-..mu..l samples of blood and urine (1-50 ng ml/sup -1/, depending on the drug); no prior sample preparation is required. It is inexpensive, rapid, simple to perform and is broadly specific for the benzodiazepine class of drugs. The assay offers a most suitable means of screening large numbers of samples of forensic interest for the presence of the benzodiazepines.

  17. An iodine-125 radioimmunoassay for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, C.P.; Stead, A.H.; Mason, P.A.; Law, B.; Moffat, A.C.; McBrien, M.; Cosby, S.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine is described. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and an easily synthesised radio-iodinated derivative of clonazepam that allows the use of relatively simple gamma-counting procedures. The assay can detect low therapeutic levels of all of the benzodiazepines currently available in the UK in 50-μl samples of blood and urine (1-50 ng ml -1 , depending on the drug); no prior sample preparation is required. It is inexpensive, rapid, simple to perform and is broadly specific for the benzodiazepine class of drugs. The assay offers a most suitable means of screening large numbers of samples of forensic interest for the presence of the benzodiazepines. (author)

  18. Physical basics and clinical realization of interstitial brachytherapy of the prostate with iodine 125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulich, T.W.; Nuesslin, F.; Lamprecht, U.; Bamberg, M.; Paulsen, F.; Loeser, W.; Bichler, K.H.; Kahmann, F.; Henkel, T.O.; Maurer, U.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Interstitial brachytherapy with I-125 seeds can be used for successful treatment of early stage prostate cancer. There is presented the technique of permanent transperineal implantation of I-125 seeds with intraoperative treatment planning which is suited for the treatment of prostate cancer up to the clinical stage of T2a. Material and methods: Some weeks before the implantation of the seeds the prostate volume is determined using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) so as to estimate the required number of I-125 seeds. At the outset of the treatment the prostate is stabilized by two perineally inserted needles. Subsequently there is carried out an ultrasound guide treatment planning that allows to optimize the distribution of the seeds within the prostate. In interstitial brachytherapy we use RAPID STRANDs trademark , i.e. the I-125 seeds are embedded in vicryl suture at distances of 1 cm. During implantation of the I-125 seeds the transversal placement of the applicator needles is controlled by TRUS and the cranio-caudal placement of the applicator needles is controlled using the fluoroscopic unit as well as TRUS. About 4 weeks after the implantation of the seeds there is carried out a postoperative computation of the dose distribution of the implant using CT imaging. Results: The procedure possesses the advantage that ultrasound imaging, treatment planning and seed implantation are carried out with the prostate remaining in an unaltered position. During implantation the combined imaging of TRUS and fluoroscopy allows a safe placement of the seeds within the prostate. Conclusion: The methods for the calculation of the actually attained dose distribution must still be optimized, because the postoperative examination of the individual results has so far been possible only with difficulties resulting from methodological inconveniences. (orig.) [de

  19. Intraoperative ultrasound quided iodine-125 seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junjie; Liu Jiangping; Jiang Yuliang; Jiang Weijuan; Li Jinna; Xiu Dianrong; Ran Weiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surgical technique, efficacy and side effects of intraoperative ultrasound quided 125 I seed interstitial implantation for pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with biopsy proven unresectable adenocarcinoma of pancreas were treated with 125 I implants during laparotomy. Eleven patients were treated by a combination of bypass surgery. Seed needles were implanted parallel to each other, at 1.0-1.5 cm apart and guided by ultrasound. Mick applicator was applied to each needle to implant seed at 1.0-1.5 cm apart. The radioactive activity ranged 0.40-0.70 mCi; the D 90 were 110-160 Gy. The mean number of 125 I seed were 11-78. Six patients also received external beam radiation at doses of 39-50 Gy. Five patients received 2-4 cycle DDP + gemCitabine chemotherapy also. Results: The incidence of perioperative mortality was 0%. Pain was complete relieved in 15 patients, partial relieved in two, but in the rest three patients there was no response. The response rate was 85%. The starting time of pain relief was 1-30 d, with a median of 5 days. The overall local control rate was 74%. Four patients have died of recurrence, 20 patients died of metastasis, 3 patients died of recurrence and metastasis. The median survival of II + III[ stage patients was 8 months, with a 1- and 2-year survival of 25% and 15%, respectively. The median survival time of IV stage patients was 5 months, with 1-year survival of 8%. The seeds immigrated into the liver in 3 patients. There are no serious side effects such as infection or pancreatic fistula. Conclusions: Intraoperative ultrasound quided 125 I seed implantation is safe, giving high local control, but minimal damage. It is a satisfactorily palliative for pain and causing little noticeable complications. (authors)

  20. Iodine-125 seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma guided by intraoperative ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junjie; Xiu Dianrong; Ran Weiqiang; Bai Jing; Zhu Lihong; Liu Jiangping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surgical technique, efficacy and side effects of 125 I seed interstitial implantation for pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: A total of 22 patients with biopsy proven unresectable adenocarcinoma of pancreas were treated with 125 I implants during laparotomy. Of them 11 patients were treated previously by a combination of bypass surgery. The stent was implanted in 2 cases 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after seed implantation. Seed needles were implanted parallelly to each other, with 1-1.5 cm apart. Mick applicator was being connected to each needle to implant seed. The radioactive activity ranged 0.40-0.70 mCi, the matched peripheral doses were 65-145 Gy. The mean number of 125 I seed was 11-78. Five cases received external beam irradiation with 3D-CRT, the doses were 39-70 Gy and 5 patients received 2 cycle of gemcitabine chemotherapy at 1000 mg/m 2 on dl and d8. Results: Pain was completely relieved in 12 cases, partially relieved in 2 cases, and no response was noted in one case, so the response rate was 93.33%. The median time was 2-3 d. Altogethe 27.27% of the cases died from local recurrence of pancreatic carcinoma and 50% from metastasis. The median survival time in these patients was 6 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 9.09%. The seed immigrated to liver in 3 cases. There were no serious side effects such as infection, pancreatitis, pancreatic fistula, etc. Conclusion: Radioactive seed implantation was safe, high local control, minidamage, satisfactory palliation of pain and without significant complications. (authors)

  1. SU-E-T-12: A Comparative Dosimetric Study of Pre and Post Prostate Iodine-125 Permanent Seed Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X; Rahimian, J; Goy, B; Cosmatos, H; Qian, Y [Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Post-implant dosimetry has become the gold standard for prostate implant evaluation. The goal of this research is to compare the dosimetry between pre-plan and post-plan in permanent prostate seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: A retrospective study of 91 patients treated with Iodine-125 prostate seed implant between year 2012∼2014 were performed. All plans were created using a VariSeed 8.0 planning system. Pre-plan ultrasound images were acquired using 0.5 cm slice thickness. Post-plan CT images acquired about 1–4 weeks after implant, fused with the preplan ultrasound images. The prostate and urethra contours were generated using the fusion of ultrasound and CT images. Iodine-125 seed source activities varied between 0.382 to 0.414 mCi per seed. The loading patterns varied slightly between patients depending on the prostate size. Statistical analysis of pre and post plans for prostate and urethra volumes, V100%, V150% and D90, and urethra D10 were performed and reported. Results: The pre and post implant average prostate size was 36.90cc vs. 38.58cc; V100% was 98.33% vs. 96.89%; V150% was 47.09% vs. 56.95%; D90 was 116.35Gy vs. 116.12Gy, urethra volume was 1.72cc vs. 1.85cc, urethra D10% was 122.0% vs. 135.35%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the pre and post-plan values for D90(p-value=0.43). However, there are significant differences between other parameters most likely due to post surgical edema; prostate size (p-value= 0.00015); V100% (p-value=3.7803E-07); V150% (p-value=1.49E-09); urethra volume (p-value= 2.77E-06); Urethra D10 (p-value=7.37E-11). Conclusion: The post-plan dosimetry using CT image set showed similar D90 dose coverage to the pre-plan using the ultrasound image dataset. The study showed that our prostate seed implants have consistently delivered adequate therapeutic dose to the prostate while sparing urethra. Future studies to correlate dose versus biochemical response using patients’ PSA

  2. Injectable iodine-125 labeled tissue marker for radioactive localization of non-palpable breast lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Andreas Ingemann; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a 125I-radiolabeled injectable fiducial tissue marker with the potential to replace current methods used for surgical guidance of non-palpable breast tumors. Methods in routine clinical use today such as radioactive seed localization, radio-guided occult lesion localization....... Biodistribution studies show that there is negligible radioactivity in all non-tumor tissues sampled, with the exception of the thyroid gland, where limited accumulation was observed (0.06% of injected dose after 7 days). Based on the excellent performance of the marker and the fact that it can be delivered...... through thin hypodermic needles (≥27G), the marker holds great promise for clinical application, since patient discomfort is reduced significantly compared to current methods. Statement of Significance. A new type of tissue marker for local administration to non-palpable breast tumors has been developed...

  3. Ocular Response of Choroidal Melanoma With Monosomy 3 Versus Disomy 3 After Iodine-125 Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, Omkar S.; Wu, Jeffrey; Lee, Steve P.; Yu Fei; Burgess, Barry L.; Leu Min; Straatsma, Bradley R.; McCannel, Tara A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the ocular response of choroidal melanoma with monosomy 3 vs. disomy 3 after 125 I brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We evaluated patients with ciliochoroidal melanoma managed with fine needle aspiration biopsy immediately before plaque application for 125 I brachytherapy between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008. Patients with (1) cytopathologic diagnosis of melanoma, (2) melanoma chromosome 3 status identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and (3) 6 or more months of follow-up after brachytherapy were sorted by monosomy 3 vs. disomy 3 and compared by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Among 40 ciliochoroidal melanomas (40 patients), 15 had monosomy 3 and 25 had disomy 3. Monosomy 3 melanomas had a median greatest basal diameter of 12.00 mm and a median tumor thickness of 6.69 mm before brachytherapy; at a median of 1.75 years after brachytherapy, median thickness was 3.10 mm. Median percentage decrease in tumor thickness was 48.3%. Disomy 3 melanomas had a median greatest basal diameter of 10.00 mm and median tumor thickness of 3.19 mm before brachytherapy; at a median of 2.00 years after brachytherapy, median tumor thickness was 2.37 mm. The median percentage decrease in tumor thickness was 22.7%. Monosomy 3 melanomas were statistically greater in size than disomy 3 melanomas (p < 0.001) and showed a greater decrease in tumor thickness after brachytherapy (p = 0.006). Conclusion: In this study, ciliochoroidal melanomas with monosomy 3 were significantly greater in size than disomy 3 melanoma and showed a significantly greater decrease in thickness at a median of 1.75 years after brachytherapy. The greater decrease in monosomy 3 melanoma thickness after brachytherapy is consistent with other malignancies in which more aggressive pathology has been shown to be associated with a greater initial response to radiotherapy.

  4. Ocular Response of Choroidal Melanoma With Monosomy 3 Versus Disomy 3 After Iodine-125 Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marathe, Omkar S. [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wu, Jeffrey; Lee, Steve P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yu Fei; Burgess, Barry L. [Department of Ophthalmology, The Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Leu Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Straatsma, Bradley R. [Department of Ophthalmology, The Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCannel, Tara A., E-mail: TMcCannel@jsei.ucla.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report the ocular response of choroidal melanoma with monosomy 3 vs. disomy 3 after {sup 125}I brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We evaluated patients with ciliochoroidal melanoma managed with fine needle aspiration biopsy immediately before plaque application for {sup 125}I brachytherapy between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008. Patients with (1) cytopathologic diagnosis of melanoma, (2) melanoma chromosome 3 status identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and (3) 6 or more months of follow-up after brachytherapy were sorted by monosomy 3 vs. disomy 3 and compared by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Among 40 ciliochoroidal melanomas (40 patients), 15 had monosomy 3 and 25 had disomy 3. Monosomy 3 melanomas had a median greatest basal diameter of 12.00 mm and a median tumor thickness of 6.69 mm before brachytherapy; at a median of 1.75 years after brachytherapy, median thickness was 3.10 mm. Median percentage decrease in tumor thickness was 48.3%. Disomy 3 melanomas had a median greatest basal diameter of 10.00 mm and median tumor thickness of 3.19 mm before brachytherapy; at a median of 2.00 years after brachytherapy, median tumor thickness was 2.37 mm. The median percentage decrease in tumor thickness was 22.7%. Monosomy 3 melanomas were statistically greater in size than disomy 3 melanomas (p < 0.001) and showed a greater decrease in tumor thickness after brachytherapy (p = 0.006). Conclusion: In this study, ciliochoroidal melanomas with monosomy 3 were significantly greater in size than disomy 3 melanoma and showed a significantly greater decrease in thickness at a median of 1.75 years after brachytherapy. The greater decrease in monosomy 3 melanoma thickness after brachytherapy is consistent with other malignancies in which more aggressive pathology has been shown to be associated with a greater initial response to radiotherapy.

  5. Dosimetric and Late Radiation Toxicity Comparison Between Iodine-125 Brachytherapy and Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krema, Hatem, E-mail: htmkrm19@yahoo.com [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Beiki-Ardakani, Akbar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Weisbrod, Daniel [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Wei [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laperriere, Normand J.; Sahgal, Arjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To compare the dose distributions and late radiation toxicities for {sup 125}I brachytherapy (IBT) and stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods: Ninety-four consecutive patients with juxtapapillary melanoma were reviewed: 30 have been treated with IBT and 64 with SRT. Iodine-125 brachytherapy cases were modeled with plaque simulator software for dosimetric analysis. The SRT dosimetric data were obtained from the Radionics XKnife RT3 software. Mean doses at predetermined intraocular points were calculated. Kaplan-Meier estimates determined the actuarial rates of late toxicities, and the log–rank test compared the estimates. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months in both cohorts. The 2 cohorts were balanced with respect to pretreatment clinical and tumor characteristics. Comparisons of radiation toxicity rates between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded actuarial rates at 50 months for cataracts of 62% and 75% (P=.1), for neovascular glaucoma 8% and 47% (P=.002), for radiation retinopathy 59% and 89% (P=.0001), and for radiation papillopathy 39% and 74% (P=.003), respectively. Dosimetric comparisons between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded mean doses of 12.8 and 14.1 Gy (P=.56) for the lens center, 17.6 and 19.7 Gy (P=.44) for the lens posterior pole, 13.9 and 10.8 Gy (P=.30) for the ciliary body, 61.9 and 69.7 Gy (P=.03) for optic disc center, and 48.9 and 60.1 Gy (P<.0001) for retina at 5-mm distance from tumor margin, respectively. Conclusions: Late radiation-induced toxicities were greater with SRT, which is secondary to the high-dose exposure inherent to the technique as compared with IBT. When technically feasible, IBT is preferred to treat juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma.

  6. Characterization and storage of liquid wastes containing 125Iodine in the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources - IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Vitória S.; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive sources of Iodine-125 for medical applications have been developed at the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) to meet the growing demand for medical applications such as brachytherapy. A dedicated laboratory is already being implemented at IPEN. Part of the processes involved in the production of sealed sources generate radioactive wastes that despite the short half-life (<100 days) have radioactive activity above the levels of exemption established by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Therefore, these wastes should receive appropriate treatment and storage until they reach the levels of release into the environment. This work aims to determine the volumes of the liquid wastes generated during the production stages of the sources, as well as to propose a temporary storage system for such wastes. The applied methodology consisted in determining the volumes of wastes generated in each production cell according to the manufacturing steps. After that, activities and activity concentrations were calculated for each container used for temporary storage inside the production laboratory. The total volume stored for one year in the temporary storage, as well as the rate of entry and exit of the liquid wastes were calculated according to the source production demand and the decay time of the radionuclide, respectively. The main results showed that the time required to reach sanitary sewage disposal values is within the period of operation of the facility. The total volume generated is also within the facility's temporary storage capacity

  7. Relationship between two year PSA nadir and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio da Silva Franca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the relationship between two year PSA nadir (PSAn after brachytherapy and biochemical recurrence rates in prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods In the period from January 1998 to August 2007, 120 patients were treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy alone. The results analysis was based on the definition of biochemical recurrence according to the Phoenix Consensus. Results Biochemical control was observed in 86 patients (71.7%, and biochemical recurrence, in 34 (28.3%. Mean PSAn was 0.53 ng/ml. The mean follow-up was 98 months. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1, with two year PSAn < 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (74 patients; 61.7%, and group 2, with two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (46 patients; 38.3%. Group 1 presented biochemical recurrence in 15 patients (20.3%, and group 2, in 19 patients (43.2% (p < 0.02. The analysis of biochemical disease-free survival at seven years, stratified by the two groups, showed values of 80% and 64% (p < 0.02, respectively. Conclusion Levels of two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy are strongly correlated with a poor prognosis. This fact may help to identify patients at risk for disease recurrence.

  8. Development of computational models for the simulation of isodose curves on dosimetry films generated by iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano M.; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Reis, Sergio C.; Grynberg, Suely E., E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b [Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The interstitial brachytherapy is one modality of radiotherapy in which radioactive sources are placed directly in the region to be treated or close to it. The seeds that are used in the treatment of prostate cancer are generally cylindrical radioactive sources, consisting of a ceramic or metal matrix, which acts as the carrier of the radionuclide and as the X-ray marker, encapsulated in a sealed titanium tube. This study aimed to develop a computational model to reproduce the film-seed geometry, in order to obtain the spatial regions of the isodose curves produced by the seed when it is put over the film surface. The seed modeled in this work was the OncoSeed 6711, a sealed source of iodine-125, which its isodose curves were obtained experimentally in previous work with the use of dosimetric films. For the films modeling, compositions and densities of the two types of dosimetric films were used: Agfa Personal Monitoring photographic film 2/10, manufactured by Agfa-Geavaert; and the model EBT radiochromic film, by International Specialty Products. The film-seed models were coupled to the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results obtained by simulations showed to be in good agreement with experimental results performed in a previous work. This indicates that the computational model can be used in future studies for other seeds models. (author)

  9. Quantification of the simple and double strand breaks following the disintegration of iodine-125 in situ in chromosomal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudira, H.; Saifi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to compare the radiochemical yields of the simple and double strand breaks (C.S.B. and C.D.B.) generated in the propellers of the molecule of DNA, following the taking in consideration of two electronic spectra of disintegration of iodine-125. Indeed, the combined use of the Monte Carlo method of the type step by step and the equation of diffusion (∂ C i / ∂ t = D i Δ 2 C i + S) makes it possible to simulate the transport of the electrons, and the chemical reactions due to the diffusion of the entities created throughout the physico-chemical and chemical process considered (e-aq, H, OH, H 2 , H 2 O 2 , and H 3 O + ). In this study, we take in consideration a complex model of DNA (nucleosome) and its envelope of hydration like we also take in consideration of the radio-protector effect of the inhibitors such as the Formiat (Formiat the sodium, HCOO - ). Moreover, the comparison of our results to those obtained by other models, highlights on one hand an unquestionable agreement and on the other hand the power and the capacity of adaptation of the codes worked out to various models of DNA. (authors)

  10. Iodine 125 prostate brachytherapy: prognostic factors for long-term urinary, digestive and sexual toxicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyen, J.; Mohammed Ali, A.; Ginot, A.; Ferre, M.; Castelli, J.; Hannoun-Levi, J.M.; Chamorey, E.; Mohammed Ali, A.; Quintens, H.; Amiel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose For patients with good urinary function and presenting with a low risk prostate cancer, prostate brachytherapy using iodine implants represents one of the techniques of reference. This retrospective analysis investigates urinary (U), digestive (D) and sexual (S) toxicities and their prognostic factors of duration. Material and methods From August 2000 to November 2007, 176 patients presenting with prostate adenocarcinoma underwent interstitial brachytherapy. Urinary, digestive and sexual toxicities were classified according to Common toxicities criteria for adverse events, version 3.0 (C.T.C.A.E. V 3.0). For each toxicity (U, D, S), the number of complications U (dysuria, nicturia), D (proctitis, diarrhea) and S (sexual dysfunction, loss of libido) was listed and analyzed according to criteria related to the patient, implant, dosimetric data and characteristics of the toxicity. Prognostic factors identified in univariate analysis (U.V.A.) (Log Rank) were further analyzed in multivariate analysis (M.V.A.) (Cox model). Results With a median follow-up of 26 months (1-87), 147 patients (83.5 %) presented urinary toxicities. Among them, 29.5 % (86 patients) and 2.4 % (seven patients) presented grade 2 and 3 U toxicity respectively. In U.V.A., urinary grade toxicity greater than or equal to 2 (p = 0.037), the presence of initial U symptoms (p = 0.027) and more than two urinary toxicities (p 0.00032) were recognized as prognostic factors. The number of U toxicities was the only prognostic factor in M.V.A. (p = 0.04). D toxicity accounted for 40.6 % (71 patients). Among them, 3 % (six patients) were grade 2. None were grade 3. Two factors were identified as prognostic factors either in U.V.A. and M.V.A.: the number of D toxicities greater than or equal to 2 (univariate analysis: p = 0,00129, multivariate analysis: p = 0,002) and age less than or equal to 65 years (univariate analysis: p = 0,004, multivariate analysis: p 0,007). Eighty-three patients (47

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After Permanent Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy-An Australian Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwahlen, Daniel R.; Smith, Ryan; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Matheson, Bronwyn; Royce, Peter; Millar, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 'bounces' after 125 I prostate brachytherapy to review the relationship to biochemical control and correlate both clinical and dosimetric variables. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 194 hormone-naive patients with a follow-up of ≥3 years. Four bounce definitions were applied: an increase of ≥0.2 ng/mL (definition I), ≥0.4 ng/mL (definition II), ≥15% (definition III), and ≥35% (definition IV) of a previous value with spontaneous return to the prebounce level or lower. Results: Using definition I, II, III, and IV, a bounce was detected in 50%, 34%, 11%, and 9% of patients, respectively. The median time to onset was 14-16 months, the duration was 12-21.5 months, and the magnitude of the increase was 0.5-2 ng/mL. A magnitude of >2 ng/mL, fulfilling the criteria for biochemical failure (BF) according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Phoenix definition, was detected in 11.3%, 16.9%, 47.6%, and 50% using definitions I, II, III, and IV, respectively; 11 patients (5.7%) had true BF. The PSA bounces occurred earlier than BF (p < 0.001). The prediction of BF remains controversial and is probably unrelated to biochemical control. The only statistically significant factor predictive of a PSA bounce was younger age (definitions I and II). Conclusion: PSA bounces are common after brachytherapy. All definitions resulted in a high number of false-positive calls for BF during the first 2 years. The definition of an increase of ≥0.2 ng/mL should be preferred because of the lowest number of false-positive results for BF. Patients experiencing a PSA bounce during the first 2 years after brachytherapy should undergo surveillance every 3-6 months. Additional investigations are recommended for elevated postimplant PSA levels that have not corrected by 3 years of follow-up.

  12. The Efficacy and Safety of Iodine-125 Brachytherapy Combined with Chemotherapy in Treatment of Advanced Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, H.; Wang, J.; Ji, J.; Ma, G.; Zhang, L.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of iodine-125 brachytherapy combined with chemotherapy in patients with advanced lung cancer. PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, FMJS and Web of Science were searched to obtain randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in English and Chinese, until February 2016. The evaluating indicators were complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), progressive disease (PD), overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), one-year overall survival, two-year overall survival and adverse events. Revman 5.2 software was used for data syntheses and analyses. A total of 296 patients enrolled in 5 RCTs were ultimately included in this study based on our selection criteria, and 150 patients received chemotherapy alone, while another 146 patients received the combination therapy of iodine-125 brachytherapy and chemotherapy. The results showed that iodine-125 brachytherapy combined with chemotherapy was superior to chemotherapy alone in CR (risk ratio [RR] = 3.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.08 to 6.44, p<0.001), PR (RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.86, p=0.001), ORR (RR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.54 to 2.22, p<0.001), DCR (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.29, p<0.001), one-year overall survival (RR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.92, p=0.006) and PD (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.43, p<0.001); meanwhile, there was no significant difference in two-year overall survival (RR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.72 to 2.37, p=0.39). In terms of adverse events, the combination therapy significantly increased the incidence of pneumothorax (RR = 4.93, 95% CI: 1.94 to 12.55, p=<0.001); however, no significant differences were found in the incidence of other adverse events. This study indicated that the combination therapy of iodine-125 brachytherapy and chemotherapy could improve the therapeutic efficacy of advanced lung cancer without increasing the incidence of adverse events, except pneumothorax. (author)

  13. Considerações radiodosimétricas da braquiterapia ocular com iodo-125 e rutênio/ródio-106 Radiodosimetric considerations on ocular brachytherapy with iodine-125 and ruthenium/rhodium-106

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Prata Mourão

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, por meio de um modelo computacional da região ocular, as características da distribuição da dose utilizando placas contendo iodo-125 e rutênio/ródio-106. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi utilizado um modelo computacional de voxels da região ocular incluindo os diversos tecidos, com a placa posicionada sobre a esclera. O código Monte Carlo foi utilizado para simular a irradiação. A distribuição da dose é apresentada por curvas de isodoses. RESULTADOS: As simulações computacionais apresentam a distribuição da dose no interior do bulbo e nas estruturas externas. Os resultados permitem comparar a distribuição espacial das doses geradas por partículas beta e por fótons. As simulações mostram que a aplicação de sementes de iodo-125 implica alta dose no cristalino, enquanto o rutênio/ródio-106 produz alta dose na superfície da esclera. CONCLUSÃO: A dose no cristalino depende da espessura do tumor, da posição e do diâmetro da placa, e do radionuclídeo utilizado. No presente estudo, a fonte de rutênio/ródio-106 é recomendada para tumores de dimensões reduzidas. A irradiação com iodo-125 gera doses maiores no cristalino do que a irradiação com rutênio/ródio-106. O valor máximo de dose no cristalino corresponde a 12,75% do valor máximo de dose com iodo-125 e apenas 0,005% para rutênio/ródio-106.OBJECTIVE: To analyze dose distribution utilizing plaques with iodine-125 and ruthenium/rhodium-106 in a computational model of the ocular region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voxel-based computational model including the different tissues of the ocular region was utilized with the plaque positioned on the sclera. The Monte Carlo code was utilized for simulating irradiation. The dose distribution is demonstrated by isodoses curves. RESULTS: Computational simulations demonstrate the dose distribution inside the ocular bulb as well as in adjacent outside structures. The results have allowed the authors to compare

  14. Radio-guided occult lesion localisation using iodine-125 seeds ('ROLLIS') for removal of impalpable breast lesions: first Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Donna B.; Bourke, Anita G.; Westcott, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of breast cancers are impalpable and require pre-operative image-guided localisation. Hook-wire localisation (HWL) is commonly used but has several disadvantages. Use of a low-activity radioactive iodine-125 seed is a promising alternative technique used in the USA and the Netherlands. This pilot study describes the first use of this in Australia. In this prospective pilot study, 21 participants with biopsy-proven breast cancer underwent radio guided occult lesion localisation using iodine-125 seed(s) (ROLLIS) with insertion of a hook-wire for back up. Sentinel node biopsy was performed where indicated. Ease of hook-wire and seed insertion, duration of the procedure, dependence on the seed versus hook-wire during surgery, lesion location within the specimen, histopathology including size of radial margins, the ease of seed retrieval in pathology, and safe return of seeds for disposal were documented. Radiation dosimetry of staff was performed. All seeds were placed within 3.5 mm of the lesion. All lesions and seeds were removed. One participant needed re-excision for involved margins. Radiologists and surgeons both preferred ROLLIS. Surgeons were able to depend on the seed for localisation in all but one case. Sentinel node biopsy was successfully performed when required. Pathologists found seed retrieval quick and easy, with no detrimental effect on tissue processing. No radiation doses measurably above background were received by staff. ROLLIS is an easily learnt, safe and effective alternative technique to standard HWL.

  15. Correlation of cytotoxicity with elimination of iodine-125 from nude mice inoculated with prelabeled human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockshin, A.; Giovanella, B.C.; Quian, C.; Mendoza, J.T.; Vardeman, D.M.; Stehlin, J.S. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    BRO human melanoma cells were prelabeled in vitro with [125I]5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ([125I]IdUrd) and inoculated into NIH-II nude mice ip, im, sc, or iv. Saline or diphtheria toxin (DT), which is selectively toxic to human cells compared to those of mice, was injected, and the loss of 125I from the animals was monitored daily with a whole-body gamma scintillation detector. For most of the inoculation sites DT accelerated the rate of 125I excretion and in all cases was cytotoxic for the inoculated cells as determined by host survival or measurement of visible tumor growth. Differences between the rates of 125I loss for DT-treated mice compared to untreated mice were most evident for cells inoculated ip or im. These results indicate that [125I]IdUrd prelabeling of human tumor cells inoculated in nude mice offers a rapid method for determination of cytotoxicity in vivo

  16. Regulation of autophagy via PERK-eIF2α effectively relieve the radiation myelitis induced by iodine-125.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuozhang Yang

    Full Text Available Radiation myelitis is the most serious complication in clinical radiotherapy for spinal metastases. We previously showed that (125I brachytherapy induced apoptosis of spinal cord neurons accompanied by autophagy. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism by which (125I radiation triggered autophagy in neural cells. We found that autophagy induced by (125I radiation was involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and mainly dependent on PERK-eIF2α pathway. The expressions of LC3II, ATG12 and PI3K were significantly suppressed in PERK knockout neural cells. Meanwhile, the expressions of phosphorylated-Akt s473 and caspase3/8 all significantly increased in neural cells transfected with a PERK siRNA and which enhanced apoptosis of neurons after (125I radiation. The results were consistent with that by MTT and Annexin-FITC/PT staining. In animal model of banna pigs with radiation myelitis caused by (125I brachytherapy, we have successfully decreased PERK expression by intrathecal administration of the lentivirus vector. The apoptosis rate was significantly higher than that in control group and which deteriorated radiation myelitis of banna pigs. Thus, autophagy caused by (125I radiation was mainly as an attempt of cell survival at an early stage, but it would be a self-destructive process and promoted the process of apoptosis and necrosis radiated by (125I for more than 72 hours. The study would be useful and helpful to maximize efficiency of radiation therapy in clinical therapy.

  17. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).

  18. Iodine 125 Brachytherapy With Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil in the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma: 1-to-1 Matched Case-Control Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCannel, Tara A., E-mail: TMcCannel@jsei.ucla.edu; McCannel, Colin A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We initially reported the radiation-attenuating effect of silicone oil 1000 centistokes for iodine 125. The purpose of this report was to compare the clinical outcomes in case patients who had iodine 125 brachytherapy with vitrectomy and silicone oil 1000 centistokes with the outcomes in matched control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with uveal melanoma who were treated with iodine 125 plaque brachytherapy and vitrectomy with silicone oil with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone were matched for tumor size, location, and sex. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics and tumor response to radiation, final visual acuity, macular status, central macular thickness by ocular coherence tomography (OCT), cataract progression, and metastasis at last follow-up visit were compared. Surgical complications were also determined. Results: Twenty case patients met the inclusion criteria. The average follow-up time was 22.1 months in case patients and 19.4 months in control patients. The final logMAR vision was 0.81 in case patients and 1.1 in control patients (P=.071); 8 case patients and 16 control patients had abnormal macular findings (P=.011); and the average central macular thickness by OCT was 293.2 μm in case patients and 408.5 μm in control patients (P=.016). Eleven case patients (55%) and 1 control patient (5%) had required cataract surgery at last follow-up (P=.002). Four patients in the case group and 1 patient in the control group experienced metastasis (P=.18). Among the cases, intraoperative retinal tear occurred in 3 patients; total serous retinal detachment and macular hole developed in 1 case patient each. There was no case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, treatment failure, or local tumor dissemination in case patients or control patients. Conclusions: With up to 3 years of clinical follow-up, silicone oil during brachytherapy

  19. Iodine 125 Brachytherapy With Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil in the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma: 1-to-1 Matched Case-Control Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCannel, Tara A.; McCannel, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We initially reported the radiation-attenuating effect of silicone oil 1000 centistokes for iodine 125. The purpose of this report was to compare the clinical outcomes in case patients who had iodine 125 brachytherapy with vitrectomy and silicone oil 1000 centistokes with the outcomes in matched control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with uveal melanoma who were treated with iodine 125 plaque brachytherapy and vitrectomy with silicone oil with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone were matched for tumor size, location, and sex. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics and tumor response to radiation, final visual acuity, macular status, central macular thickness by ocular coherence tomography (OCT), cataract progression, and metastasis at last follow-up visit were compared. Surgical complications were also determined. Results: Twenty case patients met the inclusion criteria. The average follow-up time was 22.1 months in case patients and 19.4 months in control patients. The final logMAR vision was 0.81 in case patients and 1.1 in control patients (P=.071); 8 case patients and 16 control patients had abnormal macular findings (P=.011); and the average central macular thickness by OCT was 293.2 μm in case patients and 408.5 μm in control patients (P=.016). Eleven case patients (55%) and 1 control patient (5%) had required cataract surgery at last follow-up (P=.002). Four patients in the case group and 1 patient in the control group experienced metastasis (P=.18). Among the cases, intraoperative retinal tear occurred in 3 patients; total serous retinal detachment and macular hole developed in 1 case patient each. There was no case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, treatment failure, or local tumor dissemination in case patients or control patients. Conclusions: With up to 3 years of clinical follow-up, silicone oil during brachytherapy

  20. Reproducibility of image interpretation in immunoscintigraphy performed with indium-111- and iodine-131-labeled OC125 F(ab')2 antibody injected into the same patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillez, J.P.; Peltier, P.; Mayer, J.C.; Dubois, F.; Chetanneau, A.; Fumoleau, P.; Bertrand, A.; Chatal, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    An important criterion for the clinical use of a new imaging technique is the correct reproducibility of interpretation. Forty-six paired immunoscintigraphic examinations were performed on 43 patients with suspected ovarian carcinoma recurrence using F(ab')2 fragments of OC125 antibody labeled first with indium-111 and then with iodine-131. Planar scintigraphy (PS) and emission computed tomography (ECT) images were interpreted blindly and separately by three observers, and reproducibility was evaluated by a kappa concordance index. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility were generally satisfactory (kappa values of 0.6 and 0.7, respectively). Binomial analysis of kappa values for ECT showed the superiority of indium-111 for intraobserver (p = 0.035) and interobserver (p = 0.0039) study. However, for PS there was no significant difference in reproducibility with the two radionuclides

  1. Iodine 125-lysergic acid diethylamide binds to a novel serotonergic site on rat choroid plexus epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagaloff, K.A.; Hartig, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    125 I-Lysergic acid diethylamide ( 125 I-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol/mg of protein, which is 10-fold higher than the density of any other serotonergic site in brain homogenates. The choroid plexus site exhibits a novel pharmacology that does not match the properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT1a), 5-HT1b, or 5-HT2 serotonergic sites. 125 I-LSD binding to the choroid plexus site is potently inhibited by mianserin, serotonin, and (+)-LSD. Other serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic agonists and antagonists exhibit moderate to weak affinities for this site. The rat choroid plexus 125 I-LSD binding site appears to represent a new type of serotonergic site which is located on non-neuronal cells in this tissue

  2. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Neuburger, Daniela; Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

  3. Clinical outcome of intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with iodine 125 mono-therapy: The Hotel-Dieu of Quebec experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebentout, O.; Apardian, R.; Beaulieu, L.; Harel, F.; Martin, A.G.; Vigneault, E.; Beaulieu, L.; Harel, F.; Beaulieu, L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe the biochemical failure-free survival (B.F.F.S.), G.U. toxicity and erectile dysfunction in intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with iodine 125 mono-therapy ( 125 I). Patients and methods Between October 1994 and October 2007, 1282 patients were treated with 125 I at the Hotel Dieu de Quebec. Two hundred patients were intermediate risk prostate cancer. One hundred and fifty-seven had enough follow-up to be evaluated in this study. Biochemical failure-free survival is reported using Phoenix definition. Acute and late G.U. toxicity was described using the International Prostate Symptoms Score (I.P.S.S.) as well as with the rate of bladder catheter. Erectile dysfunction was also reported. Results The mean age of the patients was 65.6 years (S.D. = 6 years) and the mean pretreatment P.S.A. was 8.7 ng/ml. About half of the patients (51%) were T2b/T2c. About 44.6% had a P.S.A. greater than 10 and 4.5% had Gleason score of 7/10. More than half of the patients received a short course of hormones of less than 6 months for cyto-reduction (57.4%). The median follow-up was 60 months. Biochemical failure-free survival at 60-month and 96-month were 87.1% and 81% according to Phoenix definition. The mean I.P.S.S. rose from 5 immediately after the implant to 15 1 month after and then slowly decreased to 8 at 24 months. Acute urinary retention with bladder catheter occurred in 10.9% of patients. Only 4.3% presented erectile dysfunction at 5 months post-implant. Conclusion 125 I mono-therapy for intermediate risk prostate implant gives biochemical failure-free survivals at 5 years and 8 years comparable to those obtained with high dose external beam radiotherapy. G.U. toxicity and erectile dysfunction were low and acceptable. Therefore, the use of 125 I alone in this group of patients could be presented and discussed with the patient in the waiting of phase III validation. (authors)

  4. An analysis of brachytherapy with computed tomography-guided permanent implantation of Iodine-125 seeds for recurrent nonkeratin nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen X

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinying Shen,1,2 Yong Li,2 Yanfang Zhang,2 Jian Kong,2 Yanhao Li1 1Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Interventional Radiology, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Background: 125I seed implantation is a new method in treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, and it is worthwhile to evaluate its feasibility. In this study, we performed brachytherapy with computed tomography (CT-guided permanent implantation of 125I seeds in the treatment of patients with the recurrence of NPC.Methods: A total 30 patients (20 male and ten female at the median age of 55 (range 25–80 years were diagnosed with recurrent nonkeratin NPC, with a total 38 lesions and a short disease-free interval (median ~11 months after primary radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy. Patients received CT scan, starting from 2 months after the treatment. Follow-up was conducted for ~2–38 months to observe the local control rate and overall survival rate. We also analyzed the possible correlation between survival periods and the status of recurrent tumors.Results: The local control rates at 6, 12, 24, 30, and 36 months after the procedure of 125I seed implantation were 86.8%, 73.7%, 26.3%, 15.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 80.0% (24/30, 30.0% (9/30, and 6.7% (2/30, respectively, with a median survival period of 18 months (17.6±8.6 months. Interestingly, the survival periods of the patients who had primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy were 15.8±7.9 and 24.3±7.9 months, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis demonstrated that χ2 (log rank was 7.555, with very significant difference (P<0.01. The survival periods of patients in tumor stages I, II, III, and IV were 25.4±8.7, 19.8±9.4, 16.1±4.5, and 12.8±7.8 months, respectively, with

  5. A comparison of the flow of iodine 125 through three different intestinal anastomoses: standard, Gambee, and stapler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeless, C.R. Jr.; Smith, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Angiogenesis determines blood supply, and it is postulated that after surgery, the healing of a wound is directly related to the blood supplied to the surrounding tissues. As a first step in evaluating the process of flow through different surgical anastomoses, the flow rate of 125 I through three different types of anastomoses in the intestines of dogs was determined. When the results were compared, the flow rate through the stapler anastomosis was significantly higher than the flow rate through the standard and Gambee anastomoses

  6. Penetration of protective gloves as a route of intake for tritiated water and 125I-labelled sodium iodine solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.J.; Gilmore, A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate at which tritiated water and 125 I-labelled sodium iodide solution penetrate various types of protective gloves, both isotopes being in common use in this form in universities and similar establishments. Diffusion coefficients relating to the glove materials are also determined. The health physics aspects are discussed and it is concluded that intakes by workers through intact gloves are not likely to be of major significance and can easily be minimised by the correct use and choice of glove. (author)

  7. Film dosimetry analyses on the effect of gold shielding for Iodine-125 eye plaque therapy for choroidal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A. (Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Joint Radiation Oncology Center and Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Krasin, F. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, New England Medical Center, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    One of the methods currently being used to treat choroidal melanoma employs an episcleral plaque containing I-125 radioactive seeds. However, comprehensive dosimetry studies on the plaque are scarce and controversial. For this work, we use film to study the dosimetry outside the lip of the gold shield of the eye plaque. This lip around the gold shield was made to protect the critical structures behind and adjacent to the lesion. Since the changes of energy spectrum of I-125 in tissue are negligible, film dosimetry seems to be a logical choice because of high spatial resolution required around the lip of the gold plaque. For this study, we first established an H and D curve with dose expressed in a unit of specific dose rate constant. This avoids absolute dose measurements. All film density measurements are made with a 1-mm aperture scan, normalized to the density at the prescription point for tumor of 3--5-mm apical height, i.e., 5 mm from the interior surface of sclera, and converted to percentage isodose curves. With a gold shield, it is found that when the plaque is placed against the optical nerve, the optical disk and macula, located at 2 mm outside the lip, on the exterior surface of sclera, may receive 85% of the prescription dose for a 12-mm plaque and 58% for a 16-mm plaque. For tumors of 8-mm apical height, the optical nerve would receive more than the prescription dose.

  8. Film dosimetry analyses on the effect of gold shielding for Iodine-125 eye plaque therapy for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, A.; Krasin, F.

    1990-01-01

    One of the methods currently being used to treat choroidal melanoma employs an episcleral plaque containing I-125 radioactive seeds. However, comprehensive dosimetry studies on the plaque are scarce and controversial. For this work, we use film to study the dosimetry outside the lip of the gold shield of the eye plaque. This lip around the gold shield was made to protect the critical structures behind and adjacent to the lesion. Since the changes of energy spectrum of I-125 in tissue are negligible, film dosimetry seems to be a logical choice because of high spatial resolution required around the lip of the gold plaque. For this study, we first established an H and D curve with dose expressed in a unit of specific dose rate constant. This avoids absolute dose measurements. All film density measurements are made with a 1-mm aperture scan, normalized to the density at the prescription point for tumor of 3--5-mm apical height, i.e., 5 mm from the interior surface of sclera, and converted to percentage isodose curves. With a gold shield, it is found that when the plaque is placed against the optical nerve, the optical disk and macula, located at 2 mm outside the lip, on the exterior surface of sclera, may receive 85% of the prescription dose for a 12-mm plaque and 58% for a 16-mm plaque. For tumors of 8-mm apical height, the optical nerve would receive more than the prescription dose

  9. Complex cell geometry and sources distribution model for Monte Carlo single cell dosimetry with iodine 125 radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, F.X. [Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, INPT, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Paillas, S. [IRCM, Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Montpellier F-34298 (France); INSERM, U1194, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Pouget, J.P [IRCM, Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Montpellier F-34298 (France); INSERM, U1194, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpelllier, F-34090 Montpellier (France); Institut régional du Cancer de Montpellier, F-34298 Montpellier (France); Incerti, S. [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Bardiès, M. [Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Bordage, M.C., E-mail: marie-claude.bordage@inserm.fr [Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, INPT, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France)

    2016-01-01

    In cellular dosimetry, common assumptions consider concentric spheres for nucleus and cell and uniform radionuclides distribution. These approximations do not reflect reality, specially in the situation of radioimmunotherapy with Auger emitters, where very short-ranged electrons induce hyper localised energy deposition. A realistic cellular dosimetric model was generated to give account of the real geometry and activity distribution, for non-internalizing and internalizing antibodies (mAbs) labelled with Auger emitter I-125. The impact of geometry was studied by comparing the real geometry obtained from confocal microscopy for both cell and nucleus with volume equivalent concentric spheres. Non-uniform and uniform source distributions were considered for each mAbs distribution. Comparisons in terms of mean deposited energy per decay, energy deposition spectra and energy-volume histograms were calculated using Geant4. We conclude that realistic models are needed, especially when energy deposition is highly non-homogeneous due to source distribution.

  10. Use of brachytherapy with permanent implants of iodine-125 in localized prostate cancer; La curietherapie par implants permanents d'I-125 dans le cancer localise de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladou, F.; Serment, G. [Hopital Salvador, Service d' Urologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Salem, N.; Simonian, M. [Hopital Salvador, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 13 - Marseille (France); Rosello, R.; Ternier, F. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Dept. de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 15,000 cases of early stage prostate cancer T1 and T2 are diagnosed every year in France by testing for PSA and performing prostatic biopsies. The treatment of these localized forms is based in most cases on radical prostatectomy or nn external beam radiotherapy. Although the ontological results obtained by these two therapeutic methods are satisfactory and equivalent in the long term, the side effects can be important. For a number of years, trans-perineal brachytherapy using permanent implants of iodine -125 or palladium-103 has proved itself as an alternative therapy with equivalent medium to long-term results. The low urinary, digestive and sexual side effects of prostate brachytherapy are important reasons for the enthusiasm among patients and the medical community for this therapy and the growing number of applications and centres which practice it. In September 1998 we started the prostate brachytherapy programmes- in Marseilles with close collaboration between the department of urology of the Hopital Salvator, and the departments of radiotherapy, medical imaging and medical physics of the Institut Paoli-Calmettes. To date, around 250 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate have benefited from this alternative therapy in our centre. Preliminary results, with a 3 year-follow-up, are comparable to results published in the literature by pioneer teams. (authors)

  11. Radiation exposure to operating room staff during prostate brachytherapy using iodine-125 seeds; Exposition radiologique de l'equipe operatoire au cours de curietherapies de prostate par implants permanents d'iode-125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagna, G.; Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P. [Service de protection radiologique des armees (SPRA), 1 bis rue du Lieutenant Raoul Batany, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Gauron, C. [Institut national de recherche et de securite (INRS), Departement Etudes et Assistance Medicales, 30 rue Olivier Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14 (France)

    2011-04-15

    The French defense radiation protection service (SPRA) and the French national institute for research and safety (INRS) conducted a joint study to assess the radiation exposure to operating room staff during prostate brachytherapy using iodine-125 seeds at the Val-de-Grace military hospital. The purpose of the study was the assessment of the effective doses, the equivalent doses to the extremities and lens received by a novice team, the different ambient dose equivalent rates measurements and the delineation of areas. After six brachy-therapies, all the recorded doses with whole-body InLight{sup R} OSL and nanoDot{sup R} dosimeters remained below the detection limit for the whole staff. The dose rate measured at the end of implantation by an AT1123{sup R} survey meter is about 170 {mu}Sv/h at the perineum of the patient. The controlled area limit is estimated to be about 20 cm from the patient perineum. From these results, the authors propose recommendations for the categorization of workers, the delineation of areas and the dose monitoring procedures. This study demonstrates that real-time ultrasound-guided trans-perineal prostate brachytherapy delivers low dose to the operators because of the radioactive source characteristics and the instrumentation providing an effective radiation protection for the surgical team. (authors)

  12. Combination of bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, permanent iodine-125 implantation, and percutaneous irradiation of the locally confined prostatic cancer. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, H.J.; Mueller, R.; Schrott, K.M.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1987-01-01

    Since the beginning of 1981, 32 patients at an age of 52 to 72 years who suffered from a locally confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated by permanent implantation of I-125 seeds. 25 patients were evaluated after a median observation period of 30 months. The first group consisting of 19 patients was submitted to a combined percutaneous and interstitial treatment, the other 6 patients were initially treated only by interstitial therapy because of severe complications observed in the meantime. After bilateral pelvic staging lymphadenectomy, permanent I-125 seeds were implanted into the patients of stage T 1 , T 2 , early T 3 and pN 0-1 , in case of microscopic lymph node manifestation without capsular perforation also into patients of stage pN 2 and pN 4 . 8 weeks later the patients received a moving beam irradiation with 10 MV photons at the linear accelerator. The centre of the prostate was faded out by a specially constructed H absorber in such a way that the prescribed target dose of 36 Gy in 4 weeks to the 90%-isodose was only applied to a spherical surface around the implant. 1 patient died perioperatively from an embolism due to phlebothrombosis of the thigh. 22 out of the other 24 patients are in complete remission, 1 patient had a local recurrence in the right seminal vesicle which appeared 28 months after primary therapy, and 1 patient developed skeletal metastases. The objective side effects and late complications of our combined treatment are considerable with respect to their incidence as well as their severity: a slight or medium radioproctitis was found after a latent period of 1 to 2 years in 28% (5/18) of cases, after a latent time of about 1 1/2 to 2 years another 28% (5/18) developed subsequently to a proctitis an urethral stricture and an ulcer situated on the anterior rectum wall facing the prostate, and 4 patients presented finally a prostato-rectal fistula. (orig.) [de

  13. Conservative treatment of choroidal melanomas using iodine brachytherapy; Tratamento conservador ocular dos melanomas de coroide com braquiterapia utilizando placas de Iodo-125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Silva, Petrus Paulo C.E. da; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Ferrigno, Robson [Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radioterapia]. E-mail: pellizzon@aol.com; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar [Instituto Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Pellizzon, Ricardo Jose Assis [Faculdade de Medicina de Catanduva, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Chodjaniack, Marta; Motono, Marcia [Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Onco-oftalmologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the results of conservative therapy using escorpal iodine-125 (model 6711, Amershan) plaque for brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 49 patients with choroidal melanoma treated at 'Hospital do Cancer', Sao Paulo, Brazil, from March 2001 to January 2003. The following clinical parameters were analyzed and correlated with local control and survival rate: gender, age, lesion dimension, treatment duration, as well as doses in apex and base of the tumors. Results: The maximum diameter and height of the base of the tumors treated were 17 mm and 12 mm, respectively. Doses at those points ranged from 213 to 463 Gy (median: 347 Gy) and 51 to 250 Gy (median: 91 Gy), respectively. The actuarial rates of ocular preservation, disease free survival and ocular preservation in 2-years were 96%, 93.5% and 96.3%, respectively. A tumor height < 6 mm was the only predictive factor for local control (p = 0.0348) in the univariate analysis. Conclusion: Brachytherapy achieved a very satisfactory rate of tumor local control, confirming that tumor height is one of the most important predictive factors for local control. (author)

  14. Long-term Results of the UCSF-LBNL Randomized Trial: Charged Particle With Helium Ion Versus Iodine-125 Plaque Therapy for Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kavita K; Quivey, Jeanne M; Daftari, Inder K; Weinberg, Vivian; Cole, Tia B; Patel, Kishan; Castro, Joseph R; Phillips, Theodore L; Char, Devron H

    2015-06-01

    Relevant clinical data are needed given the increasing national interest in charged particle radiation therapy (CPT) programs. Here we report long-term outcomes from the only randomized, stratified trial comparing CPT with iodine-125 plaque therapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. From 1985 to 1991, 184 patients met eligibility criteria and were randomized to receive particle (86 patients) or plaque therapy (98 patients). Patients were stratified by tumor diameter, thickness, distance to disc/fovea, anterior extension, and visual acuity. Tumors close to the optic disc were included. Local tumor control, as well as eye preservation, metastases due to melanoma, and survival were evaluated. Median follow-up times for particle and plaque arm patients were 14.6 years and 12.3 years, respectively (P=.22), and for those alive at last follow-up, 18.5 and 16.5 years, respectively (P=.81). Local control (LC) for particle versus plaque treatment was 100% versus 84% at 5 years, and 98% versus 79% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.0006). If patients with tumors close to the disc (eye preservation (P=.01). CPT was a significant predictor of prolonged disease-free survival (log rank: P=.001). Particle therapy resulted in significantly improved local control, eye preservation, and disease-free survival as confirmed by long-term outcomes from the only randomized study available to date comparing radiation modalities in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental radiotherapy of the R1H rhabdomyosarcoma of the rat: combined use of interstitial iodine-125-brachytherapy and fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.

    1995-01-01

    The study described here investigated into the therapeutic effects that split-dose x-radiation combined with interstitial iodine-125 brachytherapy would have on two different lines of the R1H rhabdomyosarcoma of the rat. The following parameters were examined: local tumour control rate; growth delay; net growth delay; position, movement and loss of seeds; tumour shape. The following results were obtained: The local tumour control rate for tumours externally treated with two seeds was by 42 Gy higher than that determined for the group treated with external irradiation alone. A procedure was developed to calculate the most appropriate distance for the seeds on the basis of tumour axes and volumes. The relationship between growth delay and mean maximum distance of the seed from the tumour margin could be ascertained on a quantitative basis. The influence of the tumour shape on the result of treatment was confirmed. Although the seeds were still active at the time of recidivation and treatment was not yet terminated, it was possible to show that the tumour bed effect, which tends to distort the growth delay calculations and may even occur in externally treated seed animals, could largely be avoided in the evaluation of this study. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Uveal Melanoma Treated With Iodine-125 Episcleral Plaque: An Analysis of Dose on Disease Control and Visual Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Bradford A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mettu, Pradeep; Vajzovic, Lejla [Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Rivera, Douglas [Austin Cancer Centers, Austin, Texas (United States); Alkaissi, Ali; Steffey, Beverly A.; Cai, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Stinnett, Sandra [Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Dutton, Jonathan J. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Buckley, Edward G. [Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Halperin, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G., E-mail: david.kirsch@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in the treatment of uveal melanomas, how tumor control, radiation toxicity, and visual outcomes are affected by the radiation dose at the tumor apex. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed to evaluate patients treated for uveal melanoma with {sup 125}I plaques between 1988 and 2010. Radiation dose is reported as dose to tumor apex and dose to 5 mm. Primary endpoints included time to local failure, distant failure, and death. Secondary endpoints included eye preservation, visual acuity, and radiation-related complications. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine associations between radiation dose and the endpoint variables. Results: One hundred ninety patients with sufficient data to evaluate the endpoints were included. The 5-year local control rate was 91%. The 5-year distant metastases rate was 10%. The 5-year overall survival rate was 84%. There were no differences in outcome (local control, distant metastases, overall survival) when dose was stratified by apex dose quartile (<69 Gy, 69-81 Gy, 81-89 Gy, >89 Gy). However, increasing apex dose and dose to 5-mm depth were correlated with greater visual acuity loss (P=.02, P=.0006), worse final visual acuity (P=.02, P<.0001), and radiation complications (P<.0001, P=.0009). In addition, enucleation rates were worse with increasing quartiles of dose to 5 mm (P=.0001). Conclusions: Doses at least as low as 69 Gy prescribed to the tumor apex achieve rates of local control, distant metastasis–free survival, and overall survival that are similar to radiation doses of 85 Gy to the tumor apex, but with improved visual outcomes.

  17. Prescribing to tumor apex in episcleral plaque iodine-125 brachytherapy for medium-sized choroidal melanoma: A single-institutional retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, David Thomas; Kim, Yongbok; Javid, Cameron; Gordon, John D; Stea, Baldassarre

    2015-01-01

    To report an institutional experience with episcleral plaque brachytherapy for medium-sized uveal melanoma. Variations in prescription dose point and dose rate were compared with Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) Group. A retrospective review was performed for 116 patients treated with iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy. About 85 Gy was prescribed to either the tumor apex (108 patients) or at 5 mm (8 patients) with dose rate ranging from 50.6 to 98.2 cGy/h. Patients were followed up for local tumor control, eye preservation, and vision retention. Dose and dose rate to tumor and sensitive structures were calculated. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed to investigate correlation between clinical outcomes and dose/dose rate variables. Patients in this study were slightly older with worse visual acuity at baseline, but tumor size and position and ratio of ciliary body involvement were comparable to COMS population. Outcomes data were comparable to COMS: 95.3% local tumor control at 5 years and 77.7% vision preservation at 3 years. Only 4 patients needed enucleation because of tumor growth. Significant correlation was found between enucleation and tumor height and maximal scleral dose/dose rate as well as vision retention and tumor height and macula dose/dose rate. For tumors with <5 mm height, prescribing to tumor apex enabled to decrease dose to all sensitive structures without any loss of local control. Although dose rate was lowered to 50.6 cGy/h from the American Brachytherapy Society guidelines (60-105 cGy/h) because of limited availability of operating room (i.e., weekly), there was no difference in either local tumor control or complications. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term Results of the UCSF-LBNL Randomized Trial: Charged Particle With Helium Ion Versus Iodine-125 Plaque Therapy for Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: Kavita.mishra@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Quivey, Jeanne M.; Daftari, Inder K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cole, Tia B. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Patel, Kishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Char, Devron H. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Relevant clinical data are needed given the increasing national interest in charged particle radiation therapy (CPT) programs. Here we report long-term outcomes from the only randomized, stratified trial comparing CPT with iodine-125 plaque therapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Methods and Materials: From 1985 to 1991, 184 patients met eligibility criteria and were randomized to receive particle (86 patients) or plaque therapy (98 patients). Patients were stratified by tumor diameter, thickness, distance to disc/fovea, anterior extension, and visual acuity. Tumors close to the optic disc were included. Local tumor control, as well as eye preservation, metastases due to melanoma, and survival were evaluated. Results: Median follow-up times for particle and plaque arm patients were 14.6 years and 12.3 years, respectively (P=.22), and for those alive at last follow-up, 18.5 and 16.5 years, respectively (P=.81). Local control (LC) for particle versus plaque treatment was 100% versus 84% at 5 years, and 98% versus 79% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.0006). If patients with tumors close to the disc (<2 mm) were excluded, CPT still resulted in significantly improved LC: 100% versus 90% at 5 years and 98% versus 86% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.048). Enucleation rate was lower after CPT: 11% versus 22% at 5 years and 17% versus 37% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.01). Using Cox regression model, likelihood ratio test, treatment was the most important predictor of LC (P=.0002) and eye preservation (P=.01). CPT was a significant predictor of prolonged disease-free survival (log rank: P=.001). Conclusions: Particle therapy resulted in significantly improved local control, eye preservation, and disease-free survival as confirmed by long-term outcomes from the only randomized study available to date comparing radiation modalities in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma.

  19. Tratamento conservador ocular dos melanomas de coróide com braquiterapia utilizando placas de iodo-125 Conservative treatment of choroidal melanomas using iodine brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cássio Assis Pellizzon

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, retrospectivamente, o resultado do tratamento conservador do melanoma de coróide, por meio de braquiterapia, usando placas episclerais de iodo-125 (modelo 6711, Amershan. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 49 pacientes portadores de melanoma de coróide tratados no Hospital do Câncer, São Paulo, SP, de março de 2001 a janeiro de 2003. Os seguintes parâmetros foram analisados e correlacionados ao controle local e sobrevida: sexo, idade, dimensões da lesão, tempo de tratamento e doses no ápice e base das lesões. RESULTADOS: Com diâmetro máximo da base do tumor de 17 mm e altura máxima de 12 mm, observamos que as doses na base do tumor variaram de 213 a 463 Gy (mediana de 347 Gy e no ápice, de 51 a 250 Gy (mediana de 91 Gy. As taxas de preservação ocular, sobrevida livre de doença e conservação ocular, atuariais em dois anos, foram de 96%, 93,5% e 96,3%, respectivamente. Através de análise univariada, o único fator prognóstico para controle local nesta análise foi a altura do tumor menor que 6 mm (p = 0,0348. CONCLUSÃO: A braquiterapia levou a uma taxa bastante satisfatória de controle local, confirmando que a altura do tumor é um dos fatores prognósticos importantes desse parâmetro.OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the results of conservative therapy using episcleral iodine-125 (model 6711, Amershan plaque for brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 49 patients with choroidal melanoma treated at "Hospital do Câncer", São Paulo, Brazil, from March 2001 to January 2003. The following clinical parameters were analyzed and correlated with local control and survival rate: gender, age, lesion dimension, treatment duration, as well as doses in apex and base of the tumors. RESULTS: The maximum diameter and height of the base of the tumors treated were 17 mm and 12 mm, respectively. Doses at those points ranged from 213 to 463 Gy (median: 347 Gy and 51 to 250 Gy

  20. Binding and uptake of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of {alpha}-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5`-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate-glutamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik; Schneider, W. [Steigerwald Arzneimittel, Darmstadt (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants {alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5`-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called `scavenger receptor` is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>{alpha}-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  1. Binding and uptake of 125iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of α-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmer, D.; Elstner, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of 125 iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants α-tocopherol (α-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called 'scavenger receptor' is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>α-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  2. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  3. Use of iodine-125 brachytherapy in treatment of choroidal melanomas, technic and preliminary analysis of 78 patients; Traitement conservateur des melanomes choroidiens par curietherapie par l'iode 125, technique et analyse preliminaire d'une serie de 78 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quetin, P.; Schumacher, C.; Schraub, S. [Centre Paul-Strauss, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Meyer, L.; Polto, F.; Sahel, J. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Clinique Ophtalmologique, 67 (France); Magnenet, P. [Centre Paul-Strauss, Dept. de Radiophysique, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Andres, E. [Hopital de Hautepierre, Medecine Interne, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2001-12-01

    Purpose. - Iodine 125 curietherapy is one of the conservative treatments of uveal melanoma. The technique used to achieve these results was simplified through the physical characteristics of the radioelement and the optimized-dosimetry program employed. Patients and methods. - 78 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine 125. About 100 Gy were delivered to the superior pole of the tumour. The minimal length of follow-up was 17 months and the average, 67 months. Results. -There was 88% local control, leading to lowered visual acuity in 76 % of the cases. Radiation retinopathy, directly related to proximity to the macula, is the principle etiology. Seven patients died of hepatic metastasis, five patients were enucleated. Four patients were further treated with proton-therapy to make up for non-control locally. Conclusion. -One dose of 100 Gy to the superior pole of the tumor seemed to lead to good local control, with the exception of complications related to proximity to the macula and the optic nerve. In this attempt to optimize irradiation, the time lapse between any benefit in local control derived from irradiation and post-therapeutic complications observed remains insufficient to evaluate any relationship. (authors)

  4. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  5. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  6. Focal salvage iodine-125 brachytherapy for prostate cancer recurrences after primary radiotherapy: A retrospective study regarding toxicity, biochemical outcome and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Max; Maenhout, Metha; Voort van Zyp, Jochem R.N. van der; Moerland, Marinus A.; Moman, Maaike R.; Steuten, Lotte M.G.; Deursen, Marijke J.H. van; Vulpen, Marco van

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-gland salvage for recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) shows high failure and toxicity rates. Early and adequate localization of recurrences enables focal salvage, thereby potentially improving functional outcomes, while maintaining cancer control. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis yielded 20 focal salvage I125 brachytherapy patients for locally recurrent PCa after primary radiotherapy. Tumor was defined by multiparametric MRI and correspondence with transrectal biopsies. Dose data were obtained intra-operatively. The tumor was prescribed ⩾144 Gy. Toxicity was scored by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 (CTCAE-4). Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using the Phoenix criteria (PSA-nadir + 2.0 ng/ml). Quality of life (QoL) was measured by SF-36 Health Survey and European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) C30+3 and PR25 questionnaires. Results: With a median follow-up of 36 months (range 10–45), six patients experienced BF, of which three had no initial response. Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurred in one patient (a urethral stricture). The five previously potent patients retained erectile function. QoL remained decreased with regard to urinary symptoms. Conclusion: Focal salvage I125 brachytherapy showed one grade 3 GU toxicity in the 20 treated patients. Biochemical response and QoL were acceptable

  7. Iodine 125 prostate brachytherapy: prognostic factors for long-term urinary, digestive and sexual toxicities;Curietherapie de prostate par iode 125: facteurs pronostiques de longue duree de toxicite urinaire, digestive et sexuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyen, J.; Mohammed Ali, A.; Ginot, A.; Ferre, M.; Castelli, J.; Hannoun-Levi, J.M. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Dept. de Radiotherapie Oncologique, 06 - Nice (France); Chamorey, E. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Unite de Statistiques Medicales, 06 - Nice (France); Mohammed Ali, A. [Faculte de Medecine, SOHAG (Egypt); Quintens, H.; Amiel, J. [CHU Pasteur, Service d' Urologie, 06 - Nice (France)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose For patients with good urinary function and presenting with a low risk prostate cancer, prostate brachytherapy using iodine implants represents one of the techniques of reference. This retrospective analysis investigates urinary (U), digestive (D) and sexual (S) toxicities and their prognostic factors of duration. Material and methods From August 2000 to November 2007, 176 patients presenting with prostate adenocarcinoma underwent interstitial brachytherapy. Urinary, digestive and sexual toxicities were classified according to Common toxicities criteria for adverse events, version 3.0 (C.T.C.A.E. V 3.0). For each toxicity (U, D, S), the number of complications U (dysuria, nicturia), D (proctitis, diarrhea) and S (sexual dysfunction, loss of libido) was listed and analyzed according to criteria related to the patient, implant, dosimetric data and characteristics of the toxicity. Prognostic factors identified in univariate analysis (U.V.A.) (Log Rank) were further analyzed in multivariate analysis (M.V.A.) (Cox model). Results With a median follow-up of 26 months (1-87), 147 patients (83.5 %) presented urinary toxicities. Among them, 29.5 % (86 patients) and 2.4 % (seven patients) presented grade 2 and 3 U toxicity respectively. In U.V.A., urinary grade toxicity greater than or equal to 2 (p = 0.037), the presence of initial U symptoms (p = 0.027) and more than two urinary toxicities (p 0.00032) were recognized as prognostic factors. The number of U toxicities was the only prognostic factor in M.V.A. (p = 0.04). D toxicity accounted for 40.6 % (71 patients). Among them, 3 % (six patients) were grade 2. None were grade 3. Two factors were identified as prognostic factors either in U.V.A. and M.V.A.: the number of D toxicities greater than or equal to 2 (univariate analysis: p = 0,00129, multivariate analysis: p = 0,002) and age less than or equal to 65 years (univariate analysis: p = 0,004, multivariate analysis: p 0,007). Eighty-three patients (47

  8. A phase II study of intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy with iodine-131-labeled monoclonal antibody OC-125 in patients with residual ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, M A; Fumoleau, P; Fabbro, M; Guastalla, J P; Faurous, P; Chauvot, P; Chetanoud, L; Classe, J M; Rouanet, P; Chatal, J F

    1999-10-01

    Standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Additional therapies using the i.p. route are considered as a potential means of improving the locoregional control rate. This Phase II study evaluated the efficacy of i.p. radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in patients with minimal residual ovarian adenocarcinoma after primary treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Between February 1995 and March 1996, six patients with residual macroscopic (<5 mm) or microscopic disease as demonstrated by laparotomy and multiple biopsies received i.p. RIT. All had initial stage III epithelial carcinoma and were treated with debulking surgery and one line (four patients) or two lines (two patients) of chemotherapy. RIT was performed with 60 mg of OC 125 F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody labeled with 4.44 GBq (120 mCi) of 131I injected 5-10 days after the surgical procedure. Systematic laparoscopy or laparotomy with multiple biopsies performed 3 months after RIT in five patients (clinical progression was seen in one patient) showed no change in three patients and progression in two patients. Toxicity was mainly hematological, with grade III neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in two patients. Human antimouse antibody production was demonstrated in all six patients. This study showed little therapeutic benefit from i.p. RIT in patients with residual ovarian carcinoma.

  9. 3D MR-Spectroscopic Imaging Assessment of Metabolic Activity in the Prostate During the PSA 'Bounce' Following 125Iodine Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, Anna; Damyanovich, Andrei; Crook, Juanita; Jezioranski, John; Wallace, Kris; Pintilie, Melania

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A temporary increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values is observed in 30%-40% of men following 125 I brachytherapy (BT) for prostate cancer. We present the results of a study to characterize prostate metabolic activity during the PSA 'bounce' and to correlate metabolic changes with PSA levels using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-MRSI). Methods and Materials: 3D-MRSI was performed in 24 patients during the PSA bounce. Eight of these had also had a baseline 3D-MRSI scan before BT for the purpose of tumor mapping. The 3D-MRSI was repeated at 6- and 12-month intervals, and PSA levels were monitored every 3 months. Twenty-one of the patients had favorable-risk prostate cancer, and 3 had intermediate risk. Results: The choline+creatine signal intensity, although markedly reduced, was observable following BT. Diffuse activity not corresponding to original biopsy-positive sites was observed in 22 cases, and 2 cases were documented to have local recurrence. No statistically significant correlation between metabolic activity and PSA levels at each interval was found. Conclusion: Post-BT prostate 3D-MRSI shows evidence of diffuse metabolic activity unrelated to residual malignancy. This supports the benign nature of the PSA bounce and suggests an inflammatory etiology. In the situation of a rising PSA, observation of focal activity on MRI/3D-MRSI could be a useful adjunct to suggest local recurrence at an earlier interval after brachytherapy when prostate biopsies would still be unhelpful. Longer follow-up is necessary to confirm the complex relationship between metabolic activity and PSA levels.

  10. Iodine 125 seed migration after prostate brachytherapy: a study of 170 patients; Migration des grains d'iode 125 apres curietherapie prostatique: etude d'une serie de 170 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauveinc, L.; Osseili, A.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Flam, T. [Hopital Cochin, Service d' Urologie, 75 - Paris (France); Thiounn, N. [Hopital Necker, Service d' Urologie, 75 - Paris (France); Savignoni, A. [Institut Curie, Service de Statistiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-08-01

    Purpose. To study the number of migrating seeds, the anatomical site of migration and possible predictive parameters of migration, after prostate cancer brachytherapy using a loose-seed (I125) implantation technique. Patients and methods. The charts of the 170 patients consecutively treated by the Institut Curie/Hospital Cochin/Hospital Necker Group between September 1, 2001 and August 31, 2002, were analysed. All seeds having migrated to the lungs and seen on the chest X-ray systematically performed at 2 months, have been recorded, as well as the seeds lost by the urines (after sieving) or in the sperm (condom). Results. Among 12,179 implanted seeds, 44 were found to have migrated (0.36%). Most of the migrating seeds (32/44; 73%), were found in the lungs. Overall, one or several seed migrations were observed in 35 patients (21% of the total number of patients in this series). In the majority of cases (77

  11. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  12. Relationship between two year PSA nadir and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy; A relacao entre PSA nadir de dois anos e recidiva bioquimica no tratamento do cancer de prostata com braquiterapia de semente de iodo-125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Carlos Antonio da Silva; Vieira, Sergio Lannes; Penna, Antonio Belmiro Rodrigues Campbell, E-mail: carlosfranca@cremerj.org.br [Instituto Brasileiro de Oncologia (IBO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Radioterapia Botafogo, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Bernabe, Antonio Jose Serrano [Radioterapia Botafogo, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the relationship between two year PSA nadir (PSAn) after brachytherapy and biochemical recurrence rates in prostate cancer patients. Materials and methods: In the period from January 1998 to August 2007, 120 patients were treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy alone. The results analysis was based on the definition of biochemical recurrence according to the Phoenix Consensus. Results: biochemical control was observed in 86 patients (71.7%), and biochemical recurrence, in 34 (28.3%). Mean PSAn was 0.53 ng/ml. The mean follow-up was 98 months. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1, with two year PSAn < 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (74 patients; 61.7%), and group 2, with two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (46 patients; 38.3%). Group 1 presented biochemical recurrence in 15 patients (20.3%), and group 2, in 19 patients (43.2%) (p < 0.02). The analysis of biochemical disease-free survival at seven years, stratified by the two groups, showed values of 80% and 64% (p < 0.02), respectively. Conclusion: levels of two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy are strongly correlated with a poor prognosis. This fact may help to identify patients at risk for disease recurrence. (author)

  13. Characterization and storage of liquid wastes containing {sup 125}Iodine in the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources - IPEN; Caracterização e armazenamento de rejeitos líquidos contendo Iodo-125 no Laboratório de Produção de fontes para braquiterapia - IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Vitória S.; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M., E-mail: vitoria.carvalho@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radioactive sources of Iodine-125 for medical applications have been developed at the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) to meet the growing demand for medical applications such as brachytherapy. A dedicated laboratory is already being implemented at IPEN. Part of the processes involved in the production of sealed sources generate radioactive wastes that despite the short half-life (<100 days) have radioactive activity above the levels of exemption established by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Therefore, these wastes should receive appropriate treatment and storage until they reach the levels of release into the environment. This work aims to determine the volumes of the liquid wastes generated during the production stages of the sources, as well as to propose a temporary storage system for such wastes. The applied methodology consisted in determining the volumes of wastes generated in each production cell according to the manufacturing steps. After that, activities and activity concentrations were calculated for each container used for temporary storage inside the production laboratory. The total volume stored for one year in the temporary storage, as well as the rate of entry and exit of the liquid wastes were calculated according to the source production demand and the decay time of the radionuclide, respectively. The main results showed that the time required to reach sanitary sewage disposal values is within the period of operation of the facility. The total volume generated is also within the facility's temporary storage capacity.

  14. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid problems, such as nodules, hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease. Administration of large amounts of iodine through medications ( ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  15. Influencing factors on iodine content of cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Franke, Katrin; Meyer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Schöne, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and it is incorporated into the thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which have multiple functions in energy metabolism and growth, but also as transmitter of nervous stimuli and as an important factor for brain development. Because of the small range between iodine requirements and the upper level for humans (between 1:2.5 and 3), the requirements should be met, but excesses should be avoided. One of the most important iodine sources for humans is milk of ruminants. Therefore, various influencing factors on the iodine content of milk of ruminants should be analyzed in the paper. The iodine content of milk depends on many factors, such as iodine content and level of iodine supplementation of feed, iodine source, iodine antagonists such as glucosinolates in the feed, farm management, teat dipping with iodine-containing substances, and milk processing in the dairy. The effects of some factors on the iodine content of milk are demonstrated and discussed. Feed iodine supplementation has the main effect on milk iodine. However, the iodine content of milk may vary considerably depending on many other influencing factors. As a consequence of preventive consumer protection, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a reduction in the iodine upper level for lactating ruminants from 5 to 2 mg/kg complete feed.

  16. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  17. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (U.S.)

  18. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (auth)

  19. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  20. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  1. Iodine-123 program at the TRIUMF laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program for the production and utilization of iodine-123 is described. From 1979 to 1982 the spallation of elemental cesium by 500-MeV protons was used to provide 100 mCi/hr at the end of bombardment (EOB). Contaminants were 3% iodine-125 and 0.15% tellurium-121 at EOB + 36 hr. The material from weekly runs was used by remote clinics in Canada for evaluation as a radiochemical and for labeling studies. A new facility at TRIUMF will be operational in 1983 to produce iodine-123 by the (p,5n) reaction

  2. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Yarrington; Elizabeth N. Pearce

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  3. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Iodine labelled pyrethroids, their chemical preparation and their application to radioimmunoassays. Pyrethrinoides marques a l'iode, leur procede de preparation et leur application aux dosages radioimmunologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoute, J.P.; Touer, G.; Mouren, M.

    1987-07-31

    This invention deals with iodine 125 or iodine 131 labelled pyrethroids, their chemical preparations and their application to radioimmunoassay for the determination of pyrethroids (deltamethrin) in human, or animal body fluids.

  5. Tumour localization and pharmacokinetics of iodine-125 human monoclonal IgM antibody (COU-1) and its monomeric and half-monomeric fragments analysed in nude mice grafted with human tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditzel, H.; Erb, K.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Jensenius, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Human monoclonal IgM antibodies reactive with cancer-associated antigens may not have the optimal imaging capability due to their large size. Fragmentation of human IgM is less than straight-forward due to the loss of immunoreactivity. From the human monoclonal IgM antibody COU-1 we have prepared monomeric and half-monomeric fragments, which retain the ability to bind to colon cancer cells in vitro. The pharmacokinetics and tumour localization were evaluated in nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma and human melanoma grafts. Faster clearance from the circulation was seen for the smaller half-monomeric fragment with a half-life (rapid phase/slow phase) of 2 h/16 h compared with the intact antibody, 4 h/25 h, and the monomeric fragment, 3 h/27 h. Intact COU-1 as well as the fragments accumulated in the colon tumour graft. Higher amounts of radioactivity were found in the colon tumour as compared to normal organs for intact COU-1 at days 4 and 6, for the monomeric fragment at day 4, and for the half-monomeric fragment at day 2 after injection. This investigation demonstrates the favourable biodistribution of the half monomeric COU-1 fragment. The fast clearance of this fragment resulted in a tumour-to-muscle ratio as high as 22 on day 2 after injection. Also, only this fragment gave a positive tumour-to-blood ratio. Normal IgM and its fragments were used as controls. Radioimmunoscintigraphy demonstrated the colon tumour discriminatory properties of each of the three iodine-labelled antibody preparations. The results compare favourably with previously reported investigations of the localization of human monoclonal antibodies and suggest that fragments of human monoclonal IgM antibodies may be useful tools for the immunodetection of cancer in patients. (orig.)

  6. Stability in time of iodinated tracers for Testosterone, Progesterone and cortisol radiommunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisembaum Alas, A.T.; Machado Curbelo, A.J.; Diaz Castro, D.; Chape Puertas, A.; Santander Lopez, A.M.; Cabrera Oliva, V.

    1996-01-01

    Stability in time of three iodihistamine derivates for steroid hormone radioimmunoassays (RIAs): Testosterone-3, Carboximetilxomine-histamine- 125I , Progesterone-11 Hemisuccinate-histamine- 125I and Cortisol-21 Hemisuccinate histamine- 125I produced in the National Institute of Endocrinology, Havana, Cuba was tested. Iodinated tracers were prepared according to Nars and Hunters's method, modifying in the purifying

  7. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  8. Iodine deficiency disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.)

  9. Preparation of 125I labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Beiki, D.; Matlubi, M.; Jalilian, A.R.; Motamedi, F.; Karimian, A.R.; Najafi, R.; Babaei, M.; Kamali Dehghan, M.; Shah-Hossaini, G.R.; Shafahi, S.K.; Keshavarzi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Iodinated compounds with 131 I, 125 I and 123 I have been widely used for biochemical function studies. In conjunction with SPECT, [ 123 I] labelled proteins have various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. In this study, synthesis and quality control of [ 18 F]radiofluorinated and radioiodinated of some proteins and peptides as well as their biological behaviors are considered to be investigated. (author)

  10. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  11. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  12. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  13. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  14. Results of the in vivo application of /sup 125/I-labelled Pasteurella multocida antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flossmann, K.D.; Heilmann, P.; Mueller, G. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Jena. Inst. fuer Bakterielle Tierseuchenforschung)

    1981-09-01

    In in vivo experiments iodine was separated rapidly from /sup 125/I-labelled Pasteurella multocida germs. By means of direct radioactivity measurement as well as by autoradiography could be demonstrated that the iodine was enriched in the thyroid following application of labelled antigen to mice.

  15. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  16. Semiquantitative test for iodine vapor above "complexed" iodine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, M; Kleinmann, K

    1975-04-01

    A test to determine the extent to which free iodine exists in the vapor phase above the surface of "complexed iodine" solutions is described. The procedure is based on the qualitative starch-iodine test. The results can be related to the degree of complexation occurring between the polymer used in the preparation and iodine. Four products were tested: nonylphenoxypoly ethanol-iodine complex; polyvinyl pyrrolidine-iodine complex; popoxamer-iodine complex; and nonylphenoxypoly ethanol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine complex. Free iodine in the vapor phase of the first product was detected in 90 minutes; the time for the other three was five days. For the tincture of iodine control, the time was 30 minutes.

  17. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  18. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  19. Labelling of olive oil with radioactive iodine and radioactive technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dayel, O.A.F.

    1988-03-01

    Investigates labelling of olive oil with 125 iodine and with the radioactive 99mTC. A radio analytical study for 99Mo-99mTC generator is also presented. Iodine monochloride and chlormine-T methods are used for labelling olive oil and oleic acid with radioactive iodine. Diethyl ether, benzene and n-heptane have been used as solvents, with diethyl ether giving best results using iodine monochloride method. Infrared spectroscopic studies show that labelling took place at the double bond. Use of milked 99mTc gave very low yield only. A fairly higher labelling yield was achieved when 20 mg of tin chloride has been added in acetone medium than diethyl ether medium. Thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography technique were used as quality control systems. The labelled oil can be used for diagnostic and study purposes. 140 Ref

  20. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  1. Iodine nutrition among indigenous Tarahumara schoolchildren in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monárrez-Espino, J; Greiner, T

    2005-10-01

    This paper adds iodine data to the nutritional survey recently published in the Eur J Clin Nutr (2004;58:532-540) to identify growth retardation and micronutrient deficiencies among Tarahumara children from five selected indigenous boarding schools in Mexico. Total goiter rate (TGR) (n=384), urinary iodine concentrations (UI) (n = 100), and iodine content of salt were measured. Overall, TGR was 7.0% (grade 1 = 6.8%, grade 2 = 0.2%). The median UI of the group was 125 microg/l, while the median UI across the schools ranged from 92.0-156.5 microg/l, with 32 and 6% of the children having UI between 50-99 microg/l and 20-49 microg/l, respectively. The iodine content in all the salt packages checked at the schools was above 25 parts per million. Based on TGR and UI, there is a marginal iodine deficiency in this sample of children, probably due to an insufficient iodine intake. These results add to existing evidence that iodine deficiency still constitutes a public health problem in certain populations living in the mountainous regions in Mexico.

  2. Iodine-125 brachytherapy for prostate cancer: first published Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, David J.; Woo, Tony C.S.; Haworth, Annette

    2004-01-01

    With the emergence of new imaging and implant'techniques, prostate brachytherapy has become increasingly popular over the last decade. Brachytherapy promises to deliver twice the biologically effective dose as conventional external beam treatments without increasing the dose to tissues surrounding the prostate. However, there are few or no published Australian series of its efficacy in the clinic. We present the experience of one of the first centres in Australia to offer this service to its patients: a series from Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Western Australia. We present data on the efficacy of brachytherapy in maintaining prostate specific antigen levels, as well as the rate of urinary, rectal and sexual complications. Our results compare favourably with other brachytherapy and external beam treatment series. We believe that with the increasing trend towards dose escalation and novel therapies, standardized measurements of success and failure need to be better defined, and that randomized trials comparing modalities are needed to improve the management of prostate cancer Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  3. Production of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses and compares various ways of Iodine-123 production using different targets such as 124 Xe, 122 Te, 123 Te, 124 Te and others. Requirements to targets and their design are discussed as well as nuclear reactions that lead to 123 I. Separation of the Iodine radioisotope is briefly presented along with comparison of the pathways in terms of the isotopic purity of target 123 I

  4. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  5. Body iodine status in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanca, Tufan; Korkmaz, Vakkas; Arslanca, Seyma B; Karadag, Burak; Ergün, Yusuf

    2018-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a frequent cause of morbidity and can negatively impact life expectancy; iodine is an essential element for bone mineralization, and iodine deficiency is frequently observed. The aim of the present study was to understand the connection between postmenopausal osteoporosis and the level of iodine in the body. A total of 132 participants were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 34), group 2 comprised osteopenic women (n = 38), and group 3 included women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (n = 60). The three groups were compared according to demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings. The urinary iodine levels were recorded as 216.1 ± 125.2 in the control group, 154.6 ± 76.6 in the osteopenic group, and 137.5 ± 64.9 in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (P < 0.001). These differences were maintained after adjustment for body mass index (P < 0.001). The urinary iodine level accurately correlated with the total T-score for the lumbar spine (r = 0.236, P = 0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that corrected for body mass index, alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme, and urinary deoxypyridinoline, the urinary iodine level was significantly associated with total T-score (beta coefficient = 0.270, P = 0.006). The urinary iodine level was significantly lower in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and iodine replacement may be important in preventing osteoporosis in areas where iodine deficiency is endemic.

  6. Iodination-deiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherberg, N.; Refetoff, S.

    1977-01-01

    Bound iodine is released from radioiodinated nucleotides in polymers exposed to sodium bisulfite. The rate of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of pyrimidines can be controlled both by change of temperature or pH and is also dependent on the molecular association of the nucleotide. The rate of release of iodine from iodocytidine in polycytidylate is greater than the rate of elimination from RNA. Experiments testing the influence of base-pairing of the iodopyrimidines in synthetic polynucleotides showed that pairing of the substituted nucleotide protected the iodine bond. The rates of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of several radioiodinated RNAs were measured. The action of bisulfite on all single-stranded RNAs tested was multiphasic consisting of a rapid early deiodination reaction supplanted by a slower phase which was followed by reacceleration of release. The release of iodine from double-stranded RNA and DNA-RNA duplexes was retarded in comparison with the release from ribosomal and messenger RNA fractions. The deiodination profiles of single- and double-stranded RNA suggested that in the intermediate stage iodine release is governed by melting of paired zones of low stability. Late release may result from destabilization of the molecule through the addition of bisulfite to the pyrimidine ring or deamination. The effect of several substances expected to complex with polynucleotides was tested. The results show that a change in sensitivity to chemical deiodination may follow the interaction of small amounts of protein with polynucleotides

  7. Studies in iodine metabolism: Progress report, July 1968-July 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research on iodine metabolism conducted at the University of Tennessee, Memphis between July 1968 and July 1969. The author and his research team prepared autoradiographs of rat thyroids from individuals exposed to Iodine 125 in utero. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effect on hypothalamic lesions on iodide metabolism in rats; to evaluate an iodide-specific electrode for measuring iodide levels in blood or urine; and to study the amount of thyroxine absorption from the intestine. An analysis of bovine and sheep thyroids from eight locations provided additional information on global fallout levels. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Haywood, S.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for iodine-125,129,131,132,133,134,135 in selected materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for iodine radionuclides in water, soil, grass, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for iodine radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  9. CA-125 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovarian cancer - CA-125 test ... CA-125 is a protein that is found more in ovarian cancer cells than in other cells. This ... ovarian cancer . The test is useful if the CA-125 level was high when the cancer was first ...

  10. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  11. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  12. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Andrea B.; Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  13. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  14. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  15. The speciation of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The speciation of iodine in the environment is discussed under the following topics: (i) sea surface to atmosphere, (ii) chemistry in bulk seawater, (iii) iodine in rocks, (iv) iodine in soils, (v) iodine in plants and (vi) iodine in solidified wastes. (author)

  16. Labelling Auflatoxine-B{sub 1} by Radioactive Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Sun; Park, Kyung Bae; Sung, Kyung Ho; Ryu, Yong Wun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-03-15

    Labelling auflatoxines, the potential carcinogenic compounds, by radioactive iodine has been studied. The aufiatoxine-B1, which is known to be the most abundant components of auflatoxines in the nature, was labelled by radioactive iodine-125 through an acid catalyst chloroamine-T procedure. The radiochemical yield was amounted to 63.6%. The chemical structure of the labelled product was proved to be 6-iodo 5-methoxy coumarine structure of auflatoxine-B1 molecule by means of I.R. and N.M.R. spectroscopy. The labelled product was orally administered in a test animal (Rat) and examined the accumulation of radioactivity in the body at the definite time interval. The accumulation of the radioactivity was pronounced at the blood and the liver. There was no indication of the decomposition of auflatcxine-B{sub 1}-{sup 125}I in the organs of the test animal.

  17. Preparation of directly iodinated steroid hormones and related directly halogenated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahadevan, V.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of directly iodinated radioactive steroid hormones is described for use in radioimmunoassays or radiolocalization and treatment of human breast tumours. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by reacting a parent steroid hormone with an alkali metal iodide containing radioactive 123 I, 125 I, 130 I or 131 I in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or chloramine-T. The parent steroid hormones include the adrenal corticosteroids, the estrogens, the progestogens, the progestins and the diuretic and antidiuretic agents. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by iodinating the parent steroid hormone directly on the cyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormones have the same antigenicity and receptor site specificity as the parent steroid hormone. The invention is illustrated by 1) the method of iodination of estradiol-17β, 2) results for the percentage labelling of several steroids and steroid hormones, 3) results for the radioimmunoassay of 125 I-estradiol and 4) results for the binding of directly iodinated estradiol-17β in an estrogen receptor assay of human breast cancer. (U.K.)

  18. Atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program.

  19. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  20. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  1. Changes in the secondary structure of proteins labeled with 125I. CD spectroscopy and enzymatic activity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, Y.M.; Wierczinski, B.; Haemers, S.; Well, A.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ) were radiolabeled with 125 I. Three different methods for protein iodination with 125 I were optimized. Parameters like incubation time and ratio of oxidizing agent and amount of protein were established. During protein iodination with 125 I, structural damages caused by the introduction of iodine into the protein may occur. These damages depend on the oxidizing agent used and may lead to considerable changes in the protein structure and, hence, their biological activity. Changes in secondary structure of LSZ and BSA were examined by circular dichroism (CD). Enzymatic activity tests were performed with lysozyme to check its biological activity. The Iodo Bead was found the best oxidizing agent for protein iodination. (author)

  2. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  3. Consumption of 125I labelled fibrinogen in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, B.; Camargo, E.E.; Reis, J.M.M. dos; Carvalho, N.; Leao, L.E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism of iodine- 125 labeled human fibrinogen is studied by using three different sets of the radiopharmaceutical (0.9, 1.3 and 1.84 iodine atoms/fibrinogen molecule ratios) in 19 normal subjects. An aliquot of 40 μCi of fibrinogem- 125 I is injected in each subject, on normal dietary conditions and blood samples are withdrawn at 30, 60, 180, 36 and 720 minutes after the injection and, thereafter, one daily sample during 10 days. The compartmental distribution of the tracer is defined by plotting plasma and serum sample counts on a semilogarithmic graph paper. A rapid phase and 3 compartments are obtained. A 'rapid' consumption half-life and a 'real' consumption half-life are defined. The fibrinogen clottability is followed up to the last blood sample by checking the ratios of serum and plasma radioactivities [pt

  4. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  5. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  6. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  7. Production of I-125 radioisotope in sodium iodide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabardi, B.; Gourani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Application: The Radioisotope Iodine-125 has rather long half-life, and high dose range of Gamma radiation. It will be used in two cases,in our radioisotope production department: 1-To label Radioimmunoassay Kits (RIA): T3, T4 and TSH for IN V ITRO investigation of Thyroid glands, in our Nuclear Medical Center in IRAN. We just started to set up Hot cell facilities and in cell equipment to supply Iodine-125 for our Radioimmunoassay Group.In this section. The above Iodine-125 will be used for labelling of their Radioimmunoassay products for Thyroid functions and also for screening of newborns for Thyroid deficiency. 2-We have also just start, the make and supply particular granules of Iodine-125 by Silver coated Iodine-125 directly and also indirectly, on the Palladium, coated Silver Wire to be used in Brachytherapy applications. Production: After filling Target with 15 g of natural Xe gas by excellent technology and closed in leak-tight allowing reactor irradiation. The target is irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 3 weeks optimally at a thermal neutron flux around Φ= 1*10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 .After transferring irradiated target to hot cell, The aluminium capsule is opened by putting it into the punching apparatus and pushing the needle into the bottom of the aluminium capsule by turning the handle counter-clockwise. When the needle punches the aluminium. The Xe gas is released into the chimney and the I-125 radioisotope is adsorbed on the inside wall of the aluminium capsule. After this the opened aluminium capsule is pulled off from the needle by turning the handle clockwise. The opened capsule is ready to distillation. Preparation of the distillation oven and equipment: on the first occasion the oven should be heated two-times up to 550 o C for two hours each to eliminate potential contamination. After it the radioactive aluminium capsule is put into the oven and vacuum is started. This is followed by switching on the heating. The distillation is followed through

  8. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  9. Modelling the chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have assembled a kinetic model, based on elementary chemical reactions, that describes the chemical behaviour of iodine in aqueous solution as a function of time and various parameters such as pH, concentration and radiation field. The model is conceptually divided into six section: aqueous iodine chemistry, aqueous organic iodide chemistry, water radiolysis, radiolysis of iodine solutions, radiolysis of organic iodide solutions and mass transfer. The model indicates that, in the absence of a radiation field, the rate of production of volatile iodine species is controlled by the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion. The volatile iodine species are dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. The single most important parameter controlling iodine volatility is the pH of the solution; high pH values tend to minimize iodine volatility. In the presence of a radiation field, the volatility of iodine is controlled by the radiation-induced oxidation of the iodide ion. Again, iodine volatility is dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. High pH values minimize iodine volatility. A sensitivity analysis has been performed on some sections of the model to identify reactions to which the volatility of iodine is most sensitive. In the absence of a radiation field, the volatility is most sensitive, first, to the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion, and, second, to the rate of mass transfer of volatile species between the aqueous and the gaseous phases. This approach should be useful in identifying reactions for which accurate rate constants are required and in decreasing the complexity of the model. 37 refs

  10. Comparative cost-effectiveness of focal and total salvage (125)I brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Max; Piena, Marjanne A; Steuten, Lotte M G; van der Voort van Zyp, Jochem R N; Moerland, Rien; van Vulpen, Marco

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Focal salvage (FS) iodine 125 ((125)I) brachytherapy could be an effective treatment for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Toxicity is often reduced compared to total salvage (TS) while cancer control can be maintained, which could increase cost-effectiveness. The current study

  11. A comparative study of 19-iodocholesterol-''125I 3-acetate and Na''125I in liquid scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J.M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of performance of 19-iodocholesterol-''125I 3-acetate and sodium iodine samples labelled with ''125 I is presented for liquid scintillation counting measurements. Quench effect, count rate stability and spectral evolution of samples have been followed for several weeks in Toluene, Hisafe II, Instagel, Dioxane-naphthalene and Toluene-alcohol scintillators. Organic samples have negligible quench effect in the interval of I''-concentration of 0-90 ug and inorganic samples only show a very small variation, lower than 12%, for Dioxane-naphthalene, in the same range of concentration. Satisfactory stability is obtained in general for both, organic and inorganic samples, but small counting losses, 0.03% for 19-iodocholesterol-''125I 3-acetate samples in Toluene-alcohol and 0.04% for Na''125I samples in Dioxane-naphthalene and Toluene-alcohol, have been reported. (Author) 8 refs

  12. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  13. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  14. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aceves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In addition to being a component of thyroid hormone (TH, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine.Methods and Results: Studies from our laboratory shown that in preclinical (cell culture, induced animal cancer and xenographs and clinical studies (mammary cancer protocol, molecular iodine (I2 supplementation exerts suppressive effects on implantation, development, and progression of cancer neoplasias. These effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine modulates the immune/tumor response and through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma (PPARγ triggering apoptotic and/or differentiation pathways.Conclusion: The absence of side effects and the easy availability and handling of I2 have allowed the establishment of clinical protocols to utilize I2 supplementation as an adjuvant in therapies against cancers that take up iodine.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Aceves C, Anguiano B. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:3401.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  15. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  16. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  17. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  18. Removal of active iodine/iodate from liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.P.; Kavanagh, P.R.; Turner, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of abnormally high levels of the radioactive isotope of iodine, 125 I, has been discovered in the thyroid glands taken from swans found on the Rivers Thames and Trent. The sources of activity have been traced to sewage outfalls into the rivers. It has been postulated that the 125 I enters the system from local hospitals and research establishments where radio-labelled proteins are produced. The chemical nature of the iodine depends upon the conditions to which it is exposed. The work described in this report has involved the development of two techniques, ultrafiltration and electrochemical ion exchange, for the removal of active iodine/iodate from aqueous wastes. The report also contains details relating to an electrochemical flow cell designed to convert iodate to iodide prior to ultrafiltration treatment. A comparison is then made between the two techniques. The initial target of decontamination factor of 10 has been exceeded by both methods. The consideration of solution pH and ion selectivity has resulted in the design and demonstration of a single CAEIX cell capable of attaining decontamination factors in excess of 33. The filtration technique requires a two stage precipitation using calcium ions to remove free phosphate and then silver ions to precipitate iodide. The rather high solids production of at least 10g/dm 3 of treated waste is, to an extent, offset by the high DF value obtained, 174. (Author)

  19. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  20. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Radiochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures

  2. Biomarker CA125

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kargo, Anette Stolberg

    be detected months before symptoms arise and recurrence is visible on imaging. Therefore, biochemical detection of potential relapse by CA125 assessment can cause significant distress. A decision aid (DA) is a tool that provides information and describes advantages and disadvantages of a specific intervention...... patient organisations and cancer societies. First, a focus group of seven former OC patients was performed followed by a quantitative rating of the DA pilot version. The DA was adapted accordingly and then tested in 14 OC patients with recurrence using a structured interview guide (alpha testing). A final...... agreed that the DA prepared them to make a better decision and helped them reflecting on their concerns regarding CA125. Conclusion: The DA was useful in decision making regarding monitoring CA125 during follow up after OC. The majority of participants indicated that the DA was helpful in clarifying...

  3. Use of [125I]-iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives as radioligands for radioimmunoassay of natural and synthetic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1981-01-01

    [ 125 I]-Iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives were prepared and utilized as radioligands in radioimmunoassays of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, estriol-16α-glucuronide, levonorgestrel, norethindrone and medroxyprogesterone acetate. The binding of these iodinated radioligands was compared to that of the corresponding tritiated steroids and their effect on the sensitivity and slope of standard curves was examined. The results demonstrate that much higher antibody dilutions could be used with iodinated than with tritiated radioligands. In general, standard curves obtained with iodinated radioligands were more sensitive than those obtained with tritiated steroids, but standard curves had steeper slopes when tritiated rather than iodinated radioligands were used. The data, summarizing our 5-year experience with steroid-[ 125 I]-iodohistamine derivatives, indicate that these tracers play an important role in radioimmunoassay systems for both natural and synthetic steroids. (author)

  4. The preparation of 125I labelled sodium polystyrene sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, I.; Higgo, J.J.W.; Williams, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    A radio-labelled polymeric colloid for use in field studies of colloidal migration was prepared. Sodium polystyrene p-sulphonate (PSSNa) with an average molecular weight of 500,000 Daltons was labelled with iodine 125. The report describes the preparation, purification and characterisation of this material. In order to use a standard technique for radio-iodination, by the iodinium ion, a very small number of phenolic groups had to be introduced into the polymer initially. This was done by a carefully controlled reaction with sodium hydroxide optimised so that a qualitative test for p-phenols gave a discernible positive result yet size exclusion chromatography indicated that no noticeable change in bulk properties of the PSSNa had occurred. The modified PSSNa was radio-iodinated and size exclusion chromatography was used to quantify the yield, activity and stability of the product. The radio-iodination of a bulk sample of the modified PSSNa was entrusted to Amersham who prepared a labelled product with an activity of 1.12 MBq per mg PSSNa. The mobility of this material was studied in the laboratory using spike injections onto columns of Drigg sand, sieved and unsieved, eluted with Drigg groundwater. The results indicated that transport of PSSNa in the field should give information on the structure of flow paths in the Drigg aquifer. (Author)

  5. Iodine laser program: SAIL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The iodine laser is the most highly developed near-infrared gas laser available for large-scale laser development. Its fast-repetition-rate potential and prospects for improvements in efficiency make it a primary laser candidate to meet mid-term laser-fusion requirements. It may have adequate efficiency for commercial laser-fusion applications in a hybrid fission/fusion reactor, for fusion-fuel breeding and for laser-fusion power generation using complex pellets. Research progress is reported on: (1) SAIL-1; (2) iodine laser-code development; (3) collision and radiation coupling for iodine atoms; (4) development of multilevel Block-Maxwell equations; (5) approximations for iodine amplifiers; and (6) studies based on the ISTAR code

  6. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  7. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  8. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution. PMID:7051944

  9. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  10. Effect of organic matter on 125I diffusion in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Wu; Qing Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Through-diffusion method was conducted to investigate the diffusion behavior of 125 I in bentonite in present of organic matter, such as polyaminopolycarboxylate EDTA, oxalic acid, hydrazine and humic acid HA. The effective diffusion coefficient D e value and rock capacity factor α were (2.32.6) × 10 -11 m 2 /s and 0.040-0.052, respectively. The small difference showed that iodine was preferentially associated with silicoaluminate mineral as an inorganic form. In present of HA, the D a value of 125 I was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of HA and humic substances HS. The D e and α derived from the experiments were used to simulate its diffusion in the designed bentonite obstacle of high-level radioactive waste repository and the results showed that 125 I can be transported from 30 to 50 cm thickness of bentonite to the far-field of repository in several years. (author)

  11. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W.

    1990-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant

  12. Iodine recovery from brine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weetall, H.H.; Hertl, W.

    1985-10-15

    Iodine has been produced by the reaction of iodide with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the catalyst ferrous sulfate. The presence of high concentrations of chloride or bromide in both natural and synthetic brines have no effect on the reaction specificity or kinetics. This approach is potentially a less caustic method for the recovery of iodine from brine as compared to the most commonly used chlorine displacement methods.

  13. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  14. Haldane at 125

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 5. Preface. Partha P. Majumder Vidyanand Nanjundiah Veena Rao. Haldane at 125 Volume 96 Issue 5 November 2017 pp 717-717. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/096/05/0717-0717. Abstract ...

  15. J. Genet. classic 125

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 125. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 126. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 127. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 128. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  16. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  17. Iodine filters in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1977-04-01

    On the basis of calculated and recorded release rates of nuclear power plants, the significance of iodine releases in the invironmental impact relative to other nuclides is discussed. The release pathways for iodine in LWR-type reactors and the efficiency of various methods to lower the activity release are given. The airborne species of iodine are discussed with regard to their removal in iodine sorption filters and environmental impact. The technical status of iodine removal by means of iodine sorption filters is studied for normal operation and accident conditions in nuclear power stations on the basis of the data given in the relevant literature for the efficiency of a number of iodine sorption materials. The applicability of concepts for ventilation and containment and their influence on iodine filter systems are discussed. Design, structure, and testing of iodine sorption filters are treated in detail; recommendations for design are given, and failure sources are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  18. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...

  19. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  20. Iodine concentrations in milk and in urine during breastfeeding are differently affected by maternal fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Møller, Margrethe; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Breastfed infants are dependent on iodine transport into breast milk for production of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are important regulators of brain development. It has been considered whether breast milk iodine concentration (MIC) could be predicted by maternal urinary iodine concentration (UIC), but reports on correlations have been inconsistent. We used urinary creatinine concentration as a proxy for maternal fluid intake and speculated if this might differently influence UIC and MIC. We examined 127 breastfeeding women after the introduction of the mandatory iodine fortification of salt in Denmark. Maternal spot urine and a breast milk sample were obtained at a median of 31 days after delivery (interquartile range: 25-42 days), and the women were asked about intake of iodine containing supplements postpartum. Median UIC was 72 μg/L (46-107 μg/L) and higher in iodine-supplemented mothers (47.2% of participants); 83 μg/L (63-127 μg/L) versus 65 μg/L (40-91 μg/L), p=0.004. Median MIC was 83 μg/L (61-125 μg/L) and also higher in iodine-supplemented mothers; 112 μg/L (80-154 μg/L) versus 72 μg/L (47-87 μg/L), pbreastfeeding women. Our results indicate that UIC, but not MIC, depends on maternal fluid intake and that maternal estimated 24-h iodine excretion may be a better indicator of iodine supply to the breastfed infant than UIC.

  1. Reaction of Gaseous Mercury with Molecular Iodine and Iodine Radicals: Kinetics, Product Studies, and Atmospheric Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raofie, F.; Ariya, P.

    2006-12-01

    Mercury is assumed to be present in the Earth's planetary atmosphere mainly in its elemental form. The chemical transformation of mercury in the atmosphere may influence its bioaccumulation in the human food chain as well as its global cycling. We carried out the first kinetic and product studies of the reactions of gaseous mercury with molecular iodine and iodine radicals at atmospheric pressure of ~740 Torr and at 296 ± 2 K in air and N2. Iodine radicals were formed using UV photolysis of CH2I2 (300 ≤ λ ≤ 400 nm)Kinetics of the reaction was studied using absolute and relative rate techniques by gas chromatography with mass spectroscopic detection (GC-MS). The measured rate constants for reaction Hg0 with I2 and I were (1.27 ± 0.58)× 10^{-19},≤ (3.78 ± 1.25) × 10^{-13 cm3 molecule-1s-1, respectively. The reaction products were analyzed in the gas phase, from the suspended aerosols, and from wall of the reaction chamber using chemical ionization and electron impact mass spectrometer, a gas chromatograph with coupled to a mass spectrometer, a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, a cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometer (CVAFS), and a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The major reaction products identified was HgI2 that were collected as wall deposits or in form of aerosols. We herein discuss the implication of our results to the chemistry of atmospheric mercury and its potential implications in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury.

  2. Control of the amount of free molecular iodine in iodine germicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J; Panicucci, R; Duan, Y; Dinehart, K; Murphy, J; Kessler, J; Gottardi, W

    1997-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase has been used to generate iodine compositions that comprised principally free molecular iodine. The concentration of free molecular iodine in these enzyme-based compositions ranged from 44 to 63% of the thiosulphate titratable iodine; this is substantially higher than the corresponding value for the povidone-iodine preparation betadine. The biocidal efficacy of these compositions was proportional to the concentration of free molecular iodine. Iodine compositions with relatively low total iodine concentrations but high levels of free molecular iodine (20-175 ppm) killed Staphylococcus aureus and spores of Bacillus subtilis more rapidly than betadine. The effects of normal saline and these enzyme-based iodine compositions on the rate of epidermal regeneration in superficial swine wounds were comparable. These results suggest that an effective germicide containing a high level of molecular iodine need not be irritating or toxic.

  3. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  4. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  5. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  6. Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.

  7. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  8. Formation and behaviour of organic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.; Koukkar, P.; Karjunen, T.; Sjoevall, H.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents experimental studies on the formation of organic iodine in severe reactor accidents. The analyses were performed to evaluate the amount of alkaline chemical needed for effective pH control of containment water during the accidents. The formation of organic iodine in solutions used in the filtered venting system and the absorption of iodine compounds in the solutions were studied. Experiments for the formation of organic iodine on painted surfaces were also performed. (au)

  9. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  10. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  11. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    density of iodine (solid at room temperature) is 4.933 g/cc. Iodine also has a relatively high vapor pressure at low temperatures. Vapor pressures of...unknowns with iodine – Vapor pressure requires temperature control – New flow control system design/complexity – Performance and lifetime? – Safety... Iodine is a demonstrated HET propellant – Cheaper than xenon, similar critical properties – 3x higher storage density – Low pressure storage • Issues

  12. Microdoses uses of iodine in the contamination prevention of mechanical ventilators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.D.; Trivellato, S.V.; Quintas, M.L.; Birolini, D.

    1986-01-01

    Nosocomial respiratory tract infections due to contamination of mechanical ventilators is a major problem complicating the management of intensive care unit patients. A significant source of such infection seems to be water contained in the nebulizers. Its decontamination by various means has been unsatisfactory up to date. In order to control this source of infection, the authors suggest the utilization of a small dose of a 2% iodine alcoholic solution added to the water of the nebulizers in the proportion of 0.125ml of iodine solution to 500ml of water. The results show that the procedure is safe, efficient and unexpensive. (author) [pt

  13. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  14. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Iodine, Polymer-supported periodic acid, Oxidant, Iodination. INTRODUCTION. Iodobenzene derivatives are valuable compounds in organic synthesis, medicine, and biochemistry [1]. Iodine is an elemental halogen that has less reactive than the other halides in electrophilic substitution reactions, therefore ...

  16. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  17. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  18. Synthesis of 125 I - Salicyl Hydroxamic Acid for Urinary Bladder Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.T.; Abou EL Zahab, M.; Hamed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid is a salicylate derivative. Radiolabeling of Salicyl hydroxamic acid ( SHA ) with iodine-125 may have considerable interest for imaging of urinary bladder. This study is aimed to optimize the radiolabeling yield of Salicyl hydroxamic with radio iodine (125-123) using chloramine - T (CAT) as an oxidizing agent with respect to factors that affect the reaction conditions such as SHA amount, CAT amount, reaction time and ph of the reaction mixture. In - vitro stability of the radiolabeled complex was checked and it was found to be stable for up to 24 h. 125 I-SHA was injected via intravenous administration routes into normal male Sprague – Dawley rats. Bio - distribution studies have revealed that 125 I-SHA was excreted in urine with extent that it could give a clear image for urinary bladder especially if the bladder it tightly closed. The amount of 125 I - Salicyl hydroxamic excreted was increased in case of giving potassium bicarbonate to rat before injection of 125 I-SHA. The result of biodistribution study of 125 I - SHA in experimental animal suggest ed the possibility of using 123 I-SHA to image the urinary bladder

  19. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  20. Preparation of 125I-protein A usable for up to 10 months in immunoassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, T; Billestrup, Nils

    1984-01-01

    Chloramine-T iodination of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus and gel electrophoretic purification of the iodination mixture results in a stable tracer of high specific and functional activity. Following repeated gel electrophoresis of the tracer only a single component was observed. The specif...... weeks resulted in a moderate decrease in maximal binding to immunoglobulin (from 91% to 64%), in TCA precipitable radioactivity (from 97% to 80%) and an approx. 30% decrease in the ability to detect cell bound immunoglobulin. It is concluded that gel electrophoretic purification of 125I...

  1. Labelling of human follicle stimulant hormone with 125I, for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, H.; Werner, R.S.; Lerario, A.C.; Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Wajchenberg, B.L.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    An efficient labeling of human Follicle Stimulant Harmone is essential to development of sensitive radioimmunoassays. Iodination by Chloramine T method frequently is subject to severe iodination damage and some preparations are unaccetable for radioimmunoassays. Modifications to the Hunter method, changing incubation time, reaction temperature and reducing Chloramine T amount used in the reaction, were performed in obtaining a more effective labeling. FSH-125 I fraction obtained from Sephadex G-75 column purification presented excellent immunoreactivity and quality control of the steps of the reaction demonstrated a high percentage (90%) of intact Follicle Stimulant Hormone [pt

  2. CA 125 in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, M. E.; Lammes, F. B.; Verweij, J.

    1992-01-01

    The serum tumour marker CA 125 is useful in the management of ovarian cancer, although it has its limitations. Approximately 85% of the ovarian cancer patients have an increased serum CA 125 at the start of treatment. There is a good correlation between the course of CA 125 and the clinical response

  3. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2017-04-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3 + HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed and included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. Our results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25% of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. That active nighttime iodine could also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  4. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  5. Method of fixing radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanuma, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Nakamichi; Kubota, Yu; Hoshino, Yoshihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive iodine by adsorbing radioactive iodine to silicate type adsorbents carrying silver thereon, mixing the adsorbents with hydroxides of alkali or alkaline earth metals and subjecting them to hydrothermic reaction. Method: The adsorbents used in this invention are, for example, those silicate type adsorbents carrying silver such as silver-supporting zeolite and silver-supporting moldenite, and the silver supporting amount is suitably from about 30 to 40 % by weight. When radioactive iodine is brought into contact with the adsorbents, it is adsorbed and a portion thereof is present in the instable coupling. Then, at least one of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and barium hydroxide is mixed in an amount of 1 to 30 % by weight to the adsorbents and maintained under the state of a pressure of higher than 70 kg/cm 2 and a temperature above 150 deg C under the presence of water to conduct hydrothermic reduction, whereby iodine is converted into stable AgI or AgIO 3 and the adsorabents are formed into solidification products. (Takahashi, M.)

  6. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  7. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... in various regions of Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two healthy pregnant women admitted to five different Danish departments of obstetrics participated in the study. Iodine status was evaluated by measurement of iodine in spot urine at day five after delivery and by careful history of the intake of iodine...... containing vitamin/mineral tablets. Approximately one third of the women had received tablets containing iodine. In women who had not received iodine supplementation urinary iodine was low with a median value of 39.7 micrograms/g creatinine (Aalborg 28, Randers 33, Ringkøbing 34, Arhus 43 and Copenhagen 62...

  9. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    By now it is a well-known fact that iodine is an essential trace element for the growth and development of the human body. Because of iodine deficiency, some countries have added iodate to salt in order to increase the iodine intake. However, some people prefer iodine from more natural sources like...... seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods...... for determining the different iodine species. For determining the total iodine concentration in marine samples five different extraction methods were compared. The most efficient and precise method was then used for determining the total concentration of iodine in seaweed and fish samples using inductively...

  10. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  11. Editorial: Approaching 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl

    2012-02-01

    With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. A Spectroscopic Method for Determining Free Iodine in Iodinated Fatty-Acid Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the concentration of free iodine in samples of iodinated fatty-acid esters can be measured using the electronic absorption spectra of their solutions in ethanol. The method proposed is rather simple in use and highly sensitive, allowing detection of presence of less than 10 ppm of free iodine in iodinated compounds. It is shown using the example of Lipiodol that this makes it possible to easily detect small amounts of free iodine in samples containing bound iodine in concentrations down to 40 wt %.

  13. Methodology study for fixation of radioactive iodine in polymeric substrate for brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Souza, Carla D.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Souza, Daiane B. de; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, Calos A.; Fernandes, Vagner; Melo, Emerson Ronaldo de; Camargo, Anderson Rogerio de

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is now the second leading cause of death by disease in several countries, including Brazil. Prostate cancer is the most common among men. Brachytherapy is a modality of radiotherapy in which radioactive seeds are placed inside or in contact with the organ to be treated. The most widely used radioisotope in prostate brachytherapy is Iodine-125 which is presented fixated on a silver substrate that is subsequently placed inside a titanium capsule. A large dose of radiation is released only in the targeted tumor protecting healthy surrounding tissues. The technique requires the application of 80 - 120 seeds per patient. The implants of seeds have low impact and non-surgical procedures. Most patients can return to normal life within three days with little or no pain. This work proposes an alternative to the seeds that have already been developed, in order to reduce the cost by obtaining a better efficiency on fixing the radioactive iodine onto the epoxy resin. Methods have been developed to perform the fixation of Iodine-125 onto polymeric substrates. The parameters analyzed were the immersion time, type of static or dynamic reaction, concentration of the adsorption solution, the specific activity of the radioactive source, the need for carrier and chemical form of the radioactive Iodine. These experiments defined the most effective method to fixate the Iodine onto the polymeric material (epoxy resin), the Iodine activity in the polymeric substrate, the activity of the distribution of variation in a plot of polymeric cores and the efficiency of the epoxy resin to seal the seed. (author)

  14. Methodology study for fixation of radioactive iodine in polymeric substrate for brachytherapy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Souza, Carla D.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Souza, Daiane B. de; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, Calos A.; Fernandes, Vagner; Melo, Emerson Ronaldo de; Camargo, Anderson Rogerio de, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cancer is now the second leading cause of death by disease in several countries, including Brazil. Prostate cancer is the most common among men. Brachytherapy is a modality of radiotherapy in which radioactive seeds are placed inside or in contact with the organ to be treated. The most widely used radioisotope in prostate brachytherapy is Iodine-125 which is presented fixated on a silver substrate that is subsequently placed inside a titanium capsule. A large dose of radiation is released only in the targeted tumor protecting healthy surrounding tissues. The technique requires the application of 80 - 120 seeds per patient. The implants of seeds have low impact and non-surgical procedures. Most patients can return to normal life within three days with little or no pain. This work proposes an alternative to the seeds that have already been developed, in order to reduce the cost by obtaining a better efficiency on fixing the radioactive iodine onto the epoxy resin. Methods have been developed to perform the fixation of Iodine-125 onto polymeric substrates. The parameters analyzed were the immersion time, type of static or dynamic reaction, concentration of the adsorption solution, the specific activity of the radioactive source, the need for carrier and chemical form of the radioactive Iodine. These experiments defined the most effective method to fixate the Iodine onto the polymeric material (epoxy resin), the Iodine activity in the polymeric substrate, the activity of the distribution of variation in a plot of polymeric cores and the efficiency of the epoxy resin to seal the seed. (author)

  15. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  16. Long-term results of ultrasonically guided implantation of 125-I seeds combined with external irradiation in localized prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Holm, H H

    1991-01-01

    Transperineal 125-iodine seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation was employed in the treatment of 32 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated). Follow-up is currently 35-98 months with a median of 65 months. Dis...

  17. Indocyanine green labeled with /sup 123/I for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. [/sup 131/I, /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Ansari, A.N.; Wolf, A.P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the results to develop an iodine-123 labeled agent for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. Iodine-123 is an ideal nuclide for radiopharmaceuticals, because of its short half-life (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 13.3 hr); its decay with a high abundance (83%) of 159 keV photons; and the reduced patient radiation exposure (a factor of 100 less than iodine-131). Indocyanine green, a tricarbanocyanine dye, was introduced by Heseltine and co-workers in 1956, has several characteristics which suggested that iodine-123 labeled ICG might be potentially useful for hepatic functional evaluation. The plasma clearance and biliary excretion kinetics of /sup 123/I-ICG (in dogs) will be compared to /sup 131/I-rose bengal and bromosulphalein labeled with iodine-125.

  18. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S

    1999-01-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from ... the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P

  19. Synchrotron radiation therapy of malignant brain gliomas loaded with an iodinated contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.-F.; Elleaume, H.; Joubert, A.; Biston, M.-C.; Charvet, A.-M.; Balosso, J.; Le Bas, J.-F.; Esteve, F.

    2003-01-01

    In conventional radiotherapy, treatment of brain tumors remains a delicate challenge, because the damages to the surrounding normal brain tissue limit the amount of radiation that can be delivered. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to infuse an iodinated contrast agent to the patient during the irradiation, which accumulates in the tumor, through the broken blood brain barrier; and to irradiate with kilovoltage X-rays, in tomographic mode, the tumor being located at the center of rotation and the beam size adjusted to the tumor dimensions. The dose enhancement results from the photoelectric effect on the iodine and from the irradiation geometry. Synchrotron beams, providing high intensity, tunable monochromatic X-rays, are ideal for this treatment. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate in vivo the efficiency of this novel synchrotron radiotherapy modality. Intracranial implantations of 10 5 F98 glioma cells were performed on 17 Fisher 344 rats. 6 rats were untreated controls, 5 received radiotherapy alone (10 Gy in the tumor, single fraction, tomographic irradiation) and 6 the same treatment under a continuous infusion of iodinated contrast agent (2.7 ± 1.05 mg/ml mean tumoral iodine concentration). The beam energy was set at 50 keV. Mean survival times (mean ± SD) were 12.3 ± 0.8, 15.4 ± 2.7 and 18.2 ± 1.3 days, untreated controls, irradiated without iodine, irradiated with iodine, respectively. The median survival times were 12.5, 15 and 18 days respectively, which corresponds to increase life spans of 20% and 44% for the rats irradiated without or with iodine respectively. The rats, which receive contrast agent before therapy survived significantly longer than the ones, which received radiotherapy alone (p=0.04). These preliminary results are encouraging and deserve further investigations. Synchrotron radiation could be a powerful tool for brain tumor radiation therapy

  20. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages......, are considered in this article. Summary: There are two main ways in which urine can be collected for iodine measurement. The first is the collection of urine over a period, usually 24 hours. The second is the collection of a spot urinary sample. Urinary iodine values can be expressed as the content...... or concentration and reported without modification or as a function of creatinine in the same sample. The 24-hour urine for iodine measurement is often considered as the “reference standard” for giving a precise estimate of the individual iodine excretion and thereby iodine intake. As 24-hour collections...

  1. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  2. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, M.; Philippe, Ch.; Pham, Minh Tuan; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, O.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 17010102. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18430S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : iodine cells * absorption spectroscopy * laser spectroscopy * laser standards * frequency stability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  3. Uptake of iodinated deoxyuridine in a murine melonama following multiple-day intravenous infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laster, B.H.; Popenoe, E.; Commerford, S.L.; Matsui, K.; Coderre, J.; Fand, I.; Fairchild, R.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques are described for multi-day intravenous (i.v.) infusions of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd) into mice. Percent incorporation into DNA as a thymidine (Thd) analog is reported, as measured by radioactive tag ( 125 IdUrd) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quantitative measurements of IdUrd incorporation in DNA are requisite for meaningful evaluation of the effects of radiation enhancement resulting from radiation sensitization and the stimulation of Auger cascades (photon activation)

  4. Radiation of the thyroid during examination of patients with thyroid diseases using radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Likhtarev, A.A.; Nikolaeva, A.A.

    1984-02-01

    Basing on 131I uptake functions in the thyroid of 109 patients irradiation doses of this organ were evaluated for persons with normal iodine metabolism and in the following diseases: hypothyrosis, moderate thyrotoxicosis, nodular toxic and nontoxic goiter, vegetative neurosis. Maximum tolerant doses of 123I, 125I, 131I and 132I are recommended for diagnostic examination of thyroid function and scanning of this organ.

  5. Synthesis and iodine labelling of β-CIT as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhengping; Zhou Xiang; Wu Chunying; Fang Ping

    2000-01-01

    2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4'-iodophenyl) tropane (β-CIT) and it is iodine labelling precursor 2β-carbomethoxy-3-β(4'-tributyl-stannyl-phenyl) tropane are synthesized, and the chemical structures are confirmed by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The radiochemical purity of 125 I-β-CIT and 131 -β-CIT are over 90% evaluated by HPLC and TLC

  6. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  7. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  8. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  9. Iodine frequency references for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Döringshoff, Klaus; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm3) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ˜ 1 · 10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017.

  10. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  11. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  12. 125I-labeled cortisol radioimmunoassay in which serum binding protein are enzymatically denatured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, M.J.; Painter, K.; Niswender, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    We report an iodine-125 radioimmunoassay for cortisol in biological fluids, in which interfering binding proteins are enzymatically denatured. An antiserum to cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin, extremely low cross-reacting with other corticosteroids, was raised in rabbits. A cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime tyrosine methyl ester derivative was synthesized and labeled with iodine-125 by standard radioiodination techniques. To eliminate the need for extraction and recovery procedures, we digested interfering binding with a proteolytic enzyme, which then was heat-inactivated before adding the labeled derivative and the premixed, preincubated antiserum complex. There was quantitative analytical recovery of esogenous cortisol added to sera from a normal man, a normal woman, and a pregnant woman. Values for the same samples agreed after extraction and chromatographic purification and agreed well with values obtained by other techniques by independent reference laboratories. The five-step assay can be done in 6 h or less

  13. Molecular environment of iodine in naturally iodinated humic substances: Insight from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Michel L.; Mercier-Bion, Florence; Barre, Nicole; Reiller, Pascal; Moulin, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The molecular environment of iodine in reference inorganic and organic compounds, and in dry humic and fulvic acids (HAs and FAs) extracted from subsurface and deep aquifers was probed by iodine L-3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of iodine spectra from HAs and FAs resembled those of organic references and displayed structural features consistent with iodine forming covalent bonds with organic molecules. Simulation of XANES spectra by linear combination of reference spectra suggested the predominance of iodine forming covalent bonds to aromatic rings (aromatic-bound iodine). Comparison of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of reference and samples further showed that iodine was surrounded by carbon shells at distances comparable to those for references containing aromatic-bound iodine. Quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra indicated that iodine was bound to about one carbon at a distance d(I-C) of 2.01(4)-2.04(9) angstrom, which was comparable to the distances observed for aromatic-bound iodine in references (1.99(1)-2.07(6) angstrom), and significantly shorter than that observed for aliphatic-bound iodine (2.15(2)-2.16(2) angstrom). These results are in agreement with previous conclusions from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and from electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. These results collectively suggest that the aromatic-bound iodine is stable in the various aquifers of this study. (authors)

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  15. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  16. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  17. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  18. Hygienic assessment of radioactive iodine isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Sources of radioactive iodine isotopes and their biological significance depending on the way of intake are discussed. The degree of food contamination by radioactive iodine as well as products, which serve as the source of its intake into the human body, and results of their processing are considered. The danger of radioactive iodine intake by different groups of population as well as thyroid irradiation effects are discussed. Description of activities, directed to the human body protection against radioactive iodine and assessment of these protection measures efficiency is presented

  19. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  20. Cancer antigen 125 and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid Vilma Solyom

    2008-01-01

    cancer antigen 125 determination may be implemented into clinical practice, cut-off levels must be evaluated and internationally defined. Studies examining serum cancer antigen 125 levels after surgery but before, during, or after treatment confirmed that changes in serum levels are of prognostic value...

  1. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... geographical (and seasonal) variations in iodine concentrations were found in different beverages supplying an appreciable part of the iodine in the Danish diet. This knowledge is important when calculating the iodine intake from dietary intake studies....

  2. Receptor binding and cell-mediated metabolism of [125I]monoiodoglucagon by isolated canine hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagopian, W.A.; Tager, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    A reverse-phase HPLC method has been developed to purify 125 I-labeled products resulting from the chloramine-T-based iodination of glucagon. In addition the products [( 125 I)iodoTyr 10 13 ]glucagon, [( 125 I)iodoTyr 13 ]glucagon, and [( 125 I)iodoTyr 10 ]glucagon) have been used to study the receptor binding of glucagon and the cell-mediated metabolism of the hormone by isolated canine hepatocytes. It was concluded that (a) not withstanding apparent differences in affinities exhibited by the three peptides, the interactions with the glucagon receptor are functionally equivalent, and (b) the cell-mediated metabolism of receptor-bound glucagon involves the formation of hormone-derived peptides in which the biologically important NH 2 -terminal region of the hormone has been modified by limited proteolytic cleavage

  3. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  4. Serum thyroglobulin and urinary iodine concentration are the most appropriate indicators of iodine status and thyroid function under conditions of increasing iodine supply in schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Briel, T.; West, C. E.; Hautvast, J. G.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ategbo, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency control programs have greatly reduced iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. For monitoring changes in iodine status, different indicators may be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of indicators of iodine status and thyroid function, thyroglobulin (Tg),

  5. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  6. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  7. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  8. Iodine deficiency disorders in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyu, A; Tambi, Z; Ahmad, Y

    1998-12-01

    The state of Sarawak in Malaysia has a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This has been revealed through a review of goitre surveys that were carried out in the State from the early 1970s to the 1990s. The primary cause was low iodine intake. Contributory factors were low iodine content in the soil and water as well as high cassava consumption. Virtual elimination of IDD is one of the nutritional goals of the IDD prevention and control programs. The strategies adopted include the iodination of coarse salt, which is sold in the market by shopkeepers and also provided free from government health clinics; legislation requiring that salt sold in IDD-gazetted areas must be iodised; and the use of iodinators to iodise water supplied by the gravity-feed system to villages and boarding schools in rural areas. The indicators used in the monitoring and evaluation of the program include the availability of iodised salt in the market and households, iodine levels in water supply that had been fitted with iodinators, goitre volume measured by ultrasound, and urinary iodine excretion among school children.

  9. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    While radioactive iodine is clearly the therapy of choice for Graves' disease (even in younger patients) the use of radioactive iodine for therapy of the toxic multinodular or uninodular goiter presents an entirely different problem. Although these two entities can be treated with radioactive iodine provided there is some suppression of the tissue that is not autonomous, transient release of thyroid hormone may induce symptoms of thyroid storm in the very large multinodular toxic goiter treated with radioiodine therapy. These toxic nodules generally require much larger doses of radioiodine than is commonly used for classical Graves' disease and may either require fractional administration of radioisotopes or concomitant use of antithyroid drugs and iodides. In general, surgery remains the treatment of choice for large toxic multinodular goiters, after proper preparation by medical means including radioactive iodine. Radioactive iodine therapy for hyperthyroidism is contraindicated in pregnancy and generally is not used in children below five years of age. (U.S.)

  10. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  11. Radioiodination of methoxsalen using different iodinating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyoub, S.M.; Farah, K.

    2007-01-01

    Different iodinating agents such as chloramine-T (Ch-T), iodogen, H 2 O 2 and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) were used for the labelling of methoxsalen via electrophilic substitution reaction. These iodinating agents oxidize NaI to produce the iodonium ions which attacked the active position in methoxsalen. These iodinating agents successfully iodinate the methoxsalen with a reasonable radiochemical yield and purity. The factors affecting both chemical yield and purity, such as the concentration of the iodinating agent, the methoxsalen concentration and the reaction time, were studied. Different developing solvents were used for the identification of the products using TLC technique. It was found that the most suitable solvent for the identification of methoxsalen using TLC was n-butanol : acetic acid : water (4:1:1). Radiochemical yields of 80% and 84% , with purity 99%, were achieved in case of NBS and H 2 O 2 , respectively

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of I-125/I-123-labelled analogues of citalopram and escitalopram as potential radioligands for imaging of the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Elfving, Betina; Frokjaer, Vibe G.

    2011-01-01

    Two novel radioligands for the serotonin transporter (SERT), [I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-2) and S-[I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-(S)-2) were synthesized in a ...... of the radioligand in imaging cortical SERT distribution in vivo. These data suggest that the iodine-labelled derivatives of citalopram and escitalopram are not superior to another SPECT tracer for the SERT, namely [I-123] ADAM....

  13. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  15. Dietary iodine intake in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hai Xia; Li, Jian Wen; Mao, Wei Feng; Zhu, Jiang Hui; He, Yu Na; Song, Xiao Yu; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sa Na; Liu, Zhao Ping; Li, Feng Qin

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population. Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level (UL) and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). In areas with water iodine concentration (WI) lower than 150 μg/L, 80.8% of residents had iodine intake between the RNI and UL, 5.8% higher than UL, and the remaining (13.4%) lower than RNI if iodized salt was consumed. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.0% of residents between RNI and UL, 1.4% higher than UL, and a large part of residents (97.6%) lower than RNI. In areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L, all residents had iodine intake between RNI and UL if iodized salt was consumed, except 10.5% and 24.9% of residents higher than UL in areas with WI at 150-300 μg/L and higher than 300 μg/L respectively. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.5% and 1.7% of residents had higher iodine intake than UL respectively. The findings suggested that in general, the dietary iodine intake by the Chinese population was appropriate and safe at the present stage. People in areas with WI lower than 150 μg/L were more likely to have iodine deficiency. While people in areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L were more likely to have excessive iodine intake if iodized salt was consumed. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunotoxic effects of iodine-131 in prenatally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.A.; Stevens, R.H.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Present results suggest that offspring exposed in utero to radioactive iodine-131 develop a measureable cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Regnant Fischer F344 inbred rats were exposed to 370 kBg to 3.7 MBg (10 to 100 μCi) Na 131I on 16 to 18 days of gestation and evaluated for CMI responsiveness 2 to 3 months post exposure using an 125I radiolabeled membrane release assay. Current data suggest that not only the F1, but also the F2 pups develop a measureable CMI response. In order to determine whether other immune functions are altered studies have been initiated to evaluate the immunotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to 131I. These studies include the evaluation of the delayed hypersensitivity response and the blastogenic responses to phytoheemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide

  17. Interaction of 125I-labeled Ca2+-dependent regulator protein with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and its inhibitory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, P.G.; Klee, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Ca 2+ -dependent regulator protein of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase was labeled with 125 I to the extent of 1 mol of monoiodotyrosine per mol. The iodinated protein showed a small decrease in affinity for phosphodiesterase but gave the same maximal level of activation of the enzyme as did the unmodified regulator protein. Iodinated regulator protein formed complexes with both highly purified cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and phosphodiesterase inhibitory protein in the presence but not in the absence of Ca 2+ as demonstrated by ultracentrifugation in glycerol gradients. Cross-linking experiments indicate that the Ca 2+ -dependent regulator protein interacts with the large subunit of the inhibitory protein

  18. Pharmacologic characterization and autoradiographic distribution of binding sites for iodinated tachykinins in the rat central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, S.H.; Helke, C.J.; Burcher, E.; Shults, C.W.; O' Donohue, T.L.

    1986-11-01

    P-type, E-type, and K-type tachykinin binding sites have been identified in the mammalian CNS. These sites may be tachykinin receptors for which the mammalian neuropeptides substance P, neuromedin K, and substance K are the preferred natural agonists, respectively. In the present investigation, we have compared the pharmacology and the autoradiographic distribution of CNS binding sites for the iodinated (/sup 125/I-Bolton-Hunter reagent) tachykinins substance P, eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K. Iodinated eledoisin and neuromedin K exhibited an E-type binding pattern in cortical membranes. Iodinated eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K each labeled sites that had a similar distribution but one that was considerably different from that of sites labeled by iodinated substance P. CNS regions where there were detectable densities of binding sites for iodinated eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K and few or no sites for iodinated substance P included cortical layers IV-VI, mediolateral septum, supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, interpeduncular nucleus, ventral tegmental area, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Binding sites for SP were generally more widespread in the CNS. CNS regions where there was a substantial density of binding sites for iodinated substance P and few or no sites for iodinated eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K included cortical layers I and II, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, medial and lateral septum, endopiriform nucleus, rostral thalamus, medial and lateral preoptic nuclei, arcuate nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, dorsal parabrachial nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, cerebellum, inferior olive, nucleus ambiguus, retrofacial and reticular nuclei, and spinal cord autonomic and somatic motor nuclei.

  19. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (Pseaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  20. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Galetti, Valeria; Stinca, Sara; Mackenzie, Ian; Thomas, Susan; Thomas, Tinku; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine

  1. Prevalence and serverity of Iodine deficiency disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median urinary iodine level was 56 4g/L that indicates iodine deficiency. Out of 389 households in the study area, 277 (71.2%) were using non-iodinated salt, 102 (26.2%) of the households were using iodinated salt. Cabbage usage was significantly associated with goiter. CONCLUSION: Endemic goiter is quite ...

  2. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Burie and Womberma Districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect millions of people in developing countries mainly due to dietary iodine deficiency and aggravating factors that affect the bioavailability of iodine in the body. Iodine deficiency disorder is one of the public health problems of Ethiopia. Recent findings show that both endemic and ...

  3. Iodine deficiency in primary school children and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: More than two billion individuals worldwide have inadequate iodine intake and the adverse consequences of iodine deficiency are widely observed. Objective: To assess the iodine status of primary school children and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders among their caretakers. Methods: A ...

  4. Calculation Of Aerosol Transport Efficiency For The Airborne Radioiodine Monitoring System - ''RIS125''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchik, T.; Levinson, L.; Mazor, Y.; Dolev, E.; German, U.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is a typical fission product in nuclear power reactors. Of the many iodine isotopes that can be generated in nuclear reactors only four are considered as radiobiological significant. These are: 125 1 (T 1/2 =60 days), '1 31 I (T 1/2 =8d), 133 I (T 1/2 =21h) and I35 I (T 1/2 7h). The chemical forms that have been identified in heavy water reactors are I 2 (elemental), organic iodides (CH 3 I), Inorganic iodides (HOI, HI) and LiI. Radioiodine is, generally, released as a gas but can be adsorbed on air particulates to form radioiodine contained aerosols. Therefore. its monitoring has to include both gas and aerosol sampling. A new monitoring system, RIS (Radioactive iodine Sampler), has been developed at the NRCN to monitor radioactive iodine (gas and aerosol) on-line in workplaces. This system samples radioiodine at a 60 L/min rate through a transport line connected to a filter holder. The filter consists of a cartridge containing activated charcoal with TEDA for iodine gas adsorption with a membrane for aerosols' retention in from of it. The radioiodine filter cartridge (F and J product code: TE2C) has a diameter of 2 1/4 inch and height of 1 inch . The gas adsorbent is coconut shell carbon type activated charcoal with 5% (by weight) TEDA impregnation and has 30x50 mesh size. This paper presents the aerosols' sampling characteristics of the RIS system including their transport in the sampling line and filter holder. The adsorption of iodine gas on the transport system components is negligible

  5. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R. W.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K.; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I- measurements showed enrichments of up to ˜1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  6. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  7. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelay, J. [IPSN/DPEA/SEAC (France)

    1996-12-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author).

  8. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelay, J.

    1996-01-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author)

  9. Iodine deficiency disorders: Public health measures to mitigate the global burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Ram Bihari Lal Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for the synthesis of the hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Iodine insufficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and is rated as one of the most significant public health concern in more than 125 countries. An optimal intake of dietary iodine during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood period is crucial for ensuring proper development of the brain of the fetus/newborn. During the course of implementation of the strategy of universal administration of the iodized salt, a wide gamut of challenges has been identified. In order to combat the same and simultaneously enhance the coverage of universal administration of the iodized salt, many measures have been proposed, namely formulating clear plan with time-based targets; encouraging coordination amongst all stakeholders; strengthening of the existing infrastructure; and increasing consumer awareness and demand for adequately iodized salt. To conclude, iodine has a crucial role in ensuring the normal growth and development of the child. However, to expand the coverage of the universal iodized salt to the vulnerable population, sustained political commitment and transparent monitoring and evaluation mechanism is the need of the hour.

  10. Following-up the efficiency of 131-Iodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (excluding medullary) - Moroccan situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rais Aouad, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Since 1985, the department of nuclear medicine of IBN SINA Hospital in the Rabat University hospital centre is the only centre in Morocco, where all patients of differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery are treated with 3.7 GBq of Iodine-131. The number of patients on follow-up is more than two thousands. The endemic zone represents the main origin of thyroid carcinoma. The sex ratio (F/M) is 3.5/1; the mean age is 42.5 years. The papillary carcinoma constitutes about 65.5% of the 26% of well-differentiated carcinoma and 12.5 of moderately differentiated carcinoma (MDC). The tumour size at diagnosis was more than 2 cm in 70% of cases. Prognosis factors are the age, the histology and tumour size. After the surgery, the patients receive 131-Iodine therapy (3.7 GBq) and a regular follow-up by clinical examination, neck ultrasonography and thyroglobulin (Tg) blood level. The aim is to obtain a negative whole body scan (WBS) and undetectable Tg. All the patients also receive a suppressive hormone therapy (thyroxin: 2.4 μg/kg/day). In the same patient, the Tg level is also compared with and without suppression therapy, but taking TSH levels into account. The efficiency of 131-Iodine treatment and the following up, depends on the type of patients: (a) Patients without metastasis: the success of Iodine-131 therapy depended on surgery and it was more than 92% (b) Patients with local metastasis to lymph nodes: the success of 131-Iodine therapy depended of nodal status and complete dissection is possible in 70% cases only. (c) Patients with distant metastasis: The efficiency of 131-Iodine therapy depended on the uptake, the homogeneity and the size of metastasis. In lung metastasis, the efficiency of 131-Iodine is about 40-42% (70%: miliary and micro nodules) and only 6.6% in bone metastasis. After treatment, the patients were regularly followed-up clinically till the next WBS and Tg estimation. In some cases, it was interesting to compare WBS and MIBI

  11. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  12. Modeling an Iodine Hall Thruster Plume in the Iodine Satellite (ISAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    An iodine-operated 200-W Hall thruster plume has been simulated using a hybrid-PIC model to predict the spacecraft surface-plume interaction for spacecraft integration purposes. For validation of the model, the plasma potential, electron temperature, ion current flux, and ion number density of xenon propellant were compared with available measurement data at the nominal operating condition. To simulate iodine plasma, various collision cross sections were found and used in the model. While time-varying atomic iodine species (i.e., I, I+, I2+) information is provided by HPHall simulation at the discharge channel exit, the molecular iodine species (i.e., I2, I2+) are introduced as Maxwellian particles at the channel exit. Simulation results show that xenon and iodine plasma plumes appear to be very similar under the assumptions of the model. Assuming a sticking coefficient of unity, iodine deposition rate is estimated.

  13. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour 123 I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women

  14. Iodine excretion has decreased in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 - the importance of iodine content in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004-5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compar...

  15. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  16. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report, April 1975-- March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations during the past twelve months have included the following subjects: factors which influence release of radioiodine from thyroid glands; contamination of commercially available low-iodine diets; effects of hypoxia on release of iodine from thyroid glands of rats and mice; development of practical tests for available iodine in low-iodine diets; reproduction and abnormal thyroglobulin of rats maintained on low-iodine diets; observations on radioactivity in animal thyroids; collaboration with other laboratories regarding radium in bovine thyroids

  17. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  18. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Ičin Tijana; Bajkin Ivana; Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is r...

  19. Iodine-123 in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinreich, R.

    1976-08-01

    The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123 I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  1. Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 μg/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 μg/L, respectively). Higher values >150 μg/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!"

  2. Serial Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injections Slow the Progression of Radiation Maculopathy Following Iodine-125 Plaque Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Andrew W; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in the management of radiation maculopathy secondary to plaque radiotherapy, and to identify optimal treatment strategies. A retrospective review of all choroidal melanoma patients at one referral center who were treated with plaque radiotherapy, subsequently developed radiation maculopathy, and received intravitreal bevacizumab. A total of 31 patients were identified. The mean visual acuity decreased three Snellen lines in the year leading up to the first bevacizumab injection. After initiating injection therapy, the mean visual acuity remained stable for 9 months. The change in visual acuity of patients who received injections within 90 days of previous injections was significantly better than the visual acuity of those who received injections more than 90 days apart (p=0.0003). Patients who demonstrated late-phase macular leakage on fluorescein angiography at the time of the first bevacizumab injection had better long-term visual acuity outcomes than patients who had no evidence of macular leakage (average of one line improvement of vision vs. ten line loss of vision, p=0.03). Intravitreal bevacizumab injection was effective in stabilizing visual acuity in patients with radiation maculopathy. Patients benefited most from injections administered every 90 days or sooner. Fluorescein angiography can help identify patients who will respond favorably to treatment.

  3. Interstitial brachytherapy of localised prostate cancer using iodine 125 permanent implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D.

    2005-01-01

    Brachytherapy with permanent implants is a validated method of treatment of prostate adenocarcinomas of favourable prognosis. Its technology is based on endorectal ultrasonography and on per-operative visualisation of the implant and the dose distribution. A strict selection of the patients is necessary before this localised treatment. An active collaboration between urologists, radio-physicists and radiation oncologists is necessary during all the process of selection, treatment and follow-up of the patients. An assessment of the carcinological and functional results is necessary. Recommendations are formalized by a joint collaboration between members of the AFU and of the SFRO. (author)

  4. Ultrasonically guided 125iodine seed implantation with external radiation in management of localized prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Bak, M; Juul, N

    1989-01-01

    with a median follow-up of thirty-five months. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35 percent. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after one to two years, revealing still malignant histology in 12 (48%). Development of distant metastases occurred...

  5. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  7. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  8. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  9. Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    shows a schematic of the experimental system. Bioaerosols were generated by a six-jet Collison nebulizer at 7 Lpm. Virus concentrations in the...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0004 EFFECT OF BIOAEROSOL ON THE RELEASE OF IODINE FROM IODINE TREATED FILTERS Chang-Yu Wu, Hsing-Wang Li, Myung-Heui...Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F GOVT L0 QL102008 Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Wang; Woo

  10. The retention of iodine by iodine filters in nuclear power plants in the case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, V.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the liberation of considerable amounts of gaseous combustion products, fires in nuclear power plants may lead to a deterioration in the retention of radioiodine by iodine filters. The combustion products of the burnable materials, i.e., insulations, lubricants and paints, vary considerably with the development of the fire. Combustion product analyses of these materials have been performed only to a limited extent. The reaction of iodine with combustion products as well as the retention of the resulting iodine reaction products by sorbents have not yet been investigated. The reduction in the removal efficiencies of iodine sorbents due to the presence of combustion products is unknown. (orig.) [de

  11. Emissivity of the pulsed capacitive discharge in helium-iodine and neon-iodine mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Laslov, G. E.

    2009-01-01

    The emission parameters of a pulsed capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine and neon-iodine mixtures are reported. The discharge plasma emits at wavelengths of 183.0 and 206.2 nm, which correspond to iodine atom spectral lines. The capacitive discharge is initiated in a cylindrical quartz tube with an electrode distance of 10 cm. The discharge radiation is optimized in exciting pulse repetition rate and helium and neon pressures in He(Ne)-I2 mixtures. The optimal pressures of helium, neon, and iodine vapor fall into the ranges 0.8-2.0 kPa, 0.5-1.0 Pa, and ≤60 Pa, respectively.

  12. 125I therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    In recent years increasing interest is shown in the use of 125 I for the therapy of hyperthyroidism, instead of the traditional 131 I, based on the postulate that there is a relative sparing of the reproductive integrity of the thyroid follicular cell and a consequent possibility of smaller incidence of hypothyroidism after therapy. Dosimetric and radiobiological bases of this postulate are first described in this paper and then a brief review of the results of the pilot clinical trials conducted at different centers using 125 I for the management of hyperthyroidism is given. (orig./MG) [de

  13. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181....... It needs to be emphasized however, that repeated blood sampling for 1/2 hour after injection of the tracer is required to correct for the disappearance of (99m)Tc and (99m)Tc-HSA from the circulation....

  14. A mathematical model for iodine kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.A.T. da.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the iodine kinetics in thyroid is presented followed by its analytical solution. An eletroanalogical model is also developed for a simplified stage and another is proposed for the main case [pt

  15. Synthesis of N,N,-didemethylzolpidem-N-{l_brace}2-{l_brace}3-(4-hydroxy-3-[{sup 125}I] iodophenyl){r_brace}methyl propionate{r_brace} for radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Clerck, I.; Daenens, P. [K.U. Leuven (Belgium). Laboratory of Toxicology

    1997-03-01

    The {sup 125}I-derivative of zolpidem was prepared by iodination of a L-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate of a zolpidem precursor. The iodinated compound has been used as a tracer molecule in the development of a radioimmunoassay for zolpidem. It was purified by normal phase HPLC, in combination with gamma counting detection. The structure was confirmed by high resolution L-SIMS. (UK).

  16. Iodine dynamics in the terrestrial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bowley, Hannah E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil properties on soil iodine dynamics and uptake to plants. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from across eastern Northern Ireland (NI) to form the basis of most experimental work; samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass archive were used to investigate the role of changing soil chemistry through time and due to selected fertiliser applications; and iodine dynamics in humic acid (HA) were studied to improve understanding of the r...

  17. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  18. Ultrahigh iodine adsorption in porous organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    We present two porous organic frameworks (POFs), PAF-1 and JUC-Z2, with ultrahigh iodine capture capacity. The iodine vapor uptake of PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 were 1.86 g g-1 and 1.44 g g-1 respectively at 298 K per 40 Pa, which is extremely high for such low pressure sorption conditions. In addition, PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 could adsorb iodine over water with the selectivity of 5.1 and 6.5 respectively. The isosteric enthalpy at zero surface coverage, calculated by a virial equation with the iodine vapor sorption isotherms at 298 K and 313 K of JUC-Z2, reached -51.1 kJ mol-1, which was much higher than the coverage of PAF-1 (-14.9 kJ mol-1). Raman measurement confirmed the polyiodide to be I5 - in POFs. Furthermore, solvents with different polarities, such as n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were chosen to conduct iodine binding measurements on PAF-1 and JUC-Z2. The formation constant Kf for POFs in n-hexane, chloroform and methanol drastically decreased with the increase in polarity, thus illustrating the important role of solvents in iodine binding. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  19. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  1. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J

    2005-01-01

    value in the detection of early ovarian cancer. At present, therefore, CA125, either alone or in combination with other modalities, cannot be recommended for screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women outside the context of a randomized controlled trial. Preoperative levels in postmenopausal...

  2. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  3. National trends in iodine nutrition: is everyone getting enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Until the 1920s, endemic iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in the Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Northwestern regions of the United States. Iodized salt was responsible for eliminating endemic goiter in the United States and remains the mainstay of iodine deficiency disorder eradication efforts worldwide. Although urinary iodine values have decreased by 50% since the early 1970s, the United States remains iodine sufficient. However, U.S. iodine nutrition, particularly among women of childbearing age, may remain an area worthy of public health concern. There is a wide amount of variation in the iodine content of some common foods, and the iodine content of foods is not well reflected by package labeling. There needs to be increased awareness of the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, among the U.S. public.

  4. Ultraviolet gas-discharge lamp on iodine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Kalyuzhnaya, A. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2010-08-01

    The emission characteristics of a pulsed-periodic UV radiation source are reported. The source excited by a pulsed-periodic capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine vapor, neon-iodine vapor, or krypton-iodine vapor mixtures radiates in the spectral range 200-450 nm. It is shown that most of the plasma radiation power concentrates in the integral line of the iodine atom (206.2 nm) and in the D'- A' band of the iodine molecule with a maximum at 342 nm. The radiation intensity of the lamp is optimized in accordance with the partial pressure of the inert gases. The discharge plasma parameters that are of interest for simulating the process kinetics and the output characteristics of an UV source based on molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and xenon iodide are calculated in helium-iodine vapor and xenon-iodine vapor mixtures.

  5. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent...... question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...

  6. Comparison between methods for fixing radioactive iodine in silver substrate for manufacturing brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a term used generically to represent a group of more than 100 illnesses, including malignant tumors from different locations. According to World Health Organization (WHO), is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounted for 7.6 million deaths. Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type in the world, representing about 10% of all cases of cancer and its treatment may be by surgery, radiotherapy or even vigilant observation. A method of radiotherapy which has been extensively used in the early and intermediate stages of the illness is brachytherapy, where radioactive seeds are placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, which reduces the probability of unnecessary damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Currently, the radioactive isotope Iodine-125, adsorbed on silver substrate, is one of the most used in prostate brachytherapy. The present study compares several deposition methods of radioactive Iodine on silver substrate, in order to choose the most suitable one to be implemented at the laboratory of radioactive sources production of IPEN. The methodology used was chosen based on the available infrastructure and experience of the researchers of the institute. Therefore, Iodine-131 was used for testing (same chemical behavior of Iodine -125). Three methods were selected: method 1 (test based on electrodeposition method, developed by David Kubiatowicz) which presented efficiency of 65.16% ; method 2 (chemical reaction based on the method developed by David Kubiatowicz -HCl) which presented efficiency of 70.80%; method 3 (chemical reaction based on the method developed by Dr. Maria Elisa Rostelato) which presented efficiency of 55.80% . Based on the results, the second method is the suggested one to be implemented at the laboratory of radioactive sources production of IPEN. (author)

  7. Labeling Lanreotide with 125I and 188Re. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Lanreotide (D-β-Nal-Cys-Try-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Thr-NH2) is a new somatostatin analogue. It can bind to human somatostatin receptor (hSSTR) subtype 2 through 5 with high affinity and to hSSTR subtype 1 with low affinity. We investigate labeling condition, quality control and stability in vitro of 125 I-Lanreotide and 188 Re-lanreotide respectively. (A) Lanreotide is labeled with 125 I using Chloramine T. The effect of reaction condition (such as reaction time, pH value, Lanreotide amount, quantity of Chloramine T and reaction volume) on labeling yield is investigated in detail. (B) The labeling yield and radiochemical purity (RP) is measured with paper chromatography (PC) and Sep-Pak C 18 Cartridge. For PC method, 125 I-Lanreotide is spotted on the Whatman No.1 paper and developed in the mixture of CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH and CH 3 CH 2 OH and NH 4 OH (v/v/v=5:2:1), the Rf value of every component in the mobile phase is given in table 1. For Sep-Pak C 18 Cartridge methods each cartridge is washed with 10 ml of ethanol followed by 10 ml of iso-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH solution. Aliquots of 0.1 mI sample is loaded onto the cartridge, unbound peptide (sodium iodine-125) is eluted with 5 ml of 0.5mol/L sodium acetate solution, 125 I-Lanreotide is eluted with 5 mI of 95% aqueous ethanol solution. (C) The stability of 125 I-Lanreotide in vitro is investigated by labeling compound incubating for 48 hours at 37 deg. C in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and RP is tested by PC at specific time intervals. (D) Lanreotide is labeled directly with 188 Re via the mixture of citrate and tartate using stannous chloride as reduced agent. The influence of reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, amount of stannous chloride, amount of Lanreotide and reaction time on labeling yield is investigated in detail. At the time, the stability in vitro quality control and animal test are evaluated

  8. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delange, F.; Benker, G.; Caron, P.; Eber, O.; Ott, W.; Peter, F.; Podoba, J.; Simescu, M.; Szybinsky, Z.; Vertongen, F.; Vitti, P.; Wiersinga, W.; Zamrazil, V.

    1997-01-01

    Up to 1992, most European countries used to be moderately to severely iodine deficient. The present study aimed at evaluating possible changes in the status of iodine nutrition in 12 European countries during the past few years. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography in 7599 schoolchildren

  9. Development of the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) with chemical generation of atomic iodine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodymová, Jarmila; Špalek, Otomar; Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Hager, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2003), s. 331-336 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic chlorine * chemical oxygen-iodine laser(COIL) Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2003

  10. Longitudinal study of iodine in toenails following IV administration of an iodine-containing contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spate, V.L.; Morris, J.S.; Nichols, T.A.; Baskett, C.K.; Mason, M.M.; Horsman, T.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer (TC) risk and the higher incidence of TC among Asian immigrants to the US compared to second and third generation subgroups has prompted epidemiologists to hypothesize that increased levels of iodine consumption may be associated with TC risk, particularly among persons with a history of clinical or subclinical thyroid dysfunction. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), we have applied epiboron neutron activation analysis to investigate human nails as a dietary monitor for iodine. Preliminary studies have indicated a positive correlation between dietary iodine intake and the concentration of iodine in toenails. However, these studies are confounded by high iodine levels (up to 30 ppm) in approximately 5% of the nails studied. We hypothesize that, in the subjects we have studied, the high iodine levels may be due to iodine-containing medications, in particular contrast-agents containing iopamidol. This paper will report on longitudinal studies using contrast agent subjects who where followed-up for almost two years compared to a longitudinal control and a population mean. Based on this study, we suggest that iodine-containing contrast agents contaminate nail samples via non-specific binding in the short term followed by incorporation in the nail as a result of absorption. (author)

  11. Sensitivity analysis on the deposition of inhaled radioactive iodine and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2001-01-01

    The prophylactic use of stable iodine is one of the protective measures during a nuclear emergency. In order to know the resultant radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in the case of Japanese, a sensitivity analysis was performed for related physiological parameters for Japanese. As a result, the variances in the deposition efficiency of radioactive iodine aerosol in the respiratory tract due to changes in the respiratory parameters were found rather small between the standard Caucasian and Japanese. The changes due to the radioactive iodine aerosol size were more significant, suggesting the importance of understanding the physico-chemical status of aerobic radioiodine released in a nuclear emergency. Concerning the metabolic parameters of iodine, the result of the sensitivity analysis based on an iodine metabolic model showed that the most critical parameters are those which describe the transport of stable and radioactive iodine from the blood compartment to the thyroid gland. Accordingly, a confirmation of the transport model and the related parameters for Japanese are essential to clarify the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis to reduce thyroid gland exposure of Japanese. (author)

  12. The impact of iodised salt or iodine supplements on iodine status during pregnancy lactation and infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Monitoring of iodine status during pregnancy, lactation and infancy is difficult as there are no established reference criteria for urinary iodine concentration (UI) for these groups; so it is uncertain whether iodized salt programs meet the needs of these life stages. Design and

  13. Impact evaluation of iron & iodine fortified salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K M; Brahmam, G N; Ranganathan, S; Vijayaraghavan, K; Sivakumar, B; Krishnaswamy, K

    1998-11-01

    As a novel approach to tackle the problems of iron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which often coexist, the National Institute of Nutrition has developed iron and iodine fortified common salt (double fortified salt-DFS) as a public health measure. This salt has undergone a battery of laboratory and field tests to evaluate its feasibility for use in a national programme. The DFS is designed to provide 1 mg of iron and 15 micrograms of iodine per gram of common salt. This was made possible by the inclusion of a polyphosphate stabilizer, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) at 1 per cent level. The stability of iron and iodine was found to be good up to 6 months. However, the stability of iodine depended upon the quality of the salt used for fortification. The biological effects of long-term consumption of DFS were evaluated in experimental rats and in field trials. Both iron and iodine from the salt were found to be biologically available in regenerating haemoglobin and in increasing excretion of iodine in urine. When this salt was tested in tribal villages endemic for goitre and iron deficiency anaemia, the bioresponse was good with regard to the iodine status but was not uniform in all segments with regard to iron, probably due to confounding variables. In a study carried out in residential school children where such variables did not exist, DFS was found to have significant impact on haemoglobin status in anaemic children and improved their urinary iodine excretion. The consumption of DFS for 2 yr did not have any adverse effects in school children as well as in the tribal population. Parameters related to calcium homeostasis were not altered in children receiving DFS. Histopathological examination of tissues and radiological examination of bone did not reveal any abnormality in DFS fed rats. Similarly serum and urinary parameters related to calcium and phosphorus were not altered in DFS fed rats. Therefore, DFS is presented as a feasible and

  14. Radioactive labelling with 125 I of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Ch, M.; Farias O, G.; Kuznar H, J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between a cellular receptor and a ligand the photochemical crosslinking method has been widely used. This method has been utilized as an approach to determine the presence or absence of virus receptors in susceptible cells. Successful detection of crosslinks is achieved if one of the components, in the crosslinked product, has been radioactively labeled. The incorporation of a radioactive isotope, in the virus-receptor complex, enables the identification of the receptor. To undertake this study in the future, in this communication the radioactive labeling of virus particles is presented. The infectious necrosis pancreatic virus (IPN virus) was the chosen moiety to be in vitro labeled with 125 I using a direct method. Three oxidizing agents were used in the iodination procedure for comparison: an enzyme, lactoperoxidase and two chemical reagents, N-Chloro-benceno-sulfonamide (Iodo-Beads) and 1,3,4,6-Tetra chloro-3a,6a-diphenyl glycouril (Iodo-Gen). The results are analysed to select the method which guarantee the incorporation of 125 I in the viral capsid protein, while preserving its full infectivity. (author)

  15. Intravascular enhancement with identical iodine delivery rate using different iodine contrast media in a circulation phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jurencak, Tomas; Yanniello, Michael J; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kalafut, John F; Nalbantov, Georgi; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Behrendt, Florian F; Das, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Both iodine delivery rate (IDR) and iodine concentration are decisive factors for vascular enhancement in computed tomographic angiography. It is unclear, however, whether the use of high-iodine concentration contrast media is beneficial to lower iodine concentrations when IDR is kept identical. This study evaluates the effect of using different iodine concentrations on intravascular attenuation in a circulation phantom while maintaining a constant IDR. A circulation phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used (heart rate, 60 beats per minute; stroke volume, 60 mL; blood pressure, 120/80 mm Hg). Maintaining a constant IDR (2.0 g/s) and a constant total iodine load (20 g), prewarmed (37°C) contrast media with differing iodine concentrations (240-400 mg/mL) were injected into the phantom using a double-headed power injector. Serial computed tomographic scans at the level of the ascending aorta (AA), the descending aorta (DA), and the left main coronary artery (LM) were obtained. Total amount of contrast volume (milliliters), iodine delivery (grams of iodine), peak flow rate (milliliter per second), and intravascular pressure (pounds per square inch) were monitored using a dedicated data acquisition program. Attenuation values in the AA, the DA, and the LM were constantly measured (Hounsfield unit [HU]). In addition, time-enhancement curves, aortic peak enhancement, and time to peak were determined. All contrast injection protocols resulted in similar attenuation values: the AA (516 [11] to 531 [37] HU), the DA (514 [17] to 531 [32] HU), and the LM (490 [10] to 507 [17] HU). No significant differences were found between the AA, the DA, and the LM for either peak enhancement (all P > 0.05) or mean time to peak (AA, 19.4 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds; DA, 21.1 [1.0] to 21.4 [1.15] seconds; LM, 19.8 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds). This phantom study demonstrates that

  16. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  17. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China.

  18. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  19. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine. ...

  20. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  1. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  2. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  3. Iodine concentration in cow's milk and its relation with urinary iodine concentrations in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriguer, Federico; Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Gonzalez-Romero, Stella; Olveira, Gabriel; Garriga, Maria J; Velasco, Ines; Santiago, Piedad; de Escobar, Gabriella M; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The importance of milk intake to the supply of dietary iodine is not fully known. We therefore undertook a study in Spain of the iodine concentration in cow's milk and the impact of the frequency of milk consumption on urinary iodine concentrations in three study populations. We studied the iodine concentration in 362 samples of milk from 45 commercial brands and compared it with the milk iodine status in studies undertaken 17 years earlier. The epidemiologic studies were performed in three different places in the south of Spain: two in school-age children (N = 757 and N = 1205 children) and one in adults (N = 1051). A milk consumption questionnaire was given and urinary iodine concentrations measured. The mean concentration of iodine in the milk rose from 1991 (117 ± 37 μg/L) to 2008 (259 ± 58 μg/L) (P milk (273 ± 52 μg/L) than in semi-skimmed milk (254 ± 57 μg/L) or whole milk (251 ± 61 μg/L) (P milk. The urinary iodine concentrations in all three epidemiologic studies were significantly associated with the frequency of milk intake. The concentration of iodine in cow's milk has risen over recent years, and it is higher in skimmed milk. The results also show that cow's milk is a relevant source of dietary iodine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, L.; Chopin, J.

    1996-01-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40 o C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H + ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I 2 ], [IO 3 - ], [H 2 O 2 ] and [H + ]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs

  5. [Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Bajkin, Ivana; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Zavisić, Branka Kovacev

    2012-01-01

    Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger a utoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction. is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consuquences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima). The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  6. Preoperative povidone-iodine vaginal gel in abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious complications of hysterectomy remain common despite the use of antibiotic. The usual existing methods of preoperative antisepsis do not control the vaginal bacteria that are the primary cause of contamination at the surgical site. Our goal was to assess whether febrile morbidity after total abdominal hysterectomy is decreased by the addition of povidone-iodine gel at the vaginal apex after the routine vaginal preparation with povidone-iodine solution.Methods: We carried out a prospective randomized trial on women admitted for elective abdominal hysterectomy. Inclusion criteria included planned abdominal hysterectomy for benign or malignant gynecologic conditions. Exclusion criteria consisted of emergency surgery, current treatment for pelvic infection, and known povidone-iodine allergy. A total of 168 patients were randomized to either the control group or the intervention group, who received 20 cc povidone-iodine gel placed at the vaginal apex immediately before the operation. Both groups received the routine preoperative preparation of antimicrobial prophylaxis, abdominal and vaginal scrubbing with povidone-iodine solution prior to the operation. The primary outcome was post-operative febrile morbidity. Other outcomes included abdominal wound infection, vaginal cuff cellulitis or pelvic abscess. Data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: The overall rate of febrile morbidity was 20.5%. Febrile morbidity occurred in ten of 80 (12.5% women receiving the povidone-iodine gel preparation and 24 of 86 (27.9% women not receiving the gel (p<0.05. The rate of abdominal wound infection was 18.6% (16 in the control group, and 5% (4 in the gel group (p<0.05. Vaginal cuff cellulitis was seen in three patients from the control group versus one woman from the gel group (p>0.05. Pelvic abscess was diagnosed in one patient from the control group and in no patients from the

  7. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: The effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Holwerda, H.T.; Khodabaks, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration

  8. Differences in the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution in rates of the monoclonal antibody 125I-ior t1 due to I use of different methods of iodogen direct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, A.

    1997-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody ior t1, an IgG2a, was labeled with 125I , using the chloramine T, iodogen and iodine monochloride methods produce an important deiodination, demonstrated by ascending paper chromatography and the similarities between his serum profile respect to the radioactivity serum profile of the free 125I in Wistar rats. The plasma radioactivity declined in apparently bioexponential manner with the use of chloramine T and iodine monochloride, and show a monoexponential declined with the iodogen reagent. The pharmacokinetic of 125I ior t1, in the chloramine T methods, was very erractic. We consider the possible of an unspecific binding in blood in the experiment with iodogen reagents. The biodistribution show a similar pattern with other IgG2a in rats

  9. Persistence of goiter despite adequate iodine intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminzadeh, M.; Karamizadeh, Z.; Amirhakimi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the state of iodine uptake and frequency of goiter in a previously endemic population after use of iodine salt for ten years. In an area in south of Iran following examination of randomly selected 1504, 8-10 year school children, 102 cases with grade 2 or larger goiter were found. One hundred normal cases regarding thyroid examination were also selected as controls. From all 202 children, random urine specimen was assayed for iodine as an indicator of iodide intake. Frequency of goiter grade 2 or larger was 6.8%. Median levels of urinary iodine in goiterous children and controls were 20.00 micro gram/dL and 24.50 micro gram/dL respectively. Values more than 10 micro g/dL indicate sufficient intake. Frequency of iodine deficiency in patients with goiter was 14.0% vs. 12.7% in control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P value=0.748). Iodized salt has been effective to provide acceptable iodide intake but other causes are supposed to be responsible as etiologic factors for persistence of endemic goiter. (author)

  10. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... and mortality. Conclusion: Even minor differences in iodine intake between populations are associated with differences in the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Both iodine intake levels below and above the recommended interval are associated with an increase in the risk of disease in the population. Optimally......, iodine intake of a population should be kept within a relatively narrow interval where iodine deficiency disorders are prevented, but not higher. Monitoring and adjusting of iodine intake in a population is an important part of preventive medicine....

  11. Comprehensive handbook of iodine: nutritional, biochemical, pathological and therapeutic aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Burrow, Gerard N; Watson, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    ... for Monitoring Effects of Iodine/Thyroid Status in Populations Inge Bülow Pedersen and Peter Laurberg 3 15 29 39 47 55 65 Section 2: General Aspects of Iodine Sources and Intakes in the Diet, Mai...

  12. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  13. Chemical template directed iodine patterns on the octadecyltrichlorosilane surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuguang

    2008-01-01

    A carboxylic-terminated nanometer-scale chemical pattern on an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) surface can guide the deposition and crystallization of iodine, forming an iodine pattern on the chemical pattern. The iodine in the pattern is gel-like when fabricated by the solution-deposit method. In contrast, a dendritic, snowflake-shaped polycrystalline iodine sheet is formed by the vapor-phase condensation method. The data demonstrate that iodine is a good tracing and visualizing agent for studying liquid behavior at the nano scale. The topography of the iodine stain reveals that the "coffee ring" effect can be suppressed by reducing the pattern size and increasing the evaporation rate. The chemical template-bound iodine pattern has an unusually low vapor pressure and it can withstand prolonged baking at elevated temperature, which differs significantly from bulk iodine crystals.

  14. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  15. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  16. Reaction rate of hydrolysis of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yoshikazu; Eguchi, Wataru; Adachi, Motonari

    1979-01-01

    Absorption rates of dilute iodine vapor contained in air by aqueous mixtures of sodium hydroxide and boric acid were measured using a laminar liquid jet column absorber at 298 K. Absorption rates in this system are controlled by a series of complex reactions taking place in the liquid phase. The reaction rate constant of iodine hydrolysis in the aqueous phase was determined from the absorption rates observed under the conditions that the base-catalytic hydrolysis reaction of iodine can be considered to be irreversible and that other reactions can be neglected. The absorption rates calculated theoretically with the rate constant value obtained above were in good accordance with the whole experimental data observed for a wide range of experimental conditions. (author)

  17. Prospects of the high power iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohla, K.; Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Volk, R.; Witte, K.J.

    1976-09-01

    The characteristic properties of the iodine laser (gaseous laser substance, photolytic pump mechanism, variable stimulated emission cross-section) made it possible in a relatively short time to generate ns pulses in the kJ range. The Asterix II and III iodine laser systems at IPP are working successfully, and the question arises what prospects are afforded for further iodine laser development. What are the problems that have to be clarified in order to build 10 or 100 kJ systems for laser fusion experiments. According to our experience these can be classified as follows: 1) Short pulse generation and contrast ratio, 2) pulse shaping in a high-gain laser and amplification in the coherent time range, 3) non-linear properties at high intensities, 4) scalable pumping schemes and chemical processes. (orig./WL) [de

  18. Iodine stability in salt double-fortified with iron and iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, L L; Alberti, J O; Ramcharan, K; Mannar, M G Venkatesh

    2002-06-01

    Deficiencies in small quantities of micronutrients, especially iodine and iron, severely affect more than a third of the world's population, resulting in serious public health consequences, especially for women and young children. Salt is an ideal carrier of micronutrients. The double fortification of salt with both iodine and iron is an attractive approach to the reduction of both anemia and iodine-deficiency disorders. Because iodine is unstable under the storage conditions found during the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of salt in most developing countries, the effects of packaging materials and environmental conditions on the stability of salt double-fortified with iron and iodine were investigated. Salt was double-fortified with potassium iodide or potassium iodate and with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The effects of stabilizers on the stability of iodine and iron were followed by storing the salt under three conditions that represent the extremes of normal distribution and sale for salt in developing countries: room temperature (25 degrees C) with 50%-70% relative humidity, 40 degrees C with 60% relative humidity, and 40 degrees C with 100% relative humidity. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, and dextrose were investigated. None of the combinations of iron and iodine compounds was stable at elevated temperatures. Essentially all of the iodine was lost over a period of six months. SHMP effectively slowed down the iodine loss, whereas magnesium chloride, a typical hygroscopic impurity, greatly accelerated this process. Calcium carbonate did not have a sparing effect on iodine, despite contrary indications in the literature. Ferrous sulfate-fortified salts generally turned yellow and developed an unpleasant rusty flavor. Salt fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium, iodide was reasonably stable and maintained its organoleptic properties, making it more likely to be

  19. Development of Databases with Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and development, thus an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important in pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leadi...

  20. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    ) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during...

  1. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95% by 2005, goiter rates are still high. This study investigated the association between iodine excess and goiter. Methods: In a case control study, urinary iodine levels, complete blood count, T3, T4 and TSH levels were ...

  2. 129I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of metallocene-iodine adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Satoru; Sakai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masanobu; Maeda, Yutaka

    1994-01-01

    A 129 I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iodine adducts of ferrocenophane, biruthenocene, and osmocene is reported. The spectra show the existence of iodine bonded to the central metals of metallocenes in addition to triiodide anions. The valence state of iron in the ferrocenophane-iodine adduct is the same as those of ruthenium and osmium in their adducts. (orig.)

  3. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  4. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine·replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  5. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation | Washington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%

  6. Book review: Use of Stable Iodine in Nuclear Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a radiological or nuclear event, radioactive iodine may be get into the body through respiratory or gastrointestinal systems. In the contaminated cases with radioactive iodine, the radioactive iodine absorbed by the thyroid can injure the gland. Because of the carcinogenic effects of its radiation, there is a significant public health risk in the event of exposure to radioactive iodine. On other hand, due to stable (non-radioactive iodine acts to block radioactive iodine from being taken into the thyroid gland, it can help protect this gland from injury and following side effects. In this query, potassium iodide (also called KI is a salt of stable iodine in a medicine form which is recommended to use sine many years ago. With effective planning and the use of stable iodine prophylaxis, accompanied with other protective implementations, this risk is mostly avoidable. This book contains information such as iodine and physiology kinetic , exposure risk to radioactive iodine, how to use stable iodine in this events , complications attributed to stable(non-radioactive iodine and also at last chapter the final recommendation published by WHO is included.

  7. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  8. Enhanced excretion of radioactive iodine from the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarchuk, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that administration of stable iodine (Lugol solution) accelerates excretion of radioactive iodine from the thyroid. Owing to the fact, all the patients subjected to thyroid scanning with 131 I or those who suffered as a result of NPP accident like the Chernobyl one, should take iodine preparations in conventional treatment-and-prophylactic doses for 3-4 weeks

  9. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  10. Methods to determine iodine plate-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hougaard, H.; Solgaard, P.; Zak, W.

    1986-03-01

    A literature study on iodines behaviour after release from irradiated fuel rods and a detailed dscription of the ventilation system in the hot cell facility form the basis of chosen conditions for some preliminary experiments using non-radioactive iodine. The conclusion states that the system is well suited for the purpose as is the method of sampling from the surface of the ventilation duct, while the releasing technique and the chemical analysis has to be further developed, neutron activation analysis being most promising. (author)

  11. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Considerations regarding iodine prophylaxis in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Rojo, A.M.; Dubner, D.; Bruno, H.

    1995-01-01

    The indication for the blockade of thyroid gland by the administration of stable iodide is the main countermeasure for diminishing the thyroid uptake of radioiodine following radiological accidents with potential release of radioiodine into the environment in order to avoid deterministic effects and to decrease the probability of stochastic effects. Iodine prophylaxis should be considered along with other countermeasures like sheltering indoors, evacuation and control on contaminated foods. In this communication different factors related to accidental situations regarding iodine prophylaxis are evaluated. A therapeutical scheme is proposed in order to be applied in countries of this region. (author). 4 refs

  13. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Reaction of gaseous mercury with molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and iodine oxide radicals - Kinetics, product studies, and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raofie, F.; Snider, G.; Ariya, P.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury is present in the Earth's atmosphere mainly in elemental form. The chemical transformation of mercury in the atmosphere may influence its bioaccumulation in the human food chain as well as its global cycling. We carried out the first kinetic and product studies of the reactions of gaseous mercury with molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and iodine oxide radicals at tropospheric pressure (similar to 740 Torr) and 296 ± 2 K in air and in N2 (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa). Atomic iodine was formed using UV photolysis of CH2I2. IO radicals were formed by the UV photolysis of CH2I2 in the presence of ozone The reaction kinetics were studied using absolute rate techniques with gas chromatographic and mass spectroscopic detection (GC-MS). The measured rate coefficient for the reaction of Hg{0} with I2 was vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometer (CVAFS), and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The major reaction products identified were HgI2, HgO, and HgIO or HgOI. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to both the chemistry of atmospheric mercury and its potential implications in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury.

  15. Iodine-129 in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Moiseev, I.T.

    1987-01-01

    The quantitative ratio of aerial and soil entries of 129 I into plants, parameters of its migration in the system of atmosphere-soil-plants-river water, dynamics of transformation and biological availability of 129 I in soil for plants were studied on the basis of field observations and experiments using the radioactive tracers. The doses of human thyroid gland irradiation by 129 I under atmospheric and soil pathways of its transport into diet are estimated. 129 I content in soil due to its systematic, for 50 years, releases into atmosphere is shown to be negligible, agricultural production contamination by 129 I resulting mainly from its fallout onto overground phytomass. The period, needed to achieve 129 I concentration equilibrium in the atmosphere-soil system under constant average 129 I content in the air, varies depending on the soil type from several hundred years (for podzolic soils) up to several thousand years (for chernozem). The 129 I half-accumulation period is equal to 150 years for soddy-podzolic soil and to 700 years for chernozem. In case of 129 I fallout lasting for 100 years the annual increase of its content in overground phytomass due to the transport from soil will account for 0,3% of its atmospheric entry way for soddy-podzolic soil and for 0,1% for chernozem, respectively. For a number of sierozem, yellow soil and calcareous chernozem types this addition is higher (up to 1%). Under constant iodine-129 concentration in air (1 Bq/m3) the absorbed dose for one-year child's thyroid gland in continental area is approximately equal to 2 (Gy/y)/(Bq/m3). The absorbed dose from globally dissipated 129 I under 99% efficiency of gas purification will not exceed 2·10 -7 Gy/y. The input of globally dissipated 129 I, originating from deep underground disposal of nuclear wastes can account for not more than 10 -9 Gy/y. In total, 129 I releases for the coming century is not going to produce limitations for nuclear energetics development. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 1220.125 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research. 1220.125 Section 1220.125 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.125 Research. The term...

  17. 49 CFR 1.25 - Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationships. 1.25 Section 1.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary § 1.25 Relationships. (a) Normal staff role. Normally, the functions of the Assistant Secretaries...

  18. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. [67 FR 8350, Feb. 22, 2002] ...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.125 - Industry information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry information. 1260.125 Section 1260.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.125 Industry information. Industry information means...

  20. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93 Airplane...

  1. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355 Airplane...

  2. 33 CFR 117.125 - Black River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black River. 117.125 Section 117.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.125 Black River. The following draws need not be...

  3. 40 CFR 1.25 - Staff Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staff Offices. 1.25 Section 1.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.25 Staff Offices. (a) Office of Administrative Law Judges. The Office of...

  4. 33 CFR 125.41 - Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Challenges. 125.41 Section 125.41....41 Challenges. Within five days after receipt of the notice described in § 125.39 the applicant or... notwithstanding the challenge, he shall notify the person who made the challenge and arrange to proceed with the...

  5. 40 CFR 125.92 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 125.92 Section 125.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA AND STANDARDS FOR THE NATIONAL... II Existing Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the Act § 125.92 ...

  6. 40 CFR 125.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 125.2 Section 125.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA AND STANDARDS...-Based Treatment Requirements Under Sections 301(b) and 402 of the Act § 125.2 Definitions. For the...

  7. 34 CFR 303.125 - Fiscal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal control. 303.125 Section 303.125 Education... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Statement of Assurances § 303.125 Fiscal control. The statement must provide assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that such fiscal control and fund accounting procedures...

  8. 14 CFR 125.145 - Firewall construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firewall construction. 125.145 Section 125.145 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Requirements § 125.145 Firewall construction. Each firewall and shroud must— (a) Be so made that no hazardous...

  9. Low iodine content in the diets of hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Preterm formula provided 16.4-28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0-17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered.

  10. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Mao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  11. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuzaki Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  12. Stable iodine prophylaxis. Recommendations of the 2nd UK Working Group on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Working Group reviewed the revised Who guidance and the information published since 1991 on the risks of thyroid cancer in children from radioiodine and the risks of side effects from stable iodine. In particular, it reviewed data compiled on the incidence of thyroid cancers in children following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. It considered whether the NRPB Earls were still appropriate, in the light of the new data. It also reviewed a range of other recommendations given by the 1st Working Group, concerning the chemical form of stable iodine tablets and practical issues concerning implementation of stable iodine prophylaxis. Finally, it reviewed the Patient Information Leaflet that is required, by law, to be included in each box of tablets and provided suggestions for information to be included in a separate information leaflet to be handed out to the public when stable iodine tablets are distributed.

  13. Weight, iodine content and iodine uptake of the thyroid gland of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Various questions arise in the application of ICRP ''Standard Man'' values to Japanese. One of the questions is that ''Standard Man'' values of the thyroid are different from normal Japanese values. A systematic survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal Japanese values of the thyroid. The subjects of search were weight, iodine content and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) of the thyroid. These are important factors in the estimation of the radiation dose of the thyroid caused by internal contamination of radioiodine, and are foreseen to have the difference between Japanese and ''Standard Man''. The result of study suggested that the weight of the thyroid of normal Japanese is about 19 g for adult male and about 17 g for adult female, and that the iodine content is 12-22 mg and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  14. Iodine flow rate measurement for COIL with the chemical iodine generator based on absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weili; Zhang, Yuelong; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Mingxiu; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    A dual-components absorption method based on absorption spectroscopy was described in the paper. It can easily eliminate the influence of the serious contamination and aerosol scattering on IFR measurement by utilizing the absorptions of iodine vapor and chlorine on two different wavelengths respectively. According to the character that there is no other gaseous product in the reaction besides iodine vapor, IFR in real time can be obtained by the connections of the pressure and the flow rate among chlorine remainder, iodine vapor, and the buffer gas. We used this method to measure IFR for the first time at the exit of a chemical iodine generator. The average of IFR is coincident with that calculated by chemical weighting mass.

  15. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  16. Iodine and microbial interactions in an organic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Hawkins, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Iodine-129 in groundwater discharging from a geological disposal vault could accumulate in wetlands by chemical sorption onto low pH, highly organic solid surfaces or by direct or indirect microbial processes. Previous work indicated that saturation of anion sorption sites, microbial toxicity, or swamping of the I reduction/oxidation reaction decreased the retention of a wetland sphagnum for iodine with increased iodine porewater concentrations. Bog water and peat of an iodine-rich bog were studied to elucidate the role of micro-organisms in the retention and accumulation of iodine in a temperate wetland. (author)

  17. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Špalek, Otomar; Čenský, Miroslav; Picková, Irena; Kodymová, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 334, - (2007), s. 167-174 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Grant - others:USAF European Office for Research and Development(XE) FA 8655-05-M-4027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen-iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2007

  18. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser with atomic iodine generated via fluorine atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena; Jakubec, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 1 (2008), 14-22 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen–iodine laser * COIL Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.961, year: 2008

  19. Dissociation of molecular iodine in RF discharge for oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Schmiedberger, Josef; Čenský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2012), 1-6 ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0310 Grant - others:European Office for Aerospace R&D(XE) FA8655-09-1-3092 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : molecular iodine * RF discharge * dissociation * oxygen-iodine laser * COIL Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2012

  20. Removal processes of iodine in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumondy, J.P.; Miquel, P.; Zellner, E.

    1981-09-01

    The principal parameters governing the behaviour of iodine in nuclear fuel processing plants are studied as are the conclusions to be reached for the design of future installations. This behaviour is essentially tied to the operating conditions of the dissolution and to the processing of the gases. It is preferable to desorb the maximum of iodine in the dissolution gases, low flow rate effluent in which it is known how to trap it efficiently and to limit to the minimum the residual quantity of iodine in the dissolution solution, a quantity which spreading throughout the plant as a whole and distributing in numerous effluents becomes very difficult to trap quantitatively. The existing trapping methods, either by chemical scrubbing processes, which are efficient for elemental iodine (alkaline scrubbing) or the organic iodides (Iodox and Mercurex processes), or by physical methods (adsorption on silver impregnated solid materials) should make it possible to obtain the requisite decontamination factors for the next plants, for normal operating conditions and in accidental situations [fr

  1. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  2. High power atomic iodine photodissociation lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.E.; Padrick, T.D.; Jones, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has developed into a system capable of producing nanosecond or shorter pulses of near infrared radiation with energies well in excess of a hundred J. Discussed are the operating characteristics, advantages, and potential problem areas associated with this laser

  3. prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Iodine deficiency causes reduced production of thyroid hormones (T3/T4). A decrease in the serum level of T3/T4 triggers the secretion of high amount of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone, which stimulates thyroid glandular activities that results in enlargement of the gland (9). Thyroid hormones play an ...

  4. The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kanji

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 60 0 C, and 90 -- 100 0 C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 μg/cm 2 . The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

  5. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  6. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  7. Characterization of 125ITSH binding to its receptor in thyroid hyperplasies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, A.C.; Nunes, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    An unpredictable and unbalanced response to a stimulus like TSH is indeed a striking characteristic of the follicles of the simple goiter. Since it is known that the first step for TSH action on its target cell is binding to specific TSH plasma membrane receptors, the binding of 125 ITSH to these receptors was studied in normal and ''cold'' hyperplastic thyroid fragments obtained at surgery. Through the Scatchard analysis it was verified that there are no differences with regard to the binding capacity of TSH receptors between normal and hyperplastic tissues. On the other hand, a significant decrease of the dissociation constant (Kd) was observed in hyperplastic tissue indicating higher affinity for TSH binding. It is known that intracellular iodine content can interfere with the TSH induced modifications on the thyroid folicular cells. It is supposed that this is mediated by interference on TSH binding to its receptor and/or activation of adenylate cyclase. Due to impaired organification capacity of ''cold'' tissue it is assumed that these cells present decreased intracellular iodine content. Therefore it is proposed that alterations of TSH binding to its receptors detected in the present investigation are consequent of the low iodine content of the hyperplastic folicular cell. (author) [pt

  8. Dietary iodine and accumulation of radioiodine in thyroids of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    Groups of hatchling white leghorn cockerels were fed a basic, semisynthetic low-iodine diet to which various amounts of iodide were added: 0 up to 100 μg I/g feed. Growth rates were unaffected by the range of dietary iodine content. A transitory goiter occurred only in the group fed the basic low-I diet. Half-life of 131 I in the thyroid increased directly and fractional turnover rate inversely with increase of dietary iodine. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble iodine in serum did not accurately reflect variation of dietary iodine. However, effective clearance and binding rate constants did decrease proportionally to dietary iodine increase beyond the first 3 to 5 days. Concentration of iodine in thyroid was directly proportional to dietary iodine after 10 days. There was no consistent correlation between thyroxine or triiodothyronine and dietary iodine except in general terms of high and low dietary iodine groups. The avian thyroid exhibits great lability in adjusting functionally to a wide range of dietary iodine contents

  9. WHO's new recommendations about iodine prophylaxis at nuclear catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, Wendla

    1999-01-01

    WHO has prepared new advice about using stable iodine as protection against emission of radioactive iodine from nuclear catastrophes. The experiences from Chernobyl show that the risk for thyroid gland cancer after emission of radio-iodine is significant. The risk of serious side effects of stable iodine as single dose is stated to be minimal. Stable iodine is a safe, effective remedy for protecting the thyroid gland against radioactive iodine. It is recommended to adjust different criteria for iodine prophylaxis for new-born, children, young people and adults older than 40 years. For children of the age up to 18 years iodine prophylaxis should be considered at 10 mGy thyroid gland doses, and for young adults at 100 mGy. For adults of 40 years or more the cancer risk of radioactive iodine is very low and iodine prophylaxis is unnecessary provided that the expected does not exceed 5 Gy. The new information about risk and advantage must be considered in planning for distribution and storage of stable iodine. WHO also commends that everybody has the possibility to buy it in a pharmacy. (EHS)

  10. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  11. Synthesis of the possible receptor Ligand [125I]-spiperone for D2-dopamine receptor and in-vivo biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.M.; Shoukry, M.; Abd EL-Bary, A.

    2009-01-01

    The spiperone is a selective D2-dopamine receptor antagonist radioiodination of spiperone is of interest for dopamine (DA) receptor studies both in vivo and in vitro. The labeling of spiperone with iodine-125 was extremely done in a neutral ph 7, using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent via heating the reaction mixture at 70 C (degree) for 10 - 15 minutes producing radiochemical yield of 97 %. In vivo biodistribution studies showed that the initial brain uptake correlated fairly well with the brain uptake index and that the kinetics of the radioactivity specifically bound to the striatum were strongly influenced by the dopamine receptor binding affinity of the compound. The brain uptake of 125 I-Spiperone was high and equal to 3.5, 3.25,2.75 and 1.7 % per gram tissue at 5, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post injection, respectively. 125 I-Spiperone binds with high affinity to dopamine receptors in vivo. Specific binding is about 65% of the total binding as is displaced stereo-specifically by clozapine. 125 I-spiperone may prove to be a useful ligand in studies examining D2-dopamine receptors. Furthermore iodinated spiperone may be useful in radioreceptor assays of neuroleptic drug levels and, in a 123 I-labeled form, for imaging of dopamine receptors, in vivo, using single photon tomography.

  12. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  13. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... and mortality. Conclusion: Even minor differences in iodine intake between populations are associated with differences in the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Both iodine intake levels below and above the recommended interval are associated with an increase in the risk of disease in the population. Optimally......Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...

  14. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milli was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively...... coupled mass spectrometry. Results: Iodine in tap water varied from 2.1 to 30.2 mu g/l; the iodine content was in general highest in the eastern part of Denmark and lowest in the western part of Denmark. Organic milk was found to have a lower iodine content than non-organic milk. Conclusions: Large...

  15. Evaluation of soil-plant transfer factors of iodine. Estimation of annual ingestion for iodine from the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene.

    1980-11-01

    The author presents the iodine middle contents of the soils and vegetables. A synthesis on the iodine evolution in the soils and vegetables allows to conclude that the vegetable absorption of this isotope is correlated with the isotopiquely exchangeable iodine of the soil. The soil-plant transfer-factors are calculated for the vegetables, cereals, fruits from the stable iodine quantitative analysis. The annual iodine ingestion has been estimated from the dietary of the European Communites areas. This one is a little different of the quantity estimated by CRESTA-LACOURLY-R 2979, yet the contribution by consummation unity is different [fr

  16. The first results of pilot project on combined preventive suplementation of iodine- and iron deficiency conditions in Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sharuho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.

  17. Disturbances of immunological homeostasis induced by radioactive iodine agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, Yu.N.; Norets, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    (CBAxC57B1/6)F 1 mice were injected with 125 I and 131 I-sodium iodide at a dose of 5.74x10 4 Bq/g. For a long time after such treatment the animals manifested an increased level of spleen cells humoral immune response to a foreign antigen (sheep erythrocytes). The autoreactivity of spleen and lymph node lymphocytes to autologous erythrocytes was also elevated. At the same time the selective migration of 51 Cr-labeled spleen lymphocytes to the peripheral lymphoid organs was suppressed. The use of a model system of adoptive cell transfer revealed an increase in the functional activity of cells suppressing a humoral response in mice treated with radiopharmaceuticals. The most pronounced disturbances of immunological reactivity in mice took place 6 mos. after the beginning of the experiment. The results obtained indicated that mechanisms of immune response regulation played a certain role in disturbances of immunological homeostasis induced by radioactive iodine agents

  18. Iodine 123 radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies for in vivo procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.L.; Denardo, S.J.; Denardo, G.L.; Epstein, A.L.; Peng, J.S.; Colcher, D.

    1986-01-01

    When labeled to monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or their fragments, 123 I can be used for imaging or for predicting the treatment potential and radiation dosimetry of 131 I labeled to the same molecular species. Because 123 I (p,5n) from the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory is in dilute solution, when compared with commercial 125 I of labeling grade, we have evaluated labeling parameters using Chloramine-T as the oxidant and derived an optimum set of labeling conditions that provide a 60-80% radiochemical yield of highly immunoreactive antibody. When Lym-1, an IgG-2a murine antibody against human lymphoma, was used, yields of labeled immunoglobulin were decreased by protein or Chloramine-T concentrations less than 0.4 microgram/microliter and 0.8 microgram/microliter, respectively; denaturation of the immunoglobulin occurred when the Chloramine-T concentration was greater than 1.0 microgram/microliter. Optimum labeling occurred at pH 7-8 with deleterious effects when the pH was below 5 or above 10. An optimum method for labeling antibodies with multimillicurie amounts of 123 I (less than one iodine atom per 100 antibody molecules) is described. Some of the observations derived from this study are also applicable to the preparation of treatment doses of 131 I-labeled antibodies, wherein the amount of antibody can be a restrictive factor

  19. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillant, S.; Sheppard, M.I.; Denys, S.; Leclerc Cessac, E.

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a radionuclide of major concern in the international safety assessments for deep geological storage and disposal of nuclear waste because it migrates quickly through the geosphere to the biosphere and then from the soil to humans through the food-chain. However, in organic soils the 129 I may be immobilized over a long time period, and so these soils represent a potential accumulation point in the biosphere. Effects of long residence times of iodine in soils are scarce. The present paper gives some insight on the aging of stable iodine, under natural conditions. Stable iodine was introduced as KI in 1987 at the base of a small natural sphagnum bog to simulate arrival of iodine via a groundwater discharge from the geosphere. Previous data revealed the spread of the iodine outwards spatially from the basal spike and also recorded its rise towards the bog surface. Fifteen years later, the groundwater, the soil and the vegetation have been sampled and analyzed for iodine. The results we will present give insight on the mobility of 'aged' iodine with time, the retention properties of the peat, and provide iodine transfer factors for native boreal plant species. The data show iodine: - continues to slowly spread from the spike after 15 years, - is more strongly retained on the solid phase at the surface than at depth, - the chemical structure of the peat may influence the retention of iodine as shown by NMR analysis, - iodine retention has become greater with time, and - herbaceous species are the greatest accumulators. This study demonstrates bogs present good sinks for iodine and limit the transfer of iodine to some of the 'wildlife' food-chains. (author)

  20. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  1. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caffagni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was

  2. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  3. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all Piodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  4. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  5. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae - linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFiggans, G.; Coe, H.; Burgess, R.; Allan, J.; Cubison, M.; Alfarra, M. R.; Saunders, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M. C.; Wevill, D.; Carpenter, L.; Rickard, A. R.; Monks, P. S.

    2004-05-01

    Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2), (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003), provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000) and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular iodine release from

  6. Iodine Deficiency: Where Are We Now? (Efficiency of Belarusian Strategy in Elimination of Iodine Deficiency: 15-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.V. Mokhort

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the former Soviet republics, which became independent states, there are big differences in the state of iodine provision and in technology to eliminate iodine deficiency in the diet of the population. The publication presents a strategy for the elimination of iodine deficiency, developed and implemented in the Republic of Belarus in order to achieve an adequate level of iodine nutrition in the state. In the Republic of Belarus, 94 % of salt consumption is iodized salt that ensures adequate iodine intake, confirmed by urinary iodine excretion (median 169 mcg/l. The effectiveness of the model for iodine prophylaxis used in Belarus and based on the widespread use of iodized salt in the food industry gives reason to recommend this model for implementation in other countries.

  7. GOITER SURVEY AND URINARY IODINE CONCENTRATION IN SCHOOLCHILDREN AGED 8 TO 10 YEAR OF ISFAHAN PROVINCE IN 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F AZIZI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD is a worldwide health problem. Many parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran had been known as areas of endemic goiter. IDD was accepted as a priority health problem in the country, and a National lDD council was formed in 1989 under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. One of the main strategies of National council for IDD control was to provid at least 150 g of iodine per day to the entire population through making available iodized salt. This study was performed to evaluate the national IDD council program in 1996, in rural and urban areas of Isfahan province. Methods: One thousand and four hundred schoolchildren, aged 8 to 10 year, including 50% girls and 500k boys, were selected through random sampling. Grading of goiter was performed according to WHO"s classification. Serum T3. T 4 and TSH were measured by RIA and uninary iodine by digestion method. Results: The mean of serum T 4. T3 and TSH were 10.2±1.7 µgldl, 166±97 ngldl and 2.7±0.8 µlu/ml, respectively. There were no difference between males and females and schoolchildren of rural and urban areas. 0.6 percent had serum T4 more than 12.5 µg/dl and eight person had TSH more thans 5 µlu/ml. The median urinary iodine was 21 µg/dl in entire population, 76 percent had urinary iodine more than 10 µg/dl. Only 10 percent had urinary iodine less than 5 µg/dl. Total prevalence of goiter was 58 percent (60 percent in girls and 53 percent in boys. Disussion: Based on the available data, seven years after generalized use of iodized salt and 2 years after more than 50 percent of pupulation used iodized salt, uninary iodine of school children in Isfahan province showed sufficient iodine intake. However goiter is still hyperendemic in Isfahan province.

  8. Leak test method and test device for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1995-01-01

    An air introduction device which can change a humidity is disposed upstream of an iodine filter to be tested, and a humidity measuring device is disposed downstream of the iodine filter respectively. At first, dried air reduced with humidity is flown from the air introduction device to the iodine filter, to remove moisture content from an iodine adsorber in the iodine filter. Next, air at an increased humidity is supplied to the iodine filter. The difference between the time starting the supply of the highly humid air and the time detecting the high humidity at the humidity measuring device is measured. When the time difference is smaller than the time difference measured previously in a normal iodine filter, it shows the presence of leak in the iodine filter to be tested. With such procedures, leakage in the iodine filter which removes radioactive iodine from off-gases discharged from the radioactive material handling facilities can be detected easily by using water (steams), namely, a naturally present material. (I.N.)

  9. Stability of added iodine in processed cereal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, B M

    2009-01-01

    The stability of iodine from iodized salt was measured in white bread, grain bread, sweet biscuits and the breakfast cereals, Weetbix (a flaked, pressed, wheat product), Ricies (a puffed rice product) and toasted muesli, as part of the New Zealand Government's initiatives to address the public health issue of low iodine intake by most New Zealanders. Triplicate runs of each product were manufactured by commercial food manufacturers between September 2006 and May 2007 with iodized and non-iodized salt. Triplicate samples were taken at various steps during processing of each food and analysed for moisture and iodine content. Iodine concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following an alkaline digestion. Iodine, at the equivalent of 25-65 mg of iodine per kg salt, was 100% retained in each of the selected foods from the time of mixing to the final product. These results imply that all iodine added via salt at the time of manufacture is available for consumption but not necessarily bioavailable. These data can be used for modelling the impact of strategies to increase iodine exposure. Salt as an ingredient is not a good predictor of iodine intake due to the inhomogeneity of iodine in iodized salt.

  10. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jui Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  11. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-08-23

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  12. Milk as an Essential Source of Iodine in Latvian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimane Lolita Vija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are studied as alternative iodine sources, because salt iodisation is controversial due to high salt consumption leading to cardiovascular diseases. However, the iodine concentration in milk markedly varies. This study evaluated the iodine concentration in cow’s milk available in the Latvian market. Iodine and fat concentration was analysed with a spectrophotometer “Varian Cary 50” based ISO 2446:2008 in 20 milk samples. Data from the Central Statistical Bureau and survey among pregnant women were used to analyse milk product consumption and its impact on iodine status. Average iodine concentration in milk samples was 457.6 (179.6 μg/L, winter samples had a higher concentration of iodine than summer samples: 563.4 (329.6 μg/L and 469.2 (162.0 μg/L, but this is not statistically significant p < 0.05. Iodine concentration in skimmed milk was 490 μg/L, milk with the reduced fat content 501.7 (174.8 μg/L, and whole milk — 422.6 (192.11 μg/L. Milk consumption decreased from 2002 to 2014, while yogurt and cheese consumption increased. Higher consumption of milk and milk products was related to higher urinary iodine concentration ρ = 0.115; p = 0.003. Milk and milk products are an important iodine source in Latvia and their consumption should be promoted.

  13. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  15. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrel, L. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPNS, CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chopin, J. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40{sup o}C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H{sup +} ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I{sub 2}], [IO{sub 3}{sup -}], [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [H{sup +}]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs.

  16. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  17. Preparation and validation of radio iodinated recombinant human IL-10 for the measurement of natural human antibodies against IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lemos Rieper, Carina; Galle, Pia; Svenson, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Radio iodinated recombinant human IL-10 was prepared and validated for the measurement of natural human anti-IL-10 antibodies. Iodination of IL-10 was accomplished by means of the chloramine-T method. The crude tracer was purified by size chromatography as homo-dimeric IL-10 with a specific...... activity of 75 cpm/pg. Validation of the tracer confirmed preserved antibody epitopes and receptor binding ability. A robust Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) was developed and validated to detect natural human anti-IL-10 antibodies based on the formation of (125)I-labeled IL-10-IgG complexes in solution...... and separation of the complexes by chromatography on mini-columns. The RIA was applied to 3360 plasma samples derived from normal Danish blood donors. Generally, IL-10 did not bind to plasma factors other than natural anti-IL-10 IgG antibodies. The prevalence of donors high positive for antibodies against IL-10...

  18. Preparation and animal testing of 125-I-IMP as a scintigraphic agent for brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qun; Lin Xiangtong; Zhou Yiguo; Zhu Tong; Liu Yongchang; Xue Fangpin; Jin Zhongping

    1988-01-01

    RS-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) is radio-iodinated by isotopic exchange using Cu (I) as catalyst in presence of an excess of Sn (II) as reductor. The metod is simple and fast. A quantitative (99%) labelling yield of 125 I-IMP can be obtained within 30 minutes. Free ionic 125 I is less than 3%. After ether extraction, radiochemical purity is greater than 98%, free ionic 125 I 125 I-IMP in Spragne-Dawlay rat, the brain uptake is prompt, with 1.32%/g of the injected dose reaching the brain by 5 min and peak uptake (1.49%/g) at 1h. There is a slight fall in brain activity after 3h. At all times the brain-to-blood ratio is more than 12. After the administration the highest radioactivity ratios of brain/blood, brain/skeletal muscle and brain/bone are 17.5, 5 and 9 at 30-60 min respectively

  19. Preparation of 125I-lipiodol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jin; Jin Xiaohai; Chen Daming; Bei Hongsheng; Liu Yuemin; Wang Fan

    1995-01-01

    An isotopic exchange method has been used to label lipiodol with 125 I. The labelling efficiency is more than 92% in the optimum condition (using ethanol as reaction medium, 100 degree C, 20 min) and the radiochemical purity of 125 I-lipiodol is above 98% as determined by TLC and HPLC. The labelling process does not change the chemical structure of lipiodol. The 125 I-lipiodol is stable at least in one month at room temperature

  20. Effects of Adequate Iodine Supply on the Incidence of Iodine-Induced Thyroid Disorders in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk, Vid; Zaletel, Katja; Pirnat, Edvard; Hojker, Sergej; Gaberšček, Simona

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the changes in the incidence and characteristics of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (II-Hyper) and iodine-induced hypothyroidism (II-Hypo) in the two-year period before and the 10-year period after the increase in mandatory salt iodization from the previous 10 mg/kg of potassium iodide to 25 mg/kg in 1999. Furthermore, the aim was to determine the duration of treatment in II-Hyper patients, since no data regarding severity and treatment of II-Hyper with respect to iodine supply are available. This retrospective study reviewed medical records of 885 Slovenian patients first diagnosed with II-Hyper or II-Hypo between 1998 and 2009 at the Thyroid Department of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. II-Hyper and II-Hypo were diagnosed by one out of 10 senior internal medicine specialists. The diagnosis was based on an adequate patient history, and laboratory measurements of thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, and thyroid antibodies. In most cases, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy were performed. Demographic characteristics and the type and the duration of treatment were also reviewed. The incidence of II-Hypo was significantly higher after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p hyperthyroidism decreased, predominantly due to the increased proportion of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (p = 0.007 and p = 0.015, respectively). The duration of treatment with antithyroid drugs and perchlorate was significantly shorter after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). A significantly positive correlation between the year of the occurrence of excessive iodine intake (EII)-induced thyroid disease and the duration of treatment with amiodarone was found (R = 0.132; p = 0.048), suggesting that the longer the patients had an adequate iodine supply, the longer they could take amiodarone before EII-induced thyroid disorder developed. After the

  1. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  2. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, Vit; Spalek, Otomar; Censky, Miroslav; Pickova, Irena; Kodymova, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    A method of the chemical generation of atomic iodine for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) using atomic fluorine as a reaction intermediate was studied experimentally. This method is based on the reaction between F 2 and NO providing F atoms, and the reaction of F with HI resulting in iodine atoms generation. Atomic iodine was produced with efficiency exceeding 40% relative to initial F 2 flow rate. This efficiency was nearly independent on pressure and total gas flow rate. The F atoms were stable in the reactor up to 2 ms. An optimum ratio of the reactants flow rates was F 2 :NO:HI = 1:1:1. A rate constant of the reaction of F 2 with HI was determined. The numerical modelling showed that remaining HI and IF were probably consumed in their mutual reaction. The reaction system was found suitable for employing in a generator of atomic iodine with its subsequent injection into a supersonic nozzle of a COIL

  3. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  4. Development of portable methyl iodine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qun; Wang Ruiyun; Gao Xiaomei; Jia Ming; Guo Chuangcheng; Wu Tao; Liu Zhaofeng; Qiu Dangui

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive methyl iodide method is one of the important ways to test iodine adsorber. The methyl iodide generator is the key equipment in this method. The structure, technical specifications and results of performance tests of a self-made generator are introduced. The generator is comprised of methyl iodide generator body, pneumatic control system and negative pressure box with accessories. The results of 'hot best' showed that all operating parameters could be controlled within normal range, the generating flow-rate was stable, and the generating rate and purity of the methyl iodide could meet the requirements of iodine adsorber test. In addition, safety protection system and off-gas clean system were designed in the generator to effectively avoid radioactive gas escaping outside. The generator is portable with small size and light weight, which is convenient for on site use

  5. Investigation of the radioecology of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Very sensitive analytical methods for I-129 were developed for different sample materials. - The behaviour of I-129 in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant and its release was completely investigated. - A longterm risk for the population caused by I-129 is not excpected. An existing environmental contamination with I-129 is reduced by a half-life of 0,3 y. The exposure of the population via the pasture-cow-milk path until now was overstimated at least by a factor 45. - In the environmental air of Kiel, Stade, Karlsruhe, Gundremmingen and Munich elemental iodine and iodine aerosols were measured. In the environmental air of Karlsruhe CH 3 127 I was determined. (orig./RW) [de

  6. The 2016 iodine pill distribution campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmestre, A.; Le Guen, B.

    2016-01-01

    The last iodine pills were distributed in february 2009, they are now outdated and a new campaign has been launched. Each family will receive a voucher to recover iodine pills from the nearby pharmacy. The aim of this new campaign is of course to protect people in case of severe nuclear accident but also to develop a radiation protection culture among the population. During the previous campaign only 51% of the concerned people went to the pharmacy to get the pills. The 2016 campaign will involve the public and all the establishments open to the public in a range of 10 km around each of the 19 nuclear power plants. It concerns 500 municipalities, 375.000 households, 55.000 enterprises and public utilities and 275 pharmacies are involved in the campaign. (A.C.)

  7. Radiosensitizers action on Iodine 131 therapeutical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agote, Marcos; Kreimann, Erica L.; Bocanera, Laura V.; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.

    1999-01-01

    Present studies were aimed to research the possible application of a radiosensitizer, nicotinamide, to increase the therapeutical effect of radioiodine. There were used goitrous and normal rats with growing dose of Iodine 131, with and without simultaneous treatment with nicotinamide. The obtained results show that the nicotinamide treatment importantly increases the thyroid radio destructive effect induced by radioiodine. Under these experimental conditions, nicotinamide induces to a significant increase of thyroid vascularisation, without changes in the proteins ADP-ribosylation activity. These results show, for the first time, the radiosensitizer effect of nicotinamide in front of Iodine 131 and give the possibility of using it in the treatment of hyperthyroid or thyroid difference cancer patients. (author)

  8. European commission research activities on iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, E. della [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs.

  9. The reaction of polyaniline with iodine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Blinova, Natalia V.; Konyushenko, Elena; Reynaud, S.; Prokeš, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 180-185 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 847; GA AV ČR IAA4050313; GA AV ČR IAA400500504 Grant - others:Eco-net project(FR) 16256SA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * iodine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2008

  10. European commission research activities on iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loggia, E. della

    1996-01-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs

  11. Iodine containment by dousing in NPD-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, L.C.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hoelke, C.W.

    1960-10-01

    A laboratory investigation has shown that water dousing ensures that most of the iodine in a steam iodine mixture introduced into a volume of air in which dousing is occurring is transferred to the liquid phase. The distribution ratio pf iodine between air and water is approximately 10 -4 immediately after dousing. Equilibrium with a volatile form of iodine sorbable on charcoal is achieved within five minutes. The distribution is show to be independent of water quality at low ( -6 M) iodine concentration. The results are of interest in assessing the safety of the NPD-II reactor in which dousing is done to limit pressure rise in the Boiler Room in the event of rupture of a major high-pressure line carrying hot heavy-water coolant. Such rupture may result in fuel failure with consequent release of volatile fission products, including iodine. (author)

  12. Advances in Synthetic Applications of Hypervalent Iodine Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Akira; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2016-03-09

    The preparation, structure, and chemistry of hypervalent iodine compounds are reviewed with emphasis on their synthetic application. Compounds of iodine possess reactivity similar to that of transition metals, but have the advantage of environmental sustainability and efficient utilization of natural resources. These compounds are widely used in organic synthesis as selective oxidants and environmentally friendly reagents. Synthetic uses of hypervalent iodine reagents in halogenation reactions, various oxidations, rearrangements, aminations, C-C bond-forming reactions, and transition metal-catalyzed reactions are summarized and discussed. Recent discovery of hypervalent catalytic systems and recyclable reagents, and the development of new enantioselective reactions using chiral hypervalent iodine compounds represent a particularly important achievement in the field of hypervalent iodine chemistry. One of the goals of this Review is to attract the attention of the scientific community as to the benefits of using hypervalent iodine compounds as an environmentally sustainable alternative to heavy metals.

  13. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of hyperthyroidism...

  14. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  15. Outcome of hyperthyroidism treated by radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shaikh, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    To study the outcome of Radioactive Iodine (RAI) in treatment of hyperthyroidism. It is a retrospective study of all patients of hyperthyroidism treated by Radioactive Iodine (RAI) seen in endocrinology clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and Dr. Soliman Fageeh Hospital in Jeddah, Saudia Arabia. Two hundred and sixteen (216) patients were treated by RAI. They proved to have hyperthyroidism by thyroid function test (TSH, FT4 and T3) and isotopes scanning of the thyroid gland. All received 10 mci of RAI and were then followed up after one month and every two months thereafter for at least one year. The efficacy of the therapy was assessed by the improvement of the clinical features and by the thyroid function tests. A total of 216 patients were seen, the mean age was 36.5+- 10.64 years. One hundred fifty three were female and sixty three were male. Graves disease was the underlying cause in 163 patients [65.55%], toxic multi nodular goiter in 37 patients [25.1%] and toxic adenoma in 16 patients [9.3%]. The symptoms improved after one month only in 11 patients but others required antithyroid treatment for two months. Only 17 patients remained hyperthyroid after six months of treatment. Radioactive iodine is very effective in treatment of hyperthyroidism with minor side effects such as weight gain, fatigability and hypothyroidism. (author)

  16. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  17. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic, providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India.

  18. Special syntheses of certain organic iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.; Debuchy, D.; Junod, E.

    1960-01-01

    The technical difficulties encountered in working on radioactive products force us to choose the simplest methods of chemical synthesis possible. For iodine compounds, two special methods have been chosen: - by using fission recoil, we can prepare simple iodine compounds such as iodobenzene or methyl iodide in high yields and having a good degree of purity. The method consists in the irradiation of mixtures of uranium oxide and benzoic acid or ammonium acetate. The iodised product is separated by distillation, after dissolving the recoil medium in a solvent. - by isotopic exchange between the inorganic iodine of different valencies and complex molecules such as Bengal pink, and diodone, it is also possible to obtain satisfactory labelling yields. These reactions have been adapted so as to give a minimum time for isotopic exchange. In the case of Bengal pink, we have found a yield of 90 per cent after 60 minutes by exchange between Nal and the organic molecule in aqueous solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide. For diodone the method proposed by Liebster has been modified so as to reduce losses during purification. The analytical methods adopted for these different compounds are described. (author) [fr

  19. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  20. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  1. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  2. Transient thyroid dysfunction caused by excessive iodine intake

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 清; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency affects almost one billion of people worldwide, and is by far the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Japan is unique in that there are no single patients with hypothyroidism due to nutritional iodine deficiency. Thyroid abnormalities induced by excessive iodine intake, however, is not infrequent in Japan. We report here a case of young woman with severe hypothyroidism. Symptoms such as weight gain, edema, amenorrhea, and constipation were accompanied. She had habitual excessiv...

  3. Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    from a 200 W Hall Effect Thruster fueled by iodine vapor was analyzed. The plasma source included a laboratory propellant feed system and a laboratory...distribution is unlimited Abstract • The plasma plume from a 200 W Hall Effect Thruster fueled by iodine vapor was analyzed. • The plasma source... pressure with I2 – Plume divergence lower with I2 – Dimers (I2+) measured at beam centroid (a few %) Iodine Xenon 7 Distribution A: Approved for public

  4. Effects of Potassium Iodate Application on the Biomass and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    The increase in iodine concentration in water leaf ranged from 61.59 ± 0.24 to 73.41 ± 0.83. µg/100 g in week 4 and 62.06 ± 0.09 to 96.25 ± 0.025 µg/100 g in week 6. From the results, the vegetables treated with 40 µg/l potassium iodate showed the highest iodine level in week 4. These results from this iodine biofortification ...

  5. Role of iodine in pathogenesis of thyroid disease - is induction of apoptosis consequence of iodine cytotoxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is one of the best-characterized environmental factors associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD. Epidemiological studies have shown that ATD incidence has increased following the introduction of salt iodination in the 1920s; in addition, ATD patients can improve upon iodine restriction. In animal models such as BioBreeding/Worcester and Buffalo rats, obese chicken strain, and non-obese diabetic H-2h4 mice, excess iodine is associated with autoimmunity. Analyses of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT have shown enlarged number of apoptotic follicular cells, and the destruction is an effect of death receptormediated apoptosis. Excess of iodine induces rapid apoptosis of goitrogen Wistar pretreated rats, possibly connected with inhibition of polyamine synthesis, inhibitors of DNA fragmentation. Percentage of apoptotic cells was statistically higher in patients with HT than in those with euthyroid goiter, with significant increase of caspase 32. Genes for Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are under the transcriptional control of p53. In TAD-2 cell cultures, apoptosis is p53-independed, suggesting that DNA damage is not primarily evoked by potassium iodide (KI. High concentrations of NaI increase the proportion of apoptotic cells in FTRL5 thyroid cell line. Iodide cytotoxicity is inhibited by a TPO inhibitor and is relieved with an anti-oxidant agent. Chronic iodine excess induces apoptosis and necrosis of thyroid follicular and endothelial cells, leading to thyroglobulin accumulation in connective tissue. Iodide excess requires peroxidase enzymatic activity to induce apoptosis. Ionic iodide is not directly toxic, whereas its molecular form I2 mediates the apoptotic effect of KI. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI-175059

  6. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  7. Electric Discharge and Afterglow Kinetics for Laser Mixtures with Carbon Monoxide, Oxygen and Iodine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ionin, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    ... lasers, for producing electrically excited oxygen and for obtaining iodine atoms via iodine dissociation, which can be extremely useful for the development of the electrically assisted oxygen-iodine laser...

  8. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  9. Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Ismail, Hasimah; Yusof, Rafidah; Muhi, Jamail; Lim, Kuang Hock; Foo, Leng Huat

    2017-01-01

    In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod. In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

  10. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate iodine intake in Japanese infants, iodine contents were determined in both commercial and homemade baby food samples consumed in Japan. Fifty-three samples of commercial bottled or retort baby food and 25 samples of homemade baby food for one day were collected and their iodine contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after an extraction with 0.5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Among the commercial baby food samples, 35 samples showed low iodine values ( 1000 ng/g wet weight. Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp than other samples. Among the homemade baby food samples, 12 samples brought very low iodine intake (< 1- 24 μg/d, while 5 samples brought very high iodine intake (283-978 μg/d. These results indicate that intermittent high iodine baby food including dishes cooked using kombu contributes to sufficient iodine intake in Japanese infants.

  11. Gravimetric determination of the iodine number of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a gravimetric method for the determination of the iodine adsorption number of carbon black. It comprises determining the concentration of an accurately weighed iodine blank solution by adding a standardized titrant to the iodine solution until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the iodine solution by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, accurately weighing an amount of carbon black and adding an appropriate amount of an accurately weighed portion of the iodine solution, equilibrating the carbon black-iodine solution mixture, adding the standardized titrant to an accurately weighed portion of the supernatant from the carbon black-iodine mixture until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the supernatant by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, wherein the titration endpoint of the supernatant is obtained using an indicating and a reference electrode, and calculating the iodine adsorption number of the carbon black based on the gravimetrically determined concentration of the titrant, the iodine solution, and the supernatant

  12. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design of...

  13. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.125 Section 4279.125 Agriculture... Interest rates. The interest rate for the guaranteed loan will be negotiated between the lender and the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more...

  14. 9 CFR 3.125 - Facilities, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, general. 3.125 Section 3.125 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

  16. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated the...

  17. 50 CFR 300.125 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contrasting color to the background at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) in height for fishing vessels over 65 ft (19....125 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.125 Vessel identification...

  18. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age living in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Soboleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the assessment of iodine status and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age. In this regard, we examined 200 individuals from 18 up to 44 years old living in Saint Petersburg for more than 3 years permanently. Most of the examined individuals had mild iodine deficiency, less than half of people of reproductive age (46 % used iodized salt at home. Goiter was found by palpation in 8 % of participants. More than half of the surveyed individuals are women of reproductive age who are at risk for the development of iodine deficiency disorders. Our data reflect an unfavorable situation in fight against iodine deficiency disorders in Saint Petersburg. Probably, the voluntary model of using iodized salt as the prevention of iodine deficiency in the Russian Federation is not effective enough.

  19. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Steenweg- de Graaff, J.; Peeters, R.P.; Ross, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; White, T.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that

  20. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Wim; Holwerda, Harmen T; Khodabaks, Rashied

    2010-04-15

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce, grown in water culture. In both a winter and summer trial, dose rates of 0, 13, 39, 65, and 90 or 129 microg iodine L(-1), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) or iodide (I(-)), did not affect plant biomass, produce quality or water uptake. Increases in iodine concentration significantly enhanced iodine content in the plant. Iodine contents in plant tissue were up to five times higher with I(-) than with IO(3)(-). Iodine was mainly distributed to the outer leaves. The highest iodide dose rates in both trials resulted in 653 and 764 microg iodine kg(-1) total leaf fresh weight. Biofortification of lettuce with iodine is easily applicable in a hydroponic growing system, both with I(-) and IO(3)(-). I(-) was more effective than IO(3)(-). Fifty grams of iodine-biofortified lettuce would provide, respectively, 22% and 25% of the recommended daily allowance of iodine for adolescents and adults. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.