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  1. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  2. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  3. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  5. Simple Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and international public. The exhibition Simple Interactions. Sound Art from Japan presents works by 9 Japanese artists at the Museum of Contemporary Art Roskilde. The exhibition mixes installations, performances and documentations, all of which examine how simple interactions can create complex systems...... and patterns. Works and performances by the following artists are presented: Yuji DOGANE - Yukio FUJIMOTO - Atsuhiro ITO - Soichiro MIHARA - Atsushi NISHIJIMA - Jio SHIMIZU - Toshiya TSUNODA - Tetsuya UMEDA - Miki YUI The book presents texts by Minoru HATANAKa; Takashi KOJIMA, Rune SØCHTING and the editors...

  6. Crossing simple resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  7. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  8. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  9. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  10. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  11. Droids Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  12. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  13. Working with Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  14. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  15. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  16. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  17. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  18. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  19. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  20. Working with simple machines

    OpenAIRE

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that students can evaluate their usefulness as machines.

  1. The simple complex numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zalesny, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  2. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  3. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  4. ASP made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their

  5. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    -divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple.......e., an innovation that is important for the firm beyond the divisional boundaries, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, on average, a non-significant effect of cross-divisional embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. Yet, both cross...

  6. Dimensional analysis made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own. (paper)

  7. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  8. Simple and surgical exodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBowes, Linda J

    2005-07-01

    Preemptive and postoperative pain management is part of patient care when performing extractions. Simple extractions can become complicated when tooth roots are fractured. Adequate lighting,magnification, and surgical techniques are important when per-forming surgical (complicated) extractions. Radiographs should be taken before extractions and also during the procedure to assist with difficult extractions. Adequate flap design and bone removal are necessary when performing surgical extractions. Complications, including ocular trauma, jaw fracture, and soft tissue trauma, are avoided or minimized with proper patient selection and technique.

  9. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  10. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2017-04-01

    A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

  11. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  12. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  13. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  14. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-10-01

    Qualitatively, entropy is simple. What it is, why it is useful in understanding the behavior of macro systems or of molecular systems is easy to state: Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. The conventional q in qrev/T is the energy dispersed to or from a substance or a system. On a molecular basis, entropy increase means that a system changes from having fewer accessible microstates to having a larger number of accessible microstates. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. The foregoing in no way denies the subtlety or the difficulty presented by entropy in thermodynamics—to first-year students or to professionals. However, as an aid to beginners in their quantitative study of thermodynamics, the qualitative conclusions in this article give students the advantage of a clear bird’s-eye view of why entropy increases in a wide variety of basic cases: a substance going from 0 K to T, phase change, gas expansion, mixing of ideal gases or liquids, colligative effects, and the Gibbs equation. See Letter re: this article.

  15. Quasispecies made simple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J J Bull

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  16. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  17. Simple inflationary quintessential model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry, we present a non-geodesically past complete model of our Universe without the big bang singularity at finite cosmic time, describing its evolution starting from its early inflationary era up to the present accelerating phase. We found that a hydrodynamical fluid with nonlinear equation of state could result in such scenario, which after the end of this inflationary stage, suffers a sudden phase transition and enters into the stiff matter dominated era, and the Universe becomes reheated due to a huge amount of particle production. Finally, it asymptotically enters into the de Sitter phase concluding the present accelerated expansion. Using the reconstruction technique, we also show that this background provides an extremely simple inflationary quintessential potential whose inflationary part is given by the well-known 1-dimensional Higgs potential, i.e., a double well inflationary potential, and the quintessential one by an exponential potential that leads to a deflationary regime after this inflation, and it can depict the current cosmic acceleration at late times. Moreover the Higgs potential leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which fit well with the latest Planck estimations. Further, we compared our viable potential with some known inflationary quintessential potential, which shows that our quintessential model, that is, the Higgs potential combined with the exponential one, is an improved version of them because it contains an analytic solution that allows us to perform all analytic calculations. Finally, we have shown that the introduction of a nonzero cosmological constant simplifies the potential considerably with an analytic behavior of the background which again permits us to evaluate all the quantities analytically.

  18. Una historia muy simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Mazzini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voy a contarles una historia muy simple. Probablemente no les parecerá nada espe- cial y no quiero robarles tiempo, así que voy a tratar de hacerlo lo más rápido posible. Me inscribí en psicología porque eso hizo mi mejor amiga. Éramos compañeras desde jardín de infantes y siempre la seguí en todo. En tercer año de facultad conoció a su novio y continuó sus estudios en otro país; por primera vez no podía seguirla. Cuando rendí todos los exámenes, el profesor me preguntó si estaba interesada en hacer mi tesis sobre el perfil psicológico de los participantes de reality shows. Accedí para no tener que pensar en otro tema, aunque no veía mucho la televisión porque me pasaba las noches entre los libros de estudio. Enseguida me di cuenta de que, evidentemente, el profesor había firmado un contrato con la emisora: a él lo empleaban y y yo era la que iba a tener que trabajar, pero no me importaba. La tesis de licenciatura no es más que eso y hay que hacerla. Yo evaluaba los candidatos y elegía a los participantes que vivirían juntos duran- te algunos meses. Como hacían el programa con una licencia extranjera y ya sabían qué le interesaba a la audiencia, yo tenía preparados los rasgos de los perfiles psicológicos que en ese aislamiento colectivo no resultan bien. Tuve que elegir gente variada, pero dentro de la media; nunca nada verdaderamente especial. Cuando me gradué, tuve las noches libres: de pronto tenía mucho más tiempo y podía haber visto el programa, pero ya había terminado. Pero oí que había sido todo un éxito y que sobre todo a los chicos les había encantado el reality y los participantes elegidos.

  19. Simple improvements of a simple solution for inverting resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.R.J. van der Laag

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we address some simple improvements of the algorithm of Rouveirol and Puget [1989] for inverting resolution. Their approach is based on automatic change of representation called flattening and unflattening of clauses in a logic program. This enables a simple implementation

  20. SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR · COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS · COMPLEXITY IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS · DISORDER, CRITICALITY and ORDER IN EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS · COARSENING PHENOMENA · NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES · ORDERING INDUCED BY RANDOM DRIVING.

  1. The importance of simple microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, S

    2000-08-01

    A case of severe neonatal anaemia, the cause of which was found to be severe fetomaternal haemorrhage is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by simple microscopic examination of the maternal blood using the technique of acid elution, the Kleihauer-Betke test. In the differential diagnosis of anaemia of a newborn, the diagnosis of fetomaternal haemorrhage must be considered and the simple Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed on the maternal blood as soon as possible.

  2. Simple machines made simple a teacher resource manual

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Ralph E St

    1993-01-01

    This book allows you to present scientific principles and simple mechanics through hands-on cooperative learning activities. Using inexpensive materials (e.g., tape, paper clips), students build simple machines-such as levers, pulleys, spring scales, gears, wheels and axles, windmills, and wedges-that demonstrate how things work. Activities have easy-to-locate materials lists, time requirements, and step-by-step directions (usually illustrated) on presentation. Ideas for bulletin boards, learning centers, and computer-assisted instruction are an added bonus.

  3. SimpleETL: ETL Processing by Simple Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Thomsen, Christian; Torp, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    where an organization upon request must delete all data about an individual. Another requirement is when facts are updated retrospectively. In this paper, we present the general framework SimpleETL which is currently used for Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processing in a company with such requirements....... SimpleETL automatically handles all database interactions such as creating fact tables, dimensions, and foreign keys. The framework also has features for handling version management of facts and implements four different methods for handling deleted facts. The framework enables, e.g., data scientists...

  4. Simple arithmetic: not so simple for highly math anxious individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low—compared to high—math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less—a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. PMID:29140499

  5. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Simple Echoes and Subtle Reverberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2010-01-01

    Reverberation within an enclosed space can be viewed as a superposition of a large number of simple echoes. The echoes that make up the sound of reverberation fall neatly into two categories, relatively loud and sparse early reflections, and relatively soft and dense late reflections. Ways in which readily available music production software can…

  7. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  8. Simple Machines in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…

  9. Curious Consequences of Simple Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 1. Curious Consequences of Simple Sequences. A K Mallik. General Article Volume 12 Issue 1 January 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. A K Mallik1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India.

  10. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  11. Emergence Issues - not so simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Emergence Issues - not so simple. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Vol 56 No 2 Supplement 1. Introduction. Emergence from anaesthesia is by definition the process of return to baseline physiological function of all organ systems after cessation of administration of general anaesthesia and is the stage from ...

  12. Model pseudopotential in simple metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, K.N.; Sharma, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    The model potential proposed by Sharma and Srivastava has been used to study the various properties of simple metals. New core radii have also been reported corresponding to three dielectric functions. For most metals, the model potential successfully describes the atomic properties. (author)

  13. The 'simple' general dental anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient who receives dental treatment under general anaesthesia is usually a child, one with special needs, or one who requires an extensive dental procedure. The term 'simple' general dental anaesthetic is therefore a misnomer. The concept of procedural sedation for dentistry is beyond the scope of this article. It.

  14. HEMATOLOGIC CHANGES FOLLOWING SIMPLE EXODONTIA,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematologic studies were carried out on 90 systemically healthy, young adult males, some of whom underwent a simple exodontic experience. In one...after exodontia . In the 4-hour study significant changes following extraction were noted for white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, hematocrit

  15. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  16. Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grive, Mireia; Domenech, Cristina; Montoya, Vanessa; Garcia, David; Duro, Lara

    2010-09-01

    This document is a guide for users of the Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool. The Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool has been developed by Amphos 21 to determine the solubility limits of some radionuclides and it has been especially designed for Performance Assessment exercises. The development of this tool has been promoted by the necessity expressed by SKB of having a confident and easy-to-handle tool to calculate solubility limits in an agile and relatively fast manner. Its development started in 2005 and since then, it has been improved until the current version. This document describes the accurate and preliminary study following expert criteria that has been used to select the simplified aqueous speciation and solid phase system included in the tool. This report also gives the basic instructions to use this tool and to interpret its results. Finally, this document also reports the different validation tests and sensitivity analyses that have been done during the verification process

  17. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  18. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  19. Simple and Realistic Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth Houkjær; Torp, Kristian; Wind, Rico

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic, DBMS independent, and highly extensible relational data generation tool. The tool can efficiently generate realistic test data for OLTP, OLAP, and data streaming applications. The tool uses a graph model to direct the data generation. This model makes it very simple...... to generate data even for large database schemas with complex inter- and intra table relationships. The model also makes it possible to generate data with very accurate characteristics....

  20. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  1. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  2. Simple waves in Hertzian chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, B Edward; Calvo, David

    2012-06-01

    The discrete system of equations for a chain consisting of a large number of spheres interacting via the Hertz force of index 3/2 in strain is examined in the very long wavelength limit, yielding an effective medium description. The resulting continuum second-order equation of motion possesses a subset of simple waves obeying a first-order equation of reduced index 5/4. These simple waves appear not to have examined before. For a given initial strain, the simple wave solution prescribes initial sphere centroid velocities. Together the initial strain and velocities are used in the second-order discrete system. Results for shock wave development compare very well between the second-order discrete system (minus physically valid oscillations) and the reduced first-order equation. A second-order simulation of colliding waves examines the ability of waves to pass through each other, with a phase advance accruing during the collision process. An arbitrary initial condition is shown to evolve toward a universal similarity solution proportional to (x/t)(4). A closed-form solution is given including the complete history of the waveform, shock location, and amplitude.

  3. Development of simple neutron counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, S.; Hirota, K.

    2014-01-01

    Position sensitive neutron detectors are used for neutron scattering, neutron imaging, and neutron radiography. Developments in neutron detectors are mainly focused on spatial resolution and high counting rate in these fields. After the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, many simple radiation counters are now marketed in Japan and are useful for estimating the radiation level. However, no simple, equivalent device exists for neutron measurements. In this work, we have developed simple neutron counters (LiM counter and HeM counter) with the following features. In the LiM counter, a 6 Li glass scintillator is employed as a neutron converter for a large dynamic range. A silicon photon MPPC (multi-pixel photon counter) detector is used separately for photon counting, thus reducing the size of the device. In the HeM counter, a 3 He neutron detector is employed. Both counters employ a pulse-height analysis function for ensuring reliable data and display the pulse-height distribution on a graphical liquid crystal display (G-LCD). The LiM counter can be used for about 6 h using a battery, operating at 264 mA and 5.1 V. (author)

  4. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond S. Ingebrigtsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS. This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r^{-n} pair potentials with n=18,6,4, Lennard-Jones (LJ models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture, the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be

  5. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r-n pair potentials with n=18,6,4), Lennard-Jones (LJ) models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture), the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be characterized in three quite

  6. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  7. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  8. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  9. Computer electronics made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdillon, J F B

    1975-01-01

    Computer Electronics: Made Simple Computerbooks presents the basics of computer electronics and explains how a microprocessor works. Various types of PROMs, static RAMs, dynamic RAMs, floppy disks, and hard disks are considered, along with microprocessor support devices made by Intel, Motorola and Zilog. Bit slice logic and some AMD bit slice products are also described. Comprised of 14 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of hardware design, followed by a discussion on the basic building blocks of hardware (NAND, NOR, AND, OR, NOT, XOR); tools and equipment that

  10. Systems analysis made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Antill, Lyn

    1980-01-01

    Systems Analysis: Made Simple Computerbooks introduces the essential elements of information systems analysis and design and teaches basic technical skills required for the tasks involved. The book covers the aspects to the design of an information system; information systems and the organization, including the types of information processing activity and computer-based information systems; the role of the systems analyst; and the human activity system. The text also discusses information modeling, socio-technical design, man-machine interface, and the database design. Software specification

  11. iPad Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin; Learning, MSL Made Simple

    2010-01-01

    The new iPad is sleek, powerful, and most importantly, it's much more than just a big iPhone. Your iPad is can be used for reading, surfing the web, emailing, watching TV/Movies, getting work done, and much more. And with the upcoming wave of iPad apps, the possibilities are endless. iPad X Made Simple clarifies all of the key features on the iPad, introduces what's new, and also reveals dozens of time-saving shortcuts and techniques. The book has over 1,000 screen shots that are carefully annotated with step-by-step instructions. * Clear instructions on how to set up and use the iPad * Illust

  12. The simple approach to deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.O.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a simple top hat plume model in conjunction with the principle of source depletion facilitates an analytical treatment of the deposition problem. With such a model, explicit formulae for downwind deposition amounts and ground level atmospheric concentrations are given. The method has the advantage of allowing estimates of the most unfavorable parameter combinations for, say, the maximum deposition that can occur at a given distance from the source. With regard to the land contamination problem, where an area is defined as 'contaminated' when the amount of deposited material is greater than some minimum value, estimates of, for example, the maximum area contaminated and the maximum amount of contamination deposited will also be given

  13. Methadone radioimmunoassay: two simple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.; Smith, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple and economical radioimmunoassays for methadone in blood or urine are described. Haemolysis, decomposition, common anticoagulants and sodium fluoride do not affect the results. One assay used commercially-available [1- 3 H](-)-methadone hydrobromide as the label, while the other uses a radioiodinated conjugate of 4-dimethylamino-2,2-diphenylpentanoic acid and L-tyrosine methyl ester. A commercially-available antiserum is used in both assays. Normethadone and α-methadol cross-react to a small extent with the antiserum while methadone metabolites, dextropropoxyphene, dipipanone and phenadoxone have negligible cross-reactivities. The 'cut-offs' of the two assays as described are 30 and 33 ng ml -1 for blood, and 24 and 21 ng ml -1 for urine. The assay using the radioiodinated conjugate can be made more sensitive if required by increasing the specific activity of the label. (author)

  14. Simple scheme for gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple scheme for constructing models that achieve successful gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In addition to our previous work [H. Murayama and Y. Nomura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 151803 (2007)] that proposed drastically simplified models using metastable vacua of supersymmetry breaking in vectorlike theories, we show there are many other successful models using various types of supersymmetry-breaking mechanisms that rely on enhanced low-energy U(1) R symmetries. In models where supersymmetry is broken by elementary singlets, one needs to assume U(1) R violating effects are accidentally small, while in models where composite fields break supersymmetry, emergence of approximate low-energy U(1) R symmetries can be understood simply on dimensional grounds. Even though the scheme still requires somewhat small parameters to sufficiently suppress gravity mediation, we discuss their possible origins due to dimensional transmutation. The scheme accommodates a wide range of the gravitino mass to avoid cosmological problems

  15. Simple radiography by Imaging Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Shigeru; Koyama, Motoko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Insitute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Photo-stimulable phosphor is a material which emits luminescence by incitement of light. As useful photo-stimulable phosphor, alkali halide, like BaFBr: Eu, II - VI compound, like SrS: Eu and oxide, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Care reported at present. Imaging Plate is a popular name of products, which is composed of thin layer of the phosphor fixed plastic plate. Photo-stimulable luminescence of Imaging Plate is emitted by scanning with narrow beam of incitement light. The light of luminescence is separated from incitement light by filter and it`s intensity is measured. The intensity of luminescence is proportional to absorbed dose of Imaging Plate from incident radiation. The map of luminescence intensity makes radiation image like radiograph taken by X-ray film. Reusability and usability of digital image are another advantage. The problem to solve of Imaging Plate are less resolution than X-ray film, expensive reading instrument and fading, which means decrease of luminescence intensity depend on elapse time after irradiation. High sensitivity of Imaging Plate makes possible of simple radiography by small radiation source. In Japanese law, sealed radioisotopes source less than 3.7 MBq can use without permission and register. If radiograph can be taken by sealed source less than 3.7 MBq, application of radiography is widely developed. So we try to take radiographs of some objects using Imaging Plate and sealed radioisotope sources under 3.7 MBq. As the result, useful radiographs are taken under conditions that exposure time is more than a few hours and distance between the source and the Plate is less than 30 cm. Quality of the image is poor than general radiograph by large radiation source. But the simple radiography taken by small source is of great value. (J.P.N.)

  16. Simple snoring: not quite so simple after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Vincent; Ellis, Jason G; Wilson, Janet A; Coulter, Cheryl; Barclay, Nicola L

    2014-12-01

    Simple snoring (SS), in the absence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), is a common problem, yet our understanding of its causes and consequences is incomplete. Our understanding is blurred by the lack of consistency in the definition of snoring, methods of assessment, and degree of concomitant complaints. Further, it remains contentious whether SS is independently associated with daytime sleepiness, or adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Regardless of this lack of clarity, it is likely that SS exists on one end of a continuum, with OSA at its polar end. This possibility highlights the necessity of considering an otherwise 'annoying' complaint, as a serious risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnoea, and consequent poor health outcomes. In this review, we: 1) highlight variation in prevalence estimates of snoring; 2) review the literature surrounding the distinctions between SS, upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) and OSA; 3) present the risk factors for SS, in as far as it is distinguishable from UARS and OSA; and 4) describe common correlates of snoring, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Simple Demonstration Model of Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device constructed from a wire screen, a large beaker, beans, and oats is described. It provides a simple and effective visual model of the phenomenon of osmosis and, by extension, the origin of other colligative properties of solutions.

  18. Two Simple Models for Fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jaren Quinn

    Recent developments in fracking have enable the recovery of oil and gas from tight shale reservoirs. These developments have also made fracking one of the most controversial environmental issues in the United States. Despite the growing controversy surrounding fracking, there is relatively little publicly available research. This dissertation introduces two simple models for fracking that were developed using techniques from non-linear and statistical physics. The first model assumes that the volume of induced fractures must be equal to the volume of injected fluid. For simplicity, these fractures are assumed to form a spherically symmetric damage region around the borehole. The predicted volumes of water necessary to create a damage region with a given radius are in good agreement with reported values. The second model is a modification of invasion percolation which was previously introduced to model water flooding. The reservoir rock is represented by a regular lattice of local traps that contain oil and/or gas separated by rock barriers. The barriers are assumed to be highly heterogeneous and are assigned random strengths. Fluid is injected from a central site and the weakest rock barrier breaks allowing fluid to flow into the adjacent site. The process repeats with the weakest barrier breaking and fluid flowing to an adjacent site each time step. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out to obtain statistical properties of the growing fracture network. The network was found to be fractal with fractal dimensions differing slightly from the accepted values for traditional percolation. Additionally, the network follows Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga branching statistics which have been used to characterize river networks. As with other percolation models, the growth of the network occurs in bursts. These bursts follow a power-law size distribution similar to observed microseismic events. Reservoir stress anisotropy is incorporated into the model by assigning

  19. On \\omega-categorical simple theories

    OpenAIRE

    Palacin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we shall prove that countable \\omega-categorical simple CM-trivial theories and countable \\omega-categorical simple theories with strong stable forking are low. In addition, we observe that simple theories of bounded finite weight are low.

  20. Simple substrates for complex cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex cognitive tasks present a range of computational and algorithmic challenges for neural accounts of both learning and inference. In particular, it is extremely hard to solve them using the sort of simple policies that have been extensively studied as solutions to elementary Markov decision problems. There has thus been recent interest in architectures for the instantiation and even learning of policies that are formally more complicated than these, involving operations such as gated working memory. However, the focus of these ideas and methods has largely been on what might best be considered as automatized, routine or, in the sense of animal conditioning, habitual, performance. Thus, they have yet to provide a route towards understanding the workings of rule-based control, which is critical for cognitively sophisticated competence. Here, we review a recent suggestion for a uniform architecture for habitual and rule-based execution, discuss some of the habitual mechanisms that underpin the use of rules, and consider a statistical relationship between rules and habits.

  1. Simple model for dice loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Jan; Richter, Peter H.

    2010-03-01

    Dice tossing is commonly believed to be random. However, throwing a fair cube is a dissipative process that is well described by deterministic classical mechanics. In Nagler and Richter (2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 036207; featured in 2008 Nature 455 434), we proposed a simplified model to analyze the origin of the pseudorandomness: a barbell with two masses at its tips with only two final outcomes. In order to keep things simple, we focused on the symmetrical case of equal masses. Here, we complete the picture by considering the general asymmetric case of unequal masses. We show how, depending on the initial conditions, dissipation during bounces, and mass asymmetry, the degree of unpredictability varies. Our analysis reveals, for the simplest possible non-trivial dice throwing model, the effect of dice loading. A surprising consequence of dynamical resonances is that an experienced player may benefit sometimes more from an unloaded than from a loaded barbell. In addition, we investigate the influence of loading on the symmetry breaking process causing one mass to come to rest earlier than the others.

  2. Simple model for molecular scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nirav; Ticknor, Christopher; Hazzard, Kaden

    2017-04-01

    The collisions of ultracold molecules are qualitatively different from the collisions of ultracold atoms due to the high density of bimolecular resonances near the collision energy. We present results from a simple N-channel scattering model with square-well channel potentials and constant channel couplings (inside the well) designed to reproduce essential features of chaotic molecular scattering. The potential depths and channel splittings are tuned to reproduce the appropriate density of states for the short-range bimolecular collision complex (BCC), which affords a direct comparison of the resulting level-spacing distribution to that expected from random matrix theory (RMT), namely the so-called Wigner surmise. The density of states also sets the scale for the rate of dissociation from the BCC to free molecules, as approximated by transition state theory (TST). Our model affords a semi-analytic solution for the scattering amplitude in the open channel, and a determinantal equation for the eigenenergies of the short-ranged BCC. It is likely the simplest finite-ranged scattering model that can be compared to expectations from the approximations of RMT, and TST. The validity of these approximations has implications for the many-channel Hubbard model recently developed. This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY-1125915.

  3. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-05

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider.

  4. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  5. A simple model for straggling evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J W; Tai, H; Tripathi, R K

    2002-01-01

    Simple straggling models had largely been abandoned in favor of Monte Carlo simulations of straggling which are accurate but time consuming, limiting their application in practice. The difficulty of simple analytic models is the failure to give accurate values past 85% of the particle range. A simple model is derived herein based on a second order approximation upon which rapid analysis tools are developed for improved understanding of material charged particle transmission properties.

  6. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  7. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  8. (SSR) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, they were washed 3 to 4 times with sterile distilled water and inoculated aseptically on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium free hormones. Single nodes resulted from seedlings cultured as explants. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers used produced different ...

  9. Simple Numerical Analysis of Longboard Speedometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 "Phys. Educ." 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as…

  10. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  11. Stochastic Programming with Simple Integer Recourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louveaux, François V.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic integer programs are notoriously difficult. Very few properties are known and solution algorithms are very scarce. In this paper, we introduce the class of stochastic programs with simple integer recourse, a natural extension of the simple recourse case extensively studied in stochastic

  12. Simple bone cysts of two brothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    17-year-old and 14-year-old brothers were referred for evaluation of the cystic lesions on the mandibular anterior area with no symptoms. Neither their mother nor the brothers could recall any past trauma to those areas. Panoramic and intraoral radiographs revealed moderately defined cystic lesions on their mandibular anterior areas. Biopsies on both lesions revealed simple bone cysts. Hereditary cause or familial history of simple bone cysts could not be found in literature review. This case may have been a coincidence. However, further investigation is needed to find the cause of simple bone cysts occurring in patients those are closely related.

  13. Simple bone cysts of two brothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik

    2008-01-01

    17-year-old and 14-year-old brothers were referred for evaluation of the cystic lesions on the mandibular anterior area with no symptoms. Neither their mother nor the brothers could recall any past trauma to those areas. Panoramic and intraoral radiographs revealed moderately defined cystic lesions on their mandibular anterior areas. Biopsies on both lesions revealed simple bone cysts. Hereditary cause or familial history of simple bone cysts could not be found in literature review. This case may have been a coincidence. However, further investigation is needed to find the cause of simple bone cysts occurring in patients those are closely related.

  14. A simple model for binary star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)

  15. Simple tangible language elements for young children

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, researchers have proposed simple tangible language elements for very young children to use when constructing programmes. The equivalent Turtle Talk instructions are given for comparison. Two examples of the tangible language code...

  16. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  17. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  18. A simple low-cost cryogenic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.V.; Bartram, C.P.

    1977-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive cryogenic temperature controller is described. Temperatures from 78 K to 300 K are maintained to 0.1 K. A novel feature, using a power transistor for the heating element, is discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  20. A Simple Preparation Method for Diphosphoimidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.

    1964-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of diphosphoimidazole is presented that involves direct phosphorylation of imidazole by phosphorus oxychloride in alkaline aqueous solution. Details are given on the use of diphosphoimidazole in preparing sodium phosphoramidate and certain phosphorylated amino...

  1. A simple device for embalming cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, S; Balasubramanyam, V; Thomas, I M

    1998-01-01

    A simple design of a mobile embalming unit is presented that offers better quality embalming and is fairly economical. The technique is faster and consistently more reliable than the conventional gravity aided embalming.

  2. Simple shear of deformable square objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagus, Susan H.; Lan, Labao

    2003-12-01

    Finite element models of square objects in a contrasting matrix in simple shear show that the objects deform to a variety of shapes. For a range of viscosity contrasts, we catalogue the changing shapes and orientations of objects in progressive simple shear. At moderate simple shear ( γ=1.5), the shapes are virtually indistinguishable from those in equivalent pure shear models with the same bulk strain ( RS=4), examined in a previous study. In theory, differences would be expected, especially for very stiff objects or at very large strain. In all our simple shear models, relatively competent square objects become asymmetric barrel shapes with concave shortened edges, similar to some types of boudin. Incompetent objects develop shapes surprisingly similar to mica fish described in mylonites.

  3. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  4. Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.

    1983-01-01

    The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras

  5. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan; Mateen, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients wer...

  6. Simple waves in quasilinear hyperbolic systems. Part 1. Theory of simple waves and simple states. Examples of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundland, A.M.; Zelazny, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new method of construction of solutions to nonlinear, nonelliptic systems of partial differential equations and especially nonhomogeneous ones is presented. These equations have been considered from the point of view of integral elements. The connections between the structure of the set of integral elements and the posssibility of a construction of special classes of solutions have been studied. These classes consist of what is called simple waves and k-waves (for homogeneous systems). They provide us with a possibility for a selection of simple integral elements from the set of all integral elements. Analysis has been performed using differential forms and Cartan theory of system in involution. The problem has been reduced to examining Pfaff forms. The Cauchy problem for Pfaff systems has been formulated and solved using the Riemann function. Some remarks concerning the notion of Baecklund transformations for the case of k-waves have been formulated. It is shown that in contrast to simple wave, the simple state has no gradient catastrophy. The presented technique of constructing the solutions in the form of simple states has been illustrated by the examples of Korteweg de Vries and four-dimensional Klein-Gordon, Sine-Gordon and Liouville equations. It has been shown that the known soliton equations are closely connected with the elliptical functions and especially with the P-Weierstrass functions. (author)

  7. The Design of SimpleITK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Christopher Lowekamp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SimpleITK is a new interface to the Insight Segmentation andRegistration Toolkit (ITK designed to facilitate rapid prototyping, educationand scientific activities, via high level programminglanguages. ITK is a templated C++ library of image processingalgorithms and frameworks for biomedical and other applications, andit was designed to be generic, flexible and extensible. Initially, ITKprovided a direct wrapping interface to languages such as Python andTcl through the WrapITK system. Unlike WrapITK, which exposed ITK'scomplex templated interface, SimpleITK was designed to provide an easyto use and simplified interface to ITK's algorithms. It includesprocedural methods, hides ITK's demand driven pipeline, and provides atemplate-less layer. Also SimpleITK provides practical conveniencessuch as binary distribution packages and overloaded operators. Ouruser-friendly design goals dictated a departure from the directinterface wrapping approach of WrapITK, towards a new facadeclass structure that only exposes the required functionality, hidingITK's extensive template use. Internally SimpleITK utilizes a manualdescription of each filter with code-generation and advanced C++meta-programming to provide the higher-level interface, bringing thecapabilities of ITK to a wider audience. SimpleITK is licensed asopen source software under the Apache License Version 2.0 and more informationabout downloading it can be found at http://www.simpleitk.org.

  8. Clinical neurophysiological evaluation for simple motor tics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattamon Panyakaew

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of neurophysiological evaluation to distinguish simple motor tics and functional myoclonus. Methods: Careful clinical assessments, multichannel surface EMG, and EEG-EMG jerk-locked back-averaging were performed. Results: Urge to move and ability to voluntarily suppress the movement were reported. EMG bursts showed variable duration and triphasic pattern of the antagonist muscles mimicking voluntary movements. Only the late component of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP2 was present prior to the involuntary movement onset. Conclusion: Combination of the isolated late BP, premonitory urge, and suppressibility leads to the diagnosis of simple motor tics rather than functional myoclonus. Significance: The physiological approach in addition to careful clinical assessment is helpful to support the diagnosis of tic. Keywords: Simple motor tics, Functional movement disorders, EEG–EMG jerk-locked back-averaging

  9. Simple model of stacking-fault energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Jacobsen, Lærke Wedel

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the energetics of stacking faults in fcc metals is constructed. The model contains third-nearest-neighbor pairwise interactions and a term involving the fourth moment of the electronic density of states. The model is in excellent agreement with recently published local-density ......A simple model for the energetics of stacking faults in fcc metals is constructed. The model contains third-nearest-neighbor pairwise interactions and a term involving the fourth moment of the electronic density of states. The model is in excellent agreement with recently published local...

  10. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  11. Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau

    The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations. As a tool...... the windows). A number of light indicators allowed understanding and describing the geometry of daylight in the space in a very detailed and thorough manner. The inclusion of the daylight factor, horizontal illuminance, luminance distribution, cylindrical illuminance, the Daylight Glare Index, vertical...

  12. Monosodium glutamate for simple photometric iron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.

    2018-01-01

    Simple photometric method for iron analysis using monosodium glutamate (MSG) was proposed. The method could be used as an alternative method, which was technically simple, economic, quantitative, readily available, scientifically sound and environmental friendly. Rapid reaction of iron (III) with glutamate in sodium chloride-hydrochloric acid buffer (pH 2) to form red-brown complex was served as a basis in the photometric determination, which obeyed the range of iron (III) concentration 1.6 – 80 µg/ml. This method could be applied to determine iron concentration in soil with satisfactory results (accuracy and precision) compared to other photometric and atomic absorption spectrometry results.

  13. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time. The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal. But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the…

  14. A simple method for complex eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon, CNRS, UMR 6091, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon, CNRS, UMR 6091, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-11-05

    A simple iterative method is described for finding the eigenvalues of a general square complex matrix. Several numerical examples involving complex symmetric matrices are treated. In particular, it is found that a naive matrix calculation without complex rotation produces resonant state energies in accord with those given by the recently introduced naive complex hypervirial perturbation theory. (letter to the editor)

  15. Modelling of the simple pendulum Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palka L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - work focuses on the design of the simulation embedded in remote experiment “Simple pendulum” built on the Internet School Experimental System (ISES. This platform is intended for wide educational purposes at schools and universities in order to provide the suitable measuring environment for students using conventional computing resources Informatics.

  16. LIQUEN SIMPLE CRÓNICO VULVAR UNILATERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lema C,Rodrigo; Ricci A,Paolo; Solà D,Vicente; Contreras M,Luis

    2006-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de liquen simple crónico vulvar izquierdo, en una paciente con diagnóstico psiquiátrico de trastorno bipolar, tratado repetidamente como micosis. Se realizó biopsia que confirmó el diagnóstico y se trató exitosamente con antihistamínicos orales y corticoides tópicos

  17. Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1977-01-01

    A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...

  18. Geometric classification of simple graph algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Adam Peder Wie

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by Franks’ classification of irreducible shifts of finite type, we provide a short list of allowed moves on graphs that preserve the stable isomorphism class of the associated C ∗ -algebras. We show that if two graphs have stably isomorphic and simple unital algebras then we can use...

  19. A Simple Model of Self-Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a simple model that describes individuals' self-assessments of their abilities. We assume that individuals learn about their abilities from appraisals of others and experience. Our model predicts that if communication is imperfect, then (i) appraisals of others tend to be too

  20. A simple model of self-assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.; Swank, O.H.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a simple model that describes individuals' self-assessments of their abilities. We assume that individuals learn about their abilities from appraisals of others and experience. Our model predicts that if communication is imperfect, then (i) appraisals of others tend to be too positive and

  1. Simple picture of the annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data

  2. Most pressurized elements are not simple cubic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik; Friák, Martin; Šob, Mojmír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2008), s. 10-11 ISSN 0031-9228 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 147; GA AV ČR IAA1041302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : electronic structure * simple cubic structure * phase transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2008

  3. A SIMPLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TRACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of vanadium using thionin as a chromogenic reagent. The proposed method is based on the reaction of vanadium(V) with potassium iodide in acid medium to liberate iodine, which bleaches the violet colour of ...

  4. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  5. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  6. Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    This Brief Report provides simple parametrizations of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using functions of Q 2 that are consistent with dimensional scaling at high Q 2 . Good fits require only four parameters each for G Ep , G Mp , and G Mn and only two for G En

  7. From Complex to Simple: Interdisciplinary Stochastic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, D. A.; Zamora, G.; Mazilu, I.

    2012-01-01

    We present two simple, one-dimensional, stochastic models that lead to a qualitative understanding of very complex systems from biology, nanoscience and social sciences. The first model explains the complicated dynamics of microtubules, stochastic cellular highways. Using the theory of random walks in one dimension, we find analytical expressions…

  8. A simple dead-reckoning navigational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, B. F.; Mastin, W. C.; Broussard, P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Simple navigation system is designed for vehicles operating in remote locations where it is not feasible to transport extensive equipment. System consists of four main components: directional gyrocompass to establish inertial direction; odometer to measure distance; signal processor to combine measured distance and direction; and sun compass to determine initial direction.

  9. Using Simple Machines to Leverage Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotger, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    What would your students say if you told them they could lift you off the ground using a block and a board? Using a simple machine, they'll find out they can, and they'll learn about work, energy, and motion in the process! In addition, this integrated lesson gives students the opportunity to investigate variables while practicing measurement…

  10. A Simple View of Writing in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the Chinese written composition development of elementary-grade students in relation to the simple view of writing. Measures of nonverbal reasoning ability, component skills of transcription (stroke sequence knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency), oral language (definitional skill, oral narrative skills, and…

  11. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last 30 years however, intrauterine insemination has evolved with the introduction of ovulation stimulating protocols and sperm preparation methods taken from assisted reproduction techniques. Costs have risen, but the success rate has not risen to the same extent. We have therefore developed a quite simple ...

  12. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 2. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding networks: Synthesis and crystal structures of [MII(opda)2(NO3)2] (M = Zn and Cd; opda = orthophenylenediamine). Sabbani Supriya. Full Papers Volume 121 Issue 2 March 2009 pp 137-143 ...

  13. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  14. Teaching Alveolar Ventilation with Simple, Inexpensive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    When teaching and learning about alveolar ventilation with our class of 300 first-year medical students, we use four simple, inexpensive "models." The models, which encourage research-oriented learning and help our students to understand complex ideas, are distributed to the students before class. The students anticipate something new every day,…

  15. A simple and inexpensive fish tagging method

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori, J.K.; Attipoe, F.Y.; Abban, E.K.

    1999-01-01

    In many developing countries, availability of suitable tags for use in genetics and aquaculture research has been a problem as they are often expensive and have to be imported from other countries. A simple and inexpensive method used by scientists in Ghana that can be tried and improved by others is described in this article.

  16. A simple design rule for overlap joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    For toughened and flexible adhesives it is found that a simple prediction model for overlap joints can be used to calculate the ultimate strength for the static load case. The absolute maximum strength for a lap joint is when the whole of the adhesive layer is at the shear yield strength. An

  17. Abundance, composition and distribution of simple sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    numbers AF369029, AF332093, AF440570) were down- loaded from GenBank. The sizes of these genomes are. 292,967 bp ... determined. Keywords. shrimp; white spot syndrome virus (WSSV); simple sequence repeats (SSRs); compositional bias; genetic distance. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 86, No. 1, April 2007. 69 ...

  18. Air: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students explore air and its properties. Some of the topics discussed include alternative energy, bacteria, carbon dioxide, motion, weather, and flight. Experiments include: blowing a balloon up in a bottle; seeing air in water; making a lunch-bag kite, weather vanes, and paper glider;…

  19. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  20. Simple algebraic data types for C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Muller, Henk L.

    Adt is a simple tool in the spirit of Lex and Yacc that makes monomorphic algebraic data types, polymorphic built-in types like the list and an efficient form of pattern matching available in C programs. C programs built with ADTs typically use NULL pointers only to indicate don't care values, and

  1. Making Simple Folk Instruments for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Dallas

    1980-01-01

    Instructions are provided for making these simple musical instruments from inexpensive materials: an Indian bull-roarer; bottle chimes; a ham can guitar; flower pot, box, and steel drums; a xylophone; a musical sawhorse; rattles; a melody box; and a box thumb harp. (SJL)

  2. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  3. Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules; Goldstein, Julie; Roberson, Debi

    2009-01-01

    We respond to the commentary of Franklin, Wright, and Davies ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 239-245 [2009]) by returning to the simple contrast between nature and nurture. We find no evidence from the toddler data that makes us revise our ideas that color categories are learned and never innate. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. Variations on a Simple Dice Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Joe

    2018-01-01

    I begin my introductory astronomy course with a unit on critical thinking that focuses on, among other things, the differences between the "scientific method" as frequently presented in textbooks and actual scientific practice. One particular classroom activity uses a simple dice game to simulate observation of a natural phenomenon and…

  5. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  6. Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, H.

    2002-01-01

    By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.

  7. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    J. Biosci. 32(1), January 2007. The list of microsatellite rich as well as poor regions in the five mycobacterial genomes. Local GC%. Repeat rich(+)/. Repeat poor(-). Total ORFs. Number of ... Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes. VATTIPALLY .... heat shock protein (grpE) (15839737), heat shock protein (dnaJ) ...

  8. Fourier Spectroscopy: A Simple Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelfke, William C.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a simple method of analysis in which the student can integrate, point by point, any interferogram to obtain its Fourier transform. The manual technique requires no special equipment and is based on relationships that most undergraduate physics students can derive from the Fourier integral equations. (Author/MLH)

  9. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  10. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  11. A simple urine test for sulfonamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Filho, Juvenal; de Souza, José Maria

    1983-01-01

    The lack of a simple and reliable test for sulfonamides has created a problem because of the increasing use of these drugs in the chemotherapy of malaria. This paper describes a modification of the Bratton-Marshall technique, for which the reagents are easily obtainable and which can be carried out in simply equipped primary health care laboratories. PMID:6601540

  12. A simple urine test for sulfonamides

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida-Filho, Juvenal; de Souza, José Maria

    1983-01-01

    The lack of a simple and reliable test for sulfonamides has created a problem because of the increasing use of these drugs in the chemotherapy of malaria. This paper describes a modification of the Bratton-Marshall technique, for which the reagents are easily obtainable and which can be carried out in simply equipped primary health care laboratories.

  13. Simple Numerical Model of Laminated Glass Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zemanová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple Finite Element model aimed at efficient simulation of layered glass units. The approach is based on considering the independent kinematics of each layer, tied together via Lagrange multipliers. Validation and verification of the resulting model against independent data demonstrate its accuracy, showing its potential for generalization towards more complex problems. 

  14. Simple luminosity normalization of greenness, yellowness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 37; Issue 4. Simple luminosity normalization of greenness, yellowness and redness/greenness for comparison of leaf spectral profiles in multi-temporally acquired remote sensing images. Ryoichi Doi. Articles Volume 37 Issue 4 September 2012 pp 723-730 ...

  15. Energy: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students can learn about the properties of energy. These experiments include making a kitchen "volcano," a soda-pop "cannon," and a puffed-rice "scooter." Topics include: energy and work, fossil fuels, solar energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, sound energy,…

  16. A Simple and Efficient Kinetic Spanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Gudmundsson, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    We present a new and simple (1+ε)-spanner of size O(nε2) for a set of n points in the plane, which can be maintained efficiently as the points move. Assuming the trajectories of the points can be described by polynomials whose degrees are at most s, the number of topological changes to the spanner...

  17. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements

  18. Simple atoms: QED tests and fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Study of simple atoms can be performed theoretically and experimentally with a high accuracy and a comparison of theory and experiment provide us with several high precision tests of bound state QED. Theory cannot actually leads to a figure to compare with experiment, but it only can present some measurable quantities in terms of fundamental and auxiliary constants. That offers an opportunity to obtain new accurate values of some fundamental constants. Theory of simple atoms is based on Quantum electrodynamics but also involves an essential part of nuclear and particle physics. A significant part of experiments are related to high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Present status of the precision physics of simple atoms is presented in detail. We overview a comparison of the theory of such atoms, bound state QED, and the experiment. In particular, we consider the hyperfine structure in light atoms and the g-factor of a bound electron in hydrogen-like ions at low and medium Z. We discuss a project on optical measurement of of 2s hyperfine interval in atomic hydrogen. We also pay attention to determination of the fundamental constants from study of simple atoms. The constants under consideration includes alpha, electron-to-proton mass ratio and electron-to-muon mass ratio

  19. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm

  20. A simple model for indentation creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginder, Ryan S.; Nix, William D.; Pharr, George M.

    2018-03-01

    A simple model for indentation creep is developed that allows one to directly convert creep parameters measured in indentation tests to those observed in uniaxial tests through simple closed-form relationships. The model is based on the expansion of a spherical cavity in a power law creeping material modified to account for indentation loading in a manner similar to that developed by Johnson for elastic-plastic indentation (Johnson, 1970). Although only approximate in nature, the simple mathematical form of the new model makes it useful for general estimation purposes or in the development of other deformation models in which a simple closed-form expression for the indentation creep rate is desirable. Comparison to a more rigorous analysis which uses finite element simulation for numerical evaluation shows that the new model predicts uniaxial creep rates within a factor of 2.5, and usually much better than this, for materials creeping with stress exponents in the range 1 ≤ n ≤ 7. The predictive capabilities of the model are evaluated by comparing it to the more rigorous analysis and several sets of experimental data in which both the indentation and uniaxial creep behavior have been measured independently.

  1. Lumbar Puncture for First Simple Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics consensus statement recommendations regarding lumbar puncture for infants 6-18 months of age with a first simple febrile seizure was investigated by a retrospective review of 704 infants evaluated in the pediatric emergency medicine division at Children’s Hospital Boston, MA, Oct 1995-Oct 2006.

  2. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods. Hemolytic potency of drugs. Raghava et al., (1994) Biotechniques 17: 1148. FPMAP: methods for classification and identification of microorganisms 16SrRNA. graphical display of restriction and fragment map of ...

  3. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  4. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  5. Inversion of e-simple Block Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 400, - (2005), s. 231-241 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : matrix inversion * M-matrix * unipathic graph * e-simple graph Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.590, year: 2005

  6. A Simple Kuramoto-like Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhuwei; Mertens, David

    2015-03-01

    The toy model for spontaneous collective synchronization is the Kuramoto model, a model of nonlinear coupled phase oscillators. Although it is a popular theoretical tool, the Kuramoto model is too simple to accurately characterize the dynamics of any experimental collection of oscillators. In this talk, we present a simple electronic oscillator design similar to the Wien bridge design of Temirbayev et al. Although the oscillator is not strictly modeled by the Kuramoto model, it can be quantitatively modeled by a more generic phase oscillator model. The coefficients governing the oscillator's behavior can be directly extracted from the voltage time series of the oscillator. We find that, in practice, only a handful of coefficients are necessary to quantitatively describe the behavior of the oscillators, making precise theory tractable. Dickinson Woodside Student-Faculty Research Fund.

  7. Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering

  8. Simple spherical ablative-implosion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, F.J.; Steele, J.T.; Larsen, J.T.

    1980-06-23

    A simple model of the ablative implosion of a high-aspect-ratio (shell radius to shell thickness ratio) spherical shell is described. The model is similar in spirit to Rosenbluth's snowplow model. The scaling of the implosion time was determined in terms of the ablation pressure and the shell parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, and shell density, and compared these to complete hydrodynamic code calculations. The energy transfer efficiency from ablation pressure to shell implosion kinetic energy was examined and found to be very efficient. It may be possible to attach a simple heat-transport calculation to our implosion model to describe the laser-driven ablation-implosion process. The model may be useful for determining other energy driven (e.g., ion beam) implosion scaling.

  9. A computational description of simple mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron, Pier-Olivier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simple mediation analysis is an increasingly popular statistical analysis in psychology and in other social sciences. However, there is very few detailed account of the computations within the model. Articles are more often focusing on explaining mediation analysis conceptually rather than mathematically. Thus, the purpose of the current paper is to introduce the computational modelling within simple mediation analysis accompanied with examples with R. Firstly, mediation analysis will be described. Then, the method to simulate data in R (with standardized coefficients will be presented. Finally, the bootstrap method, the Sobel test and the Baron and Kenny test all used to evaluate mediation (i.e., indirect effect will be developed. The R code to implement the computation presented is offered as well as a script to carry a power analysis and a complete example.

  10. Simple CARS measurement point traversing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckbreth, A. C.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1985-05-01

    The present simple optical scheme employing fixed field lenses permits large measurement point translations for small changes in the separation of Galilean telescopes. For the case of an intensity-dependent process, such as CARS, these translations are accomplished at a constant focusing solid angle, thereby yielding constant focal zone intensity. This will eliminate any signal variation with position which is implicitly due to measurement location.

  11. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

    1986-01-01

    A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

  12. Simple techniques for optimal smile modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Rafi

    2008-05-01

    Orthodontics is no longer a treatment modality for moderate or severe malocclusion. Patients of all age groups seek help in tooth repositioning. Esthetic demands are extremely high and clinicians need to be more creative and more open to alternative techniques that will suit the demand for invisible treatment, at reasonable costs, maximum accuracy, and with relative comfort. A few simple techniques are described for very common orthodontic problems.

  13. kFOIL: Learning simple relational kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Niels; Passerini, Andrea; De Raedt, Luc; Frasconi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A novel and simple combination of inductive logic programming with kernel methods is presented. The kFOIL algorithm integrates the well-known inductive logic programming system FOIL with kernel methods. The feature space is constructed by leveraging FOIL search for a set of relevant clauses. The search is driven by the performance obtained by a support vector machine based on the resulting kernel. In this way, kFOIL implements a dynamic propositionalization approach. Both classification an...

  14. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser

  15. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2006-10-07

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser.

  16. Adaptation in simple and complex fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Kavita; Krug, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    This is an introductory review of deterministic mutation-selection models for asexual populations (i.e., quasispecies theory) and related topics. First, the basic concepts of fitness, mutations, and sequence space are introduced. Different types of mutation-selection dynamics are defined and their relation to problems of statistical physics are outlined. Then the stationary population distribution in simple, single peak fitness landscapes is discussed at length, with particular emphasis on th...

  17. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart,Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed.

  18. Entropy estimates for simple random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of determining the maximum entropy of a discrete random field on a lattice subject to certain local constraints on symbol configurations. The results are expected to be of interest in the analysis of digitized images and two dimensional codes. We shall present some examples...... of binary and ternary fields with simple constraints. Exact results on the entropies are known only in a few cases, but we shall present close bounds and estimates that are computationally efficient...

  19. Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Green, C.T.; Mathew, M.; ,

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. Simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-film flow on smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.

  20. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  1. On Casimir elements of simple Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Houari, M.

    1996-08-01

    In this letter, we recall briefly the generalized Casimir elements of a finite dimensional Lie algebra. We specify those of orders two and three: when the Lie algebra is simple (even semisimple), we begin by normalizing the former (the quadratic), and then we study some actions of the latter (the cubic). In particular, we introduce a graphical formalism, translating rigorously the tensorial calculus. This allows us to prove the main theorem in a graphic theoretic manner. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  2. Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs. The first method uses a Bunsen burner and solid metal salts; the second method uses a Bunsen burner and 1 M aqueous solutions of metal salts; and the third method uses candles, rubbing alcohol, and solid metal salts. These methods have the advantage of being easy to perform, require inexpensive and easily-obtained materials, and have easy cleanup and disposal methods. See the Discussion on this Tested Demonstation .

  3. A simple furnace for neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, F.P.; Bennett, C.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    A simple yet effective high temperature furnace for heating crystals or powder specimens for neutron diffraction studies on a theta/2theta diffractometer is described. The furnace can maintain samples at temperatures up to 1573 K, in air, with a stability of +- 4 K for periods of many hours. Specimen temperature is uniform within 12 K, or much less with the use of a silica sleeve. (Auth.)

  4. Radon in buildings: a simple detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, N.

    1989-01-01

    Natural background radiation inside buildings can be studied using this simple detection method. Contaminated dust particles adhere readily to a membrane made of soft toilet paper placed across the collection pipe of a vacuum cleaner. Indirect evidence for the abundance of radon in the air can be inferred from measuring the radon daughters on the membrane using a Geiger-Muller tube. Experimental results are presented and discussed. (UK)

  5. Simple Synthesis Method for Alumina Nanoparticle

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Damian; Florentina Cziple; Adina Segneanu; Ioan Grozescu

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the human population steady increase, expansion of urban areas, excessive industrialization including in agriculture, caused not only decrease to depletion of non-renewable resources, a rapid deterioration of the environment with negative impact on water quality, soil productivity and of course quality of life in general. This paper aims to prepare size controlled nanoparticles of aluminum oxide using a simple synthesis method. The morphology and dimensions of n...

  6. A simple mechanism for complex social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Parkinson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of cooperation is a paradox because natural selection should favor exploitative individuals that avoid paying their fair share of any costs. Such conflict between the self-interests of cooperating individuals often results in the evolution of complex, opponent-specific, social strategies and counterstrategies. However, the genetic and biological mechanisms underlying complex social strategies, and therefore the evolution of cooperative behavior, are largely unknown. To address this dearth of empirical data, we combine mathematical modeling, molecular genetic, and developmental approaches to test whether variation in the production of and response to social signals is sufficient to generate the complex partner-specific social success seen in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Firstly, we find that the simple model of production of and response to social signals can generate the sort of apparent complex changes in social behavior seen in this system, without the need for partner recognition. Secondly, measurements of signal production and response in a mutant with a change in a single gene that leads to a shift in social behavior provide support for this model. Finally, these simple measurements of social signaling can also explain complex patterns of variation in social behavior generated by the natural genetic diversity found in isolates collected from the wild. Our studies therefore demonstrate a novel and elegantly simple underlying mechanistic basis for natural variation in complex social strategies in D. discoideum. More generally, they suggest that simple rules governing interactions between individuals can be sufficient to generate a diverse array of outcomes that appear complex and unpredictable when those rules are unknown.

  7. Modeling reproductive decisions with simple heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Todd

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Many of the reproductive decisions that humans make happen without much planning or forethought, arising instead through the use of simple choice rules or heuristics that involve relatively little information and processing. Nonetheless, these heuristic-guided decisions are typically beneficial, owing to humans' ecological rationality - the evolved fit between our constrained decision mechanisms and the adaptive problems we face. OBJECTIVE This paper reviews research on the ecological rationality of human decision making in the domain of reproduction, showing how fertility-related decisions are commonly made using various simple heuristics matched to the structure of the environment in which they are applied, rather than being made with information-hungry mechanisms based on optimization or rational economic choice. METHODS First, heuristics for sequential mate search are covered; these heuristics determine when to stop the process of mate search by deciding that a good-enough mate who is also mutually interested has been found, using a process of aspiration-level setting and assessing. These models are tested via computer simulation and comparison to demographic age-at-first-marriage data. Next, a heuristic process of feature-based mate comparison and choice is discussed, in which mate choices are determined by a simple process of feature-matching with relaxing standards over time. Parental investment heuristics used to divide resources among offspring are summarized. Finally, methods for testing the use of such mate choice heuristics in a specific population over time are then described.

  8. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Yousuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients were evaluated for signs of persistent inflammation and signs of dry socket. Presence of persistent inflammation and/or suppuration on the 6th day was considered as wound infection. Results. A total of 146 patients were included in this study. Out of the total sample, 134 (91.8% presented with no postoperative complications and 12 (8.2% had postoperative complications, out of which 11 (7.5% patients presented with dry socket (alveolar osteitis, 5 (3.4% in the antibiotic group and 6 (4.1% in the nonantibiotic group. Only 1 patient (0.7% was reported with infection of the extraction socket in the nonantibiotic group, whereas no case of infection was found in the antibiotic group. Conclusion. Antibiotics are not required after simple extractions in patients who are not medically comprised nor do they have any role in preventing postoperative complications.

  9. The Monash University Interactive Simple Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommenget, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Monash university interactive simple climate model is a web-based interface that allows students and the general public to explore the physical simulation of the climate system with a real global climate model. It is based on the Globally Resolved Energy Balance (GREB) model, which is a climate model published by Dommenget and Floeter [2011] in the international peer review science journal Climate Dynamics. The model simulates most of the main physical processes in the climate system in a very simplistic way and therefore allows very fast and simple climate model simulations on a normal PC computer. Despite its simplicity the model simulates the climate response to external forcings, such as doubling of the CO2 concentrations very realistically (similar to state of the art climate models). The Monash simple climate model web-interface allows you to study the results of more than a 2000 different model experiments in an interactive way and it allows you to study a number of tutorials on the interactions of physical processes in the climate system and solve some puzzles. By switching OFF/ON physical processes you can deconstruct the climate and learn how all the different processes interact to generate the observed climate and how the processes interact to generate the IPCC predicted climate change for anthropogenic CO2 increase. The presentation will illustrate how this web-base tool works and what are the possibilities in teaching students with this tool are.

  10. Dynamic mental number line in simple arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaodan; Liu, Jie; Li, Dawei; Liu, Hang; Cui, Jiaxin; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-05-01

    Studies have found that spatial-numerical associations could extend to arithmetic. Addition leads to rightward shift in spatial attention while subtraction leads to leftward shift (e.g., Knops et al. 2009; McCrink et al. 2007; Pinhas & Fischer 2008), which is consistent with the hypothesis of static mental number line (MNL) for arithmetic. The current investigation tested the hypothesis of dynamic mental number line which was shaped by the relative magnitudes of two operands in simple arithmetic. Horizontal and vertical electrooculograms (HEOG and VEOG) during simple arithmetic were recorded. Results showed that the direction of eye movements was dependent on the relative magnitudes of two operands. Subtraction was associated with larger rightward eye movements than addition (Experiment 1), and smaller-operand-first addition (e.g., 2+9) was associated with larger rightward eye movement than larger-operand-first addition (e.g., 9+2) only when the difference of two operands was large (Experiment 2). The results suggest that the direction of the mental number line could be dynamic during simple arithmetic, and that the eyes move along the dynamic mental number line to search for solutions.

  11. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan; Mateen, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients were evaluated for signs of persistent inflammation and signs of dry socket. Presence of persistent inflammation and/or suppuration on the 6th day was considered as wound infection. Results. A total of 146 patients were included in this study. Out of the total sample, 134 (91.8%) presented with no postoperative complications and 12 (8.2%) had postoperative complications, out of which 11 (7.5%) patients presented with dry socket (alveolar osteitis), 5 (3.4%) in the antibiotic group and 6 (4.1%) in the nonantibiotic group. Only 1 patient (0.7%) was reported with infection of the extraction socket in the nonantibiotic group, whereas no case of infection was found in the antibiotic group. Conclusion. Antibiotics are not required after simple extractions in patients who are not medically comprised nor do they have any role in preventing postoperative complications.

  12. THE SIMPLE SURVEY: OBSERVATIONS, REDUCTION, AND CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damen, M.; Franx, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Labbe, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Muzzin, A.; Brandt, W. N.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Illingworth, G. D.; Kriek, M.; Marchesini, D.; Papovich, C.; Rix, H.-W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy Survey in the Extended CDF-South (SIMPLE), which consists of deep IRAC observations covering the ∼1600 arcmin 2 area surrounding GOODS-S. The limiting magnitudes of the SIMPLE IRAC mosaics typically are 23.8, 23.6, 21.9, and 21.7, at 3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8.0 μm, respectively (5σ total point source magnitudes in AB). The SIMPLE IRAC images are combined with the 10' x 15' GOODS IRAC mosaics in the center. We give detailed descriptions of the observations, data reduction, and properties of the final images, as well as the detection and photometry methods used to build a catalog. Using published optical and near-infrared data from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC), we construct an IRAC-selected catalog, containing photometry in UBVRIz'JHK, [3.6 μm], [4.5 μm], [5.8 μm], and [8.0 μm]. The catalog contains 43,782 sources with S/N >5 at 3.6 μm, 19,993 of which have 13-band photometry. We compare this catalog to the publicly available MUSYC and FIREWORKS catalogs and discuss the differences. Using a high signal-to-noise sub-sample of 3391 sources with ([3.6] + [4.5])/2 * >10 11 M sun ) are passively evolving, in agreement with earlier results from surveys covering less area.

  13. Robotic assisted simple prostatectomy: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, Randy; Hampton, Lance J; Vartolomei, Mihai D; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Porpiglia, Francesco; Autorino, Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    Robotic assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) represents a minimally invasive evolution of traditional open simple prostatectomy for the surgical treatment of severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) because of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). Aim of the present review is to summarize the most recent evidence on this novel procedure, and to better define its current role in the surgical armamentarium for the treatment of BPE. Several studies demonstrated that RASP can be safely and effectively performed in centers with sufficient expertise. The procedure can duplicate its open counterpart with the advantage of lower perioperative morbidity, and ultimately faster patient recovery. Overall, the status of RASP seems to be well beyond that of an 'investigational' procedure, and guidelines should be amended accordingly.Nevertheless, it remains to be determined what the place of the RASP procedure in the surgical armamentarium for the treatment of symptomatic BPE will be. Over the most recent years, few comparative studies have been reported, allowing in part to draw some conclusions. RASP seems to be attractive when compared with open simple prostatectomy as it can offer less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. However, its advantages over transurethral enucleation techniques - such as HoLEP - remain unclear. There are some specific indications, such as the presence of concomitant bladder diverticula or stones, for example, where a robotic approach could represent an appealing solution. Ultimately, further research should look at a cost analysis to determine which technique can be more cost effective. Last, the issue of the learning curve for the different procedures for symptomatic BPE remain to be further scrutinized. RASP offers potential advantages over other available techniques for the treatment of large prostate glands. In centers, wherever a solid robotic program is already in place, this procedure is likely to be increasingly implemented.

  14. Simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, M.R.

    1982-10-01

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are disussed

  15. Desiccant cooling system performance: A simple approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Grolmes, M. A.

    1982-10-01

    The wave nature of heat and mass transfer in fixed desiccant bed adsorption is explained. A simple algebraic model of wave motion under single low desiccant bed operation is developed and applied to the prediction of the performance potential of the overall desiccant cooling system. The model is used to explain the increase in cooling system performance that is realized through the use of mixed inert desiccant material adsorption beds. The response of cooling system performance to changes in external process conditions is examined and conclusions are drawn relative to optimization of system characteristics.

  16. Three Spreadsheet Models Of A Simple Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benacka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives three spreadsheet models of simple pendulum motion. In two of them, the graph of the pendulum angle is drawn upon the exact integral solution using numeric integration – the simpler model only uses spreadsheet functions, the general model uses a VBA program. The period results directly from the calculations. In the third model, the period is calculated first using the power series formula. The graph of the pendulum angle is drawn afterwards using Euler’s method of solving differential equations. The error in gravity acceleration if calculated upon the standard cosine approximate formula instead of the exact one is graphed.

  17. A simple assay method for melanosome transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Ryung; Park, So-Hee; Choi, Jae Woo; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyung Chan

    2012-02-01

    Pigmentation is induced by production of melanin in specialized organelles termed melanosomes and by transfer of these organelles from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. The chemical basis of melanogenesis is relatively well known but the mechanism of melanosome transfer is not well studied. Various pigmentary disorders and cosmetic applications require the use of depigmenting agents. Currently available topical agents used for the reduction of pigmentation mainly include tyrosinase inhibitors and/or melanocyte-cytotoxic agents. Recently, several agents have been introduced to inhibit melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes. However, an experimental model for melanosome transfer is not well established. In this study, a simple assay method using flow cytometry is described.

  18. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R; Heyes, David M; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2018-02-28

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  19. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Heyes, David M.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-02-01

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  20. Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised

  1. Chaos from simple models to complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cencini, Massimo; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Chaos: from simple models to complex systems aims to guide science and engineering students through chaos and nonlinear dynamics from classical examples to the most recent fields of research. The first part, intended for undergraduate and graduate students, is a gentle and self-contained introduction to the concepts and main tools for the characterization of deterministic chaotic systems, with emphasis to statistical approaches. The second part can be used as a reference by researchers as it focuses on more advanced topics including the characterization of chaos with tools of information theor

  2. Simple Unawareness in Dynamic Psychological Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Søren; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Building on Battigalli and Dufwenberg (2009)’s framework of dynamic psychological games and the progress in the modeling of dynamic unawareness by Heifetz, Meier, and Schipper (2013a) we model and analyze the impact of asymmetric awareness in the strategic interaction of players motivated...... by reciprocity and guilt. Specifically we characterize extensive-form games with psychological payoffs and simple unawareness, define extensive-form rationalizability and, using this, show that unawareness has a pervasive impact on the strategic interaction of psychologically motivated players. Intuitively...

  3. A simple parametric model selection test

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne M. Schennach; Daniel Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    We propose a simple model selection test for choosing among two parametric likelihoods which can be applied in the most general setting without any assumptions on the relation between the candidate models and the true distribution. That is, both, one or neither is allowed to be correctly speci fied or misspeci fied, they may be nested, non-nested, strictly non-nested or overlapping. Unlike in previous testing approaches, no pre-testing is needed, since in each case, the same test statistic to...

  4. Simple, high current, antimony ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, H.

    1979-01-01

    A simple metal ion source capable of producing a continuous, uncontaminated, high current beam of Sb ions is presented. It produced a total ion current of 200 μA at 1 kV extraction voltage. A discharge occurred in the source at a pressure of 6 x 10 -4 Torr. The ion current extracted from the source increased with the 3/2 power of the extraction voltage. The perveance of the source and ion density in the plasma were 8 x 10 -9 and 1.8 x 10 11 cm -3 , respectively

  5. A Simple Ripple Filter for FLUKA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Herrmann, Rochus

    ). The ripple filter at GSI and HIT consists of several wedge like structures, which widens the Bragg-peak up to e.g. 3 mm. For Monte Carlo simulations of C-12 therapy, the exact setup, including the ripple filter needs to be simulated. In the Monte Carlo particle transport program FLUKA, the ripple filter can...... be realized in several ways. The most simplistic version is to apply the ripples as simple triangles. More elaborate version would account for the exact structure, but the drawback is that this will bloat the FLUKA input file with vast amounts of bodys which needs to be included in the geometrical setup...

  6. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...

  7. Design of Simple Landslide Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingjia; Cai, Lingling

    2018-01-01

    The simple landslide monitoring system is mainly designed for slope, collapse body and surface crack. In the harsh environment, the dynamic displacement data of the disaster body is transmitted to the terminal acquisition system in real time. The main body of the system adopt is PIC32MX795F512. This chip is to realize low power design, wakes the system up through the clock chip, and turns on the switching power supply at set time, which makes the wireless transmission module running during the interval to ensure the maximum battery consumption, so that the system can be stable long term work.

  8. Fourier's law: insight from a simple derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubi, Y; Di Ventra, M

    2009-04-01

    The onset of Fourier's law in a one-dimensional quantum system is addressed via a simple model of weakly coupled quantum systems in contact with thermal baths at their edges. Using analytical arguments we show that the crossover from the ballistic (invalid Fourier's law) to diffusive (valid Fourier's law) regimes is characterized by a thermal length scale, which is directly related to the profile of the local temperature. In the same vein, dephasing is shown to give rise to classical Fourier's law, similarly to the onset of Ohm's law in mesoscopic conductors.

  9. Current-induced forces: a simple derivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todorov, Tchavdar N.; Dundas, Daniel; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the problem of forces on atoms under current in nanoscale conductors. We derive and discuss the five principal kinds of force under steady-state conditions from a simple standpoint that-with the help of background literature-should be accessible to physics undergraduates. The discussion...... aims at combining methodology with an emphasis on the underlying physics through examples. We discuss and compare two forces present only under current-the non-conservative electron wind force and a Lorentz-like velocity-dependent force. It is shown that in metallic nanowires both display significant...

  10. Magnetostriction in a simple trivalent manganese perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Brett A.; Kennedy, Brendan J.; Vogt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We found an unusual negative thermal expansion in the simple perovskite MnF3 below the Neel point, where the spins are ordered in an A-type magnetic structure. The structure of MnF3 has been studied between 5 and 500 K using powder neutron and synchrotron diffraction. The structure remains monoclinic C2/c over the entire temperature range. We have found that the interplay of spin and orbital ordering is sufficient to result in a large positive magnetovolume effect without charge ordering. This expansion is reminiscent of the Invar effect observed in certain alloys.

  11. Simple Synthesis Method for Alumina Nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Damian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the human population steady increase, expansion of urban areas, excessive industrialization including in agriculture, caused not only decrease to depletion of non-renewable resources, a rapid deterioration of the environment with negative impact on water quality, soil productivity and of course quality of life in general. This paper aims to prepare size controlled nanoparticles of aluminum oxide using a simple synthesis method. The morphology and dimensions of nanomaterial was investigated using modern analytical techniques: SEM/EDAX and XRD spectroscopy.

  12. Simple volatility test for bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive test measuring the volatility or fuming propensity of bituminous materials with good repeatability has been devised. The test depends on measuring the mass loss which occurs when a small sample of the material is heated in a shallow open dish on a thermostatic hotplate for a fixed time. A rectilinear inverse relation between the mass losses and the softening points of a series of pitches from one source has been found, and the test has been shown to give results which correlate well with other methods for characterizing pitch volatility. Test results obtained with a range of tar products from pitches to creosotes all showed similarly good repeatability. (4 refs.)

  13. Crystal nucleation in simple and complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, David W

    2003-03-15

    The application of density-functional methods from statistical mechanics to the nucleation of crystals from the melt is described. Simple fluids such as metals, with sizes comparable with the range of their attractive forces, are compared with complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions and proteins dissolved in solution. A different mechanism for crystal nucleation is proposed in the latter case, in which density (concentration) changes before periodic crystalline order appears. This leads to a theoretical foundation for empirical observations on the 'crystallization window' in protein crystallization. Comparisons are made with the results of computer simulation via molecular dynamics.

  14. Investigating student understanding of simple harmonic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somroob, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate students’ understanding and develop instructional material on a topic of simple harmonic motion. Participants were 60 students taking a course on vibrations and wave and 46 students taking a course on Physics 2 and 28 students taking a course on Fundamental Physics 2 on the 2nd semester of an academic year 2016. A 16-question conceptual test and tutorial activities had been developed from previous research findings and evaluated by three physics experts in teaching mechanics before using in a real classroom. Data collection included both qualitative and quantitative methods. Item analysis and whole-test analysis were determined from student responses in the conceptual test. As results, most students had misconceptions about restoring force and they had problems connecting mathematical solutions to real motions, especially phase angle. Moreover, they had problems with interpreting mechanical energy from graphs and diagrams of the motion. These results were used to develop effective instructional materials to enhance student abilities in understanding simple harmonic motion in term of multiple representations.

  15. Trophic dynamics of a simple model ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Graham; Fortier-Dubois, Étienne

    2017-09-13

    We have constructed a model of community dynamics that is simple enough to enumerate all possible food webs, yet complex enough to represent a wide range of ecological processes. We use the transition matrix to predict the outcome of succession and then investigate how the transition probabilities are governed by resource supply and immigration. Low-input regimes lead to simple communities whereas trophically complex communities develop when there is an adequate supply of both resources and immigrants. Our interpretation of trophic dynamics in complex communities hinges on a new principle of mutual replenishment, defined as the reciprocal alternation of state in a pair of communities linked by the invasion and extinction of a shared species. Such neutral couples are the outcome of succession under local dispersal and imply that food webs will often be made up of suites of trophically equivalent species. When immigrants arrive from an external pool of fixed composition a similar principle predicts a dynamic core of webs constituting a neutral interchange network, although communities may express an extensive range of other webs whose membership is only in part predictable. The food web is not in general predictable from whole-community properties such as productivity or stability, although it may profoundly influence these properties. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. A Simple Test for Causality in Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An early development in testing for causality (technically, Granger non-causality in the conditional variance (or volatility associated with financial returns was the portmanteau statistic for non-causality in the variance of Cheng and Ng (1996. A subsequent development was the Lagrange Multiplier (LM test of non-causality in the conditional variance by Hafner and Herwartz (2006, who provided simulation results to show that their LM test was more powerful than the portmanteau statistic for sample sizes of 1000 and 4000 observations. While the LM test for causality proposed by Hafner and Herwartz (2006 is an interesting and useful development, it is nonetheless arbitrary. In particular, the specification on which the LM test is based does not rely on an underlying stochastic process, so the alternative hypothesis is also arbitrary, which can affect the power of the test. The purpose of the paper is to derive a simple test for causality in volatility that provides regularity conditions arising from the underlying stochastic process, namely a random coefficient autoregressive process, and a test for which the (quasi- maximum likelihood estimates have valid asymptotic properties under the null hypothesis of non-causality. The simple test is intuitively appealing as it is based on an underlying stochastic process, is sympathetic to Granger’s (1969, 1988 notion of time series predictability, is easy to implement, and has a regularity condition that is not available in the LM test.

  17. Training nuclei detection algorithms with simple annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Kost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generating good training datasets is essential for machine learning-based nuclei detection methods. However, creating exhaustive nuclei contour annotations, to derive optimal training data from, is often infeasible. Methods: We compared different approaches for training nuclei detection methods solely based on nucleus center markers. Such markers contain less accurate information, especially with regard to nuclear boundaries, but can be produced much easier and in greater quantities. The approaches use different automated sample extraction methods to derive image positions and class labels from nucleus center markers. In addition, the approaches use different automated sample selection methods to improve the detection quality of the classification algorithm and reduce the run time of the training process. We evaluated the approaches based on a previously published generic nuclei detection algorithm and a set of Ki-67-stained breast cancer images. Results: A Voronoi tessellation-based sample extraction method produced the best performing training sets. However, subsampling of the extracted training samples was crucial. Even simple class balancing improved the detection quality considerably. The incorporation of active learning led to a further increase in detection quality. Conclusions: With appropriate sample extraction and selection methods, nuclei detection algorithms trained on the basis of simple center marker annotations can produce comparable quality to algorithms trained on conventionally created training sets.

  18. Ferroelectricity in wurtzite structure simple chalcogenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwake, Hiroki; Konishi, Ayako; Ogawa, Takafumi; Fujimura, Koji; Fisher, Craig A. J.; Kuwabara, Akihide; Shimizu, Takao; Yasui, Shintaro; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2014-06-01

    The possibility of the new class ferroelectric materials of wurtzite structure simple chalcogenide was discussed using modern first-principles calculation technique. Ferroelectricity in the wurtzite structure (P63mc) can be understood by structure distortion from centrosymmetric P63/mmc by relative displacement of cation against anion along c-axis. Calculated potential surface of these compounds shows typical double well between two polar variants. The potential barriers for the ferroelectric polarization switching were estimated to be 0.25 eV/f.u. for ZnO. It is slightly higher energy to the common perovskite ferroelectric compound PbTiO3. Epitaxial tensile strain on the ab-plane (0001) is effective to lower the potential barrier. The potential barrier decreased from 0.25 to 0.15 eV/f.u. by 5% ab-plane expansion in wurtzite structure ZnO. Epitaxial ZnO thin film with donor type defect reduction should be a possible candidate to confirm this ferroelectricity in wurtzite structure simple chalcogenide.

  19. Simple Coatings to Render Polystyrene Protein Resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Hecker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific protein adsorption is detrimental to the performance of many biomedical devices. Polystyrene is a commonly used material in devices and thin films. Simple reliable surface modification of polystyrene to render it protein resistant is desired in particular for device fabrication and orthogonal functionalisation schemes. This report details modifications carried out on a polystyrene surface to prevent protein adsorption. The trialed surfaces included Pluronic F127 and PLL-g-PEG, adsorbed on polystyrene, using a polydopamine-assisted approach. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D results showed only short-term anti-fouling success of the polystyrene surface modified with F127, and the subsequent failure of the polydopamine intermediary layer in improving its stability. In stark contrast, QCM-D analysis proved the success of the polydopamine assisted PLL-g-PEG coating in preventing bovine serum albumin adsorption. This modified surface is equally as protein-rejecting after 24 h in buffer, and thus a promising simple coating for long term protein rejection of polystyrene.

  20. A simple solution to type specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection......Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...

  1. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection......Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...

  2. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    membrane, and soil gas enters the cylinder through a changeable interface in the bottom. The depressurisation of the cylinder is controlled by a mass-flow controller, thereby limiting the influence of natural driving forces. Pressures, temperatures and radon concentrations are measured continuously...... in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect......A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  3. Interactions between simple radicals and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Suardiaz, Reynier; Montero, Luis A.; Sander, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    The interactions of the simple radicals CH 3 , NH 2 , OH, and F with water have been studied by DFT (UB3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) and ab initio (RHF-UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(2d,2p)) methods. In this order the number of lone pairs (from zero to three), the electronegativity, and the strength of the X-H bonds increase (X = C, N, and O). The various minima of the radical-water complexes were located using the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) approach which had previously been proven to be useful for closed-shell molecules. The role of the unpaired electron in hydrogen bonding was investigated using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. A considerable contribution of the unpaired electron to the complex stabilization was only found for the methyl radical and the fluorine atom, whereas in the aminyl and the hydroxyl radical the role of the unpaired electron is negligible

  4. A simple model of bank bankruptcies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiejuk, Agata; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2001-10-01

    Interbank deposits (loans and credits) are quite common in banking system all over the world. Such interbank co-operation is profitable for banks but it can also lead to collective financial failures. In this paper, we introduce a new model of directed percolation as a simple representation for contagion process and mass bankruptcies in banking systems. Directed connections that are randomly distributed between junctions of bank lattice simulate flows of money in our model. Critical values of a mean density of interbank connections as well as static and dynamic scaling laws for the statistics of avalanche bankruptcies are found. Results of computer simulations for the universal profile of bankruptcies spreading are in a qualitative agreement with the third wave of bank suspensions during The Great Depression in USA.

  5. Special relativity as a simple geometry problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Rodrigo de; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the 'rest system' are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental effects of standard relativistic kinematics, namely time dilation, length contraction and relativity of simultaneity. Moreover, it also provides an immediate image of other important and more subtle aspects, often passed by in relativity courses, such as the conventionality of simultaneity thesis, possible non-invariance of the one-way speed of light and compatibility between the Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein-Minkowski philosophies. The geometric scheme so constructed constitutes a powerful tool to clearly illustrate both traditional and not-so-traditional aspects of special relativity teaching

  6. Multiple equilibria in a simple elastocapillary system

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, Michele

    2012-09-28

    We consider the elastocapillary interaction of a liquid drop placed between two elastic beams, which are both clamped at one end to a rigid substrate. This is a simple model system relevant to the problem of surface-tension-induced collapse of flexible micro-channels that has been observed in the manufacture of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). We determine the conditions under which the beams remain separated, touch at a point, or stick along a portion of their length. Surprisingly, we show that in many circumstances multiple equilibrium states are possible. We develop a lubrication-type model for the flow of liquid out of equilibrium and thereby investigate the stability of the multiple equilibria. We demonstrate that for given material properties two stable equilibria may exist, and show via numerical solutions of the dynamic model that it is the initial state of the system that determines which stable equilibrium is ultimately reached. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  7. Centralizers in simple locally finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kuzucuoğlu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey article on centralizers of finitesubgroups in locally finite, simple groups or LFS-groups as wewill call them. We mention some of the open problems aboutcentralizers of subgroups in LFS-groups and applications of theknown information about the centralizers of subgroups to thestructure of the locally finite group. We also prove thefollowing: Let $G$ be a countably infinite non-linear LFS-groupwith a Kegel sequence $mathcal{K}={(G_i,N_i | iinmathbf{N} }$. If there exists an upper bound for ${ |N_i| |iin mathbf{N} }$, then for any finite semisimplesubgroup $F$ in $G$ the subgroup $C_G(F$ has elements oforder $p_i$ for infinitely many distinct prime $p_i$. Inparticular $C_G(F$ is an infinite group. This answers Hartley'squestion provided that there exists a bound on ${ |N_i| | iin mathbf{N}$.

  8. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moelhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Noergaard; Boeggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50x50 μm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 nm. We demonstrate how the EBL system can be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition

  9. A simple nonlinear dynamical computing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliotis, Abraham; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L.; Spano, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    We propose and characterize an iterated map whose nonlinearity has a simple (i.e., minimal) electronic implementation. We then demonstrate explicitly how all the different fundamental logic gates can be implemented and morphed using this nonlinearity. These gates provide the full set of gates necessary to construct a general-purpose, reconfigurable computing device. As an example of how such chaotic computing devices can be exploited, we use an array of these maps to encode data and to process information. Each map can store one of M items, where M is variable and can be large. This nonlinear hardware stores data naturally in different bases or alphabets. We also show how this method of storing information can serve as a preprocessing tool for exact or inexact pattern-matching searches.

  10. Learning from correlated patterns by simple perceptrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Learning behavior of simple perceptrons is analyzed for a teacher-student scenario in which output labels are provided by a teacher network for a set of possibly correlated input patterns, and such that the teacher and student networks are of the same type. Our main concern is the effect of statistical correlations among the input patterns on learning performance. For this purpose, we extend to the teacher-student scenario a methodology for analyzing randomly labeled patterns recently developed in Shinzato and Kabashima 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 324013. This methodology is used for analyzing situations in which orthogonality of the input patterns is enhanced in order to optimize the learning performance.

  11. iPad 2 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary; Ritchie, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The iPad 2 is thinner, more powerful, intuitive and very fun for users of all ages. Your iPad can be used for reading, surfing the web, emailing, watching TV and movies, getting work done and much more. And with over 65,000 apps just for the iPad, as well as the ability to run over 30,000 iPhone apps, the possibilities are endless. iPad 2 Made Simple clarifies all of the key features on the iPad, introduces what's new, and also reveals dozens of time-saving shortcuts and techniques. The book has over 1,000 screen shots that are carefully annotated with step-by-step instructions. * Clear instru

  12. Efficient quantum pseudorandomness with simple graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Rawad; Ghalbouni, Joe; Dgheim, Joseph; Markham, Damian

    2018-02-01

    Measurement based (MB) quantum computation allows for universal quantum computing by measuring individual qubits prepared in entangled multipartite states, known as graph states. Unless corrected for, the randomness of the measurements leads to the generation of ensembles of random unitaries, where each random unitary is identified with a string of possible measurement results. We show that repeating an MB scheme an efficient number of times, on a simple graph state, with measurements at fixed angles and no feedforward corrections, produces a random unitary ensemble that is an ɛ -approximate t design on n qubits. Unlike previous constructions, the graph is regular and is also a universal resource for measurement based quantum computing, closely related to the brickwork state.

  13. Simple LDAP Schemas for Grid Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial definition of the data we need in a directory service or database so that we can implement a performance monitoring testbed. To begin with, this document describes how to represent producers of events and event schemes. The representation of producers is simple and does not contain information such as who has access to the events and what protocols can be used to access the events. In the future, we will define how to describe consumers of events and add details to our representations. A popular choice for a directory service or database for grid computing is a distributed directory service that is accessed using the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). This document uses LDAP terminology, schemes, and formats to represent the directory service schemes.

  14. Simple Resonance Hierarchy for Surmounting Quantum Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M 4 ±C 4 with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime bachcloth.

  15. Simple Lie groups without the approximation property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; de Laat, Tim

    2013-01-01

    For a locally compact group G, let A(G) denote its Fourier algebra, and let M0A(G) denote the space of completely bounded Fourier multipliers on G. The group G is said to have the Approximation Property (AP) if the constant function 1 can be approximated by a net in A(G) in the weak-∗ topology...... on the space M0A(G). Recently, Lafforgue and de la Salle proved that SL(3,R) does not have the AP, implying the first example of an exact discrete group without it, namely, SL(3,Z). In this paper we prove that Sp(2,R) does not have the AP. It follows that all connected simple Lie groups with finite center...... and real rank greater than or equal to two do not have the AP. This naturally gives rise to many examples of exact discrete groups without the AP....

  16. A simple and realistic triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitz-Adler, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple triton wave function that consists of a product of three correlation operators operating on a three-body spin-isospin state. This wave function is formally similar to that used in the recent variational theories of nuclear matter, the main difference being in the long-range behavior of the correlation operators. Variational calculations are carried out with the Reid potential, using this wave function in the so-called 'symmetrized product' and 'independent pair' forms. The triton energy and density distributions obtained with the symmetrized product wave function agree with those obtained in Faddeev and other variational calculations using harmonic oscillator states. The proposed wave function and calculational methods can be easily generalized to treat the four-nucleon α-particle. (orig.)

  17. Learning from correlated patterns by simple perceptrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Learning behavior of simple perceptrons is analyzed for a teacher-student scenario in which output labels are provided by a teacher network for a set of possibly correlated input patterns, and such that the teacher and student networks are of the same type. Our main concern is the effect of statistical correlations among the input patterns on learning performance. For this purpose, we extend to the teacher-student scenario a methodology for analyzing randomly labeled patterns recently developed in Shinzato and Kabashima 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 324013. This methodology is used for analyzing situations in which orthogonality of the input patterns is enhanced in order to optimize the learning performance

  18. Swarming behavior of simple model squirmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thutupalli, Shashi; Seemann, Ralf; Herminghaus, Stephan, E-mail: shashi.thutupalli@ds.mpg.de, E-mail: stephan.herminghaus@ds.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We have studied experimentally the collective behavior of self-propelling liquid droplets, which closely mimic the locomotion of some protozoal organisms, the so-called squirmers. For the sake of simplicity, we concentrate on quasi-two-dimensional (2D) settings, although our swimmers provide a fully 3D propulsion scheme. At an areal density of 0.46, we find strong polar correlation of the locomotion velocities of neighboring droplets, which decays over less than one droplet diameter. When the areal density is increased to 0.78, distinct peaks show up in the angular correlation function, which point to the formation of ordered rafts. This shows that pronounced textures, beyond what has been seen in simulations so far, may show up in crowds of simple model squirmers, despite the simplicity of their (purely physical) mutual interaction.

  19. A Simple Sag Generator Using SSRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2010-01-01

    conditions (critical loads) and this property often may not be accommodated inside the device itself and sag compensating power conditioners have been developed for such purposes. While in practice voltage sags are not wanted, generating sags becomes necessary for the purpose of experimentally verifying...... the performances of the equipment (both the equipment under sag condition and the sag compensating power conditioner) under sag conditions. In this work, a simple and economical, yet highly performing sag generator is developed, its design discussed, and its feasibility demonstrated by experiments. The proposed...... SSR (solid state relay, a semiconductor power module of triac characteristics) and variable transformer (variac) based sag generator is built for three-phase 10kVA ratings and balanced/imbalanced voltage sags are demonstrated in the laboratory. The performance under resistive and inductive loads...

  20. A Simple Sag Generator Using SSRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2012-01-01

    conditions (critical loads) and this property often may not be accommodated inside the device itself and sag compensating power conditioners have been developed for such purposes. While in practice voltage sags are not wanted, generating sags becomes necessary for the purpose of experimentally verifying...... the performances of the equipment (both the equipment under sag condition and the sag compensating power conditioner) under sag conditions. In this work, a simple and economical, yet highly performing sag generator is developed, its design discussed, and its feasibility demonstrated by experiments. The proposed...... SSR (solid state relay, a semiconductor power module of triac characteristics) and variable transformer (variac) based sag generator is built for three-phase 10kVA ratings and balanced/imbalanced voltage sags are demonstrated in the laboratory. The performance under resistive and inductive loads...

  1. Lensing and dynamics in two simple steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A.; Auger, M. W.; Evans, N. W.

    2013-02-01

    We present a ready-to-use method to constrain the density distribution in spherically symmetric early-type galaxy lenses. Assuming a power-law density profile, then joint use of the virial theorem and the lens equation yields simple formulae for the power-law index (or logarithmic density gradient). Any dependence on orbital anisotropy can be tightly constrained or even erased completely. Our results rely just on surface brightnesses and line-of-sight kinematics, making deprojection unnecessary. We revisit three systems that have already been examined in the literature (the Cosmic Horseshoe, the Jackpot and B1608+656) and provide our estimates. Finally, we show that the method yields a good approximation for the density profile even when the true profile is a broken power law, albeit with a mild bias towards isothermality.

  2. FSM Model of a Simple Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Latkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a simulation model of a simple photovoltaic system intended as a tool for testing the use of finite state machines for simulations representing a long-term operation of renewable energy sources. The mathematical model of the photovoltaic system is described first. Then it is used to build a finite state machine model that calculates a power output of the photovoltaic system for changing values of a solar irradiance and a temperature. Data measured on a real photovoltaic installation are used to verify model’s accuracy through its comparison with a previously created and verified Matlab model. The finite state machine model presented in this paper was created using Ptolemy II software.

  3. A simple FASTBUS to ethernet interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudendistel, K.; Dobinson, R.W.; Downing, R.W.; Herbert, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Until comparatively recently the effort and the expense of interfacing to Ethernet has been considerable, both in terms of design time and the number of integrated circuits required. However, the appearance of VLSI chip sets from several manufacturers, which perform large parts of the lower level network protocols, has done much to ease this problem. One of the first chip sets available was that manufactured by the SEEQ company of San Jose, California. We have successfully constructed and operated controller boards for the IBM PC using these chips. We report here on an extension of this work to construct a simple interface between FASTBUS and Ethernet. The motivation for the work is twofold; first to make available Ethernet products and services from a FASTBUS environment, secondly to investigate the interconnection of FASTBUS segments over longer distances than is possible using the present cable segment and segment interconnects. The emphasis of this paper is on how the interface appears to a FASTBUS user

  4. A simple nasal anemometer for clinical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutters, B; Brøndsted, K

    1992-01-01

    There is a need for clinical methods which give more direct information about the behaviour of the velopharyngeal mechanism in natural speech than do the examination methods normally applied to patients suffering from velopharyngeal insufficiency. One possibility is the recording of nasal airflow in order to detect nasal emission of air. The purpose of the present study is to examine the qualities and the characteristics of a simple and cheap nasal anemometer. As this type of flowmeter is considered less reliable than most other flowmeters, its limitations must be clearly understood and accounted for in drawing conclusions. Therefore, nasal airflow in speech obtained with this flowmeter is discussed in relation to nasal airflow obtained by the more reliable pneumotachograph and in relation to nasal airflow data found in the literature. The tests made here suggest that, at least for the type of speech material and measurements used in the present study, reliable nasal airflow data can be obtained by the anemometer.

  5. Simple emission metrics for climate impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aamaas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of climate change, emissions of different species (e.g., carbon dioxide and methane are not directly comparable since they have different radiative efficiencies and lifetimes. Since comparisons via detailed climate models are computationally expensive and complex, emission metrics were developed to allow a simple and straightforward comparison of the estimated climate impacts of emissions of different species. Emission metrics are not unique and variety of different emission metrics has been proposed, with key choices being the climate impacts and time horizon to use for comparisons. In this paper, we present analytical expressions and describe how to calculate common emission metrics for different species. We include the climate metrics radiative forcing, integrated radiative forcing, temperature change and integrated temperature change in both absolute form and normalised to a reference gas. We consider pulse emissions, sustained emissions and emission scenarios. The species are separated into three types: CO2 which has a complex decay over time, species with a simple exponential decay, and ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOC which indirectly effect climate via various chemical interactions. We also discuss deriving Impulse Response Functions, radiative efficiency, regional dependencies, consistency within and between metrics and uncertainties. We perform various applications to highlight key applications of emission metrics, which show that emissions of CO2 are important regardless of what metric and time horizon is used, but that the importance of short lived climate forcers varies greatly depending on the metric choices made. Further, the ranking of countries by emissions changes very little with different metrics despite large differences in metric values, except for the shortest time horizons (GWP20.

  6. Simple queueing approach to segregation dynamics in Schelling model

    OpenAIRE

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2007-01-01

    A simple queueing approach for segregation of agents in modified one dimensional Schelling segregation model is presented. The goal is to arrive at simple formula for the number of unhappy agents remaining after the segregation.

  7. Creating Simple Admin Tools Using Info*Engine and Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory; Felkins, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create a simple Info*Engine Tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administration of tedious work.

  8. Simple process to fabricate nitride alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jong Hun; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mono-nitride (UN) is considered as a fuel material [1] for accident-tolerant fuel to compensate for the loss of fissile fuel material caused by adopting a thickened cladding such as SiC composites. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. Among them, a direct nitriding process of metal is more attractive because it has advantages in the mass production of high-purity powders and the reusing of expensive 15 N 2 gas. However, since metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots, it has a drawback in the fabrication of fine powders. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a centrifugal atomisation technique to fabricate uranium and uranium alloy powders. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate nitride fuel powders directly from uranium metal alloy powders. Spherical powder and flake of uranium metal alloys were fabricated using a centrifugal atomisation method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating the metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. The phase and morphology evolutions of powders were investigated during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also part of the present work. KAERI has developed the centrifugal rotating disk atomisation process to fabricate spherical uranium metal alloy powders which are used as advanced fuel materials for research reactors. The rotating disk atomisation system involves the tasks of melting, atomising, and collecting. A nozzle in the bottom of melting crucible introduces melt at the center of a spinning disk. The centrifugal force carries the melt to the edge of the disk and throws the melt off the edge. Size and shape of droplets can be controlled by changing the nozzle size, the disk diameter and disk speed independently or simultaneously. By adjusting the processing parameters of the centrifugal atomiser, a spherical and flake shape

  9. Simple sequence proteins in prokaryotic proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Srinivasan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structural and functional features associated with Simple Sequence Proteins (SSPs are non-globularity, disease states, signaling and post-translational modification. SSPs are also an important source of genetic and possibly phenotypic variation. Analysis of 249 prokaryotic proteomes offers a new opportunity to examine the genomic properties of SSPs. Results SSPs are a minority but they grow with proteome size. This relationship is exhibited across species varying in genomic GC, mutational bias, life style, and pathogenicity. Their proportion in each proteome is strongly influenced by genomic base compositional bias. In most species simple duplications is favoured, but in a few cases such as Mycobacteria, large families of duplications occur. Amino acid preference in SSPs exhibits a trend towards low cost of biosynthesis. In SSPs and in non-SSPs, Alanine, Glycine, Leucine, and Valine are abundant in species widely varying in genomic GC whereas Isoleucine and Lysine are rich only in organisms with low genomic GC. Arginine is abundant in SSPs of two species and in the non-SSPs of Xanthomonas oryzae. Asparagine is abundant only in SSPs of low GC species. Aspartic acid is abundant only in the non-SSPs of Halobacterium sp NRC1. The abundance of Serine in SSPs of 62 species extends over a broader range compared to that of non-SSPs. Threonine(T is abundant only in SSPs of a couple of species. SSPs exhibit preferential association with Cell surface, Cell membrane and Transport functions and a negative association with Metabolism. Mesophiles and Thermophiles display similar ranges in the content of SSPs. Conclusion Although SSPs are a minority, the genomic forces of base compositional bias and duplications influence their growth and pattern in each species. The preferences and abundance of amino acids are governed by low biosynthetic cost, evolutionary age and base composition of codons. Abundance of charged amino acids Arginine

  10. Foreshocks and Aftershocks in Simple Earthquake Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Klein, W.; Dominguez, R.; Kazemian, J.; González, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because the earth is made of a variety of materials of different strengths and dissipate stress differently. Because the spatial arrangement of these materials is dependent on the geologic history, the distribution of these various materials can be quite complex and occur over a wide range of length scales. Despite their inhomogeneous nature, real faults are often modeled as spatially homogeneous systems. Here we present a simple earthquake fault model based on the Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) and Rundle-Jackson-Brown (RJB) cellular automata models with long-range interactions that incorporates a fixed percentage of stronger sites, or 'asperity cells', into the lattice. These asperity cells are significantly stronger than the surrounding lattice sites but eventually rupture when the applied stress reaches their higher threshold stress. The introduction of these spatial heterogeneities results in temporal clustering in the model that mimics those seen in natural fault systems. We observe sequences of activity that start with a gradually accelerating number of larger events (foreshocks) prior to a mainshock that is followed by a tail of decreasing activity (aftershocks). These recurrent large events occur at regular intervals, as is often observed in historic seismicity, and the time between events and their magnitude are a function of the stress dissipation parameter. The relative length of the foreshock to aftershock sequence depends on the amount of stress dissipation in the system, resulting in relatively long aftershock sequences when the stress dissipation is large versus long foreshock sequences when the stress dissipation is weak. This work provides further evidence that the spatial and temporal patterns observed in natural seismicity are strongly influenced by the underlying physical properties and are not solely the result of a simple cascade mechanism. We find that

  11. Expectations for inflationary observables: simple or natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoke, Nathan; Easther, Richard

    2017-12-01

    We describe the general inflationary dynamics that can arise with a single, canonically coupled field where the inflaton potential is a 4-th order polynomial. This scenario yields a wide range of combinations of the empirical spectral observables, ns, r and αs. However, not all combinations are possible and next-generation cosmological experiments have the ability to rule out all inflationary scenarios based on this potential. Further, we construct inflationary priors for this potential based on physically motivated choices for its free parameters. These can be used to determine the degree of tuning associated with different combinations of ns, r and αs and will facilitate treatments of the inflationary model selection problem. Finally, we comment on the implications of these results for the naturalness of the overall inflationary paradigm. We argue that ruling out all simple, renormalizable potentials would not necessarily imply that the inflationary paradigm itself was unnatural, but that this eventuality would increase the importance of building inflationary scenarios in the context of broader paradigms of ultra-high energy physics.

  12. Exact Fit of Simple Finite Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Tasche

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available How to forecast next year’s portfolio-wide credit default rate based on last year’s default observations and the current score distribution? A classical approach to this problem consists of fitting a mixture of the conditional score distributions observed last year to the current score distribution. This is a special (simple case of a finite mixture model where the mixture components are fixed and only the weights of the components are estimated. The optimum weights provide a forecast of next year’s portfolio-wide default rate. We point out that the maximum-likelihood (ML approach to fitting the mixture distribution not only gives an optimum but even an exact fit if we allow the mixture components to vary but keep their density ratio fixed. From this observation we can conclude that the standard default rate forecast based on last year’s conditional default rates will always be located between last year’s portfolio-wide default rate and the ML forecast for next year. As an application example, cost quantification is then discussed. We also discuss how the mixture model based estimation methods can be used to forecast total loss. This involves the reinterpretation of an individual classification problem as a collective quantification problem.

  13. Interactions between simple radicals and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel [Lehrstuhl fuer Organische Chemie II der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Laboratorio de Quimica Computacional y Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Habana, 10400 (Cuba); Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa [Lehrstuhl fuer Organische Chemie II der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: elsa.sanchez@rub.de; Suardiaz, Reynier; Montero, Luis A. [Laboratorio de Quimica Computacional y Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Habana, 10400 (Cuba); Sander, Wolfram [Lehrstuhl fuer Organische Chemie II der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: wolfram.sander@rub.de

    2008-11-03

    The interactions of the simple radicals CH{sub 3}, NH{sub 2}, OH, and F with water have been studied by DFT (UB3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) and ab initio (RHF-UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(2d,2p)) methods. In this order the number of lone pairs (from zero to three), the electronegativity, and the strength of the X-H bonds increase (X = C, N, and O). The various minima of the radical-water complexes were located using the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) approach which had previously been proven to be useful for closed-shell molecules. The role of the unpaired electron in hydrogen bonding was investigated using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. A considerable contribution of the unpaired electron to the complex stabilization was only found for the methyl radical and the fluorine atom, whereas in the aminyl and the hydroxyl radical the role of the unpaired electron is negligible.

  14. Two simple tools for industrial OR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandrock

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available At the 1985 Annual Congress of the South African Production & Inventory Control Society it was pointed out that the productivity growth rate for South Africa is completely out of kilter with that for the western industrialised nations. The latter all display positive rates (some as high as that of Japan whereas the rate for South Africa is - NEGATIVE. Partly as a result of this situation, more and more attention is being given to quality control and reliability engineering by our industrialists in their attempts to improve productivity. This is going hand in hand with the introduction of better techniques and better use of the latest technology. We should also give attention to analytical tools that may be used in a simple inexpensive way to improve our methods of analysing industrial data, and in this way to improve our performance at little or no additional cost. To this end two tools are discussed. They are by means new. But it does seem as though they could be more widely applied in the industrial milieu.

  15. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a `lone wolf' identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  16. Rotational modes of a simple Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogister, Y. J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study the tilt-over mode (TOM), the spin-over mode (SOM), the free core nutation (FCN), and their relationships to each other using a simple Earth model with a homogeneous and incompressible liquid core and a rigid mantle. Analytical solutions for the periods of these modes as well as that of the Chandler wobble is found for the Earth model. We show that the FCN is the same mode as the SOM of a wobbling Earth. The reduced pressure, in terms of which the vector momentum equation is known to reduce to a scalar second order differential equation (the so called Poincaŕe equation), is used as the independent variable. Analytical solutions are then found for the displacement eigenfucntions in a meridional plane of the liquid core for the aforementioned modes. We show that the magnitude of motion in the mantle during the FCN is comparable to that in the liquid core, hence very small. The displacement eigenfunctions for these aforementioned modes as well as those for the free inner core nutation (FICN), computed numerically, are also given for a three layer Earth model which also includes a rigid but capable of wobbling inner core. We will discuss the slow convergence of the period of the FICN in terms of the characteristic surfaces of the Poincare equation.

  17. Variations on a simple dice game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Joe

    2018-04-01

    I begin my introductory astronomy course with a unit on critical thinking that focuses on, among other things, the differences between the "scientific method" as frequently presented in textbooks and actual scientific practice. One particular classroom activity uses a simple dice game to simulate observation of a natural phenomenon and the process of figuring out the framework, which we have previously defined as the rules that allow us to make predictions, governing the simulated phenomenon. Using games to teach scientific methodology is not new (see Maloney and Masters and Smith and references therein). I have experimented with Maloney and Masters' games and discovered that my students found them too difficult to figure out and therefore they did not learn what I hoped they would from them. I also experimented with other card games and found that too many students already knew the rules of both well-known and obscure card games. I even tried inventing my own games with, at best, mediocre results.

  18. Simple mathematical models of gene regulatory dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Michael C; Tyran-Kamińska, Marta; Zeron, Eduardo S

    2016-01-01

    This is a short and self-contained introduction to the field of mathematical modeling of gene-networks in bacteria. As an entry point to the field, we focus on the analysis of simple gene-network dynamics. The notes commence with an introduction to the deterministic modeling of gene-networks, with extensive reference to applicable results coming from dynamical systems theory. The second part of the notes treats extensively several approaches to the study of gene-network dynamics in the presence of noise—either arising from low numbers of molecules involved, or due to noise external to the regulatory process. The third and final part of the notes gives a detailed treatment of three well studied and concrete examples of gene-network dynamics by considering the lactose operon, the tryptophan operon, and the lysis-lysogeny switch. The notes contain an index for easy location of particular topics as well as an extensive bibliography of the current literature. The target audience of these notes are mainly graduat...

  19. Coordination and control inside simple biomolecular machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecular machines can achieve physiological functions precisely and efficiently, though they always operate under fluctuations and noises. We review two types of simple machinery that we have recently studied. The machinery can be regarded as molecular motors. They transform chemical free energy from NTP hydrolysis to mechanical work. One type belongs to small monomeric helicases that move directionally along single-stranded nucleic acid, and may further unwind the duplex part for gene replication or repair. The other type belongs to ring-shaped NTPase motors that also move or transport nucleic acid or protein substrate in a directional manner, such as for genome packaging or protein degradation. The central issue in this review is on how the machinery coordinates essential degrees of freedom during the mechanochemical coupling process. Further concerns include how the coordination and control are manifested in experiments, and how they can be captured well in modeling and computational research. We employed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, coarse-grained analyses, and stochastic modeling techniques to examine the molecular machines at multiple resolutions and timescales. Detailed descriptions on how the protein interacts with its substrate at interface, as well as how multiple protein subunits are coordinated are summarized.

  20. A Simple Decontamination Approach Using Hydrogen ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal article To evaluate the use of relatively low levels of hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) for the inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores within an indoor environment. Methods and Results: Laboratory-scale decontamination tests were conducted using bacterial spores of both B. anthracis Ames and Bacillus atrophaeus inoculated onto several types of materials. Pilot-scale tests were also conducted using a larger chamber furnished as an indoor office. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) humidifiers filled with aqueous solutions of 3% or 8% hydrogen peroxide were used to generate the HPV inside the mock office. The spores were exposed to the HPV for periods ranging from 8 hours up to one week. Conclusions: Four to seven day exposures to low levels of HPV (average air concentrations of approximately 5-10 parts per million) were effective in inactivating B. anthracis spores on multiple materials. The HPV can be generated with COTS humidifiers and household H2O2 solutions. With the exception of one test/material, B. atrophaeus spores were equally or more resistant to HPV inactivation compared to those from B. anthracis Ames. Significance and Impact of Study: This simple and effective decontamination method is another option that could be widely applied in the event of a B. anthracis spore release.

  1. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  2. Equilibria of perceptrons for simple contingency problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael R W; Dupuis, Brian

    2012-08-01

    The contingency between cues and outcomes is fundamentally important to theories of causal reasoning and to theories of associative learning. Researchers have computed the equilibria of Rescorla-Wagner models for a variety of contingency problems, and have used these equilibria to identify situations in which the Rescorla-Wagner model is consistent, or inconsistent, with normative models of contingency. Mathematical analyses that directly compare artificial neural networks to contingency theory have not been performed, because of the assumed equivalence between the Rescorla-Wagner learning rule and the delta rule training of artificial neural networks. However, recent results indicate that this equivalence is not as straightforward as typically assumed, suggesting a strong need for mathematical accounts of how networks deal with contingency problems. One such analysis is presented here, where it is proven that the structure of the equilibrium for a simple network trained on a basic contingency problem is quite different from the structure of the equilibrium for a Rescorla-Wagner model faced with the same problem. However, these structural differences lead to functionally equivalent behavior. The implications of this result for the relationships between associative learning, contingency theory, and connectionism are discussed.

  3. Simple model of the slingshot effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Fiore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed quantitative description of the recently proposed “slingshot effect.” Namely, we determine a broad range of conditions under which the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse normally onto a low-density plasma (or matter locally completely ionized into a plasma by the pulse causes the expulsion of a bunch of surface electrons in the direction opposite to the one of propagation of the pulse, and the detailed, ready-for-experiments features of the expelled electrons (energy spectrum, collimation, etc. The effect is due to the combined actions of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation. Our predictions are based on estimating 3D corrections to a simple, yet powerful plane 2-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD model where the equations to be solved are reduced to a system of Hamilton equations in one dimension (or a collection of which become autonomous after the pulse has overcome the electrons. Experimental tests seem to be at hand. If confirmed by the latter, the effect would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or Laser-Wake-Field ones.

  4. College Aptitude Test Simple Checker (Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake G. Maggay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All enrolees of the Cagayan State University are required to take the College Aptitude Test (CAT. The CAT result serves as a basis for recommendation and admission to a specific course or field of specialization, thus, result must be accurate. The study a imed to develop a computerized College Aptitude Test (CAT Simple Checker of Cagayan State University – Lasam Campus to facilitate and to reduce the time of the guidance counsellor in checking many aptitude test papers as well as to ensure accuracy of resu lt. It followed the framework of Design Science Research in Information Systems which consists of six steps such as problem identification and motivation, definition of objectives for a solution based on the identified problem, design and development of th e system, demonstration of the system to the guidance counsellor, evaluation of the system’s functionality and impact and communication which involves documentation and publication. A combination of Visual Basic 6 as the programming language and SQL Server 2005 as the Database Management System (DBMS were used in the development of the system. As a result, the system provides support to the guidance counsellor in performing the assigned tasks by reducing the time consumed in checking aptitude test papers t hat makes the guidance counsellor more effective, efficient and productive.

  5. ZeroMQ: Messaging Made Simple

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2007, ZeroMQ has defined a new product category of thin, fast, open source message transports. This little library has now grown into a large, vibrant community of projects tied together with standard protocols and APIs. Applications, written in any language, talk to each other over TCP, multicast, or inproc transports, using a single socket-based API, and a set of "patterns" (pub-sub, request-reply, dealer-router, pipeline). ZeroMQ handles message framing, batching, and I/O, but ignores aspects like serialization and persistence. By focussing on the essentials, and acting as a toolkit rather than a pre-packaged solution, ZeroMQ turns the complex problem of distributed computing into a relatively simple recipe. About the speaker Pieter Hintjens is a writer, programmer, and public speaker who has spent decades building large software systems, organizations, and businesses. He designed the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) in 2006 for JPMorganChase and left ...

  6. A simple law of star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2012-01-01

    We show that supersonic MHD turbulence yields a star formation rate (SFR) as low as observed in molecular clouds, for characteristic values of the free-fall time divided by the dynamical time, t ff/t dyn, the Alfvénic Mach number, {\\cal M}_a, and the sonic Mach number, {\\cal M}_s. Using a very...... values of t ff/t dyn and {\\cal M}_a. (2) Decreasing values of {\\cal M}_a (stronger magnetic fields) reduce epsilonff, but only to a point, beyond which epsilonff increases with a further decrease of {\\cal M}_a. (3) For values of {\\cal M}_a characteristic of star-forming regions, epsilonff varies...... with {\\cal M}_a by less than a factor of two. We propose a simple star formation law, based on the empirical fit to the minimum epsilonff, and depending only on t ff/t dyn: epsilonff ˜ epsilonwindexp (– 1.6 t ff/t dyn). Because it only depends on the mean gas density and rms velocity, this law...

  7. A Simple Model to Study Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Houck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tau proteins play a role in the stabilization of microtubules, but in pathological conditions, tauopathies, tau is modified by phosphorylation and can aggregate into aberrant aggregates. These aggregates could be toxic to cells, and different cell models have been used to test for compounds that might prevent these tau modifications. Here, we have used a cell model involving the overexpression of human tau in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing tau in a stable manner, we have been able to replicate the phosphorylation of intracellular tau. This intracellular tau increases its own level of phosphorylation and aggregates, likely due to the regulatory effect of some growth factors on specific tau kinases such as GSK3. In these conditions, a change in secreted tau was observed. Reversal of phosphorylation and aggregation of tau was found by the use of lithium, a GSK3 inhibitor. Thus, we propose this as a simple cell model to study tau pathology in nonneuronal cells due to their viability and ease to work with.

  8. Pyglidein - A Simple HTCondor Glidein Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.; Riedel, B.; Merino, G.

    2017-10-01

    A major challenge for data processing and analysis at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory presents itself in connecting a large set of individual clusters together to form a computing grid. Most of these clusters do not provide a “standard” grid interface. Using a local account on each submit machine, HTCondor glideins can be submitted to virtually any type of scheduler. The glideins then connect back to a main HTCondor pool, where jobs can run normally with no special syntax. To respond to dynamic load, a simple server advertises the number of idle jobs in the queue and the resources they request. The submit script can query this server to optimize glideins to what is needed, or not submit if there is no demand. Configuring HTCondor dynamic slots in the glideins allows us to efficiently handle varying memory requirements as well as whole-node jobs. One step of the IceCube simulation chain, photon propagation in the ice, heavily relies on GPUs for faster execution. Therefore, one important requirement for any workload management system in IceCube is to handle GPU resources properly. Within the pyglidein system, we have successfully configured HTCondor glideins to use any GPU allocated to it, with jobs using the standard HTCondor GPU syntax to request and use a GPU. This mechanism allows us to seamlessly integrate our local GPU cluster with remote non-Grid GPU clusters, including specially allocated resources at XSEDE supercomputers.

  9. Simple models of the hydrofracture process

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.

    2015-12-29

    Hydrofracturing to recover natural gas and oil relies on the creation of a fracture network with pressurized water. We analyze the creation of the network in two ways. First, we assemble a collection of analytical estimates for pressure-driven crack motion in simple geometries, including crack speed as a function of length, energy dissipated by fluid viscosity and used to break rock, and the conditions under which a second crack will initiate while a first is running. We develop a pseudo-three-dimensional numerical model that couples fluid motion with solid mechanics and can generate branching crack structures not specified in advance. One of our main conclusions is that the typical spacing between fractures must be on the order of a meter, and this conclusion arises in two separate ways. First, it arises from analysis of gas production rates, given the diffusion constants for gas in the rock. Second, it arises from the number of fractures that should be generated given the scale of the affected region and the amounts of water pumped into the rock.

  10. Squid – a simple bioinformatics grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Miranda Antonio B

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is a widely used genetic research tool for analysis of similarity between nucleotide and protein sequences. This paper presents a software application entitled "Squid" that makes use of grid technology. The current version, as an example, is configured for BLAST applications, but adaptation for other computing intensive repetitive tasks can be easily accomplished in the open source version. This enables the allocation of remote resources to perform distributed computing, making large BLAST queries viable without the need of high-end computers. Results Most distributed computing / grid solutions have complex installation procedures requiring a computer specialist, or have limitations regarding operating systems. Squid is a multi-platform, open-source program designed to "keep things simple" while offering high-end computing power for large scale applications. Squid also has an efficient fault tolerance and crash recovery system against data loss, being able to re-route jobs upon node failure and recover even if the master machine fails. Our results show that a Squid application, working with N nodes and proper network resources, can process BLAST queries almost N times faster than if working with only one computer. Conclusion Squid offers high-end computing, even for the non-specialist, and is freely available at the project web site. Its open-source and binary Windows distributions contain detailed instructions and a "plug-n-play" instalation containing a pre-configured example.

  11. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  12. Simple light gas guns for hypervelocity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Milora, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two-stage light guns are used extensively in hypervelocity research. The applications of this technology include impact studies and special materials development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed two-stage guns that accelerate small projectiles (4-mm nominal diameter) to velocities of up to ∼5 km/s. These guns are relatively small and simple (thus, easy to operate), allowing a significant number of test shots to be carried out and data accumulated in a short time. Materials that have been used for projectiles include plastics, frozen isotopes of hydrogen, and lithium hydride. One gun has been used to demonstrate repetitive operation at a rate of 0.7 Hz; and, with a few design improvements, it appears capable of performing at firing frequencies of 1--2 Hz. A schematic of ORNL two-stage device is shown below. Unlike most such devices, no rupture disks are used. Instead, a fast valve (high-flow type) initiates the acceleration process in the first stage. Projectiles can be loaded into the gun breech via the slide mechanism; this action has been automated which allows repetitive firing. Alternatively, the device is equipped with ''pipe gun'' apparatus in which gas can be frozen in situ in the gun barrel to form the projectile. This equipment operates with high reliability and is well suited for small-scale testing at high velocity. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Keeping it simple: flowering plants tend to retain, and revert to, simple leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeta, R; Dávalos, Liliana M; Levy, André; Bohs, Lynn; Lavin, Mathew; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Sinha, Neelima; Wojciechowski, Martin F

    2012-01-01

    • A wide range of factors (developmental, physiological, ecological) with unpredictable interactions control variation in leaf form. Here, we examined the distribution of leaf morphologies (simple and complex forms) across angiosperms in a phylogenetic context to detect patterns in the directions of changes in leaf shape. • Seven datasets (diverse angiosperms and six nested clades, Sapindales, Apiales, Papaveraceae, Fabaceae, Lepidium, Solanum) were analysed using maximum likelihood and parsimony methods to estimate asymmetries in rates of change among character states. • Simple leaves are most frequent among angiosperm lineages today, were inferred to be ancestral in angiosperms and tended to be retained in evolution (stasis). Complex leaves slowly originated ('gains') and quickly reverted to simple leaves ('losses') multiple times, with a significantly greater rate of losses than gains. Lobed leaves may be a labile intermediate step between different forms. The nested clades showed mixed trends; Solanum, like the angiosperms in general, had higher rates of losses than gains, but the other clades had higher rates of gains than losses. • The angiosperm-wide pattern could be taken as a null model to test leaf evolution patterns in particular clades, in which patterns of variation suggest clade-specific processes that have yet to be investigated fully. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. A simple method for defining malaria seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lucy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently no standard way of defining malaria seasonality, resulting in a wide range of definitions reported in the literature. Malaria cases show seasonal peaks in most endemic settings, and the choice and timing for optimal malaria control may vary by seasonality. A simple approach is presented to describe the seasonality of malaria, to aid localized policymaking and targeting of interventions. Methods A series of systematic literature reviews were undertaken to identify studies reporting on monthly data for full calendar years on clinical malaria, hospital admission with malaria and entomological inoculation rates (EIR. Sites were defined as having 'marked seasonality' if 75% or more of all episodes occurred in six or less months of the year. A 'concentrated period of malaria' was defined as the six consecutive months with the highest cumulative proportion of cases. A sensitivity analysis was performed based on a variety of cut-offs. Results Monthly data for full calendar years on clinical malaria, all hospital admissions with malaria, and entomological inoculation rates were available for 13, 18, and 11 sites respectively. Most sites showed year-round transmission with seasonal peaks for both clinical malaria and hospital admissions with malaria, with a few sites fitting the definition of 'marked seasonality'. For these sites, consistent results were observed when more than one outcome or more than one calendar year was available from the same site. The use of monthly EIR data was found to be of limited value when looking at seasonal variations of malaria transmission, particularly at low and medium intensity levels. Conclusion The proposed definition discriminated well between studies with 'marked seasonality' and those with less seasonality. However, a poor fit was observed in sites with two seasonal peaks. Further work is needed to explore the applicability of this definition on a wide-scale, using routine

  15. Simple Model for Detonation Energy and Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderbach, Lisa M.; Souers, P. Clark

    2017-06-01

    A simple model is used to derive the Eyring equation for the size effect and detonation rate, which depends on a constant energy density. The rate derived from detonation velocities is then converted into a rate constant to be used in a reactive flow model. The rate might be constant if the size effect curve is straight, but the rate constant will change with the radius of the sample and cannot be a constant. This is based on many careful cylinder tests have been run recently on LX-17 with inner copper diameters ranging from 12.7 to 101.6 mm. Copper wall velocities at scaled displacements of 6, 12.5 and 19 mm equate to values at relative volumes of 2.4, 4.4 and 7.0. At each point, the velocities from 25.4 to 101.6 mm are constant within error whereas the 12.7 mm velocities are lower. Using the updated Gurney model, the energy densities at the three larger sizes are also constant. Similar behavior has been seen in LX-14, LX-04, and an 83% RDX mix. A rough saturation has also been in old ANFO data for diameters of 101.6 mm and larger. Although the energy densities saturate, the detonation velocities continue to increase with size. These observations suggest that maximum energy density is a constant for a given explosive of a given density. The correlation of energy density with detonation velocity is not good because the latter depends on the total energy of the sample. This work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Classification of Simple Oxides: A Polarizability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Vesselin; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    A simple oxide classification has been proposed on the basis of correlation between electronic polarizabilities of the ions and their binding energies determined by XPS. Three groups of oxides have been considered taking into account the values obtained on refractive-index- or energy-gap-based oxide ion polarizability, cation polarizability, optical basicity, O 1s binding energy, metal (or nonmetal) binding energy, and Yamashita-Kurosawa's interaction parameter of the oxides. The group of semicovalent predominantly acidic oxides includes BeO, B2O3, P2O5, SiO2, Al2O3, GeO2, and Ga2O3 with low oxide ion polarizability, high O 1s binding energy, low cation polarizability, high metal (or nonmetal) outermost binding energy, comparatively low optical basicity, and strong interionic interaction, leading to the formation of strong covalent bonds. Some main group oxides so-called ionic or basic such as CaO, In2O3, SnO2, and TeO2 and most transition metal oxides show relatively high oxide ion polarizability, O 1s binding energy in a very narrow medium range, high cation polarizability, and low metal (or nonmetal) binding energy. Their optical basicity varies in a narrow range and it is close to that of CaO. The group of very ionic or very basic oxides includes CdO, SrO, and BaO as well as PbO, Sb2O3, and Bi2O3, which possess very high oxide ion polarizability, low O 1s binding energy, very high cation polarizability, and very low metal (or nonmetal) binding energy. Their optical basicity is higher than that of CaO and the interionic interaction is very weak, giving rise to the formation of very ionic chemical bonds.

  17. A simple deep monitoring well dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, Bart; Labat, Serge; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    Well dilution techniques are well known and studied as one of the basic techniques to quantify groundwater fluxes. A typical well dilution test consists of the injection of a tracer, a mixing mechanism (e.g. water circulation with a pump) to achieve a homogeneous concentration distribution within the well, and monitoring of the evolution of tracer concentration with time. An apparent specific discharge can be obtained from such a test, and when details on the well construction are known, it can be converted into a specific discharge representative of the undisturbed aquifer. For deep wells however, the injection of tracer becomes less practical and the use of pumps for circulating and mixing the water becomes problematic. This is due to the limited pressure that common pumps can endure at the outlet, as well as the large volume of water that makes it difficult to achieve a homogeneous concentration, and the impracticalities of getting a lot of equipment to large depths in very small monitoring wells. Injection and monitoring of tracer at a specific depth omits several of the problems with deep wells. We present a very simple device that can be used to perform a dilution test at a specific depth in deep wells. The injection device consists of a PVC tube with a detachable rubber seal at its bottom. To minimize disturbance of the water column in the well, we integrated an EC sensor in this injection device, which enables us to use demineralized water or dissolved salts as a tracer. Once at the target depth, the PVC tube is retracted and the EC sensor and tracer become subject to groundwater flow. The device was tested on a shallow well, on which different types of dilution tests were performed. The results of the other tests agree well with the injection tube results. Finally, the device was used to perform a dilution test in a deep well in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  18. Transfer of Training in Simple Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yalin; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2017-04-18

    In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e.g., practice B + 3, test B + 2 or B + 1). Here we constructed analogous simple addition problems (practice 4 + 3, test 4 + 2 or 4 + 1). In each of three experiments (total n = 108) participants received six practice blocks followed by two test blocks of new problems to examine generalization effects. Practice of addition identity-rule problems (i.e., 0 + N = N) showed complete transfer of RT gains made during practice to unpracticed items at test. In contrast, the addition ties (2 + 2, 3 + 3, etc.) presented large RT costs for unpracticed problems at test, but sped up substantially in the second test block. This pattern is consistent with item-specific strengthening of associative memory. The critical items were small non-tie additions (sum ≤ 10) for which the test problems would be implicitly practiced if counting was employed during practice. In all three experiments (and collectively) there was no evidence of generalization for these items in the first test block, but there was robust speed up when the items were repeated in the second test block. Thus, there was no evidence of the generalization of practice that would be expected if counting procedures mediated our participants' performance on small non-tie addition problems.

  19. Emergent biosynthetic capacity in simple microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chao Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity--instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a "Goldilocks" principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together

  20. Simple discs with flat roatation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. W.; Collett, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand why the squared axial ratio of the velocity ellipse, σphi_^2^/σ_R_^2^, of old disc stars in the Galaxy is less than 1/2. To this end, two infinitesimally thin steady-state axisymmetric discs with asymptotically flat circular velocity curves are presented. The first model - which we designate the Rybicki disc has surface density decaying inversely with radius. The second model is Freeman's exponential disc, which is immersed in the gravity field of the halo simulated by Mestel's potential. For both discs, we provide an infinite family of simple distribution functions, which form a sequence of increasing pressure support. In the Rybicki disc, the stellar streaming velocity increases outwards with radius, which typically causes σphi_^2^/σ_R_^2^ to be greater than 1/2. For our exponential disc distribution functions, the stellar streaming velocity declines outwards with radius, which typically causes σphi^2^/σ_R_^2^ to be less than 1/2. Our exponential disc distribution functions have the property that σ_R_^2^ decays only inversely with galactocentric radius R. If the diminution is faster, the ratio σphi_^2^/σ_R_^2^ rises above 1/2 at the Sun as the mean streaming velocity declines only in the inner disk. To investigate this, exponential discs with exponentially falling radial velocity dispersion are built. These are in conflict with the observations on the axial ratio, even allowing for a mismatch in the photometric and kinematic scalelengths. There are a number of possible resolutions of the contradiction: (1) the galactic disc is not in a steady state or is non-axisymmetric; (2) the circular velocity curve is locally declining; (3) the description of all stellar populations by a single distribution function is invalid; (4) the radial velocity dispersion does not drop off exponentially fast, but much more slowly; (5) the sampling of moving clusters and transient associations of stars creates a biased data set.

  1. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  2. Microstructural Fluids and Simple Fluids at Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radlinska, Ewa Z.

    1992-09-01

    studied using microcalorimetric specific heat measurements. The calorimetric technique is demonstrated to produce results consistent with the structural information derived from direct observations of the phase diagram and the DOC structural model. Two or possibly three separate cubic phases are distinguished in the cubic phase region. The results indicate that the values of specific heat per surfactant molecule reflect changes in both the surfactant film topology and geometry. The second part of this work is devoted to the study of adsorption of three simple liquids on molecularly smooth mica using an angle-averaging, refractive index-matching ellipsometric technique. A general outline is given in Chapter 8 followed by discussion of the ellipsometric method (Chapter 9). In Chapter 10 experimental results are presented and discussed. For water and cyclohexane the isotherms are structureless. For octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane a layering upon adsorption is observed, showing no qualitative change on passing through the triple point of the bulk liquid. The isotherms for all three liquids studied do not agree with the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces and are qualitatively interpreted using the surface phase diagrams of Pandit, Schick and Wortis. (author)

  3. Tissue adhesives for simple traumatic lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Joel W

    2008-01-01

    Farion K, Osmond MH, Hartling L, et al. Tissue adhesives for traumatic lacerations in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001(4);CD003326. What is the clinical evidence base for tissue adhesives in the management of simple traumatic lacerations? Studies were identified by searches of the following databases: Cochrane Wounds Group Specialized Trials Register (September 2003), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (CDROM 2003, issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2003, week 1), EMBASE (1988 to 2003, week 36), Web of Science Science Citation Index (1975 to September 13, 2003) and various clinical trials registers (September 2003). Investigators and product manufacturers were contacted to identify additional eligible studies. The search terms included wounds and injuries, laceration, face injury, nose injury, tissue adhesives, and acrylates. Each study fulfilled the following criteria: (1) The study was a randomized controlled trial that compared tissue adhesives with standard wound closure (SWC) (sutures, staples, adhesive strips) or tissue adhesive with tissue adhesive. (2) The wounds were acute, linear lacerations less than 12 hours old, resulting from blunt or sharp trauma. (3) The wound length, width, and depth allowed for approximation of the edges with minimal tension after deep sutures were placed, if required. Studies were included with no language or publication status restriction, with participants of any age recruited in an emergency department, outpatient clinic, walk-in clinic, or other primary care setting. Studies were excluded if the wounds were stellate lacerations, puncture wounds, mammalian bites, infected, heavily contaminated or devitalized, crossing joints or mucocutaneous junctions, in hair-bearing areas, or in patients with keloid formation or chronic illness. The characteristics of the study and participants, interventions, outcome measures, and findings were extracted by one author and verified by a second

  4. A Relation-algebraic Approach to Simple Games

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Berghammer; Harrie De Swart; Agnieszka Rusinowska

    2011-01-01

    Simple games are a powerful tool to analyze decision-making and coalition formation in social and political life. In this paper, we present relation-algebraic models of simple games and develop relational algorithms for solving some basic problems of them. In particular, we test certain fundamental properties of simple games (being monotone, proper, respectively strong) and compute specific players (dummies, dictators, vetoers, null players) and coalitions (minimal winning coalitions and vulne...

  5. Classification of simple surface points and a global theorem for simple closed surfaces in three-dimensional digital spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Zhang, Jianping

    1993-12-01

    In this paper, we present two theorems: classification theorem and corner point theorem for closed digital surfaces. The classification theorem deals with the categorization of simple surface points and states that there are exactly six different types of simple surface points. On the basis of the classification theorem and Euler formula on planar graph, we have proved the corner point theorem: Any simple closed surface has at least eight corner points, where a corner point of a closed surface is a point in the surface which has exactly three adjacent points in the closed surface. Another result reported in this paper is that any simple closed surface has at least fourteen points.

  6. simple algorithm in the management of fetal sacroccocygeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developing fetus with SCT is prone to high output cardiac failure, hydrops, placentomegaly and complications of delivery. Understanding a simple way of managing this condition is important in developing countries to prevent morbidities and mortalities. A simplified algorithm of. SIMPLE ALGORITHM IN THE MANAGEMENT ...

  7. CASE REPORT Radiological features of simple (unicameral) bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presenting complaint. The radiological features on plain radiographs include a centrally. (medullary) located, expansile ... in the typical simple bone cyst.7 Double-density fluid. Radiological features of simple (unicameral) ... be published on the RSSA website www.rssa.co.za. The winner will be decided by a panel of judges ...

  8. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  9. Temperature dependence of transport coefficients of 'simple liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... has been investigated. The study carried out at two densities, r* = 0.60 and r* = 0.95. Result shows erratic variations of the shear viscosity in the two lattices structures. KeyWords: Temperature effect, face centred, simple cubic, transport properties, simple liquid. [Global Jnl Pure & Appl. Sci. Vol.9(3) 2003: 403-406] ...

  10. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  11. Haptics-Augmented Simple-Machine Educational Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II; Chen, Meng-Yun; Seaton, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unique project using commercial haptic interfaces to augment the teaching of simple machines in elementary school. Suggests that the use of haptics in virtual simple-machine simulations has the potential for deeper, more engaging learning. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Learn about Physical Science: Simple Machines. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This CD-ROM, designed for students in grades K-2, explores the world of simple machines. It allows students to delve into the mechanical world and learn the ways in which simple machines make work easier. Animated demonstrations are provided of the lever, pulley, wheel, screw, wedge, and inclined plane. Activities include practical matching and…

  13. Early Prediction of Reading Comprehension within the Simple View Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Herrera, Sarah; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word reading and language comprehension. In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge,…

  14. Development of simple fixed linear predictors for use in speech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of simple fixed linear predictors for use in speech compression. ... A very popular method used for compression is Linear Prediction Coding (LPC), by using the Linear Prediction Model. The development of simple ... Various speech signals are used to test the performance of both filters within a DPCM system.

  15. Study of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism for biotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... parents studied indicating the robust nature of microsatellites in revealing polymorphism. Based on this study, the large range of similarity values for related cultivars using microsatellites provides greater confidence for the assessment of simple sequence repeats (SSR) polymorphism. Key words: Simple ...

  16. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  17. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  18. A SIMPLE AND EFFECTIVE CURSIVE WORD SEGMENTATION METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    nicchiotti, G.; Rimassa, S.; Scagliola, C.

    2004-01-01

    A simple procedure for cursive word oversegmentation is presented, which is based on the analysis of the handwritten profiles and on the extraction of ``white holes\\'\\'. It follows the policy of using simple rules on complex data and sophisticated rules on simpler data. Experimental results show

  19. Demonstrating the physics of simple pendulum via computer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates how one can teach 'the physics of simple pendulum in the classroom by means of computer simulation, Employing the fourth order Runge-Kutta method carries out the simulation. It is believed that the simulation helps students to understand the physics of simple pendulum easily The simulation ...

  20. Solving Simple Stochastic Games with Few Random Vertices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Gimbert; F. Horn (Florian)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractSimple stochastic games are two-player zero-sum stochastic games with turn-based moves, perfect information, and reachability winning conditions. We present two new algorithms computing the values of simple stochastic games. Both of them rely on the existence of optimal permutation

  1. Solving simple stochastic games with few coin toss positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2011-01-01

    Gimbert and Horn gave an algorithm for solving simple stochastic games with running time O(r! n) where n is the number of positions of the simple stochastic game and r is the number of its coin toss positions. Chatterjee et al. pointed out that a variant of strategy iteration can be implemented...

  2. Solving Simple Stochastic Games with Few Coin Toss Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Gimbert and Horn gave an algorithm for solving simple stochastic games with running time O(r! n) where n is the number of positions of the simple stochastic game and r is the number of its coin toss positions. Chatterjee et al. pointed out that a variant of strategy iteration can be implemented...

  3. Investigation of association of Helicobacter pylori and simple nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate a possible contribution of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) in the etiopathogenesis of simple nasal polyps. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial. Methods: Twenty five patients with simple nasal polyps underwent nasal polypectomy were studied. Helicobacter pylori DNA was investigated for ...

  4. Simple integer recourse models : convexity and convex approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Stougie, L.; van der Vlerk, M.H.

    We consider the objective function of a simple recourse problem with fixed technology matrix and integer second-stage variables. Separability due to the simple recourse structure allows to study a one-dimensional version instead. Based on an explicit formula for the objective function, we derive a

  5. Simple Integer Recourse Models : Convexity and Convex Approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, Willem K.; Stougie, L; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the objective function of a simple recourse problem with fixed technology matrix and integer second-stage variables. Separability due to the simple recourse structure allows to study a one-dimensional version instead. Based on an explicit formula for the objective function, we derive a

  6. Simple models of two-dimensional information sources and codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Shtarkov, Y. M.

    1998-01-01

    We consider discrete random fields which have simple descriptions of rows and columns. We present constructions which combine high entropy with simple means of generating the fields and analyzing the probability distribution. Hidden state Markov sources are an essential tool in the construction...

  7. A simple and rapid method to estimate radiocesium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, P.; Steger, F.

    1990-09-01

    A simple and rapid method for monitoring internal contamination of radiocesium in man was developed. This method is based on measurements of the γ-rays emitted from the muscular parts between the thights by a simple NaJ(Tl)-system. The experimental procedure, the calibration, the estimation of the body activity and results are explained and discussed. (Authors)

  8. Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs ...

  9. Time series prediction with simple recurrent neural networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple recurrent neural networks are widely used in time series prediction. Most researchers and application developers often choose arbitrarily between Elman or Jordan simple recurrent neural networks for their applications. A hybrid of the two called Elman-Jordan (or Multi-recurrent) neural network is also being used.

  10. A simple headrest for patients confined to wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhay, R M

    1980-09-01

    A simple headrest technique for the patient confined to a wheelchair has been presented. This technique requires no custom made equipment, allows multiple positions for the headrest, positions the patient near the dental unit and light, and affords fast simple application. Alternative methods to this technique have been presented by Kilfoil and Popovitch and others.

  11. Outcrossing rate in olive assessed by microsatellite and inter simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive is known to be an allogamous species. The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of cross-pollination rate using microsatellite simple sequence repeats (SSR) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular markers in olive genotypes. The DNA from maternal plants and 23 progenies of two different ...

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Some Simple Preservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Some Simple Preservation Methods for 'Ugba' – A Shredded Fermented African Oil Bean ( Pentaclethra macrophylla Bentham) ... Quelques méthodes simples ont été évaluées pour la conservation de l'Ugba, produit obtenu des graines écrasées etfermentées du haricot africain à huile ...

  13. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well......-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures...

  14. Simple bone cyst of the mandible: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanimoghaddam, M.; Javadian Langaroody, A.; Nemati, S.; Ataei Azimi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite their names, simple bone cysts are no longer categorized as cysts since they lack an epithelial lining. However, their nature remains controversial. The internal structure is totally radiolucent, sometimes showing multilocular appearance, although the lesion does not contain true septa and the ridges of bone is produced by the scalloping effect. We presented two cases of histopathologically confirmed simple bone cyst. Radiographic features such as multilocular appearance and significant buccal and lingual expansion are not usual findings for simple bone cyst, whereas evident in our presented cases.

  15. Outpatient management protocol of skin tattoos with simple chemo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , secondly an operative surgical procedure of simple dermabrasion followed by a third stage of intensive postoperative skin care protocol with local application of anti-scar formation ointments. The therapeutic protocol was successful with a ...

  16. COMPARISON OF SIMPLE AND CHELATED AMBERLITE IR-120 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13] have also been used. Many chelating ligands such as quinolone, ... synthesized by covalent bonds are much more resistant to external effects than those by simple adsorption [15]. Amberlite IR-120, a vinyl benzene polymer has good ...

  17. A VBA-based Simulation for Teaching Simple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory Todd; Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Kari

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the name, simple linear regression presents a number of conceptual difficulties, particularly for introductory students. This article describes a simulation tool that provides a hands-on method for illuminating the relationship between parameters and sample statistics.

  18. Simple Public Key Infrastructure Protocol Analysis and Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidergar, Alexander G

    2005-01-01

    ...). This thesis aims at proving the applicability of the Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI) as a means of PKC. The strand space approach of Guttman and Thayer is used to provide an appropriate model for analysis...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-31 Simple Tropical Ecosystem Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This model product provides the Fortran source code and input data for the Simple Tropical Ecosystem Model (SITE). SITE is a simplified point model of...

  20. evaluating diversity among kenyan papaya germplasm using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FKO

    2013-01-01

    . South-East Asia ... to Colombia and Ecuador. In Kenya they perform well from 1500 meters ... The SSR data was analyzed using the SIMQUAL. (Similarity for Qualitative Data) routine to generate simple matching coefficients.

  1. Genetic Algorithm for Solving Simple Mathematical Equality Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawanto, Denny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains genetic algorithm for novice in this field. Basic philosophy of genetic algorithm and its flowchart are described. Step by step numerical computation of genetic algorithm for solving simple mathematical equality problem will be briefly explained

  2. Educational Materials Development in Primary Science: Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Frank L.; Butterfield, Lawrence H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluated was the ability of 27 legally blind elementary students to identify and manipulate the parts of the following adapted simple machines: lever, inclined plane, wheel and axle, and pulley. (SBH)

  3. A Simple Proof of Cauchy's Surface Area Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukerman, Emmanuel; Veomett, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We give a short and simple proof of Cauchy's surface area formula, which states that the average area of a projection of a convex body is equal to its surface area up to a multiplicative constant in the dimension.

  4. Describing Simple Data Access Services Version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ray; Demleitner, Markus; Plante, Raymond; Delago, Jesus; Harrison, Paul; Tody, Doug; Plante, Ray; Demleitner, Markus

    2017-05-01

    An application that queries or consumes descriptions of VO resources must be able to recognize a resource's support for standard IVOA protocols. This specification describes how to describe a service that supports any of the four typed data access protocols - Simple Cone Search (SCS), Simple Image Access (SIA), Simple Spectral Access (SSA), Simple Line Access (SLA) - using the VOResource XML encoding standard. A key part of this specification is the set of VOResource XML extension schemas that define new metadata that are specific to those protocols. This document describes rules for describing such services within the context of IVOA Registries and data discovery as well as the VO Support Interfaces (VOSI) and service self-description. In particular, this document spells out the essential mark-up needed to identify support for a standard protocol and the base URL required to access the interface that supports that protocol.

  5. A Simple Neural Network System for Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaplan, Gulay

    2001-01-01

    .... A simple model based on winner take all network and multi layer perceptron suffices to model the affect of frontal lobe damage, which leads to perseveration as diminishing the influence of reinforcement...

  6. Simple currents versus orbifolds with discrete torsion - a complete classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, M.; Schellekens, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    We give a complete classification of all simple current modular invariants, extending previous results for (Z p ) k to arbitrary centers. We obtain a simple explicit formula for the most general case. Using orbifold techniques to this end, we find a one-to-one correspondence between simple current invariants and subgroups of the center with discrete torsions. As a by-product, we prove the conjectured monodromy independence of the total number of such invariants. The orbifold approach works in a straightforward way for symmetries of odd order, but some modifications are required to deal with symmetries of even order. With these modifications the orbifold construction with discrete torsion is complete within the class of simple current invariants. Surprisingly, there are cases where discrete torsion is a necessity rather than a possibility. (orig.)

  7. Simple Experiments on the Physics of Vision: The Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortel, Adolf

    2005-01-01

    Many simple experiments can be performed in the classroom to explore the physics of vision. Students can learn of the two types of receptive cells (rods and cones), their distribution on the retina and the existence of the blind spot.

  8. simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in genetic analysis of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-28

    1998). Cross- species amplification of soybean (Glycine max) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) within the genus and other legume genera: implications for the transferability of SSRs in plants. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15:1275-1287.

  9. Simple, Micro-Miniature Total Organic Carbon Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a simple method for on-orbit or advanced mission Total Organic Carbon (TOC) monitoring has been a goal for many years. This proposal seeks to develop...

  10. Character-based Recognition of Simple Word Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Insap Santosa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available People with normal senses use spoken language to communicate with others. This method cannot be used by those with hearing and speech impaired. These two groups of people will have difficulty when they try to communicate to each other using their own language. Sign language is not easy to learn, as there are various sign languages, and not many tutors are available. This research focused on a simple word recognition gesture based on characters that form a word to be recognized. The method used for character recognition was the nearest neighbour method. This method identified different fingers using the different markers attached to each finger. Testing a simple word gesture recognition is done by providing a series of characters that make up the intended simple word. The accuracy of a simple word gesture recognition depended upon the accuracy of recognition of each character.

  11. Simple derivations of Kepler's first law: use of complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Donghui

    2012-01-01

    By making use of complex variables, simple derivations of Kepler's first law are introduced. Such derivations might be of interest for undergraduate students in an introductory physics course. (paper)

  12. A Simple Illustration for the Need of Multiple Comparison Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rickey E.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical adjustments to accommodate multiple comparisons are routinely covered in introductory statistical courses. The fundamental rationale for such adjustments, however, may not be readily understood. This article presents a simple illustration to help remedy this.

  13. A simple derivation of new sum rules of Bessel functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Dipace, A.

    1985-01-01

    In this note it is exploited a recently suggested technique to get simple expressions for a class of sum rules of Bessel functions appearing in plasma physics; their relevance to the numerical evaluation of the Turkin function is also discussed

  14. Simple UHV offset manipulator with independent theta and phi rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, K.D.; Dunning, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    A simple UHV offset manipulator is described that not only allows a target crystal to be moved to any point on a circle centered on the manipulator axis but also provides indepedent theta and phi rotations at each position

  15. A simple convex optimization problem with many applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for the solution of a simple convex optimization problem. This problem is a generalization of several other optimization problems which have applications to resource allocation, optimal capacity expansion, and vehicle scheduling. The algorithm is based...

  16. The Structured Intuitive Model for Product Line Economics (SIMPLE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clements, Paul C; McGregor, John D; Cohen, Sholom G

    2005-01-01

    .... This report presents the Structured Intuitive Model of Product Line Economics (SIMPLE), a general-purpose business model that supports the estimation of the costs and benefits in a product line development organization...

  17. The Analysis of a Simple k-Means Clustering Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanungo, T; Mount, D. M; Netanyahu, N. S; Piatko, C; Silverman, R; Wu, A. Y

    2000-01-01

    .... A popular heuristic for k-means clustering is Lloyd's algorithm. In this paper, we present a simple and efficient implementation of Lloyd's k-means clustering algorithm, which we call the filtering algorithm...

  18. LBA-ECO LC-31 Simple Tropical Ecosystem Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This model product provides the Fortran source code and input data for the Simple Tropical Ecosystem Model (SITE). SITE is a simplified point model of vegetation...

  19. Simple gun for vapor deposition of organic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.; Seki, K.; Inokuchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A simple evaporation gun for preparing organic thin films was fabricated using commercially available parts of an electron gun for a TV Braun tube. The device permits sample heating to be easily controlled because of the small heat capacity

  20. Relation between Tolman length and isothermal compressibility for simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Song; Zhu Ru-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The Tolman length δ 0 of a liquid with a plane surface has attracted increasing theoretical attention in recent years, but the expression of Tolman length in terms of observable quantities is still not very clear. In 2001, Bartell gave a simple expression of Tolman length δ 0 in terms of isothermal compressibility. However, this expression predicts that Tolman length is always negative, which is contrary to the results of molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) for simple liquids. In this paper, this contradiction is analyzed and the reason for the discrepancy in the sign is found. In addition, we introduce a new expression of Tolman length in terms of isothermal compressibility for simple fluids not near the critical points under some weak restrictions. The Tolman length of simple liquids calculated by using this formula is consistent with that obtained using MDS regarding the sign

  1. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  2. Simple elbow dislocations: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Haan (Jeroen); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); P. Patka (Peter); D. den Hartog (Dennis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To identify if functional treatment is the best available treatment for simple elbow dislocations. Search strategy: Electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Selection criteria: Studies were eligible for inclusion if

  3. Transit of Venus: Quantitative Observing with Simple Equipment The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gmail.com. The possibilities of quantitative student observations during the transit of Venus, using simple equipment, are discussed. The equipment could ... These observations could have been by naked eye and the above reference seems to ...

  4. Simple electrolytic cell for production of elemental fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dides F, M.; Padilla S, U.

    1990-01-01

    It was constructed and tested a simple electrolytic cell for the production of elemental fluorine. The fluorine production is essential in the obtainment of uranium hexafluoride, a compound for the nuclear fuel cycle. (A.C.A.S.)

  5. Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C; An, Xintong; Robinson, Sanlin S; van Meerbeek, Ilse M; O'Brien, Kevin W; Zhao, Huichan; Shepherd, Robert F

    2015-11-04

    Open-celled, elastomeric foams allow the simple design of fully 3D pneumatic soft machines using common forming techniques. This is demonstrated through the fabrication of simple actuators and an entirely soft, functional fluid pump formed in the shape of the human heart. The device pumps at physiologically relevant frequencies and pressures and attains a flow rate higher than all previously reported soft pumps. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Simple Macroeconomic Policies and Welfare: A Quantitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurilton Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We quantitatively compare three macroeconomic policies in a cash-credit goods framework. The policies are: the optimal one; another one that fully smoothes out oscillations in output; and a simple one that prescribes constant values for tax and monetary growth rates. As often found in the related literature, the welfare gains or losses from changing from a given policy to another are small. We also show that the simple policy dominates the one that leads to constant output.

  7. Modular invariants from simple currents. An explicit proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous paper an orbifold construction was used to demonstrate that the existence of primary fields with simple fusion rules in a conformal field theory implies the existence of non-diagonal modular invariant partition functions. Here we present a direct and explicit proof of modular invariance, which also covers a few cases that could not be obtained with the orbifold method. We also give a very simple general formula for the modular matrix M. (orig.)

  8. Exact generator coordinate wave functions for some simple Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Nazakat

    1988-01-01

    A Gaussian form of the generator coordinate wave function is used to find the exact weight function for the ground state of H-atom using HWG integral equation. Exact pairs of GC wave functions and weight functions are then constructed for other simple Hamiltonians using a simple integral which converts an exponential into a Gaussian. A discussion as to how a GC wave function can be used as a trial variational wave function is also presented. (author). 10 refs

  9. Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, G N; Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.

  10. A simple approximation of productivity scores of fuzzy production plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2005-01-01

    This paper suggests a simple approximation procedure for the assessment of productivity scores with respect to fuzzy production plans. The procedure has a clear economic interpretation and all the necessary calculations can be performed in a spreadsheet making it highly operational......This paper suggests a simple approximation procedure for the assessment of productivity scores with respect to fuzzy production plans. The procedure has a clear economic interpretation and all the necessary calculations can be performed in a spreadsheet making it highly operational...

  11. MAINTENANCE PLANNING OF THE SEWING NEEDLES OF SIMPLE SEWING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius Darius

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of simple sewing machines can be increased through the planning of predictive maintenance activities. The monitoring of the technical condition of the sewing needles of simple sewing machines was based on the measurement of their noise level. For this purpose a Center 322 sonometer was used, while the data obtained during the monitoring process was analyzed through the E322 software. The working speed of the simple sewing machine that was used for obtaining the experimental results varied from 200 stitches/minute to 4000 stitches/minute. The noise levels of a new needle at the working speed of 200 stitches/minute and 4000 stitches/minute were measured. The noise levels for a fault needle at the same working speed of 200 stitches/minute, respectively 4000 stitches/minute were also measured. Using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox ™ module of Matlab®, a decision-making system for determining when replacement of the sewing needles of simple sewing machines should be performed was developed. A case study illustrates the employment of the decision-making system based on fuzzy logic for a simple sewing machine. By replacing the sewing needles of simple sewing machines at the time specified through the decision-making system based on fuzzy logic, the occurrence of the failure can be prevented and the quality of textile products can be improved.

  12. Classification and stability of simple homoclinic cycles in R5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podvigina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Heteroclinic cycles, unions of equilibria and connection trajectories, can be structurally stable in a Γ-equivariant system due to the existence of invariant subspaces. A structurally stable heteroclinic cycle is called simple if all connecting trajectories are one-dimensional. Heteroclinic cycles where equilibria are related by a symmetry γ ∈ Γ are called homoclinic. This paper presents a complete study of simple homoclinic cycles in R 5 . We find all symmetry groups Γ such that a Γ-equivariant dynamical system in R 5 can possess a simple homoclinic cycle. We introduce a classification of simple homoclinic cycles in R n based on the action of the system symmetry group. For systems in R 5 , we list all classes of simple homoclinic cycles. For each class, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability and fragmentary asymptotic stability in terms of eigenvalues of linearization near the steady state involved in the cycle. For any action of the groups Γ which can give rise to a simple homoclinic cycle, we list classes to which the respective homoclinic cycles belong, thus determining the conditions for the asymptotic stability of these cycles. (paper)

  13. Insulin degludec once-daily in type 2 diabetes: simple or step-wise titration (BEGIN: once simple use).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philis-Tsimikas, Athena; Brod, Meryl; Niemeyer, Marcus; Ocampo Francisco, Ann Marie; Rothman, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Insulin degludec (IDeg) is a new basal insulin in development with a flat, ultra-long action profile that may permit dosing using a simplified titration algorithm with less frequent self-measured blood glucose (SMBG) measurements and more simplified titration steps than currently available basal insulins. This 26-week, multi-center, open-label, randomized, treat-to-target study compared the efficacy and safety of IDeg administered once-daily in combination with metformin in insulin-naïve subjects with type 2 diabetes using two different patient-driven titration algorithms: a "Simple" algorithm, with dose adjustments based on one pre-breakfast SMBG measurement (n = 111) versus a "Step-wise" algorithm, with adjustments based on three consecutive pre-breakfast SMBG values (n = 111). IDeg was administered using the FlexTouch® insulin pen (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark), with once-weekly dose titration in both groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased from baseline to week 26 in both groups (-1.09%, IDegSimple; -0.93%, IDegStep-wise). IDegSimple was non-inferior to IDegStep-wise in lowering HbA1c [estimated treatment difference (IDegSimple - IDegStep-wise): -0.16% points (-0.39; 0.07)95% CI]. Fasting plasma glucose was reduced (-3.27 mmol/L, IDegSimple; -2.68 mmol/L, IDegStep-wise) with no significant difference between groups. Rates of confirmed hypoglycemia [1.60, IDegSimple; 1.17, IDegStep-wise events/patient year of exposure (PYE)] and nocturnal confirmed hypoglycemia (0.21, IDegSimple; 0.10, IDegStep-wise events/PYE) were low, with no significant differences between groups. Daily insulin dose after 26 weeks was 0.61 U/kg (IDegSimple) and 0.50 U/kg (IDegStep-wise). No significant difference in weight change was seen between groups by week 26 (+1.6 kg, IDegSimple; +1.1 kg, IDegStep-wise), and there were no clinically relevant differences in adverse event profiles. IDeg was effective and well tolerated using either the Simple or Step-wise titration

  14. Efficacy comparison between simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration techniques: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantitaphong, Paweena; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Katavetin, Pisut; Hanwiwatwong, Orawadee; Wittayalertpanya, Supeecha; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    Mid-dilution and mixed-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) techniques are innovated to overcome the limitations of two standard techniques including predilution and postdilution. Unfortunately, the head-to-head comparisons between these two novel techniques in the same study are still limited. Moreover, the original mid-dilution and mixed-dilution OL-HDF need special dialyzers and special machines. In the present study, simple mid-dilution and simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF were settled with the aim for clinical use in general hemodialysis (HD) centers. The efficacies of uremic toxins removal between both modalities were measured and compared. This prospective randomized crossover study was conducted on 12 stable HD patients undergoing simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. HD prescriptions were similar in both techniques. The dialysis efficacies were determined by calculating small- (urea, creatinine, and phosphate) and middle-molecule (beta-2 microglobulin [β2M]) removal. Moreover, potential complications such as high transmembrane pressure (TMP) and protein loss were also observed. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF provided significantly greater clearances of urea, creatinine, and β2M when compared with the simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. Phosphate clearances in both techniques were comparable. In addition, TMP and dialysate albumin loss were not different. There were no intradialytic complications in both techniques. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF could provide greater efficacy for small- and middle-molecule clearances and acceptable potential risks, while phosphate removal is comparable. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Precise asymptotic behavior of solutions to damped simple pendulum equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Shibata

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the simple pendulum equation $$displaylines{ -u''(t + epsilon f(u'(t = lambdasin u(t, quad t in I:=(-1, 1,cr u(t > 0, quad t in I, quad u(pm 1 = 0, }$$ where $0 < epsilon le 1$, $lambda > 0$, and the friction term is either $f(y = pm|y|$ or $f(y = -y$. Note that when $f(y = -y$ and $epsilon = 1$, we have well known original damped simple pendulum equation. To understand the dependance of solutions, to the damped simple pendulum equation with $lambda gg 1$, upon the term $f(u'(t$, we present asymptotic formulas for the maximum norm of the solutions. Also we present an asymptotic formula for the time at which maximum occurs, for the case $f(u = -u$.

  16. Simple Fully Automated Group Classification on Brain fMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorio, J.; Goldstein, R.; Honorio, J.; Samaras, D.; Tomasi, D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-14

    We propose a simple, well grounded classification technique which is suited for group classification on brain fMRI data sets that have high dimensionality, small number of subjects, high noise level, high subject variability, imperfect registration and capture subtle cognitive effects. We propose threshold-split region as a new feature selection method and majority voteas the classification technique. Our method does not require a predefined set of regions of interest. We use average acros ssessions, only one feature perexperimental condition, feature independence assumption, and simple classifiers. The seeming counter-intuitive approach of using a simple design is supported by signal processing and statistical theory. Experimental results in two block design data sets that capture brain function under distinct monetary rewards for cocaine addicted and control subjects, show that our method exhibits increased generalization accuracy compared to commonly used feature selection and classification techniques.

  17. The simple map for a single-null divertor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, A.; Verma, A.; Boozer, A.

    1996-01-01

    We present the simple map for a single-null divertor tokamak. The simple map is an area-preserving map based on the idea that magnetic field lines are a single-degree-of-freedom time-dependent Hamiltonian system, and that the basic features of such systems near the X-point are generic. We obtain the properties of this map and the resulting footprints of field lines on the divertor plate. These include the width of the stochastic layer, the edge safety factor, the area of the footprint and the amount of magnetic flux diverted. We give the safety factor profile, the average and median values of strike angles, lengths and the Liapunov exponents. We describe how the effects of magnetic perturbations can be included in the simple map. We show how the map can be applied to the problem of the determination of heat flux on the divertor plate in tokamaks. (Author)

  18. Simple Fully Automated Group Classification on Brain fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorio, J.; Goldstein, R.; Samaras, D.; Tomasi, D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple, well grounded classification technique which is suited for group classification on brain fMRI data sets that have high dimensionality, small number of subjects, high noise level, high subject variability, imperfect registration and capture subtle cognitive effects. We propose threshold-split region as a new feature selection method and majority voteas the classification technique. Our method does not require a predefined set of regions of interest. We use average acros ssessions, only one feature perexperimental condition, feature independence assumption, and simple classifiers. The seeming counter-intuitive approach of using a simple design is supported by signal processing and statistical theory. Experimental results in two block design data sets that capture brain function under distinct monetary rewards for cocaine addicted and control subjects, show that our method exhibits increased generalization accuracy compared to commonly used feature selection and classification techniques.

  19. Superlattice band structure: New and simple energy quantification condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-01

    Assuming an approximated effective mass and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method is used to calculate the subband structure for periodic semiconducting heterostructures. Our method consists to derive and solve the energy quantification condition (EQC), this is a simple real equation, composed of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, and does not need any programming effort or sophistic machine to solve it. For less than ten wells heterostructures, we have derived and simplified the energy quantification conditions. The subband is build point by point; each point presents an energy level. Our simple energy quantification condition is used to calculate the subband structure of the GaAs/Ga{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}As heterostructures, and build its subband point by point for 4 and 20 wells. Our finding shows a good agreement with previously published results.

  20. Representing Simple Geometry Types in NetCDF-CF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Koziol, B. W.; Whiteaker, T. L.; Simons, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention is well-suited for representing gridded and point-based observational datasets. However, CF currently has no accepted mechanism for representing simple geometry types such as lines and polygons. Lack of support for simple geometries within CF has unintentionally excluded a broad set of geoscientific data types from NetCDF-CF data encodings. For example, hydrologic datasets often contain polygon watershed catchments and polyline stream reaches in addition to point sampling stations and water management infrastructure. The latter has an associated CF specification. In the interest of supporting all simple geometry types within CF, a working group was formed following an EarthCube workshop on Advancing NetCDF-CF [1] to draft a CF specification for simple geometries: points, lines, polygons, and their associated multi-geometry representations [2]. The draft also includes parametric geometry types such as circles and ellipses. This presentation will provide an overview of the scope and content of the proposed specification focusing on mechanisms for representing coordinate arrays using variable length or continuous ragged arrays, capturing multi-geometries, and accounting for type-specific geometry artifacts such as polygon holes/interiors, node ordering, etc. The concepts contained in the specification proposal will be described with a use case representing streamflow in rivers and evapotranspiration from HUC12 watersheds. We will also introduce Python and R reference implementations developed alongside the technical specification. These in-development, open source Python and R libraries convert between commonly used GIS software objects (i.e. GEOS-based primitives) and their associated simple geometry CF representation. [1] http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/events/2016CFWorkshop/[2] https://github.com/bekozi/netCDF-CF-simple-geometry

  1. Facet Defining Inequalities for the Simple Graph Partioning Polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2000-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we investigate the facial structure of the simple graph partitio...... partitioning polytopes P(b), b = 3,...,n, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. In particular we introduce two new classes af facet defining inequalities that are induced by cliques and multistars....

  2. Application of Simple CFD Models in Smoke Ventilation Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; la Cour-Harbo, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines the possibilities of using simple CFD models in practical smoke ventilation design. The aim is to assess if it is possible with a reasonable accuracy to predict the behaviour of smoke transport in case of a fire. A CFD code mainly applicable for “ordinary” ventilation design...... uses a standard k-ε turbulence model. Simulations comprise both steady-state and dynamic approaches. Several boundary conditions are tested. Finally, the paper discusses the prospects of simple CFD models in smoke ventilation design including the inherent limitations....

  3. A simple algorithm for computing the smallest enclosing circle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a simple O(n log n) algorithm for computing the smallest enclosing circle of a convex polygon. It can be easily extended to algorithms that compute the farthest-and the closest-point Voronoi diagram of a convex polygon within the same time bound.......Presented is a simple O(n log n) algorithm for computing the smallest enclosing circle of a convex polygon. It can be easily extended to algorithms that compute the farthest-and the closest-point Voronoi diagram of a convex polygon within the same time bound....

  4. Simple simulation schemes for CIR and Wishart processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisani, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    We develop some simple simulation algorithms for CIR and Wishart processes. The main idea is the splitting of their generator into the sum of the square of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck matrix process and a deterministic process. Joint work with Paolo Baldi, Tor Vergata University, Rome......We develop some simple simulation algorithms for CIR and Wishart processes. The main idea is the splitting of their generator into the sum of the square of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck matrix process and a deterministic process. Joint work with Paolo Baldi, Tor Vergata University, Rome...

  5. Simple Formula Relating Frequencies of Twin-peak Quasiperiodic Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Gabriel

    2017-08-01

    Twin-peak quasiperiodic oscillations are observed in several low-mass X-ray binary systems containing neutron stars. Timing analysis of X-ray fluxes of more than dozen of such systems reveals remarkable correlations between frequencies of two characteristic peaks present in the power density spectra. Several attempts to model these correlations with simple geodesic orbital models or phenomenological relations have failed in the past. We find and explore a surprisingly simple analytic formula that well reproduces individual correlations for a large group of sources. We also discuss possible theoretical interpretation of this formula.

  6. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well...

  7. Fast and simple fat grafting of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Rasmus Nygård; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Børsen-Koch, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    and furthermore there are still questions about the oncologic safety in using adipose derived stem cells (ADSC). Simple fat harvesting using low vacuum and preparation by sedimentation is a fast and effective method to perform FG successfully for correction of shape and volume deficits of the breast following......Fat grafting (FG) is being used at an escalating rate for correction of shape and volume of all types of breast surgery in order to optimize the aesthetic result in spite of an ongoing debate of the oncologic safety. In this paper we demonstrate our simple and fast sedimentation based FG technique...

  8. A simple and inexpensive retainer for overdenture prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lakshya; Rao, Jitendra; Yadav, Akanksha

    2013-07-16

    This article describes a clinical case report of a 65-year-old male patient in which an overdenture was fabricated by using a simple, logical and inexpensive means of retentive device. The described mandibular overdenture involves a simple modification in the coping design and a wire lock mechanism which was fabricated during denture processing. The problems associated with copings were overcome by putting the patient on a regimen wherein topical fluoride was applied every week on the abutment. The denture, fabricated involving a wire lock mechanism, was highly retentive and stable. Patient was highly satisfied with the outcome of the treatment.

  9. Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2012-04-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

  10. Extensions of simple modules for the Witt algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rian, Khalid

    The irreducible representations of the Witt algebra $W$ are completely known. A classification of the irreducible $U_\\chi(W)$--modules was first established by Chang and later simplified by Strade. The aim of this article is to give a classification of the extensions of the simple $U_\\chi(W)$--mo......The irreducible representations of the Witt algebra $W$ are completely known. A classification of the irreducible $U_\\chi(W)$--modules was first established by Chang and later simplified by Strade. The aim of this article is to give a classification of the extensions of the simple $U...

  11. [Learning "The Motivational Interview" in a simple way].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspegren, Knut; Risager, Niels Erik; Strømning, Merete

    2008-01-07

    We wanted to explore if experienced doctors, nurses and dieticians could learn "The Motivational Interview" as developed by Botelho in a simple way. 15 experienced doctors, nurses and dieticians took part. Our method was "learning by doing"--a 5-hour long workshop supported by IT-based learning material, followed by three months of work with own patients in diabetes care using the IT material for self study. Pre-tests and post-tests showed a statistically significant improvement of the use of the structure in this form of interview. It is concluded that this simple form of learning opportunity is effective for experienced health care personnel.

  12. Simple and Intuitive Mathematics for Learning Elementary Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    Mathematics is the language of physics and simple and intuitive mathematics is effective for imaging physical pictures of phenomena. This is important because geometrical viewpoints inspire ideas in physics. For example, some problems on the motion of a particle in a uniform gravitational field can be well illustrated by simple diagrams. Calculus is not only a way of calculating but is also closely related to the law of inertia through slope on a position-time graph. As such, cross-curricular study between mathematics and physics is effective for broadly developing thinking power at the high school and college levels.

  13. A Simple, Cleated DNA Walker That Hangs on to Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Cheulhee; Allen, Peter B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2017-08-22

    We designed and demonstrated a single-legged or unipedal walker that has a "cleat" that allows it to persistently associate with a track and make autonomous decisions about movement. The walker is highly processive over long periods of time, as shown by its movement over a microparticle surface suffused with substrate. The simple design can be readily optimized on the basis of simple energetic considerations. The walker can be used for signal amplification and should prove especially valuable for programming amorphous computations within chemical reaction networks.

  14. b-tree facets for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2004-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we introduce a large class of facet defining inequalities...... for the simple graph partitioning polytopes P_n(b), b >= 3, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. These inequalities are induced by a graph configuration which is built upon trees of cardinality b. We provide a closed-form theorem that states all necessary and sufficient conditions for the facet...

  15. b-Tree Facets for the Simple Graph Partitioning Polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2000-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we introduce a large class of facet defining inequalities...... for the simple graph partitioning polytopes P_n(b), b >= 3, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. These inequalities are induced by a graph configuration which is built upon trees of cardinality b. We provide a closed-form theorem that states all necessary and sufficient conditions for the facet...

  16. The semi-simple zeta function of quaternionic Shimura varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Reimann, Harry

    1997-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the Shimura variety attached to a quaternion algebra over a totally real number field. For any place of good (or moderately bad) reduction, the corresponding (semi-simple) local zeta function is expressed in terms of (semi-simple) local L-functions attached to automorphic representations. In an appendix a conjecture of Langlands and Rapoport on the reduction of a Shimura variety in a very general case is restated in a slightly stronger form. The reader is expected to be familiar with the basic concepts of algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory and the theory of automorphic representation.

  17. Infinitary term graph rewriting is simple, sound and complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Based on a simple metric and a simple partial order on term graphs, we develop two infinitary calculi of term graph rewriting. We show that, similarly to infinitary term rewriting, the partial order formalisation yields a conservative extension of the metric formalisation of the calculus. By show....... By showing that the resulting calculi simulate the corresponding well-established infinitary calculi of term rewriting in a sound and complete manner, we argue for the appropriateness of our approach to capture the notion of infinitary term graph rewriting....

  18. Excluding a Simple Good Pair Approach to Directed Cuts

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzi, Romeo

    2000-01-01

    In 1972, Mader proved that every undirected graph has a good pair, that is, an ordered pair (u,v) of nodes such that the star of v is a minimum cut separating u and v. In 1992, Nagamochi and Ibaraki gave a simple procedure to find a good pair as the basis of an elegant and very efficient algorithm to find minimum cuts in graphs. This paper rules out the simple good pair approach for the problem of finding a minimum directed cut in a digraph and for the more general problem of minimizing submo...

  19. Fully Consistent SIMPLE-Like Algorithms on Collocated Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmogorov, Dmitry; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2015-01-01

    To increase the convergence rate of SIMPLE-like algorithms on collocated grids, a compatibility condition between mass flux interpolation methods and SIMPLE-like algorithms is presented. Results of unsteady flow computations show that the SIMPLEC algorithm, when obeying the compatibility condition......, may obtain up to 35% higher convergence rate as compared to the standard SIMPLEC algorithm. Two new interpolation methods, fully compatible with the SIMPLEC algorithm, are presented and compared with some existing interpolation methods, including the standard methods of Choi [9] and Shen et al. [8...

  20. Simple algorithm for improved security in the FDDI protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, G. M.; Jones, Benjamin

    1993-02-01

    We propose a modification to the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) protocol based on a simple algorithm which will improve confidential communication capability. This proposed modification provides a simple and reliable system which exploits some of the inherent security properties in a fiber optic ring network. This method differs from conventional methods in that end to end encryption can be facilitated at the media access control sublayer of the data link layer in the OSI network model. Our method is based on a variation of the bit stream cipher method. The transmitting station takes the intended confidential message and uses a simple modulo two addition operation against an initialization vector. The encrypted message is virtually unbreakable without the initialization vector. None of the stations on the ring will have access to both the encrypted message and the initialization vector except the transmitting and receiving stations. The generation of the initialization vector is unique for each confidential transmission and thus provides a unique approach to the key distribution problem. The FDDI protocol is of particular interest to the military in terms of LAN/MAN implementations. Both the Army and the Navy are considering the standard as the basis for future network systems. A simple and reliable security mechanism with the potential to support realtime communications is a necessary consideration in the implementation of these systems. The proposed method offers several advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed, reliability, and standardization.

  1. Facet-defining inequalities for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2007-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually node-disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we provide several classes of facet-defining inequalities...

  2. A Simple Interactive Introduction to Teaching Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In the UK, at key stage 4, students aged 14-15 studying GCSE Core Science or Unit 1 of the GCSE Biology course are required to be able to describe the process of genetic engineering to produce bacteria that can produce insulin. The simple interactive introduction described in this article allows students to consider the problem, devise a model and…

  3. Simple and Low-Cost Exposed -Layer Grain Drying Apparatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple and Low-Cost Exposed -Layer Grain Drying Apparatus. 'Tilahun Seyoum Workenh* and 2Patrick. M. Grace. 1Alemaya University, College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, ROBQX 138, Dire DaWa, Ethiopia. 2University College Dublin, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of ...

  4. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube?related injuries.

  5. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-08-01

    Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube-related injuries.

  6. The spin lattice relaxation of 8Li in simple metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. D.; Saadaoui, H.; Parolin, T. J.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.; Smadella, M.; Chow, K. H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Morris, G. D.; Pearson, M. R.; Salman, Z.; MacFarlane, W. A.

    2009-04-01

    We report the modification to the linear temperature dependence of the Korringa nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate of an implanted NMR probe in silver, as it makes a thermally activated site change. We develop a simple model of this phenomenon, which is found in a number of metals including Au and Nb.

  7. Gallium determination with Rodamina B: a simple method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, R.R.U. de.

    1981-01-01

    A simple method for determining gallium with Rhodamine B, by the modification of the method proposed by Onishi and Sandell. The complex (RH) GaCl 4 is extracted with a mixture benzene-ethylacetate (3:1 V/V), from an aqueous medium 6 M in hydrochloric acid. The interference of foreign ions is studied. (C.G.C.) [pt

  8. Analysis of B-genome derived simple sequence repeat (SSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the genetic variability between 40 Musa genotypes maintained at the Musa germplasm collection of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan using nine B-genome derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The nine primers produced reproducible and discrete ...

  9. Deterministic Chaos - Complex Chance out of Simple Necessity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    able to grasp the basic concepts by reading them. ... simple language, e.g. the discussion of phase locking in section ... advanced reading. In spite of its simplicity, the book is tech- nically accurate. One place where the reader may have some problems is the Bernoulli shift (page 6) where the author advises the audience to ...

  10. A simple mechanical model for the isotropic harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita, Gelu M

    2010-01-01

    A constrained elastic pendulum is proposed as a simple mechanical model for the isotropic harmonic oscillator. The conceptual and mathematical simplicity of this model recommends it as an effective pedagogical tool in teaching basic physics concepts at advanced high school and introductory undergraduate course levels.

  11. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Bahadar Zeb, Imtiaz Ahmad Khan, Shahid Ali*, Sardar Bacha, Saqib Mumtaz and Zahoor. Ahmed Swati. Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NWFP, Agricultural ...

  12. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic variability among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare if simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers could correctly identify peanut genotypes with difference in specific leaf weight (SLW) and relative water content (RWC). Four peanut genotypes and two water regimes (FC and 1/3 available water; 1/3 AW) were arranged in factorial ...

  13. A simple numerical coding system for clinical electrocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robles de Medina, E.O.; Meijler, F.L.

    1974-01-01

    A simple numerical coding system for clinical electrocardiography has been developed. This system enables the storage in coded form of the ECG analysis. The code stored on a digital magnetic tape can be used for a computer print-out of the analysis, while the information can be retrieved at any time

  14. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in various areas of natural science. Thus, many effective and powerful methods have been established and improved. In this study, we establish exact solutions of the time fractional biological population model equation and nonlinearfractional Klein–Gordon equation by using the modified simple equation method.

  15. Simple Trigonometric Identities and Basic Calculus Leading to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. Simple Trigonometric Identities and Basic Calculus Leading to Interesting Series. R Govindaraj. Classroom Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 67-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Can simple population genetic models reconcile partial match ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recent study of partial matches in the Arizona offender database of DNA profiles has revealed a large number of nine and ten locus matches. I use simple models that incorporate the product rule, population substructure, and relatedness to predict the expected number of matches in large databases. I find that there is a ...

  17. Four simple recommendations to encourage best practices in research software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Rafael C.; Kuzak, Mateusz; Alhamdoosh, Monther

    2017-01-01

    Scientific research relies on computer software, yet software is not always developed following practices that ensure its quality and sustainability. This manuscript does not aim to propose new software development best practices, but rather to provide simple recommendations that encourage the ad...

  18. The role of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with simple sugars on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of different dietary simple sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) on the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, with regard to supplementation with high dose of vitamin B6 (500 mg/100 g diet) ...

  19. A simple algorithm for the identification of clinical COPD phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Paillasseur, Jean-Louis; Janssens, Wim; Piquet, Jacques; ter Riet, Gerben; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Cosio, Borja; Bakke, Per; Puhan, Milo A.; Langhammer, Arnulf; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Ancochea, Julio; Celli, Bartolome R.; Casanova, Ciro; de-Torres, Juan P.; Decramer, Marc; Echazarreta, Andrés; Esteban, Cristobal; Gomez Punter, Rosa Mar; Han, MeiLan K.; Johannessen, Ane; Kaiser, Bernhard; Lamprecht, Bernd; Lange, Peter; Leivseth, Linda; Marin, Jose M.; Martin, Francis; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Miravitlles, Marc; Oga, Toru; Sofia Ramírez, Ana; Sin, Don D.; Sobradillo, Patricia; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J.; Turner, Alice M.; Verdu Rivera, Francisco Javier; Soriano, Joan B.; Roche, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify simple rules for allocating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to clinical phenotypes identified by cluster analyses. Data from 2409 COPD patients of French/Belgian COPD cohorts were analysed using cluster analysis resulting in the identification of

  20. A simple and efficient electrochemical reductive method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide typically involves complicated procedures, such as modification of electrodes and preparation of electrolytes, which is often needed in previous reports. In this paper, a simple and efficient electrochemical process is described for the synthesis of high-quality reduced ...

  1. Compositional Syntactic Placement and Simple Concept Learning in Female Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Russ A.

    A media attribute approach was used in a study which hypothesized that compositional syntactic placement may bridge the processing link between the learner's cognitive capacity and the demands of a simple concept attainment task. Compositional syntactic placement refers to the relative horizontal position of the primary symbol or object within a…

  2. Current Stereological Methods and Tools for Simple Quantification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current Stereological Methods and Tools for Simple Quantification of Biological Structure: A short Review. ... are estimated using sampling probe has random position and whenever appropriate, random orientation, recent design-based stereology enjoys the advantage of being unbiased that is without systematic error.

  3. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, includin...... MEC seem to have retained their normal simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern, suggesting that T antigen may be used as a marker of MEC in salivary gland tumors.......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well...

  4. A simple time-delayed method to control chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the adaptive iterative learning strategy, a simple time-delayed controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in chaotic attractors. This controller includes two parts: one is a linear feedback part; the other is an adaptive iterative learning estimation part. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the effectiveness of this controller

  5. Simple greenhouse for growing vegetables in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Indonesian market gardeners can get far better yields by buying a relatively simple greenhouse with a plastic roof and extensive natural ventilation. This kind of greenhouse is also suitable for tropical lowlands in other countries, argues the Indonesian researcher Impron in his PhD thesis. Impron,

  6. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  7. Simple and Complex Gift Exchange in the Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.C.M.; Nelissen, J.H.M.; Potters, J.J.M.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    We examine an experimental gift exchange game in which the players can improve upon the unique no-gifts equilibrium through cooperative gift giving. The main feature of the study is that there are two different types of gift exchange, which we call simple and complex exchange, respectively. Complex

  8. Simple and multiple linear regressions between oil palm annual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining whether variations in oil palm annual yields were significantly influenced by years of production, and at establishing if so simple and multiple linear regression relationships between oil palm annual yields and yearly climatic variables. Climatic and yield data were gathered in three ...

  9. A novel and simple synthetic route for a piperazine derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria A.S. da; Pinheiro, Solange de O.; Francisco, Thiago dos S.; Silva, Francisco O.N. da; Carvalho, Idalina M.M.; Sousa, Jackson R. de; Dias-Filho, Francisco A.; Diogenes, Izaura C.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Batista, Alzir A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Ellena, Javier [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Longhinottid, Elisane, E-mail: izaura@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica

    2010-07-01

    A new derivative of piperazine, 5-oxopiperazinium-3-sulfonate monohydrate, was produced from a simple synthetic route as a result of the nucleophilic addition to HSO{sub 3} - bisulphite ion and of the nucleophilic attack of water molecules on pyrazine molecules. The isolated material was characterized by means of NMR, mass spectrometry, infrared, and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  10. A novel and simple synthetic route for a piperazine derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria A.S. da; Pinheiro, Solange de O.; Francisco, Thiago dos S.; Silva, Francisco O.N. da; Carvalho, Idalina M.M.; Sousa, Jackson R. de; Dias-Filho, Francisco A.; Diogenes, Izaura C.N.; Batista, Alzir A.; Ellena, Javier; Longhinottid, Elisane

    2010-01-01

    A new derivative of piperazine, 5-oxopiperazinium-3-sulfonate monohydrate, was produced from a simple synthetic route as a result of the nucleophilic addition to HSO 3 - bisulphite ion and of the nucleophilic attack of water molecules on pyrazine molecules. The isolated material was characterized by means of NMR, mass spectrometry, infrared, and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  11. Unusual Features of Crystal Structures of Some Simple Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Bodie

    2009-01-01

    Some simple copper compounds have unusual crystal structures. Cu[subscript 3]N is cubic with N atoms at centers of octahedra formed by 6 Cu atoms. Cu[subscript 2]O (cuprite) is also cubic; O atoms are in tetrahedra formed by 4 Cu atoms. These tetrahedra are linked by sharing vertices forming two independent networks without linkages between them.…

  12. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  13. A simple coordinate space approach to three-body problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show how to treat the dynamics of an asymmetric three-body system consisting of one heavy and two identical light particles in a simple coordinate space variational approach. The method is constructive and gives an efficient way of resolving a three-body system to an effective two-body system. It is illustrated by ...

  14. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were developed through data mining of 3,803 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) previously published. A total of 144 di- to penta-type SSRs were identified and they were screened for polymorphism between two turnip cultivars, 'Tsuda' and 'Yurugi Akamaru'. Out of 90 EST-SSRs for ...

  15. We present an experimental circuit realization of a simple jerk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    otic behaviour as a function of a variable control parameter. The third order differential equation has been ... having only six terms, a single quadratic nonlinearity and two parameters showing chaotic behavior: ... jerk equations found have simple nonlinear functions that should permit easy electronic implementations.

  16. Acute Uterine Inversion: A Simple Modification of Hydrostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Uterine Inversion: A Simple Modification of Hydrostatic Method of Treatment. ... P Gupta, RL Sahu, A Huria ... Repositioning of acute uterine inversion in six patients in emergency was done using trans.urethral resection of prostate set (TURP set), used in endoscopic resection of prostate, and two 3 L saline bags.

  17. Simple clearing technique as species determination tool in blowfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Wartenberg, Nelly; Spiess, Roland; Mall, Gita

    2011-03-20

    A simple clearing technique is presented by which species specific structures and organs of blowfly larvae can easily be visualized and displayed without any danger of mechanical damages or dislocations of delicate formations and without fixation of the object. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Slinky Wilberforce pendulum: A simple coupled oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The Wilberforce pendulum is an effective classroom demonstration of coupled oscillations and the beat-like behavior that arises in weakly coupled tuned oscillators. We describe a simple and inexpensive version constructed from a Slinky spring toy and a soup can.

  19. A Simple Measurement of the Sliding Friction Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Luigi M.; Defrancesco, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple computer-aided experiment for investigating Coulomb's law of sliding friction in a classroom. It provides a way of testing the possible dependence of the friction coefficient on various parameters, such as types of materials, normal force, apparent area of contact and sliding velocity.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to compare the effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling was carried out with a total of 65 DNA samples using 12 species of Indian Garcinia. ISSR and RAPD profiling were performed with 19 and 12 primers, respectively. ISSR markers ...

  1. A simple method for estimating thermal response of building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper develops a simple method for estimating the thermal response of building materials in the tropical climatic zone using the basic heat equation. The efficacy of the developed model has been tested with data from three West African cities, namely Kano (lat. 12.1 ºN) Nigeria, Ibadan (lat. 7.4 ºN) Nigeria and Cotonou ...

  2. A simple approximation method for dilute Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a simple approximate method to analyze dilute Ising systems. The method takes into consideration the fluctuations of the effective field, and is based on a probability distribution of random variables which correctly accounts for all the single site kinematic relations. It is shown that the simplest approximation gives satisfactory results when compared with other methods. (author). 12 refs, 2 tabs

  3. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... crucial role in the proper understanding of the qualitative features of many phenomena and processes in various areas of natural ... Keywords. Fractional differential equation; fractional complex transform; modified simple equation method; ... more frequently in various research and engineering applications ...

  4. Score Big! Pinball Project Teaches Simple Machine Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a design brief for a pinball game. The design brief helps students get a better grasp on the operation and uses of simple machines. It also gives them an opportunity to develop their problem-solving skills and use design skills to complete an interesting, fun product. (Contains 2 tables and 3 photos.)

  5. Learning Simple Machines through Cross-Age Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael; Schiebel, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In this project, introductory college physics students (noneducation majors) were asked to teach simple machines to a class of second graders. This nontraditional activity proved to be a successful way to encourage college students to think critically about physics and how it applied to their everyday lives. The noneducation majors benefited by…

  6. Feasibility of open simple prostatectomy with early vascular control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After adenomectomy transfixing sutures were placed from 3 to 9 o'clock positions around the prostatic capsule. Four variables were used to quantify intra-operative and postoperative haemorrhage. Results: Average intra-operative blood loss was 125 cc and average decrease in haematocrit was 3.2%. Conclusion: Simple ...

  7. Simple method for monitoring rangeland health and wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a monitoring system that requires just a pencil, one page datasheet and a 1-meter stick. Data are collected using the stick at five locations on each of four 25-m transects. Vegetation cover, composition, and horizontal and vertical structure are recorded by marking simple icons on the s...

  8. A Rapid, Simple, Effective, and Inexpensive Reconstructed Nipple Flap Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khurrum; Chevray, Pierre M

    2015-10-01

    Nipple reconstruction is a commonly performed component of breast reconstruction. A nipple reconstructed using local skin flaps requires protection from trauma. Here we describe a novel, effective, simple, rapid, inexpensive, and convenient method to protect a reconstructed nipple in the early postoperative period.

  9. Modelling, Construction, and Testing of a Simple HTS Machine Demonstrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction, modeling and experimental testing of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototype employing second generation (2G) coated conductors in the field winding. The prototype is constructed in a simple way, with the purpose of having an inexpensive way...

  10. Short Communication: A simple, inexpensive method for estimating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, inexpensive method for estimating linear tree dimensions is described and tested. The method is based on a visual overlap of two images, namely the tree to be estimated and a group of length scales incorporated on a colour slide. Additional advantages of the proposed method include accuracy, application by ...

  11. Fine Needle Aspiration: A simple and convenient alternative for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine patients followed up to hospital for other medical problems unrelated to ganglion cysts and only one patient had to undergo surgical excision due to the large size of the cyst. No patient returned with a recurrence. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration is a simple, non traumatic, inexpensive and low risk alternative method ...

  12. Polymorphism of the simple sequence repeat (AAC)5 in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites have been widely used as cytogenetic markers in cereals. SSRs could be present in coding and noncoding regions, contributing to genome dynamics and evolution. Previous studies by our research group detected molecular and cytogenetic riboso-.

  13. Strong density of a class of simple operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somasundaram, S.; Mohammad, N.

    1991-08-01

    An algebra of simple operators has been shown to be strongly dense in the algebra of all bounded linear operators on function spaces of a compact (not necessarily abelian) group. Further, it is proved that the same result is also true for L 2 (G) if G is a locally compact (not necessarily compact) abelian group. (author). 6 refs

  14. A Practical Workshop for Generating Simple DNA Fingerprints of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouziere, A.-S.; Redman, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis DNA fingerprints offer a graphical and visually appealing illumination of the similarities and differences between DNA sequences of different species and individuals. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction digest protocol was designed to give high-school students the opportunity to generate simple fingerprints of…

  15. A simple and optimal ancestry labeling scheme for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2015-01-01

    We present a lg n + 2 lg lg n + 3 ancestry labeling scheme for trees. The problem was first presented by Kannan et al. [STOC 88’] along with a simple 2 lg n solution. Motivated by applications to XML files, the label size was improved incrementally over the course of more than 20 years by a series...

  16. Simple adaptive control for quadcopters with saturated actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Oleg I.; Bobtsov, Alexey A.; Pyrkin, Anton A.; Gromov, Vladislav S.

    2017-01-01

    The stabilization problem for quadcopters with saturated actuators is considered. A simple adaptive output control approach is proposed. The control law "consecutive compensator" is augmented with the auxiliary integral loop and anti-windup scheme. Efficiency of the obtained regulator was confirmed by simulation of the quadcopter control problem.

  17. Simple model with damping of the mode-coupling instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestrikov, D.V. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1996-08-01

    In this paper we use a simple model to study the suppression of the transverse mode-coupling instability. Two possibilities are considered. One is due to the damping of particular synchrobetatron modes, and another - due to Landau damping, caused by the nonlinearity of betatron oscillations. (author)

  18. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 1. The modified simple equation method for ... Nonlinear fractional differential equations are encountered in various fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, engineering and in numerous other applications. Exact solutions of these equations play a ...

  19. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers as reproducible and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... 1Institute of Science and Biotechnology, Urmia University, Orumieh, Iran and Department of Horticultural Science,. College of ... annealing temperature (Ta) varying from 45 to 50°C. A total of 66 DNA fragments were amplified, of ... random amplified polymorphic DNA; SSRs, simple sequence repeats; AFLP ...

  20. Decoherence control in quantum computing with simple chirped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show how the use of optimally shaped pulses to guide the time evolution of a system ('coherent control') can be an effective approach towards quantum computation logic. We demonstrate this with selective control of decoherence for a multilevel system with a simple linearly chirped pulse. We use a multiphoton ...

  1. Feasibility of a simple drainage system in Cameroonian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To analyse the outcome of children with empyema thoracis treated by decortication followed by a simple drainage system. Patients and Methods: Retrospective chart review from July 2001 to June 2010 of all cases of children who had a thoracotomy for empyema. We used an endotracheal tube as chest drain ...

  2. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  3. A Simple HPLC Bioanalytical Method for the Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, accurate, and precise high performance chromatography (HPLC) method with spectrophotometric detection for the determination of doxorubicin hydrochloride in rat plasma. Methods: Doxorubicin hydrochloride and daunorubicin hydrochloride (internal standard, IS) were separated on a C18 ...

  4. Very Simple Markov-Perfect Industry Dynamics : Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, Jaap; Campbell, J.R.; Tilly, J.; Yang, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of firm entry, competition, and exit in oligopolistic markets. It features toughness of competition, sunk entry costs, and market-level demand and cost shocks, but assumes that firms' expected payoffs are identical when entry and survival decisions are made. We

  5. Genetic relationships revealed by simple sequence repeat (SSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships revealed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers among Ghanaian cassava cultivars released by different research groups. ... Genetic diversity was observed within populations (HS = 0.552) and, therefore, suggesting a low rate of inter-population gene flow among the individuals constituting the ...

  6. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The concept ‘‘simple accidents’’ is understood as traumatic events with one victim. In the last 10 years many European countries have seen a decline in the number of fatalities, but there still remain many severe accidents at work. In the years 2009–2010 in European countries 2.0–2.4 million occu...

  7. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfo...

  8. Simple Priorities and Core Stability in Hedonic Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrov, D.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.; Sung, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study hedonic games where each player views every other player either as a friend or as an enemy.Two simple priority criteria for comparison of coalitions are suggested, and the corresponding preference restrictions based on appreciation of friends and aversion to enemies are

  9. A simple stochastic weather generator for ecological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Birt; M.R. Valdez-Vivas; R.M. Feldman; C.W. Lafon; D. Cairns; R.N. Coulson; M. Tchakerian; W. Xi; Jim Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic weather generators are useful tools for exploring the relationship between organisms and their environment. This paper describes a simple weather generator that can be used in ecological modeling projects. We provide a detailed description of methodology, and links to full C++ source code (http://weathergen.sourceforge.net) required to implement or modify...

  10. Transit of Venus: Quantitative Observing with Simple Equipment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 5. Transit of Venus: Quantitative Observing with Simple Equipment. N Rathnasree Pritpal Kaur. Classroom Volume 17 Issue 5 May 2012 pp 497-504. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Deterministic Chaos - Complex Chance out of Simple Necessity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is also suitable for those with a general inte- rest in scientific developments. The first four chapters are less technical and one may be able to grasp the basic concepts by reading them. One difficulty in usingthe book as a text may. The presentation of the book is very good. Difficult concepts are explained in very simple.

  12. UK Citizens Lack Simple, Objective Knowledge of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2017-01-01

    Since 2002 the Eurobarometer surveys of public opinion in the EU provide data of ‘objective knowledge of the European Union’ through a series of true or false responses to factual statements about the EU. These questions are generally very simple, for example, how many EU member states are there?...

  13. Decoherence control in quantum computing with simple chirped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We show how the use of optimally shaped pulses to guide the time evolution of a system. ('coherent control') can be an effective approach towards quantum computation logic. We demon- strate this with selective control of decoherence for a multilevel system with a simple linearly chirped pulse. We use a ...

  14. The simple agricultural kit improving life for Nepal's terrace farmers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Nepalese women use a handheld sheller to remove kernels from corn cobs. Brian Banks, Canadian Geographic. Life as a farmer on the terraced plots of land in Central Nepal isn't easy, but the introduction of new agricultural practices and a few cheap, simple tools could be a boon for the men and women ...

  15. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-10-08

    Oct 8, 2005 ... A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate ...

  16. Application of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR marker) to detect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Application of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR marker) to detect genotoxic effect of heavy metals on. Eruca sativa (L.) Fahad Al-Qurainy. Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,. 11451. E -mail: fahad_alqurainy@yahoo.com.

  17. How to observe simple structures in deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frascaria, N.

    1981-10-01

    Evidence is presented for the observation of simple structures at high excitation energy in the energy spectra of fragments from numerous ion reactions. Techniques employed in the single as well as in the coincidence experiments are discussed. The main characteristics of these structures are pointed out and some possible interpretations of the experimental observations are given

  18. An accurate and simple large signal model of HEMT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing

    1989-01-01

    A large-signal model of discrete HEMTs (high-electron-mobility transistors) has been developed. It is simple and suitable for SPICE simulation of hybrid digital ICs. The model parameters are extracted by using computer programs and data provided by the manufacturer. Based on this model, a hybrid...

  19. Lipid Extraction and Cholesterol Quantification: A Simple Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, M. Carmo

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic methods are used to measure cholesterol levels but a simple and inexpensive method is described, which is particularly important when one has repeated lab sessions during the week. It can be carried out on the organic phase containing the lipids, without evaporating the solvent, yielding quick results.

  20. Development and application of 'simple' diagnostic tools for visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; Schoone, G. J.; Kroon, C. C.; Hailu, A.; Chappuis, F.; Veeken, H.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis is difficult. Due to the limitations of direct methods to detect parasites, indirect immunological methods are widely employed. The simple affordable and sensitive/specific direct agglutination test (DAT) is perhaps the most important diagnostic tool under

  1. Comparison of simple and chelated amberlite IR-120 for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the efficiency of simple and chelating Amberlite IR-120 with α-nitroso β-naphthol (IR-αNβN) and with 8-hydroxy quinoline (IR-8HQ) has been compared for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The chelation was confirmed using different characterization techniques like SEM, TGA and FTIR.

  2. A Simple Technique for Safe Mesenteric Defect Closure Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mesentery, inadvertent ligation of blood vessels and/or mesenteric hematoma formation and could, therefore, compromise the blood supply to the bowel anastomosis and lead to anastomotic dehiscence.[6,7] Here we propose a simple technique, applicable to both open and laparoscopy-assisted colectomies, that enables ...

  3. Simple liquids’ quasiuniversality and the hard-sphere paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2016-01-01

    This topical review discusses the quasiuniversality of simple liquids' structure and dynamics and two possible justifications of it. The traditional one is based on the van der Waals picture of liquids in which the hard-sphere system reflects the basic physics. An alternative explanation argues t...

  4. Simple liquids' quasiuniversality and the hard-sphere paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    This presentation reflects on the well-known quasiuniversality of simple liquids’ structure and dynamics [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. We discuss two possible justifications of it [6, 7]. The traditional one is based on the van der Waals picture of liquids in which the hard-sphere system reflects the basic ph...

  5. Simple synthesis and biological evaluation of flocoumafen and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Full Papers Volume 122 Issue 6 November 2010 pp 833-838 ... Abstract. Simple synthesis and biological properties of flocoumafen 1 and its structural isomers are described. The key synthetic strategies involve Knoevenagel condensation, Grignard reaction, intramolecular ring cyclization and coupling reaction.

  6. Simple and efficient methods for isolation and activity measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple purification approach of the recombinant hirudin variant 3 from the Bacillus subtilis was established, by which the hirudin could be purified to the purity of 95% through one-step chromatography with the total recovery rate of 83.9%. A modified Markwardt thrombin titration method for measuring hirudin activity was ...

  7. Polyethylene glycol in water: A simple, efficient and green protocol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Polyethylene glycol in water: A simple, ... A variety of biologically important quinoxaline derivatives has been efficiently synthesized in excellent yields under extremely mild conditions using PEG-600 and water. This inexpensive, non-toxic, ecofriendly and ...

  8. Simple mathematical models for housing allocation to a homeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present simple mathematical models for modelling a homeless population and housing allocation. We look at a situation whereby the local authority makes temporary accommodation available for some of the homeless for a while and we examine how this affects the number of families homeless at any given time.

  9. Architectures of soft robotic locomotion enabled by simple mechanical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangliang; Cao, Yunteng; Liu, Yilun; Yang, Zhe; Chen, Xi

    2017-06-28

    In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish, from the small or basic life forms (Escherichia coli, amoebae, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g., slugs, starfishes, earthworms, octopuses, jellyfishes, and snakes). Many bioinspired soft robots based on locomotion have been developed in the past few decades. In this work, based on the kinematics and dynamics of two representative locomotion modes (i.e., worm-like crawling and snake-like slithering), we propose a broad set of innovative designs for soft mobile robots through simple mechanical principles. Inspired by and going beyond the existing biological systems, these designs include 1-D (dimensional), 2-D, and 3-D robotic locomotion patterns enabled by the simple actuation of continuous beams. We report herein over 20 locomotion modes achieving various locomotion functions, including crawling, rising, running, creeping, squirming, slithering, swimming, jumping, turning, turning over, helix rolling, wheeling, etc. Some are able to reach high speed, high efficiency, and overcome obstacles. All these locomotion strategies and functions can be integrated into a simple beam model. The proposed simple and robust models are adaptive for severe and complex environments. These elegant designs for diverse robotic locomotion patterns are expected to underpin future deployments of soft robots and to inspire a series of advanced designs.

  10. A Simple Inquiry-Based Lab for Teaching Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John R.

    2014-01-01

    This simple inquiry-based lab was designed to teach the principle of osmosis while also providing an experience for students to use the skills and practices commonly found in science. Students first design their own experiment using very basic equipment and supplies, which generally results in mixed, but mostly poor, outcomes. Classroom "talk…

  11. Performance assessment of simple and modified cycle turboshaft gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barinyima Nkoi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigations encompassing comparative assessment of gas turbine cycle options. More specifically, investigation was carried out of technical performance of turboshaft engine cycles based on existing simple cycle (SC and its projected modified cycles for civil helicopter application. Technically, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and power output are of paramount importance to the overall performance of gas turbine engines. In course of carrying out this research, turbomatch software established at Cranfield University based on gas turbine theory was applied to conduct simulation of a simple cycle (baseline two-spool helicopter turboshaft engine model with free power turbine. Similarly, some modified gas turbine cycle configurations incorporating unconventional components, such as engine cycle with low pressure compressor (LPC zero-staged, recuperated engine cycle, and intercooled/recuperated (ICR engine cycle, were also simulated. In doing so, design point (DP and off-design point (OD performances of the engine models were established. The percentage changes in performance parameters of the modified cycle engines over the simple cycle were evaluated and it was found that to a large extent, the modified engine cycles with unconventional components exhibit better performances in terms of thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption than the traditional simple cycle engine. This research made use of public domain open source references.

  12. A Simple Modification of Hydrostatic Method of Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    takes place during the third stage of labor, or during the 1st h of puerperium.[1] It's a rare life-threatening complication. Incidence varies widely from 1 in 2,000 to ... we can reduce the maternal mortality and morbidity in remote areas where medical aid is scarce - by the simple technique modification of hydrostatic method for ...

  13. Designing a Simple Folder Structure for a Complex Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I explore a case of designing a simple folder structure for a new e-learning software program for a university study program. The aim is to contribute to the theoretical base for human work interaction design (HWID) by identifying the type of relations connecting design artifacts...

  14. A Simple Spectrophotometer Using Common Materials and a Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmoko, Eko; Widayani; Budiman, Maman; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometer was designed using cardboard, a DVD, a pocket digital camera, a tripod and a computer. The DVD was used as a diffraction grating and the camera as a light sensor. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using a reference light prior to use. The spectrophotometer was capable of measuring optical wavelengths with a…

  15. The Physics behind a Simple Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, and popular, demonstration of the greenhouse effect involves a higher temperature being observed in a container with an elevated concentration of CO[subscript 2] inside than in a container with just air enclosed, when subject to direct light. The CO[subscript 2] absorbs outgoing thermal radiation and causes the air inside the container…

  16. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  17. A simple statistical signal loss model for deep underground garage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the channel modeling aspects for a deep-indoor scenario with extreme coverage conditions in terms of signal losses, namely underground garage areas. We provide an in-depth analysis in terms of path loss (gain) and large scale signal shadowing, and a propose simple...

  18. A simple method for potential flow simulation of cascades

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Cascade; turbo-machinery; aerodynamics; conformal mapping. Abstract. A simple method using a combination of conformal mapping and vortex panel method to simulate potential flow in cascades is presented. The cascade is first transformed to a single body using a conformal mapping, and the potential flow ...

  19. Simple synthesis and biological evaluation of flocoumafen and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Simple synthesis and biological properties of flocoumafen 1 and its structural isomers are described. The key synthetic strategies involve Knoevenagel condensation, Grignard reaction, intramolecu- lar ring cyclization and coupling reaction. Flocoumafen 1 was easily separated into cis and trans forms using flash ...

  20. A Simple Excitation Control for an Isolated Synchronous Generator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows a very simple method of determining the range of field voltages to be applied to an isolated synchronous generator from no-load to full load while maintaining the rated terminal voltage on the stator terminals. The d-q rotor reference frame equations were used for the calculations and it is shown that values ...

  1. simple and low-cost strategy for micropropagation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aim of transferring micropropagation techniques to cassava seed producers, a simple and lowcost medium for in vitro micropropagation was developed. CM6740-7 cassava cultivar from CIAT was used as planting material. Commercially available nutrients were used in order to substitute the propagation media ...

  2. Some simple applications of probability models to birth intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1987-07-01

    An attempt has been made in this paper to apply some simple probability models to birth intervals under the assumption of constant fecundability and varying fecundability among women. The parameters of the probability models are estimated by using the method of moments and the method of maximum likelihood. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Introducing a simple and economical method to purify Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To prepare anti-Giardia lamblia antibodies needed to design diagnostic kits as well as parasite culture and other molecular studies, we require purification of the parasite cysts. In this study, we designed a rapid, simple and inexpensive method to purify parasite cysts from fecal samples of the patients suffering from ...

  4. A simple and rapid plate assay for screening of inulindegrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, a simple and rapid agar plate assay was established for screening of halophilic, inulindegrading microorganisms. Two strains considered inulinolytic with this method were chosen and the inulinolytic activities in their culture supernatant were measured with the Somogyi-Nelson method, while their hydrolysis ...

  5. Effect of the spherical Earth on a simple pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Burko, Lior M.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the period of a simple pendulum in the gravitational field of the spherical Earth. Effectively, gravity is enhanced compared with the often used flat Earth approximation, such that the period of the pendulum is shortened. We discuss the flat Earth approximation, and show when the corrections due to the spherical Earth may be of interest.

  6. Harmonic and Anharmonic Behaviour of a Simple Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple oscillator that exhibits harmonic and anharmonic regimes and analyse its behaviour over the complete range of possible amplitudes. The oscillator consists of a mass "m" fixed at the midpoint of a horizontal rope. For zero initial rope tension and small amplitude the period of oscillation, tau, varies as tau is approximately…

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy and Real Atomic Resolution. Simple Computer Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsos, V.; Manias, E.; Brinke, G. ten; Hadziioannou, G.

    1994-01-01

    Using a simple computer simulation for AFM imaging in the contact mode, pictures with true and false atomic resolution are demonstrated. The surface probed consists of two f.c.c. (111) planes and an atomic vacancy is introduced in the upper layer. Changing the size of the effective tip and its

  8. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using ...

  9. Inter simple sequence repeat analysis of genetic diversity of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studied the genetic diversity of five cultivated pepper species using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. The amplicons of 13 out of 15 designed primers were stable polymorphic and therefore were used as genetic biomarkers. 135 total clear bands were obtained, of which 102 were polymorphic bands ...

  10. A very simple proof of Pascal's hexagon theorem and some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we present a simple and elegant algebraic proof of Pascal's hexagon theorem which requires only knowledge of basics on conic sections without theory of projective transformations. Also, we provide an efficient algorithm for finding an equation of the conic containing five given points and a criterion for ...

  11. Code Generation for a Simple First-Order Prover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Halkjær From, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present Standard ML code generation in Isabelle/HOL of a sound and complete prover for first-order logic, taking formalizations by Tom Ridge and others as the starting point. We also define a set of so-called unfolding rules and show how to use these as a simple prover, with the aim of using...

  12. Branch and peg algorithms for the simple plant location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, Boris; Ghosh, Diptesh; Sierksma, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    The simple plant location problem is a well-studied problem in combinatorial optimization. It is one of deciding where to locate a set of plants so that a set of clients can be supplied by them at the minimum cost. This problem of ten appears as a subproblem in other combinatorial problems. Several

  13. Equivalent instances of the simple plant location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AlMohammad, Bader F.; Goldengorin, Boris; Ghosh, Diptesh; Sierksma, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we deal with a pseudo-Boolean representation of the simple plant location problem. We define instances of this problem that are equivalent, in the sense that each feasible solution has the same goal function value in all such instances. We further define a collection of polytopes whose

  14. Branch and peg algorithms for the simple plant location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, B.; Ghosh, D.; Sierksma, G.

    The simple plant location problem is a well-studied problem in combinatorial optimization. It is one of deciding where to locate a set of plants so that a set of clients can be supplied by them at the minimum cost. This problem often appears as a subproblem in other combinatorial problems. Several

  15. Timed Automaton Models for Simple Programmable Logic Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Wupper, Hanno

    We give timed automaton models for a class of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) applications, that are programmed in a simple fragment of the language Instruction Lists as defined in the standard IEC 1131-3. Two different approaches for modelling timers are suggested, that lead to two different

  16. The role of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with simple sugars on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of different dietary simple sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) on the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, with regard to supplementation with high dose of vitamin B6 (500 mg/100 g diet) in the form of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP).

  17. Architectural design with simple shape grammars and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jiménez-Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a proposal for the automatic generation of architectural design. This scheme is based on the training of simple shape grammars through reinforcement learning technics. Finally, the results of the implemented system by this technic for the generation of dwelling design with certain restrictions are presented and analyzed.

  18. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  19. A simple polarized-based diffused reflectance colour imaging system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system uses a commercial web camera and a halogen lamp that makes it relatively simple and less expensive for diagnostic research and teaching. The system has been used to demonstrate ... Predicting the area of the sample using a method of counting dark pixels is presented. This method avoids complex and more ...

  20. Manga Vectorization and Manipulation with Procedural Simple Screentone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chih-Yuan; Hung, Shih-Hsuan; Li, Guo-Wei; Chen, I-Yu; Adhitya, Reza; Lai, Yu-Chi

    2017-02-01

    Manga are a popular artistic form around the world, and artists use simple line drawing and screentone to create all kinds of interesting productions. Vectorization is helpful to digitally reproduce these elements for proper content and intention delivery on electronic devices. Therefore, this study aims at transforming scanned Manga to a vector representation for interactive manipulation and real-time rendering with arbitrary resolution. Our system first decomposes the patch into rough Manga elements including possible borders and shading regions using adaptive binarization and screentone detector. We classify detected screentone into simple and complex patterns: our system extracts simple screentone properties for refining screentone borders, estimating lighting, compensating missing strokes inside screentone regions, and later resolution independently rendering with our procedural shaders. Our system treats the others as complex screentone areas and vectorizes them with our proposed line tracer which aims at locating boundaries of all shading regions and polishing all shading borders with the curve-based Gaussian refiner. A user can lay down simple scribbles to cluster Manga elements intuitively for the formation of semantic components, and our system vectorizes these components into shading meshes along with embedded Bézier curves as a unified foundation for consistent manipulation including pattern manipulation, deformation, and lighting addition. Our system can real-time and resolution independently render the shading regions with our procedural shaders and drawing borders with the curve-based shader. For Manga manipulation, the proposed vector representation can be not only magnified without artifacts but also deformed easily to generate interesting results.