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Sample records for involving viral haemorrhagic

  1. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  2. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015 All information on Ebola virus disease Ebola features map Dashboard - Progress update ...

  3. Evolutionary Mechanisms Involved in Emergence of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV) into Cultured Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönherz, Anna A.

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemaia virus (VHSV) is an RNA virus of lower vertebrates that infects a wide range of freshwater, anadromous and marine fish species. VHSV is endemic among most marine and anadromous fish species but has emerged into cultured rainbow trout where it evolves towards high...... facilitation VHSV emergence into cultured raibow trout were explored. In vivo infection trials and in selico based molecular analysis were performed to independently investigate the first two steps of viral emergence, namely initial introduction to- and subsequent adaptation and establishment within the new...... virulence, causing extensive losses to the aquacultre industry. Cross-species transmission and subsequent adaptation to cultured raibow trout is observed occasionally. However, the biological background facilitationg VHSV emergense has yet to be identified. In the present PhD project potential mechanisms...

  4. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...

  5. Evolutionary Mechanisms Involved in Emergence of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV) into Cultured Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönherz, Anna A.

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemaia virus (VHSV) is an RNA virus of lower vertebrates that infects a wide range of freshwater, anadromous and marine fish species. VHSV is endemic among most marine and anadromous fish species but has emerged into cultured rainbow trout where it evolves towards high...... virulence, causing extensive losses to the aquacultre industry. Cross-species transmission and subsequent adaptation to cultured raibow trout is observed occasionally. However, the biological background facilitationg VHSV emergense has yet to be identified. In the present PhD project potential mechanisms...... host species. Main findings comprise the conformation of an oral transmission route and its potential importance as founder event for cross-species transmission, the potential of marine fish species to function as viral vector for rainbow trout adaptied isolates, recombination as possible source...

  6. Genetic population structure of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, M.; Bain, N.; Black, J.

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of a specific region of the nucleoprotein gene were compared in order to investigate the genetic population structure of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Analysis of the sequence from 128 isolates of diverse geographic and host origin renders this the m......The nucleotide sequences of a specific region of the nucleoprotein gene were compared in order to investigate the genetic population structure of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Analysis of the sequence from 128 isolates of diverse geographic and host origin renders...... importance to disease management issues highlighted....

  7. Surveillance of viral haemorrhagic fevers in Ghana: entomological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 2804 households were surveyed to estimate larval indices and man-vector contacts of potential vectors of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Yellow fever and Dengue. Over 56% households in each study site were positive for Aedes larvae. Relatively higher Breteaux index (BI) and Container index (CI) ...

  8. Rainbow trout offspring with different resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slierendrecht, W.J.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Juul-Madsen, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    To study immunological and immunogenetical parameters related to resistance against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), attempts to make gynogenetic strains of rainbow trout selected for high and low resistance to VHS were initiated in 1988. The first gynogenetic generation of inbreeding resulted...

  9. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, Britt Bang

    Aquaculture Association, Silkeborg, Denmark 4Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark 5Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Vejle, Denmark Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms......Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture Olesen N.J.1, Skall H.F.1, Jensen B.B.2, Henriksen N.H.3, Mellergård S.4, H. Korsholm H.5 1National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Aarhus, Denmark 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway 3Danish...... all affected areas that the country managed to free itself totally from VHS. Molecular tracing of the origin of VHSV isolates revealed that despite strict trade regulations and ban on introduction of live salmonids into the country VHSV seemed to have crossed the boarders into Denmark in a couple...

  10. Genetic population structure of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, M.; Bain, N.; Black, J.

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of a specific region of the nucleoprotein gene were compared in order to investigate the genetic population structure of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Analysis of the sequence from 128 isolates of diverse geographic and host origin renders this the m......The nucleotide sequences of a specific region of the nucleoprotein gene were compared in order to investigate the genetic population structure of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Analysis of the sequence from 128 isolates of diverse geographic and host origin renders...... this the most comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of marine VHSV conducted to date. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences confirmed the existence of the 4 major genotypes previously identified based on N- and subsequent G-gene based analyses. The range of Genotype I included subgroups...... of isolates associated with rainbow trout aquaculture (Genotype la) and those from the Baltic marine environment (Genotype Ib) to emphasise the relatively close genetic relationship between these isolates. The existence of an additional genotype circulating within the Baltic Sea (Genotype II) was also...

  11. Spatio-temporal risk factors for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ann Britt Bang; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Korsholm, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is an economically very important fish disease in the northern hemisphere. When the VHS virus was first isolated in Denmark 50 yr ago, more than 80% of the 800 Danish fish farms were considered to be infected, but vigilant surveillance and eradication programmes...

  12. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2016-01-01

    concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae...

  13. Identifying potential virulence determinants in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Scott; Collet, Bertrand; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2009-01-01

    We identified viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates classified within Genotype Ib which are genetically similar (>99.4% glycoprotein amino acid identity) yet, based on their isolation history, were suspected to differ in virulence in juvenile rainbow trout. The virulence of an isol...

  14. Diagnostic efficacy of molecular assays for the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Pojezdal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic properties of the one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus detection were compared to methods currently in use in the Czech Republic, namely, virus isolation using the cell culture and conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by the nested polymerase chain reaction. The assays were tested on a panel of 25 archived viral haemorrhagic septicaemia isolates and 8 archived infectious haematopoietic necrosis isolates obtained from monitoring and/or outbreaks of the diseases among farmed salmonids in the Czech Republic. The ability to detect the presence of the virus in the tissues of fish was tested on additional 32 field samples collected from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout (Salmo trutta and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis. The real-time assay showed the highest analytic sensitivity by detecting the presence of viral nucleic acid in samples with 10-7 dilution, whereas the sensitivity of the conventional polymerase chain reaction peaked at 10-5. Diagnostic specificity of both molecular assays was confirmed by absence of cross-reactivity with the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus isolates. This, along with consistent results in the detection of the virus in the fish tissues, confirms that the one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction is currently an optimal stand-alone diagnostic method for the detection of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

  15. First isolation and genotyping of viruses from recent outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Slovenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toplak, Ivan; Hostnik, Peter; Rihtaric, Danijela

    2010-01-01

    In November and December 2007, the virus causing viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was detected in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from 2 fish farms in Slovenia. During 2008 and 2009 the infection spread only among rainbow trout farms and 4 new outbreaks were confirmed. High mortality...... a reliable tool for fast routine genotyping in diagnostic laboratories. This is the first report of a natural epidemic associated with VHSV infection in Slovenia since the eradication of the disease in 1977....

  16. Genotyping of the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, by restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Winton, J.; Lorenzen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a standardized molecular assay that used limited resources and equipment for routine genotyping of isolates of the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Computer generated restriction maps, based on 62 unique full-length (1524 nt......-gene by a set of three restriction enzymes was predicted to accurately enable the assignment of the VHSV isolates into the four major genotypes discovered to date. Further sub-typing of the isolates into the recently described sub-lineages of genotype I was possible by applying three additional enzymes...

  17. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utke, K.; Bergmann, S.; Lorenzen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    classical MHC class I locus Onmy-UBA is identical in the rainbow trout clone C25 and in the permanent rainbow trout cell line RTG-2. This enabled us to develop an assay to measure antiviral cytotoxicity in rainbow trout using a system of MHC class I-matched effector and target cells. Peripheral blood...... leucocytes (PBL) isolated from low dose viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)-infected rainbow trout killed MHC class I-matched and later also xenogeneic MHC class I-mismatched VHSV-infected cells. When compared to PBL from uninfected control fish PBL from infected fish showed a higher transcriptional...

  18. Inter-species transmission of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus between turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönherz, Anna; Lorenzen, Niels; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    challenged with one turbot- and one rainbow trout adapted VHSV isolate, respectively, subsequently grouped with naïve rainbow trout, and mortality and viral shed was monitored daily. Both virus isolates showed signs of host-specific adaptation based on differences in replication dynamics, viral production......Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia is a serious viral disease of teleost fish with high economic impact on the aquaculture industry. The disease is caused by the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), an RNA virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae. Compared to other rhabdoviruses infecting...... in pathogenicity, however, is not fully resembled in the phylogeny, which indicates a correlation between geographic regions rather than host species. The objective of this study was to identify whether VHSV has the ability to transmit between different host species or whether viral transmission is restrict to one...

  19. Prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in Danish marine fishes and its occurrence in new host species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Mellergaard, Stig

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyse the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaerma virus (VHSV) in the marine waters around Denmark, staff from the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research participated in 5 research cruises during 1998 to 2002 as a follow-up to 4 research cruises performed in 1996...

  20. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Mellergaard, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) has, in recent decades, been isolated from an increasing number of free-living marine fish species. So far, it has been isolated from at least 48 fish species from the northern hemisphere, including North America, Asia and Europe, and fifteen different...... marine fish show no to low pathogenicity to rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, although several are pathogenic for turbot. Marine VHSV isolates are so far serologically indistinguishable from freshwater isolates. Genotyping based on VHSV G- and N-genes reveals four groups indicating the geographical...... origin of the isolates, with one group representing traditional European freshwater isolates and isolates of north European marine origin, a second group of marine isolates from the Baltic Sea, a third group of isolates from the North Sea, and a group representing North American isolates. Examples...

  1. Global nursing in an Ebola viral haemorrhagic fever outbreak: before, during and after deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Strauss, Eva; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Holmgren, Jessica; Saaristo, Panu

    2017-01-01

    Nurses are on the forefront and play a key role in global disaster responses. Nevertheless, they are often not prepared for the challenges they are facing and research is scarce regarding the nursing skills required for first responders during a disaster situation. To investigate how returnee nursing staff experienced deployment before, during and after having worked for the Red Cross at an Ebola Treatment Center in Kenema, West Africa, and to supply knowledge on how to better prepare and support staff for viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks. A descriptive, cross-sectional approach. Questionnaires were administered to nurses having worked with patients suffering from Ebola in 2014 and 2015. Data collection covered aspects of pre-, during and post-deployment on clinical training, personal health, stress management, leadership styles, socio-cultural exposure and knowledge transfer, as well as attitudes from others. Data was analysed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Response-rate was 88%: forty-four nurses from 15 different countries outside West Africa answered the questionnaire. The respondents identified the following needs for improvement: increased mental health and psychosocial support and hands-on coping strategies with focus on pre- and post-deployment; more pre-deployment task-oriented clinical training; and workload reduction, as exhaustion is a risk for safety. This study supplies knowledge on how to better prepare health care staff for future viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks and other disasters. Participants were satisfied with their pre-deployment physical health preparation, whereas they stressed the importance of mental health support combined with psychosocial support after deployment. Furthermore, additional pre-clinical training was requested.

  2. Virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Mori, Koh-ichiro; Olesen, Niels J

    2016-01-08

    In general, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from marine fish species in European waters (genotypes GIb, GII and GIII) are non- to low virulent in rainbow trout. However, a VHSV isolation was made in 2007 from a disease outbreak in sea farmed rainbow trout in Norway. The isolate, named NO-2007-50-385, was demonstrated to belong to GIII. This isolate has attracted attention to assess which of the viral genome/proteins might be associated with the virulence in rainbow trout. In this study, we describe the difference of virulence in rainbow trout between the NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 isolates as representatives of virulent and non-virulent GIII isolates, respectively. Rainbow trout were bath challenged with VHSV NO-2007-50-385 for 1 and 6 h, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 5 and 35%, respectively. No mortality was observed in the rainbow trout groups immersed with the genotype III VHSV isolate 4p168 for 1 and 6 h. The viral titre in organs from fish challenged with NO-2007-50-385 for 6 h increased more rapidly than those exposed for 1 h. By in vitro studies it was demonstrated that the final titres of VHSV DK-3592B (GI), NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 inoculated on EPC cells were very similar, whereas when inoculated on the rainbow trout cell line RTG-2 the titre of the non-virulent 4p168 isolate was 3-4 logs below the two other VHSV isolates. Based on a comparative analysis of the entire genome of the genotype III isolates, we suggest that substitutions of amino acids in positions 118-123 of the nucleo-protein are candidates for being related to virulence of VHSV GIII in rainbow trout.

  3. Rainbow trout surviving infections of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) show lasting antibodies to recombinant G protein fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encinas, P.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Grandes, Fregeneda

    2011-01-01

    Rainbow trout antibodies (Abs) binding to recombinant fragments (frgs) derived from the protein G of the viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)-07.71 strain, could be detected by ELISA (frg-ELISA) in sera from trout surviving laboratory-controlled infections. Abs were detected not only by using...... refinements of the frg-ELISA could allow detection of anti-VHSV trout Abs in natural outbreaks caused by different heterologous VHSV isolates. The homologous frg-ELISA method could be useful to follow G immunization attempts during vaccine development and/or to best understand the fish Ab response during VHSV...

  4. Do imports of rainbow trout carcasses risk introducing viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus into England and Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, F M; Oidtmann, B C; Thrush, M A; Dixon, P F; Peeler, E J

    2014-06-01

    A qualitative import risk assessment was undertaken to assess the likelihood of introduction and establishment of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype 1a in England and Wales (E&W), via the processing of imported rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) carcasses from continental Europe. The likelihood was estimated for one import from an infected farm. Four main routes by which susceptible populations could be exposed to VHSV via processing waste were considered: (i) run-off from solid waste to watercourses, (ii) contamination of birds or rodents with VHSV by scavenging solid waste, (iii) discharge of liquid waste to mains drainage, and (iv) discharge of liquid waste directly to watercourses. Data on the biophysical characteristics of VHSV, its epidemiology, fish processing practices and waste management were collected. Likelihoods for each step of the four pathways were estimated. Pathway 4 (discharge of liquid waste to a watercourse) was judged as the most likely to result in infection of susceptible individuals. Levels of virus entering the aquatic environment via pathways 1-3 were judged to be many times lower than pathway 4 due mainly to the treatment of solid waste (pathways 1 and 2) and high levels of dilution (pathways 1, 2 and 3). Thirty-four trout farms process fish, of which seven have imported carcasses for processing. Compared with other processing facilities, on-farm processing results in a higher likelihood of VHSV exposure and establishment via all four pathways. Data availability was an issue; the analysis was particularly constrained by a lack of data on the prevalence of VHSV in Europe, volume of trade of carcasses into the UK and processing practices in E&W. It was concluded that the threat of VHSV introduction into E&W could be reduced by treatment of liquid effluent from processing plants and by sourcing carcasses for on-farm processing only from approved VHSV free areas. © 2012 Crown copyright. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

  5. Diagnostic capacity for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is greatly increased by combining viral isolation with specific antibody detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Ariel, Ellen; Korsholm, H.

    2012-01-01

    Detection of disease specific antibodies in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been proposed as an alternative or supplement to the currently approved procedures for diagnosis and surveillance in this species. In samples from natural outbreaks of the disease viral haemorrhagic...... septicaemia (VHS) at two freshwater farms in southern Denmark serologic testing was used to broaden the diagnostic window from outbreak to diagnosis in the laboratory as compared to traditional procedures of isolation and identification of the virus. The serologic assay clearly increased the chance...

  6. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) remains viable for several days but at low levels in the water flea Moina macrocopa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    significantly decreased after a 4 h incubation with pyloric caecal extracts from rainbow trout, indicating that passage through the gut is likely to result in a significant decrease in viral titer. This may explain why consumption of prey containing low levels of VHSV did not result in clinical VHS.......Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) Genotype IVb has been isolated from amphipods belonging to the genus Diporeia, but it has yet to be established whether crustacean zooplankton act as vectors of this virus for fish species. Therefore, we evaluated the viability of infectious VHSV.......7-104.3 TCID50. Thus, VHSV was clearly taken up by M. macrocopa and remained viable in this crustacean for several days. However, no mortality was observed over a 28 d period in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that were fed VHSV-contaminated M. macrocopa for 14 d, and we found that the virus titer...

  7. Oral transmission as a route of infection for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönherz, Anna Amanda; Hansen, M. H. H.; Jørgensen, H. B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Surveys among wild marine fish have revealed occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infections in a high number of diverse fish species. In marine aquaculture of rainbow trout, preying on invading wild fish might thus be a risk factor for introduction and adaptation of VHSV...... and subsequent disease outbreaks. Our objective was to determine whether an oral transmission route for VHSV in rainbow trout exists. Juvenile trout were infected through oral, waterborne and cohabitation transmission routes, using a recombinant virus strain harbouring Renilla luciferase as reporter gene. Viral...... replication in stomach and kidney tissue was detected through bioluminescence activity of luciferase and qRT‐PCR. Replication was detected in both tissues, irrespective of transmission route. Replication patterns, however, differed among transmission routes. In trout infected through oral transmission...

  8. Selective breeding provides an approach to increase resistance of rainbow trout ( Onchorhynchus mykiss ) to the diseases, enteric redmouth disease, rainbow trout fry syndrome, and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M.; Berg, P.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we reasoned that if we challenged rainbow trout with the causative agents of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), we would: 1) detect additive genetic variation for resistance to ERM, RTFS, and VHS; and 2) find...

  9. Development of a walleye cell line and use to study the effects of temperature on infection by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus group IVb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vo, N T K; Bender, A W; Lee, L E J

    2015-01-01

    A cell line, WE-cfin11f, with a fibroblast-like morphology was developed from a walleye caudal fin and used to study the intersection of thermobiology of walleye, Sander vitreus (Mitchill), with the thermal requirements for replication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) IVb. WE-cfin11f...

  10. Experimental infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from European marine and farmed fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Slierendrecht, W.J.; King, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection with various isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was examined. A total of 8 experiments with rainbow trout ranging from 0.6 to 6.2 g was conducted for 139 isolates originating from wild marine fishes...... in European waters (115 isolates), farmed turbot from Scotland and Ireland (2 isolates), and farmed rainbow trout (22 isolates). The isolates were tested by immersion and/or intraperitoneal injection either as pooled or single isolates. The isolates from wild marine fishes did not cause mortality by immersion...... while some of the isolates caused mortality when injected. All VHSV isolates from farmed rainbow trout caused significant mortality by immersion. Currently, pathogenicity trials are the only way to differentiate VHSV isolates from wild marine fishes and farmed rainbow trout. The 2 farmed turbot isolates...

  11. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among na??ve herring (1.2 ?? 103 PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum quality control is involved in the mechanism of endoglin-mediated hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bassam R; Ben-Rebeh, Imen; John, Anne; Akawi, Nadia A; Milhem, Reham M; Al-Shehhi, Nouf A; Al-Ameri, Mouza M; Al-Shamisi, Shamma A; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition affecting the vascular system and is characterised by epistaxis, arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectases. This disorder affects approximately 1 in 8,000 people worldwide. Significant morbidity is associated with this condition in affected individuals, and anaemia can be a consequence of repeated haemorrhages from telangiectasia in the gut and nose. In the majority of the cases reported, the condition is caused by mutations in either ACVRL1 or endoglin genes, which encode components of the TGF-beta signalling pathway. Numerous missense mutations in endoglin have been reported as causative defects for HHT but the exact underlying cellular mechanisms caused by these mutations have not been fully established despite data supporting a role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control machinery. For this reason, we examined the subcellular trafficking of twenty-five endoglin disease-causing missense mutations. The mutant proteins were expressed in HeLa and HEK293 cell lines, and their subcellular localizations were established by confocal fluorescence microscopy alongside the analysis of their N-glycosylation profiles. ER quality control was found to be responsible in eight (L32R, V49F, C53R, V125D, A160D, P165L, I271N and A308D) out of eleven mutants located on the orphan extracellular domain in addition to two (C363Y and C382W) out of thirteen mutants in the Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain. In addition, a single intracellular domain missense mutant was examined and found to traffic predominantly to the plasma membrane. These findings support the notion of the involvement of the ER's quality control in the mechanism of a significant number, but not all, missense endoglin mutants found in HHT type 1 patients. Other mechanisms including loss of interactions with signalling partners as well as adverse effects on functional residues are likely

  14. Experimental susceptibility of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and turbot Scophthalmus maximus to European freshwater and marine isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, J.A.; Snow, M.; Skall, Helle Frank

    2001-01-01

    pathogenicity to Atlantic salmon. Virus was detected in some mortalities, however, demonstrating viral entry and replication. European marine VHS virus isolates do not appear to pose an imminent threat to the Atlantic salmon culture industry. Turbot were found to be refractive or of low susceptibility to marine......A number of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus isolates of European marine origin were shown to be of low pathogenicity or non-pathogenic to Atlantic salmon parr by waterborne infection. A reference freshwater VHS virus isolate known to be highly pathogenic to rainbow trout was also of low...

  15. Virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Mori, Koh-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    , named NO-2007-50-385, was demonstrated to belong to GIII. This isolate has attracted attention to assess which of the viral genome/proteins might be associated with the virulence in rainbow trout. In this study, we describe the difference of virulence in rainbow trout between the NO-2007-50-385 and 4p...... with the genotype III VHSV isolate 4p168 for 1 and 6 h. The viral titre in organs from fish challenged with NO-2007-50-385 for 6 h increased more rapidly than those exposed for 1 h. By in vitro studies it was demonstrated that the final titres of VHSV DK-3592B (GI), NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 inoculated on EPC cells...... were very similar, whereas when inoculated on the rainbow trout cell line RTG-2 the titre of the non-virulent 4p168 isolate was 3-4 logs below the two other VHSV isolates. Based on a comparative analysis of the entire genome of the genotype III isolates, we suggest that substitutions of amino acids...

  16. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum quality control is involved in the mechanism of endoglin-mediated hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam R Ali

    Full Text Available Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT is an autosomal dominant genetic condition affecting the vascular system and is characterised by epistaxis, arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectases. This disorder affects approximately 1 in 8,000 people worldwide. Significant morbidity is associated with this condition in affected individuals, and anaemia can be a consequence of repeated haemorrhages from telangiectasia in the gut and nose. In the majority of the cases reported, the condition is caused by mutations in either ACVRL1 or endoglin genes, which encode components of the TGF-beta signalling pathway. Numerous missense mutations in endoglin have been reported as causative defects for HHT but the exact underlying cellular mechanisms caused by these mutations have not been fully established despite data supporting a role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER quality control machinery. For this reason, we examined the subcellular trafficking of twenty-five endoglin disease-causing missense mutations. The mutant proteins were expressed in HeLa and HEK293 cell lines, and their subcellular localizations were established by confocal fluorescence microscopy alongside the analysis of their N-glycosylation profiles. ER quality control was found to be responsible in eight (L32R, V49F, C53R, V125D, A160D, P165L, I271N and A308D out of eleven mutants located on the orphan extracellular domain in addition to two (C363Y and C382W out of thirteen mutants in the Zona Pellucida (ZP domain. In addition, a single intracellular domain missense mutant was examined and found to traffic predominantly to the plasma membrane. These findings support the notion of the involvement of the ER's quality control in the mechanism of a significant number, but not all, missense endoglin mutants found in HHT type 1 patients. Other mechanisms including loss of interactions with signalling partners as well as adverse effects on functional

  18. Investigation of wild caught whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), for infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and experimental challenge of whitefish with VHSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Kjær, Torben Egil; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    into contact with farmed rainbow trout. All samples were examined on cell cultures. No viruses were isolated. Three viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of different origin were tested in infection trials by immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection, using 1.5 g farmed whitefish: an isolate...... from wild caught marine fish, a farmed rainbow trout isolate with a suspected marine origin and a classical freshwater isolate. The isolates were highly pathogenic by IP injection where 99-100% of the whitefish died. Using an immersion challenge the rainbow trout isolates were moderately pathogenic...

  19. Testing the ability of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus to evade the protective immune response induced in rainbow trout by DNA vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepulveda, Dagoberto; Lorenzen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, a negative strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus within the family Rhabdoviridae, is the causative agent of VHS, which is a serious disease in rainbow trout and other economically important fish species. The DNA vaccine encoding the viral......, this work aims to evaluate whether VHSV is able to evade the protective immune response induced by the DNA vaccination. Earlier studies have demonstrated that VHSV can evade the neutralizing effect of monoclonal antibodies by mutations in the glycoprotein gene. One approach of the present study is therefore...... to try to isolate VHSV variants which can escape the neutralizing activity of serum from fish immunized with the DNA vaccine. To do so, a highly pathogenic VHSV isolate (DK3592B) will be repeatedly passaged in fish cell cultures in the presence of neutralizing fish serum. Another approach comprises...

  20. Recombinant hybrid infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) carrying viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G or NV genes show different virulence properities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Biacchesi, S.; Stegmann, Anders

    . By a reverse genetics approach using the related novirrhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) as basis, four hybrid IHNV-VHSV variants were generated. These chimeric variants included substitution of the IHNV glyco(G) or nonstrutrual (Nv) protein with the corresponding G or Nv-protein from......Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is the economically most important viral disease in European rainbow trout farming. The virus was introduced to fresh water farms in the 1950ies from a reservoir of VHSV in the marine environment. Isolates from wild marine fish and fresh water farms...... are difficult to distinguish serologically but they show different virulence profiles: marine isolates typically cause little or no mortality in rainbow trout fry following experimental waterborne challenge, while freshwater isolates often kill the majority of the fish. Genetic analysis reveal that the change...

  1. Genotype-specific Taqman® assays for the detection and rapid characterisation of European strains of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Fiona; Snow, Michael; Garver, Kyle A; Matejusova, Iveta

    2013-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is the agent of a disease that causes mortality events in marine and freshwater fish. It is one of the most important pathogens in European rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture. Four major genotypes of the virus are recognised reflecting different geographic and host ranges. Genotyping of VHS isolates is important for disease management enabling monitoring of disease spread into new geographical regions or susceptible species. This study sought to develop molecular tools for rapid and efficient classification of European VHSV genotypes. Specificity of genotype-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays targeting the viral nucleoprotein (N) gene was tested using 66 viral isolates. All designed Taqman(®) RT-qPCR assays were genotype specific, displayed a high sensitivity and together constituted a diagnostic method for the rapid discrimination of European VHSV genotypes. Practical diagnostic applications of such assays demonstrated in this study include: (1) rapid genotype determination of isolates; and (2) identification of mixed-genotype isolates originating from pooled samples in areas where genotype distribution is known to overlap. However, the most important application will be supporting international VHSV surveillance programmes through the provision of a rapid specific and sensitive isolate characterisation method. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype II isolated from European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis in Finland during surveillance from 1999 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadd, Tuija; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2010-01-01

    to be independent from the epidemic in farmed rainbow trout in Finnish brackish waters, because the isolates from rainbow trout were of a different genotype. This is the first report of VHSV found in the European river lamprey. The role of wild river lampreys in maintaining the infection in the marine environment......We examined the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the main spawning stocks of wild European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis in the rivers of Finland from 1999 to 2008. Pooled samples of internal organs (kidney, liver and heart or brain) from 2621 lampreys were examined...... for the presence of VHSV by standard virological techniques. VHSV was isolated from 5 samples from the rivers Lestijoki and Kalajoki, which flow from Finland into the Bothnian Bay of the Baltic Sea. The presence of VHSV was confirmed by immunofluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), ELISA and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic...

  3. Trade practices are main factors involved in the transmission of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, M.; Matras, M.; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    subgroups. The main source of outbreaks in European rainbow trout farming is sublineage Ia isolates. Recently, this group of isolates has been further subdivided in to two subclades of which the Ia-2 consists of isolates occurring mainly in Continental Europe outside of Denmark. In this study, we sequenced...... the full-length G-gene sequences of 24 VHSV isolates that caused VHS outbreaks in Polish trout farms between 2005 and 2009. All these isolates were identified as genotype Ia-2; they divided however into two genetically distinct subgroups, that we name Pol I and Pol II. The Pol I isolates mainly caused...... cause of virus transmission appears to be movement of fish. At least in Polish circumstances trading practices appear to have significant impact on spreading of VHSV infection....

  4. Risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibilitystatus of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) in some sites in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Osei, Joseph H; Sasaki, Akihiro; Adimazoya, Michelle; Appawu, Maxwell; Boakye, Daniel; Ohta, Nobuo; Dadzie, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti in some sites in Accra, Ghana. Larval surveys were carried to inspect containers within households and estimate larval indices and adult Aedes mosquitoes were collected using human landing collection technique. WHO tube assays was used to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes mosquitoes. Ae. aegypti were the most prevalent species, 75.5% and followed by Ae. vittatus , 23.9 %. Ae. albopictus and Ae. granti were in smaller numbers. Household index (HI), Breteau index (BI), and container index were calculated as 8.2%, 11.2% and 10.3% respectively with man-vector contact rate of 0.67 bites/man-hour estimated for the area. The mortalities recorded for Ae. aegypti from WHO tube assays was 88%, 94%, 80% and 99% for DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%), lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) respectively. The survey results indicated that the density of Aedes mosquitoes was considered to be sufficient to promote an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic fevers on Legon Campus. Aedes mosquitoes were found to be resistant to DDT, deltamethrin and lamdacyhalothrin, but susceptible to permethrin. This study was supported in part by Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-Grid).

  5. Viruses in wild European fishes and their significance for aquaculture, with special emphasis on viral haemorrhagic septicamia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank

    2004-01-01

    Viral hæmorrhagisk septikæmi virus (VHSV) er en af de vigtigste virale patogener i opdrættet regnbueørred (Oncorhynchus mykiss) i Europa. Det Europæiske Fællesskabs (EU's) fiskehelse lovgivning (Direktiv 91/67/EEC) opregner VHS som en kategori 2 sygdom, hvilket er defineret som en sygdom med stor...

  6. Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus strain IVb from the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W.; Emmenegger, E.; Glenn, J.; Winton, J.; Goetz, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) is capable of infecting a wide number of naive species and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. The yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), a freshwater species commonly found throughout inland waters of the United States and prized for its high value in sport and commercial fisheries, is a species documented in several fish kills affiliated with VHS. In the present study, differences in survival after infection with VHSV IVb were observed among juvenile fish from three yellow perch broodstocks that were originally derived from distinct wild populations, suggesting innate differences in susceptibility due to genetic variance. While all three stocks were susceptible upon waterborne exposure to VHS virus infection, fish derived from the Midwest (Lake Winnebago, WI) showed significantly lower cumulative % survival compared with two perch stocks derived from the East Coast (Perquimans River, NC and Choptank River, MD) of the United States. However, despite differences in apparent susceptibility, clinical signs did not vary between stocks and included moderate-to-severe haemorrhages at the pelvic and pectoral fin bases and exophthalmia. After the 28-day challenge was complete, VHS virus was analysed in subsets of whole fish that had either survived or succumbed to the infection using both plaque assay and quantitative PCR methodologies. A direct correlation was identified between the two methods, suggesting the potential for both methods to be used to detect virus in a research setting.

  7. Ebola outbreak response; experience and development of screening tools for viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF in a HIV center of excellence near to VHF epicentres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There have been 3 outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF in Uganda in the last 2 years. VHF often starts with non-specific symptoms prior to the onset of haemorrhagic signs. HIV clinics in VHF outbreak countries such as Uganda see large numbers of patients with HIV 1/2 infection presenting with non-specific symptoms every day. Whilst there are good screening tools for general health care facilities expecting VHF suspects, we were unable to find tools for use in HIV or other non-acute clinics. METHODS: We designed tools to help with communication to staff, infection control and screening of HIV patients with non-specific symptoms in a large HIV clinic during the outbreaks in Uganda. We describe our experiences in using these tools in 2 Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks in Uganda. RESULTS: During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreaks, enhanced infection control and communication procedures were implemented within 24 hours of the WHO/Ministry of Health announcement of the outbreaks. During course of these outbreaks the clinic saw 12,544 patients with HIV 1/2 infection, of whom 3,713 attended without an appointment, suggesting new symptoms. Of these 4 were considered at risk of EVD and seen with full infection procedures; 3 were sent home after further investigation. One patient was referred to the National Referral Hospital VHF unit, but discharged on the same day. One additional VHF suspect was identified outside of a VHF outbreak; he was transferred to the National Referral Hospital and placed in isolation within 2 hours of arriving at the HIV clinic. DISCUSSION: Use of simple screening tools can be helpful in managing large numbers of symptomatic patients attending for routine and non-routine medical care (including HIV care within a country experiencing a VHF outbreak, and can raise medical staff awareness of VHF outside of the epidemics.

  8. Nutritional management in Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamon Chaiyasit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a viral infection causing a major health problem worldwide. In this short article, the authors briefly review and discuss on the nutritional management (energy, protein, fat and micronutrient in management of Ebola infection.

  9. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  10. Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Alison M.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    Viral genotype displacement events are characterized by the replacement of a previously dominant virus genotype by a novel genotype of the same virus species in a given geographic region. We examine here the fitness of three pairs of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) genotypes involved in three major genotype displacement events in Washington state over the last 30 years to determine whether increased virus fitness correlates with displacement. Fitness was assessed using in vivo assays to measure viral replication in single infection, simultaneous co-infection, and sequential superinfection in the natural host, steelhead trout. In addition, virion stability of each genotype was measured in freshwater and seawater environments at various temperatures. By these methods, we found no correlation between increased viral fitness and displacement in the field. These results suggest that other pressures likely exist in the field with important consequences for IHNV evolution.

  11. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms. © 2014 Crown Copyright. Journal of Fish Diseases © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Involvement of autophagy in viral infections: antiviral function and subversion by viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, Lucile; Codogno, Patrice; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine

    2007-08-01

    Autophagy is a cellular process involved in the degradation and turn-over of long-lived proteins and organelles, which can be subjected to suppression or further induction in response to different stimuli. According to its essential role in cellular homeostasis, autophagy has been implicated in several pathologies including cancer, neurodegeneration and myopathies. More recently, autophagy has been described as a mechanism of both innate and adaptive immunity against intracellular bacteria and viruses. In this context, autophagy has been proposed as a protective mechanism against viral infection by degrading the pathogens into autolysosomes. This is strengthened by the fact that several proteins involved in interferon (IFN) signalling pathways are linked to autophagy regulation. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to divert IFN-mediated pathways and autophagy to their own benefit. This review provides an overview of the autophagic process and its involvement in the infection by different viral pathogens and of the connections existing between autophagy and proteins involved in IFN signalling pathways.

  13. Viral evasion mechanisms of early antiviral responses involving regulation of ubiquitin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2013-08-01

    Early innate and cell-intrinsic responses are essential to protect host cells against pathogens. In turn, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to establish productive infections by counteracting host innate immune responses. Increasing evidence indicates that these antiviral factors may have a dual role by directly inhibiting viral replication as well as by sensing and transmitting signals to induce antiviral cytokines. Recent studies have pointed at new, unappreciated mechanisms of viral evasion of host innate protective responses including manipulating the host ubiquitin (Ub) system. Virus-mediated inhibition of antiviral factors by Ub-dependent degradation is emerging as a crucial mechanism for evading the antiviral response. In addition, recent studies have uncovered new mechanisms by which virus-encoded proteins inhibit Ub and Ub-like (Ubl) modification of host proteins involved in innate immune signaling pathways. Here we discuss recent findings and novel strategies that viruses have developed to counteract these early innate antiviral defenses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Severe Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever presented with massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage that recovered without antiviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz Asadi; Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tickborne viral zoonosis with up to 50% mortality in humans caused by CCHF virus belonging to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. The geographical distribution of CCHF cases corresponds closely with the distribution of principle tick vectors tha...

  15. Host defense against viral infection involves interferon mediated down-regulation of sterol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Blanc

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the protective role of inflammatory processes in modulating lipid metabolism in infection. Here we report an intimate link between the innate immune response to infection and regulation of the sterol metabolic network characterized by down-regulation of sterol biosynthesis by an interferon regulatory loop mechanism. In time-series experiments profiling genome-wide lipid-associated gene expression of macrophages, we show a selective and coordinated negative regulation of the complete sterol pathway upon viral infection or cytokine treatment with IFNγ or β but not TNF, IL1β, or IL6. Quantitative analysis at the protein level of selected sterol metabolic enzymes upon infection shows a similar level of suppression. Experimental testing of sterol metabolite levels using lipidomic-based measurements shows a reduction in metabolic output. On the basis of pharmacologic and RNAi inhibition of the sterol pathway we show augmented protection against viral infection, and in combination with metabolite rescue experiments, we identify the requirement of the mevalonate-isoprenoid branch of the sterol metabolic network in the protective response upon statin or IFNβ treatment. Conditioned media experiments from infected cells support an involvement of secreted type 1 interferon(s to be sufficient for reducing the sterol pathway upon infection. Moreover, we show that infection of primary macrophages containing a genetic knockout of the major type I interferon, IFNβ, leads to only a partial suppression of the sterol pathway, while genetic knockout of the receptor for all type I interferon family members, ifnar1, or associated signaling component, tyk2, completely abolishes the reduction of the sterol biosynthetic activity upon infection. Levels of the proteolytically cleaved nuclear forms of SREBP2, a key transcriptional regulator of sterol biosynthesis, are reduced upon infection and IFNβ treatment at both the protein and de novo

  16. JC virus agnoprotein enhances large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for its involvement in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2012-11-10

    Agnoprotein is required for the successful completion of the JC virus (JCV) life cycle and was previously shown to interact with JCV large T-antigen (LT-Ag). Here, we further characterized agnoprotein's involvement in viral DNA replication. Agnoprotein enhances the DNA binding activity of LT-Ag to the viral origin (Ori) without directly interacting with DNA. The predicted amphipathic α-helix of agnoprotein plays a major role in this enhancement. All three phenylalanine (Phe) residues of agnoprotein localize to this α-helix and Phe residues in general are known to play critical roles in protein-protein interaction, protein folding and stability. The functional relevance of all Phe residues was investigated by mutagenesis. When all were mutated to alanine (Ala), the mutant virus (F31AF35AF39A) replicated significantly less efficiently than each individual Phe mutant virus alone, indicating the importance of Phe residues for agnoprotein function. Collectively, these studies indicate a close involvement of agnoprotein in viral DNA replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Vase, P; Green, A

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by telangiectatic lesions. The disease manifestations are variable and include epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Early...

  18. Oligomerization of Baculovirus LEF-11 Is Involved in Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cao, Ming-Ya; Li, Hai-Qing; Lei, Xue-Jiao; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) late expression factor 11 (lef-11) is associated with viral DNA replication and have demonstrated that it potentially interacts with itself; however, whether LEF-11 forms oligomers and the impact of LEF-11 oligomerization on viral function have not been substantiated. In this study, we first demonstrated that LEF-11 is capable of forming oligomers. Additionally, a series of analyses using BmNPV LEF-11 truncation mutants indicated that two distinct domains control LEF-11 oligomerization (aa 42-61 and aa 72-101). LEF-11 truncation constructs were inserted into a lef-11-knockout BmNPV bacmid, which was used to demonstrate that truncated LEF-11 lacking either oligomerization domain abrogates viral DNA replication. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine that the conserved hydrophobic residues Y58&I59 (representing Y58 and I59), I85 and L88&L89 (representing L88 and L89) are required for LEF-11 oligomerization and viral DNA replication. Collectively, these data indicate that BmNPV LEF-11 oligomerization influences viral DNA replication.

  19. Possible involvement of maize Rop1 in the defence responses of plants to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyong; Shi, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Cheng, Yuqin; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Zaifeng

    2012-09-01

    The expression of host genes can be altered during the process of viral infection. To investigate the viral infection-induced up-regulated gene expression changes of maize at different time intervals post-inoculation with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library was constructed. A total of 454 cDNA clones were identified to be viral infection-induced up-regulated genes. The influence of Rop1 on the infection of maize by SCMV was investigated. The results showed that transient silencing of the ZmRop1 gene through virus-induced gene silencing enhanced the accumulation and systemic infection of SCMV and another potyvirus (Pennisetum mosaic virus) in maize plants, whereas transient over-expression of ZmRop1 in maize protoplasts reduced SCMV accumulation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the heterologous expression of ZmRop1 impaired Potato virus X infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These data suggest that ZmRop1 may play a role in plant defence responses to viral infection. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  20. Thalamic haemorrhage vs internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage: clinical profile and predictors of in-hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Eroles Luis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of clinical studies focused specifically on intracerebral haemorrhages of subcortical topography, a subject matter of interest to clinicians involved in stroke management. This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a to describe the aetiological, clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with thalamic haemorrhage as compared with that of patients with internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage, and b to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with thalamic haemorrhage. Methods Forty-seven patients with thalamic haemorrhage were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 17 years. Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The region of the intracranial haemorrhage was identified on computerized tomographic (CT scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. Results Thalamic haemorrhage accounted for 1.4% of all cases of stroke (n = 3420 and 13% of intracerebral haemorrhage (n = 364. Hypertension (53.2%, vascular malformations (6.4%, haematological conditions (4.3% and anticoagulation (2.1% were the main causes of thalamic haemorrhage. In-hospital mortality was 19% (n = 9. Sensory deficit, speech disturbances and lacunar syndrome were significantly associated with thalamic haemorrhage, whereas altered consciousness (odds ratio [OR] = 39.56, intraventricular involvement (OR = 24.74 and age (OR = 1.23, were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion One in 8 patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage had a thalamic hematoma. Altered consciousness, intraventricular extension of the hematoma and advanced age were determinants of a poor early outcome.

  1. Viral outbreaks involve destabilized evolutionary networks: evidence from Ebola, Influenza and Zika

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Jessica; Ibeh, Neke; Aris-Brosou, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Recent history has provided us with one pandemic (Influenza A/H1N1) and two severe viral outbreaks (Ebola and Zika). In all three cases, post-hoc analyses have given us deep insights into what triggered these outbreaks, their timing, evolutionary dynamics, and phylogeography, but the genomic characteristics of outbreak viruses are still unclear. To address this outstanding question, we searched for a common denominator between these recent outbreaks, positing that the genome of outbreak virus...

  2. Adenovirus structural protein IIIa is involved in the serotype specificity of viral DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Hearing, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    The packaging of the adenovirus (Ad) genome into a capsid displays serotype specificity. This specificity has been attributed to viral packaging proteins, the IVa2 protein and the L1-52/55K protein. We previously found that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein was not able to complement the growth of an Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus, whereas two other Ad17 packaging proteins, IVa2 and L4-22K, could complement the growth of Ad5 viruses with mutations in the respective genes. In this report, we investigated why the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein was not able to complement the Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus. We demonstrate that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein binds to the Ad5 IVa2 protein in vitro and the Ad5 packaging domain in vivo, activities previously associated with packaging function. The Ad17 L1-52/55K protein also associates with empty Ad5 capsids. Interestingly, we find that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein is able to complement the growth of an Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus in conjunction with the Ad17 structural protein IIIa. The same result was found with the L1-52/55K and IIIa proteins of several other Ad serotypes, including Ad3 and Ad4. The Ad17 IIIa protein associates with empty Ad5 capsids. Consistent with the complementation results, we find that the IIIa protein interacts with the L1-52/55K protein in vitro and associates with the viral packaging domain in vivo. These results underscore the complex nature of virus assembly and genome encapsidation and provide a new model for how the viral genome may tether to the empty capsid during the encapsidation process.

  3. Haemorrhage from Pancreatic Pseudocysts Presenting as Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Garcea

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhage is a rare but frequently fatal complication of pancreatic pseudocysts. The high mortality associated with pancreatic haemorrhage makes prompt and aggressive management essential. Occasionally, haemorrhage may present atypically, leading to delay in its diagnosis and management. This report details a case of pancreatic haemorrhage presenting as an upper gastrointestinal bleed and discusses the subsequent management. When managing patients with pancreatic pseudocysts who present with the stigmata of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the possibility that the bleeding originates from the pancreas must always be borne in mind.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection (usually viral but sometimes bacterial).2 The causes have been confused by health care personnel in .... are likely to be viral or bacterial, and not Nairobi red eye. Viral conjunctivitis, with bilateral involvement with ... Caribbean after 15 years of being dormant in south-east Asia. The genus enterovirus belongs to the ...

  5. [Neonatal subgaleal haemorrhage; a potential life-threatening extracranial haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuijkschot, J.; Antonius, T.A.J.; Meijers, P.W.; Vrancken, S.L.A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A female neonate delivered at term developed hypovolemic shock due to a subgaleal haemorrhage, i.e. extracranial bleeding between the galea aponeurotica and the cranial periosteum. The subgaleal haemorrhage was most likely the result of a traumatic vacuum extraction. The patient was treated with

  6. Postpartum haemorrhage: prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Chelmow, David

    2008-01-01

    Loss of more than 500 mL of blood is usually caused by failure of the uterus to contract fully after delivery of the placenta, and occurs in over 10% of deliveries with a 1% mortality rate worldwide. Other causes of postpartum haemorrhage include retained placental tissue, lacerations to the genital tract and coagulation disorders.Uterine atony is more likely in women who have had a general anaesthetic or oxytocin, an over-distended uterus, a prolonged or precipitous labour, or who are of ...

  7. Postpartum haemorrhage: prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Chelmow, David

    2011-01-01

    Loss of more than 500 mL of blood is usually caused by failure of the uterus to contract fully after delivery of the placenta, and occurs in over 10% of deliveries, with a 1% mortality worldwide. Other causes of postpartum haemorrhage include retained placental tissue, lacerations to the genital tract, and coagulation disorders.Uterine atony is more likely in women who have had a general anaesthetic or oxytocin, an over-distended uterus, a prolonged or precipitous labour, or who are of hig...

  8. Accidental Haemorrhage and Fetal Prognosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-17

    Apr 17, 1974 ... perinatal mortality associated with accidental haemorrhage. The importance of clinical signs in determining fetal ... presented with antepartum haemorrhage, and where a retroplacental clot was found postpartum. .... rupture of membranes and oxytocin infusion. This was done in spite of intra-uterine death in ...

  9. Vitamin E and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Thomas, P R; Ensley, S M; Kim, W-I; Loynachan, A T; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

    2011-12-01

    Mulberry heart disease (MHD) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin E and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from MHD-affected and MHD-unaffected pigs and the vitamin E and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with MHD. Based on the pathological examination, 114 pigs were separated into MHD lesion-negative (L-NEG) (n = 57) and MHD lesion-positive (L-POS) (n = 57) groups. Seventy-three samples (40 L-NEG and 33 L-POS) were subjected to chemical analysis, and 66 (32 L-NEG and 34 L-POS) were subjected to PCR detection for viral pathogens. Lower (P < 0.05) levels of myocardial copper, lower (P < 0.05) levels of hepatic magnesium and higher (P < 0.05) levels of myocardial and hepatic sodium were detected in the L-POS cases. Although lower (P < 0.05) levels of hepatic selenium were detected in L-POS group, all were within the normal range. Analysis of feed samples (n = 22) revealed that selenium levels in all the samples were above the legal limit (0.3 ppm) for pigs. Vitamin E levels in all feed samples were above 20 IU/kg. Among the 66 pigs subjected to PCR detection, there were 19, 4, 13, 8, 2 and 1 animals positive for porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, pan-herpes virus, porcine enterovirus, pan-pestivirus and porcine parvovirus, respectively. Clear evidence of viral association with L-POS was lacking. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Methamphetamine-related brainstem haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Zelia K; Bennett, Iwan E; Chan, Patrick; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-10-01

    We report the case of an otherwise healthy 29-year-old woman who presented with a brainstem haemorrhage following intravenous methamphetamine use. Extensive investigation did not reveal an underlying pathology, and the development of symptoms was temporally related to methamphetamine injection. Although intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to methamphetamine use is well documented, this report describes a haemorrhage within the brainstem which is a rare location. While animal studies have demonstrated the potential of methamphetamines to produce brainstem haemorrhages, there has only been one previous report describing a haemorrhage in this location due to amphetamine use in humans. We conclude with a brief discussion of the clinical features and aetiology of methamphetamine-related stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  12. Viral serological and molecular data on possible involvement of herpes viruses in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipa, Cristiana; Bleotu, Coralia; Grancea, Camelia; Rosu, Andreea Oana; Anton, Gabriela; Ruta, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that latent herpes virus infections can be associated with chronic periodontal sites that exhibit a predisposition to disease progression. The aim of this study was to identify the possible relationship between infections with CMV and EBV and the severity of periodontal disease. Fifty two patients aged between 27 and 70 years, diagnosed with periodontal disease were enrolled in the study after giving informed consent. Quantitative immunoenzymatic assays were used to determine the concentration of anti CMV and EBV antibodies. The presence of CMV and EBV DNA was tested in biopsies from periodontal tissues using an in-house PCR adapted after a method described previously. Higher titers of the anti CMV antibodies appear to be correlated with the severity of the periodontal lesions (pperiodontal treatment (pperiodontal disease. Although the molecular biology data from the present study do not support the pathogenic involvement of EBV or CMV in the development of chronic periodontitis lesions, the serological data might be important markers for the evolution and severity of the periodontal disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Analysis of Cathepsin and Furin Proteolytic Enzymes Involved in Viral Fusion Protein Activation in Cells of the Bat Reservoir Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  14. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah El Najjar

    Full Text Available Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing.

  15. Postpartum haemorrhage: prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmow, David

    2011-04-04

    Loss of more than 500 mL of blood following childbirth is usually caused by failure of the uterus to contract fully after delivery of the placenta, and occurs in over 10% of deliveries, with a 1% mortality rate worldwide. Other causes of postpartum haemorrhage include retained placental tissue, lacerations to the genital tract, and coagulation disorders. Uterine atony is more likely in women who have had a general anaesthetic or oxytocin, an over-distended uterus, a prolonged or precipitous labour, or who are of high parity. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions and of drug interventions to prevent primary postpartum haemorrhage? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: active management of the third stage of labour, carboprost injection, controlled cord traction, ergot compounds (ergometrine/methylergotamine), immediate breastfeeding, misoprostol (oral, rectal, sublingual, or vaginal), oxytocin, oxytocin plus ergometrine combinations, prostaglandin E2 compounds, and uterine massage.

  16. Evidence-based management of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, I; Sunkaraneni, V S

    2015-05-01

    There are currently no guidelines in the UK for the specific management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia related epistaxis. The authors aimed to review the literature and provide an algorithm for the management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia related epistaxis. The Medline and Embase databases were interrogated on 15 November 2013 using the search items 'hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia' (title), 'epistaxis' (title) and 'treatment' (title and abstract), and limiting the search to articles published in English. A total of 46 publications were identified, comprising 1 systematic review, 2 randomised, controlled trials, 27 case series, 9 case reports, 4 questionnaire studies and 3 in vitro studies. There is a lack of high-level evidence for the use of many of the available treatments for the specific management of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Current management should be based on a multidisciplinary team approach involving both a hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia physician and an ENT surgeon, especially when systemic therapy is being considered. The suggested treatment algorithm considers that the severity of epistaxis merits intervention at different levels of the treatment ladder. The patient should be assessed using a reproducible validated assessment tool, for example an epistaxis severity score, to guide treatment. More research is required, particularly in the investigation of topical agents targeting the development and fragility of telangiectasiae in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

  17. The UL24 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Abdeljelil, Nawel; Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Pearson, Angela, E-mail: angela.pearson@iaf.inrs.ca

    2013-09-15

    Mutations in UL24 of herpes simplex virus type 1 can lead to a syncytial phenotype. We hypothesized that UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion. In non-immortalized human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) we detected viral glycoproteins B (gB), gD, gH and gL present in extended blotches throughout the cytoplasm with limited nuclear membrane staining; however, in HFFs infected with a UL24-deficient virus (UL24X), staining for the viral glycoproteins appeared as long, thin streaks running across the cell. Interestingly, there was a decrease in co-localized staining of gB and gD with F-actin at late times in UL24X-infected HFFs. Treatment with chemical agents that perturbed the actin cytoskeleton hindered the formation of UL24X-induced syncytia in these cells. These data support a model whereby the UL24 syncytial phenotype results from a mislocalization of viral glycoproteins late in infection. - Highlights: • UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins required for fusion. • Sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins varies in cell-type dependent manner. • Drugs targeting actin microfilaments affect formation of UL24-related syncytia in HFFs.

  18. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Dauer, William [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Johnson, David [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  19. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  20. Ebolavirus and Haemorrhagic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A. Matua

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world’s most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaïre, Reston and Taï Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies.

  1. THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Putu Sutirta-Yasa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and geographical distribution of dengue has gradually increased during the past decade. Today, dengue is considered one of the most important arthropod-borne viral diseasases in humans in term of morbidity and mortality. Dengue infection   a potential life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF / dengue shock syndrome(DSS, characterized by thrombocytopenia and increased vascular permiability. Thrombocytopenia causes bleeding, but in   DHF patients with thrombocytopenia do not always develop bleeding manifestation. The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia are not cleared. Multiple factors  may be involved in the machanisms leading to thrombocytopenia in DHF/DSS patients.

  2. Autophagy is involved in anti-viral activity of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Ying, E-mail: peiying-19802@163.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Chen, Zhen-Ping, E-mail: 530670663@qq.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Ju, Huai-Qiang, E-mail: 344464448@qq.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Komatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: komatsu-ms@igakuken.or.jp [Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8613 (Japan); Ji, Yu-hua, E-mail: tjyh@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu, Ge, E-mail: lggege_15@hotmail.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Guo, Chao-wan, E-mail: chaovan_kwok@hotmail.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Zhang, Ying-Jun, E-mail: zhangyj@mail.kib.ac.cn [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China); Yang, Chong-Ren, E-mail: cryang@mail.kib.ac.cn [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China); Wang, Yi-Fei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Kitazato, Kaio, E-mail: kkholi@msn.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} We showed PGG has anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and can induce autophgy. {yields} Autophagy may be a novel and important mechanism mediating PGG anti-viral activities. {yields} Inhibition of mTOR pathway is an important mechanism of induction of autophagy by PGG. -- Abstract: Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity, however, the mechanisms underlying anti-viral activity remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGG on anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) associated with autophagy. We found that the PGG anti-HSV-1 activity was impaired significantly in MEF-atg7{sup -/-} cells (autophagy-defective cells) derived from an atg7{sup -/-} knockout mouse. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that PGG-induced autophagosomes engulfed HSV-1 virions. The mTOR signaling pathway, an essential pathway for the regulation of autophagy, was found to be suppressed following PGG treatment. Data presented in this report demonstrated for the first time that autophagy induced following PGG treatment contributed to its anti-HSV activity in vitro.

  3. Vesical Artery Embolization in Haemorrhagic Cystitis in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gámez, Andrés, E-mail: agargamez@gmail.com; Bermúdez Bencerrey, Patricia, E-mail: PBERMUDE@clinic.ub.es [Hospital Clinic (Spain); Brio-Sanagustin, Sonia, E-mail: sbrio@santpau.cat [Hospital de la Santa Creu y Sant Pau (Spain); Guerrero Vara, Rubén, E-mail: rguerrerov@santpau.cat [Hospital Clinic (Spain); Sisinni, Luisa, E-mail: lsisinni@santpau.cat [Hospital de la Santa Creu y Sant Pau (Spain); Stuart, Sam, E-mail: sam.stuart@gosh.nhs.uk; Roebuck, Derek, E-mail: Derek.Roebuck@gosh.nhs.uk [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom); Gómez Muñoz, Fernando, E-mail: FEGOMEZ@clinic.ub.es [Hospital Clinic (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Haemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon and, in its severe form, potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or cancer therapy in children. The severe form involves macroscopic haematuria with blood clots, urinary obstruction and/or renal impairment. There are many therapeutic options to treat acute haemorrhage, but only recombinant factor VII has a high level of clinical evidence in children. Supraselective vesical artery embolization (SVAE) is an increasingly used therapeutic procedure for controlling haemorrhage in adults, but is less commonly used in children. This might be due to several factors, such as the invasive nature of the procedure, lack of appropriate medical experience and possible long-term side effects. We present three cases of children successfully treated by means of effective SVAE.

  4. Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers: A threat to Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katendi Changula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo, which have recorded major outbreaks, as well as the open borders, increased trade and annual migration of bats between these countries, puts Zambia at present and increased risk. Previous studies have indicated bats as potential reservoir hosts for filoviruses. An increasing population with an increasing demand for resources has forced incursion into previously uninhabited land, potentially bringing them into contact with unknown pathogens, reservoir hosts and/or amplifying hosts. The recent discovery of a novel arenavirus, Lujo, highlights the potential that every region, including Zambia, has for being the epicentre or primary focus for emerging and re-emerging infections. It is therefore imperative that surveillance for potential emerging infections, such as viral haemorrhagic fevers be instituted. In order to accomplish this surveillance, rapid detection, identification and monitoring of agents in patients and potential reservoirs is needed. International co-operation is the strategy of choice for the surveillance and fight against emerging infections. Due to the extensive area in which filoviral infections can occur, a regional approach to surveillance activities is required, with regional referral centres. There is a need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. There is also need for optimisation of currently available tests and development of new diagnostic tests, in order to have robust, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that can be used even where there are inadequate laboratories and diagnostic services.

  5. A systematic review of viral infections associated with oral involvement in cancer patients : a spotlight on Herpesviridea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elad, Sharon; Zadik, Yehuda; Hewson, Ian; Hovan, Allan; Correa, M. Elvira P.; Logan, Richard; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    Our aim was to evaluate the literature for the prevalence of and interventions for oral viral infections and, based on scientific evidence, point to effective treatment protocols. Quality of life (QOL) and economic impact were assessed if available in the articles reviewed. Our search of the English

  6. Mutational analysis of the hypervariable region of hepatitis e virus reveals its involvement in the efficiency of viral RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudupakam, R S; Kenney, Scott P; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Leroith, Tanya; Pierson, F William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-10-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication levels of the HVR deletion mutants were markedly reduced in Huh7 cells, suggesting a role of the HVR in viral replication efficiency. To further verify the results, we constructed HVR deletion mutants by using a genetically divergent, nonmammalian avian HEV, and similar effects on viral replication efficiency were observed when the avian HEV mutants were tested in LMH cells. Furthermore, the impact of complete HVR deletion on virus infectivity was tested in chickens, using an avian HEV mutant with a complete HVR deletion. Although the deletion mutant was still replication competent in LMH cells, the complete HVR deletion resulted in a loss of avian HEV infectivity in chickens. Since the HVR exhibits extensive variations in sequence and length among different HEV genotypes, we further examined the interchangeability of HVRs and demonstrated that HVR sequences are functionally exchangeable between HEV genotypes with regard to viral replication and infectivity in vitro, although genotype-specific HVR differences in replication efficiency were observed. The results showed that although the HVR tolerates small deletions with regard to infectivity, it may interact with viral and host factors to modulate the efficiency of HEV replication.

  7. Impaired endothelial function after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage correlates with arginine:asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A; Staalsø, J M; Romner, B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction might be involved in the development of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: This prospective observational study of 48 SAH subjects and 23 control subjects examined associations between reactive hyperaemia index (RHI...

  8. Intracranial haemorrhage: an incidental finding at magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of late preterm and term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirgiovanni, Ida; Groppo, Michela; Bassi, Laura; Passera, Sofia; Schiavolin, Paola; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Clinical Science and Community Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Italy); Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia; Triulzi, Fabio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Neuroradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Italy); Lista, Gianluca [V. Buzzi Children' s Hospital, ICP, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in term newborns has been increasingly recognised but the occurrence in late preterm infants and the clinical presentation are still unclear. To investigate the appearance of intracranial haemorrhage at MRI in a cohort of infants born at 34 weeks' gestation or more and to correlate MRI findings with neonatal symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed neonatal brain MRI scans performed during a 3-year period. We included neonates ≥34 weeks' gestation with intracranial haemorrhage and compared findings with those in babies without intracranial haemorrhage. Babies were classified into three groups according to haemorrhage location: (1) infratentorial, (2) infra- and supratentorial, (3) infra- and supratentorial + parenchymal involvement. Intracranial haemorrhage was observed in 36/240 babies (15%). All of these 36 had subdural haemorrhage. Sixteen babies were included in group 1; 16 in group 2; 4 in group 3. All infants in groups 1 and 2 were asymptomatic except one who was affected by intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3. Among the infants in group 3, who had intracranial haemorrhage with parenchymal involvement, three of the four (75%) presented with acute neurological symptoms. Uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery was reported in 20/36 neonates (56%), vacuum extraction in 4 (11%) and caesarean section in 12 (33%). Babies with intracranial haemorrhage had significantly higher gestational age (38 ± 2 weeks vs. 37 ± 2 weeks) and birth weight (3,097 ± 485 g vs. 2,803 ± 741 g) compared to babies without intracranial haemorrhage and were more likely to be delivered vaginally than by caesarian section. Mild intracranial haemorrhage (groups 1 and 2) is relatively common in late preterm and term infants, although it mostly represents an incidental finding in clinically asymptomatic babies; early neurological symptoms appear to be related to parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  9. Intracranial haemorrhage: an incidental finding at magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of late preterm and term infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirgiovanni, Ida; Groppo, Michela; Bassi, Laura; Passera, Sofia; Schiavolin, Paola; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia; Triulzi, Fabio; Lista, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in term newborns has been increasingly recognised but the occurrence in late preterm infants and the clinical presentation are still unclear. To investigate the appearance of intracranial haemorrhage at MRI in a cohort of infants born at 34 weeks' gestation or more and to correlate MRI findings with neonatal symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed neonatal brain MRI scans performed during a 3-year period. We included neonates ≥34 weeks' gestation with intracranial haemorrhage and compared findings with those in babies without intracranial haemorrhage. Babies were classified into three groups according to haemorrhage location: (1) infratentorial, (2) infra- and supratentorial, (3) infra- and supratentorial + parenchymal involvement. Intracranial haemorrhage was observed in 36/240 babies (15%). All of these 36 had subdural haemorrhage. Sixteen babies were included in group 1; 16 in group 2; 4 in group 3. All infants in groups 1 and 2 were asymptomatic except one who was affected by intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3. Among the infants in group 3, who had intracranial haemorrhage with parenchymal involvement, three of the four (75%) presented with acute neurological symptoms. Uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery was reported in 20/36 neonates (56%), vacuum extraction in 4 (11%) and caesarean section in 12 (33%). Babies with intracranial haemorrhage had significantly higher gestational age (38 ± 2 weeks vs. 37 ± 2 weeks) and birth weight (3,097 ± 485 g vs. 2,803 ± 741 g) compared to babies without intracranial haemorrhage and were more likely to be delivered vaginally than by caesarian section. Mild intracranial haemorrhage (groups 1 and 2) is relatively common in late preterm and term infants, although it mostly represents an incidental finding in clinically asymptomatic babies; early neurological symptoms appear to be related to parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  10. Rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of equine infectious anemia viral antigen and antibodies: parameters involved in standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horenstein, A.L.; Feinstein, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-phase radioimmunoassays (SPRIA) are described for the detection of equine infectious anemia (EIA) viral antigen and antibodies. Protein-antigen P29 currently used in the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was used as antigen in the SPRIA. The specificity of the reaction was assessed by inhibition with the antigen. The reaction of immune serum against EIA-virus antigen adsorbed to the wells, was completely inhibited by the antigen in solution. This property was applied in an indirect competitive SPRIA for the detection of viral protein P29. The detection threshold of the SPRIA for EIA virus protein was about 5 ng and about 1 ng of antibody can be detected. The assay is rapid, specific and sensitive and allows the testing of multiple serum samples with the advantage of employing a single secondary labelled antibody. (orig.)

  11. Genome-wide analysis of protein-protein interactions and involvement of viral proteins in SARS-CoV replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji'an Pan

    Full Text Available Analyses of viral protein-protein interactions are an important step to understand viral protein functions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we adopted a mammalian two-hybrid system to screen the genome-wide intraviral protein-protein interactions of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV and therefrom revealed a number of novel interactions which could be partly confirmed by in vitro biochemical assays. Three pairs of the interactions identified were detected in both directions: non-structural protein (nsp 10 and nsp14, nsp10 and nsp16, and nsp7 and nsp8. The interactions between the multifunctional nsp10 and nsp14 or nsp16, which are the unique proteins found in the members of Nidovirales with large RNA genomes including coronaviruses and toroviruses, may have important implication for the mechanisms of replication/transcription complex assembly and functions of these viruses. Using a SARS-CoV replicon expressing a luciferase reporter under the control of a transcription regulating sequence, it has been shown that several viral proteins (N, X and SUD domains of nsp3, and nsp12 provided in trans stimulated the replicon reporter activity, indicating that these proteins may regulate coronavirus replication and transcription. Collectively, our findings provide a basis and platform for further characterization of the functions and mechanisms of coronavirus proteins.

  12. A Case of Haemorrhagic Constrictive Pericarditis with Bilateral Pleural Effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans A. Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of pericardial disease is diverse, with the viral aetiology being the most common cause; however, when haemorrhagic pericardial effusion is present, these causes are narrowed to few aetiologies. We present a case of a young female of African descent who presented with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting. Initial work-up showed pericardial effusion with impending echocardiographic findings of cardiac tamponade and bilateral pleural effusions. Procedures included a left video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS with pericardial window. We consider that it is important for all physicians to be aware of not only typical presentation but also atypical and unusual clinical picture of pericardial disease.

  13. Prenatal MR imaging features of isolated cerebellar haemorrhagic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, Francesca; Malova, Mariya; Ramenghi, Luca A.; Cesaretti, Claudia; Parazzini, Cecilia; Doneda, Chiara; Righini, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal features of isolated cerebellar haemorrhagic lesions have not been sufficiently characterised. We aimed to better define their MR imaging characteristics, documenting the location, extension, evolution stage and anatomic sequelae, and to better understand cerebellar haemorrhage pathophysiology. We screened our foetal MR imaging database (3200 cases) for reports of haemorrhagic lesions affecting only the cerebellum (without any supratentorial bleeding or other clastic lesions), defined as one of the following: T2-weighted hypointense or mixed hypo-/hyperintense signal; rim of T2-weighted hypointense signal covering the surface of volume-reduced parenchyma; T1-weighted hyperintense signal; increased DWI signal. Seventeen cases corresponded to the selection criteria. All lesions occurred before the 26th week of gestation, with prevalent origin from the peripheral-caudal portion of the hemispheres and equal frequency of unilateral/bilateral involvement. The caudal vermis appeared affected in 2/3 of cases, not in all cases confirmed postnatally. Lesions evolved towards malformed cerebellar foliation. The aetiology and pathophysiology were unknown, although in a subset of cases intra- and extracranial venous engorgement seemed to play a key role. Onset from the peripheral and caudal portion of the hemispheres seems characteristic of prenatal cerebellar haemorrhagic lesions. Elective involvement of the peripheral germinal matrix is hypothesised. (orig.)

  14. DNA-Binding Properties of African Swine Fever Virus pA104R, a Histone-Like Protein Involved in Viral Replication and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouco, Gonçalo; Freitas, Ferdinando B; Coelho, João; Leitão, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2017-06-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) codes for a putative histone-like protein (pA104R) with extensive sequence homology to bacterial proteins that are implicated in genome replication and packaging. Functional characterization of purified recombinant pA104R revealed that it binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) over a wide range of temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations and in an ATP-independent manner, with an estimated binding site size of about 14 to 16 nucleotides. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the arginine located in pA104R's DNA-binding domain, at position 69, was found to be relevant for efficient DNA-binding activity. Together, pA104R and ASFV topoisomerase II (pP1192R) display DNA-supercoiling activity, although none of the proteins by themselves do, indicating that the two cooperate in this process. In ASFV-infected cells, A104R transcripts were detected from 2 h postinfection (hpi) onward, reaching a maximum concentration around 16 hpi. pA104R was detected from 12 hpi onward, localizing with viral DNA replication sites and being found exclusively in the Triton-insoluble fraction. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown experiments revealed that pA104R plays a critical role in viral DNA replication and gene expression, with transfected cells showing lower viral progeny numbers (up to a reduction of 82.0%), lower copy numbers of viral genomes (-78.3%), and reduced transcription of a late viral gene (-47.6%). Taken together, our results strongly suggest that pA104R participates in the modulation of viral DNA topology, probably being involved in viral DNA replication, transcription, and packaging, emphasizing that ASFV mutants lacking the A104R gene could be used as a strategy to develop a vaccine against ASFV. IMPORTANCE Recently reintroduced in Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal disease in domestic pigs, causing high economic losses in affected countries, as no vaccine or treatment is currently

  15. Intracerebral haemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Boesen, J

    1987-01-01

    Among 662 consecutive carotid endarterectomies eight cases of postoperative ipsilateral intracerebral haemorrhage were identified, occurring into brain areas which, preoperatively were without infarction. As blood pressures across the stenosis were routinely measured during surgery, the internal...... to their haemorrhage. All eight patients had a high grade of ICA stenosis and a marked reduction of ICA perfusion pressure (average of 40%) which was significantly greater than that observed (average of 6%) in the other patients undergoing carotid surgery (P less than 0.0001). Relative hyperperfusion...... of the ipsilateral hemisphere was seen in the four patients studied postoperatively. In at least two cases the haematoma was preceded by an asymptomatic postoperative ischaemic infarct. Histologic examination did not confirm previous findings of changes resembling those seen in malignant hypertensive encephalopathy...

  16. Pulmonary haemorrhage and nephritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-30

    Apr 30, 1983 ... friction rub in this area and extensive bilateral coarse crackles. The venous pressure was normal. Heart sounds were inaudible. On examination of the .... protein loss than reported there were no initial clues to the nature and extent of renal involvement. At this stage the patient therefore appeared to have ...

  17. Viral hemagglutinin is involved in promoting the internalisation of Staphylococcus aureus into human pneumocytes during influenza A H1N1 virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Claudio; Nencioni, Lucia; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Ranieri, Danilo; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Ripa, Sandro; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2011-02-01

    Secondary pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus is reemerging as a primary cause of excess mortality associated with infection by the influenza A virus. We have investigated in vitro the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this synergism. Experimental data show a significant increase in the efficiency of internalisation of S. aureus into cultured pneumocytes during the early phases of viral infection, while a relevant increase in the efficiency of adhesion is evident only later during viral infection, suggesting that the 2 effects are based on different molecular mechanisms. Data reported in this paper show that S. aureus cells can bind the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and that this binding promotes enhanced bacterial internalisation by 2 mechanisms: binding to HA exposed at the surface of infected cells and binding to free extracellular virions, enabling internalisation at high efficiency also in cells that are not infected by the virus. The affinity of binding that involves S. aureus and HA was shown to be enhanced by the reducing extracellular environment that the virus can generate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WHO tube assays was used to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes mosquitoes. Results: Ae. aegypti were the most prevalent species, 75.5% and followed by Ae. vittatus, 23.9 %. Ae. albopictus and Ae. granti were in smaller numbers. Household index (HI), Breteau index (BI), and container index were ...

  19. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N. J.; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, B. B.

    2013-01-01

    regulations and ban on introduction of live salmonids into the country VHSV seemed to have crossed the boarders into Denmark in a couple of cases. It is the first time that VHS has been eradicated from an endemically infected country. Among the causes of the success are a close collaboration between industry...

  20. Review of Lassa fever, an emerging old world haemorrhagic viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 4 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Evolution of the fish rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Ahrens, Peter; Forsberg, Roald

    2004-01-01

    of free-living marine fish species. To study the genetic evolution of VHSV, the entire G gene from 74 isolates was analysed. VHSV from wild marine species caught in the Baltic Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, North Sea, and English Channel and European freshwater isolates, appeared to share a recent common...... ancestor. Based on the estimated nucleotide substitution rate, the ancestor of the European fresh water isolates was dated some 50 years ago. This finding fits with the initial reports in the 1950s on clinical observations of VHS in Danish freshwater rainbow trout farms. The study also indicates...

  2. [Massive alveolar haemorrhage in Wegener's granulomatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Roldán, J; Nuñez-Castillo, D; Fernández-Fígares, C; López-Leiva, I

    2014-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic vasculitis with involvement of primary granulomatous upper and lower respiratory tract, glomerulonephritis and vasculitis of small vessels. The lung disease ranges from asymptomatic pulmonary nodules to pulmonary infiltrates and fulminant alveolar haemorrhage. The prognosis is poor due to kidney and respiratory failure, although the data are changing due to new treatments with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide. We report a case with severe lung disease, which after appropriate anamnesis, multiple tests, and optimal sequential action, the patient was diagnosed with Wegener's granulomatosis. This disease has a low incidence in the Emergency Department, where the patient history supported by the appropriate additional provides a diagnostic suspicion. It is important that the Emergency Department has the skills to manage the stability in these patients in order to resolve their symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular manifestations of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Manikandan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH is one of the devastating conditions, especially the aneurysmal bleed which has high mortality as well as morbidity. The mortality and morbidity caused by SAH have been recognised to be caused by both neurological and systemic causes. The alterations in systemic and other organ damage could cause death in up to 40% of SAH patients. Among the systemic manifestations, cardiovascular and respiratory complications increase hospitalisation and worsen the outcome. The main pathophysiological mechanism is the increased sympathetic activation causing myocardial necrosis. Various cardiovascular manifestations range from electrocardiogram changes to myocardial ischaemia, cardiac failure and arrhythmias. This review deals with the cardiac manifestations in SAH patients.

  4. Hepatitis C in haemorrhagic obstetrical emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.; Baloch, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the maternal health and fetal outcome in hepatitis C with obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit-I, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital, Hyderabad, Sindh, from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All the women admitted during the study period with different obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies were included. On virology screening, hepatitis C screening was done on all. The women with non-haemorrhagic obstetrical emergencies were excluded. Studied variables included demographic characteristics, the nature of obstetrical emergency, haemorrhagic conditions and maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: More frequent obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies were observed with hepatitis C positive in comparison with hepatitis C negative cases including post-partum haemorrhage in 292 (80.88%) and ante-partum haemorrhage in 69 (19.11%) cases. Associated morbidities seen were disseminated intravascular coagulation in 43 (11.91%) and shock in 29 (8.03%) cases with hepatitis C positive. Fetal still birth rate was 37 (10.24%) in hepatitis C positive cases. Conclusion: Frequency of maternal morbidity and mortality and perinatal mortality was high in obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies with hepatitis C positive cases. (author)

  5. Ultrasonically detectable cerebellar haemorrhage in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa Kenyon

    2011-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ≤32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).

  6. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  7. Quantitative Trait Locus Based Virulence Determinant Mapping of the HSV-1 Genome in Murine Ocular Infection: Genes Involved in Viral Regulatory and Innate Immune Networks Contribute to Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 causes mucocutaneous lesions, and is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the United States. Animal studies have shown that the severity of HSV-1 ocular disease is influenced by three main factors; innate immunity, host immune response and viral strain. We previously showed that mixed infection with two avirulent HSV-1 strains (OD4 and CJ994 resulted in recombinants that exhibit a range of disease phenotypes from severe to avirulent, suggesting epistatic interactions were involved. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of HSV-1 ocular virulence determinants and to identify virulence associated SNPs. Blepharitis and stromal keratitis quantitative scores were characterized for 40 OD4:CJ994 recombinants. Viral titers in the eye were also measured. Virulence quantitative trait locus mapping (vQTLmap was performed using the Lasso, Random Forest, and Ridge regression methods to identify significant phenotypically meaningful regions for each ocular disease parameter. The most predictive Ridge regression model identified several phenotypically meaningful SNPs for blepharitis and stromal keratitis. Notably, phenotypically meaningful nonsynonymous variations were detected in the UL24, UL29 (ICP8, UL41 (VHS, UL53 (gK, UL54 (ICP27, UL56, ICP4, US1 (ICP22, US3 and gG genes. Network analysis revealed that many of these variations were in HSV-1 regulatory networks and viral genes that affect innate immunity. Several genes previously implicated in virulence were identified, validating this approach, while other genes were novel. Several novel polymorphisms were also identified in these genes. This approach provides a framework that will be useful for identifying virulence genes in other pathogenic viruses, as well as epistatic effects that affect HSV-1 ocular virulence.

  8. Involvement of viral envelope GP2 in Ebola virus entry into cells expressing the macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Katsuaki; Matsuno, Keita; Igarashi, Manabu; Denda-Nagai, Kaori; Takada, Ayato; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ebola virus infection is mediated by binding to and fusion with the target cells. → Structural feature of the viral glycoprotein determines the infectivity. → Surface C-type lectin, MGL, of macrophages and dendritic cells mediate the infection. → GP2, one of glycoprotein subunits, plays an essential role in MGL-mediated infection. → There is a critical amino acid residue involved in high infectivity. -- Abstract: Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is initiated by the interaction of the viral surface envelope glycoprotein (GP) with the binding sites on target cells. Differences in the mortality among different species of the Ebola viruses, i.e., Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), correspond to the in vitro infectivity of the pseudo-typed virus constructed with the GPs in cells expressing macrophage galactose-type calcium-type lectin (MGL/CD301). Through mutagenesis of GP2, the transmembrane-anchored subunit of GP, we found that residues 502-527 of the GP2 sequence determined the different infectivity between VSV-ZEBOV GP and -REBOV GP in MGL/CD301-expressing cells and a histidine residue at position 516 of ZEBOV GP2 appeared essential in the differential infectivity. These findings may provide a clue to clarify a molecular basis of different pathogenicity among EBOV species.

  9. Involvement of viral envelope GP2 in Ebola virus entry into cells expressing the macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Katsuaki [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuno, Keita; Igarashi, Manabu [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); Denda-Nagai, Kaori [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takada, Ayato [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); Irimura, Tatsuro, E-mail: irimura@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} Ebola virus infection is mediated by binding to and fusion with the target cells. {yields} Structural feature of the viral glycoprotein determines the infectivity. {yields} Surface C-type lectin, MGL, of macrophages and dendritic cells mediate the infection. {yields} GP2, one of glycoprotein subunits, plays an essential role in MGL-mediated infection. {yields} There is a critical amino acid residue involved in high infectivity. -- Abstract: Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is initiated by the interaction of the viral surface envelope glycoprotein (GP) with the binding sites on target cells. Differences in the mortality among different species of the Ebola viruses, i.e., Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), correspond to the in vitro infectivity of the pseudo-typed virus constructed with the GPs in cells expressing macrophage galactose-type calcium-type lectin (MGL/CD301). Through mutagenesis of GP2, the transmembrane-anchored subunit of GP, we found that residues 502-527 of the GP2 sequence determined the different infectivity between VSV-ZEBOV GP and -REBOV GP in MGL/CD301-expressing cells and a histidine residue at position 516 of ZEBOV GP2 appeared essential in the differential infectivity. These findings may provide a clue to clarify a molecular basis of different pathogenicity among EBOV species.

  10. Genetics of susceptibility for radiation-induced leukemia. Mapping of genes involved to chromosomes 1, 2, and 4, and implications for a viral etiology in the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meruelo, D.; Offer, M.; Flieger, N.

    1981-01-01

    Susceptibility to radiation-induced leukemia in (A/J x B10)F2 mice is encoded for by genes in chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. The loci involved in chromosomes 1 and 4 are close to or similar to xenotropic virus inducibility locus on chromosome 1 and a locus-affecting expression of xenotropic MuLV envelope-related cell surface antigens. Radiation-induced leukemia-1 (Ril-1) on chromosome 2 plays an overriding influence in susceptibility to the disease. This locus might encode ecotropic viral-associated genetic information or might contain cellular sequences with oncogenic potential. These findings are of interest in view of the importance of recombinant viruses to leukemogenesis. Furthermore, it is intriguing that Ril-1 is located in a chromosomal site rich in thymus differentiation-specific loci. An explanation for tissue-specific activation of endogenous viruses is that activation of the virus in question is dependent on differentiation-specific steps

  11. Clinical practice guidelines in intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Yáñez, M; Castellanos, M; Freijo, M M; López Fernández, J C; Martí-Fàbregas, J; Nombela, F; Simal, P; Castillo, J; Díez-Tejedor, E; Fuentes, B; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Alvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Casado, I; Dávalos, A; Díaz-Otero, F; Egido, J A; Gállego, J; García Pastor, A; Gil-Núñez, A; Gilo, F; Irimia, P; Lago, A; Maestre, J; Masjuan, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Martínez-Vila, E; Molina, C; Morales, A; Purroy, F; Ribó, M; Roquer, J; Rubio, F; Segura, T; Serena, J; Tejada, J; Vivancos, J

    2013-05-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage accounts for 10%-15% of all strokes; however it has a poor prognosis with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Neurological deterioration is often observed during the first hours after onset and determines poor prognosis. Intracerebral haemorrhage, therefore, is a neurological emergency which must be diagnosed and treated properly as soon as possible. In this guide we review the diagnostic procedures and factors that influence the prognosis of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and we establish recommendations for the therapeutic strategy, systematic diagnosis, acute treatment and secondary prevention for this condition. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. The X gene of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is involved in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maohua; You, Hong; Hermonat, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) (type 2) is a popular human gene therapy vector with a long active transgene expression period and no reported vector-induced adverse reactions. Yet the basic molecular biology of this virus has not been fully addressed. One potential gene at the far 3' end of the AAV2 genome, previously referred to as X (nt 3929 to 4393), overlapping the 3' end of the cap gene, has never been characterized, although we did previously identify a promoter just up-stream (p81). Computer analysis suggested that X was involved in replication and transcription. The X protein was identified during active AAV2 replication using a polyclonal antibody against a peptide starting at amino acid 98. Reagents for the study of X included an AAV2 deletion mutant (dl78-91), a triple nucleotide substitution mutant that destroys all three 5' AUG-initiation products of X, with no effect on the cap coding sequence, and X-positive-293 cell lines. Here, we found that X up-regulated AAV2 DNA replication in differentiating keratinocytes (without helper virus, autonomous replication) and in various forms of 293 cell-based assays with help from wild type adenovirus type 5 (wt Ad5) or Ad5 helper plasmid (pHelper). The strongest contribution by X was seen in increasing wt AAV2 DNA replication in keratinocytes and dl78-91 in Ad5-infected X-positive-293 cell lines (both having multi-fold effects). Mutating the X gene in pAAV-RC (pAAV-RC-3Xneg) yielded approximately a ∼33% reduction in recombinant AAV vector DNA replication and virion production, but a larger effect was seen when using this same X-knockout AAV helper plasmid in X-positive-293 cell lines versus normal 293 cells (again, multi-fold). Taken together these data strongly suggest that AAV2 X encodes a protein involved in the AAV life cycle, particularly in increasing AAV2 DNA replication, and suggests that further studies are warranted.

  13. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Haemorrhage and hemicraniectomy: refining surgery for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösel, Julian; Zweckberger, Klaus; Hacke, Werner

    2015-02-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage is a devastating cerebrovascular disease with no established treatment. Its course is often complicated by secondary haematoma expansion and perihemorrhagic oedema. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is effective in the treatment of space-occupying hemispheric ischaemic stroke. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of decompressive hemicraniectomy in intracerebral haemorrhage. After few small previous studies had suggested advantages by the combination of decompressive hemicraniectomy with haematoma removal, decompression on its own has been investigated within the last 5 years. Two case series and one case-control study in altogether 40 patients with severe spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage have shown mortality rates ranging from 13 to 25% and favourable outcome from 40 to 65%. Decompressive hemicraniectomy appears to be a feasible and relatively well tolerated individual treatment option for selected patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. Data are insufficient to judge potential benefits in outcome. A randomized trial is justified and mandatory.

  15. Calcium antagonists for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout Mees, S. M.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Feigin, V. L.; Algra, A.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Vermeulen, M.; van Gijn, J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary ischaemia is a frequent cause of poor outcome in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Its pathogenesis has been incompletely elucidated, but vasospasm probably is a contributing factor. Experimental studies have suggested that calcium antagonists can prevent or reverse

  16. Clinical features of Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber disease (ROW), is an autosomal dominant disease with multi-systemic vascular dysplasia characterized by mucocutaneous telangiectasia, arteriovenous malformations and recurrent spontaneous epistaxis (nosebleeds). Most cases

  17. European research priorities for intracerebral haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time...... and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH....

  18. Classification of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: CT correlation to the clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.; Kunz, A.B.; Kieslinger, K.; Ladurner, G.; Killer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To propose a new computed tomography (CT)-based classification system for non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), which predicts patients' discharge clinical outcome and helps to prioritize appropriate patient management. Methods and materials: A 5-year, retrospective, two-centre study was carried out involving 1486 patients presenting with SAH. One hundred and ninety patients with non-aneurysmal SAH were included in the study. Initial cranial CT findings at admission were correlated with the patients' discharge outcomes measured using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS). A CT-based classification system (type 1-4) was devised based on the topography of the initial haemorrhage pattern. Results: Seventy-five percent of the patients had type 1 haemorrhage and all these patients had a good clinical outcome with a discharge MRS of ≤1. Eight percent of the patients presented with type 2 haemorrhage, 62% of which were discharged with MRS of ≤1 and 12% of patients had MRS 3 or 4. Type 3 haemorrhage was found in 10%, of which 16% had good clinical outcome, but 53% had moderate to severe disability (MRS 3 and 4) and 5% were discharged with severe disability (MRS 5). Six percent of patients presented with type 4 haemorrhage of which 42% of the patients had moderate to severe disability (MRS 3 and 4), 42% had severe disability and one-sixth of the patients died. Highly significant differences were found between type 1(1a and 1b) and type 2 (p = 0.003); type 2 and type 3 (p = 0.002); type 3 and type 4 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Haemorrhages of the type 1 category are usually benign and do not warrant an extensive battery of clinical and radiological investigations. Type 2 haemorrhages have a varying prognosis and need to be investigated and managed along similar lines as that of an aneurysmal haemorrhage with emphasis towards radiological investigation. Type 3 and type 4 haemorrhages need to be extensively investigated to find an underlying cause.

  19. Classification of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: CT correlation to the clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S., E-mail: sanjeevnayak@hotmail.co [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Princes Road, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, ST4 7LN (United Kingdom); Kunz, A.B.; Kieslinger, K. [University Clinic of Neurology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg (Austria); Ladurner, G.; Killer, M. [University Clinic of Neurology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg (Austria); Neuroscience Institute, Christian Doppler Clinic, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    Aim: To propose a new computed tomography (CT)-based classification system for non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), which predicts patients' discharge clinical outcome and helps to prioritize appropriate patient management. Methods and materials: A 5-year, retrospective, two-centre study was carried out involving 1486 patients presenting with SAH. One hundred and ninety patients with non-aneurysmal SAH were included in the study. Initial cranial CT findings at admission were correlated with the patients' discharge outcomes measured using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS). A CT-based classification system (type 1-4) was devised based on the topography of the initial haemorrhage pattern. Results: Seventy-five percent of the patients had type 1 haemorrhage and all these patients had a good clinical outcome with a discharge MRS of {<=}1. Eight percent of the patients presented with type 2 haemorrhage, 62% of which were discharged with MRS of {<=}1 and 12% of patients had MRS 3 or 4. Type 3 haemorrhage was found in 10%, of which 16% had good clinical outcome, but 53% had moderate to severe disability (MRS 3 and 4) and 5% were discharged with severe disability (MRS 5). Six percent of patients presented with type 4 haemorrhage of which 42% of the patients had moderate to severe disability (MRS 3 and 4), 42% had severe disability and one-sixth of the patients died. Highly significant differences were found between type 1(1a and 1b) and type 2 (p = 0.003); type 2 and type 3 (p = 0.002); type 3 and type 4 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Haemorrhages of the type 1 category are usually benign and do not warrant an extensive battery of clinical and radiological investigations. Type 2 haemorrhages have a varying prognosis and need to be investigated and managed along similar lines as that of an aneurysmal haemorrhage with emphasis towards radiological investigation. Type 3 and type 4 haemorrhages need to be extensively investigated to find an underlying cause.

  20. Viral Polymerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung H.

    2016-01-01

    Viral polymerases play a central role in viral genome replication and transcription. Based on the genome type and the specific needs of particular virus, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are found in various viruses. Viral polymerases are generally active as a single protein capable of carrying out multiple functions related to viral genome synthesis. Specifically, viral polymerases use variety of mechanisms to recognize initial binding sites, ensure processive elongation, terminate replication at the end of the genome, and also coordinate the chemical steps of nucleic acid synthesis with other enzymatic activities. This review focuses on different viral genome replication and transcription strategies, and the polymerase interactions with various viral proteins that are necessary to complete genome synthesis. PMID:22297518

  1. The role of fibrinogen and haemostatic assessment in postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Anne Juul

    2015-01-01

    subpopulation. Viscoelastic haemostatic assay guided transfusion algorithm reduced blood loss and the proportion of patients exposed to fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or platelets. In both studies, we were unable to make firm conclusion on our primary outcome, "all cause mortality" due to lack of adequate data...... describes the protocol for a RCT of early fibrinogen supplementation in women with severe postpartum haemorrhage. Several practical, ethical and trial management challenges need to be addressed when conducting independent clinical research involving parturients with severe bleeding, placebo...

  2. Emergency percutaneous transcatheter embolisation of acute arterial haemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, A N

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review indications, source of haemorrhage, method of embolisation and clinical outcome in patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the emergency management of acute arterial haemorrhage.

  3. Aetiology and treatment of severe postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen

    2017-01-01

    delivery. Occurrence and development of PPH are, however, unpredictable and can sometimes give rise to massive haemorrhage or even hysterectomy and maternal death. Severe haemorrhage can lead to coagulopathy causing further haemorrhage and requiring substitution with blood transfusions. The aim...... of this thesis was to investigate causes of severe PPH and investigate methods of early prevention. The first study was a randomised controlled double-blinded trial investigating the effect of treatment with pre-emptive fibrinogen on women with severe PPH. The primary outcome was the need for red blood cell...... had a cardiac arrest, and a total of 128 women (52%) required a hysterectomy. Hysterectomy was associated with increased blood loss, increased number of blood transfusions, a higher fresh frozen plasma to red blood cell ratio (p=0.010), and an increased number of red blood cells before first platelet...

  4. Intrapituitary fluid levels following haemorrhage: MRI appearances in 13 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenthall, R.K.; Dean, J.R.; Jeffree, M.A.; Bartlett, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstration of fluid levels on MRI is well recognised in cerebral haematomas, tumours and cysts. The occurrence of fluid levels within haemorrhagic pituitary tumours has not previously been described in detail. Evidence of haemorrhage was identified in 27 of 125 pituitary tumours. Fluid levels occurred in 13 of these haemorrhagic tumours. No association with histological type was identified. Recognised risk factors for haemorrhage were identified in half of the cases. (orig.) (orig.)

  5. Haemorrhagic shock due to spontaneous splenic haemorrhage complicating antiplatelet therapy: endovascular management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garge S Shaileshkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous splenic haemorrahge and rupture is a rare but life-threatening condition requiring urgent diagnosis and treatment. Splenic haemorrhage and rupture precipitated by thrombolytic or antiocoagulant therapy has been reported frequently in the literature, but only two cases due to ticlopidine and one case due to salicyclate have been reported. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with haemorrhagic shock due to spontaneous splenic haemorrhage and rupture following dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel therapy. He was successfully treated with selective angioembolization of the bleeding branch of the splenic artery.

  6. Pontine haemorrhage disguised as Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadan, Ummer; Manappallil, Robin George; Jayakrishnan, Chellenton; Supreeth, Ramesh Naga

    2018-02-05

    Isolated facial nerve palsy is a common presentation of Bell's palsy, but rarely seen in pontine lesions. The patient being reported is a middle-aged man who developed isolated facial nerve palsy and was initially treated as Bell's palsy. However, on MRI of the brain, he was found to have pontine haemorrhage. He was managed conservatively and improved. Pontine haemorrhage as an aetiology for isolated facial nerve palsy is a rare scenario, which often goes misdiagnosed and treated as Bell's palsy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Calcific haemorrhagic bursitis anterior to the knee mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahnke, M.; Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Woodlands, B31 2AP, Northfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mangham, D.C. [Department of Pathology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Woodlands, B31 2AP, Northfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    We describe the radiological and pathological findings of two cases of calcific haemorrhagic bursitis, one involving the superficial infrapatellar bursa and the other the prepatellar bursa. It was the presence of dystrophic calcification within the lesion that suggested a mineralizing soft tissue sarcoma such as synovial sarcoma. As the radiographic and MR features of the two conditions can be similar but the appropriate management very different, rare calcifying haemorrhagic bursitis needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of masses adjacent to the knee joint showing calcification. (orig.)

  8. Calcific haemorrhagic bursitis anterior to the knee mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahnke, M.; Davies, A.M.; Mangham, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the radiological and pathological findings of two cases of calcific haemorrhagic bursitis, one involving the superficial infrapatellar bursa and the other the prepatellar bursa. It was the presence of dystrophic calcification within the lesion that suggested a mineralizing soft tissue sarcoma such as synovial sarcoma. As the radiographic and MR features of the two conditions can be similar but the appropriate management very different, rare calcifying haemorrhagic bursitis needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of masses adjacent to the knee joint showing calcification. (orig.)

  9. Severe acute haemorrhagic liver failure in a neonate with a favourable spontaneous outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavet, Madeleine; Balu, Marie; Garel, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris VI, Service de Radiologie, Hopital d' enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Mitanchez, Delphine; Alexandre, Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris VI, Service de Neonatologie, Hopital d' enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Renolleau, Sylvain [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris VI, Service de Reanimation, Hopital d' enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Pariente, Daniele [Hopital de Bicetre, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    Acute liver failure in neonates is rare and is frequently associated with an unfavourable outcome. There is no curative treatment other than liver transplantation. Screening for viral, metabolic, toxic or vascular disease is essential to assess the prognosis and to guide specific treatment. Hepatic haemorrhage in neonates is often associated with bacterial infection, trauma and coagulopathies. We present a unique case of neonatal acute liver failure and multifocal massive haemorrhagic intrahepatic lesions of traumatic origin, documented by US and MRI. The patient made a spontaneous recovery. Clinical, biological and imaging outcome was excellent despite the apparent severity of the initial features. The only possible aetiology was a difficult caesarean delivery for mild fetal macrosomia. (orig.)

  10. Severe acute haemorrhagic liver failure in a neonate with a favourable spontaneous outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavet, Madeleine; Balu, Marie; Garel, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Mitanchez, Delphine; Alexandre, Marie; Renolleau, Sylvain; Pariente, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    Acute liver failure in neonates is rare and is frequently associated with an unfavourable outcome. There is no curative treatment other than liver transplantation. Screening for viral, metabolic, toxic or vascular disease is essential to assess the prognosis and to guide specific treatment. Hepatic haemorrhage in neonates is often associated with bacterial infection, trauma and coagulopathies. We present a unique case of neonatal acute liver failure and multifocal massive haemorrhagic intrahepatic lesions of traumatic origin, documented by US and MRI. The patient made a spontaneous recovery. Clinical, biological and imaging outcome was excellent despite the apparent severity of the initial features. The only possible aetiology was a difficult caesarean delivery for mild fetal macrosomia. (orig.)

  11. Prostaglandins for preventing postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçalp, Özge; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2012-08-15

    Prostaglandins have mainly been used for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when other measures fail. Misoprostol, a new and inexpensive prostaglandin E1 analogue, has been suggested as an alternative for routine management of the third stage of labour. To assess the effects of prophylactic prostaglandin use in the third stage of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (7 January 2011). We updated this search on 25 May 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section. Randomised trials comparing a prostaglandin agent with another uterotonic or no prophylactic uterotonic (nothing or placebo) as part of management of the third stage of labour. The primary outcomes were blood loss 1000 mL or more and the use of additional uterotonics. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. We included 72 trials (52,678 women). Oral or sublingual misoprostol compared with placebo is effective in reducing severe PPH (oral: seven trials, 6225 women, not totalled due to significant heterogeneity; sublingual: risk ratio (RR) 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 0.98; one trial, 661 women) and blood transfusion (oral: RR 0.31; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.94; four trials, 3519 women).Compared with conventional injectable uterotonics, oral misoprostol was associated with higher risk of severe PPH (RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.52; 17 trials, 29,797 women) and use of additional uterotonics, but with a trend to fewer blood transfusions (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.06; 15 trials; 28,213 women). Additional uterotonic data were not totalled due to heterogeneity. Misoprostol use is associated with significant increases in shivering and a temperature of 38º Celsius compared with both placebo and other uterotonics. Oral or sublingual misoprostol shows promising results when compared with placebo in reducing blood loss after delivery. The margin of benefit may be affected by whether other components of the

  12. Motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neuronal circuitry may involve in modulation of nociception: a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study in spinally transected transgenic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that motor cortex stimulation provided pain relief by motor cortex plasticity and activating descending inhibitory pain control systems. Recent evidence indicated that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R in the periaqueductal gray played an important role in neuropathic pain. This study was designed to assess whether MC4R signaling existed in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neuronal circuitry modulated the activity of sympathetic pathway by a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study. Pseudorabies virus (PRV-614 was injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle in adult male MC4R-green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice (n = 15. After a survival time of 4-6 days, the mice (n = 5 were randomly assigned to humanely sacrifice, and spinal cords and brains were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV-614 visualization. Neurons involved in the efferent control of the left gastrocnemius muscle were identified following visualization of PRV-614 retrograde tracing. The neurochemical phenotype of MC4R-GFP-positive neurons was identified using fluorescence immunocytochemical labeling. PRV-614/MC4R-GFP dual labeled neurons were detected in spinal IML, periaqueductal gray and motor cortex. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC4R signaling in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neural pathway may participate in the modulation of the melanocortin-sympathetic signaling and contribute to the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission, suggesting that MC4R signaling in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neural pathway may modulate the activity of sympathetic outflow sensitive to nociceptive signals.

  13. Pathogenesis of Intrapulmonary Haemorrhage in Dogs Exposed to Pulsed Fission-Spectrum Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.; Engel, R.E.; Godden, W.R.

    1964-01-01

    Previous comparison in this laboratory of tissue alterations in dogs produced by exposure to 250 kVp X-rays and pulsed fission-spectrum neutrons has shown general similarity of response. However, the lungs of animals exposed to fission-spectrum neutrons are considerably more susceptible to peribronchial and perivascular pulmonary haemorrhage. An attempt has been made to define the pathogenesis of this lesion by exposing five beagles to 400 rad (MAD) fast neutrons from a bare GODIVA-type reactor and serially sacrificing the animals at periodic intervals. Gross pathologic alterations consisting of occasional small peripheral-pulmonary haemorrhages were discernible at +5 d post-irradiation. These became progressively more numerous by the ninth day. The most striking changes occurred at +13 d, consisting of extensive perivascular haemorrhage around pulmonary-arterial branches from the hilum to the pleural suríace. The earliest histologic changes observed in the lungs occurred at +5 d, consisting of focal well-demarcated areas of alveolar congestion, swelling of capillary-endothelial cells and slight alveolar extravasation of red blood cells. These changes became more generalized by + 9 d and in addition there were focal areas of peribronchial extravasation of blood involving the right and left main-stem bronchi. Animals necropsied on the thirteenth day post-irradiation revealed extensive perivascular haemorrhage involving large and small pulmonaryarterial vessels. The blood appeared within the advential-connective tissue and periarterial-lymphatic spaces. Endothelial swelling was extremely marked in affected vessels, but the media appeared essentially unremarkable. Peribronchial haemorrhage was also present adjacent to affected pulmonary-arterial branches. The pathogenesis of these alterations appears to be related to primary endothelial damage produced by pulsed fission-spectrum neutrons. An additional contributing factor is probably thrombocytopenia as the number of

  14. Pemasaran ViralViral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, James Rianto

    2010-01-01

    Viral marketing is an extremely powerful and effective form of internet marketing. Itis a new form of word-of-mouth through internet. In viral marketing, someone passeson a marketing message to someone else and so on. Viral marketing proposes thatmessages can be rapidly disseminated from consumer to consumer leading to largescale market acceptance. The analogy of a virus is used to described the exponentialdiffusion of information in an electronic environment and should not be confusedwith th...

  15. Risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, D; Vaeth, M; Tsiropoulos, I

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN: Population based cohort study using data from the Danish National Discharge Registry and the Central Person Registry......, standardised for age, sex, and calendar period. This process was repeated for patients discharged from neurosurgery units, as diagnoses from these wards had high validity (93%). RESULTS: 18 patients had a total of 19 first degree relatives with subarachnoid haemorrhage during the study period, corresponding...... to a standardised incidence ratio of 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.6). Patients discharged from neurosurgery wards had a higher standardised incidence ratio (4.5, 2.7 to 7.3). CONCLUSIONS: First degree relatives of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage have a threefold to fivefold increased risk...

  16. The genetics of primary haemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage and ruptured intracranial aneurysms in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Peck

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of haemorrhagic stroke has proved difficult to unravel, partly hampered by the small numbers of subjects in any single study. A meta-analysis of all candidate gene association studies of haemorrhagic stroke (including ruptured subarachnoid haemorrhage and amyloid angiopathy-related haemorrhage was performed, allowing more reliable estimates of risk.A systematic review and meta-analysis of all genetic studies in haemorrhagic stroke was conducted. Electronic databases were searched until and including March 2007 for any candidate gene in haemorrhagic stroke. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were determined for each gene disease association using fixed and random effect models.Our meta-analyses included 6,359 cases and 13,805 controls derived from 55 case-control studies, which included 12 genes (13 polymorphisms. Statistically significant associations with haemorrhagic stroke were identified for those homozygous for the ACE/I allele (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.20-1.83; p = 0.0003 and for the 5G allele in the SERPINE1 4G/5G polymorphism (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.03-1.96; p = 0.03. In addition, both epsilon2 and epsilon4 alleles of APOE were significantly associated with lobar haemorrhage (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.62; p = 0.002 and OR, 1.49; 95% 1.08-2.05; p = 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, a significant protective association against haemorrhagic stroke was found for the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.87; p = 0.03.Our data suggests a genetic contribution to some types of haemorrhagic stroke, with no overall responsible single gene but rather supporting a polygenic aetiology . However, the evidence base is smaller compared to ischaemic stroke. Importantly, for several alleles previously found to be associated with protection from ischaemic stroke, there was a trend towards an increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke.

  17. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic degure fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti and prevent its bite. This country has few virus laboratories and some of them have done excellent ...

  18. Antithrombotic drugs and subarachnoid haemorrhage risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, A; García Rodríguez, L A; Poulsen, F R

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate the relationship between use of antithrombotic drugs and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We identified patients discharged from Danish neurosurgery units with a first-ever SAH diagnosis in 2000 to 2012 (n=5,834). For each case, we selected 40 age-, sex...

  19. Necrotising haemorrhagic pancreatitis with intra-abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe necrotising haemorrhagic pancreatitis is a challenging clinical condition that carries a high mortality especially in resource-limited settings. The management requires a multidisciplinary approach in a well-equipped critical care unit. The decision for operative versus conservative management is a close call and one ...

  20. Acute subarachnoid haemorrhage and the mysterious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological insult, and is increasingly understood as a multi-system condition initiated in the central nervous system. Perioperative investigation of patients presenting for aneurysm surgery often includes a routine electrocardiogram (ECG) which frequently reveals an ...

  1. Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemics and outbreaks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemic of acute conjunctivitis in Dar es Salaam in 2010 demonstrated the importance of a strong infectious diseases epidemiological surveillance network to minimise disease outbreaks. Misunderstanding of the causes and management of diseases explains the repetitive nature of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis ...

  2. Total Body Opacification 'Technique Neonatal Adrenal Haemorrhage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-12-11

    Dec 11, 1971 ... A case is reported illustrating the possible usefulness of total body opacification in the diagnosis of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage. To derive maximum benefit from this principle, the routine use of an early film coupled with high dosage is urged whenever an intravenous pyelogram is performed for ...

  3. Ebola haemorrhagic fever among hospitalised children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : A unique feature of previous Ebola outbreaks has been the relative sparing of children. For the first time, an out break of an unusual illness-Ebola haemorrhagic fever occurred in Northern Uganda - Gulu district. Objectives : To describe the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of hospitalised children and ...

  4. Calcium antagonists for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, G. J. E.; Feigin, V. L.; Algra, A.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Vermeulen, M.; van Gijn, J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary ischaemia is a frequent cause of poor outcome in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Its pathogenesis has not been elucidated yet, but may be related to vasospasm. Experimental studies have indicated that calcium antagonists can prevent or reverse vasospasm and have

  5. The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated Risk Factors in Preterm Neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the University Teaching ... any-IVH generated at the time of analysis was used in determining the prevalence of IVH and also as the dependent variable in multivariate logistic regression.

  6. Cyclophosphamide induced Haemorrhagic Cystitis; a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclophosphamide is an akylating agent widely used in the management of both malignant and non neoplastic disorders. We undertook this review to assess the advancement in knowledge regarding the aetiopathogenesis and current management approaches of haemorrhagic cystitis resulting from the use of ...

  7. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic degure fever/dengue haemorrhagic .... After the World War II, rapid urbanization in Southeast Asia led to ... epidemic of the DHF occurred in 1953–1954 in Philippines followed by a quick global spread of epidemics of ...

  8. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  9. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-20

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteases and human ADAMs cleave LRP5/6, which disrupts cell-cell adhesions in vitro and induces haemorrhage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Tadahiko; Sakon, Taketo; Nakazawa, Shiori; Nishioka, Asuka; Watanabe, Kohei; Matsumoto, Kaori; Akasaka, Mari; Shioi, Narumi; Sawada, Hitoshi; Araki, Satohiko

    2017-06-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are members of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteins, as they possess similar domains. SVMPs are known to elicit snake venom-induced haemorrhage; however, the target proteins and cleavage sites are not known. In this work, we identified a target protein of vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1), an SVMP, relevant to its ability to induce haemorrhage. VAP1 disrupted cell-cell adhesions by relocating VE-cadherin and γ-catenin from the cell-cell junction to the cytosol, without inducing proteolysis of VE-cadherin. The Wnt receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) are known to promote catenin relocation, and are rendered constitutively active in Wnt signalling by truncation. Thus, we examined whether VAP1 cleaves LRP5/6 to induce catenin relocation. Indeed, we found that VAP1 cleaved the extracellular region of LRP6 and LRP5. This cleavage removes four inhibitory β-propeller structures, resulting in activation of LRP5/6. Recombinant human ADAM8 and ADAM12 also cleaved LRP6 at the same site. An antibody against a peptide including the LRP6-cleavage site inhibited VAP1-induced VE-cadherin relocation and disruption of cell-cell adhesions in cultured cells, and blocked haemorrhage in mice in vivo. Intriguingly, animals resistant to the effects of haemorrhagic snake venom express variants of LRP5/6 that lack the VAP1-cleavage site, or low-density lipoprotein receptor domain class A domains involved in formation of the constitutively active form. The results validate LRP5/6 as physiological targets of ADAMs. Furthermore, they indicate that SVMP-induced cleavage of LRP5/6 causes disruption of cell-cell adhesion and haemorrhage, potentially opening new avenues for the treatment of snake bites. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Mutational Analysis of the Hypervariable Region of Hepatitis E Virus Reveals Its Involvement in the Efficiency of Viral RNA Replication ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudupakam, R. S.; Kenney, Scott P.; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A.; LeRoith, Tanya; Pierson, F. William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication levels of the HVR deletion mutants were markedly reduced in Huh7 cells, suggesting a role of the HVR in viral replication efficiency. To further verify the results, we constructed HVR deletion mutants by using a genetically divergent, nonmammalian avian HEV, and similar effects on viral replication efficiency were observed when the avian HEV mutants were tested in LMH cells. Furthermore, the impact of complete HVR deletion on virus infectivity was tested in chickens, using an avian HEV mutant with a complete HVR deletion. Although the deletion mutant was still replication competent in LMH cells, the complete HVR deletion resulted in a loss of avian HEV infectivity in chickens. Since the HVR exhibits extensive variations in sequence and length among different HEV genotypes, we further examined the interchangeability of HVRs and demonstrated that HVR sequences are functionally exchangeable between HEV genotypes with regard to viral replication and infectivity in vitro, although genotype-specific HVR differences in replication efficiency were observed. The results showed that although the HVR tolerates small deletions with regard to infectivity, it may interact with viral and host factors to modulate the efficiency of HEV replication. PMID:21775444

  12. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Pharyngitis - viral URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  13. Viral gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  14. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: a cause of preventable morbidity and mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brady, A P

    2012-01-31

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant condition whose effects are mediated through deficient blood vessel formation and regeneration, with multisystem involvement. Patients are usually aware of resulting skin telangiectasia and epistaxis, but are also exposed to dangers posed by occult vascular malformations in other organs. About 15-35% of HHT patients have pulmonary AVMs (PAVMs), 10% have cerebral AVMs (CAVMs), 25-33% suffer significant GI blood loss from GI tract telangiectasia, and an unknown but high percentage have liver involvement. In total, 10% of affected individuals die prematurely or suffer major disability from HHT, largely because of bleeding from CAVMs and PAVMs, or paradoxical embolization through PAVMs. Screening for and early intervention to treat occult PAVMs and CAVMs can largely eliminate these risks, and should be undertaken in a specialist centre. The National HHT Center in The Mercy University Hospital in Cork is the referral centre for HHT screening in Ireland.

  15. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tikriti, S. K.; Al-Ani, F.; Jurji, F. J.; Tantawi, H.; Al-Moslih, M.; Al-Janabi, N.; Mahmud, M. I. A.; Al-Bana, A.; Habib, H.; Al-Munthri, H.; Al-Janabi, Sh.; Al-Jawahry, K.; Yonan, M.; Hassan, F.; Simpson, D. I. H.

    1981-01-01

    Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever was recognized for the first time in Iraq in 1979. The first case was reported on 3 September 1979 and since then a further 9 patients have been investigated. Eight patients gave a history of previous contact with sheep or cattle, while 2 patients, a resident doctor and an auxiliary nurse, acquired their infections in hospital by direct contact with patients. The causal virus was isolated from patients' blood and postmortem liver specimens. The virus isolates were found to be closely related if not identical serologically to members of the Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus group. Eight of the patients had no epidemiological relationship to one another and lived in widely separated areas around Baghdad and Ramadi (110 km to the west of Baghdad). ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6790183

  16. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Tikriti, S. K.; Al-Ani, F.; Jurji, F. J.; Tantawi, H.; Al-Moslih, M.; Al-Janabi, N.; Mahmud, M. I. A.; Al-Bana, A.; Habib, H.; Al-Munthri, H.; Al-Janabi, Sh.; Al-Jawahry, K.; Yonan, M.; Hassan, F.; Simpson, D. I. H.

    1981-01-01

    Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever was recognized for the first time in Iraq in 1979. The first case was reported on 3 September 1979 and since then a further 9 patients have been investigated. Eight patients gave a history of previous contact with sheep or cattle, while 2 patients, a resident doctor and an auxiliary nurse, acquired their infections in hospital by direct contact with patients. The causal virus was isolated from patients' blood and postmortem liver specimens. The virus isolates ...

  17. Inhibitory effect of presenilin inhibitor LY411575 on maturation of hepatitis C virus core protein, production of the viral particle and expression of host proteins involved in pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Teruhime; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Kasai, Hirotake; Yamashita, Atsuya; Moriishi, Kohji

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is responsible for the formation of infectious viral particles and induction of pathogenicity. The C-terminal transmembrane region of the immature core protein is cleaved by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) for maturation of the core protein. SPP belongs to the family of presenilin-like aspartic proteases. Some presenilin inhibitors are expected to suppress HCV infection and production; however, this anti-HCV effect has not been investigated in detail. In this study, presenilin inhibitors were screened to identify anti-HCV compounds. Of the 13 presenilin inhibitors tested, LY411575 was the most potent inhibitor of SPP-dependent cleavage of HCV core protein. Production of intracellular core protein and supernatant infectious viral particles from HCV-infected cells was significantly impaired by LY411575 in a dose-dependent manner (half maximum inhibitory concentration = 0.27 μM, cytotoxic concentration of the extracts to cause death to 50% of viable cells > 10 μM). No effect of LY411575 on intracellular HCV RNA in the subgenomic replicon cells was detected. LY411575 synergistically promoted daclatasvir-dependent inhibition of viral production, but not that of viral replication. Furthermore, LY411575 inhibited HCV-related production of reactive oxygen species and expression of NADPH oxidases and vascular endothelial growth factor. Taken together, our data suggest that LY411575 suppresses HCV propagation through SPP inhibition and impairs host gene expressions related to HCV pathogenicity. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. A rare cause of fatal intracranial haemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neligan, A

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: We report the case of a 53-year-old farmer with a 5-day history of severe headache, photophobia and neck stiffness. Full blood count (platelets 173), coagulation screen were normal throughout. Liver function tests remained normal apart from an elevated gamma-GT (156). CT Brain was normal. CSF analysis showed a WCC of 454\\/mm(3) (60% lymphocytes), elevated CSF protein (1.42 g\\/l) and a normal CSF glucose. He was commenced on IV antibiotics and IV acyclivor and improved. On day 3 of admission, he complained of a sudden severe headache, became unresponsive (GCS 3\\/15). INVESTIGATIONS: CT Brain showed a massive left intraventricular haemorrhage. He died 4 days later. Subsequent serum serology for leptospirosis was positive. A repeat sample taken 4 days post-admission, showed a rising IgM indicating active leptospirosis. Detailed pathological examination confirmed intracerebral haemorrhage with normal cerebral vasculature. CONCLUSION: Leptospirosis is a rare cause of intracerebral haemorrhage even in the absence of coagulopathy.

  19. Retinal haemorrhage in infants with pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Naz; Pereira, Susana; Dai, Shuan; Neutze, Jocelyn; Grant, Cameron Charles; Kelly, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    It has been hypothesised that paroxysmal coughing in infantile pertussis (whooping cough) could produce retinal haemorrhages identical to those seen in abusive head trauma. We aimed to test this hypothesis. This is a prospective study of infants hospitalised with pertussis in Auckland, New Zealand, from 2009 to 2014. The clinical severity of pertussis was categorised. All infants recruited had retinal examination through dilated pupils by the paediatric ophthalmology service using an indirect ophthalmoscope. Forty-eight infants with pertussis, aged 3 weeks to 7 months, were examined after a mean of 18 days of coughing. Thirty-nine had severe pertussis and nine had mild pertussis. All had paroxysmal cough, and all were still coughing at the time of examination. No retinal haemorrhages were seen. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that pertussis may cause the pattern of retinal haemorrhages seen in abusive head trauma in infants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Metastatic angiosarcoma: a vascular tumour or an intracranial haemorrhage?

    OpenAIRE

    Masih, Izhaq; McIlwaine, Werner

    2010-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with weakness of his right arm and leg. He had previously had mitral valve replacement, tricuspid annuloplasty, leg deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and femoral embolism. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed an acute left thalamic haemorrhage. Repeat CT brain showed resolution of the original haemorrhage, but the apparent development of new areas of haemorrhage. Warfarin continued due to high risk of thromboembolism. He was readmitted with the rapid developm...

  1. Adult adrenal haemorrhage: an unrecognised complication of renal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L. E-mail: lokekl@ha.org.hk

    2001-07-01

    There are many predisposing factors for neonatal adrenal haemorrhage but the causative factors are different in adults. Several cases of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage have been reported in association with renal vein thrombosis. This complication has not been documented in the adults. The presence of an adrenal mass in the setting of renal vein thrombosis should raise the possibility of adrenal haemorrhage even though this is extremely uncommon in adults.

  2. Nitric oxide and liver microcirculation during autoregulation and haemorrhagic shock in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuillier, F; Robert, M-O; Crova, P; Goudable, J; Arnal, F; Cespuglio, R; Annat, G; Viale, J-P

    2006-08-01

    Direct evidence of nitric oxide (NO) involvement in the regulation of hepatic microcirculation is not yet available under physiological conditions nor in haemorrhagic shock. A laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure liver perfusion index and a specific NO-sensitive electrode was inserted into liver parenchyma of anaesthetized rabbits. Hepatic autoregulation during moderate hypovolaemia {mean arterial pressure at 50 mm Hg without liver perfusion alteration; blood withdrawal 17.7 (4.2) ml [mean (SD)]} or haemorrhagic shock [mean arterial pressure at 20 mm Hg associated with liver perfusion impairment and lactic acidosis; blood withdrawal 56.0 (6.8) ml] were investigated over 60 min and were followed by a rapid infusion of the shed blood. Involvement of NO synthases was evaluated using a non-specific inhibitor, NAPNA (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine P-nitro-anilide). In the autoregulation group, a decrease [30.0 (4.0) mm Hg] of mean arterial pressure did not alter liver perfusion index, whereas the liver NO concentration increased and reached a plateau [125 (10)%; compared with baseline; P<0.05]. This NO concentration was reduced to zero by the administration of NO synthase inhibitor. Haemorrhagic shock led to a rapid decrease in liver perfusion index [60 (7)%; compared with baseline; P<0.05] before an immediate and continuous increase in NO concentration [250 (50)%; compared with baseline; P<0.05]. Infusion of NO inhibitor before haemorrhagic shock reduced the NO concentration to zero and hepatic perfusion by 60 (8)% (P<0.05) of the baseline. Mean arterial pressure increased simultaneously. In these animals, during haemorrhage, a continuous increase in NO concentration still occurred and liver perfusion slightly increased. In all groups but NAPNA+haemorrhagic shock, blood replacement induced recovery of baseline values. NO plays a physiological role in the liver microcirculation during autoregulation. Its production is enzyme-dependent. Conversely, haemorrhagic shock

  3. Bilateral eyelid ecchymosis and subconjunctival haemorrhage manifesting as presenting feature in a case of dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sparshi; Goswami, Anup; Singh, Nidhi; Kaur, Savleen

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of bilateral eyelid ecchymosis and subconjunctival haemorrhage, a rare presenting feature of dengue haemorrhagic fever. A 17-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with complaints of redness in both eyes and vomiting. He had bilateral eyelid ecchymosis with subconjunctival haemorrhage. Complete blood count revealed a significantly reduced platelet count of 11000/µL suggestive of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Ocular manifestations were followed by other systemic haemorrhagic manifestations of dengue later on which violates the usual sequence of events of dengue fever. Bilateral eyelid ecchymosis is a rare clinical manifestation and a rare presenting feature of dengue fever and one has to keep high index of suspicion for presence of dengue whenever a case of fever presents with lid ecchymosis/haemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. European survey on laboratory preparedness, response and diagnostic capacity for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, M D; Negredo, A; Papa, A; Donoso-Mantke, O; Niedrig, M; Zeller, H; Tenorio, A; Franco, L

    2014-07-03

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an infectious viral disease that has (re-)emerged in the last decade in south-eastern Europe, and there is a risk for further geographical expansion to western Europe. Here we report the results of a survey covering 28 countries, conducted in 2012 among the member laboratories of the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD) to assess laboratory preparedness and response capacities for CCHF. The answers of 31 laboratories of the European region regarding CCHF case definition, training necessity, biosafety, quality assurance and diagnostic tests are presented. In addition, we identified the lack of a Regional Reference Expert Laboratory in or near endemic areas. Moreover, a comprehensive review of the biosafety level suitable to the reality of endemic areas is needed. These issues are challenges that should be addressed by European public health authorities. However, all respondent laboratories have suitable diagnostic capacities for the current situation.

  5. Mutational Analysis of the Hypervariable Region of Hepatitis E Virus Reveals Its Involvement in the Efficiency of Viral RNA Replication ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pudupakam, R. S.; Kenney, Scott P.; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A.; LeRoith, Tanya; Pierson, F. William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication...

  6. Possible involvement of distinct phylogenetic clusters of HIV-1 variants in the discrepancies between coreceptor tropism predictions based on viral RNA and proviral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Hiroshi; Sudo, Koji; Hasegawa, Naoki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tomohisa; Iketani, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kato, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The coreceptor tropism testing should be conducted prior to commencing a regimen containing a CCR5 antagonist for treatment of HIV-1 infection. For aviremic patients on long antiretroviral therapy, proviral DNA is often used instead of viral RNA in genotypic tropism testing. However, the tropism predictions from RNA and DNA are sometimes different. We examined the cause of the discrepancies between HIV-1 tropism predictions based on viral RNA and proviral DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the env C2V3C3 region was determined using pair samples of plasma RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from 50 HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals using population-based sequencing. The samples with discrepant tropism assessments between RNA and DNA were further analyzed using deep sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analysis. The tropism was assessed using the algorithm geno2pheno with a false-positive rate cutoff of 10 %. In population-based sequencing, five of 50 subjects showed discrepant tropism predictions between their RNA and DNA samples: four exhibited R5 tropism in RNA and X4 tropism in DNA, while one exhibited the opposite pattern. In the deep sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, three subjects had single clusters comprising of RNA- and DNA-derived sequences that were a mixture of R5 and X4 sequences. The other two subjects had two and three distinct phylogenetic clusters of sequences, respectively, each of which was dominated by R5 or X4 sequences; sequences of the R5-dominated cluster were mostly found in RNA, while sequences of the X4-dominated cluster were mostly in DNA. Some of HIV-1 tropism discrepancies between viral RNA and proviral DNA seem to be caused by phylogenetically distinct clusters which resides in plasma and cells in different frequencies. Our findings suggest that the tropism testing using PBMC DNA or deep sequencing may be required when the viral load is not suppressed or rebounds in the course of a CCR5 antagonist-containing regimen.

  7. Pituitary apoplexy with optic tract oedema and haemorrhage in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenthall, R.; Jaspan, T. [Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Gonugunta, V. [Department of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital Nottingham, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    Bilateral optic tract oedema, left optic tract haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage occurred in a 70-year-old man with pituitary apoplexy associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Left optic tract haemorrhage was confirmed on MRI. (orig.)

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia: when one became many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Holmes, Edward C

    2014-02-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16-year period (1995-2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared with those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 rereleases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia -4.0 (3.3-4.7) × 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year - was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 re-releases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia – 4.0 (3.3 – 4.7) × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year – was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. PMID:24251353

  10. Role of the feline immunodeficiency virus L-domain in the presence or absence of Gag processing: involvement of ubiquitin and Nedd4-2s ligase in viral egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Arianna; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Salata, Cristiano; Celestino, Michele; Celegato, Marta; Göttlinger, Heinrich; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    RNA-enveloped viruses bud from infected cells by exploiting the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. In this context, ubiquitination of structural viral proteins and their direct interaction with cellular factors involved in the MVB biogenesis through short proline rich regions, named late domains (L-domains), are crucial mechanisms. Here we report that, in contrast with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a non-primate lentivirus, is strictly dependent for its budding on a "PSAP"-type L-domain, mapping in the carboxy-terminal region of Gag, irrespective of a functional viral protease. Moreover, we provide evidence that FIV egress is related to Gag ubiquitination, that is, linked to the presence of an active L-domain. Finally, although FIV Gag does not contain a PPxY motif, we show that the Nedd4-2s ubiquitin ligase enhances FIV Gag ubiquitination and it is capable to rescue viral mutants lacking a functional L-domain. In conclusion, our data bring to light peculiar aspects of FIV egress, but we also demonstrate that a non-primate lentivirus shares with HIV-1 a novel mechanism of connection to the cellular budding machinery. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever presenting as Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Araimi, Hanaa; Al-Jabri, Amal; Mehmoud, Arshad; Al-Abri, Seif

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a 38 year-old Sri Lankan female who was referred to the surgeon on call with a picture of acute abdomen. She presented with a three-day history of fever, headache, abdominal pain and diarrhoea; however, the physical examination was not consistent with acute abdomen. Her platelet count was 22 ×109/L. A diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was made and dengue serology was positive. Dengue epidemics have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms an...

  12. European research priorities for intracerebral haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2011-01-01

    . No standardised diagnostic workup for the detection of the various underlying causes of ICH currently exists, and the evidence for medical or surgical therapeutic interventions remains limited. A dedicated European research programme for ICH is needed to identify ways to reduce the burden of ICH-related death...... and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH....

  13. Subconjunctival haemorrhage from bronchoscopy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey Ying Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible bronchoscopy has been available for almost five decades. It has evolved as one of the most commonly used invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in pulmonology, and its scope of applications is progressively expanding with the addition of new adjunct technologies such as endobronchial ultrasound, bronchial Thermoplasty, and navigational bronchoscopy. It is a safe procedure with complications ranging from fever, infiltrates, hypoxemia, bleeding, pneumothoraces and death, with most significant complications being bleeding and pneumothorax. We report a case of subconjuctival haemorrhage as an immediate complication of bronchoscopy. To our knowledge this is the first report documenting this rare complication.

  14. Septicaemia and adrenal haemorrhage in congenital asplenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, M P; Martin, R P; Berry, P J

    1991-01-01

    Five patients developed overwhelming infection as a result of congenital asplenia, which was previously unsuspected in all cases. Each illness followed a fulminant course resulting in death within 24 hours. They illustrate the respective roles of Haemophilus influenzae infection (n = 4) and adrenal haemorrhage (n = 4) in this condition. We suggest a management protocol for screening infants with abnormalities of the atria or viscera with splenic ultrasound and examination of a blood film for Howell-Jolly bodies. Vaccination and prophylactic antibiotics should be considered for those at risk. Vigorous use of parenteral antibiotics and steroids in suspected infection is recommended. PMID:2039257

  15. Late onset retinoblastoma presenting with vitreous haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Mette; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Heegard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    in the retina. A vascularized gelatinous mass was revealed after vitrectomy. Later the patient developed white cysts in the anterior chamber and histological findings were indicative of a retinoblastoma. The patient was enucleated and the diagnosis of retinoblastoma was confirmed. Intraocular surgery in young...... people with unknown retinoblastoma enhances the risk of metastasis development, orbital recurrence and death. Unexplained vitreous haemorrhage can obscure the view of a tumour but ultrasonic findings of a retinal mass calls for further imaging e.g. through MRI. The case illustrates the importance...

  16. Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage [PPH] In Ilorin: Current Trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the incidence of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage following vaginal delivery and evaluate the trend at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital [UITH], Ilorin, Nigeria. This study was a hospital based retrospective study of all cases of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage [PPH] following ...

  17. Risk factors associated with postpartum haemorrhage at Juba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-01

    May 1, 2010 ... Abstract. Objective: To study risk factors associated with post partum haemorrhage (PPH) in Juba Teaching Hospital, South. Sudan. ... Misoprostol) use and delivery type; the latter being modified, in the development of post partum haemorrhage. .... effective in South Sudan where a coverage of 93.7% was.

  18. The 2011 dengue haemorrhagic fever outbreak in Lahore - an account of clinical parameters and pattern of haemorrhagic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Mohammad, Wasim Wali; Hamid, Faran; Akhter, Amim; Afzal, Raja Kamran; Mahmood, Asif

    2013-07-01

    To describe the frequency and outcome of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases and determine the association of clinical and laboratory parameters with haemorrhagic complications. A descriptive study. Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from August to November 2011. Clinical profile and outcome of 640 adult patients hospitalized with a strong clinical suspicion of dengue fever (DF) was evaluated. Based on serological confirmation, these patients were divided into confirmed DF and probable DF cases. They were also categorized according to severity into dengue fever (DF), dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) cases according to WHO guidelines. After detailed clinical evaluation, blood samples were taken for a complete blood count, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Patients were managed according to standard protocols with intravenous fluids and symptomatic treatment. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis of clinical data. Comparison of features among the groups was made using chi-square or t-test with significance at p < 0.05. There was 359 probable DF and 281 confirmed DF cases. The development of DHF, neurological manifestations and overall mortality was more frequent in confirmed DF group. Comparison between DHF/DSS and DF cases revealed a significant difference in vomiting (p = 0.04), purpuric rash (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), serum ALT (p < 0.001), hospital stay (p < 0.001), neurological involvement (p < 0.001) and coagulopathy (p < 0.001) between the two groups. Among 159 DHF patients, 108 (67.9%) had bleeding from gums and oral cavity, 73 (45.9%) had haemetemesis and 82 (51.5%) malaena, 41 (25.8%) had epistaxis, 12 (7.5%) developed intracranial bleeding, 18 (11%) had hematuria, 12 (7.5%) had fresh bleeding per rectum and 37 (23%) developed haemoptysis. Overall mortality was 3%, but mortality in

  19. The use of crisis medication in the management of terminal haemorrhage due to incurable cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D G; Finlay, I G; Flowers, S; Noble, S I R

    2011-10-01

    Terminal haemorrhage is a rare but devastating event that may occur in certain advanced cancers. The focus of management involves administration of 'crisis medicine' with the intention of relieving patient distress through sedative doses of anxiolytics or opioids. This practice, whilst widely accepted, is based on limited evidence and has never been formally evaluated. To evaluate the utility of crisis medication in the management of terminal haemorrhage, through the experiences of nurses who had personally managed such events. Semi-structured interviews exploring the experiences of palliative care and head and neck oncology nurses were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Saturation of themes occurred after interviewing 11 nurses with cumulative experience of managing 37 terminal haemorrhages. Participants reported crisis medication to have little, if any, role in the management of terminal haemorrhage, which was such a rapid event that patients died before it could be administered. As many events had not been predicted, anticipatory prescribing of crisis medication did not always occur. Staying with and supporting the patient, and using dark-coloured towels to camouflage blood were reported to be of more practical use. A focus on accessing crisis medicines had often been to the detriment of these simple yet beneficial measures. Anticipatory prescribing of crisis medication rarely benefits the patient and may unintentionally detract from nursing care. Guidelines on the management of terminal haemorrhage should reconsider the emphasis on crisis medication and focus on non-pharmacological approaches to this invariably fatal event.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis in a recent controlled outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the south of Iran, December 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Mojtaba Ghiasi, S

    2010-01-01

    herd were serologically analysed and more than half of them were positive for CCHFV. We demonstrated that two routes of transmission played a role in this outbreak: contact with tissue and blood of infected livestock, and nosocomial transmission. Phylogenetic analyses helped to identify the origin......Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. The CCHF virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodid ticks or contact with blood or tissues of CCHF patients or infected livestock. In December 2008, a re-emerging outbreak...... of CCHF occurred in the southern part of Iran. Five people were hospitalised with sudden fever and haemorrhaging, and CCHF was confirmed by RT-PCR and serological assays. One of the cases had a fulminant course and died. Livestock was identified as the source of infection; all animals in the incriminated...

  1. Olivary degeneration after cerebellar or brain stem haemorrhage: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Hasuo, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Uchida, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Matsumoto, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Tsukamoto, Y. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Ohno, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Masuda, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of seven patients with olivary degeneration caused by cerebellar or brain stem haemorrhages were reviewed. In four patients with cerebellar haemorrhage, old haematomas were identified as being located in the dentate nucleus; the contralateral inferior olivary nuclei were hyperintense on proton-density- and T2-weighted images. In two patients with pontine haemorrhages, the old haematomas were in the tegmentum and the ipsilateral inferior olivary nuclei, which were hyperintense. In one case of midbrain haemorrhage, the inferior olivary nuclei were hyperintense bilaterally. The briefest interval from the ictus to MRI was 2 months. Hypertrophic olivary nuclei were observed only at least 4 months after the ictus. Olivary degeneration after cerebellar or brain stem haemorrhage should not be confused with ischaemic, neoplastic, or other primary pathological conditions of the medulla. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Hennessy, O.

    1993-01-01

    The variable magnetic resonance imaging appearances of central nervous system haemorrhage, both intra- and extra-axial, are described. These will vary with the type of image contrast (T1 or T2 weighting), the nature of the imaging sequence (spin-echo or gradient-echo) and the time from onset of haemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful technique for imaging haemorrhage in the central nervous system as it yields temporal information about haematoma development, and it is the only non-invasive means of imaging intraspinal haemorrhage. However, in the imaging of haematomas within 24 h of onset and in subarachnoid haemorrhage computed tomography is the investigation of choice. 13 refs., 6 figs

  3. Late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Emine; Sarper, Nazan; Türker, Gülcan; Corapçioğlu, Funda; Etuş, Volkan

    2006-09-01

    Late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) can occur owing to a lack of vitamin K prophylaxis, as a manifestation of an underlying disorder or idiopatically from the 8th day to 12 weeks after birth. Eight infants admitted to Kocaeli University Hospital with nine episodes of late HDN between January 2002 and April 2005 were evaluated retrospectively from hospital records. The median age at presentation was 46 (26-111) days. All the infants were born at full-term to healthy mothers and were exclusively breast-fed. All had an uneventful perinatal history, except one who had meconium aspiration. Four patients had received no vitamin K prophylaxis and another three had uncertain histories. At presentation, six had intracranial bleeding and the remainder had bleeding either from the venepuncture site or the gastro-intestinal tract. The presenting signs and symptoms were irritability, vomiting, bulging or full fontanelle, convulsions and diminished or absent neonatal reflexes. Galactosaemia was detected in a 2-month-old infant with prolonged jaundice. There was no surgery-related mortality or complications but one survived for only 2 days on ventilatory support following surgery. Only one of the six survivors had severe neurological sequelae. Late HDN frequently presents with intracranial haemorrhage, leading to high morbidity and mortality. HDN can be the manifestation of an underlying metabolic disorder. Vitamin K prophylaxis of the newborn should be routine in developing countries.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Rajeev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is associated with hemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes, pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats, fowl cholera in poultry, atrophic rhinitis in pigs and snuffles in rabbits. Haemorrhagic septicaemia is caused by Pasteurella multocida type B:2, B:2,5 and B:5 in Asian countries and type E:2 in African countries. Pasteurella multocida have five types of capsular serotype i.e. type A, B, D, E and F. Diagnosis of the disease is mainly based on the clinical sign and symptom, post mortem findings. Confirmatory diagnosis is done by isolation and identification of causative agent. A variety of laboratory diagnostic techniques have been developed over the years for pasteurellosis and used routinely in the laboratory. Among these techniques molecular techniques of diagnosis is most important. This technique not only gives diagnosis but it also provides information regarding capsular type of Pasteurella multocida. Techniques which are used for molecular diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia are PCR based diagnosis, Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA, Ribotyping, Colony hybridization assay, Filled alternation gel electrophoresis (FAGE, Detection of Pasteurella multocida by Real Time PCR. Among these techniques real time PCR is most sensitive and specific. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 189-192

  5. LrABCF1, a GCN-type ATP-binding cassette transporter from Lilium regale, is involved in defense responses against viral and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyang; Zhang, Xinguo; Li, Shaohua; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Zhang, Yanlong; Niu, Lixin

    2016-12-01

    The L. regale ATP-binding cassette transporter gene, LrABCF1 belonging to GCN subfamily, functions as a positive regulator of plant defense against Cucumber mosaic virus, Tobacco rattle virus , and Botrytis cinerea in petunia. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are essential for membrane translocation in diverse biological processes, such as plant development and defense response. Here, a general control non-derepressible (GCN)-type ABC transporter gene, designated LrABCF1, was identified from Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-induced cDNA library of L. regale. LrABCF1 was up-regulated upon inoculation with CMV and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). Salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) application and treatments with abiotic stresses such as cold, high salinity, and wounding increased the transcript abundances of LrABCF1. Constitutive overexpression of LrABCF1 in petunia (Petunia × hybrida) resulted in an impairment of plant growth and development. LrABCF1 overexpression conferred reduced susceptibility to CMV, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), and B. cinerea infection in transgenic petunia plants, accompanying by elevated transcripts of PhGCN2 and a few defense-related genes in SA-signaling pathway. Our data indicate that LrABCF1 positively modulates viral and fungal resistance.

  6. Involvement of CD252 (CD134L) and IL-2 in the expression of cytotoxic proteins in bacterial- or viral-activated human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Michael; Rampini, Silvana K; Stoeckli, Isabelle; Latinovic-Golic, Sonja; Dumrese, Claudia; Sundstrom, Hanna; Vogetseder, Alexander; Marino, Joseph; Glauser, Daniel L; van den Broek, Maries; Sander, Peter; Groscurth, Peter; Ziegler, Urs

    2009-06-15

    Regulation of cytotoxic effector molecule expression in human CTLs after viral or bacterial activation is poorly understood. By using human autologous dendritic cells (DCs) to prime T lymphocytes, we found perforin only highly up-regulated in virus- (HSV-1, vaccinia virus) but not in intracellular bacteria- (Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae) activated CTLs. In contrast, larger quantities of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were produced in Listeria-stimulated cultures. Granzyme B and granulysin were similarly up-regulated by all tested viruses and intracellular bacteria. DCs infected with HSV-1 showed enhanced surface expression of the costimulatory molecule CD252 (CD134L) compared with Listeria-infected DC and induced enhanced secretion of IL-2. Adding blocking CD134 or neutralizing IL-2 Abs during T cell activation reduced the HSV-dependent up-regulation of perforin. These data indicate a distinct CTL effector function in response to intracellular pathogens triggered via differing endogenous IL-2 production upon costimulation through CD252.

  7. Identification of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 tax amino acid signals and cellular factors involved in secretion of the viral oncoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pooja; Mostoller, Kate; Flaig, Katherine E; Ahuja, Jaya; Lepoutre, Veronique; Alefantis, Timothy; Khan, Zafar K; Wigdahl, Brian

    2007-11-23

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of a number of pathologic abnormalities, including adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The viral oncoprotein Tax has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Recently, cell-free Tax was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of HAM/TSP patients, implying that extracellular Tax may be relevant to neurologic disease. Additionally, the presence of a nuclear export signal within Tax and its active secretion has been demonstrated in vitro. However, the mechanism of Tax secretion remains to be established. Studies reported herein elucidate the process of Tax secretion and identify domains of Tax critical to its subcellular localization and secretion. Tax was shown to interact with a number of cellular secretory pathway proteins in both the model cell line BHK (baby hamster kidney)-21 and an HTLV-1-infected T cell line, C8166, physiologically relevant to HTLV-1-induced disease. Silencing of selected components of the secretory pathway affected Tax secretion, further confirming regulated secretion of Tax. Additionally, mutations in two putative secretory signals within Tax DHE and YTNI resulted in aberrant subcellular localization of Tax and significantly altered protein secretion. Together, these studies demonstrate that Tax secretion is a regulated event facilitated by its interactions with proteins of the cellular secretory pathway and the presence of secretory signals within the carboxyl-terminal domain of the protein.

  8. Factors affecting the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis depending on the haemorrhage definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzińska-Dźwigał, M; Sobolewski, Piotr; Szczuchniak, W

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) remains the most feared complication of systemic thrombolysis in patients with ischaemic stroke. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of different factors on the occurrence of sICH, depending on definition used. We retrospectively evaluated the influence of several factors on the occurrence of sICH (according to definitions used in ECASS2, SITS-MOST and NINDS studies) in 200 patients treated with systemic thrombolysis from 2006 to 2011. Multivariate analysis of impact of individual variables on the occurrence of haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and parenchymal haemorrhage type 2 (PH2) were performed. Haemorrhagic transformation occurred in 35 cases (17.5%). SICH was found in 10 cases according to ECASS2, in 7 cases according to SITS and in 13 cases according to NINDS. Older age was related to higher risk of sICH, regardless which definition was used (ECASS2: p = 0.014, SITS-MOST: p = 0.048, NINDS: p = 0.008), and female sex was related to higher risk of sICH according to NINDS and ECASS2 definition (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively). Blood glucose level and high NIHSS score (> 14 pts) were found as risk factor of sICH in ECASS2 definition (p = 0.044 and p = 0.03, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression higher NIHSS scores were associated with HT independent of age, gender and glucose level (p = 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed no impact of age, gender, severity of stroke and glucose level on presence of PH2. Definition of sICH can determine variables that are related to a high risk of this complication. In our study most factors correlated with sICH using the ECASS2 definition.

  9. Pulmonary vascular complications of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circo, Sebastian; Gossage, James R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the latest advances and recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary vascular complications associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT): pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary hypertension associated with high output cardiac failure or liver vascular malformations, haemoptysis, haemothorax and thromboembolic disease. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography has been validated as a screening tool for PAVM in patients with suspected HHT. Advancements in genetic testing support its use in family members at risk as a cost-effective measure. Therapy with bevacizumab in patients with high output cardiac failure and severe liver AVMs showed promising results. PAH tends to be more aggressive in HHT type 2 patients. Patients suffering from this elusive disease should be referred to HHT specialized centres to ensure a standardized and timely approach to diagnosis and management.

  10. MLST typing of Pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia and development of a real-time PCR specific for haemorrhagic septicaemia associated isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas; Bisgaard, Magne; Townsend, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Two serovars of Pasteurella multocida, B:2 and E:2, have been reportedly associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), a peracute and devastating disease mainly affecting cattle and water buffaloes. We multilocus sequence typed (MLST) 64 isolates of P. multocida including 55 associated with HS...... method. The new HS-est-RT-PCR represents a fast and specific detection of the specific types of P. multocida involved in HS. The HS-est-RT-PCR developed in the current study seems to more accurately identify isolates of P. multocida associated with HS compared to PCR detection methods previously...

  11. Endovascular management of delayed post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Edwige; Ronot, Maxime; Vilgrain, Valerie; Gaujoux, Sebastien; Cesaretti, Manuela; Barbier, Louise; Sauvanet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    To assess the patient outcome after endovascular treatment of delayed post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH) as first-line treatment. Between January 2005 and November 2013, all consecutive patients referred for endovascular treatment of PPH were included. Active bleeding, pseudoaneurysms, collections and the involved artery were recorded on pretreatment CT. Endovascular procedures were classified as technical success (source of bleeding identified on angiogram and treated), technical failure (source of bleeding identified but incompletely treated) and abstention (no abnormality identified, no treatment performed). Factors associated with rebleeding were analysed. Sixty-nine patients (53 men) were included (mean 59 years old (32-75)). Pretreatment CT showed 27 (39 %) active bleeding. In 22 (32 %) cases, no involved artery was identified. Technical success, failure and abstention were observed in 48 (70 %), 9 (13 %) and 12 patients (17 %), respectively. Thirty patients (43 %) experienced rebleeding. Rebleeding rates were 29 %, 58 % and 100 % in case of success, abstention and failure (p < 0.001). Treatment failure/abstention was the only factor associated with rebleeding. Overall, 74 % of the patients were successfully treated by endovascular procedure(s) alone. After a first endovascular procedure for PPH, the rebleeding rate is high and depends upon the success of the procedure. Most patients are successfully treated by endovascular approach(es) alone. (orig.)

  12. Endovascular management of delayed post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, Edwige [Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Department of Radiology, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); Ronot, Maxime; Vilgrain, Valerie [Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Department of Radiology, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); University Paris Diderot, Paris (France); INSERM U1149, centre de recherche biomedicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Gaujoux, Sebastien; Cesaretti, Manuela; Barbier, Louise [APHP, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Department of Surgery, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); Sauvanet, Alain [University Paris Diderot, Paris (France); APHP, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Department of Surgery, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France)

    2016-10-15

    To assess the patient outcome after endovascular treatment of delayed post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH) as first-line treatment. Between January 2005 and November 2013, all consecutive patients referred for endovascular treatment of PPH were included. Active bleeding, pseudoaneurysms, collections and the involved artery were recorded on pretreatment CT. Endovascular procedures were classified as technical success (source of bleeding identified on angiogram and treated), technical failure (source of bleeding identified but incompletely treated) and abstention (no abnormality identified, no treatment performed). Factors associated with rebleeding were analysed. Sixty-nine patients (53 men) were included (mean 59 years old (32-75)). Pretreatment CT showed 27 (39 %) active bleeding. In 22 (32 %) cases, no involved artery was identified. Technical success, failure and abstention were observed in 48 (70 %), 9 (13 %) and 12 patients (17 %), respectively. Thirty patients (43 %) experienced rebleeding. Rebleeding rates were 29 %, 58 % and 100 % in case of success, abstention and failure (p < 0.001). Treatment failure/abstention was the only factor associated with rebleeding. Overall, 74 % of the patients were successfully treated by endovascular procedure(s) alone. After a first endovascular procedure for PPH, the rebleeding rate is high and depends upon the success of the procedure. Most patients are successfully treated by endovascular approach(es) alone. (orig.)

  13. The protective effect and diagnostic performance of NOX-5 in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüktuna, Seyit Ali; Doğan, Halef Okan; Bakir, Mehmet; Elaldi, Nazif; Gözel, Mustafa Gökhan; Engin, Aynur

    2018-04-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease. Reactive oxygen species that are mainly generated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) enzyme family have a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. The serum levels of NOX isoforms in patients with CCHF have yet to be assessed. This prospective study was conducted at Cumhuriyet University, Turkey. Only patients with CCHF confirmed by the National Reference Virology Laboratory were enrolled in the study. The study subjects comprised 67 CCHF patients and 70 healthy control subjects. The quantitative sandwich ELISA technique was used for the determination of serum NOX 1, 2, 4 and 5. Higher median median NOX-1 (P=0.001) and NOX-5 (PNOX-5 levels were found in the low-grade disease group compared to the intermediate-high disease group according to two different severity scores (P=0.003). Negative correlations were also found between the serum NOX-5 levels and the severity scores [(PNOX-1 and NOX-5 were 0.67 (confidence interval: 0.58-0.75) and 0.99 (confidence interval: 0.95-1.00), respectively. Lower NOX-5 levels were found in patients receiving thrombocyte suspension (P=0.004)Conclusions. NOX-5 may have a protective effect on CCHF patients and the measurement of serum NOX-5 levels may be used as a novel biochemical test in the diagnosis of CCHF.

  14. Neonatal bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis caused by brain stem haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Blazer, S; Hemli, J A; Sujov, P O; Braun, J

    1989-01-01

    We describe a neonate with severe bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis caused by haemorrhage in the lower brain stem. To our knowledge this association has not been previously reported in the English medical literature.

  15. Spontaneous soft tissue haemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abdulla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity in clinical presentations and complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE make the diagnosis and management challenging. The mechanisms of haemorrhagic manifestations in SLE have not been well elucidated. A 47-year-old woman with no comorbidities was admitted after suffering fatigue and low grade fever for six months. She had bilateral soft tissue haemorrhage over the forearm and intra retinal haemorrhages. She was assessed and diagnosed as having SLE based on positive antinuclear antibody, strongly positive anti double stranded DNA, thrombocytopenia and low C3 and C4 levels. We describe a case of spontaneous bilateral soft tissue haemorrhage in SLE and discuss the various mechanisms causing bleeding in lupus.

  16. Risk factors associated with postpartum haemorrhage at Juba Teaching Hospital, South Sudan, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Tako Akim Ujjiga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study risk factors associated with post partum haemorrhage (PPH in Juba Teaching Hospital, South Sudan. Method: An unmatched case control study was conducted in which 44 cases and 88 Controls were involved, from September to December 2011. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire in face to face interviews, and analyzed using Epi-info 3.5.3 statistical programme to determine if there was a correlation. Results: Maternal demographic and obstetric characteristics were found to be associated with the risk of bleeding during Bivariate analysis. However, age was found to confound emergency admission, uterotonic use (Oxytocin and Misoprostol use and delivery type, the latter being modified, in the development of post partum haemorrhage. Conclusion: These results indicate that active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL and prompt intervention reduced the risk of developing PPH. Understanding the factors that cause PPH will allow us to better strengthen and effect pre delivery and emergency obstetric care which may help us reduce maternal mortality due to post partum haemorrhage.

  17. Seroprevalence of respiratory viral pathogens of indigenous calves in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaby, R; Toye, P; Jennings, A; Thumbi, S M; Coetzer, J A W; Conradie Van Wyk, I C; Hanotte, O; Mbole-Kariuki, M N; Bronsvoort, B M de C; Kruuk, L E B; Woolhouse, M E J; Kiara, H

    2016-10-01

    Most studies of infectious diseases in East African cattle have concentrated on gastro-intestinal parasites and vector-borne diseases. As a result, relatively little is known about viral diseases, except for those that are clinically symptomatic or which affect international trade such as foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease. Here, we investigate the seroprevalence, distribution and relationship between the viruses involved in respiratory disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), bovine parainfluenza virus Type 3 (PIV3) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in East African Shorthorn Zebu calves. These viruses contribute to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) which is responsible for major economic losses in cattle from intensive farming systems as a result of pneumonia. We found that calves experience similar risks of infection for IBR, PIV3, and BVDV with a seroprevalence of 20.9%, 20.1% and 19.8% respectively. We confirm that positive associations exist between IBR, PIV3 and BVDV; being seropositive for any one of these three viruses means that an individual is more likely to be seropositive for the other two viruses than expected by chance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia diagnosed in connection with a traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Demény, Ann Kathrin; Almind, Merete; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2014-02-17

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by vascular dysplasia and haemorrhage. It is manifested by mucocutaneous telangiec-tases and arteriovenous malformations in organs such as lungs, liver and brain. We present a case of HHT. A 16-year-old patient with a history of recurrent epistaxis was admitted to the local hospital with chest pain and desaturation. A CT scan revealed pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

  19. Postpartum haemorrhage: a preventable cause of maternal mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, B.; Hassan, L.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the preventable predictors of severe postpartum haemorrhage and the adverse outcome associated with it. All the admitted patients who developed severe postpartum haemorrhage (>1500 ml) were included in the study. Clinical and sociodemographic data was obtained along with results of investigations to categorize the complications encountered. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were determined. During the study period, 75 out of 4683 obstetrical admissions, developed severe postpartum haemorrhage (1.6 %). About 65% of the patients were admitted with some other complications including obstructed labour, antepartum haemorrhage and eclampsia. The risk factors were grand multiparity (OR=3.4), pre-eclampsia (OR=2.75), antepartum haemorrhage (OR=13.35), active labour of more than 10 hours (OR=46.92), twin delivery (OR=3.25), instrumental delivery (OR=8.62) and caesarean section (OR=9.74). Maternal mortality in these cases was 2.66% and residual morbidity being 40%. Birth attendant other than doctor and delivery outside the study unit were significantly associated with the adverse outcome in these patients. Maternal outcome associated with postpartum haemorrhage is a function of care given during labour and postnatal period with early diagnosis and management of the complication and its risk factors, being the key of good maternal outcome. (author)

  20. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment may also involve: Corticosteroid medicines Increased fluids Oxygen Use of humidified air A hospital stay may be needed if you are unable to drink enough and to help with breathing if oxygen ...

  1. review article marburg haemorrhagic fever: recent advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    2010-07-02

    Jul 2, 2010 ... These febrile diseases result from infection by viruses from four viral families: Arenaviridae,. Bunyaviridae ... developing preventive vaccines and postexposure interventions that can protect laboratory animals and nonhuman primates against lethal ... persons affected had contact with the blood or tissues of ...

  2. Immunization with viral antigens: viral diseases of carp and catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P

    1997-01-01

    The viral diseases of carp and catfish for which vaccines have been produced are spring viraemia of carp (SVC), grass carp haemorrhage disease (GCHD) and channel catfish virus disease (CCVD). Field trials of a commercially produced injectable vaccine conducted over several years have shown that carp can be protected against SVC. However the supporting data were predominantly qualitative rather than quantitative. Large-scale field trials of an experimental oral attenuated vaccine against SVC virus over a five year period were successful, and no reversion to virulence of the vaccine was recorded. Injectable inactivated and attenuated vaccines against GCHD have predominantly been tested under laboratory conditions, although a small number of field trials have been reported. In such trials of bath and injectable vaccines, survival rates of 50-90% were achieved. In China, commercially available vaccines are being used against GCHD. Only laboratory trials of vaccines against CCVD have been reported. Bath vaccination of eggs of fry with a subunit vaccine and bath immunisation of fingerlings with an attenuated virus vaccine have been successful. Problems with current approaches and areas for research are discussed.

  3. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES OBSERVED IN HAEMORRHAGIC AND ISCHAEMIC CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channappa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Cardiac abnormalities are relatively common after acute neurologic injury. Disturbances can vary in severity from transient ECG abnormalities to profound myocardial injury and dysfunction. CNS is involved in the generation of cardiac arrhythmias and dysfunction even in an otherwise normal myocardium. AIM To find out proportion of ECG changes observed in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Electrocardiographs of 100 patients with acute stroke were studied to find out the types of ECG abnormalities among different types of stroke. RESULTS In our study, the most common ECG abnormalities associated with stroke were prolonged QTc interval, ST-T segment abnormalities, prominent U wave and arrhythmias. Trop-I was positive in 12.8% patients with ECG changes. Statistical significance was found in association with Trop-I positivity and ST depression. CONCLUSION Usually patients with heart disease present with arrhythmias and Ischaemic like ECG changes. But these changes are also seen most often in the patients with presenting with stroke who didn’t have any past history of heart disease. This shows that arrhythmias and ischaemic ECG abnormalities are primarily evolved due to central nervous system disorders.

  4. Laparoscopic management of massive spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix due to recanalisation of the paraumbilical vein in a patient with ′Child′s Class A′ liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoop K Zachariah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix is an extremely rare complication of portal hypertension. Bleeding is usually into the peritoneal cavity and the treatment involves urgent laparotomy and ligation of the bleeding varices. We describe a cirrhotic 38-year-old man who presented with spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix which was successfully managed laparoscopically by in-situ distal clipping and proximal transcutaneous ligation of the recanalised paraumbilical veins. We therefore feel that laparoscopy can be safely and effectively employed to control external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix associated with liver cirrhosis. This novel technique can help avoid a laparotomy and also help preserve the umbilicus.

  5. Xanthochromia after subarachnoid haemorrhage needs no revisitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, M; Hasan, D; Blijenberg, B G; Hijdra, A; van Gijn, J

    1989-01-01

    Recently it was contended that it is bloodstained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that is important in the diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and not xanthochromia, and also that a normal CT scan and the absence of xanthochromia in the CSF do not exclude a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The CSF findings were therefore reviewed of 111 patients with a proven SAH. All patients had xanthochromia of the CSF. Lumbar punctures were performed between 12 hours and one week after the ictus. Xanthochromia was still present in all (41) patients after 1 week, in all (32) patients after 2 weeks, in 20 of 22 patients after three weeks and in 10 of 14 patients after four weeks. In six years we identified only 12 patients with sudden headache, normal CT, bloodstained CSF, and no xanthochromia. Angiography was carried out in three and was negative. All 12 patients survived without disability and were not re-admitted with a SAH (mean follow up 4 years). It is concluded that it is still xanthochromia that is important in the diagnosis of SAH and not bloodstained CSF. Furthermore a normal CT scan and the absence of xanthochromia do exclude a ruptured aneurysm, provided xanthochromia is investigated by spectrophotometry and lumbar puncture is carried out between 12 hours and 2 weeks after the ictus. PMID:2769274

  6. Coping strategies in patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberg, T; Orasson, A; Linnamägi, U; Toomela, A; Pulver, A; Asser, T

    2001-09-01

    To assess psychological coping strategies and their relationship with outcome in patients after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). In 51 unselected patients (24 males, 27 females; mean age 46 years) in an average 15.7+/-12.0 months after SAH usage of coping strategies were assessed by means of Estonian COPE-D test with 15 four-items scales and compared to those obtained from 51 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy persons. The data were analysed according to age, sex and education of the patients, initial severity of disease, localization of aneurysm and outcome characteristics. Patients after SAH reported using social support strategy less than control persons (Pcoping styles were less used (Pdisability and dependence in daily living. Healthy women used social support more than men; patients and control persons 50 years or older used task-oriented strategies less than younger persons (Pcoping strategies used by patients after SAH differs compared to healthy persons. The differences in using coping strategies are related to age of the patients, functional state and degree of adaptation after SAH.

  7. Dural sinus thrombosis presenting as unilateral lobar haematomas with mass effect: an easily misdiagnosed cause of cerebral haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.; Chakera, T.

    2002-01-01

    Dural sinus thrombosis has protean clinical and radiological manifestations ranging from minimal effacement of sulci with no symptoms to severe haemorrhagic infarcts associated with focal deficits, coma and even death. An uncommon form of presentation is characterized by unilateral lobar haemorrhage associated with extensive oedema and parenchyma! distortion. In an acute presentation, this might resemble haemorrhage into a tumour. In delayed presentations, the haematoma, being iso- or hypodense and showing peripheral ring-like enhancement, can mimic aggressive tumours or infective processes. As this is an uncommon condition, misdiagnosis is common with the potential for mismanagement and adverse outcomes. We present five such consecutive cases that were initially misdiagnosed as other entities. Each of these cases on closer inspection show features observed on CT and MRI that should have suggested a diagnosis of dural venous sinus thrombosis. One of these cases progressed to not only extensively involve the superficial sinuses but also the deep veins, with a significant adverse outcome. The imaging features of this interesting variant of dural sinus thrombosis are reviewed. The haemodynamic basis for haemorrhage and anatonaical basis for the lateralization of the lesions are discussed. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Dabigatran ameliorates post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus development after germinal matrix haemorrhage in neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebe, Damon; Flores, Jerry J; McBride, Devin W; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William B; Lekic, Tim; Zhang, John H

    2017-09-01

    We aim to determine if direct thrombin inhibition by dabigatran will improve long-term brain morphological and neurofunctional outcomes and if potential therapeutic effects are dependent upon reduced PAR-1 stimulation and consequent mTOR activation. Germinal matrix haemorrhage was induced by stereotaxically injecting 0.3 U type VII-S collagenase into the germinal matrix of P7 rat pups. Animals were divided into five groups: sham, vehicle (5% DMSO), dabigatran intraperitoneal, dabigatran intraperitoneal + TFLLR-NH 2 (PAR-1 agonist) intranasal, SCH79797 (PAR-1 antagonist) intraperitoneal, and dabigatran intranasal. Neurofunctional outcomes were determined by Morris water maze, rotarod, and foot fault evaluations at three weeks. Brain morphological outcomes were determined by histological Nissl staining at four weeks. Expression levels of p-mTOR/p-p70s6k at three days and vitronectin/fibronectin at 28 days were quantified. Intranasal and intraperitoneal dabigatran promoted long-term neurofunctional recovery, improved brain morphological outcomes, and reduced intracranial pressure at four weeks after GMH. PAR-1 stimulation tended to reverse dabigatran's effects on post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus development. Dabigatran also reduced expression of short-term p-mTOR and long-term extracellular matrix proteins, which tended to be reversed by PAR-1 agonist co-administration. PAR-1 inhibition alone, however, did not achieve the same therapeutic effects as dabigatran administration.

  9. Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I-Mediated Repression of PDZ-LIM Domain-Containing Protein 2 Involves DNA Methylation But Independent of the Viral Oncoprotein Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengrong Yan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. Our recent studies have shown that one important mechanism of HTLV-I-Mediated tumorigenesis is through PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 (PDLIM2 repression, although the involved mechanism remains unknown. Here, we further report that HTLV-I-Mediated PDLIM2 repression was a pathophysiological event and the PDLIM2 repression involved DNA methylation. Whereas DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3b but not 3a were upregulated in HTLV-I-transformed T cells, the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC restored PDLIM2 expression and induced death of these malignant cells. Notably, the PDLIM2 repression was independent of the viral regulatory protein Tax because neither short-term induction nor long-term stable expression of Tax could downregulate PDLIM2 expression. These studies provide important insights into PDLIM2 regulation, HTLV-I leukemogenicity, long latency, and cancer health disparities. Given the efficient antitumor activity with no obvious toxicity of 5-aza-dC, these studies also suggest potential therapeutic strategies for ATL.

  10. Fulminant intravascular lymphomatosis mimicking acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, D; Sicurelli, F; Cerase, A; Tripodi, S; Cintorino, M; Lazzi, S; Federico, A

    2012-09-15

    Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, usually of B cell lineage, characterized by massive angiotropic growth. The clinical presentation of IVL may include changes in mental status, non-localizing neurological deficits, seizures, fever of unknown origin and skin changes. Because of its rarity and the absence of specific diagnostic procedures except for cerebral biopsy, diagnosis is often postmortem. Brain MRI usually shows non-specific abnormalities. The purpose of this case report is to increase the knowledge of clinical and neuroimaging features of IVL by describing the findings observed in a 71-year-old patient. A 71-year-old male was admitted for right hemiparesis, acute cognitive impairment and febricula. A bone marrow biopsy resulted normal. He then developed a rapid progressive impairment of his mental status and left hemisoma motor seizures. Brain CT and MRI were interpreted as consistent with acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (AHLE), including multiple areas of restricted diffusion without gadolinium enhancement and a small focal area of gadolinium enhancement in the left temporal lobe white matter. The patient died within a few days and the autopsy led to the diagnosis of IVL. IVL may present with a variety of clinical signs and symptoms, including stroke and hemiparesis. IVL may mimic AHLE at brain MRI. However, the evidence of multiple areas of restricted diffusion without gadolinium enhancement and of a small area of gadolinium enhancement could have led to the correct diagnosis. IVL should be added to the differential diagnosis of AHLE at brain MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metastatic angiosarcoma: a vascular tumour or an intracranial haemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Izhaq; McIlwaine, Werner

    2010-04-29

    A 64-year-old man presented with weakness of his right arm and leg. He had previously had mitral valve replacement, tricuspid annuloplasty, leg deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and femoral embolism. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed an acute left thalamic haemorrhage. Repeat CT brain showed resolution of the original haemorrhage, but the apparent development of new areas of haemorrhage. Warfarin continued due to high risk of thromboembolism. He was readmitted with the rapid development of a visible swelling at the sternum and on the scalp. Ultrasound scan of the sternum revealed a vascular tumour. Suspected haemorrhages in the past were reported as the metastatic deposits. Biopsy and immunohistochemical staining confirmed angiosarcoma of the scalp. Being vascular tumours, angiosarcoma can mimic a brain haemorrhage. Our case illustrates a clinical conundrum. Diagnosing metastatic angiosarcoma of the brain proved difficult without visible primary and histology. The rapid clinical course of the disease and problems with anticoagulation therapy made treatment options limited and the prognosis worse.

  12. [Fatal alveolar haemorrhage following a "bang" of cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassin, F; André, M; Rallec, B; Combes, E; Vinsonneau, U; Paleiron, N

    2011-09-01

    The new methods of cannabis consumption (home made water pipe or "bang") may be responsible for fatal respiratory complications. We present a case, with fatal outcome, of a man of 19 years with no previous history other than an addiction to cannabis using "bang". He was admitted to intensive care with acute dyspnoea. A CT scan showed bilateral, diffuse alveolar shadowing. He was anaemic with an Hb of 9.3g/l. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed massive alveolar haemorrhage. Investigations for infection and immunological disorder were negative and toxicology was negative except for cannabis. Antibiotic treatment was given and favourable progress allowed early discharge. Death occurred 15 days later due to alveolar haemorrhage following a further "bang" of cannabis. Autopsy showed toxic alveolar haemorrhage. The probable mechanism is pulmonary damage due to acid anhydrides released by the incomplete combustion of cannabis in contact with plastic. These acids have a double effect on the lungs: a direct toxicity with severe inflammation of the mucosa leading to alveolar haemorrhage and subsequently the acid anhydrides may lead to the syndrome of intra-alveolar haemorrhage and anaemia described in occupational lung diseases by Herbert in Oxford in 1979. It manifests itself by haemoptysis and intravascular haemolysis. We draw attention to the extremely serious potential consequences of new methods of using cannabis, particularly the use of "bang" in homemade plastic materials. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. International prospective observational study of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: Does weekend admission affect outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Iain A.; Dalton, Harry R.; Stanley, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Out of hours admissions have higher mortality for many conditions but upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage studies have produced variable outcomes. Methods Prospective study of 12 months consecutive admissions of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from four international high volume ce...

  14. Trends in monitoring patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, J B; Frederiksen, H-J; Eskesen, V

    2005-01-01

    After aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), the clinical outcome depends upon the primary haemorrhage and a number of secondary insults in the acute post-haemorrhagic period. Some secondary insults are potentially preventable but prevention requires prompt recognition of cerebral or systemic...... implemented monitoring system provides answers but it also raises valuable new questions challenging our current understanding of the brain injury after SAH....... complications. Currently, several neuro-monitoring techniques are available; this review describes the most frequently used techniques and discusses indications for their use, and their value in diagnosis and prognosis. None of the techniques, when considered in isolation, has proved sufficient after SAH...... with the conventional monitoring systems, for example intracranial pressure measurements, transcranial Doppler ultrasound and modern neuro-imaging, direct assessment of biochemical markers by intracerebral microdialysis is promising in the advancement of neurointensive care of patients with SAH. A successfully...

  15. Neurosurgical management of L-asparaginase induced haemorrhagic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a case of L-asparaginase induced intracranial thrombosis and subsequent haemorrhage in a newly diagnosed 30-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who was successfully managed by surgical intervention. At presentation, he had a Glasgow Coma Score of 7\\/15, was aphasic and had dense right hemiplegia. Neuroimaging revealed an acute anterior left middle cerebral artery infarct with parenchymal haemorrhagic conversion, mass effect and subfalcine herniation. He subsequently underwent left frontal craniotomy and evacuation of large frontal haematoma and decompressive craniectomy for cerebral oedema. Six months postoperatively he underwent titanium cranioplasty. He had made good clinical recovery and is currently mobilising independently with mild occasional episodes of expressive dysphasia, difficulty with fine motor movement on the right side, and has remained seizure free. This is the first documented case of L-asparaginase induced haemorrhagic stroke managed by neurosurgical intervention. The authors emphasise the possible role of surgery in managing chemotherapy induced intracranial complications.

  16. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst.

  17. The value of MRI in angiogram-negative intracranial haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renowden, S.A. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Molyneux, A.J. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Anslow, P. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Byrne, J.V. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    In one year, cerebral angiograms were performed for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) on 334 patients. No cause for haemorrhage could be identified in 41 (12 %), 30 of whom had predominantly subarachnoid (SAH) and 11 predominantly parenchymal haemorrhage (PH). These patients were prospectively examined by cranial MRI 1-6 weeks after the ictus. The MRI studies were positive in 7 patients (17 %). In the 30 patients examined after SAH, 2 studies were positive, showing an aneurysm in one case and a brain stem lesion of uncertain aetiology in the other. In those examined after PH, cavernous angiomas were shown in 2, a tumour in 1 and a vascular malformation in another; useful diagnostic information was thus obtained in 36 % of this group. (orig.)

  18. Haemorrhagic cholecystitis: an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Natalie

    2014-01-17

    Haemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is a difficult diagnosis to make. This case report describes an orthopaedic patient, who developed deranged liver function tests and anaemia after a hemiarthroplasty of the hip. The patient had upper abdominal pain and black stools which clinically appeared to be melaena. An ultrasound scan of the abdomen was inconclusive, and therefore a CT was performed and the potential diagnosis of haemorrhagic cholecystitis was raised. An endoscopic evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract showed no evidence of other causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Following an emergency laparotomy and cholecystectomy, she recovered well. This report aims to increase awareness about the uncommon condition of haemorrhagic cholecystitis, and to educate regarding clinical and radiological signs which lead to this diagnosis.

  19. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) outbreaks in Finnish-rainbow trout farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja-Halli, M.; Vehmas, T.K.; Rimaila-Parnanen, E.

    2006-01-01

    and NV gene regions of Finnish VHSV isolates collected between 2000 and 2004 revealed that all isolates were closely related, with 99.3 to 100% nucleotide identity, which suggests the same origin of infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they were closely related to the old freshwater isolates...... from rainbow trout in Denmark and to one old marine isolate from cod in the Baltic Sea, and that they were located close to the presumed ancestral source. As the Finnish isolates induce lower mortality than freshwater VHSV isolates in infection experiments, they could represent an intermediate stage...

  20. Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, T.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2010-01-01

    IVa) from diseased farmed Japanese flounder. Ten hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VHSV were established. One of these, MAb VHS-10, reacted only with genotype IVa in indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and ELISA. Using cell cultures that were transfected...

  1. Distinction of genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, J.; Sano, M.

    III isolates except the rainbow trout pathogenic isolate from Norway (NO-2007-50-385) (Dale et al. in press), but did react with the New Brunswick VHSV IVb isolate (Oliver 2002, Gagné et al. 2007). Another MAb (VHS-1.88) reacted with genotype IVb only, except with the New Brunswick isolate...

  2. Search for genetic virulence markers in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) using a reverse genetics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Anders; Biacchesi, S.; Bremont, M.

    2011-01-01

    for virulence to rainbow trout makes it difficult to differentiate between dangerous and harmless VHSV variants. With the aim of identification of genetic virulence markers, we have implemented reverse genetics technology for generation of hybrid virus variants. By substituting different regions in the genome...

  3. Giant cystic thymoma with haemorrhage and necrosis: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Radha R; Sahu, Kausalya; Shetty, A B; Goel, Garima; Prasad, H V Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Extreme degree of cystic, haemorrhagic and necrotic changes in a thymoma is rare. A 22-year-old male presented with cough, grade 2 dyspnoea, and occasional chest pain for the past six months. Radiological investigations revealed a large cystic lesion in the anterior mediastinum. A benign cystic tumour was suspected. Surgical resection of the tumour was done. Grossly, the almost entirely cystic and haemorrhagic dumb-bell shaped encapsulated tumour showed a subcapsular residual nodule. Histopathological examination was suggestive diagnosis of benign thymoma (World Health Organization [WHO] Type A, medullary type) associated with the rare features of cells with dendritic processes containing melanin pigment seen singly scattered throughout the tumour.

  4. Emergence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 in the archipelago of Madeira, Portugal (2016-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carina Luísa; Silva, Sara; Gouveia, Paz; Costa, Margarida; Duarte, Elsa Leclerc; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Santos; Luís, Tiago; Ramos, Fernanda; Fagulha, Teresa; Fevereiro, Miguel; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-12-01

    We report the detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) in the Madeira archipelago, Portugal. Viral circulation was confirmed by RT-qPCR and vp60 sequencing. Epidemiological data revealed the outbreak initiated in October 2016 in Porto Santo affecting wild and domestic rabbits. It was then detected three months later on the island of Madeira. Five haplotypes were identified and a genetic overall similarity of 99.54 to 99.89% was observed between the two viral populations. Unique single nucleotide polymorphisms were recognised in the Madeira archipelago strains, two of which resulting in amino acid substitutions at positions 480 and 570 in the VP60 protein. Phylogenetic investigation by Maximum Likelihood showed all the vp60 sequences from the Madeira archipelago group together with high bootstraps. The analysis also showed that the Madeira archipelago strains are closely related to the strains detected in the south of mainland Portugal in 2016, suggesting a possible introduction from the mainland. The epidemiological data and high genetic similarity indicate a common source for the Porto Santo and Madeira RHDV2 outbreaks. Human activity related to hunting was most probably at the origin of the Madeira outbreak.

  5. Fulminant post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage caused by aberrant course of the external carotid artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R; Zeebregts, CJ; Dikkers, FG

    Haemorrhage, throat pain and otalgia are common complications following tonsillectomy. Haemorrhage is rarely life-threatening but in this paper we describe a fulminant secondary haemorrhage due to an aberrant external carotid artery in an eight-year-old boy. Acute surgical intervention with ligation

  6. Accuracy in diagnosis of postpartum haemorrhage using visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in the developing country and yet is poorly diagnosed due to inaccurate measurement of blood loss following delivery. A study was carried out at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) Tanzania between 14th October 2005 and 31st January 2006 to determine ...

  7. Review article: Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leerdam, M. E.; Tytgat, G. N. J.

    2002-01-01

    In this overview, medical advice for routine clinical practice regarding peptic ulcer haemorrhage (PUH) is given, based on the extensive literature about Helicobacter pylori and the controversial results about the interaction of H. pylori infection and nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)

  8. Haemorrhagic pseudocyst of the pancreatic tail causing acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemorrhagic pseudocyst of the pancreatic tail causing acute abdominal pain in a 12-year-old girl ... Introduction. The acute abdomen in childhood has various aetiologies and represents a leading cause of hospitalization of children [1]. ... The decision was made to manage the patient surgically because of her progressive ...

  9. Haemorrhagic Vaginal Discharge Following Ovariectomy in a Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemorrhagic Vaginal Discharge Following Ovariectomy in a Three Year Old Domestic Short-haired Cat. RA Ajadi, OO Adebayo, TA Ajadi. Abstract. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, VOL:33 (1) 403-406. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Haemorrhage in the labyrinth caused by anticoagulant therapy: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callonnec, F.; Gerardin, E.; Thiebot, J. [Department of Radiology, Rouen University Hospital, 1 rue de Germont, F-76031 Rouen cedex (France); Marie, J.P.; Andrieu Guitrancourt, J. [Department of Otolaryngology, Rouen University Hospital (France); Marsot-Dupuch, K. [Department of Radiology, St. Antoine, Paris University Hospital (France)

    1999-06-01

    We report a patient who experienced a severe vertiginous episode with bilateral tinnitus and progressive right-sided hearing loss. She had Marfan`s disease and was on anticoagulant treatment. The fluid in the labyrinth gave higher signal than cerebrospinal fluid on T1-weighted images, suggesting haemorrhage. The radiological follow-up is discussed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 11 refs.

  11. Expression of VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) YL strain in Northeast of China, under control of the ats1A promoter from Rubisco small subunit genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, was introduced into the transfer deoxyribonucleic acid (T-DNA) region of plant transfer vector pCAMBIA1300 and transferred to ...

  12. Marburg haemorrhagic fever: A rare but fatal disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain, nausea and vomiting. Most patients deteriorate rapidly with severe haemorrhages between days 5 and 7, from multiple sites including the nose, gums, intestines and ... tests as they may continue to bleed from the puncture sites despite efforts to control such bleeding. In addition, this may expose the practitioner to the.

  13. Uterine artery embolization: an effective treatment for intractable obstetric haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, T.-M.; Tseng, H.-S.; Lee, R.-C.; Wang, J.-H.; Chang, C.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To present the findings of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 1999 to February 2003, 10 women with postpartum haemorrhage (n=7) and post-abortion haemorrhage with placenta accreta (n=3), were referred to our department for pelvic angiography and possible arterial embolization. RESULTS: Angiography revealed engorged and tortuous uterine arteries in all patients; and contrast medium extravasation in three patients. Eight patients (three with and five without detectable active bleeding) then underwent bilateral UAE. Medium-sized (250-355 μm) polyvinyl alcohol particles were injected via a coaxial catheter into the uterine arteries, followed by gelatin sponge pieces via a 4 F Cobra catheter. Microcoil devascularization was also performed in the two patients with visible, active bleeding. The vaginal bleeding resolved in all patients, without any ischaemic complications. At follow-up, all patients who underwent UAE had normal menstruation; three of them subsequently gave birth to full-term healthy babies. CONCLUSION: Selective UAE by the coaxial method is safe and effective to control obstetric haemorrhage, with the potential to preserve fertility

  14. Prospective study of sentinel headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linn, F.H.H.; Wijdicks, E.F.M.; Graaf, Y. van der; Weerdesteyn-van Vliet, F.A.C.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Gijn, J. van

    1994-01-01

    Retrospective surveys of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage suggest that minor episodes with sudden headache (warning leaks) may precede rupture of an aneurysm, and that early recognition and surgery might lead to improved outcome. We studied 148 patients with sudden and severe headache

  15. Pattern of Antepartum Haemorrhage at the Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Errata: Note that the original file was found to have errors. The erroneous file was removed and only the corrected file is now available for download (errata). The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage (APH) was 3.5%. Placenta praevia with an incidence of 2.0% constituted 58.4% of the cause of APH, followed by placental ...

  16. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: epidemiological studies on aetiology and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Risselada (Roelof)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSubarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space ‒ the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. SAH occurs spontaneously or can be caused by traumatic injury of the head. Spontaneous SAH is caused by rupture of an intracranial

  17. Intra-arterial nimodipine for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Intra-arterial nimodipine (IAN) has shown a promising effect on cerebral vasospasm (CV) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. At our institution, Rigshospitalet, IAN treatment has been used since 2009, but the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of IAN has not yet been assessed. The purpo...

  18. Uterine artery embolization: an effective treatment for intractable obstetric haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, T.-M.; Tseng, H.-S. E-mail: hstseng@vghtpe.gov.tw; Lee, R.-C.; Wang, J.-H.; Chang, C.-Y

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To present the findings of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 1999 to February 2003, 10 women with postpartum haemorrhage (n=7) and post-abortion haemorrhage with placenta accreta (n=3), were referred to our department for pelvic angiography and possible arterial embolization. RESULTS: Angiography revealed engorged and tortuous uterine arteries in all patients; and contrast medium extravasation in three patients. Eight patients (three with and five without detectable active bleeding) then underwent bilateral UAE. Medium-sized (250-355 {mu}m) polyvinyl alcohol particles were injected via a coaxial catheter into the uterine arteries, followed by gelatin sponge pieces via a 4 F Cobra catheter. Microcoil devascularization was also performed in the two patients with visible, active bleeding. The vaginal bleeding resolved in all patients, without any ischaemic complications. At follow-up, all patients who underwent UAE had normal menstruation; three of them subsequently gave birth to full-term healthy babies. CONCLUSION: Selective UAE by the coaxial method is safe and effective to control obstetric haemorrhage, with the potential to preserve fertility.

  19. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (PV-IVH) aInong very-low-birthweight infants at Baragwanath Hospital has not been well docwnented. In this prospective study, a total of 282 live-born infants with birth weights of 1 000 - 1 749 g were studied over a 41/2-month period. Every infant had at least ...

  20. Post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage following traditional uvulectomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    routinely performed in children due to the traditional belief that an elongated uvula is responsible for all throat problems, including suffocation during sleep in the neonatal period. Occasionally, it is done during ethnic identification ritual practices.2 The commonest complications following this procedure include haemorrhage,.

  1. Management of haemorrhage secondary to a pseudoaneurysm of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (CT) scan revealed multiple pancreatic body calcifications and a dilated biliary tree. In the region of the pancreatic head, a 6 cm pseudoan- eurysm with contained contrast enhancement was identified (Fig. 1). Management of haemorrhage secondary to a pseudoaneurysm of the gastroduodenal artery. Affes Nejmeddine ...

  2. Delayed Optochiasmal Arachnoiditis following Intervention for a Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Neoh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Visual morbidity following a subarachnoid haemorrhage is common among survivors and it is usually the result of vascular ischaemia at the time of the initial insult. In this report, we present an unusual case of delayed, progressive visual loss following intervention for a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. We discuss the possible etiological factors and highlight potential diagnostic pitfalls.

  3. Life threatening vaginal haemorrhage from coital laceration in a post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 55-year-old woman who presented as an emergency with haemorrhagic shock following vaginal bleeding from consensual coitus is presented. She was resuscitated with intravenous fluids and blood transfusions. The vaginal laceration of about 5 cm on the right side of the posterior fornix was sutured ...

  4. Massive pulmonary haemorrhage as a cause of death in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetric information revealed that 29 mothers (93.5%) experienced obstetric complications, viz. preeclampsia/ eclampsia syndrome 21 (64.5%), abruptio placentae 5 (16.1 %) and previous pregnancy losses 9 ... The majority of babies suffering pulmonary haemorrhage were not associated with intensive care management.

  5. Functional recovery differs between ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, V.P.; Ketelaar, M.; Visser-Meily, A.J.; de Groot, V.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Lindeman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is a difference between patients with a cerebral infarction and those with an intracerebral haemorrhage with respect to the development of independence in activities of daily living over the first year post-stroke. Methods: Patients after first-ever stroke who

  6. Functional recovery differs between ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Vera P. M.; Ketelaar, Marjoliin; Visser-Meily, Anne J. M.; de Groot, Vincent; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Lindeman, Eline

    Objective: To determine whether there is a difference between patients with a cerebral infarction and those with an intracerebral haemorrhage with respect to the development of independence in activities of daily living over the first year post-stroke. Methods: Patients after first-ever stroke who

  7. Review of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage in Sagamu, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of these deliveries, 76 had primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), giving a prevalence of 3.1%. Uterine atony and genital tract trauma were the main causes of the primary PPH. Associated factors were prolonged second and third stages of labour, induction and augmentation of labour with oxytocin and instrumental ...

  8. New trends in the management of postpartum haemorrhage | Dyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New trends in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. ... Africa is poor access to basic obstetric care, blood products and basic commodities, such as electricity, for the refrigeration of blood and drugs such as oxytocin.1 Nevertheless, there are many areas where management, and hence outcomes, could be improved.

  9. Newborn haemorrhagic disorders: about 30 cases | El Hasbaoui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted a descriptive study from December 2015 to April 2016, about newborns admitted to medical emergencies for haemorrhagic syndrome defined by ... in most of cases with exception (nine babies had pallor with hypotonia, three babies suffered from hypovolemic shock, respiratory distress(10%), drowsiness, ...

  10. Comparison of serum lipid profile in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Sharif, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum lipid profile between patients of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Study Design: Cross sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2004 to February 2005. Methodology: Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 100 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes were included in the study while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from study. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan of brain was done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. Statistical analysis was done by comparison of lipid profile in two subgroups, using proportion test for any significant difference. Results: The mean age at presentation of patients with stroke was 64.2+-12 years with a male to female ratio of 3.6:1. In 100 ischaemic stroke patients, raised serum total cholesterol was seen in 42, triglyceride in 04, LDL-cholesterol in 05 and VLDL-cholesterol in 07 patients. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below the normal reference in 31 cases. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides was raised in 05 patients each, LDL-cholesterol in 09 and VLDL-cholesterol in 03 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below normal in 04 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. On comparison, there were significantly greater number of patients with raised serum cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol in ischaemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found on comparing serum values of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke for triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: Ischaemic stroke patients had high serum total cholesterol and lower HDL-cholesterol levels as compared to

  11. Rare cause of respiratory failure in a young woman: isolated diffuse alveolar haemorrhage requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Makkuni, Damodar; Ail, Dhiraj

    2017-08-03

    A previously healthy 21-year-old young woman presented with worsening dyspnoea and haemoptysis. Imaging was suggestive of widespread pulmonary haemorrhage. There was no other organ system involvement in particular no evidence of renal involvement. Raised antimyeloperoxidase titres allowed diagnosis of isolated diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) secondary to microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). The patient rapidly deteriorated with worsening respiratory failure despite invasive mechanical ventilation and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This maintained the patient long enough to allow aggressive therapy in the form of immunosuppression and plasma exchange. She made a remarkable recovery and is asymptomatic 2 years on. Isolated DAH in the absence of renal disease is an atypical presentation of MPA and can lead to diagnostic uncertainty. A literature review reveals increasing reports of successful use of ECMO in severe DAH due to pulmonary vasculitis. Despite this, the need for systemic anticoagulation in the presence of pre-existing haemorrhage remains a challenging dilemma. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Model of OSBP-Mediated Cholesterol Supply to Aichi Virus RNA Replication Sites Involving Protein-Protein Interactions among Viral Proteins, ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Sasaki, Kumiko; Nagashima, Shigeo; Taniguchi, Koki; Sasaki, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Positive-strand RNA viruses, including picornaviruses, utilize cellular machinery for genome replication. Previously, we reported that each of the 2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB proteins of Aichi virus (AiV), a picornavirus, forms a complex with the Golgi apparatus protein ACBD3 and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) at viral RNA replication sites (replication organelles [ROs]), enhancing PI4KB-dependent phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) production. Here, we demonstrate AiV hijacking of the cellular cholesterol transport system involving oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), a PI4P-binding cholesterol transfer protein. AiV RNA replication was inhibited by silencing cellular proteins known to be components of this pathway, OSBP, the ER membrane proteins VAPA and VAPB (VAP-A/B), the PI4P-phosphatase SAC1, and PI-transfer protein β. OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1 were present at RNA replication sites. We also found various previously unknown interactions among the AiV proteins (2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB), ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1, and the interactions were suggested to be involved in recruiting the component proteins to AiV ROs. Importantly, the OSBP-2B interaction enabled PI4P-independent recruitment of OSBP to AiV ROs, indicating preferential recruitment of OSBP among PI4P-binding proteins. Protein-protein interaction-based OSBP recruitment has not been reported for other picornaviruses. Cholesterol was accumulated at AiV ROs, and inhibition of OSBP-mediated cholesterol transfer impaired cholesterol accumulation and AiV RNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that AiV-induced vesicle-like structures were close to ER membranes. Altogether, we conclude that AiV directly recruits the cholesterol transport machinery through protein-protein interactions, resulting in formation of membrane contact sites between the ER and AiV ROs and cholesterol supply to the ROs. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses utilize host pathways to modulate the lipid composition of

  13. Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Leilei; Li, Peiying; Zhu, Wen; Cai, Wei; Liu, Zongjian; Wang, Yanling; Luo, Wenli; Stetler, Ruth A; Leak, Rehana K; Yu, Weifeng; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Gang; Hu, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    studies demonstrated that regulatory T cells completely abolished the tPA-induced elevation of MMP9 and CCL2 after stroke. Using MMP9 and CCL2 knockout mice, we discovered that both molecules partially contributed to the protective actions of regulatory T cells. In an in vitro endothelial cell-based model of the blood-brain barrier, we confirmed that regulatory T cells inhibited tPA-induced endothelial expression of CCL2 and preserved blood-brain barrier integrity after an ischaemic challenge. Lentivirus-mediated CCL2 knockdown in endothelial cells completely abolished the blood-brain barrier protective effect of regulatory T cells in vitro. Altogether, our studies suggest that regulatory T cell adoptive transfer may alleviate thrombolytic treatment-induced haemorrhage in stroke victims. Furthermore, regulatory T cell-afforded protection in the tPA-treated stroke model is mediated by two inhibitory mechanisms involving CCL2 and MMP9. Thus, regulatory T cell adoptive transfer may be useful as a cell-based therapy to improve the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment for ischaemic stroke. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A case report of haemorrhagic-aneurismal bone cyst of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grecchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic-aneurismal bone cysts (HABCs are quite rare, benign, non-neoplastic, expansive, and vascular locally destructive lesions. They are generally considered sequelae of an earlier trauma causing an overflow of blood into the bone. HABCs are classified as pseudocysts and they should be differentiated from true cysts because their treatment is different. Since few of these cysts involve subjective symptoms, most are discovered accidentally during radiography, while a sure diagnosis is likely to be obtained only during surgery, on discovery of a non-epithelialised cavity. Here, we report a typical case of a haemorrhagic-mandibular cyst in a 13-year-old girl, which was treated by opening the cavity and scraping its walls following diagnostic arteriography and post-operative transcutaneous intralesional embolization. No further complications were recorded in the post-operative period, although the convalescence lasted for a time longer than expected, because of anemia. No further surgery was performed. She has been disease-free for two years. Evaluation of intralesional blood flow is important for HABCs because of the hemorrhagic risk in surgery. Embolization seems to be a useful procedure in the treatment of HABCs and could be tried as the treatment modality in the standard protocol for the treatment of HABCs.

  15. Uterine massage for preventing postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Abdel-Aleem, Mahmoud A

    2013-07-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) (bleeding from the genital tract after childbirth) is a major cause of maternal mortality and disability, particularly in under-resourced areas. In these settings, uterotonics are often not accessible. There is a need for simple, inexpensive techniques which can be applied in low-resourced settings to prevent and treat PPH. Uterine massage is recommended as part of the routine active management of the third stage of labour. However, it is not known whether it is effective. If shown to be effective, uterine massage would represent a simple intervention with the potential to have a major effect on PPH and maternal mortality in under-resourced settings. To determine the effectiveness of uterine massage after birth and before or after delivery of the placenta, or both, to reduce postpartum blood loss and associated morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013). All published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials comparing uterine massage alone or in addition to uterotonics before or after delivery of the placenta, or both, with non-massage. Two researchers independently considered trials for eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using the agreed form. Data were checked for accuracy. The effect of uterine massage commenced before or after placental delivery were first assessed separately, and then the combined for an overall result. This review included two randomised controlled trials. The first trial included 200 women who were randomised to receive uterine massage or no massage following delivery of the placenta, after active management of the third stage of labour including use of oxytocin. The numbers of women with blood loss more than 500 mL was small, with no statistically significant difference (risk ratio (RR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 1.67). There were no cases of retained placenta in either group. The mean

  16. Intracranial Aneurysms Involving Circle of Willis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Associated Vasculitis- A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoti, Amol Madanlal; Taori, Abhijit Kishor; Dhok, Avinash Parashuram; Rawat, Jitesh Subhash; Chandak, Nihar Umakant

    2017-07-01

    Intracranial Arterial Aneurysms (IAAs) are relatively rare in paediatric population and they account for at least 10%-15% of haemorrhagic strokes which occur during the first two decades of life. Here we present a unique and unusual case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected child who presented with intracranial aneurysms with formation of collaterals and vasculopathy, demonstrating low viral count despite receiving adequate antiretroviral treatment. Intracranial vascular involvement, their complications and its incidence in these patients may become increasingly common as the management of human immunodeficiency virus infection continues to improve and afflicted patients survive for longer periods because of advancement in the antiretroviral treatment. Diagnosing aneurysm of cerebral circulation needs high degree of suspicion and correlation between clinical and radiological findings.

  17. A survey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in livestock and ticks in Ardabil Province, Iran during 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmadarraiy, Z; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Moradi, Maryam; Vatandoost, Hasan; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Faghihi, Faezeh; Zarei, Zabiollah; Haeri, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by the CCHF virus. It is mainly transmitted to humans and animals by ticks. In recent y, large numbers of livestock have been transported across the border areas of Ardabil Province resulting in an outbreak of CCHF in the adjacent districts. A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the epidemiological aspects of the disease in this province. In the study area, 130 ticks were collected from randomly selected villages and classified into 9 species of hard tick and 2 species of soft tick. All ticks were analyzed for the presence of CCHF virus genome using gel-based and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). The results showed CCHF infection in almost 28% of ticks collectively. Also, of 56 livestock sera, around 39% were IgG-positive. The presence of anti-CCHF virus IgG antibodies and the CCHF virus genome in ticks points to a great hidden threat of an outbreak in these districts. Those in high-risk professions in this province should be informed and trained on the risk of CCHF with urgency.

  18. Characterizing amide proton transfer imaging in haemorrhage brain lesions using 3T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ha-Kyu [Philips Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Basic Science Institute, Chungcheongbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyunghwa [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of MRI Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhao, Yansong [Philips Healthcare, MR Clinical Science, Cleveland, OH (United States); Choi, Yoon Seong; Lee, Seung-Koo; Ahn, Sung Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize amide proton transfer (APT)-weighted signals in acute and subacute haemorrhage brain lesions of various underlying aetiologies. Twenty-three patients with symptomatic haemorrhage brain lesions including tumorous (n = 16) and non-tumorous lesions (n = 7) were evaluated. APT imaging was performed and analyzed with magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTR{sub asym}). Regions of interest were defined as the enhancing portion (when present), acute or subacute haemorrhage, and normal-appearing white matter based on anatomical MRI. MTR{sub asym} values were compared among groups and components using a linear mixed model. MTR{sub asym} values were 3.68 % in acute haemorrhage, 1.6 % in subacute haemorrhage, 2.65 % in the enhancing portion, and 0.38 % in normal white matter. According to the linear mixed model, the distribution of MTR{sub asym} values among components was not significantly different between tumour and non-tumour groups. MTR{sub asym} in acute haemorrhage was significantly higher than those in the other regions regardless of underlying pathology. Acute haemorrhages showed high MTR{sub asym} regardless of the underlying pathology, whereas subacute haemorrhages showed lower MTR{sub asym} than acute haemorrhages. These results can aid in the interpretation of APT imaging in haemorrhage brain lesions. (orig.)

  19. Arrival of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 to northern Europe: Emergence and outbreaks in wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, A S; Ahola, H; Zohari, S; Larsson Pettersson, U; Bröjer, C; Capucci, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2018-02-01

    Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease. Using RHDV2-specific RT-qPCR, sequencing of the VP60 gene and immunological virus typing of archived and prospective case material from the National Veterinary Institute's (SVA) wildlife disease surveillance programme and diagnostic pathology service, we describe the emergence of RHDV2 in Sweden in both wild and domestic rabbits. The earliest documented outbreak occurred on 22 May 2013, and from May 2013 to May 2016, 10 separate incidents of RHDV2 were documented from six different municipalities in the southern half of Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP60 gene shows clear clustering of Swedish isolates into three separate clusters within two different clades according to geographic location and time, suggesting viral evolution, multiple introduction events or both. Almost all cases of RHD examined by SVA from May 2013 to May 2016 were caused by RHDV2, suggesting that RHDV2 may be replacing RHDV as the predominant cause of RHD in Sweden. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Rehabilitation following intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsby, Amanda; Buddha, Sandeep

    2013-05-24

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was first used in adults with severe respiratory failure in the 1970s. Its use has been steadily increasing since the 1990s after a trial demonstrated improved survival. There are currently seven centres in the UK offering ECMO to adults. Neurological complications are often picked up within the first few days of initiating ECMO. Intracerebral haemorrhage is a well recognised complication and it is the leading cause of death in infants on ECMO and rates of 9-18.9% in adults have been reported. We report a 52-year-old woman admitted in severe type 1 respiratory failure in January 2012. She was transferred to a tertiary centre and suffered bitemporal and right parietal haemorrhages on ECMO in late February. She was repatriated to our unit for rehabilitation in April 2012. Her rehabilitation needs represent the complexity of this patient group with multiple medical, behavioural and physical challenges.

  1. Therapeutic management of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Martín-Quirós, Alejandro; Trigo, Elena; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arsuaga, Marta; Díaz-Menéndez, Marta; Arribas, José Ramón

    2017-06-29

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with an increasing incidence in recent years, especially in Europe. Because no specific treatments have demonstrated efficacy, supportive treatment is essential, as well as the provision of a centre with the appropriate means to guarantee the safety of its healthcare professionals. Laboratory monitoring of thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy or liver failure is of critical importance. Patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever should be admitted to High Level Isolation Units where appropriate biocontainment procedures can prevent nosocomial transmission through infected fluids or accidents with contaminated material. In case of high-risk exposures, early administration of ribavirin should be considered. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  3. Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Elise N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the spectrum of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage there are some patients with large or space occupying haemorrhage who require surgery for neurological deterioration and others with small haematomas who should be managed conservatively. There is equipoise about the management of patients between these two extremes. In particular there is some evidence that patients with lobar haematomas and no intraventricular haemorrhage might benefit from haematoma evacuation. The STICH II study will establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients will improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. Methods/Design an international multicentre randomised parallel group trial. Only patients for whom the treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise about the benefits of early craniotomy compared to initial conservative treatment are eligible. All patients must have a CT scan confirming spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (≤1 cm from the cortex surface of the brain and 10-100 ml in volume. Any clotting or coagulation problems must be corrected and randomisation must take place within 48 hours of ictus. With 600 patients, the study will be able to demonstrate a 12% benefit from surgery (2p Stratified randomisation is undertaken using a central 24 hour randomisation service accessed by telephone or web. Patients randomised to early surgery should have the operation within 12 hours. Information about the status (Glasgow Coma Score and focal signs of all patients through the first five days of their trial progress is also collected in addition to another CT scan at about five days (+/- 2 days. Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire to the patient. Primary outcome is death or severe disability defined using a prognosis based 8 point Glasgow Outcome Scale. Secondary outcomes include: Mortality, Rankin, Barthel, EuroQol, and Survival. Trial

  4. Cerebral haemorrhage as the presenting feature of myeloproliferative disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kondlapudi, Jyothi; O’Connor, Rory J; Mawer, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders predispose individuals to bleeding and thrombosis, often with devastating consequences. We report a 41-year-old man who presented with headache, amnesia and dysphagia due to cerebral haemorrhage. Extensive investigation revealed the cause of the neurological syndrome as an underlying essential thrombocytosis. The patient made a full recovery following extensive inpatient and community rehabilitation, returning to work after 6 months. We discuss the diagnosis and m...

  5. Considerable delay in diagnosis and acute management of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Eskesen, Vagn; Hauerberg, John

    2010-01-01

    Rebleeding from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) usually occurs within the first six hours after the initial bleeding. Rebleeding can be prevented effectively with tranexamic acid (TXA). Although a broad consensus has evolved that SAH should be treated as an emergency, it is likely that delays do e...... exist in the diagnosis and treatment of SAH patients. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the interval between symptom onset, emergency room (ER) admission, initial diagnosis and treatment, and final closure of the aneurysm....

  6. A Q fever case mimicking crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium that causes Q fever. Human infection is mainly transmitted from cattle, goats and sheep. The disease is usually self-limited. Pneumonia and hepatitis are the most common clinical manifestations. In this study, we present a case of Q fever from the western part of Turkey mimicking Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in terms of clinical and laboratory findings.

  7. Prognostic significance of delayed intraventricular haemorrhage in the INTERACT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullaali, Tom J; Sato, Shoichiro; Wang, Xia; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Arima, Hisatomi; Carcel, Cheryl; Chen, Guofang; Robinson, Thompson; Heeley, Emma; Chan, Edward; Delcourt, Candice; Stapf, Christian; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Lindley, Richard I; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2017-01-01

    Intraventricular extension of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) predicts poor outcome, but the significance of delayed intraventricular haemorrhage (dIVH) is less well defined. We determined the prognostic significance of dIVH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trials (INTERACT 1 and 2). Pooled analyses of the INTERACT CT substudies-international, multicentre, prospective, open, blinded end point, randomised controlled trials of patients with acute spontaneous ICH and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP)-randomly assigned to intensive (<140 mm Hg) or guideline-based (<180 mm Hg) SBP management. Participants had blinded central analyses of baseline and 24 h CTs, with dIVH defined as new intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) on the latter scan. Outcomes of death and major disability were defined by modified Rankin Scale scores at 90 days. There were 349 (27%) of 1310 patients with baseline IVH, and 107 (11%) of 961 initially IVH-free patients who developed dIVH. Significant associations of dIVH were prior warfarin anticoagulation, high (≥15) baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, larger (≥15 mL) ICH volume, greater ICH growth and higher achieved SBP over 24 h. Compared with those who were IVH-free, dIVH had greater odds of 90-day death or major disability versus initial IVH (adjusted ORs 2.84 (95% CI 1.52 to 5.28) and 1.87 (1.36 to 2.56), respectively (p trend <0.0001)). Although linked to factors determining greater ICH growth including poor SBP control, dIVH is independently associated with poor outcome in acute small to moderate-size ICH. NCT00226096 and NCT00716079. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy with bullae and koebnerisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Sazlly Lim, S; Shamsudin, N

    2014-01-01

    A 5-month-old Malay boy presented with purpuric papules and plaques on the face and extremities accompanied by fever, coryzal symptoms and bilateral lower limb oedema. There were also bullous linear purpuric lesions on the right upper limb. Blood and culture tests were normal. Histopathological tests showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis, confirming the diagnosis of acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy. The patient achieved complete recovery after 2 weeks with no recurrence.

  9. Acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy with bullae and koebnerisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norashikin Shamsudin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old Malay boy presented with purpuric papules and plaques on the face and extremities accompanied by fever, coryzal symptoms and bilateral lower limb oedema. There were also bullous linear purpuric lesions on the right upper limb. Blood and culture tests were normal. Histopathological tests showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis, confirming the diagnosis of acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy. The patient achieved complete recovery after 2 weeks with no recurrence.

  10. Forced selection of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant that uses a non-self tRNA primer for reverse transcription: Involvement of viral RNA sequences and the reverse transcriptase enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Truus E. M.; Beerens, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 uses the tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule as a selective primer for reverse transcription. This primer specificity is imposed by sequence complementarity between the tRNA primer and two motifs in the viral RNA genome: the primer-binding site (PBS) and the primer activation

  11. Post eclamptic aneurysmal rupture subarachnoid haemorrhage diagnosed in the puerperium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid and/or intracerebral haemorrhage in women during pregnancy is rare. The risk depends on the stage of pregnancy, but seems to be highest during the late third trimester, during delivery and in the puerperium. Headache can be a symptom of both preeclampsia, subarachnoid haemorrhage and other pathologies or conditions. It is essential for pregnant women with a suspected ruptured aneurysm to be investigated and treated without delay, irrespective of fear of harm to the foetus, to avoid complications from aneurysm rupture. This case study presents a 39-year-old woman who was 35 weeks and 3 days pregnant with known preeclampsia. She endured a headache for the three days leading up to the delivery with associated diplopia on the third day, but these symptoms were thought to be related to her preeclampsia. Over the three hours following childbirth, her headache became more severe and she suffered from vomiting, loss of vision, torticollis and seizures. Computed tomography (CT) of her head revealed a subarachnoid haemorrhage while CT angiography of the Circle of Willis failed to reveal an aneurysm and 4-vessel angiography only demonstrated an area slightly suspicious for the presence of an aneurysm. 3D rotational angiography clearly demonstrated a 1-2 mm aneurysm superior to the left terminal internal carotid artery. In this case, 3D rotational angiography proved to be a valuable additional technique. This patient underwent surgery for her ruptured aneurysm and has made an excellent recovery

  12. Clinical management guidelines for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, J; Gilo, F; Frutos, R; Maestre, J; García-Pastor, A; Quintana, F; Roda, J M; Ximénez-Carrillo, A; Díez Tejedor, E; Fuentes, B; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Alvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Casado, I; Castellanos, M; Castillo, J; Dávalos, A; Díaz-Otero, F; Egido, J A; Fernández, J C; Freijo, M; Gállego, J; Gil-Núñez, A; Irimia, P; Lago, A; Masjuan, J; Martí-Fábregas, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Martínez-Vila, E; Molina, C; Morales, A; Nombela, F; Purroy, F; Ribó, M; Rodríguez-Yañez, M; Roquer, J; Rubio, F; Segura, T; Serena, J; Simal, P; Tejada, J

    2014-01-01

    To update the Spanish Society of Neurology's guidelines for subarachnoid haemorrhage diagnosis and treatment. A review and analysis of the existing literature. Recommendations are given based on the level of evidence for each study reviewed. The most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is cerebral aneurysm rupture. Its estimated incidence in Spain is 9/100 000 inhabitants/year with a relative frequency of approximately 5% of all strokes. Hypertension and smoking are the main risk factors. Stroke patients require treatment in a specialised centre. Admission to a stroke unit should be considered for SAH patients whose initial clinical condition is good (Grades I or II on the Hunt and Hess scale). We recommend early exclusion of aneurysms from the circulation. The diagnostic study of choice for SAH is brain CT (computed tomography) without contrast. If the test is negative and SAH is still suspected, a lumbar puncture should then be performed. The diagnostic tests recommended in order to determine the source of the haemorrhage are MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and angiography. Doppler ultrasonography studies are very useful for diagnosing and monitoring vasospasm. Nimodipine is recommended for preventing delayed cerebral ischaemia. Blood pressure treatment and neurovascular intervention may be considered in treating refractory vasospasm. SAH is a severe and complex disease which must be managed in specialised centres by professionals with ample experience in relevant diagnostic and therapeutic processes. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Carbetocin versus Oxytocin during caesarean section for preventing postpartum haemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, F; Agasse, J; Marpeau, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of Carbetocin versus Oxyotcin during caesarean section for preventing postpartum haemorrhage. Prospective observational study (before/after design). Five hundred and forty patients who received an injection of Oxytocin were compared to 262 patients with single injection of 100 micrograms of Carbetocin. The primary outcome was to compare the differential hematocrit level between pre- and postoperative blood samples. The secondary outcome was to compare differential hemoglobin level and the use of complementary therapies for postpartum haemorrhage. We did not find any difference between the Oxytocin and Carbetocin groups on differential hematocrit level. There was no difference between the groups regarding the use of additionnal therapies (Sulproston injections, blood transfusions and surgery methods). The rate of postpartum haemorrhage was similar in the two groups (18.7% vs 21.6%; P=0.33). We found a lower percentage of patients with differential of hemoglobin level between 2 g/dL and 4 g/dL in the Carbetocin group (6.5% vs 15.6%, Poxytocin. Carbetocin seems to reduce the need for postoperative intravenous iron injection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. An in vivo system for directed experimental evolution of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robyn N; Capucci, Lorenzo; Matthaei, Markus; Esposito, Simona; Kerr, Peter J; Frese, Michael; Strive, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    The calicivirus Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is widely used in Australia as a biocontrol agent to manage wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. However, widespread herd immunity limits the effectiveness of the currently used strain, CAPM V-351. To overcome this, we developed an experimental platform for the selection and characterisation of novel RHDV strains. As RHDV does not replicate in cell culture, variant viruses were selected by serially passaging a highly virulent RHDV field isolate in immunologically naïve laboratory rabbits that were passively immunised 18-24 hours post-challenge with a neutralising monoclonal antibody. After seven passages, two amino acid substitutions in the P2 domain of the capsid protein became fixed within the virus population. Furthermore, a synonymous substitution within the coding sequence of the viral polymerase appeared and was also maintained in all subsequent passages. These findings demonstrate proof-of-concept that RHDV evolution can be experimentally manipulated to select for virus variants with altered phenotypes, in this case partial immune escape.

  15. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  16. Viral immune evasion strategies and the underlying cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, M E; Ploegh, H L; Tirabassi, R S

    2001-02-01

    Evasion of the immune system by viruses is a well-studied field. It remains a challenge to understand how these viral tactics affect pathogenesis and the viral lifecycle. At the same time, the study of viral proteins involved in immune evasion has helped us to better understand a number of cellular processes at the molecular level. Here we review recent data on different viral tactics for immune evasion and highlight what these viral interventions might teach us about cell biology. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  18. Super selective transcatheter angiographic embolization: an effective and prophylactic treatment for massive obstetric haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yiming; Zhai Renyou; Qian Xiaojun; Wei Baojie; Gao Kun; Zhang Shilong; Liu Jinmei; Zhang Qiuhong; Jiang Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the effect and safety of transcatheter angiographic embolization (TAE)for managing massive obstetric haemorrhage. Methods: 17 cases of obstetric massive haemorrhage or with haemorrhage tendency were treated with TAE. Among them 14 cases had haemorrhage already, including 10 cases after abortion, caesarean section or normal labor and other 4 of hydatidiform mole. 3 cases with obstetric haemorrhage tendency included 2 cases of placenta praevia and 1 case of cervical pregnancy. Selective catheterization into bilateral uterine arteries or internal iliac arteries for DSA, showed the cause and location of the haemorrhage and then embolized with gelfoam sponge chips (1-3 mm) or Polyvinyl Alcohol(PVA); and part of the cases with MTX through uterine arterial perfusion. Results: The successful rate of catheterization was 100%. The achievement in 14 cases showed no active haemorrhage immediately after the procedure and no vaginal bleeding after 1-5 days. In 3 prophylactic cases before abortion or uterine curettage, obstetric massive haemorrhage occurred in 1 case, but not so in other 2 cases. Conclusions: TAE is an effective treatment for obstetric massive haemorrhage, with the advantages of minimal trauma, fast and definite treating effect and less complications. Prophylactical application for high risk patients can reduce the bleeding and mortality. (authors)

  19. How often is haemosiderin not visible on routine MRI following traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, J.M.; Statham, P.F.X. [Dept. of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage may be visible indefinitely on MRI, due to persistence of haemosiderin in macrophages around the lesion, but it is not clear whether all haemorrhages produce haemosiderin or, if not, what proportion cannot be identified as former haemorrhages on routine MRI. We performed routine MRI (spin-echo T2- and proton-density weighted images) in 116 survivors of moderate to severe head injury, 1-5 years after injury. We reviewed the images blindly and correlated them with CT in the acute stage, to determine how many haemorrhages from the acute stage were identifiable by virtue of haemosiderin deposition on late MRI. Of 106 haemorrhages in 78 patients on CT at the time of injury, 96 (90 %) were visible as haemosiderin on late MRI. Of the old haemorrhages without haemosiderin, seven of ten were in patients where another haemorrhage with haemosiderin was still visible elsewhere in the brain. No patient or haemorrhage features explained the formation or absence of haemosiderin. Thus about 10 % of definite haematomas show no trace of haemosiderin on routine spin-echo MRI. Radiologists should be alerted to supplement routine spin-echo with gradient-echo sequences if there is a reason to suspect, or specifically exclude, prior haemorrhage. (orig.)

  20. Discovering hidden viral piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef

    2005-12-01

    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  1. Viral infections of the folds (intertriginous areas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adışen, Esra; Önder, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for the cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Though the cutaneous manifestations of viral infections are closely related to the type and the transmission route of the virus, viral skin diseases may occur in almost any part of the body. In addition to friction caused by skin-to-skin touch, skin folds are warm and moist areas of the skin that have limited air circulation. These features provide a fertile breeding ground for many kinds of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. In contrast to specific bacterial and fungal agents that have an affinity for the skin folds, except for viral diseases of the anogenital area, which have well-known presentations, viral skin infections that have a special affinity to the skin folds are not known. Many viral exanthems may affect the skin folds during the course of the infection, but here we focus only on the ones that usually affect the fold areas and also on the less well-known conditions or recently described associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever in Filipino children: clinical experience during the 1983-1984 epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songco, R S; Hayes, C G; Leus, C D; Manaloto, C O

    1987-09-01

    A total of 377 Filipino children out of a total of 5,427 admissions from October 31, 1983 to March 31, 1984 were found to have dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever The present clinical presentation of these infections was basically similar to that in previous epidemics but hepatomegaly and pleural effusion were less frequent and cardiac involvement, more frequent. The discrepancies between the clinical syndromes and HI antibody responses were evident; thus, the values used for the interpretation of the antibody titers must be reassessed.

  3. Pre-eclampsia increases the risk of postpartum haemorrhage: a nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost F von Schmidt auf Altenstadt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Identifying risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage is crucial to predict this life threatening condition. Another major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality is pre-eclampsia. Previous studies show conflicting results in the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Our secondary objective was to identify other risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage in the Netherlands. METHODS: A nationwide cohort was used, containing prospectively collected data of women giving birth after 19 completed weeks of gestation from January 2000 until January 2008 (n =  1,457,576. Data were extracted from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry, covering 96% of all deliveries in the Netherlands. The main outcome measure, postpartum haemorrhage, was defined as blood loss of ≥1000 ml in the 24 hours following delivery. The association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage was investigated with uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 4.3% and of pre-eclampsia 2.2%. From the 31 560 women with pre-eclampsia 2 347 (7.4% developed postpartum haemorrhage, compared to 60 517 (4.2% from the 1 426 016 women without pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 1.81; 95% CI 1.74 to 1.89. Risk of postpartum haemorrhage in women with pre-eclampsia remained increased after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.46 to 1.60. CONCLUSION: Women with pre-eclampsia have a 1.53 fold increased risk for postpartum haemorrhage. Clinicians should be aware of this and use this knowledge in the management of pre-eclampsia and the third stage of labour in order to reach the fifth Millenium Developmental Goal of reducing maternal mortality ratios with 75% by

  4. Hepatitis viral aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés; René F. Espinosa Álvarez

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, ...

  5. Rare anomalies of craniocerebral vessels with subarachnoid haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhl, L.; Thron, A.

    1986-01-01

    Seven patients presenting rare vascular anomalies of the craniocerebral vessels are reported, six of whom suffered from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Angiography demonstrated typically located saccular aneurysms as the cause of bleeding in three of these cases. An increased coincidence of rare vascular anomalies and aneurysms is known from the literature. Our findings suggest that in cases of SAH and rare cerebrovascular anomalies additional aneurysms can be demonstrated almost as often as in unselected cases of SAH (70%). Despite controversial aspects regarding the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms, abnormalities of the vessel walls of genetic or embryologic origin seem to be the most likely reason for this high coincidence. (orig.) [de

  6. Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage in children with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Z; Ibrahim, H; Abdulrahman, E J; Mahfuzah, M; Othman, I S; Asohan, T; Menon, B S

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a rare complication of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in children. We report four patients with cITP who developed ICH. The latency between onset of ITP and ICH varied from 1-8 years. All our patients were profoundly thrombocytopenic (platelet count of <10 x 109/l) at the time of their intracranial bleed. The presenting features and management are discussed. All patients survived, three had complete neurological recovery while one had a minimal residual neurological deficit.

  7. Management of symptomatic thrombocytopenia associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameel, T.; Saleem, I.U.; Mehmood, K.; Tanvir, I.; Saadia, A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Immune - mediated destruction of platelets is thought to be the mechanism of thrombocytopenia seen after the viraemic phase of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Immuno - suppressants such as steroids, immune globulin and Anti D immune globulin are effective in the treatment of this type of immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of oral Prednisolone in the rate of resolution of thrombocytopenia and monitoring of complications in patients recovering from Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Method: A controlled study was carried out on diagnosed cases Dengue haemorrhagic patients presenting with sever thrombocytopenia and symptoms like confluent ecchymosis, epistaxis and purpuric rashes. In study was conducted in Ittefaq hospital (trust) Lahore, during the period of October to December 2008. Treatment group received steroids in two forms i.e. first line therapy prednisolone (1 mg / kg) orally or as second line therapy of initial I/V high dose (prednisolone) in pulse doses i.e. 40 mg / bd for four days and later oral prednisolone as in first line therapy with omeprazole 20 mg / bd in addition to standard treatment. Control group received standard supportive care only. Results: A total of 341 suspected patients were admitted in hospital. Serological diagnosis was confirmed in 166 patients. CBC revealed platelet count . 100 x 109 / l in 106 patients. A group of symptomatic febrile patients have platelet count < 20 x 109 / l was selected for therapeutic intervention. first line therapy (oral prednisolone was stated in 43 patients. In Fourteen patients second line therapy (high dose dexamethasone pulse) therapy was instituted. Seven of them attained complete response whereas two patients achieved partial response. Four patients were shifted to Anti D therapy. Three deaths occurred during our study. Rest of all the patients improved and were discharged in due course of time. Conclusion: This small scale preliminary study shows promising

  8. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage with the oxytocin analogue carbetocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Werner

    2009-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide: 67-80% of cases are caused by uterine atony. Preventive measures include prophylactic drug use to aid uterine contraction after delivery, thus avoiding severe blood loss and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Carbetocin is a synthetic analogue of oxytocin with a half-life approximately 4-10 times longer than that reported for oxytocin. It combines the safety and tolerability profile of oxytocin with the sustained uterotonic activity of injectable ergot alkaloids. Furthermore, carbetocin can be administered as a single dose injection either intravenously or intramuscularly rather than as an infusion over several hours as is the case with oxytocin. Carbetocin is currently indicated for prevention of uterine atony after delivery by caesarean section in spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Data from three randomised controlled trials in caesarean delivery and a meta-analysis indicate that carbetocin significantly reduces the need for additional uterotonic agents or uterine massage to prevent excessive bleeding compared with placebo or oxytocin. The risk of headache, tremor, hypotension, flushing, nausea, abdominal pain, pruritus and feeling of warmth was similar in women who received carbetocin or oxytocin. The findings from two more recent double-blind randomised trials and one retrospective study suggest that carbetocin may also represent a good alternative to conventional uterotonic agents for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries. A reduced need for additional uterotonics was observed with carbetocin vs. oxytocin in high-risk women and carbetocin was at least as effective as syntometrine in low-risk women. In these studies of vaginal deliveries, carbetocin was associated with a low incidence of adverse effects and demonstrated a better tolerability profile than syntometrine. Carbetocin had a long duration of action compared with intravenous oxytocin alone and a

  9. Intracerebral haemorrhage in primary and metastatic brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, Andrea; Erbetta, Alessandra; Silvani, Antonio; Maderna, Emanuela; Pollo, Bianca

    2008-09-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage may both be a presenting manifestation in unrecognised brain tumour or--more frequently--take place in the disease course of known/suspected brain tumour due to diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, including biopsy, locoregional treatments and anti-angiogenic therapies. Apart from the difficulties inherent to accurate neuroradiological diagnosis in selected cases with small tumour volume, the main clinical problem that neurologists face is represented by decision making in prophylaxis/treatment of venous thromboembolism in these patients. These points are briefly discussed and available evidence on the last point is commented on.

  10. Acral manifestations of viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adışen, Esra; Önder, Meltem

    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Herpetic whitlow should be considered under the title of special viral infections of the acral region, where surgical incision is not recommended; along with verruca plantaris with its resistance to treatment and the search for a new group of treatments, including human papillomavirus vaccines; HIV with maculopapular eruptions and palmoplantar desquamation; orf and milker's nodule with its nodular lesions; papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome with its typical clinical presentation; necrolytic acral erythema with its relationship with zinc; and hand, foot, and mouth disease with its characteristics of causing infection with its strains, with high risk for complication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. The mosaic of environment involvement in autoimmunity: the abrogation of viral latency by stress, a non-infectious environmental agent, is an intrinsic prerequisite prelude before viruses can rank as infectious environmental agents that trigger autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temajo, Norbert O; Howard, Neville

    2014-06-01

    An autoimmune disease (AD), organ-specific or systemic, results from an aberrant response in which the protective immune system normally schooled to recognize and destroy invading infectious agents (viruses, etc.) instead fails to distinguish self-antigens and proceeds to attack and destroy the host's organs. There can be familial aggregation in which a single AD may occur in members of a family, or a single family may be afflicted with multiple ADs. Finally, sometimes multiple ADs co-occur in a single individual: the kaleidoscope of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity is a multifactorial process in which genetic, hormonal, immunological and environmental factors act in concert to materialize the mosaic of autoimmunity phenomenon. A genetically primed individual may yet not develop an AD: the contribution by an environmental factor (non-infectious or infectious) is essential for completion of the act. Of the non-infectious factors, stress plays a determinative step in autoimmunity in that it abrogates viral latency and thereby ordains the viruses to qualify as infectious environmental factors that trigger ADs. This is note-worthy as viruses rank first as the most important environmental triggers of ADs. Furthermore, all these viruses experience going through latency. Hence the hypothesis: "The abrogation of viral latency by stress, a non-infectious environmental agent, is an intrinsic prerequisite prelude before viruses can rank as infectious environmental agents that trigger autoimmune diseases". There is collaboration here between non-infectious- and infectious-agent to achieve the cause of autoimmunity. We say viral latency and stress have a covenant: continued perpetration of autoimmunity is dependent on the intervention by stress to reactivate latent infections. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  14. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  15. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  16. A composite neurobehavioral test to evaluate acute functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Nowrangi, Derek; Kaur, Harpreet; Wu, Guangyong; Huang, Lei; Lekic, Tim; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2018-03-01

    Cerebellar haemorrhage accounts for 5-10% of all intracerebral haemorrhages and leads to severe, long-lasting functional deficits. Currently, there is limited research on this stroke subtype, which may be due to the lack of a suitable composite neuroscoring system specific for cerebellar injury in rodents. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive composite neuroscore test for cerebellar injury using a rat model of cerebellar haemorrhage. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or cerebellar haemorrhage. Twenty-four hours post-injury, neurological behaviour was evaluated using 17 cost-effective and easy-to-perform tests, and a composite neuroscore was developed. The composite neuroscore was then used to assess functional recovery over seven days after cerebellar haemorrhage. Differences in the composite neuroscore deficits for the mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage models were observed for up to five days post-ictus. Until now, a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was not available for rodent studies. Herein, using mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage rat models a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was developed and used to assess functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage. This composite neuroscore may also be useful for other cerebellar injury models.

  17. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever among children in north-eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilber, E; Cakir, M; Acar, E A; Orhan, F; Yaris, N; Bahat, E; Okten, A; Erduran, E

    2009-03-01

    To analyse the epidemiological and clinical features of children with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in north-eastern Turkey. A retrospective study of demographic features and physical and laboratory findings in 21 children with CCHF is described. Clinical course, treatment modalities and outcome were analysed. Most patients were admitted in June and July 2008; most were from the Gumushane and Kelkit valleys and half of them lived in rural areas. Mean (SD) age was 10.3 (3.9) years and the disease was more common in males (71.4%). Approximately 70% had a history of tick bite. The main symptoms were fever (17, 80.9%), nausea (11, 52.3%), malaise (10, 47.6%) and headache (7, 33.3%). At initial examination, approximately 70% of patients had leukopenia and 65% had thrombocytopenia. Anaemia developed during follow-up in six patients. Liver involvement was seen in 12 patients and one patient had acute tubular necrosis. Six patients had haemophagocytosis. Patients were hospitalised for a median 8 days (range 3-22) and nine patients had bleeding from various sites approximately 3-5 days after hospitalisation. Subcutaneous haematoma (6), especially epistaxis and at venepuncture sites (6) were the most common sites of bleeding. Pulmonary haemorrhage developed in two patients and they required ventilatory support. Overall mortality related to CCHF was 4.7% (one patient). Early diagnosis of CCHF and early referral to specialised centres are important for outcome. Exceptional epidemics may be seen in future owing to ecological and environmental changes.

  18. UGGT1 enhances enterovirus 71 pathogenicity by promoting viral RNA synthesis and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Nien Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71 utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1, a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood. Using EVA71 as a model, this study found that host UGGT1 and viral 3D polymerase co-precipitate along with other factors on membranous replication complexes to enhance viral replication. Increased UGGT1 levels elevated viral growth rates, while viral pathogenicity was observed to be lower in heterozygous knockout mice (Uggt1 +/- mice. These findings provide important insight on the role of UPR and host UGGT1 in regulating RNA virus replication and pathogenicity.

  19. Animal Models of Focal Cerebral Ischaemia and Haemorrhagic Transformation: Considerations in Experimental Stroke Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jennifer A; Douglas, Andrew S; Kirby, Brian P; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Doyle, Karen M

    2017-09-05

    Ischaemic stroke is often complicated with haemorrhage within the infarct zone or in a remote location especially when treated with intravenous thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy. While these early recanalisation treatments are highly effective, some of the benefit is lost because of haemorrhagic complications and consequential neurological deterioration of the patients. A number of mechanisms have been described that mediate the haemorrhagic changes and several agents have been tested in experimental models for inhibiting post stroke haemorrhage. Here, we review and discuss the small animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia and post ischaemic stroke haemorrhagic transformation and how these models can best be utilised for developing further insights as well as potential treatment approaches for this serious clinical complication. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Valved or valveless ventriculoperitoneal shunting in the treatment of post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Trine Hjorslev; Holst, Anders Vedel; Lilja, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant infection and obstruction are major complications for ventriculoperitoneal shunts in patients with post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus. In an effort to (1) reduce the incidence of these complications, (2) reduce the rate of shunt failure and (3) shorten the duration of neurosurgical...... hospitalisation, we have implemented valveless ventriculoperitoneal shunts at our department for adult patients with post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus and haemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid at the time of shunt insertion. METHODS: All adult patients (>18 years old) treated for post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus.......3 %, p = 0.02), but a higher rate of overdrainage (10.3 % vs 2.6 %, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The use of a valveless shunting for patients with post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus results in shorter duration of neurosurgical hospitalisation and lower rate of shunt infection, although these advantages should...

  1. Condom Tamponade in the Management of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Report of three cases in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Ernest T; Buntugu, Kennedy A; Aki, Lovelace; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K

    2015-09-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is one of the major causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The leading cause of primary postpartum haemorrhage is uterine atony and active management of the third stage of labour with oxytocin is recommended for preventing primary postpartum haemorrhage. Parenteral oxytocin is also the drug of choice for medical management of postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Condom uterine balloon tamponade is .a low cost technique that can be used as a second-line option for treatment. We report retrospectively three cases of primary PPH secondary to uterine atony which were managed successfully with condom tamponade. Condom tamponade is effective in managing post partum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony and we advocate for the training of all skilled attendants on how to insert the condom tamponade.

  2. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Does Ramadan fasting increase acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S; Durukan, P; Akdur, O; Vardar, A; Torun, E; Ikizceli, I

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and clinical results of patients who presented with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (AUGIH) during the month of Ramadan (October 2007) were compared with those who presented with AUGIH during another, non-Ramadan, month (December 2007). The following were evaluated: age, gender, symptoms, gastrointestinal disease history, risk factors, co-existing diseases, results of rectal, nasogastric and endoscopic examinations, treatment modalities and clinical outcomes. Significantly more patients were diagnosed with AUGIH during Ramadan compared with the non-Ramadan month (43 versus 28, respectively). Significantly more patients diagnosed during Ramadan had a history of previous haemorrhage compared with the non-Ramadan month (72.1% versus 42.9%, respectively). Peptic ulcer was the most common event in both groups and overall endoscopy findings differed between the groups. No other significant differences were found. In conclusion, the number of patients presenting with AUGIH during Ramadan was significantly higher than that of an ordinary month, which suggests that fasting during Ramadan reactivates and aggravates pre-existing gastrointestinal diseases.

  4. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8 kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20 kg; 10 years) (Pschnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48 hours. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: applying Occam's razor to competing hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, David; Mutze, Greg; Sinclair, Ron; Kovaliski, John; Cooke, Brian

    2012-03-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a highly virulent lagovirus endemic in Europe and Australasian populations of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. It has also caused several unexplained disease outbreaks in domestic European rabbits in North America. Non-pathogenic spread of RHDV leading to persistent infection which later reactivated has recently been proposed as the cause of overt disease and death of a pet rabbit in Canada, the first confirmed case of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease in that country. We suggest that there is little evidence to support non-pathogenic spread of virulent RHDV, some evidence that is contradictory, and evidence to support a simpler alternative hypothesis. RHDV can be spread over long distances between sparse rabbit populations by fomites or flying insects. Although highly pathogenic, RHDV can be limited in its spread within rabbit populations, or its presence masked by closely related but non-pathogenic lagoviruses which can provide protection against acute disease. In the absence of any evidence from clinical studies to support reactivation of persistent RHDV infection, the simpler explanation seems more likely to be correct. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Postinterventional subarachnoid haemorrhage after endovascular stroke treatment with stent retrievers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoubashman, Omid; Reich, Arno; Jungbluth, Michael; Pjontek, Rastislav; Wiesmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the clinical significance of postinterventional subarachnoid hyperdensities (PSH) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. We analysed clinical and radiological data of 113 consecutive patients who received postinterventional CT scans within 4.5 h after mechanical thrombectomy. PSH was present in 27 of 113 patients (24 %). Extravasation of contrast agent was observed during intervention in only 6 of 27 cases (22 %). There was consecutive haemorrhagic transformation in four patients with PSH (p = 0.209, Fisher's exact test). Preinterventional predictors for the occurrence of PSH in our series were a long interval between clinical onset and recanalization (p = 0.028), a long procedure time (p = 0.010), and a high number of recanalization attempts (p = 0.001). PSH had no significant impact on clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale) at discharge (p = 0.419) or at 3 months (p = 0.396). There were no significant correlations between PSH and thrombectomy devices (Solitaire: p = 0.433, Trevo Pro: p = 0.124). PSH after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke are likely to occur in complicated cases in which more than one revascularisation attempt is performed. PSH per se do not appear to be associated with an impaired clinical outcome or an elevated risk for consecutive haemorrhage. (orig.)

  7. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  8. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  9. MLST typing of Pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia and development of a real-time PCR specific for haemorrhagic septicaemia associated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Andreas; Bisgaard, Magne; Townsend, Kirsty; Christensen, Henrik

    2014-06-04

    Two serovars of Pasteurella multocida, B:2 and E:2, have been reportedly associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), a peracute and devastating disease mainly affecting cattle and water buffaloes. We multilocus sequence typed (MLST) 64 isolates of P. multocida including 55 associated with HS and found that they mainly included sequence type (ST) 122 (n=50) and rarely ST63 (n=1), ST147 (n=2) and ST162 (n=2) compared to other members of the species isolated from other lesion types and hosts. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms suitable for specific detection of STs associated with HS were detected in the est gene. A new HS-est-RT-PCR (est indicating the target gene) specifically detected ST122, ST63, ST147 and ST162 associated with HS. The new HS-est-RT-PCR did not detect strains of ST151 with capsular type D isolated from pigs that were found positive with a previously published HS PCR detection method. The new HS-est-RT-PCR represents a fast and specific detection of the specific types of P. multocida involved in HS. The HS-est-RT-PCR developed in the current study seems to more accurately identify isolates of P. multocida associated with HS compared to PCR detection methods previously published. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Does Viral Marketing really Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Ho-shen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we examine the effectiveness of viral marketing toward young adults since the majority of Internet users are in this age group. It is also noted that we will only focus on video type of viral messages, which is the most common way to utilized viral marketing for firms. We will discuss how viral video influence consumer behavior in terms of brand images, brand choice, user experience and working memory in this paper. Our results illustrated viral video helps major...

  11. Concepts in viral pathogenesis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notkins, A.L.; Oldstone, M.B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains papers divided among 10 sections. The section titles are: Viral Structure and Function; Viral Constructs; Oncogenes, Transfection, and Differentiation; Viral Tropism and Entry into Cells; Immune Recognition of Viruses; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Plant and Animal Models; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Diseases in Humans; New Trends in Diagnosis and Epidemiology; and Vaccines and Antiviral Therapy.

  12. Viral mechanisms of immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcami, A; Koszinowski, U H

    2000-09-01

    During the millions of years they have coexisted with their hosts, viruses have learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanisms. Viral gene functions provide an overview of many relevant principles in cell biology and immunology. Our knowledge of viral gene functions must be integrated into virus-host interaction networks to understand viral pathogenesis, and could lead to new anti-viral strategies and the ability to exploit viral functions as tools in medicine.

  13. Clinical manifestations and case management of Ebola haemorrhagic fever caused by a newly identified virus strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roddy

    Full Text Available A confirmed Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF outbreak in Bundibugyo, Uganda, November 2007-February 2008, was caused by a putative new species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus. It included 93 putative cases, 56 laboratory-confirmed cases, and 37 deaths (CFR = 25%. Study objectives are to describe clinical manifestations and case management for 26 hospitalised laboratory-confirmed EHF patients. Clinical findings are congruous with previously reported EHF infections. The most frequently experienced symptoms were non-bloody diarrhoea (81%, severe headache (81%, and asthenia (77%. Seven patients reported or were observed with haemorrhagic symptoms, six of whom died. Ebola care remains difficult due to the resource-poor setting of outbreaks and the infection-control procedures required. However, quality data collection is essential to evaluate case definitions and therapeutic interventions, and needs improvement in future epidemics. Organizations usually involved in EHF case management have a particular responsibility in this respect.

  14. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  15. Insufficient efficacy and safety of intravenous ribavirin in treatment of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, Oleg V; Platonov, Alexander E

    2017-07-01

    Intravenous ribavirin has been reported to be an effective treatment for haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Hantaan virus in Asia. However, its therapeutic benefits for HFRS caused by Puumala virus (PUUV) in Europe are still unknown. A randomized, open-label study of efficacy and safety of intravenous ribavirin in the treatment of HFRS was conducted in the European part of Russia. Seventy-three patients with suspected HFRS within 4 d of the onset of the disease were randomized to receive either intravenous ribavirin (33 mg/kg, followed by 16 mg/kg given every 6 h for 4 d and by 8 mg/kg given every 8 h for 3 d) plus standard therapy (n = 37) or standard therapy alone (n = 36). The primary outcome was the average change from baseline in viral load over time estimated as area under the viral load curve minus baseline (AUCMB). Fifty-five patients with HFRS confirmed by nested reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were included in the assessment of the efficacy. All patients entered into the clinical trial were included in the assessment of the safety. PUUV was detected in all cases of confirmed HFRS. Viral load kinetics were similar in both treatment groups. Significantly more patients receiving ribavirin than standard therapy experienced low haemoglobin level (95% vs 36%), hyperbilirubinemia (81% vs 3%), sinus bradycardia (43% vs 14%), and rash (19% vs 0%). Results of the study showed insufficient efficacy and safety of intravenous ribavirin in the treatment of HFRS caused by PUUV.

  16. Assisted reproductive technology and severe postpartum haemorrhage: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyfløt, L T; Sandven, I; Oldereid, N B; Stray-Pedersen, B; Vangen, S

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the association between assisted reproductive technology and severe postpartum haemorrhage. Case-control study. The study was conducted in Norway; Division of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at Oslo University Hospital and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Drammen Hospital. A source population including all women admitted for delivery at Oslo University Hospital and Drammen Hospital during the time period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011. The study population consisted of all cases of severe postpartum haemorrhage (n = 1064) and a random sample of controls (n = 2059). We used an explanatory strategy in the analysis, with multivariable logistic regression. Severe postpartum haemorrhage; defined as blood loss ≥1500 ml or need for blood transfusion. Assisted reproductive technology was associated with an increased risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage (crude OR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.18-3.92, P single gestation (adjusted OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.12-2.24, P = 0.010). Our findings warrant an increased awareness of the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage in women conceiving with assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, the high risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage in the presence of a twin or triplet pregnancy is an additional argument for single embryo transfer. Assisted reproductive technology is associated with an increased risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. A hybrid simulator model for the control of catastrophic external junctional haemorrhage in the military environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverplats, Katarina; Jonsson, Anders; Lundberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Catastrophic haemorrhage from extremity injuries has for a long time been the single most common cause of preventable death in the military environment. The effective use of extremity tourniquets has increased the survival of combat casualties, and exsanguination from isolated limb injuries is no longer the most common cause of death. Today, the most common cause of potentially preventable death is haemorrhage from the junctional zones, i.e. the most proximal part of the extremities, not amenable to standard tourniquets. Different training techniques to control catastrophic haemorrhage have been used by the Swedish Armed Forces in the pre-deployment training of physicians, nurses and medics for many years. The training techniques include different types of human patient simulators such as moulage patients and manikins. Preferred training conditions for the control of catastrophic haemorrhage include a high degree of realism, in combination with multiple training attempts. This report presents a new hybrid training model for catastrophic external junctional haemorrhage control. It offers a readily reproducible, simple and inexpensive opportunity to train personnel to deal with life threatening catastrophic junctional haemorrhage. In particular, this model offers an opportunity for non-medical military personnel in Sweden to practice control of realistic catastrophic haemorrhage, with multiple training attempts.

  18. A proteomics perspective on viral DNA sensors in host defense and viral immune evasion mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Marni S; Javitt, Aaron; Cristea, Ileana M

    2015-06-05

    The sensing of viral DNA is an essential step of cellular immune response to infections with DNA viruses. These human pathogens are spread worldwide, triggering a wide range of virus-induced diseases, and are associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Despite similarities between DNA molecules, mammalian cells have the remarkable ability to distinguish viral DNA from their own DNA. This detection is carried out by specialized antiviral proteins, called DNA sensors. These sensors bind to foreign DNA to activate downstream immune signaling pathways and alert neighboring cells by eliciting the expression of antiviral cytokines. The sensing of viral DNA was shown to occur both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus of infected cells, disproving the notion that sensing occurred by simple spatial separation of viral and host DNA. A number of omic approaches, in particular, mass-spectrometry-based proteomic methods, have significantly contributed to the constantly evolving field of viral DNA sensing. Here, we review the impact of omic methods on the identification of viral DNA sensors, as well as on the characterization of mechanisms involved in host defense or viral immune evasion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Determinants and Time Trends for Ischaemic and Haemorrhagic Stroke in a Large Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tao, Tao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Chen, Yundai; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical epidemiology of stroke has been widely investigated in Caucasian populations, but the changes over time in the proportion of ischaemic to haemorrhagic strokes is less clear, especially in the Chinese population. Aims Our objective was to study the determinants and time trends for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, in relation to age, in a large Chinese population cohort. Methods Using a medical insurance database in the southwest of China from 2001 to 2012, time trends in age-adjusted ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidence and the contributing risk factors associated with age were investigated. Results Among 425,901 individuals without prior stroke (52.4% male, median age 54), the rate of ischaemic stroke (per 1000 patient-years) decreased between 2002–2007, then remained broadly similar between 2008–2012. The rate of haemorrhagic stroke showed a similar trend, being approximately 1.3–1.9 from 2008–2012. Compared to patients ageischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidences (rate, 95% confidential interval, CI) were higher in the elderly population (age ischaemic: 3.64, 3.33–4.00, vs 14.33, 14.01–14.60; haemorrhagic: 1.09, 1.00–1.10 vs 2.52,2.40–2.70, respectively, both pstroke rates between the elderly and the very elderly population. Ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke shared similar risk factors (age, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), vascular disease, and diabetes mellitus) (all pstroke (all pdisease (2.24, 1.49–3.37) was an additional major risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke, together with CAD and diabetes mellitus (all pischaemic stroke compared to haemorrhagic stroke with ageing. CAD, vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were major contributors to the development of hemorrhagic stroke in the very elderly Chinese population. PMID:27685332

  20. The need for repeat angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L.; Zentner, J.

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the necessity for a second angiogram study in patients in whom initial angiography after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was negative. During a 12-year period, 122 of 694 patients (17.5 %) had negative initial angiograms. CT, available for 98 patients, showed a preponderance of subarachnoid blood in the perimesencephalic cisterns in 50 of 73 patients (68.5 %) in whom blood was visible on CT. Angiography, repeated in 67 patients, revealed an aneurysm in 4 (6 %): 2 had an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, 1 of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 1 of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. CT showed subarachnoid blood in the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns in this last case, and a preponderance of subarachnoid blood outside the perimesencephalic cisterns in the remaining 3 patients. (orig.)

  1. The need for repeat angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Zentner, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the necessity for a second angiogram study in patients in whom initial angiography after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was negative. During a 12-year period, 122 of 694 patients (17.5 %) had negative initial angiograms. CT, available for 98 patients, showed a preponderance of subarachnoid blood in the perimesencephalic cisterns in 50 of 73 patients (68.5 %) in whom blood was visible on CT. Angiography, repeated in 67 patients, revealed an aneurysm in 4 (6 %): 2 had an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, 1 of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 1 of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. CT showed subarachnoid blood in the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns in this last case, and a preponderance of subarachnoid blood outside the perimesencephalic cisterns in the remaining 3 patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs.

  2. Pre-emptive treatment with fibrinogen concentrate for postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, A J; Edwards, H M; Afshari, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In early postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), a low concentration of fibrinogen is associated with excessive subsequent bleeding and blood transfusion. We hypothesized that pre-emptive treatment with fibrinogen concentrate reduces the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in patients wit...... with normofibrinogenaemia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01359878. Published protocol: http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/pdf/1745-6215-13-110.pdf....... interval, 0.58-1.54; P=0.88). We found no difference in any predefined secondary outcomes, per-protocol analyses, or adjusted analyses. No thromboembolic events were detected. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for the use of 2 g fibrinogen concentrate as pre-emptive treatment for severe PPH in patients...

  3. The Significance of Variceal Haemorrhage in Ghana: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archampong, T N A; Tachi, K; Agyei, A A; Nkrumah, K N

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the burden of bleeding oesophageal varices at the main tertiary referral centre in Accra. Retrospective design to describe the endoscopic spectrum and review mortality data following acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Endoscopic data was reviewed in the Endoscopy Unit between 2007 and 2010. Mortality data was collated from the Department of Medicine between 2010 and 2013. The study questionnaire compiled clinical and demographic characteristics, endoscopic diagnoses, length of hospital admission and treatment regimens. Aetiology and time-trend analysis of mortality rates following acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding; variceal bleeding treatment modalities. On review of the endoscopic diagnoses, gastro-oesophageal varices were identified in 21.9% of cases followed by gastritis 21.7%, duodenal ulcer, 17.0%, and gastric ulcer, 13.2%. Gastro-oesophageal varices were the predominant cause of death from acute upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage from 46% in 2010 to 76% in 2013. Outcomes following acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding were dismal with some 38% of fatalities occurring within the first 24 hours. Injection sclerotherapy was the dominant endoscopic modality for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding in comparison with band ligation, mainly as a result of cost and availability. At the tertiary centre in Accra, variceal bleeding is an increasingly common cause of acute upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage in comparison with previous reviews in Ghana. Its significantly high in-hospital mortality reflects inadequate facilities to deal with this medical emergency. A strategic approach to care with endoscopic services equipped with all the necessary therapeutic interventions will be vital in improving the outcomes of variceal bleeding in Ghana.

  4. APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolution of viruses and their hosts has reached a fragile and dynamic equilibrium that allows viral persistence, replication and transmission. In response, infected hosts have developed strategies of defense that counteract the deleterious effects of viral infections. In particular, single-strand DNA editing by Apolipoprotein B Editing Catalytic subunits proteins 3 (APOBEC3s is a well-conserved mechanism of mammalian innate immunity that mutates and inactivates viral genomes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of APOBEC3 editing during viral replication, the viral strategies that prevent APOBEC3 activity and the consequences of APOBEC3 modulation on viral fitness and host genome integrity. Understanding the mechanisms involved reveals new prospects for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Urological management (medical and surgical of BK-virus associated haemorrhagic cystitis in children following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Vasdev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC is uncommon and in its severe form potentially life threatening complication of Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT in children. We present our single centre experience in the urological management of this clinically challenging condition. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients were diagnosed with BK-Virus HC in our centre. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.8 years (range, 3.2-18.4 years. The mean number of days post-BMT until onset of HC was 20.8 (range, 1 – 51. While all patients tested urine positive for BKV at the clinical onset of HC, only four patients had viral quantification, with viral loads ranging from 97,000 to >1 billion/ml. 8 patients had clinical HC. Ten patients experienced acute GVHD (grade I: 6 patients, grade II: 3 patients, grade 4: 1 patient.Results: Four patients received medical management for their HC. Treatments included hyperhydration, MESNA, blood and platelet transfusion, premarin and oxybutynin (Table 6.  Two patients received both medical and surgical management which included cystoscopy with clot evacuation, bladder irrigation and supra-pubic catheter insertion. One patient received exclusive surgical management. Seven patients were treated conservatively. Conclusion: There is limited available evidence for other potential therapeutic strategies highlighting the need for more research into the pathophysiology of HSCT-associated HC. Commonly used interventions with possible clinical benefit (e.g. cidofovir, ciprofloxacin still require to be evaluated in multi-centre, high-quality studies. Potential future preventative and therapeutic options, such as modulation of conditioning, immunosuppression and engraftment, new antiviral and anti-inflammatory and less nephrotoxic agents need to be assessed.---------------------------Cite this article as:Vasdev N, Davidson A, Harkensee C, Slatter M, Gennery A, Willetts I, Thorpe A.Urological management (medical and surgical of BK

  6. Not All Acute Abdomen Cases in Early Pregnancy Are Ectopic; Expect the Unexpected: Renal Angiomyolipoma Causing Massive Retroperitoneal Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asim Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal haemorrhage (or retroperitoneal haematoma refers to an accumulation of blood found in the retroperitoneal space. It is a rare clinical entity with variable aetiology including anticoagulation, ruptured aortic aneurysm, acute pancreatitis, malignancy, and bleeding from renal aneurysm. Diagnosis of retroperitoneal bleed is sometimes missed or delayed as presentation is often nonspecific. Multislice CT and arteriography are important for diagnosis. There is no consensus about the best management plan for patients with retroperitoneal haematoma. Stable patients can be managed with fluid resuscitation, correction of coagulopathy if any, and blood transfusion. Endovascular options involving selective intra-arterial embolisation or stent-grafts are clearly getting more and more popularity. Open repair is usually reserved for cases when there is failure of conservative or endovascular measures to control the bleeding or expertise is unavailable and in cases where the patient is unstable. Mortality of patients with retroperitoneal haematoma remains high if appropriate and timely measures are not taken. Haemorrhage from a benign renal tumour is a rarer entity which is described in this case report which emphasizes that physicians should have a wide index of suspicion when dealing with patients presenting with significant groin, flank, abdominal, or back pain, or haemodynamic instability of unclear cause. Our patient presented with features of acute abdomen and, being pregnant, was thought of having a ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  7. Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in cerebral vasospasm, and as a therapeutic approach to subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios eKokkoris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is one of the most potent microvascular vasodilators identified to date. Vascular relaxation and vasodilation is mediated via activation of the CGRP receptor. This atypical receptor is made up of a G-protein-coupled receptor called calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a single transmembrane protein called receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP, and an additional protein that is required for Gas coupling, known as receptor component protein (RCP. Several mechanisms involved in CGRP mediated relaxation have been identified. These include nitric oxide (NO-dependent endothelium-dependent mechanisms or cAMP-mediated endothelium-independent pathways; the latter being more common. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH is associated with cerebral vasoconstriction that occurs several days after the haemorrhage and is often fatal. The vasospasm occurs in 30–40% of patients and is the major cause of death from this condition. The vasoconstriction is associated with a decrease in CGRP levels in nerves and an increase in CGRP levels in draining blood, suggesting that CGRP is released from nerves to oppose the vasoconstriction. This evidence has led to the concept that exogenous CGRP may be beneficial in a condition that has proven hard to treat. The present article reviews: a the pathophysiology of delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit after SAH b the basics of the CGRP receptor structure, signal transduction and vasodilatation mechanisms and c the studies that have been conducted so far using CGRP in both animals and humans with SAH.

  8. Severe cerebral hypovolemia on perfusion CT and lower body weight are associated with parenchymal haemorrhage after thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsetsou, S.; Eskandari, A.; Michel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne CHUV, Department of Neurology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Amiguet, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R.; Maeder, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jiang, B.; Wintermark, M. [Stanford University and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Haemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and particularly parenchymal haemorrhage (PH) remains a feared complication of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We aimed to identify clinical and perfusion CT (PCT) variables which are independently associated with PHs. In this observational cohort study, based on the Acute Stroke Registry Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) from 2003 to December 2013, we selected patients with AIS involving the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory who were thrombolysed within 4.5 h of symptoms' onset and who had a good quality baseline PCT at the beginning of IVT. In addition to demographic, clinical, laboratory and non-contrast CT data, volumes of salvageable tissue and ischemic core on PCT, as well as absolute CBF and CBV values within the ischemic regions were compared in patients with and without PH in multivariate analysis. Of the 190 included patients, 24 (12.6%) presented a PH (11 had PH1 and 13 had PH2). In multivariate analysis of the clinical and radiological variables, the lowest CBV in the core and lower body weight was both significantly associated with PH (p = 0.009 and p = 0.024, respectively). In thrombolysed MCA strokes, maximal hypoperfusion severity depicted by lowest CBV values in the core region and lower body weight are independently correlated with PH. This information, if confirmed in other case series, may add to the stratification of revascularisation decisions in patients with a perceived high PH risk. (orig.)

  9. Vertebral artery dissection associated with viral meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xudong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD is often associated with trauma or occurs spontaneously, inevitably causing some neurological deficits. Even though acute infection can be related to the development of spontaneous VAD (sVAD, VAD associated with viral meningitis has never been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old man with fever, sore throat, and runny nose developed sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, transient confusion, diplopia, and ataxia. Brain stem encephalitis was diagnosed initially because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF study showed inflammatory changes. However, subsequent diffusion-weighted (DWI magnetic resonance imaging of his brain demonstrated left lateral medullary infarction, and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA confirmed VAD involving left V4 segment of the artery. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as VAD accompanied by viral meningitis. Conclusion This case suggests that viral meningitis might lead to inflammatory injury of the vertebral arterial wall, even sVAD with multiple neurological symptoms.

  10. Recombination-dependent concatemeric viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Piano, Ambra; Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Zecchi, Lisa; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of viral double stranded (ds) DNA replication involves proteins that recruit and load the replisome at the replication origin (ori). Any block in replication fork progression or a programmed barrier may act as a factor for ori-independent remodelling and assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. Then replication initiation becomes dependent on recombination proteins, a process called recombination-dependent replication (RDR). RDR, which is recognized as being important for replication restart and stability in all living organisms, plays an essential role in the replication cycle of many dsDNA viruses. The SPP1 virus, which infects Bacillus subtilis cells, serves as a paradigm to understand the links between replication and recombination in circular dsDNA viruses. SPP1-encoded initiator and replisome assembly proteins control the onset of viral replication and direct the recruitment of host-encoded replisomal components at viral oriL. SPP1 uses replication fork reactivation to switch from ori-dependent θ-type (circle-to-circle) replication to σ-type RDR. Replication fork arrest leads to a double strand break that is processed by viral-encoded factors to generate a D-loop into which a new replisome is assembled, leading to σ-type viral replication. SPP1 RDR proteins are compared with similar proteins encoded by other viruses and their possible in vivo roles are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Insights into the evolution of the new variant rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (GI.2) and the identification of novel recombinant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério, D; Lopes, A M; Melo-Ferreira, J; Magalhães, M J; Monterroso, P; Serronha, A; Maio, E; Alves, P C; Esteves, P J; Abrantes, J

    2018-02-11

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a viral disease that affects the European rabbit. RHD was detected in 1984 in China and rapidly disseminated worldwide causing a severe decline in wild rabbit populations. The aetiological agent, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), is an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, genus Lagovirus. Pathogenic (G1-G6 or variants GI.1a-GI.1d) and non-pathogenic strains (GI.4) have been characterized. In 2010, a new variant of RHDV, RHDV2/RHDVb/GI.2, was detected in France. GI.2 arrived to the Iberian Peninsula in 2011, and several recombination events were reported. Here, we sequenced full genomes of 19 samples collected in Portugal between 2014 and 2016. New GI.2 recombinant strains were detected, including triple recombinants. These recombinants possess a non-structural protein p16 related to a non-pathogenic strain. Evolutionary analyses were conducted on GI.2 VP60 sequences. Estimated time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) suggests an emergence of GI.2 in July 2008, not distant from its first detection in 2010. This is the first study on GI.2 evolution and highlights the need of continued monitoring and characterization of complete genome sequences when studying lagoviruses' evolution. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of guys Hospital stroke score (allen score) in acute supratentorial thrombotic/haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, A.; Toori, K. U.; Khan, S. S.; Hamza, M. I. M.; Zaman, S. U.

    2006-01-01

    A consecutive series of 103 patients, 58% male with mean age of 62 year (range 40-75 years), admitted with supratentorial stroke in our teaching hospital were studied. All patients had Computer Tomography scan brain done after clinical evaluation and application of Allen stroke score. Computer Tomography Scan confirmed thrombotic stroke in 55 (53%) patients and haemorrhagic stroke in 48 (47%) patients. Out of the 55 patients with definitive thrombotic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested infarction in 67%, haemorrhage in 6% and remained inconclusive in 27% of cases. In 48 patients with definitive haemorrhagic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested haemorrhage in 60%, infarction in 11% and remained inconclusive in 29% of cases. The overall accuracy of Allen stroke score was 66%. (author)

  13. Decompressive craniectomy in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage for hematoma or oedema versus secondary infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedemans, Taco; Verbaan, Dagmar; Coert, Bert A.; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; van den Berg, René; Vandertop, W. Peter; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2017-01-01

    Decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been proposed as lifesaving treatment in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). However, data is sparse and controversy exists whether the underlying cause of elevated ICP influences neurological outcome. The

  14. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  15. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  16. Determinants and Time Trends for Ischaemic and Haemorrhagic Stroke in a Large Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tao, Tao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Chen, Yundai; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical epidemiology of stroke has been widely investigated in Caucasian populations, but the changes over time in the proportion of ischaemic to haemorrhagic strokes is less clear, especially in the Chinese population. Aims Our objective was to study the determinants and time trends for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, in relation to age, in a large Chinese population cohort. Methods Using a medical insurance database in the southwest of China from 2001 to 2012, time trends...

  17. Bakri balloon as a uterus preserving treatment of uncontrollable haemorrhage one month post-partum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnici, Mia; Markauskas, Algirdas; Munk, Torben

    2014-01-01

    In this case Bakri balloon was used to stop haemorrhage one month post-partum. The case introduces the use of this device outside usual indications. A 27-year-old woman was admitted several times with vaginal bleeding after caesarean section. She was treated pharmacologically and with curettage....... One month post-partum hysteroscopic removal of placental tissue was done. During this uncontrollable haemorrhage occurred and hysterectomy was considered. An attempt to save the uterus with Bakri balloon was made succesfully....

  18. Working capacity after a subarachnoid haemorrhage: A six-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, Emma; Persson, Hanna C; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2017-11-21

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage can lead to long-term disabilities. It is a major health issue for the patient and can affect work capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate working capacity after subarachnoid haemorrhage from a long-term perspective, using data from national sick leave records. In addition, factors associated with working capacity were analysed. A retrospective cohort study. A consecutive total sample of 38 working-age participants with first-ever subarachnoid haemorrhage was included. Working capacity of the 30 participants not on early retirement prior to the subarachnoid haemorrhage was analysed. Working capacity was defined as no longer being registered on sick leave or early retirement in the Social Insurance Agency and not being age retired or deceased. Regain of working capacity continued until 2.5 years post-subarachnoid haemorrhage and 73% of the participants were deemed to have working capacity. Functional independence at discharge from hospital, and higher responsiveness at admittance were the main factors associated with an earlier regain of working capacity. Nearly three-quarters of subjects were deemed to have working capacity within 2.5 years post-subarachnoid haemorrhage with a non-self-reported outcome. This information will help to individualize rehabilitation for affected persons.

  19. [Upper digestive haemorrhage due to Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Role of endoscopic sclerotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, I; Zozaya, J M; Rodríguez, C; Carral, D; Jiménez, F J; Borda, F

    2001-09-01

    Although Mallory-Weiss syndrome is responsible for between 0.5 and 17% of the cases of upper digestive haemorrhage, the information existing on the endoscopic treatment of this syndrome is scarce. We made a retrospective study of 71 patients with haemorrhage due to Mallory-Weiss syndrome, dividing them into two groups according to the treatment they had received (medical or medical-endoscopic). Hence, 60 patients (30 with clean laceration, 9 with signs of prior haemostasia and 21 with fresh clotting) had been treated with procinetics and/or antisecretories alone, while the 11 remaining (8 with active haemorrhage, 2 with visible vessel and 1 with fresh clotting) had also received endoscopic treatment with sclerotherapy. We compared the clinical and analytical characteristics and the evolution of both groups of patients, analysing the data by means of the Mann-Whitney U and the chi 2 test. The endoscopic sclerosis group showed maelenas more frequently and more severe analytical data of haemorrhage (pMallory-Weiss syndrome with active bleeding or visible vessel presented a haemorrhage with a greater clinical and analytical repercussion. In this group of patients, endoscopic sclerotherapy controlled the haemorrhage and/or prevented rebleeding, in the absence of complications.

  20. Changing haematological parameters in dengue viral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, T.; Mehmood, K.; Mujtaba, G.; Choudhry, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dengue Fever is the most common arboviral disease in the world, and presents cyclically in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The four serotypes of dengue virus, 1, 2, 3, and 4, form an antigenic subgroup of the flaviviruses (Group B arboviruses). Transmission to humans of any of these serotypes initiates a spectrum of host responses, from in apparent to severe and sometimes lethal infections. Complete Blood count (CBC) is an important part of the diagnostic workup of patients. Comparison of various finding in CBC including peripheral smear can help the physician in better management of the patient. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on a series of suspected patients of Dengue viral infection reporting in Ittefaq Hospital (Trust). All were investigated for serological markers of acute infection. Results Out of 341 acute cases 166 (48.7%) were confirmed by IgM against Dengue virus. IgG anti-dengue was used on 200 suspected re-infected patients. Seventy-one (39.5%) were positive and 118 (59%) were negative. Among 245 confirmed dengue fever patients 43 (17.6%) were considered having dengue hemorrhagic fever on the basis of lab and clinical findings. Raised haematocrit, Leukopenia with relative Lymphocytosis and presence atypical lymphocytes along with plasmacytoid cells was consistent finding at presentation in both the patterns of disease, i.e., Dengue Haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue fever (DF). Conclusion: Changes in relative percentage of cells appear with improvement in the symptoms and recovery from the disease. These findings indicate that in the course of the disease, there are major shifts within cellular component of blood. (author)

  1. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  2. Hepatitis viral C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Poma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis C se trasmite por contacto directo con la sangre de la persona infectada. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta síntomas en la fase aguda o crónica de la hepatitis. Dos a tres décadas después, algunos pacientes progresan a la cirrosis compensada, que también es asintomática. En un examen de sangre, los anticuerpos se presentan como una sorpresa, porque no se les relaciona con un episodio de contagio. Un embarazo ocasiona la posibilidad de efectos negativos de la infección en la madre o el niño. El tratamiento actual no ofrece la certeza de cura, dependiendo del genotipo viral, y presenta efectos adversos que pueden ser severos. La cirrosis descompensada causa la mayoría de muertes relacionadas con esta infección; algunos de estos pacientes desarrollan carcinoma hepatocelular. La reproducción viral causa partículas virales diferentes del virus original, característica que ha impedido el desarrollo de una vacuna. Actualmente, la prevención consiste en evitar el contacto con sangre infectada. Este artículo revisa la infección con el virus de la hepatitis C, incluyendo los últimos progresos en tratamiento. Es necesario educar a la comunidad acerca de los efectos de este virus en la salud pública.

  3. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  4. Leptospirosis among the self-supporting convicts of Andaman Island during the 1920s--the first report on pulmonary haemorrhage in leptospirosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayachari, P; Sugunan, A P; Singh, S S; Mathur, P P

    2015-07-01

    Several researchers had carried out investigations on the possibility of existence of Weil's disease in Andaman Islands during early 20 th century. The first report of a series of confirmed cases of leptospirosis that occurred during 1929 was published in 1931.There were several reports during 1995 to 2009 that described detailed account of leptospirosis including various clinical syndromes. The possibility of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis being a manifestation historically overlooked rather than newly emerged during the past two decades is examined in this review in the context of Andaman Islands. Two case series of leptospirosis, one occurred in 1929 and the other in 1996-1997 were reviewed with special emphasis on pulmonary involvement and haemorrhagic manifestations. The similarities and differences in the clinical profile of patients of the two case series were analysed. The review shows that respiratory system involvement and pulmonary haemorrhage as evidenced by presence of haemoptysis as a complication of leptospirosis was occurring during 1920s in Andaman Islands. The incidence of pulmonary involvement, however, rose from 9.4 per cent during 1929 to 52 per cent in 1996-1997. The case fatality ratio in patients with pulmonary involvement, which was 50 per cent during 1929 and 42.9 per cent during 1996-1997, was higher than that in cases without pulmonary involvement.Fever, conjunctival congestion, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, hepatomagaly, haemoptysis, haematemesis and subconjunctival haemorrhage were common in both series. The case series in Andaman Islands in 1929 was probably the first report of pulmonary haemorrhage as a manifestation of leptospirosis. The increase in the incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis in the recent past is probably due to the increase in the density and diversity of its animal vectors,the broadening of the range of circulating serovars and the interactions between the vector and the agent. An increased

  5. Leptospirosis among the self-supporting convicts of Andaman Island during the 1920s - the first report on pulmonary haemorrhage in leptospirosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijayachari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers had carried out investigations on the possibility of existence of Weil′s disease in Andaman Islands during early 20 th century. The first report of a series of confirmed cases of leptospirosis that occurred during1929 was published in 1931.There were several reports during 1995 to 2009 that described detailed account of leptospirosis including various clinical syndromes. The possibility of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis being a manifestation historically overlooked rather than newly emerged during the past two decades is examined in this review in the context of Andaman Islands. Two case series of leptospirosis, one occurred in 1929 and the other in 1996-1997 were reviewed with special emphasis on pulmonary involvement and haemorrhagic manifestations. The similarities and differences in the clinical profile of patients of the two case series were analysed. The review shows that respiratory system involvement and pulmonary haemorrhage as evidenced by presence of haemoptysis as a complication of leptospirosis was occurring during 1920s in Andaman Islands. The incidence of pulmonary involvement, however, rose from 9.4 per cent during 1929 to 52 per cent in 1996-1997. The case fatality ratio in patients with pulmonary involvement, which was 50 per cent during 1929 and 42.9 per cent during 1996-1997, was higher than that in cases without pulmonary involvement.Fever, conjunctival congestion, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, hepatomagaly, haemoptysis, haematemesis and subconjunctival haemorrhage were common in both series. The case series in Andaman Islands in 1929 was probably the first report of pulmonary haemorrhage as a manifestation of leptospirosis. The increase in the incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis in the recent past is probably due to the increase in the density and diversityof its animal vectors,the broadening of the range of circulating serovars and the interactions between the vector and the

  6. Leptospirosis among the self-supporting convicts of Andaman Island during the 1920s - the first report on pulmonary haemorrhage in leptospirosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayachari, P.; Sugunan, A.P.; Singh, S.S.; Mathur, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers had carried out investigations on the possibility of existence of Weil's disease in Andaman Islands during early 20th century. The first report of a series of confirmed cases of leptospirosis that occurred during1929 was published in 1931. There were several reports during 1995 to 2009 that described detailed account of leptospirosis including various clinical syndromes. The possibility of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis being a manifestation historically overlooked rather than newly emerged during the past two decades is examined in this review in the context of Andaman Islands. Two case series of leptospirosis, one occurred in 1929 and the other in 1996-1997 were reviewed with special emphasis on pulmonary involvement and haemorrhagic manifestations. The similarities and differences in the clinical profile of patients of the two case series were analysed. The review shows that respiratory system involvement and pulmonary haemorrhage as evidenced by presence of haemoptysis as a complication of leptospirosis was occurring during 1920s in Andaman Islands. The incidence of pulmonary involvement, however, rose from 9.4 per cent during 1929 to 52 per cent in 1996-1997. The case fatality ratio in patients with pulmonary involvement, which was 50 per cent during 1929 and 42.9 per cent during 1996-1997, was higher than that in cases without pulmonary involvement. Fever, conjunctival congestion, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, hepatomagaly, haemoptysis, haematemesis and subconjunctival haemorrhage were common in both series. The case series in Andaman Islands in 1929 was probably the first report of pulmonary haemorrhage as a manifestation of leptospirosis. The increase in the incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis in the recent past is probably due to the increase in the density and diversityof its animal vectors, the broadening of the range of circulating serovars and the interactions between the vector and the agent. An increased

  7. Marburg haemorrhagic fever: recent advances | AdegborO | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the exception of a vaccine for yellow fever and ribavirin, which is used for treatment of some arenaviral infections, no specific chemotherapy for viral hemorrhagic fever exists. Only supportive treatment is possible The filoviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), have been associated with hemorrhagic ...

  8. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan (1948-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Sansyzbaev, Yerlan; Atshabar, Bakhyt; Deryabin, Pavel; Kazakov, Stanislav; Zholshorinov, Aitmagambet; Matzhanova, Almagul; Sadvakassova, Alya; Saylaubekuly, Ratbek; Kyraubaev, Kakimzhan; Hay, John; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic and often fatal arboviral disease with a distribution spanning large areas of Africa, Europe and Asia. The causative agent is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Cases of CCHF have been officially recorded in Kazakhstan since the disease was first officially reported in modern medicine. Serological surveillance of human and animal populations provide evidence that the virus was perpetually circulating in a local enzoonotic cycle involving mammals, ticks and humans in the southern regions of the country. Most cases of human disease were associated with agricultural professions such as farming, shepherding and fruit-picking; the typical route of infection was via tick-bite although several cases of contact transmission associated with caring for sick patients have been documented. In total, 704 confirmed human cases of CCHF have been registered in Kazakhstan from 1948-2013 with an overall case fatality rate of 14.8% for cases with a documented outcome. The southern regions of Kazakhstan should be considered endemic for CCHF with cases reported from these territories on an annual basis. Modern diagnostic technologies allow for rapid clinical diagnosis and for surveillance studies to monitor for potential expansion in known risk areas. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. FishPathogens.eu/vhsv: a user-friendly viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolate and sequence database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Søren Peter; Gray, Tanya; Kahns, Søren

    2009-01-01

    A database has been created, http://www.Fish Pathogens.eu, with the aim of providing a single repository for collating important information on significant pathogens of aquaculture, relevant to their control and management. This database will be developed, maintained and managed as part...

  10. FishPathogens.eu/vhsv: A user-friendly Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV) isolate and sequence database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Søren Peter; Gray, Tanya; Kahns, Søren

    A database has been created, www.FishPathogens.eu, with the aim of providing a single repository for collating important information on significant pathogens of aquaculture, relevant to their control and management. This database will be developed, maintained and managed as part of the European...

  11. Evaluation of the effect of percolation and NaCl solutions on viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    from any of the outlet samples. As the sensitivity of the virological examination was 13.9 TCID50/ml a reduction of >4 log was shown at the outlet. Percolation thus seems to be a usable method for sanitation of water contaminated with VHSV. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types etc. may potentially...

  12. Susceptibility of various Japanese freshwater fish species to an isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    fish Oryzias latipes and yoshinobori Rhinogobius sp., respectively. No mortality was observed in honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens, akaza Liobagrus reini or Japanese striped loach Cobitis biwae. VHSV was detected by RT-PCR from samples of kidney, spleen, and brain from all dead fish, and virus re...

  13. Immunity to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) following DNA vaccination of rainbow trout at an early life-stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2001-01-01

    -vaccination respectively, revealed that a highly protective and lasting immunity was established shortly after vaccination, in accordance with earlier experiments with larger fish. The defence mechanisms activated by the DNA vaccine are thus functional at an early life-stage in rainbow trout....

  14. Major lower intestinal haemorrhage: angiographic localisation and current management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, M.M.W.; Krige, J.E.J.; Harries-Jones, E.P.; 1202780ZA)

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with major lower intestinal bleeding underwent emergency selective mesenteric angiography during a 6-year period. Angiography identified a bleeding site in 16 patients (47%). Diverticulosis, found in 22 patients (65%), and angiodysplasia, found in 4 (12%), were the most common causes of major colonic bleeding and originated more frequently from the right colon. Eight patients (24%) bled from less common sources. Radiological control of bleeding was unreliable with a significant complication rate. Fourteen of 16 patients with positive angiograms and 6 of 18 patients with negative angiograms required surgery for persistent major bleeding. Angiographic localisation of colonic bleeding allowed limited resection in 9 of 11 patients with control of haemorrhage in 8 (89%). Fourteen of 34 patients were managed non-operatively; of these 2 had minor recurrent bleeding. The overall mortality rate was 29%, the operative mortality rate 40% and the non-operative mortality rate 14%. A rational diagnostic approach is presented, emphasising the role of selective mesenteric angiography in the management and surgical strategy of major lower intestinal bleeding

  15. Quality of care in the management of major obstetric haemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, S N

    2012-02-01

    Substandard care is reported to occur in a large number of cases of major obstetric haemorrhage (MOH). A prospective audit was carried out by a multidisciplinary team at our hospital over a one year period to assess the quality of care (QOC) delivered to women experiencing MOH. MOH was defined according to criteria outlined in the Scottish Audit of Maternal Morbidity (SAMM). 31 cases were identified yielding an incidence of 3.5\\/1000 deliveries. The predominant causes were uterine atony 11 (35.4%), retained products of conception 6 (19.3%) and placenta praevia\\/accreta 6 (19.3%). Excellent initial resuscitation and monitoring was noted with a high level of senior staff input. Indicators of QOC compared favourably with the SAMM. Areas for improvement were identified. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of detailed prospective data collection in MOH in a busy Dublin obstetric unit with a view to developing a national audit. Standardization of definitions allows for international comparisons.

  16. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  17. Bevacizumab: an option for refractory epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Arno; Steiner, Normann; Gunsilius, Eberhard

    2015-08-01

    Recurrent epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients significantly decreases their quality of life. Treatment in therapy refractory patients is limited although various options have been tested so far. Herein, one patient is described that was treated for HHT for over 20 years with only intermediate benefits. As epistaxis duration and frequency increased continuously, bevacizumab 5 mg/kg was administered every 2 weeks. During the time of treatment (six doses) and up to 3 month afterwards clinical symptoms, blood pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), bleeding duration and frequency were assessed as criteria for treatment benefit. Duration and frequency of epistaxis decreased immediately after the first application resulting in reduced need of blood transfusions. After completion of six cycles, a further decrease in frequency and duration of bleeding was noted. Cardiac output and PAH decreased or remained stable, respectively, during time and after treatment. No increase in blood pressure could be found but a significant increase in heart rate was experienced after completion of all six applications. Unfortunately, the patient died due to a cerebral abscess. Bevacizumab led to an improvement of HHT related epistaxis, refractory to other treatments.

  18. [Acute hemorrhagic viral conjunctivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haicl, P; Vanista, J; Danes, L

    1992-10-01

    Two cases of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis are described, in which the enterovirus Coxsackie 24 was found by serological examination to be the etiological agent. The virus was important from Nigeria. The patients suffered by the acute hemorrhagic keratoconjuntivitis with transient iritic irritation without the systemic symptoms. Since now this disease with serological verification was not diagnosed in our country. The question of the viral hemorrhagic conjunctivitis and their treatment is discussed. The necessity of virological investigation in inflammations of the anterior segment is stressed.

  19. Complement and Viral Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoermer, Kristina A.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The complement system functions as an immune surveillance system that rapidly responds to infection. Activation of the complement system by specific recognition pathways triggers a protease cascade, generating cleavage products that function to eliminate pathogens, regulate inflammatory responses, and shape adaptive immune responses. However, when dysregulated, these powerful functions can become destructive and the complement system has been implicated as a pathogenic effector in numerous diseases, including infectious diseases. This review highlights recent discoveries that have identified critical roles for the complement system in the pathogenesis of viral infection. PMID:21292294

  20. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  1. Risk factors of post partum haemorrhage in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea Pangerti Jekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Perdarahan post-partum (PPH merupakan salah satu trias klasik penyebab kematian ibu. Studi ini mengevaluasi beberapa faktor risiko PPH, khususnya riwayat antenatal, natal, dan post-natal.Metode: Analisis menggunakan sebagian data dari studi potong lintang Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskedas 2010. Subjek yang dipakai unuk analisis ini ialah wanita yang menikah berumur  13-49 tahun dan melahirkan anak terakhir antara 1 Januari 2005 sampai 31 Juli 2010. Perdarahan post-partum berdasarkan konfi rmasi petugas kesehatan tentang telah terjadinya perdarahan dua atau lebih kain (masing-masing 1,5 m selama proses persalinan.Hasil: Pada analisis ini terdpat 601 subjek yang mengalami PPH dan 19.583 subjek tidak mengalami PPH. Eklamsia meningkatkan risiko PPH 3,5 kali (95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 2,53–4,69, ketuban pecah dini meningkatkan risiko PPH 2,2 kali (95% CI = 1,69-2,83, placenta previa meningkatkan risiko PPH 2,1  kali (95% CI = 1,29-3,31. Dibandingkan kehamilan aterm, wanita dengan kehamilan prematur berisiko PPH 82% lebih tinggi (95% CI = 1,33–2,49, sedangkan yang dengan kehamilan post-term berisiko PPH 72% lebih tinggi (95% CI = 1,16–2,57.  Dibandingkan wanita dengan paritas 1-2, risiko PPH pada wanita yang berparitas 3-5 dan 6 atau lebih berturut-turut adalah 24% dan 81% lebih tinggi.Kesimpulan: Eklampsia merupakan faktor risiko PPH terkuat. Placenta previa, ketuban pecah dini, kehamilan prematur atau post-term, serta paritas yang tinggi juga meningkatkan risiko PPH. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:66-70.Abstract Background: Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH is one of the classic triad of causes of maternal death. This analysis aimed to evaluate several risk factors of PPH.Methods: This analysis using a cross-sectional Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010 data. For this analysis, the subjects consisted of married women aged 13-49 years, who gave birth of their last child between January 1, 2005 and August 2010

  2. Haemorrhagic-necrotic enteritis in heavy breeds broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to determine the influence of Clostridium perfringens type A on the development of pathomorphological substrate, its intensity and distribution in fifteen weeks old heavy breeds broilers. The investigation was carried out on corpses of 8 hens and 7 roosters of heavy breeds of provenance COBB 500. After the completion of the autopsy, samples of altered parts of jejunum and liver were taken for histopathological examination, and jejunum intestinal contents for bacteriological examination. In all the corpses, in open pleuroperitoneal cavity, even in situ, an altered part of jejunum can be noticed. It was extremely dilated the entire length, and its wall was bluish-gray with disseminated subserous punctiform blood extravasates. When opened, semi-liquid content with blood coagulums and patches of necrotic mucosa went out of it. By microscopic examination of small intestine tissue cuttings, colored by HE method, there was observed a diffuse necrosis of intestinal villi. They were desroyed and replaced by eosinophilic structureless mass. Furthermore, there could be noticed submucose oedema, capillary congestion and blood extravasates in mucosa, as well as infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes in lamina propria. These microscopic alterations reflect hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis. By microscopic examining of small intestine cuttings colored according to Brown & Brenn method, colonies of bacteria in distal parts of the submucosa were found out. Using bacteriological tests in anaerobic conditions, there was isolated a culture identified as Clostridium perfringens. After applying of multiplex PCR, the obtained isolate was genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. On the basis of pathomorphological, bacteriological and molecular examinations, it can be concluded that the infection of heavy breeds with Clostridium perfringens type A is manifested by appearance of haemorrhagic-necrotic jejunitis, that the causer

  3. Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S V; Vicari, P; Cavalheiro, S; Bordin, J O

    2003-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in haemophilic patients. The overall incidence of ICH has been reported to range from 2.2% to 7.5% in patients with haemophilia. From 1987 to 2001, 401 haemophilic patients from the Serviço de Hemofilia, Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo were evaluated. The episodes of ICH were documented by CT scan and the anatomic location, clinical presentation, relationship to trauma and clinical factors, including the presence of HIV infection and the presence of inhibitor, were reviewed. Among 401 haemophilic patients, 45 ICH episodes in 35 (8.7%) patients with age ranging from 4 days to 49 years (mean 10.6 years) were observed. A history of recent trauma was documented in 24 (53.3%) cases. Seventeen (37.8%) episodes occurred in more than one site of bleeding, 12 (26.7%) were subdural, seven (15.5%) subarachnoid, four (8.9%) epidural, two (4.4%) intracerebral and one (2.2%) intraventricular. The most frequent symptoms were headache and drowsiness. All patients were submitted to replacement therapy and neurosurgical intervention was performed in eight (17.8%) patients. Despite the treatment, three (8.6%) haemophilia A patients died due to the ICH event and three presented late sequelae. The most important aspect of ICH management is the early replacement therapy in haemophilic patients. This prompt treatment will increase the chances of a better prognosis. Another impact measure consists in the administration of the deficient coagulation factor after every head trauma, even when considered minor.

  4. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgando, A; Giordanino, C; Baronio, M; Pellicano, R; Rizzetto, M

    2006-02-01

    In spite of the diffusion of endoscopic treatment, mortality rate due to peptic ulcer haemorrhage (PUH) remains high. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the 2 main aetiological factors, but their interactive role is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence of H. pylori infection and NSAIDs consumption in PUH and their prognostic importance. In a prospective study, 41 consecutive patients (33 males, 8 females) admitted for PUH were recruited. H. pylori status was investigated both by measuring specific antibodies in serum and by histological detection on gastric biopsies obtained after one month from bleeding. In case of doubt, either a 13C urea breath test, or a stool antigen test were associated. All patients were treated with medical therapy associated to endoscopic treatment in most severe cases. Sixteen patients were infected from H. pylori (group A), 12 had a history of NSAIDs consumption (group B), and 13 had both risk factors (group C). The median duration of hospitalisation was 7 days for each group and correlated with age (P<0.04). Severity of PUH (high risk of rebleeding) was higher in group A (13/16; 81%) and group C (9/13; 69%), with respect to group B (6/12; 50%). This difference was not significant. H. pylori infection has a predominant role in causing PUH as well as in the prognosis and clinical course of this condition. Hence, it is important to determine H. pylori status in every patient with PUH.

  5. Acute intracerebral haemorrhage: grounds for optimism in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke, which has considerable disease burden in "non-white" ethnic groups where the population-attributable risks of elevated blood pressure are very high. Since the treatment of ICH remains largely supportive and expectant, nihilism and the early withdrawal of active therapy influence management decisions in clinical practice. However, approaches to management are now better defined on the basis of evidence that both survival and speed (and degree) of recovery are critically dependent on the location, size, and degree of expansion and extension into the intraventricular system of the haematoma of the ICH. Although no medical treatment has been shown to improve outcome in ICH, several promising avenues have emerged that include haemostatic therapy and intensive control of elevated blood pressure. Conversely, there is continued controversy over the role of evacuation of the haematoma of ICH via open craniotomy. Despite being an established practice for several decades, and having undergone evaluation in multiple randomised trials, there is uncertainty over which patients have the most to gain from an intervention with clear procedural risk. Minimally invasive surgery via local anaesthetic applied drill-puncture of the cranium and infusion of a thrombolytic agent is an attractive option for patients requiring critical management of the haematoma, not just in low resource settings but arguably also in specialist centres of western countries. With several ongoing clinical trials nearing completion, these treatments could enter routine practice within the next few years, further justifying the urgency of "time is brain" and that active management within well-organized, comprehensive acute stroke care units includes patients with ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Embolization for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsadraee, S.; Tirukonda, P.; Nicholson, A. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Everett, S.M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); McPherson, S.J., E-mail: simon.mcpherson@leedsth.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To assess the published evidence on the endovascular treatment of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Materials and methods: An Ovid Medline search of published literature was performed (1966-2009). Non-English literature, experimental studies, variceal haemorrhage and case series with fewer than five patients were excluded. The search yielded 1888 abstracts. Thirty-five articles were selected for final analysis. Results: The total number of pooled patients was 927. The technical and clinical success of embolization ranged from 52-100% and 44-100%, respectively. The pooled mean technical/clinical success rate in primary upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage (PUGITH) only, trans-papillary haemorrhage (TPH) only, and mixed studies were 84%/67%, 93%/89%, and 93%/64%, respectively. Clinical outcome was adversely affected by multi-organ failure, shock, corticosteroids, transfusion, and coagulopathy. The anatomical source of haemorrhage and procedural variables did not affect the outcome. A successful embolization improved survival by 13.3 times. Retrospective comparison with surgery demonstrated equivalent mortality and clinical success, despite embolization being applied to a more elderly population with a higher prevalence of co-morbidities. Conclusions: Embolization is effective in this very difficult cohort of patients with outcomes similar to surgery.

  7. Is haemosiderin visible indefinitely on gradient-echo MRI following traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messori, A.; Polonara, G.; Mabiglia, C.; Salvolini, U. [Department of Neuroradiology, Umberto I Hospital and University of Ancona, via Conca, Torrette, 60020, Ancona (Italy)

    2003-12-01

    Gradient-echo (GE) MRI has been demonstrated to be the most sensitive current technique for detection of intracerebral haemosiderin, especially in the chronic stage of haemorrhage. Our purpose was to see whether GE MRI shows old haemorrhage indefinitely. We reviewed serial GE images of 105 adults with imaging features consistent with post-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage, who had serial MRI at 1, 4-6, 12, and 24 months after trauma. Of 1235 scattered low-signal foci consistent with isolated intracerebral haemosiderin deposits on images at 4-6 months, 248 (20.1%) were not seen at 24-month assessment. Reviewing individual patients, we saw that in 71.8% of those with scattered haemosiderin deposits and 46.4% of those with haemosiderin surrounded by gliosis, the low-signal foci appeared less conspicuous with time. Even given certain limitations to the interpretation of these findings, it would appear that, even with the use of GE MRI, time affects the visibility of haemorrhagic intracerebral lesions. We therefore conclude that a time of 4-6 months to 1 year or slightly more should be recommended for most precise detection of haemosiderin deposits on MRI of head-injured patients, should this be thought desirable. Normal GE images may not exclude old haemorrhage. (orig.)

  8. Is haemosiderin visible indefinitely on gradient-echo MRI following traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, A; Polonara, G; Mabiglia, C; Salvolini, U

    2003-12-01

    Gradient-echo (GE) MRI has been demonstrated to be the most sensitive current technique for detection of intracerebral haemosiderin, especially in the chronic stage of haemorrhage. Our purpose was to see whether GE MRI shows old haemorrhage indefinitely. We reviewed serial GE images of 105 adults with imaging features consistent with post-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage, who had serial MRI at 1, 4-6, 12, and 24 months after trauma. Of 1235 scattered low-signal foci consistent with isolated intracerebral haemosiderin deposits on images at 4-6 months, 248 (20.1%) were not seen at 24-month assessment. Reviewing individual patients, we saw that in 71.8% of those with scattered haemosiderin deposits and 46.4% of those with haemosiderin surrounded by gliosis, the low-signal foci appeared less conspicuous with time. Even given certain limitations to the interpretation of these findings, it would appear that, even with the use of GE MRI, time affects the visibility of haemorrhagic intracerebral lesions. We therefore conclude that a time of 4-6 months to 1 year or slightly more should be recommended for most precise detection of haemosiderin deposits on MRI of head-injured patients, should this be thought desirable. Normal GE images may not exclude old haemorrhage.

  9. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel José

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  10. [Respiratory involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmier, D; Marchand-Adam, S; Diot, P; Diot, E

    2008-12-01

    Respiratory involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not as well known as the cutaneous, rheumatological and renal manifestations. It occurs frequently but the diagnosis may be difficult because of the heterogeneity of the anatomical and clinical presentations. A precise diagnosis is crucial as new immunosuppressive drugs have considerably improved the prognosis. The pathology involves genetic, endocrine, environmental, pharmacological and immunological factors with a cytotoxic reaction of auto antibodies against complement, a circulating immune complex reaction and a hyperactivity of B lymphocytes. Respiratory involvement in SLE can be classified in 5 groups based on the anatomy: pleural involvement, infiltrating pneumonia (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia and acute lupus pneumonitis), airways involvement (upper airways, bronchi), vascular involvement (pulmonary hypertension, acute reversible hypoxaemia, alveolar haemorrhage, and antiphospholipid syndrome), muscular and diaphragmatic involvement (shrinking lung syndrome). Treatment is based, depending upon the type of involvement and its severity, on steroids which may be combined with immunosuppressants and plasmapheresis.

  11. Immunological and viral determinants of dengue severity in hospitalized adults in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the infecting dengue serotype, primary and secondary infection, viremia and dengue severity remain unclear. This cross-sectional study examined these interactions in adult patients hospitalized with dengue in Ha Noi.158 patients were enrolled between September 16 and November 11, 2008. Quantitative RT-PCR, serology and NS1 detection were used to confirm dengue infection, determine the serotype and plasma viral RNA concentration, and categorize infections as primary or secondary. 130 (82% were laboratory confirmed. Serology was consistent with primary and secondary infection in 34% and 61%, respectively. The infecting serotype was DENV-1 in 42 (32%, DENV-2 in 39 (30% and unknown in 49 (38%. Secondary infection was more common in DENV-2 infections (79% compared to DENV-1 (36%, p<0.001. The proportion that developed dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF was 32% for secondary infection compared to 18% for primary infection (p = 0.14, and 26% for DENV-1 compared to 28% for DENV-2. The time until NS1 and plasma viral RNA were undetectable was shorter for DENV-2 compared to DENV-1 (p≤0.001 and plasma viral RNA concentration on day 5 was higher for DENV-1 (p = 0.03. Plasma viral RNA concentration was higher in secondary infection on day 5 of illness (p = 0.046. We didn't find an association between plasma viral RNA concentration and clinical severity.Dengue is emerging as a major public health problem in Ha Noi. DENV-1 and DENV-2 were the prevalent serotypes with similar numbers and clinical presentation. Secondary infection may be more common amongst DENV-2 than DENV-1 infections because DENV-2 infections resulted in lower plasma viral RNA concentrations and viral RNA concentrations were higher in secondary infection. The drivers of dengue emergence in northern Viet Nam need to be elucidated and public health measures instituted.

  12. Superselective embolisation in acute lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Ralib, Ahmad Razali; Zakaria, Rozman; Mohamad, Zahiah; Muda, Ahmad Sobri

    2009-10-01

    Superselective embolisation has been recognised as integral in the management of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage. It has also reduced the need for emergency surgery. The objective of this case series was to describe the lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage cases seen in our centre, its diagnosis and the role of superselective embolisation in patient management. All patients who underwent superselective embolisation from January 2008 until April 2009 in our centre were analysed. Data were collected from the hospital electronic medical records. Four patients (three males) with a mean age of 81 years were analysed. Multidetector computerised tomography and digital subtraction angiography were positive in all patients. Superselective embolisation with platinum microcoils was performed in all patients (n = 4). Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). Superselective embolisation in the treatment of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage is safe and effective with a very high technical success rate.

  13. Sudden headache, third nerve palsy and visual deficit: thinking outside the subarachnoid haemorrhage box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Lambert, John

    2013-11-01

    A 75-year-old lady presented with sudden severe headache and vomiting. Examination was normal, and CT and lumbar puncture not convincing for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Shortly thereafter, she developed painless diplopia. Examination confirmed right third cranial nerve palsy plus homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia. Urgent cerebral MRI with angiography was requested to assess for a possible posterior communicating artery aneurysm, but revealed an unsuspected pituitary mass. Pituitary adenoma with pituitary apoplexy was diagnosed. Pituitary apopolexy is a syndrome comprising sudden headache, meningism, visual and/or oculomotor deficits, with an intrasellar mass. It is commonly due to haemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary adenoma. Treatment includes prompt steroid administration, and potentially surgical decompression. While subarachnoid haemorrhage is an important, well-recognised cause of sudden severe headache, other aetiologies, including pituitary apoplexy, should be considered and sought.

  14. Endoglin, a TGF-β binding protein of endothelial cells, is the gene for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. McAllister (K.); K.M. Grogg (K.); D.W. Johnson (D.); C.J. Gallione (C.); P.J. Baldwin (Peter); C.E. Jackson (C.); E.A. Helmbold (E.); D.S. Markel (D.); W. McKinnon; J.R. Murrell (Jill); J.A. McCormick (James); M.A. Pericak-Vance (Margaret); P. Heutink (Peter); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Haitjema (T.); C.J.J. Westerman (C. J J); M.E. Porteous (Mary); A.E. Guttmacher (A.); M. Letarte (M.); D.A. Marchuk (D.)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractHereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multisystemic vascular dysplasia and recurrent haemorrhage. Linkage for some families has been established to chromosome 9q33−q34. In the present study, endoglin, a transforming growth factor

  15. Epistaxis and other haemorrhagic events associated with the smoking cessation medicine varenicline : a case series from two national pharmacovigilance centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Harmark, Linda; Tan, Ming; Maggo, Simran; van Grootheest, Kees

    Purpose To present a case series of haemorrhagic events associated with varenicline identified from the New Zealand (NZ) and Netherlands national pharmacovigilance centres and propose a possible mechanism for these adverse events. Methods Reports of epistaxis and other haemorrhagic events (in all

  16. Intensive care management of patients with severe intracerebral haemorrhage after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, E.; Yonekawa, Y.; Imhof, H.G.; Tanaka, M.; Valavanis, Anton

    2002-01-01

    We studied the impact of emergency neurosurgery and intensive care on the outcome for patients with severe intracerebral haemorrhage after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We reviewed the case notes of 18 patients with severe haemorrhage after embolisation of a brain AVM between 1986 and 2001. During this period the treatment changed: before 1993, these patients were not surgically treated, and they died, while after 1994, all patients underwent emergency surgery. We established a standardised protocol for emergency treatment and intensive care in May 1998, and emergency surgery was performed as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms of haemorrhage. Postoperative intensive care was according to a standardised regime. During these 15 years, 24 out of 605 patients undergoing 1066 interventions had a haemorrhage during or after the procedure, of which 18 were severe (3% of patients, 1.7% of interventions). All patients had a severe clinical deficit (mean Glasgow coma scale 4.2); eight had uni- or bilateral mydriasis. From 1989 to April 1998 four (31%) of 13 patients died, one (7.5%) remained in a vegetative state and eight (61.5%) made a good recovery. All five patients treated between 1998 and 2001 had a favourable outcome. The mean time from onset of the symptoms of haemorrhage to reaching the operation room was 129 min between 1989 and 1998 and 24 min between 1998 and 2001. Standardised emergency treatment and intensive care with early resuscitation, minimal radiological exploration before rapid surgery improved the outcome. A short time between the onset of the symptoms of haemorrhage and evacuation of the haematoma may be the most important factor for a favourable outcome. (orig.)

  17. Preventing postpartum haemorrhage: active management of the third stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Parreira, Maria V B; Gomes, Nádia C Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    To review scientific publications on health to identify the main practices used for the active management of the third stage of vaginal labour and to assess their effectiveness in preventing postpartum haemorrhage. According to the World Health Organization (WHO Recommendations for the Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage, 2007. WHO Document Production Services, Geneva), postpartum haemorrhage is considered to be the cause of a quarter of maternal morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. In an attempt to reduce the risk of haemorrhage, a group of interventions have been introduced into clinical practice that constitute active management conduct during the third stage of labour and are recommended by the international organisations. An integrative literature review of studies on the subject in question, indexed in databases of health between the years 2006-2012, was conducted. The analysis included 13 articles, six of which were original articles and seven of which were literature reviews. Based on our data analysis, we found that most studies supported the effectiveness of active management in reducing the risk of haemorrhage, in the immediate postpartum period. Despite the fact that active management practices for the third stage of labour differ in their specific elements, in the majority of the selected studies, the interventions followed those recommended by the international organisations. The results of this review of management practices supported active management of the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum haemorrhage, with five main forms of intervention: administration of oxytocin, delayed clamping of umbilical cord, draining of placental blood, controlled cord traction and uterine massage. There is a need to determine gaps in the clinical practices of midwives in regard to the active management of third stage of labour, to update knowledge and practices with the latest scientific evidence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Post-transfusion hypertension, convulsion and intracranial haemorrhage in beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, S.A.; Zaidi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The haematologic disorder b-thalassemia major is common in Pakistan. We describe a patient with undiagnosed thalassemia presenting with hypertension and convulsions and found to have cerebral haemorrhage on neuro-imaging. He had been transfused 2 weeks before this illness. Our experience is similar to a few case reports described in literature that were found to have cerebral haemorrhages post-mortem after a similar clinical presentation. All patients had a blood transfusion within 2 weeks prior to the presentation so association with transfusion has been proposed. We have reviewed the several mechanisms presented and discussed the findings. (author)

  19. Maxillary tuberosity fracture: a life-threatening haemorrhage following simple exodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, A R; Rao, A C A; Akbiyik, K M; Haddad, S; Zoud, K

    2011-06-01

    Maxillary tuberosity fracture is a potential complication of routine exodontia of posterior maxillary teeth. On rare occasions, such a complication can result in torrential haemorrhage due to the close proximity of significant vessels to the area. We present a case of life-threatening haemorrhage complicating a tuberosity fracture during simple extraction of a maxillary posterior tooth. The local anatomy of the region is discussed and we provide guidelines for general dental practitioners for the management of the complication of a tuberosity fracture during routine exodontia. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Identification of diverse defense mechanisms in trout red blood cells in response to VHSV halted viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nombela, Ivan; Puente-Marin, Sara; Chico, Veronica; Villena, Alberto J; Carracedo, Begoña; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, Maria Carmen; Mercado, Luis; Perez, Luis; Coll, Julio; Estepa, Amparo; Ortega-Villaizan, Maria Del Mar

    2017-01-01

    Background: It has been described that fish nucleated red blood cells (RBCs) generate a wide variety of immune-related gene transcripts when viruses highly replicate inside them and are their main target cell. The immune response and mechanisms of fish RBCs against viruses targeting other cells or tissues has not yet been explored and is the objective of our study. Methods: Trout RBCs were obtained from peripheral blood, ficoll purified and exposed to Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia virus (VHSV). Immune response was evaluated by means of RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) protein profiling Results: VHSV N gene transcripts incremented early postexposure and were drastically decreased after 6 hours postexposure (hpe). The expression of the type I interferon ( ifn1 ) gene was significantly downregulated at early postexposure (3 hpe), together with a gradual downregulation of interferon-inducible mx and pkr genes until 72 hpe. Type I IFN protein was downregulated and interferon-inducible Mx protein was maintained at basal levels. Co-culture assays of RBCs with TSS (stromal cell line from spleen) revealed the IFN crosstalk between both cell types. On the other hand, anti-microbial peptide β-defensin 1 and neutrophil chemotactic factor interleukin 8 were slightly upregulated in VHSV-exposed RBCs Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) revealed that VHSV exposure can induce a global protein downregulation in trout RBCs, mainly related to RNA stability and proteasome pathways. The antioxidant/antiviral response is also suggested to be involved in the response of trout RBCs to VHSV. Conclusions: A variety of mechanisms are proposed to be implicated in the antiviral response of trout RBCs against VHSV halted infection. Ongoing research is focused on understanding the mechanisms in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first report that implicates fish RBCs in the antiviral

  1. Thousands of Viral Populations Recovered from Peatland Soil Metagenomes Reveal Viral Impacts on Carbon Cycling in Thawing Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, J. B.; Brum, J. R.; Roux, S.; Bolduc, B.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Singleton, C. M.; Boyd, J. A.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Wilson, R.; Trubl, G. G.; Jang, H. B.; Crill, P. M.; Chanton, J.; Saleska, S. R.; Rich, V. I.; Tyson, G. W.; Sullivan, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide emissions, which are under significant microbial control, provide positive feedbacks to climate change in thawing permafrost peatlands. Although viruses in marine systems have been shown to impact microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling through host cell lysis, horizontal gene transfer, and auxiliary metabolic gene expression, viral ecology in permafrost and other soils remains virtually unstudied due to methodological challenges. Here, we identified viral sequences in 208 assembled bulk soil metagenomes derived from a permafrost thaw gradient in Stordalen Mire, northern Sweden, from 2010-2012. 2,048 viral populations were recovered, which genome- and network-based classification revealed to be largely novel, increasing known viral genera globally by 40%. Ecologically, viral communities differed significantly across the thaw gradient and by soil depth. Co-occurring microbial community composition, soil moisture, and pH were predictors of viral community composition, indicative of biological and biogeochemical feedbacks as permafrost thaws. Host prediction—achieved through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), tetranucleotide frequency patterns, and other sequence similarities to binned microbial population genomes—was able to link 38% of the viral populations to a microbial host. 5% of the implicated hosts were archaea, predominantly methanogens and ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaera, 45% were Acidobacteria or Verrucomicrobia (mostly predicted heterotrophic complex carbon degraders), and 21% were Proteobacteria, including methane oxidizers. Recovered viral genome fragments also contained auxiliary metabolic genes involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Together, these data reveal multiple levels of previously unknown viral contributions to biogeochemical cycling, including to carbon gas emissions, in peatland soils undergoing and contributing to climate change. This work represents a significant step

  2. Leukocyte count and incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, Martin; Zia, Elisabet; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2014-04-03

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, in the majority of cases caused by a rupture of an arterial intracranial aneurysm. The effect of systemic low-grade inflammation on incidence of SAH is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte count, a marker of systemic inflammation, and incidence of SAH in a large cohort study. Leukocyte count and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 19,794 individuals (17,083 men and 2,711 women, mean age 44 years) participating in a health screening program between 1974 and 1981. Incidence of SAH in relation to baseline leukocyte concentration was studied during a mean follow-up of 27 years in participants free from previous stroke. Ninety-five participants had a SAH, corresponding to an incidence of 22 per 100,000 in women and 17 per 100,000 in men. The hazard ratio for SAH per one standard deviation (2.01 × 10⁹ cells/L) increase of leukocyte concentration was 1.26 (95% CI 1.05-1.53, p = 0.014) after adjustment for several potential confounding factors including smoking. In sensitivity analysis, there was a significant association in smokers but not in non-smokers. High leukocyte count at baseline was associated with increased incidence of SAH, although this relationship might be restricted to smokers. The results support the view that low-grade systemic inflammation could be involved in the pathogenesis of SAH, or constitute an early risk marker for the disease.

  3. Changes in self-efficacy, collective efficacy and patient outcome following interprofessional simulation training on postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Øian, Pål; Eggebø, Torbjørn Moe; Arsenovic, Mirjana Grujic; Bru, Lars Edvin

    2017-10-01

    To examine whether interprofessional simulation training on management of postpartum haemorrhage enhances self-efficacy and collective efficacy and reduces the blood transfusion rate after birth. Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, although it is preventable in most cases. Interprofessional simulation training might help improve the competence of health professionals dealing with postpartum haemorrhage, and more information is needed to determine its potential. Multimethod, quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention design. Interprofessional simulation training on postpartum haemorrhage was implemented for midwives, obstetricians and auxiliary nurses in a university hospital. Training included realistic scenarios and debriefing, and a measurement scale for perceived postpartum haemorrhage-specific self-efficacy, and collective efficacy was developed and implemented. Red blood cell transfusion was used as the dependent variable for improved patient outcome pre-post intervention. Self-efficacy and collective efficacy levels were significantly increased after training. The overall red blood cell transfusion rate did not change, but there was a significant reduction in the use of ≥5 units of blood products related to severe bleeding after birth. The study contributes to new knowledge on how simulation training through mastery and vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and psychophysiological state might enhance postpartum haemorrhage-specific self-efficacy and collective efficacy levels and thereby predict team performance. The significant reduction in severe postpartum haemorrhage after training, indicated by reduction in ≥5 units of blood transfusions, corresponds well with the improvement in collective efficacy, and might reflect the emphasis on collective efforts to counteract severe cases of postpartum haemorrhage. Interprofessional simulation training in teams may contribute to enhanced prevention and

  4. Host factors involved in chikungunya virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Florine Elisabeth Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the interplay of CHIKV with cellular (host) factors involved in its replication is addressed. An in-depth understanding of the interactions between the viral proteins and those of their host is required for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying viral replication. A

  5. Global viral hepatitis elimination by the year 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a report by Stanaway et al.(1 in 2016, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. For example, the number of global deaths due to viral hepatitis increased from 0.89 million to 1.45 million, indicating a need for its reduction. In this connection, on 28 May 2016 the 69th World Health Assembly adopted the global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis for the period 2016–2021,(2 as outlined in the report A69/32 of the Secretariat,(3 with the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis B and C by the year 2030. The global health sector strategy (GHSS on viral hepatitis has constructed a roadmap toward the elimination of viral hepatitis B and C, targeting five priority prevention and treatment interventions. Prevention involves universal hepatitis B immunization of infants, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, increased injection safety and blood safety, and increased harm reduction, the implementation of which will contribute toward universal health coverage, which is the target for Goal 3 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In combination with treatment of chronic hepatitis, the goal is to achieve by the year 2030 a reduction in the incidence of viral hepatitis by 90% and mortality by 65%.(3,4

  6. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Email Facebook Twitter Revised April 2018 What's the relationship between drug use and viral infections? People who engage in ...

  7. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on ... demographic characteristics and laboratory tests – Enhanced Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Sites*, 2014 Category MA No. % MI No. % NYS† ...

  8. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over 500,000 maternities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nove Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years 1988–2000 inclusive, excluding ‘high-risk’ pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions. Results Even after adjustment for known confounders such as parity, the odds of postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml of blood lost are significantly higher if a hospital birth is intended than if a home birth is intended (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.8. The ‘home birth’ group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Conclusions Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand (a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and (b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH. If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women.

  9. The role of surgical audit in improving patient management; nasal haemorrhage: an audit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipaul Fabian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal bleeding remains one of the most common Head & Neck Surgical (Ear Nose and Throat [ENT]/Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery [OMFS] emergencies resulting in hospital admission. In the majority of cases, no other intervention is required other than nasal packing, and it was felt many cases could ideally be managed at home, without further medical interference. A limited but national telephone survey of accident and emergency departments revealed that early discharge practice was identified in some rural areas and urban departments (where adverse socio-demographic factors resulted in poor patient compliance to admission or follow up, with little adverse patient sequelae. A simple nasal packing protocol was also identified. The aim of this audit was to determine if routine nasal haemorrhage (epistaxis can be managed at home with simple nasal packing; a retrospective and prospective audit. Ethical committee approval was obtained. Similar practice was identified in other UK accident and emergency centres. Literature was reviewed and best practice identified. Regional consultation and feedback with regard to prospective changes and local applicability of areas of improved practice mutually agreed upon with involved providers of care. Methods Retrospective: The Epistaxis admissions for the previous four years during the same seven months (September to March. Prospective: 60consecutive patients referred with a diagnosis of Nasal bleeding over a seven month time course (September to March. All patients were over 16, not pregnant and gave fully informed counselled consent. New Guidelines for the management of nosebleeds, nasal packing protocols (with Netcel® and discharge policy were developed at the Hospital. Training of accident and emergency and emergency ENT staff was provided together with access to adequate examination and treatment resources. Detailed patient information leaflets were piloted and developed for use. Results

  10. Viral entry pathways: the example of common cold viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    For infection, viruses deliver their genomes into the host cell. These nucleic acids are usually tightly packed within the viral capsid, which, in turn, is often further enveloped within a lipid membrane. Both protect them against the hostile environment. Proteins and/or lipids on the viral particle promote attachment to the cell surface and internalization. They are likewise often involved in release of the genome inside the cell for its use as a blueprint for production of new viruses. In the following, I shall cursorily discuss the early more general steps of viral infection that include receptor recognition, uptake into the cell, and uncoating of the viral genome. The later sections will concentrate on human rhinoviruses, the main cause of the common cold, with respect to the above processes. Much of what is known on the underlying mechanisms has been worked out by Renate Fuchs at the Medical University of Vienna.

  11. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses; Miguel T. Vila; Pedro Barbero Aguirre; José F. Montoya

    2013-01-01

    La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Much...

  12. Enfermedades virales emergentes y reemergentes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Eliécer Ossa Londoño; Ana Isabel Toro Montoya

    1996-01-01

    Los virus no son una excepción al principio de que toda forma de vida de hoyes el producto de la evolución de información gen ética preexistente. Tradicionalmente se ha reconocido que ta expresión clínica de las enfermedades virales cambia con el tiempo; molecularmente se ha demostrado que esos cambios fenotípicos son el producto de variaciones en el genoma viral. La tasa de cambio
    gen ético y fenotípico no es la misma en todos los agentes virales y ello está determinado, principal...

  13. Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

  14. Atypical timing and presentation of periventricular haemorrhagic infarction in preterm infants: the role of thrombophilia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteman, J.C.; Groenendaal, F.; Haastert, I.C. van; Liem, K.D.; Stroink, H.; Bierings, M.B.; Huisman, A.; Vries, L.S. de

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) is a complication of preterm birth associated with cardiorespiratory instability. To date, the role of thrombophilia as a possible additional risk factor in infants with atypical timing and presentation of PVHI has not been investigated. METHOD:

  15. The effect of cold and haemorrhagic stress on reticulocytes in male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In this study, the effect of cold and haemorrhagic stressors in male albino Wistar rats will be investigated. Methods: Cold stress was induced by placing the animals in thermostatic chamber containing ice cold water (0-10oC) and well aerated. Rats were allowed to stay for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes before they ...

  16. Developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with arterial component: a rare cause of intracranial haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Ismail; Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yurt, Alaattin; Ozer, Fisun Demircivi; Acar, Feridun; Dalbasti, Tayfun; Yagci, Baki; Sirikci, Akif; Calli, Cem

    2009-01-01

    To examine the clinical and radiologic findings of patients with developmental venous anomaly (DVA) associated with intracranial haemorrhage but unrelated to cavernoma. Computed tomography (CT) was used to obtain intracranial images from seven patients ranging in age from 6 to 51 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was then performed on six patients, and two patients were further examined via CT angiography. Finally, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed to confirm the initial diagnosis. CT showed intraparenchymal supratentorial haemorrhage in all patients. The combined imaging modalities eventually confirmed a diagnosis of arterialized DVA in four patients and arterialized DVA associated with arteriovenus malformation (AVM) in three. Two patients were managed symptomatically, two underwent radiosurgery, one underwent surgery, one underwent combined embolisation plus radiosurgery and the remaining patient underwent combined embolisation plus surgery. Two patients died, one as a result of re-bleeding, and the other due to radiation necrosis. The mean follow-up period was 33 months (6 months to 6 years) for the remaining five patients with favourable outcome. DVA associated with intraparenchymal haemorrhage, but not related to cavernoma, was confirmed. Though very rare, DVA may present with non-cavernoma-related haemorrhage in the form of arterialized DVA or DVA with AVM.

  17. Renal Function Predicts Outcomes in Patients with Ischaemic Stroke and Haemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarska, Katarzyna; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Bachórzewska-Gajewska, Hanna; Małyszko, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated renal function and the impact of renal function on in-hospital outcomes in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. We collected data from 766 patients with stroke; 637 (83.2 %) with ischaemic and 129 with haemorrhagic one. The mean serum creatinine on admission in patients with both types of stroke, who died, was significantly higher than in those who survived. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of mortality in patients with ischaemic stroke were: ischemic heart disease or prior myocardial infarction, diabetes, admission glucose and eGFR on admission. Also, multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of mortality in patients with haemorrhagic stroke were: age and admission glucose. Patients with haemorrhagic stroke, in particular with acute kidney injury during hospitalisation had significantly worse outcomes than patients with ischaemic stroke. Assessment of kidney function is prerequisite to employ the necessary measures to decrease the risk of in-hospital mortality among patients with acute stroke. Appropriate approach to patients with renal dysfunction (adequate hydration, avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs, drug dose adjustment etc) should be considered as preventive and therapeutic strategies in the management of acute stroke. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Treatment of Laryngeal Telangiectatic Lesions in a Patient Diagnosed with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse; Printz, Trine; Slot Mehlum, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We here present a case concerning a 69 year old female patient with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT). She was suffering from hoarseness due to a telangiectatic lesion on the right vocal cord. The lesion was treated with laser and the voice improved markedly, which is document...

  19. Dose evaluation for long-term magnesium treatment in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Norden, A. G. W.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Rinkel, G. J. E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnesium is a neuroprotective agent that might prevent or reverse delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We are presently running a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial with magnesium sulphate (64 mmol/day intravenously). We studied

  20. Magnesium therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage a dose-finding study for long term treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, W. M.; Albrecht, K. W.; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, J. W.; Rinkel, G. J. E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnesium is a neuroprotective agent which might prevent or reverse delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Although the dosage for short-term magnesium therapy is well established, there is lack of knowledge on the dosage for extended use of

  1. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  2. Is bacterial colonisation of the tonsillar fossa a factor in post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, J. C.; Georgalas, C.; Kyi, M.; Ghufoor, K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify if there is a link between bacterial colonisation of the tonsillar fossa and post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective non-interventional study of 105 patients who underwent tonsillectomy during a seven-month period. The study took place in a

  3. Erythropoietin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage originates from the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Sonne, Bjarne; Frederiksen, Hans Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Recent years' research has revealed a specific, neuroprotective erythropoietin (EPO) system in the central nervous system (CNS) that is upregulated by hypoxia. The presence and dynamics of EPO in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has not been investigated...

  4. Influencing factors for high quality care on postpartum haemorrhage in the Netherlands: patient and professional perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woiski, M.D.; Belfroid, E.; Liefers, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Scheepers, H.C.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains a major contributor to maternal morbidity even in high resource settings, despite the development and dissemination of evidence-based guidelines and Advance-Trauma-Life-Support (ATLS) based courses for optimal management of PPH. We aimed to assess

  5. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage : a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, N. K.; Linn, F. H. H.; van der Plas, J. A.; Algra, A.; Rinkel, G. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim: To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. Methods: We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with

  6. The efficacy of fibrinogen concentrate compared with cryoprecipitate in major obstetric haemorrhage - an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmed, S

    2012-10-01

    Fibrinogen replacement is critical in major obstetric haemorrhage (MOH). Purified, pasteurised fibrinogen concentrate appears to have benefit over cryoprecipitate in ease of administration and safety but is unlicensed in pregnancy. In July 2009, the Irish Blood Transfusion Service replaced cryoprecipitate with fibrinogen.

  7. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-07

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Severe postpartum haemorrhage from ruptured pseudoaneurysm: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyer, Philippe; Fargeaudou, Yann; Boudiaf, Mourad; Le Dref, Olivier; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP Universite Paris 7, Department of Abdominal Imaging, Paris cedex 10 (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP Universite Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris cedex 10 (France)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the role of transcatheter arterial embolization in the management of severe postpartum haemorrhage due to a ruptured pseudoaneurysm and to analyse the clinical symptoms that may suggest a pseudoaneurysm as a cause of postpartum haemorrhage. A retrospective search of our database disclosed seven women with severe postpartum haemorrhage in whom angiography revealed the presence of a uterine or vaginal artery pseudoaneurysm and who were treated using transcatheter arterial embolization. Clinical files were reviewed for possible clinical findings that could suggest pseudoaneurysm as a cause of bleeding. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in five out of seven patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization allowed to control the bleeding in all patients and subsequently achieve vaginal suture in four patients with vaginal laceration. No complications related to transcatheter arterial embolization were noted. Only two patients had uterine atony, and inefficiency of sulprostone was observed in all patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and secure technique for the treatment of severe postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine or vaginal artery pseudoaneurysm. Ineffectiveness of suprostone and absence of uterine atony should raise the possibility of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm. (orig.)

  9. Persistent postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation: value of pelvic embolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Dref, Olivier le [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier; Barranger, Emmanuel [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Paris (France); Gayat, Etienne; Mebazaa, Alexandre [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the role and efficacy of pelvic embolisation in the treatment of persistent postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation and to identify the complications of this procedure in this specific population. The clinical files and angiographic examinations of 12 consecutive women (mean age 32 years) who were treated with pelvic embolisation because of persistent, severe postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation were reviewed. Angiography revealed that persistent bleeding was due to incomplete arterial ligation (n = 4) or the presence of newly developed anastomotic routes (n = 8). In 11 women, pelvic embolisation stopped the bleeding. Hysterectomy was needed in one woman with retained placenta. Two complications due to pelvic embolisation, including leg ischaemia and transient sciatic nerve ischaemia, were identified, both after internal iliac artery ligation. In women with persistent postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation, pelvic embolisation is an effective treatment in most cases. However, embolisation of the anastomotic routes that contribute to persistent bleeding may result in ischaemic complications. These potential complications reaffirm that arterial ligation should not be the favoured option for postpartum haemorrhage and that special care must be given during pelvic embolisation after failed arterial ligation. (orig.)

  10. Prediction of peripartum hysterectomy and end organ dysfunction in major obstetric haemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, D

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the incidence and aetiology of major obstetric haemorrhage (MOH) in our population, to examine the success rates of medical and surgical interventions and to identify risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy and end organ dysfunction (EOD).

  11. Nd:YAG laser hyaloidotomy for valsalva pre-macular haemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kirwan, R P

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To report a case of successful drainage of a large pre-macular haemorrhage using laser photo-disruption of the posterior hyaloid membrane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case report. RESULTS: A 47-year-old man presented acutely to our emergency department complaining of a 24-h history of sudden onset, painless and persistent loss of vision in his left eye. Immediately before noticing this loss of vision, he had been vomiting violently from excessive alcohol intake. The left visual acuity was counting fingers. Dilated fundoscopy of the left eye revealed a large pre-macular haemorrhage which was 14 disc diametres in size. Clotting investigations were normal. A diagnosis of valsalva retinopathy was made and the patient elected to receive a prompt neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior hyaloidotomy as an outpatient. At 1 week follow-up, the haemorrhage had drained completely into the vitreous space revealing a healthy macula and the visual acuity had improved to 6\\/12 unaided. At 6-month follow-up the left visual acuity stabilised at 6\\/9 unaided. CONCLUSION: Nd:YAG laser posterior hyaloidotomy is a useful outpatient procedure for successful clearance of large pre-macular haemorrhages that offers patients rapid recovery of visual acuity and the avoidance of more invasive intraocular surgery.

  12. Treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage with tranexamic acid – A review of current evidence and ongoing trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Zhe Kang; Meretoja, Atte; Engelter, Stefan T

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Haematoma expansion is a devastating complication of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) with no established treatment. Tranexamic acid had been an effective haemostatic agent in reducing post-operative and traumatic bleeding. We review current evidence examining the efficacy of tranexamic ac...

  13. Improvement after treatment of hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage : implications for grading and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, M; Mooij, JJA

    Two patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and hydrocephalus are presented. On admission they scored E1M4V1 and E1M3Vtube on the Glasgow Coma Scale. The first patient recovered to E3M5Vtube after treatment of hydrocpehalus by extraventricular drainage. The second recovered to E2M5Vtube

  14. Severe postpartum haemorrhage from ruptured pseudoaneurysm: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyer, Philippe; Fargeaudou, Yann; Boudiaf, Mourad; Le Dref, Olivier; Rymer, Roland; Morel, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the role of transcatheter arterial embolization in the management of severe postpartum haemorrhage due to a ruptured pseudoaneurysm and to analyse the clinical symptoms that may suggest a pseudoaneurysm as a cause of postpartum haemorrhage. A retrospective search of our database disclosed seven women with severe postpartum haemorrhage in whom angiography revealed the presence of a uterine or vaginal artery pseudoaneurysm and who were treated using transcatheter arterial embolization. Clinical files were reviewed for possible clinical findings that could suggest pseudoaneurysm as a cause of bleeding. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in five out of seven patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization allowed to control the bleeding in all patients and subsequently achieve vaginal suture in four patients with vaginal laceration. No complications related to transcatheter arterial embolization were noted. Only two patients had uterine atony, and inefficiency of sulprostone was observed in all patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and secure technique for the treatment of severe postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine or vaginal artery pseudoaneurysm. Ineffectiveness of suprostone and absence of uterine atony should raise the possibility of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm. (orig.)

  15. Microvascular oxygen pressure in the pig intestine during haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinaasappel, M.; van Iterson, M.; Ince, C.

    1999-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between microvascular and venous oxygen pressures during haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in the pig intestine. To this end microvascular PO2 (microPO2) was measured by quenching of Pd-porphyrin phosphorescence by oxygen and validated for

  16. Necrosis and haemorrhage of the putamen in methanol poisoning shown on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteifan, K.; Gutbub, A.M.; Laplatte, G.; Oesterle, H.; Tajahmady, T.

    1998-01-01

    Methanol, a highly toxic substance, is used as an industrial solvent and in automobile antifreeze. Acute methanol poisoning produces severe metabolic acidosis and serious neurologic sequelae. We describe a 50-year-old woman with accidental methanol intoxication who was in a vegetative state. MRI showed haemorrhagic necrosis of the putamina and oedema in the deep white matter. (orig.)

  17. Postpartum haemorrhage in midwifery care in the Netherlands: validation of quality indicators for midwifery guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Chan, K.L.L.; Middeldorp, J.M.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is still one of the major causes of severe maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, no guideline for PPH occurring in primary midwifery care in the Netherlands is available. A set of 25 quality indicators for prevention and management of PPH in

  18. Risk of haemorrhage from transurethral prostatectomy in acetylsalicylic acid and NSAID-treated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierød, F S; Frandsen, N J; Jacobsen, J D

    1998-01-01

    Postoperative bleeding in patients who regularly ingest acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been reported after several types of surgery. However, data on the influence of ASA on the risk of haemorrhage from transurethral prostatectomy (TUR-P) have been conflicting. We have studied retrospectively...

  19. The effects of continuous prostacyclin infusion on regional blood flow and cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Wetterslev, Jørn; Stavngaard, Trine

    2012-01-01

    One of the main causes of mortality and morbidity following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is the development of cerebral vasospasm, a frequent complication arising in the weeks after the initial bleeding. Despite extensive research, to date no effective treatment of vasospasm exists. Prostacycli...

  20. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Cepko, Constance L.; Born, Richard T.; Beier, Kevin T.

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist’s toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and

  1. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  2. Immediate post-partum haemorrhage: Epidemiological aspects and maternal prognosis at South N’djamena District Hospital (Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabkika Bray Madoue

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-partum haemorrhage defined as blood loss after delivery over 500mls, affects all countries and is the commonest cause of maternal mortality. It is a frequent obstetric emergency in developing countries. Objective: To identify the causes of post-partum haemorrhage and identify adequate management of immediate post-partum haemorrhage and thus reduce maternal mortality. Patients and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study of one year from 1st January 2014 to 31stDecember 2014 conducted at South N’Djamena district hospital. Before including a patient in our survey her consent was obtained after explaining to her the need for the survey. All consenting patients with post-partum haemorrhage were included. Data were analyzed using SPSS17.0. Results: We recorded 100 cases of post-partum haemorrhage among 6815 deliveries giving an incidence of 1.47%. The average age of the women was 25.0 years. The majority of deliveries (90% were vaginal. The main cause of immediate post-partum haemorrhage was a third stage of labour bleeding (66% followed by genital lesions (32%. The management was medical (uterotonic drug, fluid replacement and blood transfusion, obstetric (manual removal of placenta or clot, and surgical (suture of lesions, vascular ligature and hysterectomy. There were two maternal deaths (2%. Conclusion: Post-partum haemorrhage is often fatal in our region. Preventive measures and efficient management can help to improve maternal prognosis.

  3. Cytokine determinants of viral tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Grant; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Bartee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The specificity of a given virus for a ceil type, tissue or species — collectively known as viral tropism — is an important factor in determining the outcome of viral infection in any particular host. Owing to the increased prevalence of zoonotic infections and the threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, gaining a better understanding of the factors that determine viral tropism has become particularly important. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the central role of antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly the interferons and tumour necrosis factor, in dictating viral tropism and how these cytokine pathways can be exploited therapeutically for cancer treatment and to better counter future threats from emerging zoonotic pathogens. PMID:19696766

  4. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  5. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  6. Treatment of Acute Viral Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limi...

  7. Febres hemorrágicas por vírus no Brasil Viral hemorrhagic fevers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Chamando a atenção para as febres hemorrágicas por vírus, que em sua maioria tem escassa informação divulgada e provavelmente são subnotificadas, mostra-se neste artigo casos clínicos das 4 doenças deste tipo que ocorrem no Brasil: febre amarela, dengue hemorrágico/síndrome de choque do dengue, febre hemorrágica por arenavírus e síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus. Também, relevantes aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e epidemiológicos destas viroses são aqui abordados. São doenças que têm alta letalidade e induzem extravasamento capilar e coagulopatia, que podem ser evidenciados pela elevação do hematócrito e plaquetopenia. A suspeita clínica e o tratamento precoce são fundamentais à sobrevida dos pacientes.To call atention to viral hemorrhagic fevers, diseases that are mostly underdivulged and, probably, undereported, we present here case reports of the 4 diseases of this kind that occur in Brazil: yellow fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, arenavirus haemorrhagic fever and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Relevant clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial diagnostic aspects of these viral haemorrhagic fevers are also shown here. These diseases have a high case fatality rate, induce capillary leaking and blood coagulation disturbances that are evidenced by hemoconcentrantion and thrombocytopenia. An early clinical diagnosis and treatment is fundamental for patient survival.

  8. Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus: pathogenesis, immune responses, potential prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Nazimek, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Ebola zoonotic RNA filovirus represents human most virulent and lethal pathogens, which induces acute hemorrhagic fever and death within few days in a range of 60-90% of symptomatic individuals. Last outbreak in 2014 in West Africa caused panic that Ebola epidemic can be spread to other continents. Number of deaths in late December reached almost 8,000 individuals out of more than 20,000 symptomatic patients. It seems that only a coordinated international response could counteract the further spread of Ebola. Major innate immunity mechanisms against Ebola are associated with the production of interferons, that are inhibited by viral proteins. Activation of host NK cells was recognized as a leading immune function responsible for recovery of infected people. Uncontrolled cell infection by Ebola leads to an impairment of immunity with cytokine storm, coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, multi-organ failure and death. Tested prevention strategies to induce antiviral immunity include: i. recombinant virus formulations (vaccines); ii. cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (serotherapy); iii. alternative RNA-interference-based antiviral methods. Maintaining the highest standards of aseptic and antiseptic precautions is equally important. Present brief review summarizes a current knowledge concerning pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic disease and the virus interaction with the immune system and discusses recent advances in prevention of Ebola infection by vaccination and serotherapy.

  9. Development of oral microencapsulated forms for delivering viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaeva, Elena

    2002-10-01

    Rapid development in biotechnology during the last decade has allowed novel ideas in the development of antiviral vaccines to be considered and provides interesting technological approaches to their realization. Designing of microencapsulated forms for delivering bacterial and viral antigens or antigenic complexes using biodegradable biopolymers is an important novel direction. This approach involves the production of polymeric spherical particles with a diameter of 1 microm to 3 mm, containing isolated viral antigens or whole viral particles. Microencapsulated antigens administered orally are protected from low pH values of the gastric juice, bile acids, their salts and proteolytic enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. The ability to drastically potentiate the immune response to encapsulated antigens, together with the ability to penetrate into the intestinal and respiratory mucosae upon oral and tracheal administrations, respectively, with induction of local and systemic immune reactions are the special merits of such polymers. However, the majority of data on microencapsulated viral vaccines has so far been obtained in animal models, as well as a limited number of studies on the protective effect they elicit. Certain success in the development of vaccines against a number of human viral infections, such as hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus and rotavirus, gives hope to successful completion of this research. Presumably, such vaccines will be safe and innocuous, simple in administration and capable of inducing both the systemic and local immune responses at the primary portal of viral infection.

  10. Cellular sensing of viral DNA and viral evasion mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzalli, Megan H; Knipe, David M

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells detect foreign DNA introduced as free DNA or as a result of microbial infection, leading to the induction of innate immune responses that block microbial replication and the activation of mechanisms that epigenetically silence the genes encoded by the foreign DNA. A number of DNA sensors localized to a variety of sites within the cell have been identified, and this review focuses on the mechanisms that detect viral DNA and how the resulting responses affect viral infections. Viruses have evolved mechanisms that inhibit these host sensors and signaling pathways, and the study of these antagonistic viral strategies has provided insight into the mechanisms of these host responses. The field of cellular sensing of foreign DNA is in its infancy, but our currently limited knowledge has raised a number of important questions for study.

  11. [Pathology and viral metagenomics, a recent history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Albina, Emmanuel; Eloit, Marc; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Human, animal and plant viral diseases have greatly benefited from recent metagenomics developments. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. During the last decade, metagenomics concepts and techniques that were first used by ecologists progressively spread into the scientific field of viral pathology. The sample, which was first for ecologists a fraction of ecosystem, became for pathologists an organism that hosts millions of microbes and viruses. This new approach, providing without a priori high resolution qualitative and quantitative data on the viral diversity, is now revolutionizing the way pathologists decipher viral diseases. This review describes the very last improvements of the high throughput next generation sequencing methods and discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in viral pathology, including discovery of novel viruses, viral surveillance and diagnostic, large-scale molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  12. Accuracy of physical and ultrasonographic examinations by emergency physicians for the early diagnosis of intraabdominal haemorrhage in blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyuncu, S; Cete, Y; Bozan, H; Kartal, M; Akyol, A J

    2007-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of physical examination and ultrasonographic evaluation performed by emergency physicians in cases of blunt abdominal trauma for the early diagnosis of intraabdominal haemorrhage. In this clinical prospective study, trauma patients were evaluated with four-quadrant ultrasonography by emergency physicians after initial stabilisation and physical examination. Diagnoses based on demographic data, physical examination and emergency physician's ultrasonography were compared with the subsequent clinical course. A total of 442 patients participated in the study. The sensitivity and specificity of emergency physician's ultrasonographic examination to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage were 86 and 99%, respectively. Pre-test sensitivity and specificity of physical examination to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage were 39 and 90%, respectively. Physical examination was not a reliable method to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage in cases of blunt abdominal trauma. In contrast, abdominal ultrasonography performed by emergency physicians was a reliable diagnostic tool. Emergency physicians should be familiar with abdominal ultrasonographic examination, which should be routine in cases of blunt abdominal trauma.

  13. Impact of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations on Respiratory–Related Quality of Life in Patients with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Blivet, Sandra; Cobarzan, Daniel; Beauchet, Alain; El Hajjam, Mostafa; Lacombe, Pascal; Chinet, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen to fifty percent of patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia have pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the presence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and of their embolisation on respiratory-related quality of life (QoL). We prospectively recruited patients with a diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia based on the Curaçao criteria and/or the identification of a pathogenic mutation. Respiratory-...

  14. Viral infections as potential triggers of type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Nienke; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    During the last decades, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased significantly, reaching percentages of 3% annually worldwide. This increase suggests that besides genetical factors environmental perturbations (including viral infections) are also involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. T1D

  15. Electrophysiological studies in the post-viral fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, G A; Hansen, S

    1985-01-01

    Single fibre electromyography (SFEMG) was studied in 40 patients with the post-viral fatigue syndrome. These patients were also assessed clinically, serologically, virologically and immunologically. About 75% of the patients had definitely abnormal SFEMG results. This was regarded as evidence of abnormality in the peripheral part of the motor unit. The muscle fibre was the likely site of involvement.

  16. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  17. Enfermedades virales emergentes y reemergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Ossa Londoño

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Los virus no son una excepción al principio de que toda forma de vida de hoyes el producto de la evolución de información gen ética preexistente. Tradicionalmente se ha reconocido que ta expresión clínica de las enfermedades virales cambia con el tiempo; molecularmente se ha demostrado que esos cambios fenotípicos son el producto de variaciones en el genoma viral. La tasa de cambio
    gen ético y fenotípico no es la misma en todos los agentes virales y ello está determinado, principalmente, por factores intrínsecos del virus, como la naturaleza de su ácido nucleico, y por la longevidad
    y tasa reproductiva del huésped.

  18. Severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery: a statistical process control chart to report seven years of continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Corinne; Occelli, Pauline; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Touzet, Sandrine; Duclos, Antoine; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Huissoud, Cyril

    2014-07-01

    Severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery: a statistical process control chart to report seven years of continuous quality improvement To use statistical process control charts to describe trends in the prevalence of severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery. This assessment was performed 7 years after we initiated a continuous quality improvement programme that began with regular criteria-based audits Observational descriptive study, in a French maternity unit in the Rhône-Alpes region. Quarterly clinical audit meetings to analyse all cases of severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery and provide feedback on quality of care with statistical process control tools. The primary outcomes were the prevalence of severe PPH after vaginal delivery and its quarterly monitoring with a control chart. The secondary outcomes included the global quality of care for women with severe postpartum haemorrhage, including the performance rate of each recommended procedure. Differences in these variables between 2005 and 2012 were tested. From 2005 to 2012, the prevalence of severe postpartum haemorrhage declined significantly, from 1.2% to 0.6% of vaginal deliveries (pcontinuous quality improvement efforts began seven years ago and used, among other tools, statistical process control charts. During this period, the prevalence of severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery has been reduced by 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is arterial hypertension crucial for the development of cerebral haemorrhage in premature infants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Friis-Hansen, B

    1979-01-01

    Computerised tomography has revealed that more than 40% of premature neonates (birth weight smaller than 1500 g) have cerebral bleeds in the first 3 or 4 days of extrauterine life. Injection studies done at necropsy have shown that they usually originate in the capillaries of the germinal matrix....... It is suggested that premature neonates are hypertensive when their blood-pressure is compared with that in utero, and that events that lead to further rises in pressure are common. Their capillaries are not protected against rises in arterial pressure because autoregulation is impaired. Furthermore......, the capillaries in the germinal matrix are not supported by firm glial structures. Arterial pressure rises are therefore likely to be responsible for germinal matrix haemorrhage in the premature neonate, and the risk of haemorrhage probably diminishes as autoregulation of cerebral blood-flow is restored a few...

  20. When and in which patients can anticoagulation be resumed after intracerebral haemorrhage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marietta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Whether to resume the anticoagulant or the antiaggregant therapy after an episode of major haemorrhage is a difficult dilemma for the physician. The physician has to take into consideration two major questions: whether the benefits of restarting anticoagulation outweigh the risk, and if so, when and how should anticoagulation be restarted. Although some case reports suggest that anticoagulation can be withheld safely for short periods after ICH, even in patients with mechanical heart valves, it is still not clear if long-term anticoagulation can be safely reinstituted after haemorrhage, for example in patients with atrial fibrillation. In fact, no large and well-conducted randomised clinical trials are available, and there is lack of strong evidence on which guidelines recommendations can be based. The article summarise the available literature findings. Finally, a protocol is suggested which may represent a useful tool for assessing treatment options.

  1. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Timothy Lee; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Reynolds, Jamie

    2014-10-14

    We present a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (BAH) associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in a 61-year-old man admitted to hospital for the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. He presented to hospital with scrotal swelling and fever, and developed spreading erythaema and a gangrenous scrotum. His scrotum was surgically debrided and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Unfractionated heparin was given postoperatively for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The patient deteriorated clinically 8-11 days postoperatively with delirium, chest pain and severe hypertension followed by hypotension and thrombocytopaenia. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Antibodies to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex were present. HIT-associated BAH was diagnosed and heparin was discontinued. Intravenous bivalirudin and hydrocortisone were started, with rapid improvement in clinical status. BAH is a rare complication of HIT and should be considered in the postoperative patient with unexplained clinical deterioration. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Infrastructure and clinical practice for the detection and management of trauma-associated haemorrhage and coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driessen, Annemariek; Schäfer, N; Albrecht, V

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early detection and management of post-traumatic haemorrhage and coagulopathy have been associated with improved outcomes, but local infrastructures, logistics and clinical strategies may differ. METHODS: To assess local differences in infrastructure, logistics and clinical management...... of trauma-associated haemorrhage and coagulopathy, we have conducted a web-based survey amongst the delegates to the 15th European Congress of Trauma and Emergency Surgery (ECTES) and the 2nd World Trauma (WT) Congress held in Frankfurt, Germany, 25-27 May 2014. RESULTS: 446/1,540 delegates completed...... the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 29%. The majority specified to work as consultants/senior physicians (47.3%) in general (36.1%) or trauma/orthopaedic surgery (44.5%) of level I (70%) or level II (19%) trauma centres. Clinical assessment (>80%) and standard coagulation assays (74.6%) are the most...

  3. Towards Viral Genome Annotation Standards, Report from the 2010 NCBI Annotation Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, James Rodney; Bao, Yiming; Kuiken, Carla; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Le Mercier, Philippe; Leplae, Raphael; Madupu, Ramana; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schobel, Seth; Seto, Donald; Shrivastava, Susmita; Sterk, Peter; Zeng, Qiandong; Klimke, William; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in DNA sequencing technologies portend a new era in virology and could possibly lead to a giant leap in our understanding of viral evolution and ecology. Yet, as viral genome sequences begin to fill the world's biological databases, it is critically important to recognize that the scientific promise of this era is dependent on consistent and comprehensive genome annotation. With this in mind, the NCBI Genome Annotation Workshop recently hosted a study group tasked with developing sequence, function, and metadata annotation standards for viral genomes. This report describes the issues involved in viral genome annotation and reviews policy recommendations presented at the NCBI Annotation Workshop.

  4. Towards Viral Genome Annotation Standards, Report from the 2010 NCBI Annotation Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiandong Zeng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in DNA sequencing technologies portend a new era in virology and could possibly lead to a giant leap in our understanding of viral evolution and ecology. Yet, as viral genome sequences begin to fill the world’s biological databases, it is critically important to recognize that the scientific promise of this era is dependent on consistent and comprehensive genome annotation. With this in mind, the NCBI Genome Annotation Workshop recently hosted a study group tasked with developing sequence, function, and metadata annotation standards for viral genomes. This report describes the issues involved in viral genome annotation and reviews policy recommendations presented at the NCBI Annotation Workshop.

  5. Who Regulates Whom? An Overview of RNA Granules and Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Poblete-Durán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After viral infection, host cells respond by mounting an anti-viral stress response in order to create a hostile atmosphere for viral replication, leading to the shut-off of mRNA translation (protein synthesis and the assembly of RNA granules. Two of these RNA granules have been well characterized in yeast and mammalian cells, stress granules (SGs, which are translationally silent sites of RNA triage and processing bodies (PBs, which are involved in mRNA degradation. This review discusses the role of these RNA granules in the evasion of anti-viral stress responses through virus-induced remodeling of cellular ribonucleoproteins (RNPs.

  6. Emergence of a new lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall-Recule, Ghislaine; Lavazza, Antonio; Marchandeau, Stephane; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Zwingelstein, Francoise; Cavadini, Patrizia; Martinelli, Nicola; Lombardi, Guerino; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Decors, Anouk; Boucher, Samuel; Le Normand, Bernadette; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Since summer 2010, numerous cases of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) have been reported in north-western France both in rabbitries, affecting RHD-vaccinated rabbits, and in wild populations. We demonstrate that the aetiological agent was a lagovirus phylogenetically distinct from other lagoviruses and which presents a unique antigenic profile. Experimental results show that the disease differs from RHD in terms of disease duration, mortality rates, higher occurrence of subacute/chronic form...

  7. Dietary fibre intake and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threapleton, D E; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2015-04-01

    Stroke risk is modifiable through many risk factors, one being healthy dietary habits. Fibre intake was associated with a reduced stroke risk in recent meta-analyses; however, data were contributed by relatively few studies, and few examined different stroke types. A total of 27,373 disease-free women were followed up for 14.4 years. Diet was assessed with a 217-item food frequency questionnaire and stroke cases were identified using English Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality records. Survival analysis was applied to assess the risk of total, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in relation to fibre intake. A total of 135 haemorrhagic and 184 ischaemic stroke cases were identified in addition to 138 cases where the stroke type was unknown or not recorded. Greater intake of total fibre, higher fibre density and greater soluble fibre, insoluble fibre and fibre from cereals were associated with a significantly lower risk for total stroke. For total stroke, the hazard ratio per 6 g/day total fibre intake was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals: 0.81-0.99). Different findings were observed for haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in healthy-weight or overweight women. Total fibre, insoluble fibre and cereal fibre were inversely associated with haemorrhagic stroke risk in overweight/obese participants, and in healthy-weight women greater cereal fibre was associated with a lower ischaemic stroke risk. In non-hypertensive women, higher fibre density was associated with lower ischaemic stroke risk. Greater total fibre and fibre from cereals are associated with a lower stroke risk, and associations were more consistent with ischaemic stroke. The different observations by stroke type, body mass index group or hypertensive status indicates potentially different mechanisms.

  8. Risk Factors for Intracranial Haemorrhage in Accidents Associated with the Shower or Bathtub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Thomas C; Kreher, Jannes; Ricklin, Meret E; Haider, Dominik G; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2015-01-01

    There has been little research on bathroom accidents. It is unknown whether the shower or bathtub are connected with special dangers in different age groups or whether there are specific risk factors for adverse outcomes. This cross-sectional analysis included all direct admissions to the Emergency Department at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland from 1 January 2000 to 28 February 2014 after accidents associated with the bathtub or shower. Time, age, location, mechanism and diagnosis were assessed and special risk factors were examined. Patient groups with and without intracranial bleeding were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test.The association of risk factors with intracranial bleeding was investigated using univariate analysis with Fisher's exact test or logistic regression. The effects of different variables on cerebral bleeding were analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Two hundred and eighty (280) patients with accidents associated with the bathtub or shower were included in our study. Two hundred and thirty-five (235) patients suffered direct trauma by hitting an object (83.9%) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) was detected in 28 patients (10%). Eight (8) of the 27 patients with mild traumatic brain injuries (GCS 13-15), (29.6%) exhibited intracranial haemorrhage. All patients with intracranial haemorrhage were older than 48 years and needed in-hospital treatment. Patients with intracranial haemorrhage were significantly older and had higher haemoglobin levels than the control group with TBI but without intracranial bleeding (pshower or bathtub) or the gender of the patient. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified only age as a risk factor for cerebral bleeding (pshower direct trauma and age are risk factors for intracranial haemorrhage. Additional effort in prevention should be considered, especially in the elderly.

  9. Profound bilateral visual loss after hysterectomy indicated for severe postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Zibrandtsen, Nathalie; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with bilateral posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in the previously unreported setting of hysterectomy indicated for severe postpartum haemorrhage. The diagnosis was based on clinical and paraclinical examinations, including MRI of the head, electroretinography (ERG....... The diagnosis of perioperative posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy is mostly a clinical diagnosis. However, MRI plays a major role in excluding other causes of visual loss, and VEP, ERG and OCT are valuable supplemental diagnostic tools....

  10. Familial and idiopathic colonic varices: an unusual cause of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Iredale, J P; Ridings, P; McGinn, F P; Arthur, M J

    1992-01-01

    A patient is described presenting with an acute lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage as a result of extensive colonic varices. Further investigation revealed that there were no oesophageal varices or splenomegaly. Liver biopsy showed grade II fatty change only, with no other specific or significant pathological features. Transhepatic portography showed a raised portal pressure (20 mm/Hg) but the portal system was patent throughout. There was an abnormal leash of vessels in the caecum thought to...

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with t...

  12. Neurosarcoidosis-related intracranial haemorrhage: three new cases and a systematic review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, J P

    2012-06-09

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial haemorrhage in neurosarcoidosis (NS-ICH) is rare, poorly understood and the diagnosis of NS may not be immediately apparent. METHODS: The clinical features of three new NS-ICH cases are described including new neuropathological findings and collated with cases from a systematic literature review. RESULTS: Cases: (i) A 41-year-old man with headaches, hypoandrogenism and encephalopathy developed a cerebellar haemorrhage. He had neuropathological confirmation of NS with biopsy-proven angiocentric granulomata and venous disruption. He responded to immunosuppressive therapy. (ii) A 41-year-old man with no history of hypertension was found unconscious. A subsequently fatal pontine haemorrhage was diagnosed. Liver biopsy revealed sarcoid granulomas. (iii) A 36-year-old man with raised intracranial pressure headaches presented with a seizure and a frontal haemorrhage. Hilar lymph node biopsy confirmed sarcoidosis, and he was treated successfully. Systematic Review: Twelve other published cases were identified and collated with our cases. Average age was 36 years and M:F = 2.3:1; 46% presented with neurological symptoms and 31% had CNS-isolated disease. Immediate symptoms of ICH were acute\\/worsening headache or seizures (60%). ICH was supratentorial (62%), infratentorial (31%) or subarachnoid (7%). 40% had definite NS, 53% probable NS and 7% possible NS (Zajicek criteria). Antigranulomatous\\/immunosuppressive therapy regimens varied and 31% died. CONCLUSIONS: This series expands our knowledge of the pathology of NS-ICH, which may be of arterial or venous origin. One-third have isolated NS. Clinicians should consider NS in young-onset ICH because early aggressive antigranulomatous therapy may improve outcome.

  13. The hemodyafiltration in the acute renal failure at the patients’ haemorrhagic fever with the nephritic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Trusov, V.; Shaklein, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Udmurt Republic is the natural focus and the hot spot of the haemorrhagic fever with the nephritic syndrome (HFNS). The acute renal failure (ARF), by our data, is being developed from 24 up to 49 % of the HFNS diseased persons, at the severe forms of which, side by side with the medicamental therapy, the hemodialysis is being used. In the last years, the efferent therapy new methods such, as the hemofiltration, the hemodyafiltration (HDF) are being used for the ARF medical treatment.

  14. Intracranial haemorrhage following lumbar myelography: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, O.; Stendel, R.; Baur, S.; Schilling, A.; Brock, M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a subacute intracranial subdural haematoma following lumbar myelography. This rare but potentially life-threatening complication has been reported both after lumbar myelography and following lumbar puncture for spinal anaesthesia. We review 16 previously reported cases of intracranial haemorrhage following lumbar myelography, and discuss the pathogenesis. In all reported cases post-puncture headache was the leading symptom and should therefore be regarded as a warning sign. (orig.)

  15. Neonatal cerebral oxygenation is not linked to foetal vasculitis and predicts intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line Carøe; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Borch, K.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the cerebral tissue oxygenation index (c-TOI) measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in infants with and without foetal vasculitis. METHODS: Twenty-four infants with placental signs of a foetal inflammatory response (FIR), foetal vasculitis, were.......002). CONCLUSION: Cerebral oxygenation was not affected in the first day of life in preterm infants born with foetal vasculitis, while cerebral oxygenation in infants that later developed intraventricular haemorrhage was impaired Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  16. Neonatal cerebral oxygenation is not linked to foetal vasculitis and predicts intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Line C; Maroun, Lisa L; Borch, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the cerebral tissue oxygenation index (c-TOI) measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in infants with and without foetal vasculitis. Methods: Twenty-four infants with placental signs of a foetal inflammatory response (FIR), foetal vasculitis, were.......002). Conclusion: Cerebral oxygenation was not affected in the first day of life in preterm infants born with foetal vasculitis, while cerebral oxygenation in infants that later developed intraventricular haemorrhage was impaired....

  17. Biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin: the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mário Sérgio R; Naves de Souza, Dayane L; Guimarães, Denise O; Lopes, Daiana S; Mamede, Carla C N; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie C; Achê, David C; Rodrigues, Renata S; Yoneyama, Kelly A G; Borges, Márcia H; de Oliveira, Fábio; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2015-03-01

    We present the biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin, the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This protein was purified after three chromatographic steps on cation exchange CM-Sepharose fast flow, size-exclusion column Sephacryl S-300 and anion exchange Capto Q. Bothropoidin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and comprised a single chain of 49,558 Da according to MALDI TOF analysis. The protein presented an isoelectric point of 3.76, and the sequence of six fragments obtained by MS (MALDI TOF\\TOF) showed a significant score when compared with other PIII Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Bothropoidin showed proteolytic activity on azocasein, Aα-chain of fibrinogen, fibrin, collagen and fibronectin. The enzyme was stable at pH 6-9 and at lower temperatures when assayed on azocasein. Moreover, its activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1.10-phenanthroline and β-mercaptoethanol. Bothropoidin induced haemorrhage [minimum haemorrhagic dose (MHD) = 0.75 µg], inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP, and interfered with viability and cell adhesion when incubated with endothelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Our results showed that Bothropoidin is a haemorrhagic metalloproteinase that can play an important role in the toxicity of B. pauloensis envenomation and might be used as a tool for studying the effects of SVMPs on haemostatic disorders and tumour metastasis. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Superior cerebellar aneurysm causing subarachnoid haemorrhage in a 17-year-old with alagille syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, David

    2012-04-01

    Alagille syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterised by mutation in Jagged1 gene. Intracranial aneurysms may be seen in this condition and may present as subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe the first case of superior cerebellar aneurysm rupture causing WFNS grade 1 subarachnoid haemorrhage in a 17-year-old girl. The clinical condition and management of this rare occurrence is discussed with a review of literature.

  19. Bilateral Wyburn-Mason Syndrome presenting as acute subarachnoid haemorrhage - a very rare congenital neurocutaneuos disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortnum, Søren Ole Stigaard; Sørensen, Preben; Andresen, J

    2008-01-01

    A 30 year old young male was admitted to our department after experiencing clincal symptoms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Imaging studies revealed large cerebral AVMs. Fundus examination of the left eye demonstrated a retinal racemose AVM almost completely covering the posterior pole of the eye....... patients in the literature since 1973. The finding of retinal AVMs should warrant cerebral imaging studies including CT- or MR-angiography....

  20. Effectiveness of Per Rectal Misoprostol Versus Intramuscular Oxytocin for Prevention of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Raheela; Ashraf, Tasneem; Asmat, Fazila; Asmat, Shakila; Asmat, Nagina

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of per rectal misoprostol over oxytocin in primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Randomised controlled trial study. Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department, Unit IV, Bolan Medical Complex Hospital, Quetta, from September 2013 to February 2014. Emergency obstetric patients receiving per rectal misoprostol (800 µgm) were named as group 'A' and those receiving 10 units oxytocin intramuscularly were labelled as group 'B'. The patients were followed within 24 hours of spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Pads soaked were used to assess the amount of blood loss. A total of 1,678 patients were included in the study. The mean age of patients in group-A was 29.11 years while the mean age of patients in group-B was 29.16 years. One hundred and twenty-three (14.66%) patients in group-A and 120 (14.31%) patients in group-B had PPH. Among the total 1,678 patients, 243 (14.49%) had postpartum haemorrhage among whom 24 (9.88%) had major haemorrhage with a blood loss ≥1000 mL. Among the sub-group (839 patients) administered misoprostol had 123 (14.66%) patients with blood loss greater than 500 mL and the rest 716 patients (85.34%) had blood loss less than 500 mL. The sub-group administered oxytocin have 120 (14.31%) out of 839 patients with postpartum haemorrhage while 719 (85.69%) had blood loss less than 500 mL. Active management of 3rd stage of labour with per rectal misoprostol administration was as effective as intramuscular oxytocin. Both were equally effective to reduce PPH and the subsequent need for surgical interventions.

  1. Clinical symptoms according to genotype amongst patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Møller, T R; Brusgaard, K

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease, characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including epistaxis, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and neurological symptoms. HHT is a genetically...... patients had experienced more severe GI bleeding than HHT2 patients. There was no significant difference in severity of epistaxis or age at debut. Finally the mortality over a 90-month observation period was not significantly increased....

  2. Transfusion of blood and blood component therapy for postpartum haemorrhage at a tertiary referral center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, N.; Shah, T.; Shah, N.; Khan, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the practice of transfusion of blood and blood products in cases of postpartum haemorrhage, at a tertiary referral center. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted where medical records were reviewed for women, who either delivered or were admitted in labour suite with diagnosis of postpartum haemorrhage. The study period extended from Jan 2008 to Oct 2009. During a period of 22 months, records were reviewed for transfusion of blood and blood products in above group of women. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics. Results: During the study period, a total of 4744 patients were admitted in the labour suite. A total of 113 (2.36%) women were diagnosed with Post partum haemorrhage. Uterine atony was the commonest cause of PPH, followed by genital tract trauma. A total of 81(71%) women received transfusion of blood and blood components (1.6%). The mean blood loss was 1088 ml (+- 584ml). Transfusion of blood and blood component therapy was significantly more in women who underwent caesarean section, compared to those women who delivered vaginally. There was one case of acute tubular necrosis due to PPH, and seven maternal deaths. The mean hospital stay was of +- 3 days. Conclusion: In this hospital based study, the prevalence of PPH was 2.36 +- %, and the rate of transfusion of blood and blood products was 1.6%.

  3. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of acute haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piironen, A.; Kivisaari, R.; Pitkaeranta, P.; Poutanen, V.P.; Laippala, P.; Laurila, P.; Kivisaari, L.

    1997-01-01

    Eleven piglets with haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and nine piglets with oedematous pancreatitis were imaged using a multi-breath-hold TurboFLASH (TR 6.5 ms, TE 3 ms, TI 300 ms, flip angle 8 , three slices) pre-excited T1-weighted sequence with an IV bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA, 0.3 mmol/kg) as a contrast agent to show dynamic contrast enhancement of the pancreas by MRI. All piglets were imaged according to the same protocol before inducing the disease. Following the IV Gd-DTPA bolus, time-enhancement curve of the pancreas during haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis was significantly lower than during oedematous pancreatitis. The enhancement curves for the healthy piglets and piglets with oedematous pancreatitis did not differ significantly. Each piglet served as its own control. Because the results of this initial study are similar to those obtained with contrast-enhanced CT, we conclude that our results may encourage further clinical trials, and contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI may be an alternative to the established method of CT for diagnosing acute haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis. (orig.). With 3 figs

  4. Perimesencephalic subarachnoidal haemorrhage: Clinical and CT aspects; Die perimesenzephale Subarachnoidalblutung: Klinische und computertomographische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaim, A. [Dept. fuer Medizinische Radiologie, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Mader, I. [Dept. fuer Medizinische Radiologie, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Kirsch, E. [Dept. fuer Medizinische Radiologie, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Radue, E.W. [Dept. fuer Medizinische Radiologie, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Steinbrich, W. [Dept. fuer Medizinische Radiologie, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)

    1995-04-01

    The blood distribution on CCT (72 h after bleeding episode) of 26 patients with nonaneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage confirmed by two normal cerebral angiograms was compared to the blood distribution of 76 patients with aneurysmal haemorrhage. The clinical condition of these patients was further analysed, 4-60 months after the bleeding episode. In 62% of patients with nonaneurysmal haemorrhage the blood distribution was perimesencephalic. The aneurysmal blood distribution pattern was more extended and only one patient showed a perimesencephalic pattern. 80% of the patients without aneurysms in angiography had no limitations in daily functional capacity. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Die Blutverteilung im CCT (72 h nach Blutungsereignis) von 26 Patienten mit spontaner SAB unklarer Aetiologie (zwei unauffaellige zerebrale Panangiographien) wurde mit der Blutverteilung von 76 Aneurysmablutungen verglichen. Weiter wurde das klinische Zustandsbild dieser Patienten 4-60 Monate nach Blutung ueberprueft. 62% der Patienten mit SAB unklarer Aetiologie zeigten eine rein perimesenzephale Blutverteilung. Die Blutverteilung bei Aneurysmablutungen war weit ausgedehnter, und nur eine Patientin hatte eine perimesenzephale Blutung. Die Patienten ohne Aneurysmanachweis erreichten in 80% eine uneingeschraenkte Lebensqualitaet. (orig./MG)

  5. Serial CT and MRI of ischaemic cerebral infarcts: frequency and clinical impact of haemorrhagic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.E.; Brueckmann, H. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G. [Dept. of Radiology/Neuroradiology, University Medical School of Luebeck (Germany); Droste, D.W. [Dept. of Neurology, University Medical School of Luebeck (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    The frequency, predisposing factors and clinical consequences of haemorrhagic infarcts and damaged blood-brain barrier as shown by contrast enhancement (CE) in ischaemic cerebral infarcts are controversial. We prospectively compared the sensitivity of CT and MRI to haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and CE. We also wished to investigate the clinical significance of HT and factors possibly associated with it. We studied 36 patients with acute ischaemic infarcts in the middle cerebral artery territory during the first 2 weeks after the ictus. After CT and rating of the neurological deficit on admission, serial examinations with clinical neuromonitoring, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were done on the same day. The occurrence and severity of HT were correlated with CE, stroke mechanism, infarct size, development of neurological deficits and antithrombotic treatment. The frequency of HT detected by MRI was 80 %. CE usually preceded HT or was seen simultaneously. MRI had a higher sensitivity than CT to HT and CE. Severity of HT was positively correlated with infarct size (P < 0.01). HT had no influence on patient's neurological status. Neither the type of antithrombotic treatment nor the stroke mechanism was associated with the severity of HT. No parenchymal haemorrhage occurred. (orig.)

  6. Serial CT and MRI of ischaemic cerebral infarcts: frequency and clinical impact of haemorrhagic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.E.; Brueckmann, H.; Droste, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The frequency, predisposing factors and clinical consequences of haemorrhagic infarcts and damaged blood-brain barrier as shown by contrast enhancement (CE) in ischaemic cerebral infarcts are controversial. We prospectively compared the sensitivity of CT and MRI to haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and CE. We also wished to investigate the clinical significance of HT and factors possibly associated with it. We studied 36 patients with acute ischaemic infarcts in the middle cerebral artery territory during the first 2 weeks after the ictus. After CT and rating of the neurological deficit on admission, serial examinations with clinical neuromonitoring, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were done on the same day. The occurrence and severity of HT were correlated with CE, stroke mechanism, infarct size, development of neurological deficits and antithrombotic treatment. The frequency of HT detected by MRI was 80 %. CE usually preceded HT or was seen simultaneously. MRI had a higher sensitivity than CT to HT and CE. Severity of HT was positively correlated with infarct size (P < 0.01). HT had no influence on patient's neurological status. Neither the type of antithrombotic treatment nor the stroke mechanism was associated with the severity of HT. No parenchymal haemorrhage occurred. (orig.)

  7. Multi-detector CT: review of its use in acute GI haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, S.; Milburn, S. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Uberoi, R. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk

    2007-10-15

    The advent of multi-section computed tomography (CT) technology allows the non-invasive assessment of the arterial tree. Using current software, it is now possible to produce high-quality, angiographic-like images that can be used to plan and guide therapeutic procedures. One such clinical situation is the assessment of patients with acute gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage. Multi-section CT has a number of advantages over conventional angiography in this situation. The simplicity and non-invasive nature of the technique compared with conventional angiography make CT angiography possible in situations where conventional angiography is not available. Movement artefact from respiration and peristalsis is a common problem in the interpretation of conventional angiography; this is essentially abolished with rapid acquisition times and the use of multi-planar images to remove overlying bowel loops. Cross-sectional imaging with the ability for multi-planar reconstruction allows the accurate anatomical localization of the bleeding site, as well as an assessment of the underlying pathology: this can be used to plan therapy (embolization or surgery). The aim of this paper is to review the current use of CT in the investigation of patients with GI haemorrhage, illustrated with images from our Institution. For patients in whom GI endoscopy has failed to establish a diagnosis, we propose multi-section CT angiography as the initial imaging investigation in acute GI haemorrhage.

  8. Multi-detector CT: review of its use in acute GI haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, S.; Milburn, S.; Uberoi, R.

    2007-01-01

    The advent of multi-section computed tomography (CT) technology allows the non-invasive assessment of the arterial tree. Using current software, it is now possible to produce high-quality, angiographic-like images that can be used to plan and guide therapeutic procedures. One such clinical situation is the assessment of patients with acute gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage. Multi-section CT has a number of advantages over conventional angiography in this situation. The simplicity and non-invasive nature of the technique compared with conventional angiography make CT angiography possible in situations where conventional angiography is not available. Movement artefact from respiration and peristalsis is a common problem in the interpretation of conventional angiography; this is essentially abolished with rapid acquisition times and the use of multi-planar images to remove overlying bowel loops. Cross-sectional imaging with the ability for multi-planar reconstruction allows the accurate anatomical localization of the bleeding site, as well as an assessment of the underlying pathology: this can be used to plan therapy (embolization or surgery). The aim of this paper is to review the current use of CT in the investigation of patients with GI haemorrhage, illustrated with images from our Institution. For patients in whom GI endoscopy has failed to establish a diagnosis, we propose multi-section CT angiography as the initial imaging investigation in acute GI haemorrhage

  9. The surgical arrest of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage: Hospital Episode Statistics 12 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M S; Clark, Mpa

    2018-02-27

    Introduction The risk of returning to theatre for arrest of haemorrhage following tonsillectomy can be determined from analysis of the Hospital Episode Statistics data provided by the Department of Health website. This method was employed previously for data between 1998-2002 and was repeated in this study to observe any changes over this time period. Materials and methods Hospital Episode Statistics data for England from 2010-2016 were used. The number of tonsillectomies and surgical arrest of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage were considered for children and adults. Results Of 267,159 tonsillectomies performed over the six-year period, 5027 (1.88%) returned to theatre for control of bleeding. This was 3.5 times more likely in adults than children (P < 0.0001). Comparison with the previous study showed an increase in return to theatre rates following tonsillectomy of 1.06%, from 0.82% to 1.88%. Conclusion Adults are more likely than children to require and arrest of haemorrhage post-tonsillectomy. Return to theatre rates have increased since 2004 at an estimated additional cost to NHS England of £1,415,056 per annum. The causes of this observed increase have yet to be determined.

  10. Follow-up of Thalidomide treatment in patients with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, A; Westermann, C J J; Snijder, R; Disch, F; Mummery, C L; Mager, J J

    2015-12-01

    Patients with a hereditary vascular disorder called Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome (Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia, HHT) haemorrhage easily due to weak-walled vessels. Haemorrhage in lungs or brain can be fatal but patients suffer most from chronic and prolonged nosebleeds (epistaxis), the frequency and intensity of which increases with age. Several years ago, it was discovered serendipitously that the drug Thalidomide had beneficial effects on the disease symptoms in several of a small group of HHT patients: epistaxis and the incidence of anaemia were reduced and patients required fewer blood transfusions. In addition, they reported a better quality of life. However, Thalidomide has significant negative side effects, including neuropathy and fatigue. We followed up all HHT patients in the Netherlands who had been taking Thalidomide at the time the original study was completed to find out (i) how many had continued taking Thalidomide and for how long (ii) the nature and severity of any side-effects and (iii) whether side-effects had influenced their decision to continue taking Thalidomide. Only a minority of patients had continued taking the drug despite its beneficial effects on their symptoms and that the side effects were the primary reason to stop. Despite symptom reduction, alternative treatments are still necessary for epistaxis in HHT patients and a large-scale clinical trial is not justified although incidental use in the most severely affected patients can be considered.

  11. Ergometrine given during caesarean section and incidence of delayed postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, R; Paterson-Brown, S

    2007-11-01

    Delayed postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony after caesarean section was occurring in women in our recovery area despite many of them already having an oxytocin infusion running to prevent such a problem. We therefore decided to compare the incidence of such problems for a 2-month period before and after altering our uterotonic policy: in addition to the routine bolus dose of 5 units of oxytocin after delivery of the baby, we added 500 microg of intramuscular ergometrine during abdominal closure. We noticed a reduced number of massive postpartum haemorrhages due to an atonic uterus in the recovery room but an increased incidence of nausea and vomiting. No prophylactic anti-emetic was given during this pilot study. This small study suggests that 50 women would need to be given ergometrine at caesarean section to prevent one delayed massive haemorrhage from uterine atony and four extra women would suffer with vomiting. We feel this is reasonable and now use a prophylactic anti-emetic as well as delaying the ergometrine until closure of the rectus sheath which reduces the incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  12. In vitro contractile effects of agents used in the clinical management of postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John J; Crosby, David A; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2016-10-15

    Uterine atony is a major cause of postpartum haemorrhage and maternal mortality. However, the comparative pharmacology of agents used to treat this condition is poorly understood. This study evaluates, using human pregnant myometrium in vitro, a range of contractile parameters for agents used in the clinical treatment of atonic postpartum haemorrhage. The effects of oxytocin, carbetocin, ergometrine, carboprost, syntometrine and misoprostol were investigated in 146 myometrial strips from 19 donors. The potency and maximal response values were obtained, and compared, using both maximal amplitude and mean contractile force as indices of contraction. Single, EC50 concentrations of the agents were administered and both force and contraction peak parameters were compared during a 15-min exposure. Differences were considered significant when Poxytocin and carbetocin being the most potent. The most important difference between the agents was in their ability to increase the mean contractile force, with oxytocin superior to all agents except syntometrine. In single dose experiments, mean contractile force was the parameter that separated the agents. In this respect, oxytocin was not statistically different from carboprost or syntometrine, but was superior to all other agents. These findings support a clear role for oxytocin as the first line agent for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage and raise doubts about the potential clinical usefulness of misoprostol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Home therapy with continuous infusion of factor VIII after minor surgery or serious haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varon, D; Schulman, S; Bashari, D; Martinowitz, U

    1996-10-01

    Administration of factor VIII (F VIII) concentrates by continuous infusion is now routinely used at several haemophilia centers but almost exclusively for hospitalized patients. We evaluated various aspects of home therapy with continuous infusion of an immunoaffinity purified F VIII concentrate (Monoclate P®, Armour) in patients who would normally have been treated with high doses in bolus injections or with continuous infusion as in-patients. Twenty haemophilia A patients, eight after minor surgery and 12 for serious haemorrhage, received continuous infusion with undiluted F VIII by a minipump for a mean of 0.9 days in the hospital, followed by 3.3 days at home. Infusion bags were exchanged every 2.5 days. No haemorrhagic complications occurred, and five haemorrhages that had been resistant to treatment with bolus injections responded promptly to the continuous infusion. There were no technical problems and patient compliance and acceptance was good. We find this mode of therapy safe, efficacious and convenient for the patients as well as for the staff.

  14. Lung involvement in childhood onset granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filocamo, Giovanni; Torreggiani, Sofia; Agostoni, Carlo; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-04-14

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is an ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis with a low incidence in the pediatric population. Lung involvement is a common manifestation in children affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis, both at disease's onset and during flares. Its severity is variable, ranging from asymptomatic pulmonary lesions to dramatic life-threatening clinical presentations such as diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Several radiologic findings have been described, but the most frequent abnormalities detected are nodular lesions and fixed infiltrates. Interstitial involvement, pleural disease and pulmonary embolism are less common. Histology may show necrotizing or granulomatous vasculitis of small arteries and veins of the lung, but since typical features may be patchy, the site for lung biopsy should be carefully chosen with the help of imaging techniques such as computed tomography. Bronchoalveolar lavage is helpful to confirm the diagnosis of alveolar haemorrhage. Pulmonary function tests are frequently altered, showing a reduction in the diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, which can be associated with obstructive abnormalities related to airway stenosis. Nodular lung lesions tend to regress with immunosuppressive therapy, but lung disease may also require second line treatments such as plasmapheresis. In cases of massive diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, ventilator support is crucial in the management of the patient.

  15. VIRAL ETIOLOGY OF RECURRENT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ibishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recurrent urinary tract infection is an actual problem of modern urology.Objective. Complex investigation of urinary tract infections including viral etiology for chronic recurrent cystitis in womenMaterials and methods. The study included 31 women with recurrent infection of urinary tract. Inclusion criteria were the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms caused by infection, severe recurrent course, the lack of anatomical and functional disorders of the urinary tract, the absence of bacterial pathogens during the study, taking into account the culture of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques.Results. The analysis of the clinical manifestations, the dominant in the study group were pain and urgency to urinate at 100% and 90% of women surveyed, respectively, and less frequent urination were recorded in 16.1% of patients. In general clinical examination of urine in all cases identified leukocyturia and 90% of the hematuria. By using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR in midstream urine of all examined was verified 10 types of human papilloma virus (HPV with the predominance of 16 and 18 types . Considering the presence of recurrent infectious and inflammatory processes of the urinary tract, cystoscopy with bladder biopsy was performed for all patients. When histomorphological biopsies of all patients surveyed noted the presence of the specific characteristics of HPV: papillary hyperplasia with squamous koilocytosis, pale cytoplasm and shrunken kernels. When analyzing the results of PCR biopsy data corresponded with the results of PCR in midstream urine in all biopsies was detected HPV.Conclusions. Human papillomavirus infection may be involved in the development of viral cystitis. In the etiological structure of viral cystitis, both highly oncogenic and low oncogenic HPV types can act.

  16. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides to their corresponding monophosphate compounds. dNks also phosphorylate deoxyribonucleoside analogues that are used in the treatment of cancer or viral infections. The study of the mammalian dNKs has therefore always been of gr...

  17. Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMuch of liver pathology is related to infection with HBV and HCV and it is important to define factors associated with clinical behavior of disease following infection with these viruses. Thus in this thesis I first focus on the natural history of chronic viral diseases associated

  18. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  19. Development of viable TAP-tagged dengue virus for investigation of host-virus interactions in viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyomtip, Teera; Hodge, Kenneth; Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Pisitkun, Trairak; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Chimnaronk, Sarin

    2016-03-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for life-threatening dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The viral replication machinery containing the core non-structural protein 5 (NS5) is implicated in severe dengue symptoms but molecular details remain obscure. To date, studies seeking to catalogue and characterize interaction networks between viral NS5 and host proteins have been limited to the yeast two-hybrid system, computational prediction and co-immunoprecipitation (IP) of ectopically expressed NS5. However, these traditional approaches do not reproduce a natural course of infection in which a number of DENV NS proteins colocalize and tightly associate during the replication process. Here, we demonstrate the development of a recombinant DENV that harbours a TAP tag in NS5 to study host-virus interactions in vivo. We show that our engineered DENV was infective in several human cell lines and that the tags were stable over multiple viral passages, suggesting negligible structural and functional disturbance of NS5. We further provide proof-of-concept for the use of rationally tagged virus by revealing a high confidence NS5 interaction network in human hepatic cells. Our analysis uncovered previously unrecognized hnRNP complexes and several low-abundance fatty acid metabolism genes, which have been implicated in the viral life cycle. This study sets a new standard for investigation of host-flavivirus interactions.

  20. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif S. Al-Abri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR, with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV.

  1. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abaidani, Idris Al; Fazlalipour, Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Memish, Ziad A; Hewson, Roger; Petersen, Eskild; Mala, Peter; Nhu Nguyen, Tran Minh; Rahman Malik, Mamunur; Formenty, Pierre; Jeffries, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR), with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae) in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Vasopressin clearance and secretion during haemorrhage in normal dogs and in dogs with experimental diabetes insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, M. L.; E Silva, M. Rocha

    1972-01-01

    1. The secretion of vasopressin in response to haemorrhagic shock has been investigated in anaesthetized dogs. 2. The changes in the plasma concentrations of vasopressin were followed over a period of 5 hr, during which the arterial blood pressure was kept constant at 40 mm Hg. It was found that vasopressin concentration in plasma rose to a high peak shortly after the onset of shock and gradually declined thereafter. Five hours later, it was still 3·5 times higher than control. Re-transfusion of blood was followed by a return to control levels. 3. The clearance of vasopressin was calculated before and during shock in normal dogs and in dogs with experimental diabetes insipidus. Soon after the onset of shock, the clearance rate dropped to one quarter of its normal level but slowly recovered, returning to near control values at the fifth hour of shock. Clearance rates did not vary as a function of infusion rates, suggesting that there is no maximal transport rate for the removal of the hormone over the entire secretory range found in normal and hypotensive dogs. 4. From the clearance rates and from the plasma concentrations of endogenously secreted vasopressin it has been possible to calculate the approximate secretory rates of the hormone in response to shock. Secretion rose to a very high level, some 40 times greater than control, at the onset of shock. This was followed by a fairly constant secretory plateau. At the fifth hour of shock secretion was 3·5 times higher than control. 5. The half-life of vasopressin was measured in normal and hypotensive dogs. Control measurements confirm the generally accepted value of approximately 5 min. The half-life was significantly higher in the early stage of shock, but returned to control values in the later stage. 6. Haemorrhage experiments performed in normal and diabetic dogs suggest that vasopressin may play a part in the development of irreversible haemorrhagic shock: all normal animals died within a few hours of

  3. Where does ergometrine stand in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in caesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, G.; Javaid, K.; Tasnim, N.; Tabassum, A.; Bangash, K. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of 10 units of intravenous syntocinon alone with 10 units intravenous syntocinon and 0.25 mg intramuscular ergometrine in the prevention of atonic uterine haemorrhage during caesarean section. Method: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre, Unit I, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November 1, 2010 to February 28, 2011. All women undergoing caesarean section were included in the study. Patients were given intravenous 10 units syntocinon alone intra-operatively from November 1 to December 31, 2010, while 0.25 mg ergometrine intramuscular was added to 10 units intravenous syntocinon from January 1 to February 28, 2011. Frequency of postpartum haemorrhage, adverse effects of drugs and maternal morbidity and mortality were assessed by using chi square test. P <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of the total number of 701 subjects, 378 (54%) women were given 10 units syntocinon and 323 (46%) were given 0.25 mg ergometrine in addition to 10 units syntocinon. The mean age in the syntocinon group was 28+-3.5 yrs with gestational age of 37.5+-2 weeks, while that in syntocinon-ergometrine group was 29+-3.4 years and 38+-2 weeks respectively. Postpartum haemorrhage in the syntocinon group was found in 38 (10%) women versus 05 (1.5%) women) in the other group (p<0.001). Adverse effects like nausea, vomiting and raised blood pressure were slightly more with syntocinon-ergometrine than syntocinon alone (n=56; 15.3% vs n=35; 9.2%), but it was not statistically significant. Post partum haemorrhage was responsible for 40% of maternal mortality during the study period and that was in the syntocinon group. Conclusion: Prophylactic ergometrine in addition to syntocinon is superior to syntocinon alone in decreasing frequency of postpartum haemorrhage in caesarean section and associated maternal morbidity and mortality. Regarding safety profile, the two

  4. Microenvironmental abnormalities induced by viral cooperation: Impact on lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo; Carbone, Antonino

    2015-10-01

    When stringent criteria have been used, the Epstein Barr virus (EBV), the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been identified with sufficient evidence to be causative agents of non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas. Initially, single viral infection was considered fully responsible for the oncogenic properties of each virus, while it is now established that in many cases, multiple viral agents collaborate as cofactors in inducing lymphomas, especially in the presence of HIV-dependent immunodeficiency. Viruses cooperate by using their specific pathogenetic mechanisms in different combinations. The aim of this review is to describe the cooperation between different viruses in the development of lymphomas including the evidences supporting their pathogenetic role. Viral cooperation, a mechanism by which different viruses coinfecting human tissues have synergistic or regulatory effects on carcinogenesis, targets neoplastic B cells as well as cells of the microenvironment, such as reactive T-cells, B cells and macrophages, as well as non-immune cells such as endothelial cells, that contribute to tumor microenvironment. The most important viral genes involved in cooperation include HIV-1 tat and vpu, EBV LMP-1 and EBNA-2 and KSHV KIE2, Rta and LANA. Lymphomagenesis related to viral cooperation represents an interesting topic where microenvironmental abnormalities may be particularly relevant, particularly because antiviral targeted therapies and therapies producing the reconstitution of the immune system may constitute areas of interest aiming at improving the outcome of virus associated lymphomas. While the immune component of the lymphoma microenvironment can be easily studied by immunological and molecular techniques, the definition of the non-immune component of the lymphoma microenvironment is largely incomplete and may be the issue of future investigations. Understanding the pathogenetic role of

  5. Volemic Resuscitation in a Patient with Multiple Traumas and Haemorrhagic Shock. Anti-oxidative Therapy Management in Critical Patients. A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bedreag Ovidiu Horea; Rogobete Alexandru Florin; Sarandan Mirela; Cradigati Alina Carmen; Nartita Radu; Sandesc Dorel; Papurica Marius

    2016-01-01

    A patient with multiple traumas is usually found in severe haemorrhagic shock. In 40% of the cases, the patient with multiple traumas and haemorrhagic shock cannot recover due to secondary injuries and complications associated with the shock. In this paper we present the case of a male patient 30 years old, who suffered a car accident. The patient is admitted in our hospital with haemorrhagic shock due to femur fracture, acute cranial-cerebral trauma and severe thoracic trauma with bleeding s...

  6. Oxygen free radicals as pathogenic molecules in viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, H; Akaike, T

    1991-11-01

    Oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2-) were generated markedly in influenza virus-infected mouse lung, and these molecular species were identified as the potent pathogenic agents. This finding has many important implications for understanding viral pathogenesis: namely, the direct viral cytotoxicity (referred cytopathic effect) is only a fraction of several types of events induced by virus infection. The toxicity and reactivity of oxygen radicals, which are presumably generated in excessive amounts by the overreaction of the host's immune response against the organs or tissues in which viruses are replicating, may explain the mechanism of tissue injuries observed not only in influenza virus infection in mice, but also in other types of viral diseases in which immunological interactions are usually involved.

  7. Research on Potential Biomarkers in Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Botella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, involving mutations in two predominant genes known as Endoglin (ENG; HHT1 and Activin receptor like kinase 1 (ACVRL1/ALK1; HHT2, as well as in some less frequent genes, such as MADH4/SMAD4 (JP-HHT or BMP9/GDF2 (HHT5. The diagnosis of HHT patients currently remains at the clinical level, according to the Curaçao criteria, whereas the molecular diagnosis is used to confirm or rule out suspected HHT cases, especially when a well characterized index case is present in the family or in an isolated population. Unfortunately, many suspected patients do not present a clear HHT diagnosis or do not show pathogenic mutations in HHT genes, prompting the need to investigate additional biomarkers of the disease. Here, several HHT biomarkers and novel methodological approaches developed during the last years will be reviewed. On one hand, products detected in plasma or serum samples: soluble proteins (VEGF, TGF-β1, soluble endoglin, angiopoietin-2 and microRNA variants (miR-27a, miR-205, miR-210. On the other hand, differential HHT gene expression fingerprinting, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS of a panel of genes involved in HHT, and infrared spectroscopy combined with Artificial Neural Network (ANN patterns will also be reviewed. All these biomarkers might help to improve and refine HHT diagnosis by distinguishing from the non-HHT population.

  8. Anti-viral RNA silencing: do we look like plants ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecellier Charles-Henri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anti-viral function of RNA silencing was first discovered in plants as a natural manifestation of the artificial 'co-suppression', which refers to the extinction of endogenous gene induced by homologous transgene. Because silencing components are conserved among most, if not all, eukaryotes, the question rapidly arose as to determine whether this process fulfils anti-viral functions in animals, such as insects and mammals. It appears that, whereas the anti-viral process seems to be similarly conserved from plants to insects, even in worms, RNA silencing does influence the replication of mammalian viruses but in a particular mode: micro(miRNAs, endogenous small RNAs naturally implicated in translational control, rather than virus-derived small interfering (siRNAs like in other organisms, are involved. In fact, these recent studies even suggest that RNA silencing may be beneficial for viral replication. Accordingly, several large DNA mammalian viruses have been shown to encode their own miRNAs. Here, we summarize the seminal studies that have implicated RNA silencing in viral infection and compare the different eukaryotic responses.

  9. Biochemical principles and inhibitors to interfere with viral capping pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Messenger RNAs are decorated by a cap structure, which is essential for their translation into proteins. Many viruses have developed strategies in order to cap their mRNAs. The cap is either synthetized by a subset of viral or cellular enzymes, or stolen from capped cellular mRNAs by viral endonucleases ('cap-snatching'). Reverse genetic studies provide evidence that inhibition of viral enzymes belonging to the capping pathway leads to inhibition of virus replication. The replication defect results from reduced protein synthesis as well as from detection of incompletely capped RNAs by cellular innate immunity sensors. Thus, it is now admitted that capping enzymes are validated antiviral targets, as their inhibition will support an antiviral response in addition to the attenuation of viral mRNA translation. In this review, we describe the different viral enzymes involved in mRNA capping together with relevant inhibitors, and their biochemical features useful in inhibitor discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene delivery with viral vectors for cerebrovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yu; Jing, Zheng; Stetler, R. Anne; Cao, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Recent achievements in the understanding of molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) injury have made gene transfer a promising approach for various neurological disorders, including cerebrovascular diseases. However, special obstacles, including the post-mitotic nature of neurons and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), constitute key challenges for gene delivery to the CNS. Despite the various limitations in current gene delivery systems, a spectrum of viral vectors has been successfully used to deliver genes to the CNS. Furthermore, recent advancements in vector engineering have improved the safety and delivery of viral vectors. Numerous viral vector-based clinical trials for neurological disorders have been initiated. This review will summarize the current implementation of viral gene delivery in the context of cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In particular, we will discuss the potentially feasible ways in which viral vectors can be manipulated and exploited for use in neural delivery and therapy. PMID:23276981

  11. Haemorrhagic necrosis of the grey matter of the spinal cord due to accidental injection of iopamidol in a patient with multiple neurofibromas; a clinico-pathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, R.A.C.; Wintzen, A.R.; Voormolen, J.H.C.; Vielvoye, G.J.; Bots, G.T.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Cervical laminectomy was performed in a 34-year old man with multiple spinal neurofibromas because of a slowly progressive medullary compression. Four weeks later a rapid deterioration necessitated iopamidol myelography by left lateral cervical puncture at C2 level. Despite the establishment of adequate spinal fluid contact, resulting in imaging of the subarachnoid space, part of the contrast medium entered the spinal cord, thus delineating a syrinx from the upper cervical extending to the upper thoracic level. After the puncture the patient developed triplegia, involving the left arm and both legs and a paresis of the right arm. He died from aspiration pneumonia. Autopsy revealed haemorrhagic necrosis of the spinal grey matter. This adverse effect of myelography is argued to have been conditioned by the extreme immobility and displacement of the spinal cord due to the presence of multiple neurofibromas. The deterioration four weeks after the operation was probably caused by a further compression of the spinal cord. (orig.)

  12. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    meningitis patients, CSF antibodies are focussed to only one single glycoform peptide of a major viral glycoprotein. Thus, dependent on the viral disease, the serological response may be variable or constant with respect to the number of targeted peptide glycoforms. Mapping of these epitopes relies......Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted...... owing to various viral escape mechanisms. We expand the range of possible viral glycoprotein targets, by presenting a previously unknown type of viral glycoprotein epitope based on a short peptide stretch modified with small O-linked glycans. Besides being immunologically active, these epitopes have...

  13. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  14. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  15. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  16. Prospects for new viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, B P

    1980-08-11

    Animal virology has made outstanding contributions to preventive medicine by the development of vaccines for the control of infectious disease in man and animals. Cost-benefit analysis indicates substantial savings in health care costs from the control of diseases such as smallpox, poliomyelitis, yellow fever and measels. Areas for further development include vaccines for influenza (living, attenuated virus), the herpes group (varicella: cytomegalovirus), respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus and hepatitis A, B, and non A/non B. The general options for vaccine formulation are discussed with particular emphasis on approaches with the use of viral genetics to 'tailor make' vaccine viruses with defined growth potential in laboratory systems, low pathogenicity, and defined antigens. Current progress with the development of an inactivated hepatitis B vaccine is reviewed as a case study in vaccine development. The impact of recent experiments in cloning hepatitis B virus DNA in E. coli on the production of a purified viral polypeptide vaccine is assessed.

  17. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  18. Viral diseases and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, E de S; Zanotto, P M

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effects on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (e.g., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc.) are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  19. Viral diseases and human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Elcio de Souza [UNIFESP; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade [UNIFESP

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish l...

  20. Viral exanthems in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli Coelho da Silva; Cestari, Tania; Allen, Samuel H; Ramos e-Silva, Marcia

    2007-01-01

    Viral exanthems are a common problem in tropical regions, particularly affecting children. Most exanthems are transient and harmless, but some are potentially very dangerous. Pregnant women and malnourished or immunocompromised infants carry the greatest risk of adverse outcome. In this article, parvovirus B19; dengue and yellow fever; West Nile, Barmah Forest, Marburg, and Ebola viruses, and human herpesviruses; asymmetric periflexural exanthema of childhood; measles; rubella; enteroviruses; Lassa fever; and South American hemorrhagic fevers will be discussed.