WorldWideScience

Sample records for involving fuel spills

  1. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  2. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility is a research and demonstration facility available on a user-fee basis to private and public sector test and training sponsors concerned with safety aspects of hazardous chemicals. Though initially designed to accommodate large liquefied natural gas releases, the Spill Test Facility (STF) can also accommodate hazardous materials training and safety-related testing of most chemicals in commercial use. The STF is located at DOE's Nevada Test Site near Mercury, Nevada, USA. Utilization of the Spill Test Facility provides a unique opportunity for industry and other users to conduct hazardous materials testing and training. The Spill Test Facility is the only facility of its kind for either large- or small-scale testing of hazardous and toxic fluids including wind tunnel testing under controlled conditions. It is ideally suited for test sponsors to develop verified data on prevention, mitigation, clean-up, and environmental effects of toxic and hazardous gaseous liquids. The facility site also supports structured training for hazardous spills, mitigation, and clean-up. Since 1986, the Spill Test Facility has been utilized for releases to evaluate the patterns of dispersion, mitigation techniques, and combustion characteristics of select materials. Use of the facility can also aid users in developing emergency planning under US P.L 99-499, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and other regulations. The Spill Test Facility Program is managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy (FE) with the support and assistance of other divisions of US DOE and the US Government. DOE/FE serves as facilitator and business manager for the Spill Test Facility and site. This brief document is designed to acquaint a potential user of the Spill Test Facility with an outline of the procedures and policies associated with the use of the facility

  3. Comparison of fuel spill fate models in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinberry, B.E.; Regan, R.W. Sr.

    1991-01-01

    It has been estimated that 96 percent of the 1.4 million underground storage tanks in the U.S. contain petroleum products such as gasoline and fuel oil. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) further estimates that 84 percent of the existing underground storage tanks (UST's) are bare-steel, single-wall tanks with no corrosion protection, leak-prevention or leak-detention devices. As many as 40 percent of these tanks could be leaking now or in the near future due to corrosion, installation mistakes, or piping failures. This paper discusses the potential sources of fuel oil leaks or spills, describes the physical and chemical fate of the hydrocarbon contaminants, and reviews current literature reports which model the fate of petroleum contaminants in the subsurface environment

  4. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility: Overview of STF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (STF) constructed at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site is a basic research tool for studying the dynamics of accidental releases of various hazardous liquids. This Facility is designed to (1) discharge, at a controlled rate, a measured volume of hazardous test liquid on a prepared surface of a dry lake bed (Frenchman Lake); (2) monitor and record process operating data, close-in and downwind meteorological data, and downwind gaseous concentration levels; and (3) provide a means to control and monitor these functions from a remote location. The STF will accommodate large and small-scale testing of hazardous test fluid release rates up to 28,000 gallons per minute. Spill volumes up to 52,800 gallons are achievable. Generic categories of fluids that can be tested are cryogenics, isothermals, aerosol-forming materials, and chemically reactive. The phenomena that can be studied include source definition, dispersion, and pool fire/vapor burning. Other capabilities available at the STF include large-scale wind tunnel testing, a small test cell for exposing personnel protective clothing, and an area for developing mitigation techniques

  5. Review on hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) involved in marine spill incidents—an online database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Isabel; Moreira, Susana; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-03-21

    In this review, we have collected information on the behavior, fate, weathering, and impact of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) accidentally spilled at sea on the marine biota. The information was compiled on a datasheet and converted into a database that can be accessed by the general public (www.ciimar.up.pt/hns). Systematization of data is important to assist stakeholders involved in HNS spill preparedness and response, facilitating the incorporation of lessons from past incidents in the decision process. The database contains 184 entries of HNS spilled in 119 incidents in marine waters around the world. Data were analyzed in terms of HNS physical behavior in water according to SEBC (Standard European Behavior Classification) codes. The most common products involved in accidental spills in the marine environment were identified and major lessons highlighted. From the analysis, it was determined that most HNS spills were poorly documented and information was mistreated. In most cases, no monitoring programs were implemented following the incident. This conduct has occurred in 24 out of 119 incidents analyzed and has consequently limited the information on fate, behavior, and weathering of HNS spilled that could have been recovered. Major gaps were identified, and priorities and recommendations were drawn as a step toward improving preparedness and response to HNS spills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Kantin, R. [IFREMER, la Tremblade (France); Diez, E. [Transportes Salas Simo S.L., Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  7. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Kantin, R.; Diez, E.

    2002-01-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs

  8. Public health risks associated with oil and chemical spills in cold freshwater environments: a simulation exercise involving a phenol and diesel spill in the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaivre, D.; Jarry, V.; Guerrier, P.; Paul, M.; Colliou, M.

    1997-01-01

    The St. Lawrence River is the source of drinking water for some 45 per cent of the population in the Province of Quebec, hence contamination of the river by oil or chemical spills is a matter of great public health importance. Project SHORES was developed by the Quebec Environmental Health Committee through the St. Lawrence 'Vision 2000' Action Plan. As part of this project, a simulation exercise involving phenol and diesel fuel was carried out. The exercise included development of a computerized dispersion model which was then used to evaluate the migration of phenol in critical areas of the St. Lawrence River. Main public health risks to nearby populations, with emphasis on drinking water contamination, were assessed based on the simulation results. 18 refs., 2 tabs. 1 fig

  9. Biodegradation of spilled diesel fuel in agricultural soil: Effect of humates, zeolite, and bioaugmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuráň, P.; Trögl, J.; Nováková, J.; Pilařová, V.; Dáňová, P.; Pavlorková, J.; Kozler, J.; Novák, František; Popelka, J.

    -, č. 642427 (2014) ISSN 1537-744X Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/456 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodegradation * spilled diesel fuel * agricultural soil Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/642427

  10. Investigation of evaporation and biodegradation of fuel spills in Antarctica: II-extent of natural attenuation at Casey Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Ian; Ferguson, Susan H; Harvey, Paul McA; Riddle, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    In many temperate regions, fuel and oil spills are sometimes managed simply by allowing natural degradation to occur, while monitoring soils and groundwater to ensure that there is no off-site migration or on-site impact. To critically assess whether this approach is suitable for coastal Antarctic sites, we investigated the extent of evaporation and biodegradation at three old fuel spills at Casey Station. Where the contaminants migrated across frozen ground, probably beneath snow, approximately half the fuel evaporated in the first few months prior to infiltration at the beginning of summer. Once in the ground, however, evaporation rates were negligible. In contrast, minor spills from fuel drums buried in an abandoned waste disposal site did not evaporate to the same extent. Biodegradation within all three spill sites is generally very minor. We conclude that natural attenuation is not a suitable management strategy for fuel-contaminated soils in Antarctic coastal regions.

  11. An Initial Look at a No. 6 Fuel Oil Spill: M/V Cosco Busan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkau, K. L.; Peacock, E. E.; Nelson, R. K.; Ventura, G. T.; Kovecses, J.; Reddy, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    With increasing energy demand and rising prices, the use of cheaper and more pollutant-rich heavy fuel oil is expected to continue to increase. To date, the fate of these fuels in the environment has been rare, especially on a short-term basis (less than one month after the spill). On November 7, 2007 the M/V Cosco Busan struck the Bay Bridge in San Francisco, USA. Two port tanks containing fuel were ruptured in the allision resulting in the release of approximately 54,000 gallons of No. 6 fuel oil. To investigate the fate of the spill oiled, samples were collected from five impacted shorelines in and around the Bay Area weeks to months after the spill. Samples were analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MS). Additionally, several samples were examined in greater detail by two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC). The effects of biodegradation, evaporation, water- washing, and photolysis were all observed. Although the extent of weathering was site specific, the most weathered were collected in an exposed location outside San Francisco Bay. Biodegradation was more frequently observed in samples that were collected from mid to low tide. These results provide new insights into the behavior of an understudied but important contaminant in the coastal ocean.

  12. Fuel spill identification by gas chromatography -- genetic algorithms/pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, B.K.; Moores, A.J.; Faruque, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gas chromatography and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of 256 gas chromatograms of neat jet fuels. 31 fuels that have undergone weathering in a subsurface environment were correctly identified by type using discriminants developed from the gas chromatograms of the neat jet fuels. Coalescing poorly resolved peaks, which occurred during preprocessing, diminished the resolution and hence information content of the GC profiles. Nevertheless a genetic algorithm was able to extract enough information from these profiles to correctly classify the chromatograms of weathered fuels. This suggests that cheaper and simpler GC instruments ca be used to type jet fuels

  13. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  14. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J.R.; Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Activities to support the liquefied gaseous fuels spill test facility program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.; Routh, T.

    1997-03-01

    Approximately a hundred years ago the petrochemical industry was in its infancy, while the chemical industry was already well established. Today, both of these industries, which are almost indistinguishable, are a substantial part of the makeup of the U.S. economy and the lifestyle we enjoy. It is difficult to identify a single segment of our daily lives that isn`t affected by these industries and the products or services they make available for our use. Their survival and continued function in a competitive world market are necessary to maintain our current standard of living. The occurrence of accidents in these industries has two obvious effects: (1) the loss of product during the accident and future productivity because of loss of a portion of a facility or transport medium, and (2) the potential loss of life or injury to individuals, whether workers, emergency responders, or members of the general public. A great deal of work has been conducted at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill test Facility (LGFSTF) on hazardous spills. WRI has conducted accident investigations as well as provided information on the research results via the internet and bibliographies.

  16. Predicting the weathering of fuel and oil spills: A diffusion-limited evaporation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C

    2018-01-01

    The majority of the evaporation models currently available in the literature for the prediction of oil spill weathering do not take into account diffusion-limited mass transport and the formation of a concentration gradient in the oil phase. The altered surface concentration of the spill caused by diffusion-limited transport leads to a slower evaporation rate compared to the predictions of diffusion-agnostic evaporation models. The model presented in this study incorporates a diffusive layer in the oil phase and predicts the diffusion-limited evaporation rate. The information required is the composition of the fluid from gas chromatography or alternatively the distillation data. If the density or a single viscosity measurement is available the accuracy of the predictions is higher. Environmental conditions such as water temperature, air pressure and wind velocity are taken into account. The model was tested with synthetic mixtures, petroleum fuels and crude oils with initial viscosities ranging from 2 to 13,000 cSt. The tested temperatures varied from 0 °C to 23.4 °C and wind velocities from 0.3 to 3.8 m/s. The average absolute deviation (AAD) of the diffusion-limited model ranged between 1.62% and 24.87%. In comparison, the AAD of a diffusion-agnostic model ranged between 2.34% and 136.62% against the same tested fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p gasoline. Conventional gasoline was the most toxic (lethal concentration [LC50] 20 mg/kg total hydrocarbon content [THC]) among the studied fuels in soil toxicity test with earthworm Eisenia fetida followed by ethanol-blended gasoline (LC50 1,643 mg/kg THC) and conventional diesel (LC50 2,432 mg/kg THC), although gasoline evaporated fast from soil. For comparison, the toxicity of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the fuels was tested with water flea Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, also demonstrating groundwater toxicity. The WAF of conventional gasoline and RE85 showed almost similar toxicity to both the aquatic test species. EC50 values of 1:10 (by volume) WAF were 9.9 %WAF (gasoline) and 9.3 %WAF (RE85) to D. magna and 9.3 %WAF (gasoline) and 12.3 %WAF (RE85) to V. fischeri. Low solubility decreased toxicity potential of conventional diesel in aquatic environment, but direct physical effects of oil phase pose a threat to organisms in nature. Renewable diesel NExBTL did not show clear toxicity to any test species.

  18. Fuel Conservation by the Application of Spill Prevention and Failsafe Engineering (A Guideline Manual)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodier, J. Leslie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering; Siclari, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering; Garrity, Phyllis A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7,289,163 gallons of oil were accidentally discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a navigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Federal workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the document is offered as a spill prevention guide. The manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or trade association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  19. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  20. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Study of Spill Control Characteristics of JP-8 and Conventional Diesel Fuel with a Common Rail Direct Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seomoon Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of energy sources is a key task for decreasing environmental impacts and global emission of gases. JP-8, a fuel derived from natural gas, coal, biomass, and waste plastics, is a bright prospect. JP-8 is considered a multi-source multi-purpose fuel, with several applications. A preliminary characterization of the JP-8 injection rate and injection quantity behavior was investigated based on the high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. According to the spill injection and injection pressure, a trade-off trend between injection rate and injection quantity was observed. As expected, pilot injection of JP-8 aviation fuel and diesel fuel affects the spray quantity and injection evolution of the subsequent operation without pilot injection. The difference in spilling between diesel and JP-8 aviation fuel is greater than the difference in injection amount per time; in the process of controlling the injector solenoid through ECU (Electric Control Units, the oil pressure valve and the needle valve operate to a higher extent in order to maintain the diesel fuel’s injection quantity volume. It was found that the total injection quantity was decreased by adding 20% pilot injection duration. Because the pilot injection quantity causes solenoid response, loss and needle lift stroke friction loss.

  2. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  3. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Prospects for Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Hallenstein, C.

    1988-05-01

    A review of recent overseas developments in the nuclear industry by The Northern Territory Department of Mines and Energy suggests that there are market prospects in all stages of the fuel cycle. Australia could secure those markets through aggressive marketing and competitive prices. This report gives a profile of the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear fuel cycle technologies, and describes the prospects of Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. It concludes that the nuclear fuel cycle industry has the potential to earn around $10 billion per year in export income. It recommend that the Federal Government: (1) re-examines its position on the Slayter recommendation (1984) that Australia should develop new uranium mines and further stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, and (2) gives it's in-principle agreement to the Northern Territory to seek expressions of interest from the nuclear industry for the establishment of an integrated nuclear fuel cycle industry in the Northern Territory

  5. Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kenessov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized. It is shown that in recent years, through the use of most modern methods of physical chemical analysis and sample preparation, works in this direction made significant progress and contributed to the development of studies in adjacent areas. A character of distribution of transformation products in soils of fall places of first stages of rocket-carriers is described and the available methods for their remediation are characterized.

  6. Responding to the Sea Empress oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Law, R.J.; Kelly, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is a government department which has responsibility in England and in Wales (acting on behalf of the Secretary of State for Wales) for controlling deposits in the sea, including approving the use of dispersants in oil spill response. MAFF also has responsibility in relation to the management of sustainable commercial fish and shellfish fisheries. Following the grounding of the tanker Sea Empress on 15 February 1996, over 72,000 tonnes of crude oil and bunker fuel was lost. This paper summarises the involvement of MAFF staff in the response phase, and in the subsequent assessment of the environmental impact of the oil spill and the associated clean up operations on commercial fisheries. After two and a half years of environmental monitoring and complementary research, it is concluded that the oil spill has had an insignificant impact on these fisheries beyond their closure during the incident response phase. Suggestions for further work are discussed. (author)

  7. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  8. Coconut endocarp and mesocarp as both biosorbents of dissolved hydrocarbons in fuel spills and as a power source when exhausted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Zarate, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Mayra Cecilia; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2018-04-01

    Health and environmental problems associated with the presence of toxic aromatic compounds in water from oil spills have motivated research to develop effective and economically viable strategies to remove these pollutants. In this work, coconut shell (endocarp), coconut fiber (mesocarp) and coconut shell with fiber (endocarp and mesocarp) obtained from coconut (Cocos nucifera) waste were evaluated as biosorbents of benzene, toluene and naphthalene from water, considering the effect of the solution pH (6-9) and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water (14 mg/L). In addition, the heat capacity of saturated biosorbents was determined to evaluate their potential as an alternative power source to conventional fossil fuels. Tests of N 2 physisorption, SEM, elemental and fiber analysis, ATR-FTIR and acid-based titrations were performed in order to understand the materials' characteristics, and to elucidate the biosorbents' hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism. Coconut fiber showed the highest adsorption capacities (222, 96 and 5.85 mg/g for benzene, toluene and naphthalene, respectively), which was attributed to its morphologic characteristics and to its high concentration of phenolic groups, associated with the lignin structure. The pH of the solution did not have a significant influence on the removal of the contaminants, and the presence of DOM improved the adsorption capacities of aromatic hydrocarbons. The adsorption studies showed biphasic isotherms, which highlighted the strong affinity between the molecules adsorbed on the biosorbents and the aromatic compounds remaining in the solution. Finally, combustion heat analysis of coconut waste saturated with soluble hydrocarbons showed that the heat capacity increased from 4407.79 cal/g to 5064.43 ± 11.6 cal/g, which is comparable with that of woody biomass (3400-4000 cal/g): this waste biomass with added value could be a promising biofuel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  10. Oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies.

  11. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  12. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  13. Improving oil classification quality from oil spill fingerprint beyond six sigma approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juahir, Hafizan; Ismail, Azimah; Mohamed, Saiful Bahri; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wah, Wong Kok; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Taib, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin

    2017-07-15

    This study involves the use of quality engineering in oil spill classification based on oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS employing the six-sigma approach. The oil spills are recovered from various water areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). The study approach used six sigma methodologies that effectively serve as the problem solving in oil classification extracted from the complex mixtures of oil spilled dataset. The analysis of six sigma link with the quality engineering improved the organizational performance to achieve its objectivity of the environmental forensics. The study reveals that oil spills are discriminated into four groups' viz. diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) according to the similarity of the intrinsic chemical properties. Through the validation, it confirmed that four discriminant component, diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) dominate the oil types with a total variance of 99.51% with ANOVA giving F stat >F critical at 95% confidence level and a Chi Square goodness test of 74.87. Results obtained from this study reveals that by employing six-sigma approach in a data-driven problem such as in the case of oil spill classification, good decision making can be expedited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Investigation of the presence of toxic components of petroleum hydrocarbons in Guanabara Bay, Brazil following the 2000 PETROBRAS fuel oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, Catia Maria [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escritorio de Licenciamento de Petroleo e Nuclear; Vleet, Edward S. Van

    2003-07-01

    On January 18, 2000, approximately 340,000 gallons of marine fuel 380 oil were released into Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a consequence of a pipeline transfer accident at the Duque de Caxias Refinery (PETROBRAS). Two years after the spill, the present investigation (sponsored by Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance - College of Public Health - University of South Florida) was conducted to assess the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on samples of water, sediments and edible tissue of the fishes (Mullet - Mugilliza and Croaker - Micropogonias furnieri) collected using two types of device (nets and fish traps) from the spill area in July and August 2002. The fishes samples collected in both months were considered to range from being not contaminated to being moderately contaminated by PAHs. Among all the sediments, only one (Point 10, July 2002) showed a total PAH concentration representing highly contaminated conditions. Except for Point 10, all other sediments could be considered minimally to moderately contaminated. Dissolved PAH concentrations found in the water samples were considered to range from minimally to moderately contaminated. (author)

  15. Safety reassessment of the old installations involved in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1990's, CEA (French atomic energy commission) has been preparing a plan for the renovation of a laboratory situated at Cadarache and dedicated to the study of irradiated materials and fuels. The main aim of this renovation was the improvement of the seismic behaviour of the laboratory since it was not built according to the para-seismic rules now in force. The solution chosen, given the different projects studied, the provisional unavailability of the plant and the related costs, was a partial reinforcement of the building in association with a limited plant life time and the reduction of activities in the oldest part of the installation. Another aim of this renovation was a global upgrading of the safety concerning: -) radioactive material containment (upgrade of the first static barrier by reinforcing cell leak-proofing, installation of a second level of very high efficiency filtration at the cell outputs, and separation of cell and general building ventilation networks; -) fire protection (fire sectoring with the isolation of the premises involving safety-important equipment, replacement of the automatic fire detection system, and definition of a new piloting of ventilation in case of fire); -) power cut risks (installation of permanent sources for the power supply of safety-important equipment); and -) earthquake behaviour (addition of reinforced connections between the 3 parts of the building, strengthening of peripheral walls, widening of joints between cells and building, and reinforcement of the foundation of the concrete cells). (A.C.)

  16. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a West Virginia chemical spill mixture involving 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Alice A; Fabyanic, Emily B; Miller, Julie V; Prediger, Maren S; Prince, Nicole; Mouch, Julia A; Boyd, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Thousands of gallons of industrial chemicals, crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) and propylene glycol phenyl ether (PPh), leaked from industrial tanks into the Elk River in Charleston, West Virginia, USA, on January 9, 2014. A considerable number of people were reported to exhibit symptoms of chemical exposure and an estimated 300,000 residents were advised not to use or drink tap water. At the time of the spill, the existing toxicological data of the chemicals were limited for a full evaluation of the health risks, resulting in concern among those in the impacted regions. In this preliminary study, we assessed cell viability and plasma membrane degradation following a 24-h exposure to varying concentrations (0-1000 μM) of the two compounds, alone and in combination. Evaluation of different cell lines, HEK-293 (kidney), HepG2 (liver), H9c2 (heart), and GT1-7 (brain), provided insight regarding altered cellular responses in varying organ systems. Single exposure to MCHM or PPh did not affect cell viability, except at doses much higher than the estimated exposure levels. Certain co-exposures significantly reduced metabolic activity and increased plasma membrane degradation in GT1-7, HepG2, and H9c2 cells. These findings highlight the importance of examining co-exposures to fully understand the potential toxic effects.

  17. Wabamun : a major inland spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 largest spills in Canada this century have been in freshwater environments. This paper evaluated remedial actions taken after a spill which occurred on the shore of Lake Wabamun, Alberta. A freight train derailed in the residential area, spilling 750 m 3 of oil into the lake. The initial response was inadequate as the spilled material was not immediately identified as oil. Some containment booms were deployed. By mid-morning, the oil slick had spread 12 km, and was driven by the wind onto the beaches of cottages. The limited amount of response equipment during the early stages of the spill caused anxiety among residents, which was further compounded by a lack of governmental involvement. The experience of Wabamun showed that the methods of operation and skill sets of environmental response organizations that routinely respond to small spills cannot readily be applied to larger spills. Plans by the railway for the Wabamun area were generic and did not focus on any particular response scenario. Limitations in the Transportation of Dangerous Good were noted, as the 2 substances which spilled were not identified as requiring labels. Various data gaps were identified concerning spills involving high density viscous oil; the dynamics of near neutral density oil; the flowing of hot product; interaction of fine sediments; and the cutting of reed beds. It was concluded that new detection technologies and response technologies are required concerning the detection of oil in water, the collection and removal of oil, and tar formation. The development of a new emergency response agency was recommended, as well as the establishment of a new research and technical information institute and incident command structure (ICS). 22 refs., 3 figs

  18. Wabamun : a major inland spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R.H. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The 2 largest spills in Canada this century have been in freshwater environments. This paper evaluated remedial actions taken after a spill which occurred on the shore of Lake Wabamun, Alberta. A freight train derailed in the residential area, spilling 750 m{sup 3} of oil into the lake. The initial response was inadequate as the spilled material was not immediately identified as oil. Some containment booms were deployed. By mid-morning, the oil slick had spread 12 km, and was driven by the wind onto the beaches of cottages. The limited amount of response equipment during the early stages of the spill caused anxiety among residents, which was further compounded by a lack of governmental involvement. The experience of Wabamun showed that the methods of operation and skill sets of environmental response organizations that routinely respond to small spills cannot readily be applied to larger spills. Plans by the railway for the Wabamun area were generic and did not focus on any particular response scenario. Limitations in the Transportation of Dangerous Good were noted, as the 2 substances which spilled were not identified as requiring labels. Various data gaps were identified concerning spills involving high density viscous oil; the dynamics of near neutral density oil; the flowing of hot product; interaction of fine sediments; and the cutting of reed beds. It was concluded that new detection technologies and response technologies are required concerning the detection of oil in water, the collection and removal of oil, and tar formation. The development of a new emergency response agency was recommended, as well as the establishment of a new research and technical information institute and incident command structure (ICS). 22 refs., 3 figs.

  19. The use of Bioplume II reg-sign to support regulatory negotiations at a fuel spill site near Denver, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemeier, T.H.; Guest, P.R.; Henry, R.L.; Keith, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for the natural biodegradation (intrinsic remediation) of dissolved-phase petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was estimated at a former fueling facility near Denver, Colorado. Contamination at the site is present in the dissolved, gaseous, adsorbed, and free-product phases and resulted from leaking underground storage tanks containing jet fuel. Fuel releases form these tanks resulted in product being trapped within the capillary fringe at a depth of 15 to 20 feet below ground surface. Soils comprising the capillary fringe and saturated zone consist of moderately- to well-sorted, medium- to coarse-grained sand. Bioplume II reg-sign, a two-dimensional numerical ground water model, was used to simulate the fate and transport of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons in ground water under the influence of oxygen-limited biodegradation to determine if intrinsic remediation would be sufficient to reduce the level of dissolved-phase contamination and prevent migration off the facility. Because free product is present at the site, it was necessary to sample the product to determine the mass fraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) so that an analysis of the partitioning of these compounds into the ground water could be made using the equilibrium partitioning model of Bruce et al

  20. Characterization and identification of spill samples from recent spill incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.; Fingas, M.; Lambert, P.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    Several samples of spilled oil were collected from a train derailment site in which approximately 712,000 litres of Bunker C oil and 88,000 litres of pole treating oil were spilled into Lake Wabamun, Alberta in August 2005. Representative samples including oil, water, sediment, tarball and oiled vegetation were analyzed for chemical composition using advanced tiered fingerprinting methods. The samples were characterized through determination of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and n-alkane distributions, as well as through quantitation of the environmentally-concerned alkylated poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other EPA priority PAHs and biomarker compounds. The samples were analyzed to determine the nature, fate, behaviour and impact of the spilled oil. Fingerprinting results have shown that the pole treating oil has an extremely high content of aromatic hydrocarbons, while the Bunker C type oil has a relatively high content of aromatic hydrocarbons. One oil sample was a mixture of the pole treating oil and Bunker type fuel, with the pole treating oil being the larger protion of the mixed oil. Some samples contained higher concentrations of PAH. One water sample in which the hydrocarbons were found in the water column showed that the hydrocarbons came from the pole treating oil, and had a high TPH value and very high concentration of PAHs. Another water sample in which the hydrocarbons from Bunker fuel were found in the water surface sheen, had very low TPH value. Samples were collected throughout the restoration operation, which took place from the time of the spill until late November, 2005. The objective of the ongoing assessment was to provide up-to-date information of any changes in the oiling conditions and to evaluate the effects of field weathering on the alteration and chemical composition and physical properties of the spilled oils. The impact of the spilled oils on the ecosystem was also examined. The ongoing assessment showed changes in the oil

  1. Characterization and identification of spill samples from recent spill incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.; Fingas, M.; Lambert, P.; Landriault, M.

    2006-01-01

    Several samples of spilled oil were collected from a train derailment site in which approximately 712,000 litres of Bunker C oil and 88,000 litres of pole treating oil were spilled into Lake Wabamun, Alberta in August 2005. Representative samples including oil, water, sediment, tarball and oiled vegetation were analyzed for chemical composition using advanced tiered fingerprinting methods. The samples were characterized through determination of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and n-alkane distributions, as well as through quantitation of the environmentally-concerned alkylated poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other EPA priority PAHs and biomarker compounds. The samples were analyzed to determine the nature, fate, behaviour and impact of the spilled oil. Fingerprinting results have shown that the pole treating oil has an extremely high content of aromatic hydrocarbons, while the Bunker C type oil has a relatively high content of aromatic hydrocarbons. One oil sample was a mixture of the pole treating oil and Bunker type fuel, with the pole treating oil being the larger protion of the mixed oil. Some samples contained higher concentrations of PAH. One water sample in which the hydrocarbons were found in the water column showed that the hydrocarbons came from the pole treating oil, and had a high TPH value and very high concentration of PAHs. Another water sample in which the hydrocarbons from Bunker fuel were found in the water surface sheen, had very low TPH value. Samples were collected throughout the restoration operation, which took place from the time of the spill until late November, 2005. The objective of the ongoing assessment was to provide up-to-date information of any changes in the oiling conditions and to evaluate the effects of field weathering on the alteration and chemical composition and physical properties of the spilled oils. The impact of the spilled oils on the ecosystem was also examined. The ongoing assessment showed changes in the oil

  2. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SA4FER) Plan for CAU 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 2001). CAU 398 consists of the following thirteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs) all located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): CAS 25-25-02, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-03, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-04, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-05, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-06, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-07, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-08, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-16, Diesel Spill (from CAS 25-01-02), CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill, CAS 25-44-0 1, Fuel Spill, CAS 25-44-04, Acid Spill (from CAS 25-01-01), CAS 25-44-02, Spill, and CAS 25-44-03, Spill. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix B. Copies of the CAU Use Restriction Information forms are included in Appendix C.

  4. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  5. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: public involvement and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greber, M.A.; Frech, E.R.; Hillier, J.A.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities undertaken to provide information to the public about the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program as well as the opportunities for public involvement in the direction and development of the disposal concept through government inquiries and commissions and specific initiatives undertaken by AECL. Public viewpoints and the major issues identified by the public to be of particular concern and importance in evaluating the acceptability of the concept are described. In addition, how the issues have been addressed during the development of the disposal concept or how they could be addressed during implementation of the disposal concept are presented. There is also discussion of public perspectives of risk, the ethical aspects of nuclear fuel waste disposal, and public involvement in siting a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  6. Power sources involving ~ 300W PEMFC fuel cell stacks cooled by different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions of ~300W PEMFC stacks, cooled by different media, were analysed. An open-cathode ~300W PEMFC stack cooled by air (Horizon, Singapore and a PEMFC F-42 stack cooled by a liquid medium (Schunk, Germany were chosen for all of the investigations described in this paper. The potential for the design and construction of power sources involving fuel cells, as well as of a hybrid system (fuel cell-lithium battery for mobile and stationary applications, is presented and discussed. The impact of certain experimental parameters on PEMFC stack performance is analysed and discussed.

  7. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  8. Are OSR (oil spill research) and OSR (oil spill response) two solitudes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2002-01-01

    The application of past research results to recent spill responses was examined with particular reference to the information that has been gathered for the past 30 years since the Torrey Canyon spill off the south-west coast of England in 1967. At the time, industrial cleaners were used to remove the oil from beaches and the water surfaces. While effective, the toxicity of the cleaners caused major and lethal impact on marine organisms. This lead to the initiation of major oil-spill research programs in England, the United States and Canada. The authors demonstrate that there has been only limited use of research results in recent spill response efforts. The reasons for lack of application of research were presented along with recommendations to improve the linkage of research to remedial action. Within the general industrial model, research and development is used to improve product lines. It was noted that oil-spill research does not fit the common industrial model because researchers and users are from different organizations. The limitation in the flow of research findings from the research groups to the oil-spill response community is greatest when research involves high technology. The paper reviewed recent research and development into booms and skimmers, dispersants, in-situ burning, high technology systems for oil-spill response, oil-spill trajectory models, and remote sensing of oils spills. Environmental impacts, shoreline cleaning and the dissemination of oil-spill research results were also outlined. It was emphasized that specialized equipment, skills and training are required to used computer-based trajectory models or remote sensing. It was also recommended that the results of new developments in oil-spill response methods must be communicated in a more effective manner to regulators and to response organizations

  9. Validation of an orimulsion spill fates model using observations from field test spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D. P.; Rines, H. [Applied Science Associates, Inc., Narragansett, RI (United States); Masciangioli, P. [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Los Teques (Venezuela)

    1997-10-01

    The SIMAP Spill Impact Model system was developed to simulate fates and effects of spilled oil and other fuels in 3-D and time. Orimulsion is a Venezuelan product consisting of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water which has been shipped to many parts of the world for some time without an accidental spill into coastal or marine waters. In July 1966 two intentional spills of Orimulsion into Carribean waters were made and sampled in detail in order to verify the SIMAP model. Data on physical dispersion was collected at the same time. Data collected in the field was compared with model simulations. Results confirmed SIMAP`s ability to predict the increasing dispersion and shearing of the bitumen plume as wind speed increases, as well as the actual field distribution of subsurface and surface bitumen. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 26 figs.

  10. Validation of an orimulsion spill fates model using observations from field test spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D. P.; Rines, H.; Masciangioli, P.

    1997-01-01

    The SIMAP Spill Impact Model system was developed to simulate fates and effects of spilled oil and other fuels in 3-D and time. Orimulsion is a Venezuelan product consisting of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water which has been shipped to many parts of the world for some time without an accidental spill into coastal or marine waters. In July 1966 two intentional spills of Orimulsion into Carribean waters were made and sampled in detail in order to verify the SIMAP model. Data on physical dispersion was collected at the same time. Data collected in the field was compared with model simulations. Results confirmed SIMAP's ability to predict the increasing dispersion and shearing of the bitumen plume as wind speed increases, as well as the actual field distribution of subsurface and surface bitumen. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 26 figs

  11. Computer based training for oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Large oil spills are infrequent occurrences, which poses a particular problem for training oil spill response staff and for maintaining a high level of response readiness. Conventional training methods involve table-top simulations to develop tactical and strategic response skills and boom-deployment exercises to maintain operational readiness. Both forms of training are quite effective, but they are very time-consuming to organize, are expensive to conduct, and tend to become repetitious. To provide a variety of response experiences, a computer-based system of oil spill response training has been developed which can supplement a table-top training program. Using a graphic interface, a realistic and challenging computerized oil spill response simulation has been produced. Integral to the system is a program editing tool which allows the teacher to develop a custom training exercise for the area of interest to the student. 1 ref

  12. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  13. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  14. Exxon Valdez Spill Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1989, the oil tanker struck Bligh Reef and spilled over 11 million gallons of crude oil. The spill was the largest in U.S. history and tested the abilities of local, national, and industrial organizations to prepare for and respond to such a disaster.

  15. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  16. Identification of oil spill's sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.

    1992-10-01

    Identifying the source of a marine oil spill is complicated because of the rapid modifications (weathering) undergone by oil as soon as it reaches the sea. Deciding if differences occurring between an oil sample collected after the spill and the original oil can be attributed to weathering involves not only adoption of sophisticated analytical methods but also correct sampling techniques and strict adherence to a chain-of-custody procedure. The method described in this paper, largely based on those adopted by some northern European countries, establishes the identity or non-identity of two samples by exploiting differences rather than similarities between them. It increases the efficiency of the method because it is sufficient to establish that there exists only one difference for deciding that two samples are different

  17. A highway accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. The purpose of this report is to document the mechanical circumstances of the severe accident, confirm the nature and quantity of the radioactive materials involved, and assess the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The report consists of five major sections. The first section describes the circumstances and conditions of the accident and the finding of facts. The second describes the containers, the unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies, and the tie down arrangement used for the trailer. The third describes the damage sustained during the accident to the tractor, trailer, containers, and unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. The fourth evaluates the accident environment and its effects on the containers and their contents. The final section gives conclusions derived from the analysis and fact finding investigation. During this severe accident, only minor injuries occurred, and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  18. Technical investigation of a pyrophoric event involving corrosion products from HEU ZPPR fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    A pyrophoric event recently occurred which involved corrosion products collected from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel plates used in the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR). This paper summarizes the event and its background, and presents the results of an investigation into its source and mechanism. The investigation focused on characterization of corrosion product samples similar to those involved in the event using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Burning curve TGA tests were performed to measure the ignition temperature and hydride fractions of corrosion products in several different conditions to assess the effects of passivation treatment and long-term storage on chemical reactivity. The hydride fraction and ignition temperature of the corrosion products were found to be strongly dependent on the corrosion extent of the source metal. The results indicate that the energy source for the event was a considerable quantity of uranium hydride present in the corrosion products, but the specific ignition mechanism could not be identified

  19. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  20. Predicting the movement of the World Prodigy spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayko, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the ASA oil spill trajectory model was applied to the lower portion of Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound to forecast the motion of oil spilled from the World Prodigy. The tanker ran aground on Brenton Reef on the afternoon of June 23, 1989 releasing 922 metric tons of Number 2 fuel oil. ASA's forecasts were provided to NOAA, U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and state and local government officials to assist the oil spill cleanup and decisions regarding public health concerns, such as beach and shellfish area closures. Two-day spill forecasts were initiated on June 24 and were performed once or twice per day until June 26 when the oil had largely dissipated. Tidal hydrodynamic data used as input to the trajectory model were based on prior, verified simulations for the study area. The winds were based on forecasts provided by the National Weather Service facility at Green Airport, located approximately 30 km north of the site. Updates on observed spill locations, necessary to re-initialize the model, were provided through a GIS based summary of aerial overflight data. Model forecasts were in general agreement with the spill observations and provided officials with advanced estimates for spill response planning. Accurate estimates of the winds were of paramount importance in reliable spill forecasting

  1. Successful oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tost, J.

    2000-01-01

    A freighter in the process of loading rock for the Quebec Iron and Titanium Mining Company near Havre-St. Pierre on the extreme north shore of the St. Lawrence River, was suddenly tossed against the dock by rough waters on the night of March 23, 1999, and spilled 49 tonnes of bunker fuel oil into the river. This article describes how the crew of the ship, trained by Environmental Accident Protection Inc., based in Petrolia, Ontario, averted disaster by responding to the accident quickly and effectively. Their first action was to notify the appropriate environmental and regulatory authorities and to put in place containment booms which corralled about 17 tonnes of oil. The oil contained by the booms were removed by trained personnel under the guidance of Eastern Canada Response Corporation of Corunna, Ontario, and Response Systems Inc. of Neshanic, New Jersey, in approximately three hours with only minimum disruption to the environment. Further cleanup of the area, often hindered by bad weather, freezing rain, ice, and 100 km/hr winds, was done by the cooperative efforts of governments, industry and the local fishermen's association. The work included scrubbing the shore with wire brushes and scrapers and handbathing some 1000 migratory birds. The cleanup job was completed in about three weeks and the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve and other nearby habitats for migrating birds were saved the devastation that would have occurred, except for the quick and knowledgeable intervention of a trained crew and an outstanding example of public-private sector and community cooperation. 2 photos

  2. Summary of spill events in Canada : 1984 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The trends in hazardous material spill events in Canada were summarized for the 12-year period 1984 to 1995. Findings were presented on the number and quantity of spills. The report includes data on the seven major sectors that incur spills. These include the chemical, government, metallurgy, mining, petroleum, pulp and paper and service industry sectors. The causes and reasons for these spills, and any environmental impacts, are described. Case histories of four significant environmental incidents were reviewed in detail. These include a warehouse fire at Canning, Nova Scotia in 1986, a tire fire at Hagersville, Ontario in 1990, a train derailment in Hervey Junction, Quebec in 1995, and the Nestucca oil spill in Gray's Harbour near Vancouver Island, British Columbia in 1988. Equipment failure and human error were pinpointed as the most common cause of spills, followed by corrosion, material failure and storm or flood. Fifty-eight per cent of all reported spills involve oil and petroleum products. Wastes and effluents account for 89 per cent of the total quantity of reported spills. These findings make the report particularly well suited for use as a tool in developing appropriate spill prevention strategies. 15 refs., 26 tabs., 42 figs

  3. Breoghania corrubedonensis gen. nov. sp. nov., a novel alphaproteobacterium isolated from a Galician beach (NW Spain) after the Prestige fuel oil spill, and emended description of the family Cohaesibacteraceae and the species Cohaesibacter gelatinilyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; María Nieto, José; Urdiain, Mercedes; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Grifoll, Magdalena

    2010-10-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium designated UBF-P1(T) was isolated from an enrichment culture established in nutrient supplemented artificial sea water with pyrene as a carbon source, and inoculated with a marine fuel oil-degrading consortium obtained from a sand sample collected from the beach of Corrubedo (A Coruña, Galicia, Spain) after the Prestige accidental oil spill. Phylogenetic analysis based on the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence affiliated strain UBF-P1(T) with the family Cohaesibacteraceae, Cohaesibacter gelatinilyticus (DSM 18289(T)) being the closest relative species with 92% sequence similarity. Cells were irregular rods, motile, strictly aerobic, catalase and oxidase positive. Ubiquinone 10 was the major respiratory lipoquinone. The major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PME), and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The major fatty acids detected were C(18:1)ω7c, C(19:0) cycloω8c, and C(16:0). The G+C content of strain UBF-P1(T) was 63.9 mol%. The taxonomic comparison with the closest relative based on genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics supported that strain UBF-P1(T) could be classified as a novel genus and species, for which the name Breoghania corrubedonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this new taxon is UBF-P1(T) (CECT 7622, LMG 25482, DSM 23382). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial communities involved in electricity generation from sulfide oxidation in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Chen, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Mu, Zhe-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Lin; Zeng, Raymond J; Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Wei, Li; Ma, Fang

    2010-10-15

    Simultaneous electricity generation and sulfide removal can be achieved in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). In electricity harvesting from sulfide oxidation in such an MFC, various microbial communities are involved. It is essential to elucidate the microbial communities and their roles in the sulfide conversion and electricity generation. In this work, an MFC was constructed to enrich a microbial consortium, which could harvest electricity from sulfide oxidation. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated that microbial catalysis was involved in electricity output in the sulfide-fed MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities could perform catalysis independently, and synergistic interactions occurred when the two communities worked together. A 16S rRNA clone library analysis was employed to characterize the microbial communities in the MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities shared similar richness and diversity, while the LIBSHUFF analysis revealed that the two community structures were significantly different. The exoelectrogenic, sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in the MFC anodic chamber. The discovery of these bacteria was consistent with the community characteristics for electricity generation from sulfide oxidation. The exoelectrogenic bacteria were found both on the anode and in the solution. The sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were present in greater abundance on the anode than in the solution, while the sulfate-reducing bacteria preferably lived in the solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Overland flow model for asphalt oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J C Y

    2006-01-01

    Along the asphalt production line, the hot asphalt oil needs to undergo a cooling process that involves temporary storage in a tank. Safety is always a concern as to what if the tank is ruptured. Scenario studies of asphalt oil spills are required when designing the layout and open space for such a cooling process in the refinery yard. Applying the laminar flow theory to an asphalt oil spill, this paper presents an overland flow model to calculate the possible range of spread. The major parameters used in this model include fluid viscosity, ground slope, hydraulic conveyance, and asphalt oil volume. As a simplified model for a quasi-steady state flow condition, a hot asphalt oil spill for a typical case in a refinery yard can run approximately 400 to 600 feet before the asphalt mass cools down and becomes solid-like.

  6. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO 2 and U 3 O 7 . The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated

  7. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-04-26

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated.

  8. British Columbia marine oil spill response plan. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The scope and structure of British Columbia's involvement in response to a major oil spill was defined in this document. Emergency preparedness and response management in the case of an oil spill in British Columbia is the responsibility of the Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. The Incident Command Post is a marine oil spill response plan that focuses on a response at the spill site. This marine oil spill response plan was designed to be operated concurrently and in cooperation with the plans in place by other responding jurisdictions and companies. The plan discusses: provincial response strategy; incident notification, escalation and support; response organization; checklist of individual duties; ministry roles and services; and provincial support. 27 refs., 6 figs

  9. Oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The plan outlined in this document specifies the actions that the Canadian Wildlife Service Atlantic Region is mandated to take in the event of an oil spill, or on discovering oiled migratory birds in terrestrial, fresh water, marine and inter-tidal habitats. In addition to describing the role and responsibilities of the Canadian Wildlife Service, the document also describes response plans of other agencies for dealing with all wildlife species affected by oil spills. Reporting paths, the lead agency concept, shared responsibilities with other Canadian Wildlife Service regional offices, provincial agencies, Heritage Canada, non-government wildlife response agencies, oil spill response organizations, and international organizations are outlined. An overview of the reporting and communications process is also provided

  10. Assessment and recommendations for the oil spill cleanup of Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    The potential impact of an oil spill consisting of a blend of diesel and a heavy residual fuel oil on water column resources, benthic resources, intertidal habitats and communities, birds, and socio-economic resources was assessed and recommendations for clean-up given. The oil spill occurred in the bay on January 18, 2000

  11. Quality assurance plan for the data acquisition and management system for monitoring the fuel oil spill at the Sandia National Laboratories installation in Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Leser, C.C.; Ramsey, G.M.; Widing, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In February 1975, the accidental puncture of an underground transfer line buried about 4 ft below the ground surface at the SNL installation in Livermore, California, resulted in the release of approximately 225.5 m 3 of No. 2 diesel fuel. This report describes the formal quality assurance plan that will be used for the data acquisition and management system developed to monitor a bioremediation pilot study by Argonne National Laboratory in association with Sandia National Laboratories. The data acquisition and management system will record the site data during the bioremediation effort and assist users in site analysis. The designs of the three major subsystems of this system are described in this report. Quality assurance criteria are defined for the management, performance, and assessment of the system. Finally, the roles and responsibilities for configuration management of this system are defined for the entire life cycle of the project

  12. Enabling science support for better decision-making when responding to chemical spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidhass, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Andrea M.; DeYonker, Nathan J.; Dupont, R. Ryan; Foreman, William T.; Gallagher, Daniel; Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Whelton, Andrew J.; Alexander, William

    2016-01-01

    Chemical spills and accidents contaminate the environment and disrupt societies and economies around the globe. In the United States there were approximately 172,000 chemical spills that affected US waterbodies from 2004 to 2014. More than 8000 of these spills involved non–petroleum-related chemicals. Traditional emergency responses or incident command structures (ICSs) that respond to chemical spills require coordinated efforts by predominantly government personnel from multiple disciplines, including disaster management, public health, and environmental protection. However, the requirements of emergency response teams for science support might not be met within the traditional ICS. We describe the US ICS as an example of emergency-response approaches to chemical spills and provide examples in which external scientific support from research personnel benefitted the ICS emergency response, focusing primarily on nonpetroleum chemical spills. We then propose immediate, near-term, and long-term activities to support the response to chemical spills, focusing on nonpetroleum chemical spills. Further, we call for science support for spill prevention and near-term spill-incident response and identify longer-term research needs. The development of a formal mechanism for external science support of ICS from governmental and nongovernmental scientists would benefit rapid responders, advance incident- and crisis-response science, and aid society in coping with and recovering from chemical spills.

  13. Characterization and identification of Detroit River mystery oil spill (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Lambert, P.

    2003-01-01

    The authors described the mysterious oil spill which occurred in the Detroit River in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were conducted on spill samples collected by Environment Canada, Ontario Region, to determine the chemical composition of the oil and find out where it came from. The objective was to gather information concerning the nature, type, and components of the spill samples. The authors checked if the samples were identical to determine if they originated from the same source. They used a tiered analytical approach which facilitates the detailed compositional analysis by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection (FID). A wide range of diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds for interpreting chemical data was determined and analyzed. The results proved that: (1) the spill samples were largely composed of lube oil mixed with a smaller portion of diesel fuel, (2) sample number 3 collected from N. Boblo Island was more weathered than samples 1 and 2, (3) the oil in three samples was the same and originated from the same source, as shown by fingerprinting results, (4) most PAH compounds were from the diesel portion in the spill samples, and the biomarker compounds were mostly from the lube oil, (5) the diesel in the samples had been weathered and degraded, and the lube oil in the spill samples was waste lube oil, and (6) input of pyrogenic PAHs to the spill samples was clearly proven. The spill likely came from a place where both combustion and motor lubrication processes occur. 46 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Pigouvian penalty for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The imposition of ex ante taxes on expected spilled oil, in addition to ex post payments for damages under tort liability, would foster economic efficiency. This paper begins the analysis of the joint approach with the case in which Pigouvian taxes are used exclusively. A model is developed in which the volume of spilled oil causing environmental damage is reduced, first by spill prevention expenditures by shippers and then by clean-up expenditures by the government. The efficient Pigouvian tax on expected spilled oil equals marginal environmental damage which equals the net marginal cost of prevention which equals marginal clean-up cost. (Author)

  15. Issues Associated with IAEA Involvement in Assured Nuclear Fuel Supply Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.

    2008-02-08

    Assured nuclear fuel supply has been discussed at various times as a mechanism to help limit expansion of enrichment and reprocessing (E&R) capability beyond current technology holders. Given the events in the last few years in North Korea and Iran, concern over weapons capabilities gained from acquisition of E&R capabilities has heightened and brought assured nuclear fuel supply (AFS) again to the international agenda. Successful AFS programs can be valuable contributions to strengthening the nonproliferation regime and helping to build public support for expanding nuclear energy.

  16. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F. [Iles Balears Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  18. Factors involved in the (near) anoxic survival time of Cerastoderma edule: associated bacteria vs. endogenous fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babarro, J.M.F.; De Zwaan, A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of several antibiotics, molybdate and hydrogen sulfide was tested on anoxic tolerance of the cockle Cerastoderma edule, as well as utilisation of glycogen. The aim was to evaluate the role of fuel depletion and growth of bacteria as a cause of mortality. The exponential increase of

  19. A Hybrid Tabu Search Algorithm for a Real-World Open Vehicle Routing Problem Involving Fuel Consumption Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics operation to third-party logistics has attracted more attention in the past several years. However, very few papers analyzed fuel consumption model in the context of outsourcing logistics. This problem involves more complexity than traditional open vehicle routing problem (OVRP, because the calculation of fuel emissions depends on many factors, such as the speed of vehicles, the road angle, the total load, the engine friction, and the engine displacement. Our paper proposed a green open vehicle routing problem (GOVRP model with fuel consumption constraints for outsourcing logistics operations. Moreover, a hybrid tabu search algorithm was presented to deal with this problem. Experiments were conducted on instances based on realistic road data of Beijing, China, considering that outsourcing logistics plays an increasingly important role in China’s freight transportation. Open routes were compared with closed routes through statistical analysis of the cost components. Compared with closed routes, open routes reduce the total cost by 18.5% with the fuel emissions cost down by nearly 29.1% and the diver cost down by 13.8%. The effect of different vehicle types was also studied. Over all the 60- and 120-node instances, the mean total cost by using the light-duty vehicles is the lowest.

  20. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.

    1992-01-01

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  1. Feasibility of an energy conversion system in Canada involving large-scale integrated hydrogen production using solid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanapragasam, Nirmal V.; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    A large-scale hydrogen production system is proposed using solid fuels and designed to increase the sustainability of alternative energy forms in Canada, and the technical and economic aspects of the system within the Canadian energy market are examined. The work investigates the feasibility and constraints in implementing such a system within the energy infrastructure of Canada. The proposed multi-conversion and single-function system produces hydrogen in large quantities using energy from solid fuels such as coal, tar sands, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW) and agricultural/forest/industrial residue. The proposed system involves significant technology integration, with various energy conversion processes (such as gasification, chemical looping combustion, anaerobic digestion, combustion power cycles-electrolysis and solar-thermal converters) interconnected to increase the utilization of solid fuels as much as feasible within cost, environmental and other constraints. The analysis involves quantitative and qualitative assessments based on (i) energy resources availability and demand for hydrogen, (ii) commercial viability of primary energy conversion technologies, (iii) academia, industry and government participation, (iv) sustainability and (v) economics. An illustrative example provides an initial road map for implementing such a system. (author)

  2. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  3. Results from oil spill response research - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent large oil spills from tankers have reaffirmed the need for continuing technology assessment and research to improve oil spill response capabilities. This paper discusses Minerals Management Service concerns, as reinforced by the acceleration of its research program in 1990. It briefly assesses current state-of-the-art technology for major aspects of spill response, including remote sensing, open-ocean containment and recovery, in-situ burning, use of chemical treating agents, beachline cleanup, and oil behavior. Specific research projects have begun to yield information that will improve detection and at-sea equipment performance; current projects include the development of an airborne laser-fluorosensor to determine whether apparent slicks contain oil. Additional projects involve the development of improved strategies for responding to oil in broken-ice conditions, for gaining an improved understanding of the fate and behavior of spilled oil as it affects response strategies, and for defining the capabilities of available dispersants and development of improved formulations. Recently, progress has been made on the development of safe and environmentally acceptable strategies to burn spilled oil in situ. The Ohmsett facility has been reopened and will be used to test prospective improvements in chemical treating agents and to develop standard procedures for testing and evaluating response equipment. Results of research published since the last Oil Spill Conference are discussed

  4. Technology needs for the later phases of an oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The phases of an oil spill response can be classified as initial response, project phase, end phase and the monitoring phase. The initial on-water phase of the response or shoreline cleanup includes the development of contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and research into response equipment for removing oil on water. Lack of planning for a response can lead to an initial response that has less than satisfactory results. An initial assessment of the oil spill response begins at the moment the spill occurs and continues for days, depending on the quality of the initial response. This phase includes the use of booms, skimmers, dispersants and in-situ burning. It was emphasized that oil spill research should focus on gathering scientific information needed to make decisions during the project phase and beyond. Typically, this will involve the study of long-term impacts and should be undertaken in a research environment in order to apply new data to any spill scenario. This paper highlighted knowledge needs to support decisions in the cleanup phase. The Exxon Valdez incident provided information on the long-term impacts of a variety of cleanup techniques. This paper also addressed damage assessment and restoration issues along with the decision to terminate a response. Once a response has been terminated, long-term monitoring of the ecosystem begins in order to identify the spill impact. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Community-based oil spill response in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.

  6. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of a criticality accident involving fuel rods and water outside a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloeil, L.

    2000-01-01

    It is possible to imagine highly unlikely but numerous accidental situations where fuel rods come into contact with water under conditions close to atmospheric values. This work is devoted to modelling and simulation of first instants of the power excursion that may result from such configurations. We show that void effect is a preponderant feedback for most severe accidents. The formation of a vapour film around the rods is put forward and confirmed with the help of experimental transients using electrical heating. We propose then a vapour/liquid flow model able to reproduce void fraction evolution. The vapour film is treated as a compressible medium. Conservation balance equations are solved on a moving mesh with a two-dimensional scheme and boundary conditions taking notice of interfacial phenomena and axial escape possibility. Movements of the liquid phase are modelled through a non-stationary integral equation and a dissipative term suited to the particular geometry of this flow. The penetration of energy into the liquid is also calculated. Thus, the coupling of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic modules gives results in excellent agreement with experiments. Next, neutronic phenomena into the fuel pellet, their feedback effects and the distribution of power through the rod are numerically translated. For each developed module, validation tests are provided. Then, it is possible to simulate the first seconds of the whole criticality accident. Even if this calculation tool is only a way of study as a first approach, performed simulations are proving coherent with reported data on recorded accidents. (author)

  8. Dam spills and fishes; Eclusees et poissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.).

  9. BioFuelDB: a database and prediction server of enzymes involved in biofuels production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Chaudhary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In light of the rapid decrease in fossils fuel reserves and an increasing demand for energy, novel methods are required to explore alternative biofuel production processes to alleviate these pressures. A wide variety of molecules which can either be used as biofuels or as biofuel precursors are produced using microbial enzymes. However, the common challenges in the industrial implementation of enzyme catalysis for biofuel production are the unavailability of a comprehensive biofuel enzyme resource, low efficiency of known enzymes, and limited availability of enzymes which can function under extreme conditions in the industrial processes. Methods We have developed a comprehensive database of known enzymes with proven or potential applications in biofuel production through text mining of PubMed abstracts and other publicly available information. A total of 131 enzymes with a role in biofuel production were identified and classified into six enzyme classes and four broad application categories namely ‘Alcohol production’, ‘Biodiesel production’, ‘Fuel Cell’ and ‘Alternate biofuels’. A prediction tool ‘Benz’ was developed to identify and classify novel homologues of the known biofuel enzyme sequences from sequenced genomes and metagenomes. ‘Benz’ employs a hybrid approach incorporating HMMER 3.0 and RAPSearch2 programs to provide high accuracy and high speed for prediction. Results Using the Benz tool, 153,754 novel homologues of biofuel enzymes were identified from 23 diverse metagenomic sources. The comprehensive data of curated biofuel enzymes, their novel homologs identified from diverse metagenomes, and the hybrid prediction tool Benz are presented as a web server which can be used for the prediction of biofuel enzymes from genomic and metagenomic datasets. The database and the Benz tool is publicly available at http://metabiosys.iiserb.ac.in/biofueldb& http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/biofueldb.

  10. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  11. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foght, J.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  12. Response to marine oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This book reviews the problems posed by marine oil spills and the practical response measures which can be implemented. Aspects discussed include containment and recovery, the use of dispersants, shoreline clean-up and planning and operations. (UK)

  13. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Oil Spills and Human Health PubMed - Biomedical Journal Literature National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health Return to top Coping with Disasters and Stress Coping with Disasters, Violence ...

  14. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Trace metal analysis for fingerprinting oil spill samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotts, J.P.; Reilly, T.; Plourde, K.; Hendrick, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Coast Guard Central Oil Identification Laboratory (COIL) uses four organic analytical techniques to fingerprint oil spill samples: gas chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography; inorganic constituents are not addressed. Theoretically, trace metal analysis would enhance oil fingerprinting in cases in which the water-borne oil samples are significantly weathered, because of the low volatility of trace metals. The feasibility of fingerprinting spilled oil and suspected source sample pairs via trace metal analysis has been examined. A total of 14 pairs of light fuel oils, previously matched via COIL's organic fingerprinting methods, were analyzed by atomic absorption for nickel, iron, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium content and then qualitatively compared. Light fuels were selected because of their susceptibility to weathering

  16. Oil spills - effects and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)

  17. Forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons in a methanogenic environment-Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, F.D.; Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Cao, W.; Bekins, B.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Kulpa, C.F.; Laursen, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss. Both exhibited degradative losses proceeding from the high-molecular-weight end of the distributions, along with transitory concentration increases of lower-molecular-weight homologs. Particularly in the case of the diesel fuel spill, these methanogenic degradative patterns can result in series distributions that mimic lower cut refinery fuels or admixture with lower cut fuels. Forensic fingerprinting in this long-term spill must therefore rely on more recalcitrant series, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or drimane sesquiterpane profiles, to prove if the spilled oil is single-sourced or whether there is verifiable admixture with other extraneous refinery fuels. Degradation processes impacting n-alkanes and n-alkylated ring compounds, which make these compounds unsuitable for fingerprinting, nevertheless are of interest in understanding methanogenic biodegradation. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2006-01-01

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m 3 . Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  19. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  1. Mercury Spill Responses - Five States, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Ryan J; Hirsch, Anne E; Bush, Christina R; Schmitz, Stuart; Wenzel, Jeff

    2017-03-17

    Despite measures to educate the public about the dangers of elemental mercury, spills continue to occur in homes, schools, health care facilities, and other settings, endangering the public's health and requiring costly cleanup. Mercury is most efficiently absorbed by the lungs, and exposure to high levels of mercury vapor after a release can cause cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and visual disturbances (1). Children and fetuses are most susceptible to the adverse effects of mercury vapor exposure. Because their organ systems are still developing, children have increased respiratory rates, and they are closer to the ground where mercury vapors are most highly concentrated (2). To summarize key features of recent mercury spills and lessons learned, five state health departments involved in the cleanup (Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, and Wisconsin) compiled data from various sources on nonthermometer mercury spills from 2012 to 2015. The most common sites of contamination were residences, schools and school buses, health care facilities, and commercial and industrial facilities. Children aged mercury exposure. To protect the public's health after a mercury spill, it is important that local, state, and federal agencies communicate and coordinate effectively to ensure a quick response, and to minimize the spread of contamination. To reduce the number of mercury spills that occur in the United States, public health officials should increase awareness about exchange programs for mercury-containing items and educate school and health care workers about sources of mercury and how to dispose of them properly.

  2. Spill containment devices and their installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderhaus, C.A.; Butterfield, E.J.; Kesterman, J.E.; Lamping, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    A spill containment device adapted for mounting on the upper end the riser pipe of an underground storage tank for liquid fuel, or other hazardous liquids, said device is described comprising a container adapted for rigid, sealed connection with a riser pipe, and having an upper access opening, and lid means for sealingly closing the upper access opening, said container being characterized in that it is compositely formed and comprises a base member having means for rigidly connecting it with the riser pipe, a shell like body member rigidly and sealingly joined to the base member, and an upper member rigidly and sealingly joined to the body member and defining the upper access opening of the container

  3. Spill containment devices and their installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderhaus, C.A.; Butterfield, E.J.; Kesterman, J.E.; Lamping, F.G.

    1993-06-29

    A spill containment device adapted for mounting on the upper end the riser pipe of an underground storage tank for liquid fuel, or other hazardous liquids, said device is described comprising a container adapted for rigid, sealed connection with a riser pipe, and having an upper access opening, and lid means for sealingly closing the upper access opening, said container being characterized in that it is compositely formed and comprises a base member having means for rigidly connecting it with the riser pipe, a shell like body member rigidly and sealingly joined to the base member, and an upper member rigidly and sealingly joined to the body member and defining the upper access opening of the container.

  4. Environmental aspects of contingency planning and spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    Alyeska Pipeline Service Company has implemented an incident command system (ICS) for crisis management within the company for response to spills at all company facilities including the Valdez Marine Terminal. The system is also used by Alyeska acting as the initial response contractor for TAPS laden tankers within Prince William Sound. During the past three years, Alyeska has undertaken a complete review of the spill prevention and response plans for these areas. This poster session focuses on the environmental aspects of the response planning efforts. Information is available on contingency planning updates in the areas of dispersant use, burning as a response tool, bioremediation of marine oil spills, waste management, permitting, coastal resource and sensitive habitat data base, and wildlife protection and management. All of these subjects are addressed in the resource documents (RD) supplementing the contingency plans. The RD revisions have been a coordinated effort, involving operators, agencies, and the public through the citizen advisory group

  5. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Making and updating sensitivity maps are key activities in the oil spill contingency planning process. These maps convey essential information to spill responders by showing where the different coastal resources are, and by indicating environmentally sensitive areas. The making of a map involves assembling information on resources and deciding on what guidelines for spill response should be included, through consultation with relevant organizations. This can be done regardless of whether or not the benefits of computerized Geographic Information Systems and databases are available. Uses of sensitivity maps range from planning practical site-specific shore protection and clean-up to strategic planning for large remote areas. This report provides information and guidelines on different map types, categories of information to be included, and symbols, with reference to the different users and their requirements. (UK)

  6. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  7. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  8. Catabolic and regulatory systems in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 involved in electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eKouzuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that respires using a variety of inorganic and organic compounds. MR-1 is also capable of utilizing extracellular solid materials, including anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs, as electron acceptors, thereby enabling electricity generation. As MFCs have the potential to generate electricity from biomass waste and wastewater, MR-1 has been extensively studied to identify the molecular systems that are involved in electricity generation in MFCs. These studies have demonstrated the importance of extracellular electron-transfer pathways that electrically connect the quinone pool in the cytoplasmic membrane to extracellular electron acceptors. Electricity generation is also dependent on intracellular catabolic pathways that oxidize electron donors, such as lactate, and regulatory systems that control the expression of genes encoding the components of catabolic and electron-transfer pathways. In addition, recent findings suggest that cell-surface polymers, e.g., exopolysaccharides, and secreted chemicals, which function as electron shuttles, are also involved in electricity generation. Despite these advances in our knowledge on the extracellular electron-transfer processes in MR-1, further efforts are necessary to fully understand the underlying intra- and extra-cellular molecular systems for electricity generation in MFCs. We suggest that investigating how MR-1 coordinates these systems to efficiently transfer electrons to electrodes and conserve electrochemical energy for cell proliferation is important for establishing the biological bases for MFCs.

  9. Managing an oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, W.F.; Gorell, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    In the oil spill response business everything starts with a plan. When planning is set at only middle and top management levels before being chiseled into corporate marble, the result is all too often a plan for failure. For any chance at success, the plan must make sense to, and solve the problems of, the people at the ''business'' end of the business. In the case of Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), that means highly trained responders are put at sea or along coastlines to remove oil from the water, or to deflect oil away from environmentally sensitive areas. They are fortunate in MSRC, and especially in the Gulf Coast Region, to have on their staff, some of the most knowledgeable and experienced oil spill responders in the world. The company relies on them to help build their plans, and to poke holes wherever their plans are inconsistent with getting the job done right

  10. [Scientific basis of environmental health contingency planning for a coastal oil spill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Min; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Ko, Kumsook; Ha, Mina

    2009-03-01

    This study presents a scientific basis for the establishment of an environmental health contingency plan for dealing with accidental coastal oil spills and suggests some strategies for use in an environmental health emergency. We reviewed the existing literature, and analyzed the various fundamental factors involved in response strategies for oil spill. Our analysis included data derived from Hebei Spirit oil spill and used air dispersion modeling. Spill amounts of more than 1,000 kl can affect the health of residents along the coast, especially those who belong to vulnerable groups. Almost 30% of South Korean population lives in the vicinity of the coast. The area that is at the highest risk for a spill and that has the greatest number of people at risk is the stretch of coastline from Busan to Tongyeong. The most prevalent types of oil spilt in Korean waters have been crude oil and bunker-C oil, both of which have relatively high specific gravity and contain volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. In the case of a spill of more than 1,000 kl, it may be necessary to evacuate vulnerable and sensitive groups. The government should establish environmental health planning that considers the spill amount, the types of oil, and the distance between the spot of the accident and the coast, and should assemble a response team that includes environmental health specialists to prepare for the future oil spill.

  11. Oil spills into freshwater environments-literature review of fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Owens, E.; Craig, A.; Steen, A.; Fritz, D.

    1993-01-01

    A literature search (1984--1992) was performed to summarize the environmental and human health effects of inlands spills. Over 100 major spills that affected freshwater environments were reported through the Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) in 1991--1992 alone. Spills from pipelines outnumber all other sources combined. The oil types involved are about equally distributed between non-persistent oils and crude. Small rivers, streams, and creeks are the habitats into which most freshwater spills occur. Cleanup of stranded oil, rather than protection or recovery of floating oil, is the norm in most situations because stranding on river and lake banks often occurs before response is possible. The prediction of spill movement commonly is simpler for freshwater spills because freshwater bodies are relatively small and commonly have strong uni-directional flow; however, fast flow in rivers and streams and turnover in cooling lakes serve to distribute oil throughout the water column. Impacts to the environment, through food web structures or groundwater, may persist for months following a spill but seldom persist for years, unlike marine coastal impacts. Chronic impacts of oil spills into freshwater are rarely documented and these impacts are difficult to separate from effects of other hydrocarbons in the environment

  12. Oil Spill Research in the Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology has been a venue for publishing oil spill research for over forty years. Rehwoldt et al. (1974) published the first oil spill focused paper in the Bulletin, reporting on the aquatic toxicity of two spill mitigating agents...

  13. The M/V Cosco Busan spill: source identification and short-term fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkau, Karin L; Peacock, Emily E; Nelson, Robert K; Ventura, G Todd; Kovecses, Jennifer L; Reddy, Christopher M

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the fate of heavy fuel oils (HFOs) in the environment is critical for sound decisions regarding its usage and spill cleanup. To study weathering of HFOs, we examined the M/V Cosco Busan spill (November 2007; San Francisco Bay, CA, USA). In this baseline report, we identified which ruptured tank (port tank 3 or 4) was the source of the spilled oil and characterized changes in the oil composition across location and time. Samples from three impacted shorelines, collected within 80 days of the spill, were analyzed using one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC and GC × GC, respectively). Weathering varied across sites, but compounds with GC retention times less than n-C(16) were generally lost by evaporation and dissolution. Changes in n-C(18)/phytane and benz[a]anthracene/chrysene ratios indicated some biodegradation and photodegradation, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid differentiation of refined fuels using negative electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.; Hostettler, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    Negative electrospray ionization/MS enabled rapid, specific, and selective screening for unique polar components at parts per million concentrations in commercial hydrocarbon products without extensive sample preparation, separation, chromatography, or quantitation. Commercial fuel types were analyzed with this method, including kerosene, jet fuel, white gas, charcoal lighter fluid, on-road and off-road diesel fuels, and various grades and brands of gasolines. The different types of fuels produced unique and relatively simple spectra. These analyses were then applied to hydrocarbon samples from a large, long-term fuel spill. Although the alkane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane portions began to biodegrade or weather, the polar components in these samples remained relatively unchanged. The type of fuel involved was readily identified by negative electrospray ionization/MS. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 230th ACS National Meeting (Washington, DC 8/28/2005-9/1/2005).

  15. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research ampersand Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R ampersand D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors

  16. Zinc concentrations in the water column influenced by the oil spill in the vicinity of the Prestige shipwreck; Concentraciones de zinc en la columna de agua influida por el derrame de fuel en los alrededores a la zona de naufragio del Prestige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, Ricardo; Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio [Marine Biogeochemistry Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo (Spain)

    2003-03-15

    Sixteen days after the Prestige tanker sank in the Northeast Atlantic (42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West), a sampling campaign in the neighbouring water column was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of zinc contamination due to the oil spill. Samples were taken in the water column (0-190 m) and in bottom waters -in the vicinity of the bow and stern- where the tanker lies (3520-3820 m). Total zinc concentrations found ranged from 14 to 571 nM, which are from one to two orders of magnitude higher than typical concentrations in these waters (0.2 - 3.2 nM). Therefore, a contamination by this metal, contained in the oil spilt from the tanks of the sunken ship, was detected. Zinc was also found to be a good tracer to detect the presence of fuel in those areas free of patches. [Spanish] Dieciseis dias despues del hundimiento del petrolero Prestige en el Atlantico Noreste (zona 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este) se llevo a cabo una campana de muestreo en la columna de agua adyacente para evaluar la posible contaminacion de zinc debido al fuel derramado al agua. Para ello se tomaron muestras en la columna de agua (0-190m) y en el fondo marino -en las proximidades de la proa y la popa- donde yace el petrolero (3530-3820 m). Las concentraciones totales de zinc obtenidas oscilaron entre 14 y 571 nM, esto es, de uno a dos ordenes de magnitud superiores a las normales en esas aguas (0.2-3.2 nM). Se detecta, pues, una contaminacion por este metal contenido en el fuel vertido procedente de los tanques del buque hundido. El zinc resulta, ademas, un buen trazador para detectar la presencia de fuel en zonas limpias de manchas.

  17. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques

  18. Analysis of the particular spill characteristics observed by the Belgian aerial surveillance program during the Tricolor incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the Tricolor oil spill incident, the remote sensing equipment used to monitor the spill, the observed spill characteristics and the flight data assessment. The spill occurred on December 14, 2002 following a collision between the carrier Tricolor and the container vessel Kariba in French waters in the Zone of Joint Responsibility, close to the Belgian and English borders. The Tricolor sank and 3 more vessels collided with the wreck in the five weeks following the collision, spilling several 100 tons of mostly heavy fuel oil into the sea. The remote sensing equipment aboard Belgian surveillance aircraft noted that freshly spilled oil formed a network of widespread dark oil trails surrounded by light oil fractions. The spill volumes were estimated to be high because of the large extent of the polluted area. Nine months following the spill, the emulsified oil trails had a density close to that of seawater. It was assumed that a cold and thick emulsion had formed and became trapped inside the wreck. Upon release, the emulsion could submerse and resurface. The incident demonstrated that early stage oil sample analysis could help interpret slick behaviour by means of remote sensing. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  20. AMOP (Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program) studies reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-05

    A discussion of the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program organized in 1976 by the Canadian Federal Government includes: an Arctic Atlas compiled by Fenco Consultants Ltd. to give background information necessary for developing marine oil spill countermeasures for the Arctic north of 60/sup 0/ including the west Greenland coast and the Labrador shelf (geology, meteorology and oceanography, ice conditions, biology, and social factors); program in emergency transport of spill-combatting equipment; and the factors which influence the choice of conveyance, i.e., accessibility of the site, urgency for response, and quantity of material required; laboratory studies involving the release of oil under artificial sea ice in simulated ice formation and decay purposes to determine the interaction of crude oil and first-year sea ice; inability of companies and government to control a major spill in the Labrador Sea because of poor and inadequate transport facilities, communications, and navigational aids, severe environmental conditions, and logistics problems; and studies on the effects of oil-well blowouts in deep water, including formation of oil and gas hydrates, design of oil skimmers, the use of hovercraft, and specifications for an airborne multisensor system for oil detection in ice-infested waters.

  1. Trace elements in the Prestige fuel-oil spill: Levels and influence on Laxe Ria sediments (NW Iberian Peninsula); Elementos traza en el combustible vertido por el Prestige: Niveles e impacto sobre el sedimento de la Ria de Laxe (noroeste de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, R; Cobelo-Garcia, A; Santos-Echeandia, J [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo, (Spain); Marmolejo-Rodriguez, J [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, (Mexico)

    2006-03-15

    Trace elements have been determined in sediments from the Laxe Ria (NW Iberian Peninsula) one year before and one year after the Prestige fuel-oil spill (November 2002; 42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West). The elements analyzed (Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se and V) were chosen because they appeared to represent a potential contaminant from the deposited oil in the sediments. Enrichment factors, based on Al-normalized background concentrations, did not indicate metal contamination in the sediments from most of the ria; however, a severe contamination by Cu, Mo, Ni and V was found in the area of Corme Inlet, where the fuel oil could have accumulated as a result of the ria's hydrodynamic pattern. [Spanish] Se cuantifico la concentracion de 19 elementos quimicos en el combustible pesado derramado al mar desde los tanques del petrolero Prestige (noviembre de 2002; 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este). Entre ellos, se investigo la presencia de Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se y V en el sedimento superficial de la Ria de Laxe (NO de Espana) en los anos anterior y posterior al vertido debido a que sus niveles son similares tanto en el fuel como en el sedimento. Los factores de enriquecimiento, obtenidos tras normalizacion de las concentraciones con el aluminio, no indican contaminacion del sedimento en la ria. No obstante, se detecto una severa contaminacion por Cu, Mo, Ni y V en la ensenada de Corme donde el vertido podria haberse acumulado como resultado de la hidrodinamica de la propia ria.

  2. Differences in Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Adrià Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during vehicle refueling have received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments to assess evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete. Changes in the concrete mass after small amounts of diesel and gasoline were spilled have been analyzed. Variation in humidity, among other parameters, clearly affects the measured mass since condensed water is constantly added to or released from the concrete. This mass experiences an about exponential decay in time. The difference in behavior between both fuel types is important as the percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. A statistical analysis suggests that the initial spill amount does not significantly affect the fraction of infiltrated fuel over time. This finding is in agreement with pore-scale simulations that we performed. A significant amount of fuel could be seeping into soil and groundwater underneath concrete pavement at gas stations or could be released to the atmosphere. Possible solutions for pavement and groundwater pollution are considered.

  3. Classification of Floating Chris Chemicals for the Development of a Spill Response Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    is provided by gelling incoming spills since gelled materials do rot readily soak into the sand. An investigation conducted by Nichalovic et al. (1977...CLARIFIED OIL, MISC: CASHEW NUT SHELL (UNTREATED) OIL, MISC: CROTON OIL, EDIBLE: COTTONSEED OIL, MISC: COAL TAR OIL: DIESEL OCTYL EPOXY TALLATE OIL, FUEL

  4. Attractiveness-Based Airline Network Models with Embedded Spill and Recapture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Di Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In airline revenue management, the modeling of the spill and recapture effects is essential for an accurate estimation of the passenger flow and the revenue in a flight network. However, as most current approaches toward spill and recapture involve either non-linearity or a tremendous amount of additional variables, it is computationally intractable to apply those techniques to the classical network design and capacity planning models.Design/methodology: We present a new framework that incorporates the spill and recapture effects, where the spill from an itinerary is recaptured by other itineraries based on their attractiveness. The presented framework distributes the accepted demand of an itinerary according to the currently available itineraries, without adding extra variables for the recaptured spill. Due to its compactness, we integrate the framework with the classical capacity planning and network design models.Findings: Our preliminary computational study shows an increase of 1.07% in profitability anda better utilization of the network capacity, on a medium-size North American airline provided by Sabre Airline Solutions.Originality/value: Our investigation leads to a holistic model that tackles the network design and capacity planning simultaneously with an accurate modeling of the spill and re- capture effects.Furthermore, the presented framework for spill and recapture is versatile and can be easily applied to other disciplines such as the hospitality industry and product line design (PLD problems.

  5. Ohmsett trains oil spill responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, K.; Lane, J.; Jensen, D.

    2000-01-01

    The services that the Ohmsett Facility in New Jersey has to offer were discussed. The facility is operated by the United States Minerals Management Services and is used by the public and private sector for the evaluation of oil spill response equipment such as containment booms, skimmer systems, oil/water separators, remote sensing equipment and temporary storage devices on a cost reimbursable basis. The facility is also used for oil behavior and characteristics research as well as for the performance and evaluation of fire resistance of containment booms. The facility consists of a 203 meter concrete tank filled with about 10 million litres of brackish water where ocean conditions can be simulated with a wave generating system and a wave dampening artificial beach. Various types of training are conducted at Ohmsett including training conducted through the United States Coast Guard, the United States Navy, and Texas University Corpus Christi National Spill Control School. 2 tabs., 16 figs

  6. Eliciting Spill: A methodological note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants (Glaser, 1978, 1998. Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews. The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk when they recognize that their stories are valued. Once the informant realizes that he or she is being heard, the story flows. This is what Glaser refers to as “spill.” When this occurs, the theorist becomes a vessel to receive the story. As Glaser describes it, “The researcher will become a ‘big ear’ to pour into incessantly” (1998, p. 124. But, as easy as this seems, the researcher must overcome certain positivist tendencies to allow this to happen. Rather than asking a list of pre-planned questions, the grounded theorist will try to develop one question that will trigger the telling of a story. Eliciting spill requires a deliberate process that employs a deep understanding of the fundamentals of classic grounded theory. Derived from Glaser’s writings, the following are suggestions intended to help the novice grounded theorist to elicit spill.

  7. San Jacinto River oil spill: wetland bioremediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.A.; Bonner, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Gasoline, diesel and unrefined Arabian light crude oil were accidentally released into the San Jacinto River after a series of pipelines ruptured. Natural removal processes (volatilization, dissolution, weathering), fire, and the spill clean-up effort, removed approximately 95% of the petroleum. The area where residual oil was found was an estuarine wetland on the lower San Jacinto River. Samples were collected from 21 study areas and an evaluation of the varying levels of bioremediation was conducted. Phase one has been completed and involved the evaluation of the natural recovery of oil from the spill. Phase two was still in progress and involved the addition of inorganic nutrients and the alternate electron acceptor to enhance the biodegradation of the petroleum. Results showed that biodegradation was responsible for much of the reduction of certain components in petroleum within the first 150 days. 12 refs., 8 figs

  8. Louisiana's oil spill program : new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Tedford, R.; Brolin, J.; Lorentz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office (LOSCO) was established to improve oil spill response, spill prevention and coordination. Louisiana is challenged with having the highest exposure of oil spills because a large portion of its economy is based on oil and gas exploration and production. LOSCO will find ways to minimize the risk of unauthorized oil spills and will address damage assessment and restoration efforts. The aging oil and gas infrastructure in Louisiana has also been recognized as a potential major source for oil spills. LOSCO locates potential spill locations and assesses the risks associated with the sites, some of which are 100 years old. LOSCO also initiated the following two programs: (1) the Abandoned Barge Program initiated in 1993 to remove abandoned barges that pose a high risk for oil discharge, and (2) the Abandoned Non-Hazardous Oil Waste (NOW) Pit and Facility Program initiated in 1992 to locate and remove structures, pits and wells that pose a risk for oil spills. About 25,000 facilities, pits, sumps and reservoirs have been inventoried and evaluated to determine if they pose a risk to human health or the environment. The Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 allocates up to $2 million per year for the abatement of oil spills from abandoned facilities in Louisiana. The state legislature has also created the Applied and Educational Oil Spill Research and Development Program (OSRADP) to fund oil spill research. Since 1993, OSRADP has granted 68 awards in support of 42 projects, many of which focused on recovery and cleanup methods including in-situ burning, fate and effect of oil in Louisiana environments, bioremediation, phytoremediation, composting, chemical cleaners, dispersants, sorbents, and solidifiers. 3 refs., 1 tab

  9. Physical, chemical and biological observations and modeling of oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2016-11-01

    According to a definition of GESAMP, United Nations advisory body on scientific aspects of marine protection, a marine pollution is: "direct or indirect introduction by man of substances or energy into the marine environment … which results in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of water quality and reduction of marine attractions". The works presented in this Special Issue stem from the need to manage the problem of marine pollution. The categories of pollutants associated with the maritime traffic are mainly hydrocarbons and chemicals. Hydrocarbon is the oil in all its forms, including the crude oil, the fuel oil, the sludges, debris and other refined products (as defined by MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (MARPOL, 1978)). An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the open ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills can have devastating effects on the marine environment and can jeopardize the functional integrity of the marine ecosystem (seabirds populations, fish communities, and marine mammals), as reported in Jackson et al. (1989), Piatt and Anderson (1996), Peterson et al. (2003). While being toxic to marine life, the hydrocarbons are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carries can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting

  10. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  11. Experimental plans for LMFBR cavity liner sodium spill test LT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Newell, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is an important material of construction in LMFBR cavities and cells. Steel liners are often installed on the concrete surfaces to provide a gastight seal for minimizing air inleakage to inerted cell atmospheres and to protect the concrete from direct contact with sodium in the event of a sodium spill. In making safety assessment analyses, it is of interest to determine the adequacy of the liners to maintain their leaktightness during postulated accidents involving large sodium spills. However, data for basing analytical assessments of cell liners are very meager and an experimental program is underway at HEDL to provide some of the needed information. The HEDL cell liner evaluation program consists of both bench-scale feature tests and large-scale sodium spill demonstration tests. The plans for the first large-scale sodium spill test (LT-1) are the subject of this paper

  12. Assessment of cleanup needs of oiled sandy beaches: lessons from the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Ana M; Rey, Daniel; Rubio, Belén; Vilas, Federico; Domínguez, Carmen; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan

    2009-04-01

    Surveys of the oiled sandy beaches along the northern Atlantic coast of Spain, 2-5 years after the Prestige oil spill of November 2002, have provided new evidence regarding buried fuel and its behavior. The persistence and depth of burial of oil, and the capacity of the beach for natural regeneration, depend on beach morphodynamics, which drive a sequence of physicochemical processes that reduce subsurface tar balls to highly divided oil forms while also allowing appreciable weathering despite burial. These findings prompted reassessment of current spill evaluation strategies. A protocol is proposed that combines the modeling of beach morphodynamics, an environmentally friendly coring survey, and well-calibrated hydrocarbon analysis.

  13. Effect of Feed Composition Changing at Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Unit Due to Involvement of Gasoline Fraction Obtained by Diesel Fuels Hydrodewaxing into the Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Natalia Sergeevna; Ivanchina, Emilia Dmitrievna; Ivashkina, Elena Nikolaevna; Frantsina, Evgeniya Vladimirovna; Silko, Galina Yurievna

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary products of hydrodewaxing process is stable gasoline, which is characterized by low octane number on the one hand. On the other hand, it contains a significant amount of iso-paraffins (on average 45% wt.) and naphthenes (on average 25% wt.), which are reagents in the naphtha catalytic reforming process primary reactions. Feasibility of stable gasoline obtained by means of diesel fuel catalytic hydrodewaxing process involving into the processing at the naphtha catalytic refo...

  14. Acetylcholinesterase activity in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Hernandez, David; Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Science (UEX), Avda. de la Universidad s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain); Garcia, Jesus-Pablo [Toxicology Area, National Centre of Environmental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis-Eusebio; Lopez-Beceiro, Ana [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science (USC), Estrada de Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, the tanker Prestige broke in two and sank at the bottom of the ocean spilling about 70,000 t of fuel oil, which reached the coast of Galicia. It was considered the largest spill in maritime history, greatly affecting marine and related avian species. The spilled fuel oil contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many species were affected and were found dead, although ongoing research is still being carried out on the sublethal effects. In this sense, little is known about the action of PAHs on Cholinesterase activity in seabirds. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to provide more information on the neurotoxicity of fuel oil on the seabirds most affected by the Prestige accident: common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill. On the other hand, data on normal values of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were obtained to supply non-exposed values in seabirds. The oil spill produced a clear inhibitory effect on brain AChE activity in common guillemot (16%, p {<=} 0.01) and razorbill (22%, p {<=} 0.01), but not in Atlantic puffin (4%). Physiological levels of brain AChE, expressed in nmol acetylcholine hydrolysed min{sup -} {sup 1} mg{sup -} {sup 1} protein were similar in non-exposed common guillemot (388.6 {+-} 95.0) and Atlantic puffin (474.0 {+-} 60.7), however, razorbill values were higher (644.6 {+-} 66.9). (author)

  15. Acetylcholinesterase activity in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Pérez-López, Marcos; Hernández, David; García, Jesús-Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis-Eusebio; López-Beceiro, Ana; Soler, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, the tanker Prestige broke in two and sank at the bottom of the ocean spilling about 70,000 t of fuel oil, which reached the coast of Galicia. It was considered the largest spill in maritime history, greatly affecting marine and related avian species. The spilled fuel oil contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many species were affected and were found dead, although ongoing research is still being carried out on the sublethal effects. In this sense, little is known about the action of PAHs on Cholinesterase activity in seabirds. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to provide more information on the neurotoxicity of fuel oil on the seabirds most affected by the Prestige accident: common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill. On the other hand, data on normal values of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were obtained to supply non-exposed values in seabirds. The oil spill produced a clear inhibitory effect on brain AChE activity in common guillemot (16%, p< or =0.01) and razorbill (22%, p< or =0.01), but not in Atlantic puffin (4%). Physiological levels of brain AChE, expressed in nmol acetylcholine hydrolysed min(-1) mg(-1) protein were similar in non-exposed common guillemot (388.6+/-95.0) and Atlantic puffin (474.0+/-60.7), however, razorbill values were higher (644.6+/-66.9).

  16. The media politics of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which news values shape the reporting of oil spills and the constraints under which media practitioners work. A series of oil spills since the late 1960s [including the Torrey Canyon (1967), the Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Sea Empress (1996)] have attracted considerable attention from the news media. The focus is upon the dynamics through which news sources, with their own particular vested interests, compete to secure representation of the issues. Media discourse on risk and the environment is, to a significant extent, a discourse dependent upon the voices of official ''experts''. Environmental organizations, industry, scientists and government offer their own particular competing accounts of the ''reality'' of the situation. Issues concerning differential access to the news media are crucial when considering who comes to define the event. Accordingly, the article examines the strategies adopted by the various news sources involved in influencing the symbolic representation of public issues. Media practitioners are faced with great problems in interpreting and explaining these competing claims. Relatively few journalists and broadcasters have a scientific training and perhaps one of the greatest problems is that by simplifying complex scientific information one inevitably distorts it. Frequently researchers make the assumption that it is possible to demonstrate a direct causal link between news media coverage and public attitudes. However, the paper calls for great caution in interpreting ''public opinion'' concerning environmental issues and concludes by arguing that news media representations may more usefully be viewed as the outcome of a battle among a selective range of news sources, each seeking to provide their own definition of the public representation of the issues. (author)

  17. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  18. Record world-wide oil spills in 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Record world-wide oil spills in 1979 were reported by the U.K. Advisory Committee on Oil Pollution of the Sea (ACOPS), largely due to the 140 million gal Ixtoc I spill. Loss of life associated with oil production and transportation in 1979 was over 300, double the 1978 casualties. The French tanker Betelgeuse which exploded in Bantry Bay claimed 51 lives; the Independent collision in the Bosphorus claimed 40. In 1980, 100 lives were lost in the Ekofisk field in March. About 568 minor spillages were reported to the ACOPS, with on incident, the wreck of the Skopelas Sky off Cornwall involving 1000 tons of oil. Oil pollution has also increased in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Seabird losses have caused considerable concern. ACOPS chairman Lord Ritchie-Calder has called for the European Community to strengthen its control over substandard vessels and to enforce more effectively existing international agreements, a move supported by IMCO.

  19. An integrated approach to shoreline mapping for spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; LeBlanc, S.R.; Percy, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A desktop mapping package was introduced which has the capability to provide consistent and standardized application of mapping and data collection/generation techniques. Its application in oil spill cleanup was discussed. The data base can be updated easily as new information becomes available. This provides a response team with access to a wide range of information that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. Standard terms and definitions and shoreline segmentation procedures are part of the system to describe the shore-zone character and shore-zone oiling conditions. The program that is in place for Atlantic Canada involves the integration of (1) Environment Canada's SCAT methodology in pre-spill data generation, (2) shoreline segmentation, (3) response management by objectives, (4) Environment Canada's national sensitivity mapping program, and (5) Environment Canada's field guide for the protection and treatment of oiled shorelines. 7 refs., 6 figs

  20. Oil Spill Related Heavy Metal: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Hafizan Juahir; Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Mohammad Azizi Amran; Che Noraini Che Hasnam; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Syahril Hirman Azmee; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill occurs every day worldwide and oil contamination is a significant contributor for the higher levels of heavy metals in the environment. This study is purposely to summarize the heavy metals which significant to major oil spill incidents around the world and effects of toxic metals to human health. The study performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning heavy metals contamination and oil spills. Overall, the heavy metals most frequently been detected in oil spill related study where Pb>Ni>V>Zn>Cd and caused many effects to human health especially cancer. In conclusion, the comparison of heavy metal level between the post - spill and baseline levels must be done, and implementation of continuous monitoring of heavy metal. In addition, the result based on the strategies must be transparent to public in order to maintaining human health. (author)

  1. Identification of spilled oils by NIR spectroscopy technology based on KPCA and LSSVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ailing; Bi, Weihong

    2011-08-01

    Oil spills on the sea surface are seen relatively often with the development of the petroleum exploitation and transportation of the sea. Oil spills are great threat to the marine environment and the ecosystem, thus the oil pollution in the ocean becomes an urgent topic in the environmental protection. To develop the oil spill accident treatment program and track the source of the spilled oils, a novel qualitative identification method combined Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) was proposed. The proposed method adapt Fourier transform NIR spectrophotometer to collect the NIR spectral data of simulated gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene oil spills samples and do some pretreatments to the original spectrum. We use the KPCA algorithm which is an extension of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using techniques of kernel methods to extract nonlinear features of the preprocessed spectrum. Support Vector Machines (SVM) is a powerful methodology for solving spectral classification tasks in chemometrics. LSSVM are reformulations to the standard SVMs which lead to solving a system of linear equations. So a LSSVM multiclass classification model was designed which using Error Correcting Output Code (ECOC) method borrowing the idea of error correcting codes used for correcting bit errors in transmission channels. The most common and reliable approach to parameter selection is to decide on parameter ranges, and to then do a grid search over the parameter space to find the optimal model parameters. To test the proposed method, 375 spilled oil samples of unknown type were selected to study. The optimal model has the best identification capabilities with the accuracy of 97.8%. Experimental results show that the proposed KPCA plus LSSVM qualitative analysis method of near infrared spectroscopy has good recognition result, which could work as a new method for rapid identification of spilled oils.

  2. Rapid collection, detection, and assessment of environmental petroleum spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.T.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of petroleum oil spills were determined by a new tandem monitoring approach with a passive sorptive device for collection and concentration, and luminescent bacteria for detection. Crude oil, fuel oil, jet fuel, gasoline, and recycled motor oil, as model contaminants, were collected over eight weeks from sediment:water microcosms simulating environmental petroleum spills. Bioremediation strategies for removal of oil contaminants with organic and inorganic nutrients, heterotrophic bacterial strains, and detergent were monitored for efficacy. Air and waterborne oil contaminants was collected with a semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) that contains a thin film of triolein. Analytes were extracted from SPMDs by either dialysis or diluted with organic solvents. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of analytes were determined with the luminescent bacterial assays Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign. Changes in the bioavailability and toxicity of different oil products as well as influences of different bioremediation treatments were successfully monitored in aquatic microcosms over time. SPMDs and the Microtox-Mutatox systems used in combination offered a sensitive, rapid and cost-effective toxicological screening tool to assess the bioavailability of hazardous environmental oil contaminants

  3. Modeling fates and impacts for bio-economic analysis of hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.; Etkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The oil spill risks associated with four submerged rock pinnacles near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay are being evaluated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Oil spill modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The scenarios are hypothetical vessel grounding on the pinnacles. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The frequency distribution of oil fates and impacts was determined by first running each scenario in stochastic mode. The oil fates and biological effects of the spills were the focus of this paper. It was shown that diesel and crude oil spills would have greater impacts in the water column than heavy fuel or gasoline because gasoline is more volatile and less toxic and because heavy oil spills would be small in volume. It was determined that the major impacts and damage to birds would be low due to the high dilution potential of the bay. It was also noted that dispersants would be very effective in reducing impacts on wildlife and the shoreline. These results are being used to evaluate the cost-benefit analysis of removing the rocks versus the risk of an oil spill. The work demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method to estimate potential impacts that could be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. 15 refs., 13 tabs., 11 figs

  4. [Research on the ultraviolet reflectivity characteristic of simulative targets of oil spill on the ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Si-An; Huang, Xiao-Xian; Yin, Da-Yi; Xu, Chong; Feng, Xin; Feng, Qi

    2010-03-01

    The authors set up an experiment instrument to measure the ultraviolet (UV) characteristic of oil spill simulation targets for the marine oil spill. After selecting appropriate conditions for experiments, the authors tested UV reflective spectrum of four simulation targets for oil spill (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, lubricating oil). The authors calculated the UV absolute spectrum reflectivity of all testing targets from the standard white board as reference, whose UV reflectivity was given. With processing and analyzing the data from experiments, the authors got the reflective characteristics of them in contrast to the reflectivity of water, which was measured in the same conditions. All targets were tested from 320 to 400 nm, and UV reflectivity wave-band between 360 and 380 nm was representative. Testing data were shown as follows: (1) The reflectivity of water was from 5.3% to 5.5%. (2) When the thickness of oil film was 400 microm, the reflectivity of gasoline was from 8.5% to 8.8%, 5.4%-5.8% for kerosene, 8.3%-8.4% for diesel fuel, and 9.4%-9.7% for lubricating oil in the same wave-band between 360 and 380 nm. Correspondingly, the indeterminacy of reflectivity was 0.32%, 0.45%, 0.25%, and 0.33% respectively. (3) Hence the thickness of oil film changed, the rule of the UV reflectivity varied depending on the sort of oil spill. The results show that there were some obvious reflectivity differences among oil films and water, which were mainly determined by the sort and thickness of oil film. This experiment method is also fit for the actual oil spill target, and it will fulfill some theory and experimental foundation for inspecting the marine oil spill by UV remote sensing in the future.

  5. Technology needs for the later phases of an oil spill. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The phases of an oil spill response can be classified as initial response, project phase, end phase and the monitoring phase. The initial on-water phase of the response or shoreline cleanup includes the development of contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and research into response equipment for removing oil on water. Lack of planning for a response can lead to an initial response that has less than satisfactory results. An initial assessment of the oil spill response begins at the moment the spill occurs and continues for days, depending on the quality of the initial response. This phase includes the use of booms, skimmers, dispersants and in-situ burning. It was emphasized that oil spill research should focus on gathering scientific information needed to make decisions during the project phase and beyond. Typically, this will involve the study of long-term impacts and should be undertaken in a research environment in order to apply new data to any spill scenario. This paper highlighted knowledge needs to support decisions in the cleanup phase. The Exxon Valdez incident provided information on the long-term impacts of a variety of cleanup techniques. This paper also addressed damage assessment and restoration issues along with the decision to terminate a response. Once a response has been terminated, long-term monitoring of the ecosystem begins in order to identify the spill impact. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Effects of the Presidente Rivera oil spill on young-of-year striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, S.B.; Burton, W.H.; Herman, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    On 24, June 1989, approximately 300,000 gallons of No. 6 fuel oil was spilled from the tanker Presidente Rivera into the Delaware River. This paper reports that the spill occurred in the center of the striped bass nursery area, only six weeks after the prime spawning period. Toxic effects of the spill on young-of-year striped bass were investigated using in situ bioassay techniques. Seventy-five liter chambers, each containing 30 hatchery-reared fish, were moored at four locations within the spill zone and at one upstream references are. chemical analysis of the water was conducted on area. Chemical analysis of the water was conducted on Days 1, 4, and 13 of the experiment. Despite significant oil fouling on chambers, no dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the water column. Acute mortality was not apparent, with greater than 90% survival at all stations after four days. After 13 days, survival at the station closest to the spill site was about 20% less than at the reference station

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon persistence following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as a function of shoreline energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredith; Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando; Rosenheim, Brad E; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-02-15

    An important aspect of oil spill science is understanding how the compounds within spilled oil, especially toxic components, change with weathering. In this study we follow the evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, on a Louisiana beach and salt marsh for three years following the Deepwater Horizon spill. Relative to source oil, we report overall depletion of low molecular weight n-alkanes and PAHs in all locations with time. The magnitude of depletion, however, depends on the sampling location, whereby sites with highest wave energy have highest compound depletion. Oiled sediment from an enclosed bay shows high enrichment of high molecular weight PAHs relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, suggesting the contribution from sources other than the Deepwater Horizon spill, such as fossil fuel burning. This insight into hydrocarbon persistence as a function of hydrography and hydrocarbon source can inform policy and response for future spills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  9. Evaluation of bird impacts on historical oil spill cases using the SIMAP oil spill model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Rowe, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of an oil spill on bird and other wildlife species can be estimated using the Spill Impact Model Application Package (SIMAP). SIMAP estimates exposure and impact on bird species and their habitat based on physical fate and biological effects models under a broad range of environmental conditions. This paper presented the evaluations of 14 spill case studies which compared model predictions of biological impacts with field observations after a spill. Most of the observational data on the biological impacts of spills was for oiled birds and other wildlife. The impact of an oil spill on fish and invertebrates was examined in one case study. Error analysis was not performed on the field-base estimates of impact. Biological abundances and impacts are highly variable in time and space and very difficult to measure and quantify. Model-predicted and field-based estimates of oiled wildlife were compared. Uncertainty in the model-predicted number of oil wildlife was most related to mapping of biological distributions, behaviour of individuals, and local population density at the time of spill. The greatest uncertainty was the pre-spill abundance. The number of animals oils was found to be directly proportional to the pre-spill abundance assumed in the model inputs. Relative impact can be inferred from the percentage of population oiled. The total number oiled by a spill can be extrapolated using trajectories of oiled birds and counts of oiled animals collected in the field. 54 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs

  10. Practical aids for freshwater spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, A.E.; Walker, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The current research program at API is focused on the environmental and human health effects from oil spills in freshwater habitats. Components of the program include lessons learned from spill response, development of decision-making protocols for the use of chemicals during initial response operations, preparation of a manual for spill response and contingency planning, and a review of the literature on environmental and human health effects from inland spills. API has reviewed past inland spill responses to identify lessons learned. A survey questionnaire has been developed to collect information from freshwater spill responders on their successes and difficulties in response operations. The questionnaire is tailored to focus on the impact to the operations from the absence of technical/scientific data on environmental effects or operation effectiveness/efficiency as well as to identify situations in which the use of particular response or cleanup options is likely to be effective. The questionnaires will be available at the Conference. Published case studies also will be examined for lessons-learned information. The results will be used to identify and prioritize API research needs in freshwater spill response. General concerns about the effectiveness of the toxicity associated with chemicals in spill response has prevented their use in fresh water. API has begun a detailed survey and interview process with state and federal regulatory personnel to identify their concerns and decision criteria to evaluate the use of chemicals in initial spill response. Ten classes of chemicals were identified for consideration: dispersants, shoreline cleaners, shoreline protection agents, herding agents, solidifiers, demulsifiers, emulsion inhibitors, foaming agents, oxidizing agents, and burning agents

  11. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, E.; Tedaldi, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO 2 , water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  12. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim [Melbourne, FL

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  13. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  14. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.; Garrity, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  15. Risk analysis in oil spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoplekov, A.N.; Alexandrov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tiered response is a basic approach to emergency plans, including oil spill response (OSR). This paper delineates a huge set of accidental scenarios within a certain tier of response generated by a computer during risk assessment. Parameters such as the amount of oil spilled, duration of discharge and types of losses should be provided in OSR scenarios. Examples of applications include offshore installations, sub sea or onshore pipelines, and localized onshore facilities. The paper demonstrates how to use risk analysis results for delineating all likely spills into groups that need a specific tier response. The best world practices and Russian regulatory approaches were outlined and compared. Corresponding algorithms were developed and their application in pipelines was presented. The algorithm combines expert's skills and spill trajectory modeling with the net environmental benefit analysis principle into the incident specific emergency response planning. 9 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  17. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  18. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Metagenomic analyses reveal the involvement of syntrophic consortia in methanol/electricity conversion in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Ayaka; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m(-2) (based on the projected area of the anode). In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors.

  20. Metagenomic analyses reveal the involvement of syntrophic consortia in methanol/electricity conversion in microbial fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Yamamuro

    Full Text Available Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m(-2 (based on the projected area of the anode. In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors.

  1. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal the Involvement of Syntrophic Consortia in Methanol/Electricity Conversion in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Ayaka; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m−2 (based on the projected area of the anode). In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors. PMID:24852573

  2. Potential terrestrial fate and effects on soil biota of a coal liquefaction product spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strayer, R.F.; Edwards, N.T.; Walton, B.T.; Charles-Shannon, V.

    1983-01-01

    Contaminated soil samples collected from the site of a coal liquefaction product spill were used to study potential fates and effects of this synthetic fuel. Simulated weathering in the laboratory caused significant changes in residual oil composition. Soil column leachates contained high phenol levels that decreased exponentially over time. Toxicity tests demonstrated that the oil-contaminated soil was phytotoxic and caused embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on eggs of the cricket Acheta domesticus.

  3. Systems for arctic spill response. Volume I. Final report, August 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, L.A.; Deslauriers, P.C.; DeBord, F.W.; Voelker, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This final report summarizes the work accomplished under the program entitled 'Study to Define Arctic Pollution Response Systems and Develop Arctic Oil Pollution Response Project Plans.' The objective of the program was to determine the most cost effective, environmentally compatible, and technically feasible Coast Guard arctic pollution response system that can be used in projected oil spill scenarios to recover and dispose of spilled oil. The optimum arctic pollution response system was determined by establishing the cost and effectiveness of response for sixteen oil spill response situations, and developing six alternative Coast Guard arctic pollution response systems based on these situations. These six systems were developed with a recognition of three distinctly different types of operational requirements, those for thick stable ice, dynamic hummocky ice, and open water or light ice conditions. The optimum system was then identified as the result of a cost effectiveness analysis. The six arctic oil spill scenarios consisted of a gathering pipeline rupture in the nearshore Beaufort Sea, an oil well blowout from a very large reservoir in the nearshore Chukchi Sea, crude oil tanker casualties in Norton Sound and in the Navarin Basin region of the Bering Sea, an oil well blowout from an average sized reservoir in Bristol Bay, and a fuel oil spill resulting from the collision of a fuel oil barge in Unimak Pass. The optimum system provides for a 25% response level for the Norton Sound, Navarin Basin, Bristol Bay, and Unimak Pass scenarios, and a 50% response level for the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea scenarios.

  4. Systems for arctic spill response. Volume II. Appendices. Final report, August 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, L.A.; Deslauriers, P.C.; DeBord, F.W.; Voelker, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This final report summarizes the work accomplished under Phase I of the program entitled 'Study to Define Arctic Pollution Response Systems and Develop Arctic Oil Pollution Response Project Plans.' The objective of Phase I of the program was to determine the most cost effective, environmentally compatible, and technically feasible Coast Guard arctic pollution response system that can be used in projected oil spill scenarios to recover and dispose of spilled oil. The optimum arctic pollution response system was determined by establishing the cost and effectiveness of response for sixteen oil spill response situations, and developing six alternative Coast Guard arctic pollution response systems based on these situations. The optimum system was then identified as the result of a cost effectiveness analysis. The six arctic oil spill scenarios consisted of a gathering pipeline rupture in the nearshore Beaufort Sea, an oil well blowout from a very large reservoir in the nearshore Chukchi Sea, crude oil tanker casualties in Norton Sound and in the Navarin Basin region of the Bering Sea, an oil well blowout from an average sized reservoir in Bristol Bay, and a fuel oil spill resulting from the collision of a fuel oil barge in Unimak Pass. The optimum system provides for a 25% response level for the Norton Sound, Navarin Basin, Bristol Bay, and Unimak Pass scenarios, and a 50% response level for the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea scenarios. Modifications in the optimum system required to extend its capability to subarctic applications in the Great Lakes, the northern rivers, and the northern coastal region were also identified.

  5. The Great Lakes Spill Co-op and how it works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1994-01-01

    A major program was launched by spill control professionals and industry in 1990 when it created the Great Lakes Spill Cooperative (GLSCOOP). The major objective of this cooperative is to provide a network to facilitate quick response in crises situations in the Great Lakes region. Specifically, the Great Lakes Spill Cooperative will: (1) coordinate environmental response activities in connection with emergency conditions as a result of spills of petroleum and hazardous substances in the Great Lakes; (2) apply state-of-the-art management, training and equipment technology during emergency environmental response operations, consistent with local, state and federal regulations; and (3) promote cooperation with its members, governmental agencies as well as allied trade and professional associations, consistent with the existing laws, in mobilizing equipment and expertise in controlling or mitigating pollution incidents in the Great Lakes. In this presentation the author discusses how the cooperative was formed, how it will operate, the members of the group and their individual roles as well as the organization's partnership with government--local, state and federal. He also discusses his involvement in the formation of the Mamne Response Alliance (MRA). This co-op was utilized recently by one of its members to provide 100 personnel who were Haz-Woper trained for the recent Tampa Bay Spill in August of last year

  6. Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalan, V.

    1983-10-01

    Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

  7. Progress toward the development of micro- and meso-scale methods for predicting the behavior of low-API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostazeski, S.A.; Durell, G.S.; Uhler, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Bench-scale weathering studies were conducted on a number of low-API gravity oils (LAPIO), and flume tank studies were conducted on several LAPIO products. The objective was to develop a method which would predict the environmental behaviour of LAPIO fuel spilled on water. Unlike crude oils and petroleum products which float when spilled on water, LAPIO spills are unpredictable. LAPIO fuels, which are used for electric power generation, have densities greater or equal to 1.0 g/ml. When spilled at sea, they may float, be neutrally buoyant, or sink, depending on the conditions of the receiving water. Their behavior depends on the physical and chemical properties of the specific oil and also the temperature and composition of the water. In order to simulate the behavior of oil spilled at sea, a number of different LAPIO fuels were artificially weathered by evaporative distillation. Tests were conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil residues, the buoyancy of the oils, their emulsifying properties and chemical dispersability. Results have shown that current laboratory methods for determining emulsion formation, stability, and kinetics are not adequate for these highly viscous fuels. Laboratory methods need refining and improving. 7 refs

  8. Remediation in Situ of Hydrocarbons by Combined Treatment in a Contaminated Alluvial Soil due to an Accidental Spill of LNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination represents an environmental issue which has become extremely important in the last decades due to the diffusion of industrial activities. Accidents during transport of dangerous materials and fuels may cause severe pollution. The present paper describes the criteria of the actions which were operated to remediate the potential risk and observed negative effects on groundwater and soil originating from an accidental spill of diesel fuel from a tank truck. With the aim to evaluate the quality of the involved environmental matrices in the “emergency” phase, in the following “safety” operation and during the remediation action, a specific survey on hydrocarbons, light and heavy, was carried out in the sand deposits soil. Elaboration of collected data allows us to observe the movement of pollutants in the unsaturated soil. The remediation action was finalized to improve the groundwater and soil quality. The former was treated by a so called “pump and treat” system coupled with air sparging. A train of three different technologies was applied to the unsaturated soil in a sequential process: soil vapour extraction, bioventing and enhanced bioremediation. Results showed that the application of sequential remediation treatments allowed us to obtain a state of quality in unsaturated soil and groundwater as required by Italian law.

  9. Forensic fingerprinting and source identification of the 2008 Lake Temiskaming (Quebec) oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Lambert, P.; Landriault, M.; Sun, J.; Yang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the advances that have occurred in recent years in chemical fingerprinting of petroleum and hydrocarbons for environmental forensic processes have followed advances in petroleum geochemistry. This paper presented a practical case study which demonstrated the utility of detailed and integrated multi-criterion analytical approaches for fingerprinting, correlating and identifying suspected spills. In particular, the source of a waterborne oil spill of unknown origin on Lake Temiskaming, Quebec was identified by combining forensic fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques to characterize the chemical compositions of the spill. The product type was first identified by recognizing distribution patterns of bulk hydrocarbon groups such as oil n-alkanes and unresolved complex mixtures. Biomarker and extended suite of parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were then quantified and their distribution profiles were compared. The conclusions were verified by determining several diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds, in particular diagnostic ratios of target biomarker compounds. The input of background pyrogenic PAHs to the suspected spill source samples were identified. It was concluded that some water and soil samples were contaminated by a heavy diesel type fuel. The differences in fingerprints were attributed to weathering effects and input of pyrogenic PAHs. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Modular-block complex on preparation and processing of oil slurry, spilled and raw petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The use of non-serial small petroleum equipment for development of remote and low output petroleum deposit, collection and processing of spilled petroleum is urgent issue. Joint-stock company Montazhengineering developed and mastered production of small modular-block complexes for preparation and processing of petroleum. The complex can include the following modules: preparation of raw petroleum for getting commodity petroleum; petroleum processing installation for getting gas, diesel fuel and black oil; installation for refining of nafta; installation for cleaning petroleum products from mercaptans; installation for getting basic oil; installation for getting bitumen and mastic; installation for processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Each of modules can work separately and in various combinations depending on input and necessary assortment of commodity petroleum. One of urgent ecological problem in Kazakhstan petroleum-processing regions is large number barns with spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Their processing will allow to solve the ecological and economical problems. Processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry in developed installations it's possible to get commodity petroleum and petroleum products

  11. Oil spill models for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    The need for, and the nature of an oil spill model, were discussed. Modern oil spill models were shown to provide rapid and accurate input of information about a marine spill, as well as to provide powerful visualization methods for displaying output data. Marine oil spill models are designed to answer five questions: (1) where will the oil go in 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, (2) how fast will it move, (3) how big will the slick get, (4) how much will end up on shore and where, and (5) how do the oil properties change. The models are able to provide timely and accurate results by using reasonably complete algorithms for the physics and chemistry governing oil slick evolution that take advantage of computer visualization methods for displaying output data. These models have been made possible through new technologies which have increased access to environmental data on winds, currents and satellite imaging of slicks. Spill modelling is also evolving by taking advantage of the Internet for both acquisition of input data and dissemination of results. 5 figs

  12. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  13. Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  14. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  15. Waste Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  16. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  17. Surface Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  18. BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to the BP oil spill, EPA monitored sediment near the spill. While emergency response data collection has ended, results continue to be available on this...

  19. Sediment Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  20. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  1. Oil spills and other issues in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina revealed weaknesses in the command, control, communications, and information dissemination functions within a variety of emergency response systems. This paper gave an outline of clean-up procedures involving hazardous materials. To date, clean-up crews have disposed of 8.0 million tonnes of an estimated 22.0 million tonnes of debris. The clean-up involved more than 1.3 million containerized hazardous materials; more than 230,000 damaged white goods; and nearly 43,000 damaged electronic goods. More than 3,400 samples of water, soil and air have been collected. Nearly 75 chemistry laboratories in schools have been inspected, and an additional 1500 emergency assessments of potential chemical releases were investigated. The floodwaters carried nearly 4.1 million litres of oil from a Chalmette refinery. Between September and the end of 2005, the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office logged in 81 spill events in southwest Louisiana involving 22,000 bbls of crude. Six major, 3 medium and 131 minor events have occurred in southeast Louisiana. More than 3000 offshore platforms were shut down or damaged during the 2005 hurricane season. At least 115 platforms were destroyed and 52 were damaged. Onshore spills of concern included incidents at Murphy Oil Refinery; Bass Enterprise Production Company; Chevron at Port Fourchon; Venice Energy Services Company; Shell Pipeline; and Sundown Energy. It was concluded work done by the spill community will result in the development of more effective response plans. 23 refs

  2. Spill response : an exercise in teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    An offshore oil spill response exercise was conducted at Hibernia to demonstrate to the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board the emergency response capabilities that are in place in the event of large offshore spills. The Canadian Coast Guard, Eastern Canada Response Corporation Ltd., Hibernia, Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Jeanne d'Arc Basin Operators Group and the Terra Nova Project team participated in the exercise. The exercise was a success in that it demonstrated that the emergency response teams have the capability of containing and recovering large and small offshore oil spills. The two systems that were tested during the exercise were the large wide-swath boom system and a smaller side-sweep system. Two supply vessels worked in tandem. 11 figs

  3. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Palanca, A.; Ferrer, X.; Vences, M.

    2004-01-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 tonnes) since 1960. Spills were

  4. Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key element of the SPCC rule requires farms and other facilities to develop, maintain and implement an oil spill prevention plan, called an SPCC Plan. These plans help farms prevent oil spill, as well as control a spill should one occur.

  5. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  6. Sea otter abundance, distribution, and pup production in Prince William Sound Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garshelis, D.L.; Johnson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The authors investigated effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the abundance, distribution, and pup production of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound by comparing counts made during 1990 and 1991 with prespill counts. Changes in the distribution of otters 1--2 years after the spill from that observed during the late 1970s and early 1980s were not related to oiled shorelines. Despite a substantial loss of sea otters immediately following the spill, the authors counted fewer otters than prespill investigators at only one of three heavily oiled islands, and from 1990 to 1991 their counts at this one site increased to a level equivalent to the latest (1985) prespill count. The unexpectedly high counts at two of the three oiled sites cannot be explained simply by interobserver variability between te pre- and postspill counts or by immigrations of otters from other parts of the sound. The most plausible explanation for the findings also involves a modest population increase prior to the spill. At three heavily oiled sites, pup production 1--2 years after the spill was as high as or higher than before the spill. These results indicate the potential for renewed population growth

  7. Hydrocarbon Fuel Spill Dispersion on Water: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    18 and K= (1/kl + 1/(Hkg))_1 (4) and where H is Henry’s constant and ki and k9 are the mass transfer coefficients for the gas and liquid phases...biodegradation rates for oil are high only when temperature and nutrient supplies are optimal (Reference 50). 59 V.P ,k -,-. . V ~·~:,. scent Fate tc

  8. The Biological Degradation of Spilled Jet Fuels: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    sorption losses. It is quite possible that different modeis a re appropriat: ’:or difterent hydrocarbons. 3 3 Enumeration of Microorganisms If it is...heterotrophic activity have al) ga oo:(,n x-l , ts 1. i e; by Wyndham and Costerton, 2 9 Ward and Brock ,17 Rouhill i!,d At u,’. it r ’ ,> ¢,und no relationships...algal growth commenced. e effect of other organic substr’iie- on tim,- 1i is morto difficult to ret. Ward and Brock 1 7 found that the ad irioi . F

  9. Searching for novel modes of toxic actions of oil spill using E. coli live cell array reporter system - A Hebei Spirit oil spill study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Guan, Miao; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Shin, Hyesoo; Hong, Seongjin; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-02-01

    Oil is a complex mixture of numerous compounds. Therefore, oil spills near shore can cause various adverse effects on coastal ecosystems. However, most toxicological assessments conducted on oil spill sites have focused on limited modes of toxic actions. In the present study, we utilized the Escherichia coli (E. coli) live cell array system (LCA) to identify novel modes of toxicities of the oil spill-affected sediments. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from an area heavily polluted by Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) incident of 2007. A total of 93 E. coli reporter genes were used to study responses to the chemicals in the mixture. E. coli K12 strains were exposed to extracts of oil or the sediment, and changes in gene expression were measured. Exposure to extracts of crude and weathered oil resulted in decreased expression in ∼30% of tested genes. However, changes in expression observed after exposure to sediment extracts varied. Sediment extracts containing large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) caused down-regulation of >70% of the genes, while extracts containing lesser total concentrations of PAHs exhibited different trends: genes involved in drug resistance were generally up-regulated, while genes responsive to DNA damage were up-regulated in only two extracts. Results suggest that oil pollution can modulate several toxic response pathways related to DNA repair and antibiotic responses. Results from LCA obtained from the sediment and oil samples were different from those observed in the H4IIE-luc assay. Toxicological implications of such observations deserve further examination. Overall, LCA is a promising tool for screening samples and identifying potential modes of toxicities of environmental samples associated with oil spills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Guide to oil spill exercise planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC Convention) foresees a future in which all at risk states have national oil spill preparedness and response plans. The Convention also encourages the idea that national plans be developed in cooperation with oil and shipping industries. The ultimate test of any contingency plan is measured by performance in a real emergency. It is vital, therefore, that any programme for developing a national contingency plan must include an ongoing programme to test the plan through realistic exercises. An exercise programme must progressively prepare the Oil Spill Energy Response Team to perform effectively in realistic representations of the risks that the contingency plan has been designed to meet. This report has been designed to guide all those in government or industry who are faced with the responsibility of developing and managing oil spill response exercises at all levels. It carries with it the authority that derives from peer review by many centres of oil spill response excellence around the world. It is well-illustrated with brief case histories of exercises that have been carried out by many IPIECA member companies. Each of those companies has indicated its preparedness to share more information by providing contact name and address details within this report. (author)

  11. Oil spill in Bombay high marine impacts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    A rupture in a feeder 'riser' pipeline from Bombay High- North Platform (BHN) resulted in spilling of large quantities of crude oil into the sea on 17th May 1993 about 80 NM from the shoreline north of Bombay. This report which includes findings...

  12. A Review of Oil Spill Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl E

    2017-12-30

    The technical aspects of oil spill remote sensing are examined and the practical uses and drawbacks of each technology are given with a focus on unfolding technology. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, but limited to certain observational conditions and simple applications. Infrared cameras offer some potential as oil spill sensors but have several limitations. Both techniques, although limited in capability, are widely used because of their increasing economy. The laser fluorosensor uniquely detects oil on substrates that include shoreline, water, soil, plants, ice, and snow. New commercial units have come out in the last few years. Radar detects calm areas on water and thus oil on water, because oil will reduce capillary waves on a water surface given moderate winds. Radar provides a unique option for wide area surveillance, all day or night and rainy/cloudy weather. Satellite-carried radars with their frequent overpass and high spatial resolution make these day-night and all-weather sensors essential for delineating both large spills and monitoring ship and platform oil discharges. Most strategic oil spill mapping is now being carried out using radar. Slick thickness measurements have been sought for many years. The operative technique at this time is the passive microwave. New techniques for calibration and verification have made these instruments more reliable.

  13. The 1990 Arthur Kill oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    On January 1-2, 1990, Exxon discharged 567,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil in the Arthur Kill, the strait separating Staten Island, New York from New Jersey. Lawsuits against Exxon were filed by the State of New Jersey, New York City, and the City of Elizabeth. They seek to force Exxon to reimburse the municipalities and the state for cleanup costs and to restore damaged wetlands and other natural resources. The three plaintiffs, joined by New York State and the federal government, initiated a three-tiered natural resource damage assessment study (Tier II), currently underway, includes sampling and chemical analysis of sediments and benthic invertebrates, mapping of impacted wetlands and measurement of direct impacts on water birds and their prey. The purposes of the study are to quantify the damages and determine the presence of Exxon's oil in the sediments. Since the Exxon spill, there have been two major spills and an intermediate-size spill. During the first size months of 1990, over one million gallons of petroleum products have been discharged into the Arthur Kill and nearby waters. This paper reports that a review of these incidents provides lessons for the prevention, investigation, and cleanup of spills in urban estuaries

  14. Integrated electrochemical treatment systems for facilitating the bioremediation of oil spill contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Wang, Liang; Faustorilla, Vilma; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi; Chen, Zuliang

    2017-05-01

    Bioremediation plays an important role in oil spill management and bio-electrochemical treatment systems are supposed to represent a new technology for both effective remediation and energy recovery. Diesel removal rate increased by four times in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) since the electrode served as an electron acceptor, and high power density (29.05 W m -3 ) at current density 72.38 A m -3 was achieved using diesel (v/v 1%) as the sole substrate. As revealed by Scanning electron microscope images, carbon fibres in the anode electrode were covered with biofilm and the bacterial colloids which build the link between carbon fibres and enhance electron transmission. Trace metabolites produced during the anaerobic biodegradation were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These metabolites may act as emulsifying agents that benefit oil dispersion and play a vital role in bioremediation of oil spills in field applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The macroinfauna of the Galician sandy beaches (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil-spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junoy, J; Castellanos, C; Viéitez, J M; de la Huz, M R; Lastra, M

    2005-05-01

    Eighteen sandy beaches were sampled along the 1659 km of the Galician coast (NW Spain) six months after the Prestige oil-spill to study the impact of the fuel and the clean-up activities on the macroinfauna community. A transect was extended at each beach, from above the drift line to below the swash line at five sampled levels; at each level six 0.05 m2 replicates were taken to a depth of 30 cm and sieved through a 1mm mesh, and the organisms collected and preserved. Results were compared with previous data obtained using the same procedures. The macroinfauna was numerically dominated by the amphipod Pontocrates arenarius, the isopod genus Eurydice, the polychaete Scolelepis squamata, and the amphipod Talitrus saltator. As a result of the Prestige oil-spill and the clean-up activities, beach populations were reduced, with Eurydice and S. squamata as the most affected taxa.

  16. Don't Cry over Spilled Water: Identifying Risks and Solutions for Produced Water Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Amanda Rose

    Resource requirements and future energy generation requires careful evaluation, particularly due to climate change and water scarcity. This thesis discusses one aspect of energy generation linked to water; oil-and-gas extraction and the large volumes of waste water produced, otherwise known as "produced water". This research focuses on surface spills of produced water, their ramifications, safeguards against groundwater contamination at spill sites and potential remediation strategies. Produced water contains a variety of contaminants that include the group of known toxins, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and high salt concentrations. A combination of factors such as large volumes of generated produced water, the need for storage and transportation across large distances and the toxic-and-mobile nature of produced water constituents creates risks for spills that can pollute groundwater. Spills occur regularly, particularly in Weld County, Colorado, where the demand for natural gas is high. To answer spill-related hypotheses, a multitude of methodology were employed: modeling, greenhouse experimentation, gas chromatography and summarization of spill reports and statistical analyses. Using publically available spill data, this research found that the frequency of oil-and-gas related spills and the average spilled volume has increased in Weld County from 2011-2015. Additionally, the number of spills that have resulted in groundwater contamination has increased in the area. By focusing on the oil-and-gas operators responsible for these spills, a linear relationship was found between the volumes of oil-and-gas produced compared to the volumes of produced-water generated. However, larger oil-and-gas producers did not show a linear relationship between oil-and-gas produced and produced-water generated, such that larger producers were more efficient and generated less water per unit of energy. So while scale-up efficiency seems to exist for produced

  17. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  18. Transport and degradation of fuel compounds in the vadose zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Broholm, Mette Martina; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Fuel has been spilled in the vadose zone at many sites. An artificial jet fuel source has been installed in a vadose zone at Airbase Værløse. The field experiment is conducted to investigate the natural attenuation potential in order to obtain better evaluations of the risk for groundwater...

  19. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  20. Marine (Brander-Smith report) and non-marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Current activities related to Canada's Green Plan are reviewed in the area of research on, and response to, marine and non-marine spills. The Emergency Response section of Environment Canada's Conservation and Protection Service has had a 130% increase in funding and 50% increase in personnel resources. Two thirds of these resources are assigned to regional operations where spill incidents occur and the rest to research. The section's first priority is to improve its spill prevention program. A national standard for emergency planning for industry has been prepared and thousands of copies have been sold. A Canada-USA joint inland pollution contingency plan will be established and training programs on response to oil and hazardous chemical spills has been implemented. Resources applied to spill response have also increased 150%; a computerized communications network has been provided for spill response personnel, with the aim to develop a single national spill reporting system. In terms of policy initiatives, amendments are being made to the Canada Shipping Act that will require on-board pollution emergency plans for ships operating in Canadian waters. A liability and compensation regime for chemical spills is being considered, as well as reimposition of a levy on petroleum products that resulted in creation of a ship-source oil pollution fund. Radar-based traffic control systems for heavily congested marine areas, electronic charting, and increased inspection of ships are among the spill prevention initiatives in progress. Research is being conducted on mapping environmentally sensitive shorelines and in oil spill cleanup methods

  1. A program approach for site safety at oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, F.L.; Glenn, S.P.; Ocken, J.J.; Ott, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    When OSHA developed the hazardous waste operations (Hazwoper) regulations (29 CFR 1910.120) members of the response community envisioned a separation of oil and open-quotes hazmatclose quotes response operations. Organizations that deal with oil spills have had difficulty applying Hazwoper regulations to oil spill operations. This hinders meaningful implementation of the standard for their personnel. We should approach oil spills with the same degree of caution that is applied to hazmat response. Training frequently does not address the safety of oil spill response operations. Site-specific safety and health plans often are neglected or omitted. Certain oils expose workers to carcinogens, as well as chronic and acute hazards. Significant physical hazards are most important. In responding to oil spills, the hazards must be addressed. It is the authors' contention that a need exists for safety program at oil spill sites. Gone are the days of labor pool hires cleaning up spills in jeans and sneakers. The key to meaningful programs for oil spills requires application of controls focused on relevant safety risks rather than minimal chemical exposure hazards. Working with concerned reviewers from other agencies and organizations, the authors have developed a general safety and health program for oil spill response. It is intended to serve as the basis for organizations to customize their own written safety and health program (required by OSHA). It also provides a separate generic site safety plan for emergency phase oil spill operations (check-list) and long term post-emergency phase operations

  2. An update on oil spill remote sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Brown, C.

    2005-01-01

    Oil spills and related petroleum products have a serious impact in the marine environment. Public and media scrutiny is normally intense following a spill, and there are often demands that the location and extent of the spill are identified. Remote sensing plays an increasingly important role in oil spill response efforts. A knowledge of slick locations and movement means that response personnel can plan countermeasures more effectively thereby lessening the effects of pollution. This paper provides an assessment of remote sensors for application to oil spills, with specific reference to various technologies currently in use or being developed. Infrared cameras can detect oil under a variety of conditions as well as discriminate oil from some backgrounds and has the lowest cost of any sensor. The weaknesses of infrared cameras include: the inability to discriminate oil on beaches, among weeds or debris and under certain lighting conditions. Additionally, water-in-oil emulsions are occasionally not detected in infrared. However, new technology has made infrared technology both affordable and practical. Laser fluorosensors have the capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. Disadvantages include the large size and weight of the tool as well as its high cost. Radar currently offers the only potential for large area searches and foul weather remote sensing, which is however, costly and requires a dedicated aircraft as well as being prone to interferences. False targets can be as high as 95 per cent. It was noted that equipment that measures slick thickness is still under development, including passive microwave technology. Laser-acoustic instruments are currently development that will provide the technology to measure absolute oil thickness. Cameras and scanners are useful for documentation or providing a basis for the overlay of other data. It was also noted that satellite-borne sensors are becoming increasingly useful

  3. Prolonged Financial Distress After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Predicts Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Holmes, Katherine; Glenn Morris, J; Grattan, Lynn M

    2018-03-13

    The economic impact of disasters is well known; however, the link between financial loss and behavioral health problems is unknown. Participants included 198 adults of ages 21 to 82, living within 10 miles of the Gulf Coast during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and were involved in the fishing, harvesting, seafood processing, or service/tourism industries. The functional impact of financial resource loss at 2.5 years post spill was measured using the 26-item Financial Life Events Checklist (FLEC). Individuals responded to financial distress by reducing social events and utility bills and changing food-shopping habits. The FLEC significantly predicted higher drug use (Drug Abuse Screening Test), alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), mood problems (Profile of Mood States), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II) (p values ≤ 0.05) 4.5 years after the spill. This preliminary study supports the notion that the functional impact of financial loss has a long-term impact on behavioral health after an oil spill.

  4. The effects of spilled oil on coastal ecosystems: Lessons from the Exxon Valdez spill: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel N.; Rice, Stanley D.; Matkin, Craig O.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Maslo, Brooke; Lockwood, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spilled from ships or other sources into the marine environment often occurs in close proximity to coastlines, and oil frequently accumulates in coastal habitats. As a consequence, a rich, albeit occasionally controversial, body of literature describes a broad range of effects of spilled oil across several habitats, communities, and species in coastal environments. This statement is not to imply that spilled oil has less of an effect in pelagic marine ecosystems, but rather that marine spills occurring offshore may be less likely to be detected, and associated effects are more difficult to monitor, evaluate, and quantify (Peterson et al., 2012). As a result, we have a much greater awareness of coastal pollution, which speaks to our need to improve our capacities in understanding the ecology of the open oceans. Conservation of coastal ecosystems and assessment of risks associated with oil spills can be facilitated through a better understanding of processes leading to direct and indirect responses of species and systems to oil exposure.It is also important to recognize that oil spilled from ships represents only ~9% of the nearly 700 000 barrels of petroleum that enter waters of North America annually from anthropogenic sources (NRC, 2003). The immediate effects of large spills can be defined as acute, due to the obvious and dramatic effects that are observed. In contrast, the remaining 625 000 barrels that are released each year can be thought of as chronic non-point pollution, resulting from oil entering the coastal ocean as runoff in a more consistent but much less conspicuous rate. In this chapter, we primarily address the effects of large oil spills that occur near coastlines and consider their potential for both acute and chronic effects on coastal communities. As described below, in some instances, the effects from chronic exposure may meet or exceed the more evident acute effects from large spills. Consequently, although quantifying chronic effects

  5. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Miyata, D.; Varlamov, S.M.; Kim, S.-W.

    2001-01-01

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  6. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  8. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  11. Oil Spill Detection: Past and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Singha, Suman

    2016-08-01

    In the last 15 years, the detection of oil spills by satellite means has been moved from experimental to operational. Actually, what is really changed is the satellite image availability. From the late 1990's, in the age of "no data" we have moved forward 15 years to the age of "Sentinels" with an abundance of data. Either large accident related to offshore oil exploration and production activity or illegal discharges from tankers, oil on the sea surface is or can be now regularly monitored, over European Waters. National and transnational organizations (i.e. European Maritime Safety Agency's 'CleanSeaNet' Service) are routinely using SAR imagery to detect oil due to it's all weather, day and night imaging capability. However, all these years the scientific methodology on the detection remains relatively constant. From manual analysis to fully automatic detection methodologies, no significant contribution has been published in the last years and certainly none has dramatically changed the rules of the detection. On the contrary, although the overall accuracy of the methodology is questioned, the four main classification steps (dark area detection, features extraction, statistic database creation, and classification) are continuously improving. In recent years, researchers came up with the use of polarimetric SAR data for oil spill detection and characterizations, although utilization of Pol-SAR data for this purpose still remains questionable due to lack of verified dataset and low spatial coverage of Pol-SAR data. The present paper is trying to point out the drawbacks of the oil spill detection in the last years and focus on the bottlenecks of the oil spill detection methodologies. Also, solutions on the basis of data availability, management and analysis are proposed. Moreover, an ideal detection system is discussed regarding satellite image and in situ observations using different scales and sensors.

  12. Perspective microwave methods of oil spill response

    OpenAIRE

    Ahtyamov, R. A.; Gallyamov, N. H.; Morozov, Gennadiy A.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Shakirov, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The detailed survey of works devoted to the processing of the crude oil containing a water oil emulsion is carried out. Results of this analysis lead to a conclusion that there are promising perspectives of using of the microwave processing technology at work on oil spill response. The technique and results of calculation of key parameters of a microwave unit of liquidation of emergency floods of oil are presented.

  13. Designing an oil spill information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douligeris, C.; Collins, J.; Iakovou, E.; Sun, P.; Riggs, K.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the architectural design of OSIMS, an Oil Spill Information Management System, which is an integrated information management tool that consists of an object-relational database management system, an adaptive decision support system, an advanced visualization system (AVS) and a geographic information system (GIS). OSIMS will handle large and diverse databases of environmental, ecological, geographical, engineering, and regulatory information and will be used for risk analysis and contingency planning.

  14. Combustion: an oil spill mitigation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The technical feasibility of using combustion as an oil spill mitigation tool was studied. Part I of the two-part report is a practical guide oriented toward the needs of potential users, while Part II is the research or resource document from which the practical guidance was drawn. The study included theoretical evaluations of combustion of petroleum pool fires under the effects of weathering and an oil classification system related to combustion potential. The theoretical analysis of combustion is balanced by practical experience of oil burning and case history information. Decision elements are provided which can be used as a guide for technical evaluations of a particular oil spill situation. The rationale for assessing technical feasibility is given in the context of other alternatives available for response to an oil spill. A series of research and technology development concepts are included for future research. The ethics of using oil burning are discussed as issues, concerns, and tradeoffs. A detailed annotated bibliography is appended along with a capsule review of a decade of oil burning studies and other support information.

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of burning spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.; Ferek, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The full potential for in situ burning as a controlled oil spill response technique is a subject of growing interest throughout the world. Information now available from burning oil during accidental fires, war-related fires in Kuwait, spillage from the Exxon Valdez, and controlled test burns, permits an objective and comprehensive assessment of both the positive and negative aspects of in situ burning. A thorough analysis has been made of direct and indirect impacts and concerns typically associated with the decision, to burn or not to burn. These factors, together with the comparative costs of various response techniques, have been identified and described to provide spill control planners and response organizations with a means of assessing the potential use of burning to clean up offshore oil spills. Some of the advantages for in situ burning are high elimination rate, minimal environmental impact, minimal disposal and cleanup, and ease of control. Some of the disadvantages are localized reduction of air quality, oil conditions, and limited window of opportunity

  16. Behavior of an Orimulsion reg-sign spill: Laboratory based studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febres, G.A.; Masciangioli, P.; Vilas, J.

    1995-01-01

    Orimulsion reg-sign is a natural bitumen in fresh water emulsion, stabilized by the addition of a non-ionic surfactant. Because of its relatively recent introduction in the world market, there is an important body of information which is being developed serving as a source of scientific evidences for present and future environmental decision making tools. Laboratory studies are presented, focused on describing the behavior of this fuel in sea water simulated spills, through estimates of the effects of photo-degradation and varying salinities as a function of time, as well as overall observations on its buoyancy and stability after the spill. Results indicate that Orimulsion reg-sign rapidly disperses after a spill, independently of the water salinity. In sea water, the dispersion is restricted, in the vertical direction, by the density difference of bitumen drops and that of the water; thus, the lower the salinity, the greater the vertical penetration of the bitumen drops in the water column. Most of the bitumen drops would sink to the bottom when salinities are within the range of 0 to 10 per-thousand. A surface layer of bitumen could be formed, particularly under stagnant conditions and salinities greater than 20 per-thousand, which could rapidly undergo a weathering process, especially by the effects of photodegradation. In the absence of sunlight or under the influence of UV light as a unique source of radiation, weathering either does not occur or is considerably suppressed. In conclusion, Orimulsion reg-sign has a unique behavior in comparison to other commercialized fuels, for which reason, environmental research is a central part of the efforts being conducted at INTEVEP related to this recently developed fuel

  17. Flicking your Bic at twenty-five below (or: The Atigun Pass Diesel Spill Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Atri, B.; King, T.

    1993-01-01

    In September 1992, a truck carrying 8,500 gal of diesel fuel through the Brooks Range in Alaska left the surface of a haulroad and flipped into an adjacent ditch, sustaining a tear in its tank and releasing ca 8,000 gal of fuel into the ditch. Most of the product then flowed through a culvert underneath the road and down a slope; the rest flowed in the ditch for ca 200 ft before being confined or absorbed by the snow in the ditch. Spill site assessment and remediation activities are described. For the ditch side of the road, the contaminated snow was bagged and 180-200 yd 3 of contaminated surface soils were removed. Adjacent soils were sampled, a temporary containment cell was installed, and an interceptor trench with an integrated in-situ oil/water separator was constructed. On the culvert outlet side of the road, where contamination extended down a ravine about 500 ft, the spilled oil was burned in-situ. Contaminated snow was also bagged, and the area was covered with reinforced sheeting to isolate it from any subsequent snowfall. An estimated 6,668 gal of fuel was either burned or recovered. 3 refs., 1 fig

  18. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea

  19. Spent fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this task is to support the Domestic Spent Fuel Storage Program through studies involving the transport of spent fuel. A catalog was developed to provide authoritative, timely, and accessible transportation information for persons involved in the transport of irradiated reactor fuel. The catalog, drafted and submitted to the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratories, for their review and approval, covers such topics as federal, state, and local regulations, spent fuel characteristics, cask characteristics, transportation costs, and emergency response information

  20. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, S.

    2000-01-01

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, S. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Environmental Emergencies Div

    2000-07-01

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. Oil spills: Is the perception worse than the reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Most people form their perceptions of oil spills from television pictures immediately after the spill occurs. But the real environmental impact of the spill will not be felt until later, long after the TV crews have left and public attention has focused elsewhere. And the good news, says Mielke, is that the long-term damages may be less than initially perceived. Nature operates a very effective cleaning service. The perceived impact of an oil spill may be only vaguely related to what ultimately happens to the oil or to the oils interaction with the affected area, Mielke says. This was the case with two large spills in the 1970s - the Arco Merchant spill off Massachusetts in 1976 and the Amoco Cadiz spill off Brittany, France, in 1978. And it may be the case with the Exxon Valdez spill in Prince William Sound in Alaska in the spring of 1989, he adds. Human efforts to clean up the spills are less effective than nature's own processes, he says, and, in some cases, can actually delay the natural ecological restoration. This raises the question of whether the cost to society of massive physical clean-up efforts is equal to the social and environmental benefit

  3. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  4. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  5. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The adequacy of current technology in terms of stage of maturity, of sensing, support systems, and information extraction was assessed relative to oil spills, waste pollution, and inputs to pollution trajectory models. Needs for advanced techniques are defined and the characteristics of a future satellite system are determined based on the requirements of U.S. agencies involved in pollution monitoring.

  6. Operational exercise for the containment and recovery of OrimulsionR spills: Effectiveness of the methodology and equipment used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villoia, C.; Salata, F.; Marruffo, F.; Masciangioli, P.; Febres, G.; Tavel, N. G.

    1997-01-01

    Selected containment and recovery measures to be used in the case of Orimulsion R spills were used in an exercise in Venezuela to evaluate the effectiveness of methodologies and equipment designed to contain and recover bitumen particles dispersed in the water column. The exercise involved pouring 325 litre of Orimulsion R at sea, the use of commercially available deep skirted booms to contain the dispersed bitumen particles, pumping the water with a submersible centrifugal pump, and subsequent treatment and separation of the bitumen from the water in a flotation and skimming tank located on a support vessel.Results of the exercise led to the conclusion that commercially available deep-skirted booms are effective for the containment of Orimulsion R spills, and that once contained, an Orimulsion R spill can be recovered by available response equipment. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  7. Operational exercise for the containment and recovery of Orimulsion{sup R} spills: Effectiveness of the methodology and equipment used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villoia, C.; Salata, F.; Marruffo, F. [Bitumenes Orinoco, S.A. Caracas, (Venezuela); Masciangioli, P.; Febres, G. [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela); Tavel, N. G. [Bitor America Corporation, Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Selected containment and recovery measures to be used in the case of Orimulsion{sup R }spills were used in an exercise in Venezuela to evaluate the effectiveness of methodologies and equipment designed to contain and recover bitumen particles dispersed in the water column. The exercise involved pouring 325 litre of Orimulsion{sup R }at sea, the use of commercially available deep skirted booms to contain the dispersed bitumen particles, pumping the water with a submersible centrifugal pump, and subsequent treatment and separation of the bitumen from the water in a flotation and skimming tank located on a support vessel.Results of the exercise led to the conclusion that commercially available deep-skirted booms are effective for the containment of Orimulsion{sup R }spills, and that once contained, an Orimulsion{sup R }spill can be recovered by available response equipment. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  8. Effectiveness of citizen involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, L. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed the rise of citizen involvement in industry that affects their community. Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in 1989, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provided funding by industry for a citizens group to provide oversite of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Agency terminal and associated tankers. That role is currently filled by the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, a volunteer organization that represents communities that were affected by the EVOS. The history of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council was discussed along with its structure, funding and overview of projects and research into safer transportation of oil, better oil spill response capabilities and improved environmental protection practices. Some of the successes involving citizen input include the requirement that all tankers going into Prince William Sound be double hull by 2015; a world-class system of tugs escorting tankers in Prince William Sound; installation of an ice-detection radar on a small island near the site of the EVOS; a guidebook for communities affected by man-made disasters; identification of nearshore locations that should be the first to be protected in the case of another spill; and, the installation of a system to capture crude oil vapors when tankers take on cargo. Other projects underway include the study of invasive species that can be transported in the ballast water of tankers, efficacy of dispersants, soil contamination at the tanker loading site, emissions of hazardous air pollutants from ballast water treatment processes, and continual review of emergency response plans. In the 17 years since the formation of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, it has been shown that communication and transparency are the keys to solving complacency, which is believed to have been a contributing factor to the EVOS. 3 refs.

  9. Bacterial communities from shoreline environments (costa da morte, northwestern Spain) affected by the prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution

  10. How vulnerable is Indian coast to oil spills? Impact of MV Ocean Seraya oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; George, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    , Low tide. armoured beaches bordering the Gulf of Alaska. These sites are 300–700 km away from the spill and the oil was chemically similar to the 11-day oil of Exxon Valdez 10 . Thus, the degree of oil pollution in the marine environ- ment may...

  11. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  12. Cold weather oil spill response training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; Owens, E.H.

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, a three-day oil spill response training program was conducted on Alaska's North Slope. The unique hands-on program was specifically developed for Chevron Corporation's world-wide response team. It featured a combination of classroom and outdoor sessions that helped participants to learn and apply emergency measures in a series of field exercises performed in very cold weather conditions. Temperatures remained below minus 20 degrees C and sometimes reached minus 40 degrees C throughout the training. The classroom instructions introduced participants to the Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Working Group's Field Guide for Spill Response in Arctic Waters. This guide provides response strategies specific to the Arctic, including open water, ice and snow conditions. The sessions also reviewed the Alaska Clean Seas Tactics Manual which addresses spill containment and recovery, storage, tracking, burning and disposal. The issues that were emphasized throughout the training program were cold weather safety and survival. During the training sessions, participants were required to set up weather ports and drive snowmobiles and all terrain vehicles. Their mission was to detect oil with infra-red and hand-held devices. They were required to contain the oil by piling snow into snow banks, and by augering, trenching and slotting ice. Oil was removed by trimming operations on solid ice, snow melting, snow blowing, skimming and pumping. In-situ burning was also performed. Other sessions were also conducted develop skills in site characterization and treating oiled shorelines. The successfully conducted field sessions spanned all phases of a cleanup operation in cold weather. 5 refs., 7 figs

  13. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  14. 161 EVALUATION OF ON-SHORE OIL SPILL REMEDIATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delta. Region, sustainable .... As oil is spilled on land and water, it rapidly sinks into the soil and on landing, some volatile fractions ..... Adams, P. and Jackson, P.P. (1996): Bioremediation of Oil Spills: Theory and Practice. Paper presented at the ...

  15. Statistics of extremes in oil spill risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Johnson, Walter R; Wikel, Geoffrey L

    2014-09-02

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. After DWH, key questions were asked: What is the likelihood that a similar catastrophic oil spill (with a volume over 1 million barrels) will happen again? Is DWH an extreme event or will it happen frequently in the future? The extreme value theory (EVT) has been widely used in studying rare events, including damage from hurricanes, stock market crashes, insurance claims, flooding, and earthquakes. In this paper, the EVT is applied to analyze oil spills in the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). Incorporating the 49 years (1964-2012) of OCS oil spill data, the EVT is capable of describing the oil spills reasonably well. The return period of a catastrophic oil spill in OCS areas is estimated to be 165 years, with a 95% confidence interval between 41 years and more than 500 years. Sensitivity tests indicate that the EVT results are relatively stable. The results of this study are very useful for oil spill risk assessment, contingency planning, and environmental impact statements on oil exploration, development, and production.

  16. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site | Adoki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain, banana, ...

  17. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site AKURO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTACT: The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of. Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain,.

  18. Spread and burning behavior of continuous spill fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Huang, Hong; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    expression for spill fires was developed based on some modifications on existing expressions for pool fires. In addition, a complete phenomenological model for spill fires was developed by combining the characteristics of spread and burning. The model was verified by the experimental data and found...

  19. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  20. Response of macrobenthic communties to oil spills along Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gregory, A.

    Oil pollution is a major environmental problem and is important, in particular to the Indian coastline as two main oil tanker routes pass through the Arabian Sea. In contrary to the decrease in oil spill globally, the number of tanker spills...

  1. Assessing the recovery of coastal wetlands from oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hester, M.W.; Hill, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of oil spills on coastal environments and the ability of these systems to exhibit long-term recovery has received increased attention in recent years. Although oil spills can have significant short-term impacts on coastal marshes, the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented. Estuarine marshes have sometimes been reported to exhibit slow recovery after oil spills, whereas in other instances they appear to have great resiliency, with complete recovery after one or two years. To document and understand this phenomenon better, we have investigated the long-term recovery of a south Louisiana estuarine marsh exposed to an accidental spill of crude oil. Although a pipeline rupture releasing Louisiana crude oil caused the near complete mortality of a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens and S. alterniflora, this marsh completely recovered four years after the spill with no differences in plant species cover between oiled and reference marshes. Remotely sensed imagery of the study site confirmed the relatively rapid recovery demonstrated by the ground truth data. Louisiana's coastal marshes are naturally experiencing rapid rates of deterioration. Land loss rates, determined from aerial imagery, at the spill site and adjacent reference areas before and after the spill demonstrated that the long-term loss rates were not affected by the spill event

  2. The latest oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro Lopez, J.R.; Morales Correas, N.; Dominguez Laseca, F.

    1992-01-01

    The oil spills from the Agip Abruzzo and the Haven in April 1991 are described. The Agip Abruzzo collided with a ferry near Livorno, Italy and spilled 3,000 tonnes of Iranian crude oil. Another 12,000 tonnes burned and 140 people were killed in the incident. The spill had little effect on the sea environment as most of the spilled oil was removed. The Haven oil tanker exploded just after unloading crude oil at Arenzano, Italy, spilling 3,000 tonnes of oil along the Ligurian coast. A series of nine explosions occurred over the next few days and the ship finally sank in 60 m of water. Spill cleanup procedures used at sea and along the affected coast are reviewed. Crude oil residues drifting along the coast of the Balearic Islands were sampled and analyzed in May and July 1991 to determine whether they came from the Haven tanker. Experiments were also conducted to determine the evaporated fraction of heavy Iranian crude oil as a function of time when spilled on sea water or different sizes of beach sand. The analyzed samples were concluded not to have come from the Haven spill. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  3. 64 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF MARINE OIL SPILL; A CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-20

    May 20, 2010 ... monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), which causes lethal and sub lethal toxic effect to the marine life and public ... of pollution. Oil spill can be on land where its impact can easily be eliminated. However, marine oil spills can result in oil pollution and causes .... Different species of fish and sea ...

  4. Damage cost of the Dan River coal ash spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    2015-01-01

    The recent coal ash spill on the Dan River in North Carolina, USA has caused several negative effects on the environment and the public. In this analysis, I report a monetized value for these effects after the first 6 months following the spill. The combined cost of ecological damage, recreational impacts, effects on human health and consumptive use, and esthetic value...

  5. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  6. Regional economic impact of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heen, K.; Andersen, M.

    1994-01-01

    An approach is demonstrated of coupling an environmental model to input-output analysis which aims to quantify the regional economic impact of an environmental accident. The model is implemented with the data of a potential oil spill interacting with the salmon aquaculture industry in Northern Norway. The production loss in salmon aquaculture and the regional income impact is computed and discussed. The approach used in this article could be a model for estimating the regional socio-economic impact of environmental factors like water and air pollution. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs

  7. A plant-level analysis of the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimate the effects of German renewable energy on the Dutch power market. • Using hourly plant-level data, we estimate effects on prices, dispatch and fuel efficiency. • The price elasticity of German wind on Dutch prices is −0.04. • The spill-over effects are restricted by constraints on cross-border capacity. • The dramatic performance of the Dutch plants is mainly related to relative fuel prices. - Abstract: In order to analyse international effects of national energy policies, we investigate the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende on the Dutch power market, which is closely connected to the German market. We estimate the impact of the German supply of wind and solar electricity on the Dutch day-ahead price of electricity and the utilisation of the conventional power plants. We take cross-border capacity constraints into account and use hourly plant-level data over 2006–2014. We find that the price elasticity of German wind on Dutch day-ahead prices is −0.03. However, this effect vanishes when the cross-border capacity is fully utilised. We find a modest negative impact on the utilisation of the Dutch power plants. As such, we conclude that the German Energiewende has had modest spill-over effects to the Dutch market. The recent dramatic performance of the Dutch gas-fired plants can be attributed to the changes in the relative prices of coal versus natural gas. We conclude that national energy policies in one country do not necessarily strongly affect neighbouring markets in case of constrained cross-border capacities.

  8. Investigating a lotic microbial community following a severe detergent spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Amitai; Gophna, Uri

    2014-02-01

    A large non-ionic detergent spill affected the Yarqon stream, where water sampling was performed prior to the spill as a part of the stream's routine sampling and during and after the event. Following the spill, a large foam layer was observed for about 3-4 days accompanied by death of all fauna in the stream. Despite a large quantity of freshwater that was introduced to the stream as an emergency measure, a drastic decrease in dissolved oxygen was also observed. A rapid reduction in bacterial diversity and richness, as measured by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, was also evident, as microbial assemblages changes accompanied pollutant exposure. However, this analysis showed that the microbial assemblages of the stream were quick to recover and became similar to pre-spill communities as early as a week after the spill. These findings suggest that bacterial assemblages are much more robust to large anthropogenic disturbances than expected.

  9. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    Oil spills in ice filled and Arctic waters pose other challenges for oil spill response compared to open and temperate waters. In situ burning has been proven to be an effective oil spill response method for oil spills in ice filled waters. This thesis presents results from laboratory and field...... experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is important for the in situ burning time-window. The results were used to develop an algorithm that was implemented...... in a model, so it is possible to predict the operational time-window for in-situ burning....

  10. Recovery from Ashland oil spill illustrates nature's resiliency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Data indicate that, except for some oil residues in the sediments of the upper Monongahela River, all traces have disappeared of the oil spill that happened January 2, 1988 when Ashland Oil Company's steel tank burst. The spill, that sent 700,000 gal of the number-sign 2 diesel oil into the river, was called a disaster. Concentrations of oil in the river sediments have since approached pre-spill levels, hatchings of water birds have returned to normal and healthy catches of sauger and walleye have been reported. Lack of baseline data has made it difficult to assess the impact of the spill on the ecology but funds from the Ashland Oil Company's settlement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have been earmarked for a comprehensive recreational and ecological survey of the upper Ohio River basin. The survey is expected to provide baseline data to assess future spill impacts and to guide river management

  11. OSIS: A PC-based oil spill information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.V.; Tyler, A.; Wiltshire, M.

    1993-01-01

    Warren Spring Laboratory and BMT Ceemaid Ltd. are cooperating to produce an Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) that will have worldwide application. OSIS is based on EUROSPILL, a spill simulation model originally developed under programs sponsored by the European Commission and the Marine Pollution Control Unit of the United Kingdom government's Department of Transport. OSIS is implemented in the Microsoft Windows 3.x graphical environment on a personal computer. A variety of options enables the user to input information on continuous or instantaneous spills of different types of oil under variable environmental conditions, to simulate the fate of oil and the trajectory of a spill. Model results are presented in the forms of maps, charts, graphs, and tables, displayed in multiple windows on a color monitor. Color hard copy can be produced, and OSIS can be linked to other Windows software packages, providing the opportunity to create a suite of spill incident management tools

  12. Assessing risks of hydrocarbon spills in tropical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarynskyy, Oleg; Makarynska, Dina; Negri, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing pressure of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical northern Australia. This is due to increasing population and industrial activities, such as oil and gas extraction, ship traffic, and related planned (e.g. wastewater) and accidental (e.g. spills) discharges. Through close collaboration between AIMS and AECOM, a novel, integrated approach to spill risk assessments has been developed. The approach links outcomes of a semi-quantitative risk assessment methodology to results of spill weathering and trajectory numerical modelling and to emerging tropical toxicological data. The risk assessment is based on triple bottom line concept and uses a multi-disciplinary expert panel to assess the probabilities and consequential impacts associated with potential risk events, such as accidental hydrocarbon spills. The probability assessments of spills are based on the type of operations being assessed and historical spill data available for the area and region. Quantifying the impacts of hydrocarbon spills requires an understanding of the impact extents as well as of the sensitivity of relevant tropical species to both hydrocarbons and dispersants. The quantification of impacts for certain operations and areas may only rely on the known nature of hydrocarbons, while spill volumes and extents of slick propagation are highly variable. Critical ecotoxicity data for tropical environments are scarce. Consequentially, assessments of probabilities and impacts may differ dramatically depending on the ambient conditions taken into consideration, level of understanding of properties of spilled hydrocarbon, and numerical models and techniques employed for simulating oil weathering and slick trajectories and thicknesses, as well as the available ecotoxicology thresholds of affected species. The outcomes of the combined risk and impact assessments for the first time provide industry and regulators with advanced pre-spill information thus vastly improving the

  13. Bacterial distribution and metabolic activity in subsurface sediments from a gasoline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauter, P.W.; Hanna, M.L.; Taylor, R.T.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California, a records inspection in 1979 indicated an inventory of about 17,500 gal was missing from underground fuel tanks. A leak or leaks in the southernmost tank and/or pipe lines were suspected to be the source of the loss. All four tanks were taken out of service and filled with sand in 1980. The gasoline spill cleanup effort affords an opportunity to study the collective effect of fuel hydrocarbons (HCs) on the indigenous microbial population within the heterogeneous alluvial subsurface environment. This paper presents the early results of an ongoing study to (1) characterize naturally acclimated microbial populations capable of transforming HCs and (2) understand the effects of environmental factors on these biotransformations

  14. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy

  15. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  16. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fruhwirth, M.; Gamble, L.

    1992-01-01

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  17. Effectiveness testing of spill-treating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Stoodley, R.; Laroche, N.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory effectiveness tests are described for four classes of spill-treating agents: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Many treating agents in these four categories have been tested for effectiveness and the results are presented. Solidifiers or gelling agents solidify oil, requiring a large amount of agent to solidify oil-ranging between 16% by weight, to over 200%. Emulsion breakers prevent or reverse the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. A newly-developed effectiveness test shows that only one product is highly effective; however, many products will work, but require large amounts of spill-treating agent. Surfactant--containing materials are of two types, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Testing has shown that an agent that is a good dispersant is conversely a poor surface-washing agent, and vice versa. Tests of surface-washing agents show that only a few agents have effectiveness of 25-40%, where this effectiveness is the percentage of heavy oil removed from a test surface. Results using the 'swirling flask' test for dispersant effectiveness are reported. Heavy oils show effectiveness values of about 1%, medium crudes of about 10%, light crude oils of about 30% and very light oils of about 90%. (author)

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 557: Spills and Tank Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 557, Spills and Tank Sites, in Areas 1, 3, 6, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 557 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 01-25-02, Fuel Spill • 03-02-02, Area 3 Subdock UST • 06-99-10, Tar Spills • 25-25-18, Train Maintenance Bldg 3901 Spill Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to identify and provide the justification and documentation that supports the recommendation for closure of the CAU 557 CASs with no further corrective action. To achieve this, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted from May 5 through November 24, 2008. The CAI activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 557: Spills and Tank Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

  19. CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEwan, J.R.; Notley, M.J.F.; Wood, J.C.; Gacesa, M.

    1982-09-01

    The direction of CANDU fuel development was set in 1957 with the decision to build pressure tube reactors. Short - 50 cm long - rodded bundles of natural UO 2 clad in Zircaloy were adopted to facilitate on-power fuelling to improve uranium utilization. Progressive improvements were made during 25 years of development, involving 650 man years and 180 million dollars. Today's CANDU bundle is based on the knowledge gained from extensive irradiation testing and experience in power reactors. The main thrust of future development is to demonstrate that the present bundle is suitable, with minor modifications, for thorium fuels

  20. Health changes in fishermen 2 years after clean-up of the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Zock, Jan-Paul; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gómez, Federico P; Monyarch, Gemma; Bouso, Laura; Coll, M Dolors; Verea, Héctor; Antó, Josep M; Fuster, Carme; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2010-10-19

    . The association between oil exposure and the observed changes may not be causal. The findings may not apply to spills involving other types of oil or to different populations of oil spill workers. Participation in clean-up of a major oil spill was associated with persistent respiratory symptoms, elevated markers of airway injury in breath condensate, and chromosomal damage.

  1. The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, N.; Solanas, A.M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Vinas, M. [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Bayona, J.M.; Albaiges, J. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2007-12-15

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of {alpha}-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of {gamma}-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C{sub 36}. Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering. (orig.)

  2. a case study of Deepwater Horizon oil spill at the Gulf of Mexico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 20thApril, 2010, Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred at the Gulf of Mexico, United States of America where large amount of oil spilled in to the water as a result of wellhead blowout from the rig. The spill marked as the largest oil spill ever in the USA and causes large impacts to the marine species and the surrounding ...

  3. Chemical spill responder's use of website data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpin, R.; Betsinger, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Emergency Response Team (ERT) of the US Environmental Protection Agency provides technical assistance to state and local government agencies. It has also provided hazardous waste and emergency response assistance to countries in North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. In order to address the increased level of involvement in multi-governmental response activities and counter terrorist incidents, ERT has developed a responder's technical assistance website. The site contains 6 links that can be divided into the following three information support areas: (1) generation information about ERT, (2) a response resources site which provides information regarding air sampling, monitoring plans, phytoremediation, and information related to oil spill incidents where physical and chemical properties of specific petroleum products are needed. The health and safety section of this site links to the Environment Canada Emergencies Science Division (ESD) website. The ESD site has a document entitled Properties of Crude Oils and Oil Products which provides information on Louisiana crude. This site also provides links to all Federal agency websites that have hazardous waste operations and emergency response requirements or guidelines, and (3) the Weather Information Program (WIP) and Response Operation and Validation Retriever (ROVR) service which provides interactive response pages for Federal on-scene coordinators, remedial project managers and the general public. This paper also described the next generation of ROVR and WIP interactive function involving real-time on-site air plume modeling

  4. Responding to oil spills in the open ocean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objectives in responding to any oil spill is to control the source of the spill, then, contain, collect, and recover the spilled product. Accomplishing those objectives is an immense challenge. It becomes much more difficult when attempted in the open ocean environment due to the more complex logistical and communications problems one encounters when operating miles from the nearest land. Often times, too, the response must be coordinated with either a salvage operation, a fire-fighting operation, a well control operation or a combination of any of these. There have been volumes of papers comparing the relative merits of mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, dispersant application, and bioremediation in responding to open ocean spills. Although each approach deserves special consideration in different circumstances, this presentation focuses on mechanical methods; the specialized equipment and operational tactics that are best utilized in responding to a major spill in the open ocean. This paper is divided into two sections. The first section, Equipment Used in Open Ocean Spills, addresses in general terms, the special equipment required in an offshore response operation. The second section, entitled Operational Tactics Used In Open Ocean Spills offers an overview of the tactics employed to achieve the general objectives of containment, collection, recovery, and temporary storage

  5. Oil spill trajectory analysis for US coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, R.P.; Hegy, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Under Section 4111(b)(7) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), the US Coast Guard must evaluate whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be designated as zones where the movement of tankers should be limited or prohibited. The legislative history of OPA 90 specifies that the open-quotes tanker-free zoneclose quotes evaluation should particularly include areas where oil and gas leasing, exploration, or development are presently prohibited by legislative action. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the Coast Guard have combined efforts to provide offshore oil spill trajectory estimates in support of that evaluation. Multiple runs of the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model were used to characterize potential movements of tanker oil spills in US coastal waters off the east and west coasts and in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The mapped locations of 220 sensitive environmental resources were provided for the analysis by coastal academic institutions under subcontract to the Coast Guard. More than 3 million oil-spill trajectories were simulated in a stochastic analysis over all seasons. The modeled spills were moved in increments of 3 hours for up to 30 days at sea, based on a suite of wind and oceanographic data and models. Trajectory results from multiple spill sites offshore are expressed as mapped open-quotes risk contoursclose quotes showing the chance of seasonal contacts with coastal resources, assuming spill occurrence. Examples of the information used and the results of the simulations are shown

  6. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  7. Applications to marine disaster prevention spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent results of the research project funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 23226017) from FY 2011 to FY 2015 on an autonomous spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system and its applications to marine disaster prevention systems from a scientific point of view. This book spotlights research on marine disaster prevention systems related to incidents involving oil tankers and offshore platforms, approaching these problems from new scientific and technological perspectives. The most essential aspect of this book is the development of a deep-sea underwater robot for real-time monitoring of blowout behavior of oil and gas from the seabed and of a new type of autonomous surface vehicle for real-time tracking and monitoring of oil spill spread and drift on the sea surface using an oil sensor. The mission of these robots is to provide the simulation models for gas and oil blowouts or spilled oil drifting on the sea surface w...

  8. Laboratory tests, experimental oil spills, models, and reality: The Braer oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Daling, P.S.; Brandvik, P.J.; Singsaas, I.

    1993-01-01

    The IKU Petroleum Research organization in Norway has accumulated data on the weathering behavior of spilled oils and petroleum products, mainly pertaining to North Sea crudes. Recent weathering research at IKU has been carried out in an elliptical mesoscale flume and in field tests consisting of experimental releases of crude oil. Results of these tests provided information on oil spill dispersion, evaporation, and emulsification. When the tanker Braer grounded in the Shetland Islands in January 1993 in extreme environmental conditions, the imminent release of a load of 84,000 tonnes of North Sea oil confronted response personnel with a variety of issues including the use of dispersants as a response action. Relevant information on the expected behavior of the crude was obtained within a day of the grounding as a result of close relations between IKU and Warren Spring Laboratory. The question is raised whether such information, which could have been spread between several organizations around the world, will be rapidly accessible in the event of another major spill. It is proposed to establish an electronically accessible database on the behavior and fate of specific oils and petroleum products to address this problem. 9 refs., 4 figs

  9. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies

  10. Method of cleaning oil slicks and chemical spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of cleaning a floating chemical spill on a body of water. It comprises: providing a quantity of popular bark-based pelleted or granular product, flotation means and a flexible net having openings generally smaller than the smallest whole pellet dimension of the pelleted product, spreading the net over a chemical spill on the body of water, connecting the floatation means to the net thereby supporting the net adjacent the surface of the body of water, placing the poplar bark-based product on the net, absorbing the floating chemical spill into the product, and removing the chemical soaked product from the body of water

  11. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  12. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  13. Clean-up of a radioactive spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, W.

    1987-01-01

    Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands of the South Pacific was extensively contaminated with radionuclides deposited by thermonuclear weapons testing in the 1940s and 1950s. In recent years, the U.S. government has attempted to restore the habitability of the islands by cleaning up the remaining radioactive material. Although the island no longer presents an acute radiation risk to inhabitants, plants growing on the island concentrate cesium-137 from the soil, presenting an unacceptable risk to the future population. The behavior of Cs-137 has proved to be an intractable problem that has major implications for the risks associated with transporting and processing high-level nuclear wastes in the U.S. Various proposed soil treatment strategies for Bikini are discussed, including ion-exchange treatments and competing-ion strategies. No fully satisfactory treatment currently exists and the problems and prospects of cleaning up after a major nuclear waste spill are presented

  14. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-spill control squared cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tsunetoshi; Inoue, Yoshiya; Oya, Akio; Suemori, Nobuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To reduce a mixed loss thus enhancing separating efficiency by the provision of a simple arrangement wherein a reflux portion in a conventional spill control squared cascade is replaced by a special stage including centrifugal separators. Structure: Steps in the form of a square cascade, in which a plurality of centrifugal separators are connected by pipe lines, are accumulated in multistage fashion to form a squared cascade. Between the adjoining steps is disposed a special stage including a centrifugal separator which receives both lean flow from the upper step and rich flow from the lower step. The centrifugal separator in the special stage has its rich side connected to the upper step and its lean side connected to the lower step. Special stages are each disposed at the upper side of the uppermost step and at the lower side of the lowermost step. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Oil spill response in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The rapid economic development of many countries since World War II has caused a considerable increase in marine transportation of raw materials, especially of crude oils and in offshore activities. However, a significant amount of oil comes into the sea from operational discharges of ships (ballast and bilge water) as well as from incidents such as collisions, groundings and contacts, and offshore exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. These incidents have been the pivotal points in the approach of maritime nations to the protection of the marine environment through international legislation and implementation of rigorous requirements concerning the construction and exploitation of ships and offshore platforms, limiting the possibility and extent of oil spills. A new danger for marine environments has ensued recently though the increasing maritime transport of chemicals. The aim of this book is to introduce these problems, and reflect the level and trends of development in this field. (Author)

  17. Managing public support during oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuidinga, K.; Boston, N.; Robertson, I.

    1990-01-01

    Too often oil spill contingency plans ignore and responders overlook the problem of managing auxiliary support, that is volunteers. These may consists of Native Bands, environmental organizations, community groups and the public in general. The consequences of not managing or poorly managing public support for the response effort is an increasingly frustrated public which begins to coordinate their own response efforts, proceeding without training or supervision. such a response can pose a threat to individuals as well as to the clean-up effort in general. Preparation and effective communication, particularly with the news media are key elements in successfully managing public support. In this paper the issues to be addressed are: coordination (mobilization, assignments), safety and insurance, equipment and clothing, fatigue and stress, food and shelter, training, public information including information about potential hazards, and public expectations of response efficiency

  18. Leaking tankers: how much oil was spilled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecek-Beatty, D. A.; Lehr, W. J.; Lankford, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    A model to estimate leak rates from tankers has been developed for use in emergency situations when more direct oil-loss estimation methods are not available. The model includes algorithms for gravity outflow and air and water ingestion. Three laboratory tests were conducted using fresh water and canola oil to evaluate the model output. Comparison with results from the laboratory experiments indicate good correlation of model results with measured data. However, it is not yet possible in the case of very large crude carriers to answer the question 'how much oil was spilled?' Sensitivity analysis and further laboratory testing were suggested to determine the effect of factors such as: pressure vacuum relief valves that prevent cavitation in the event of tank puncture; changing outside water levels due to wave and tidal action; tank and hole dimensions; and the amount and density of the product.10 refs., 4 figs

  19. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of biosurfactant in oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juwarkar, A.; Babu, P.S.; Mishra, K.; Deshpande, M.

    1993-01-01

    Surfactants are surface active agents which reduce surface tension and interfacial tension between two immiscible phases and help in emulsification. Toxicity, nonbiodegradability, and limited structural types of chemical surfactants have initiated the need for effective substitutes. Biosurfactants, which are synthesized by specific microbial cultures, have surface active properties comparable to chemical surfactants. They are compounds that can help in oil spill cleanup operations without presenting the problem posed by chemical surfactants. Two bacterial cultures were isolated from oil-contaminated soil and were used for biosurfactant production. The biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis, BS1, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, BS2, in mineral media containing glucose as the carbon source belong to the class of lipoprotein and glycolipid, respectively. They were found to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water and water-hexadecane system from 72 dynes/cm and 40 dynes/cm to 28 to 30 dynes/cm and 1 to 3 dynes/cm, respectively. These results were comparable with chemical surfactants with respect to surface tension reduction (Slic Gone 34 dynes/ cm and Castrol 30 dynes/cm). The low interfacial tension allows the formation of stable emulsion. The two cultures were grown on different substrates, namely, glucose, mannitol, glycerol, hexadecane, oily sludge, and crude oil. Emulsion formation of hexadecane in water was tested with the cell-free broth containing biosurfactant from the respective substrate broths. Emulsions of 56% stability to 100% stability were obtained from these biosurfactant-containing broths. Both biosurfactants were able to emulsify crude oil. A surfactant's ability to form a stable emulsion is the first step in oil spill cleanup. The emulsified oil can then be acted upon very easily by the microorganism under study

  1. Bohai and Yellow Sea Oil Spill Prediction System and Its Application to Huangdao ‘11.22’ Oil Spill Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Yan; Li, Cheng; Li, Wenshan; Wang, Guosong; Zhang, Song

    2017-08-01

    Marine oil spill has deep negative effect on both marine ecosystem and human activities. In recent years, due to China’s high-speed economic development, the demand for crude oil is increasing year by year in China, and leading to the high risk of marine oil spill. Therefore, it is necessary that promoting emergency response on marine oil spill in China and improving oil spill prediction techniques. In this study, based on oil spill model and GIS platform, we have developed the Bohai and Yellow sea oil spill prediction system. Combining with high-resolution meteorological and oceanographic forecast results, the system was applied to predict the drift and diffusion process of Huangdao ‘11.22’ oil spill incident. Although the prediction can’t be validated by some SAR images due to the lack of satellite observations, it still provided effective and referable oil spill behavior information to Maritime Safety Administration.

  2. North Slope mobile technology and its application to spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabile, N.J.; Helinski, R.

    1992-01-01

    At ARCO Alaska's Prudhoe Bay operation, improved preparedness for oil spill response has been achieved by applying mobile technology according to an innovative concept. To ensure safe and efficient deployment of resources during a spill response, a rapid deployment equipment delivery system was developed. This multi-functional, modularized system was based on a previously developed chemical delivery system consisting of a primary transport truck equipped with a Dempsey Dumpster Dinosaur skid. This same modularized concept was used for spill response with the substitution of function-specific spill response vans in place of chemical transport tanks. Within this concept, skid-mounted mission-specific vans are rapidly deployed to multiple sites in a fire brigade type of response. Skid-mounted units include land and water containment, recovery, boom deployment, command center, generator skid, restroom facility, and skimmer units. 4 figs

  3. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  4. OSIS: A Windows 3 Oil Spill Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.; Walker, M.; Wiltshire, M.; Tyler, A.

    1993-01-01

    An oil spill modelling and analysis system called the Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) has recently been developed. OSIS uses a model of oceanographic processes to predict three-dimensional spreading and transport of an oil slick under the influence of wind, waves, tide, turbulence, and shear diffusion. Oil weathering and fate processes of emulsification, evaporation, and dispersion are also simulated. The physical models have been tested against data obtained from sea trials and spill incidents. OSIS uses an object-oriented programming technique and presents model output as maps, graphs, and tables in multiple windows and can link to other Windows packages to create a suite of spill information management tools. 15 refs., 12 figs

  5. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  6. The Erika oil spill impact on land vegetation : main results of a five year monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncet, F. [Cedre, Brest (France); Ragot, R. [Conservatoir Botanique National de Brest, Brest (France); Tintilier, F. [Biotope, Bouguenais (France)

    2007-07-01

    An extensive environmental impact assessment was initiated by the French Ministry of the Environment following a spill of 20,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil that occurred in December 1999 when the tanker Erica broke and sank off the coast of Brittany. The spill affected 400 km of coastline. Before the oil reached the shore, it had been drifting and weathering at sea for 12 days under harsh sea conditions, resulting in oil fragmentation and scattering. The oil then reached lichen communities and coastal plants of the splash zone on rocky shores, dune vegetation and salt marshes. The oil was composed of 90 per cent heavy distillation residue and 10 per cent light fraction. The type of oil is significant, since weathered crude oils are considered to be less toxic to marsh grass than lighter more penetrating oils. A large scale, 2.5 year clean-up operation was conducted under the POLMAR French national organization. Vegetation clean-up was undertaken depending on the degree of oiling, sensitivity of plant species or natural habitats. A 5 year monitoring program was also launched to determine the impact on vegetation and contamination of the plant tissues by aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program established 175 permanent quadrats on all types of affected vegetation communities and followed a phyto-sociological method. It was determined that adequate removal of the bulk oil resulted in minimal impact on heavily oiled vegetation. Although there was light to moderate short and medium term damages, the composition of vegetation and cover did not evolve significantly in most quadrats monitored. There was a long-term impact on slow growing communities such as lichen, and grey dunes. Residual oil was still observed up to 2005. The adverse effects were linked to coating rather than to toxic effects. Fixed dunes, aerohaline grass and heath communities were found to be more vulnerable and have not yet recovered to pre-spill state. 15 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, James R.; Prince, Roger C.; Harner, E. James; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future.

  8. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  9. Romanian nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budan, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian nuclear fuel plant as a qualified and authorised CANDU-6 fuel supplier. The re-loading of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 started in the middle

  10. Almost remediation of saltwater spills at E and P sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    At exploration and production (E and P) sites crude spills restricted to topsoil are often self-remediating, but salt spills rarely are. Most soils naturally biodegrade crude. Without appropriate human intervention, brine spills can result in decades of barren land and seriously degrade surface water and aquifers. Servicing the E and P industry are remediation practitioners with a limited array of often expensive remediation concepts and materials which they hope will work, and sometimes do. Unfortunately, many remediation practitioners are unfamiliar with, or disregard, the natural physical, chemical, and biotic complexity of the soil and aquatic media. All too often this results in exacerbating injury to an already damaged ecosystem. Likewise, important cultural factors such as public relations, environmental regulations, property rights, and water rights are also overlooked until after implementation of an ill-advised or illegal remediation design has been initiated. A major issue is determining what constitutes ''successful'' remediation of a brine spill. Environmental managers have long sought one or two universally applicable fast and cheap amendment/treatment protocols for all their diverse multi-state salt affected spill scenarios. This presentation describes aspects of common spill-affected ecosystems which must be considered to achieve ''successful'' remediation

  11. Spill response exercises and lessons learned : a response organization's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Green, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, Burrard Clean Operations (BCO) has demonstrated its' oil spill response capabilities through different types of exercises. Such exercises are necessary for certification of Response Organizations in Canada. The exercises can be performed through actual response to spills or through simulated situations. Both can provide an opportunity to practice different levels of response to a range of conditions in various settings. They also provide the opportunity to focus on specific themes that can be part of a response and to identify areas for improvement in response actions. They also make it possible to interface with government agencies, industry and others that participate in spill responses. The exercise program for BCO is aimed at maintaining certification and to assist the Canadian Coast Guard. The exercises broaden the lessons learned and set a course for future enhancement to spill readiness should a real incident occur. The goals of the exercise program are to provide real time drills that show the operational capability of a representative sample of BCO equipment, management and trained spill responders. The response functions of the BCO exercise program are: notification, response organization activation, contractor activation, situation analysis, strategy development for marine oil spill response, site safety, equipment deployment, containment, recovery, shoreline assessment, cleanup, communications, decontamination, logistics, and financial management. The BCO experience has led to the basic conclusions that there is a need to vary the exercise design and format and that there is a need to implement follow-up actions provided during exercise evaluations. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  12. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  13. Study of long-term spilled Metula oil : degradation and persistence of petroleum biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Sigouin, L.

    2000-01-01

    In 1974, the oil tanker 'Metula' carrying 1.42 million barrels of light Arabian crude ran aground in the Strait of Magellan in Chile, spilling about 50,000 tons of light Arabian crude and 2,000 tons of Bunker C fuel, and polluting 250 km of shoreline. Since no attempt was made to recover or treat the slick, the oil was left to weather naturally. Several field surveys of the distribution of the oil have been conducted since the original spill. In this study, a total oil analysis was conducted on oil samples collected during a 1998 field visit. It was shown that the oil has gone through major alteration in chemical composition after 24 years through natural attenuation. The only location with any significant amounts of residual oil was in Punta Espora area where the oil was concentrated in two marsh areas and one in an asphalt pavement on a sheltered beach. The objective of the 1998 field visit was to obtain the latest information on oiling conditions, any changes in stranded oil and vegetative recovery in the area. All samples except those in the East Marsh showed a significant loss of n-alkanes and PAH compounds. The East Marsh showed the least degradation, while the asphalt pavement weathered most heavily. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  14. A synopsis of long-term aquatic effects monitoring after an oil spill to Wabamun Lake, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernick, B.; DeBruyn, A.M.; Chapman, P. [Golder Associates Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Patterson, L. [CN Environment, Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    A train derailment in August 2005 resulted in the release of Bunker C heavy fuel oil into the waters of Wabamun Lake. Alberta Environment issued an Environmental Protection Order requiring CN Railway to prepare a long-term plan to monitor the effects of the spilled oil on the aquatic environment. To date, monitoring has included assessments of potential effects on plankton, benthic invertebrate, emergent vegetation, and fish communities. Approximately 2,000 sediment grabs were collected for chemistry, toxicity, and benthic invertebrate analysis. In addition 700 litres of water were collected for chemistry and toxicity analyses and the biomass of 40 kg of emergent vegetation was measured. Analytical techniques included a variety of laboratory and field experiments. Nearly 200 semi-permeable membrane devices were deployed to measure exposure to hydrocarbons. An in situ assessment of larval fish development was conducted on 4,000 whitefish and 12,000 northern pike eggs. Testimony from the initial, intensive studies was integrated into a single framework. Follow-up studies were then conducted to identify the potential effects of the oil spill. The oil spill did not cause wide-scale effects in Wabamun Lake according to the study results.

  15. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  16. Using Numerical Models in the Development of Software Tools for Risk Management of Accidents with Oil and Inert Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Leitão, P. C.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Galvão, P.; Neves, R.

    2012-04-01

    substances, helping in the management of the crisis, in the distribution of response resources, or prioritizing specific areas. They can also be used for detection of pollution sources. However, the resources involved, and the scientific and technological levels needed in the manipulation of numerical models, had both limited the interoperability between operational models, monitoring tools and decision-support software tools. The increasing predictive capacity of metocean conditions and fate and behaviour of pollutants spilt at sea or costal zones, and the presence of monitoring tools like vessel traffic control systems, can both provide a safer support for decision-making in emergency or planning issues associated to pollution risk management, especially if used in an integrated way. Following this approach, and taking advantage of an integrated framework developed in ARCOPOL (www.arcopol.eu) and EASYCO (www.project-easy.info) projects, three innovative model-supported software tools were developed and applied in the Atlantic Area, and / or the Portuguese Coast. Two of these tools are used for spill model simulations - a web-based interface (EASYCO web bidirectional tool) and an advanced desktop application (MOHID Desktop Spill Simulator) - both of them allowing end user to have control over the model simulations. Parameters such as date and time of the event, location and oil spill volume are provided the users; these interactive tools also integrate best available metocean forecasts (waves, meteorological, hydrodynamics) from different institutions in the Atlantic Area. Metocean data are continuously gathered from remote THREDDS data servers (using OPENDAP) or ftp sites, and then automatically interpolated and pre-processed to be available for the simulators. These simulation tools developed can also import initial data and export results from/to remote servers, using OGC WFS services. Simulations are provided to end user in a matter of seconds, and thus, can be very

  17. Models of oil spill dispersion stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarized the theory of oil-in-water emulsion stability resulting in the resurfacing of oil spill dispersion. Since most emulsions are unstable, they will break down into their constituent parts because of the many forces and processes that act on them. These include gravitational forces; surfactant interchange with water and the subsequent surfactant loss to the water column; creaming; coalescence; flocculation; Ostwald ripening; and sedimentation. Gravitational separation is the most important force that contributes to the resurfacing of oil droplets from an oil-in-water emulsion. The paper presented a newly developed model that used 4 basic processes. Initial dispersion was an input, then the dispersion was distributed over the mixing depth, as predicted by the wave height. The droplets then rise to the surface according to Stokes' law. Oil on the surface from the rising oil and undispersed oil is redispersed. The droplets in the water column are subject to coalescence as governed by the Smoluchowski equation. The dispersion in the water column therefore decreases at an exponential rate with dispersion half-lives ranging from 120 to 250 minutes. Over 200 runs were performed using variations of the models. The study showed that the most important factor is the effectiveness of the initial dispersion and the the redispersion. Increased sea energy was found to increase the amount of coalescence that occurs, resulting in an increase in resurfacing. However, increased turbulence also caused redispersion, offsetting the effect of the recoalescence slightly. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  18. Wavelet Analysis of Ripples in Spilling Breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinan; Seer, Gunther; Duncan, James H.

    2003-11-01

    The wavelength distributions of ripples along the crests of weak spilling breakers are investigated with continuous and descrete wavelet transforms. The waves were generated mechanically via a side-band instability method in a tank that is 48.0 m long, 1.2 m wide and 1.0 m deep. The crest profile histories were measured with a photographic technique that employs a high-speed camera, a laser light sheet and fluorescent dye. The amplitude and location of each length scale was determined by multi-resolution decomposition and the phase speeds of these length scales were determined with wavelet cross-correlation. It is found that at the beginning of the breaking process the length scales of the ripples fall in a narrow range from 4 mm to 11 mm and the phase speeds of the ripples relative to the wave crest are less than 10 cm/s, independent of length scale. In the later stages of breaking, a wide range of ripple wavelengths appear at each instant in time. The phase speed of the ripples (relative the wave crest) increases from 15 to 35 cm/s as the wavelength decreases. However, the phase speeds of all wavelengths are less than the value obtained from the linear-theory dispersion curve for gravity-capillary waves in still water. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant OCE9818910.

  19. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  20. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  1. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  2. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  3. Oil Spill Public Information Center: Its role in the flow of information on the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holba, C.; McGee, M.; Thompson, P.

    1993-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdez struck a sub- merged rock pinnacle at Bligh Reef, puncturing eight of its storage tanks. Within hours, 11 million gallons of crude oil were dumped into the waters of Prince William Sound. The cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities undertaken for this environmentally complex area presented multifaceted challenges to public and private organizations and various professional disciplines. One of these challenges was obtaining and disseminating prespill, spill, and postspill information for both the private and public sector. The Oil Spill Public Information Center (OSPIC) was created for this purpose by the US Department of Justice on behalf of the federal trustees. Its management has since been assumed by the restoration team, an arm of the state-federal Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. On October 8, 1991, a settlement agreement was approved in United States District Court, which required Exxon to pay $1 billion in criminal restitution and civil damages to the United States and the state of Alaska. The settlement terms specify that the Trustee Council shall establish procedures providing for meaningful public participation in the injury assessment and restoration process. Consistent with that mandate, the OSPIC is responsible for providing a repository for all material related to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, The OSPIC is a specialized library open to the public. Its function is to collect, organize, and make accessible materials generated by state and federal agencies and the private sector as a result of the cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities of the spill. The OSPIC staff is also identifying and collecting baseline studies in the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska areas, as well as materials on cold water marine spills. The OSPIC serves a variety of patrons, including industry, the oil spill response community, state and federal agencies, scientists, etc

  4. Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeury, C.

    2012-10-01

    The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

  5. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, K.A.; Lystad, E.; Nesse, S.; Selvik, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  7. New problems and opportunities of oil spill monitoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barenboim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency oil and oil products spills represent a great danger to the environment, including ecosystems, and to the population. New problems of such dangerous spills and methods of early detection are discussed in this paper. It is proposed to conduct assessment of biological hazards of such spills on the basis of data on the distribution of individual oil hydrocarbons within the column of the water body and computer predictions of their toxicity. Oil radioactivity, which is associated with uranium and thorium, is seen as the important aspect of the oil spill danger, especially in watercourses. The need for an automated monitoring system for the early detection of oil spills in water bodies is analysed. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first remote sensing subsystem is based on powerful fluorescent lidars; experimental results on lidar registration of oil pollution of water are reported. The second subsystem uses a network of automatic monitoring stations with contact detectors. The third subsystem is the combined sensor system based on remote and contact technologies.

  8. Recovery of Arctic and Sub-Arctic vegetation nine summers after crude and diesel oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchinson, T. C

    1984-01-01

    In August 1980 experimental oil spill sites set up in spruce taiga at Norman Wells and on tundra at Tuktoyaktuk from 1972-75 were monitored to determine degree of recovery of vegeta tion from summer & winter spills...

  9. Weathered Oil and Tar Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  10. Source identification of an unknown spill (2002) from Canal Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec by the multi-criterion analytical approach and lab simulation of the spill sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Yang, C.; Fingas, M.F.; Landriault, M.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2004-01-01

    This study characterized the chemical composition of a variety of laboratory oil samples in order to determine the type, nature and sources of 3 unknown oil samples from an oil spill that occurred in Canal Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec in 2002. An integrated multi-criterion approach using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection was applied to characterize the laboratory samples. Results of chemical fingerprinting were presented. The distribution patterns of hydrocarbons in the spill and suspected source samples were recognized and compared. The study also involved an analysis of oil characteristic biomarkers and the extended suite of parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds for fingerprint interpretation were determined. The major components in the suspected source samples were then identified. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  11. Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History

    OpenAIRE

    Atlas, Ronald M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2011-01-01

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in...

  12. A remote oil spill detection system for early warning of spills at waterfront or land-based facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.J.; Stocky, W.D.; Westerlind, J.; Gram, H.R.; Jadamec, M.P.; Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Early detection of spills during loading/unloading of crude oil or products at terminals or plants is essential for quickly stopping the spill and minimizing its impact. Such detection is particularly difficult at night or in remote areas. In order to provide a reliable and inexpensive spill detection system for such an application, a joint development process was undertaken to redesign an oil spill detection buoy system which had been successfully tested in the 1970s. The sensor's operation is based on the stimulated fluorescence of oil and selective wavelength detection of this fluorescence. The prototype system consists of a flotation buoy for remote deployment of the sensor, rechargeable battery supply, a land-based computer base station, and radio signal transmitter. The oil spill detection buoy was modified in 1991 and tested in the laboratory. Field trials are under way and tests to date have confirmed the unit's ability to detect oil and to differentiate between various types of oil and/or products, particularly if the software is alerted to the type of product being transferred. 2 figs

  13. Oil spill modeling input to the offshore environmental cost model (OECM) for US-BOEMRE's spill risk and costs evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, Deborah; Reich, Danielle; Rowe, Jill; Schroeder, Melanie; Graham, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This paper simulates the consequences of oil spills using a planning model known as the Offshore Environmental Cost Model (OECM). This study aims at creating various predictive models for possible oil spill scenarios in marine waters. A crucial part of this investigation was the SIMAP model. It analyzes the distance and the direction covered by the spill under certain test conditions, generating a regression equation that simulates the impact of the spill. Tests were run in two different regions; the Mid-Atlantic region and the Chukchi Sea. Results showed that the higher wind speeds and higher water temperature of the Mid-Atlantic region had greater impact on wildlife and the water column respectively. However, short-line impact was higher in the Chukchi area due to the multi-directional wind. It was also shown that, because of their higher diffusivity in water, lighter crude oils had more impact than heavier oils. It was suggested that this model could ultimately be applied to other oil spill scenarios happening under similar conditions.

  14. SPILL OVER EFFECTS OFOPERATIONAL LOSS EVENTS WITHINTHE SOUTHAFRICAN BANKINGSECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suné Ferreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analysedreturn volatility afteroperational loss announcementsconcerningmajorSouthAfricanbanksduring 2000-2014. The sample ofbanksthat experienced losses over the sample periodwascompared with a sample ofunaffected banks, the banking index and the stock market index,to identifywhether theoperational loss announcements had spill over effects on the wholeSouthAfricanbankingsector. Daily share returns were analysed using event studymethodology andthe weighted moving average (EWMAmodel. On onehand,the results showed thattheoperational loss events for two of the affectedbanksexerted noeffectonthe number ofunaffectedbanks. On the other hand,theoperational loss events forthetwo remainingbankswere found to have spill overeffects.The returnsof theunaffectedbanksas well as thewhole banking sectorwere effected,which led to systemic risk.However,results revealed thatoperational losses in the South African banks did not spill over to the stockmarket.Overall, the findings indicatethat the effect of operational losses maydepend on the level of integration between individual banks.

  15. ADIOS-automated data inquiry for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, W.J.; Overstreet, R.; Jones, R.; Watabayashi, G.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent computer database called ADIOS has been developed which stores properties of several hundred oils and oil products and which is combined with a model for oil weathering. Environmental data are input by the user through a menu-driven graphic interface. The format of the output is designed to provide immediate information for oil spill cleanup decisions. Typical output information includes changes in key physical parameters (density, viscosity, water content of emulsions) over time and an oil loss budget at any specific time. The model includes algorithms for spill spreading, evaporation, entrainment, droplet size distributions, rate of mousse formation, and changes in density and viscosity. ADIOS will eventually be part of a larger spill model which includes oil transport. ADIOS calculations are presented as either pie charts or graphs. 21 refs., 2 figs

  16. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  17. 76 FR 37141 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of... Interior, Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: July 26, 2011, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council...

  18. 76 FR 15332 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: April 13, 2011, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Office, 441...

  19. 75 FR 14622 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: April 19, 2010, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Office, 441...

  20. Virtual Issue #1: Oil Spill Research in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology has been a venue for publishing oil spill research for over forty years. Rehwoldt et al. (1974) published the first oil spill focused paper in the Bulletin, reporting on the aquatic toxicity of two spill mitigating agents...

  1. 76 FR 13985 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA222 Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill... for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. There is a...

  2. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M.

    2002-01-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future sustainable shipping

  3. Modeling Skin Injury from Hot Rice Porridge Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgrim Log

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes skin burns from spills of hot rice and milk products. The traditional Norwegian rice porridge serves as an example. By testing spills on objects emulating an arm, it was concluded that spills were seldom thinner than 3 mm, and stayed in place due to the viscosity of the porridge for more than one minute. The Pennes bioheat equation was solved numerically for such spills, including heat conduction to the skin and convective heat losses from the porridge surface. Temperatures were analyzed in the porridge and skin layers, and the resulting skin injury was calculated based on the basal layer temperature. Parameters influencing burn severity, such as porridge layer thickness, porridge temperature, removal of the porridge and thermal effects of post scald tempered (15 °C water cooling were analyzed. The spilled porridge resulted in a prolonged heat supply to the skin, and the skin injury developed significantly with time. The porridge temperature turned out to be the most important injury parameter. A 70 °C porridge temperature could develop superficial partial-thickness burns. Porridge temperatures at processing temperatures nearly instantly developed severe burns. It was demonstrated that prompt removal of the hot porridge significantly reduced the injury development. The general advice is to avoid serving porridge and similar products at temperatures above 65 °C and, if spilled on the skin, to remove it quickly. After such scald incidents, it is advised to cool the injured area by tempered water for a prolonged period to stimulate healing.

  4. Application of PERALS™ alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry for analysis and investigation of environmental spills at ISL uranium mining projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysenko, A; Ostrowski, A; Bellifemine, D; Palmer, G; Haigh, P; Johnston, A

    2014-03-01

    Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in mining requires effective and reliable radionuclide analysis at all stages of the mine project-prior to mining, during operation and through to remediation and decommissioning. The approach presented in this paper was specially developed for the monitoring of radioactive waste resulting from spills during mining and mineral processing operations and uses a combination of high resolution gamma spectrometry, and PERALS™ alpha spectrometry to identify and reliably quantify the activity of the major members of the U-238 decay chain at activities down to 10 mBq g(-1) by direct radionuclide counting and by assessment of the activity of their decay products. This approach has reduced sample preparation and analysis time while providing effective analysis and quantification of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental samples. It has been successfully applied to several in situ leach (ISL) mining-related projects involving investigations of process material spill impacts and also to routine environmental monitoring.

  5. Major oil spills, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, C.E.; Whiting, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo resulted in two major oil spills on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Roughly 10,000 barrels of oil were discharged from damaged storage tanks at the Hess Oil Virgin Island Corporation and 14,000 barrels of oil were discharged from the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority facility in Christiansted. Pollution responders overcame the lack of power, water, food lodging, communications and transportation to perform an effective cleanup of these spills. This paper presents details of the pollution response effort as coordinated by the Federal On Scene Coordinator

  6. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-05-13

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  7. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  8. A conceptual framework for understanding the mental health impacts of oil spills: lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a conceptual framework for understanding and responding to the currently unfolding social and psychological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Drawing from the concept of corrosive communities and its relationship to theories of conservation of resources, cognitive activation, and risk and resilience, the conceptual model identifies three levels or tiers of impacts: biopsychosocial impacts that are direct consequences of the contamination of the physical environment; interpersonal impacts that are direct consequences of the biopsychosocial impacts; and intrapersonal or psychological impacts that are consequences of both the biopsychosocial and the interpersonal impacts. The model is then evaluated in light of research conducted in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill as well as studies of other manmade disasters, and offers a set of testable hypotheses that predict likely impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The conceptual framework may be used to identify strategies to develop community resilience and target specific services to prevent and mitigate these adverse effects.

  9. Oxidative stress biomarkers in long-term participants in clean-up work after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Su Ryeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Heon; Choi, Young-Hyun; Paek, Domyung

    2015-05-15

    The oil tanker Hebei Spirit spilled 12,547kL of oil near the western coastline of Korea on December 7, 2007. We aimed to investigate the relationship between oil spill exposure and oxidative stress in residents living near the affected area. Study subjects were 671 residents who participated in a health examination between February and September 2009. As surrogates for oil spill exposure, we used the total duration of clean-up work and levels of urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol (2-NAPH). Oxidative stress was measured using urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), indicators of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage, respectively. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly increased with longer involvement in clean-up work over one year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (MDA, p-trendlevels of PAH metabolites (1-OHP and 2-NAPH), as well as levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA and 8-OHdG) decreased further. The level of 1-OHP had a significant positive correlation with the total duration of clean-up work involvement, with a higher level found in those who participated in clean-up for >100 days. Increasing levels of 1-OHP were significantly associated with increased MDA and 8-OHdG after adjusting for covariates, while the strength of association weakened as time passed since the last participation in clean-up work. The significance of the association was maintained for up to 12 months after the last clean-up work. The results suggested that oil exposure from prolonged clean-up activity likely induced oxidative stress in clean-up participants up to at least one year after the last exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of the toxicity of sediment and seawater polluted by the Prestige fuel spill using bioassays with clams (Venerupis pullastra, Tappes decussatus and Venerupis rhomboideus) and the microalga Skeletonema costatum; Evaluacion de la toxicidad de sedimento y agua de mar contaminados por el vertido de fuel del Prestige, mediante el uso de bioensayos con las almejas Venerupis pullastra, Tappes decussatus y Venerupis rhomboideus y la microalga Skeletonema costatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino-Balsa, J.C.; Perez, P.; Estevez-Blanco, P.; Saco-Alvarez, L.; Fernandez, E.; Beiras, R. [Laboratorio de Ecologia Marina LEM, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, Galicia (Spain)

    2003-03-15

    In this study we present the early monitoring of the pollution caused by the accident of the Prestige tanker off the Galician coast. To evaluate the toxicity of sediment and water exposed to fuel, three kinds of bioassays were carried out using juvenile clams, clam embryos and microalgae. Firstly, the burrowing behavior of Venerupis pullastra and Tappes decussatus in the sediment collected from two beaches of similar characteristics but different pollution conditions, was studied over 24 h. No significant differences were observed between the two sediments. Secondly, embryogenesis success of Venerupis rhomboideus was recorded after incubation in seawater and elutriates obtained from affected areas. In this case, fuel-polluted seawater showed a marked inhibition of embryogenesis, while sediment elutriates showed moderate toxicity. Parallel bioassays with the diatom Skeletonema costatum were carried out using sediment elutriates and filtered seawater from the sampling sites. The response variable measured was the maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ({phi}{sub p}o) using a Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer (FRRF). In the first sampling, significant differences were found in the response of S. costatum cultured in the elutriates as compared to the control after 5 h exposure. The results corresponding to the second sampling showed statistically significant lower values of {phi}{sub p}o in the culture incubated in M2 water as compared with the control, indicating that the water-accommodated fraction of fuel at this site was the most toxic. [Spanish] En este estudio presentamos los primeros resultados obtenidos del control de la contaminacion producida por el accidente del petrolero Prestige en la costa de Galicia. Para evaluar la toxicidad del agua y el sedimento expuestos al fuel, se realizaron tres tipos de bioensayos: usando almejas juveniles, embriones de almeja y una microalga. En los primeros, se evaluo el comportamiento de enterramiento de Venerupis pullastra y

  11. The potential for spills and leaks of hydraulic fracturing related fluids on well sites and from road incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Sarah; Worrall, Fred; Davies, Richard; Gluyas, Jon

    2017-04-01

    recovered. The most common cause of leakage each year is equipment failure; these results highlight the need for good regulation and maintenance onsite. The UK's Institute of Directors suggests several shale gas production scenarios for the UK and how this would influence truck movement. One of their scenarios suggests the development of well pads with 10-wells and 40 laterals (one well pad with 10 well each with 4 laterals). This type of well pad would be projected to use 544,000 m3 of water, which would generate between 11155-31288 truck movements over 20 years, or 6.1-17.1 per day if averaged over 5 years. Dairy farmers in the UK produce 11 million m3 of milk a year, which if the tanker has a capacity of 30 m3, equates to approximately 366667 milk tanker journeys a year. This study assesses the number of road incidents and milk tanker spills and predicts the likelihood of such events for fluids involved in hydraulic fracturing.

  12. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  13. Fingerprinting petroleum hydrocarbons in plankton and surface sediments during the spring and early summer blooms in the Galician coast (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, N; Ortiz, L; Gilcoto, M; Varela, M; Bayona, J M; Groom, S; Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Albaigés, J

    2006-12-01

    Plankton samples (20-350 microm and >350 microm) collected at three transects along the Galician coast (NW Spain) were analysed for individual aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Sample collection was performed in April-July 2003, after the Prestige oil spill (November 2002), to determine whether the hydrocarbons released into the water column as a consequence of the spill were accumulated by the planktonic communities during the subsequent spring and early summer blooms. Surface sediments were also collected to assess the presence of the spilled oil, removed from the water column by downward particle transport. Plankton concentrations of PAHs (Sigma14 parent components) were in the range of 25-898 ng g(-1)dw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas. However, the individual distributions were highly dominated by alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, paralleling those in the water dissolved fraction. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes, and methyl phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes) showed the occurrence of background petrogenic pollution but not related with the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of the station off Costa da Morte in May 2003, heavily oiled after the accident. The dominant northerly wind conditions during the spring and early summer 2003, which prevented the arrival of fresh oil spilled from the wreck, together with the heavy nature of the fuel oil, which was barely dispersed in seawater, and the large variability of planktonic cycles, could be the factors hiding the acute accumulation of the spilled hydrocarbons. Then, with the above exception, the concentrations of PAHs found in the collected samples, mostly deriving from chronic pollution, can be considered as the reference values for the region.

  14. Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in reducing the overall environmental impact of both the Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon oil spills. PMID:21699212

  15. Cold climate oil spills: a terrestrial and freshwater research review. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKendrick, J.D.; LaPerrier, J.D.; Loynachan, T.E.

    1981-02-01

    The first part of this study reviews world-wide research on cold climate oil spills on land to identify some of the terrestrial environmental factors in cold regions affected by oil spills and some of the techniques for measuring impacts and terrestrial systems, primarily soils. The second part of the study reviews cold climate research on oil spills into fresh water. The final part of the report, surveys Alaskan hydrocarbon spills in the period January 1974 through May 1976. These studies will be of interest to all those concerned with cold climate oil spills on land and into fresh water.

  16. Japan FRI research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Introduction of research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire at FRI, Japan is done. FRI has a long history of studying oil tank and spilled oil fires. Many large oil fire tests were done. The purpose of these studies is different with research of response of oil spill, but the accumulation of this knowledge is useful for conducting elimination of spilled oil on the sea with burning. Therefore to do collaboration with fire science research groups, such as FRI is useful for future activities for response to oil spills

  17. Development of decision support system for oil spill management in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Marra, Palmalisa; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Creti, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Palermo, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Possible oil spill accidents and operational pollution could have severe impacts on the Mediterranean basin. It is therefore crucial to provide decision makers, stakeholders, and public with trustworthy DSS (Decision Support System) based on the environmental monitoring, state-of-the-art modeling and innovative technology platforms. Innovative web-based decision support system, called WITOL (Where Is The Oil http://www.witoil.com), has been developed to maintain emergency management in case of oil spill accidents. WITOIL embraces (1) Lagrangian oil spill model MEDSLIK-II (De Dominicis et al., 2013 http://medslikii.bo.ingv.it) coupled with the basin-scale and regional operational oceanographic services; (2) two-modular block of oil spill forecast and uncertainty evaluation; (3) user visualization tool including web and mobile interface with visualization of geospatial information by means of Google Maps. Service-oriented approach plays a key role in the WITOIL DSS development. The system meets the real-time requirements in terms of performance and in dynamic service delivery. Client part of WITOIL is presented by a 8-language GUI (Graphical User Interface) supplied with a great variety of user services including a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qj_GokYy8MU). GUI allows users to configure and activate the system, visualize the results using Google Maps, and save them afterwards. Not only does a new generation of DSS require the oil spill forecast, but it also needs the evaluation of uncertainty, which is critical for efficient response, recovery, and mitigation. Uncertainty in prediction of the oil transport and transformation stems from the uncertain environment and data-sparse. A new methodology of uncertainty calculation with respect to initial conditions is incorporated in WITOIL DSS. The results are presented in probability terms. Special application to Android has been implemented to support users involved in the field operations. The system is

  18. Fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooie, D. T.; Harrington, B. C., III; Mayfield, M. J.; Parsons, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The primary objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Fuel Cell program is to fund the development of key fuel cell technologies in a manner that maximizes private sector participation and in a way that will give contractors the opportunity for a competitive posture, early market entry, and long-term market growth. This summary includes an overview of the Fuel Cell program, an elementary explanation of how fuel cells operate, and a synopsis of the three major fuel cell technologies sponsored by the DOE/Fossil Energy Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell program, and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell program.

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  1. HYDROCARBON SPILL SCREENING MODEL (HSSM) VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This users guide describes the Hydrocarbon Spill Screening Model (HSSM). The model is intended for simulation of subsurface releases of light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). The model consists of separate modules for LNAPL flow through the vadose zone, spreading in the capil...

  2. Biological approach to oil spills remediation in the soil | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHC pollution in the environment, as well as the importance of natural interactions amongst living entities to arrest the problems hitherto caused by oil spills are hereby examined. Biological approaches to pollution remediation, which include phytoremediation, bioremediation, and application of biosurfactant, are discussed.

  3. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl ...

  4. Isolation of potent biosurfactant producing bacteria from oil spilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These can be divided into low- molecular weight molecules, that lower surface and interfacial tensions efficiently and high-molecular-weight polymers that bind tightly ... In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed from oil-spilled seawater collected from harbors and docks from ...

  5. Oil spill studies: A review of ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, John M.; Howarth, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed seven particularly well known and/or studied oil spills that have occurred since the National Academy of Sciences 1975 report, “Petroleum in the Marine Environment” or that occurred prior to that report but about which significant new information has since been acquired. The spills studied were from the barge Florida, and tankers Arrow, Argo Merchant, Amoco Cadiz, and Tsesis and blowouts from the Bravo and Ixtoc I platforms. These “best” studies yield only limited insight into effects because they lack controls and have a high degree of natural variability. The Tsesis, Florida, and Amoco Cadiz cases are exceptional since they occurred in areas of ongoing research programs and had nearby areas suitable for controls. Oil spills have produced measurable effects on ecosystems that have not been readily predictable from laboratory studies on isolated organisms. However, ecosystemlevel interactions are poorly understood even without the complications resulting from effects of pollution. These generalizations emerge: oil regularly reaches sediments after a spill; oil in anoxic sediments is persistent; oil regularly contaminates Zooplankton and benthic invertebrates; fish are also contaminated, but to a lesser extent; oil contamination decreases the abundance and diversity of benthic communities.

  6. Effects of the Gulf Oil Spill in Escambia County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Kelcey Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the British Petroleum Gulf Oil Spill on resource change, psychological stress, and resilience for business owners, residents, and workers in Escambia County, Florida. This study was based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) Conservation of Resources theory. All business owners, residents, and workers…

  7. Incident investigation team report: K-reactor D20 spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enis, E.

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses a spill of approximately 20 gallons of D2O (moderator) which occurred on February 7, 1990, at 0008 hours. The spill occurred while construction was removing process water lines from the 5B heat exchanger at a location referred to as a Rams Horn to allow the heat exchanger to be realigned. The heat exchangers in the other systems (loops) had been successfully disconnected (lines broken) during the previous two months and had been realigned without incident under the control of job plans similar to the System 5 job plan. Construction personnel reacted positively at the time the spill and successfully rebolted and tightened the leaking flanges on 5B and later on the 5A heat exchangers. This initial reaction stopped the leak and prevented a more severe incident. The spill incident resulted in a Site Alert declaration by the Shift Manager at 0220 hours when the Stack Tritium Monitor indicated a tritium release which exceeded the limits specified. After the event it was determined that a Temporary Procedure Change (TPC) to this DPSOL, had been approved and issued in April 1989. Had this TPC been available to the Shift Manager, the alert would not have been declared. Although the environmental impact of this event was negligible with no real radiological consequences minimal, the causal factors and programmatic deficiencies identified by this investigation show significant weakness in some critical areas.

  8. Incident investigation team report: K-reactor D20 spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enis, E.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses a spill of approximately 20 gallons of D2O (moderator) which occurred on February 7, 1990, at 0008 hours. The spill occurred while construction was removing process water lines from the 5B heat exchanger at a location referred to as a Rams Horn to allow the heat exchanger to be realigned. The heat exchangers in the other systems (loops) had been successfully disconnected (lines broken) during the previous two months and had been realigned without incident under the control of job plans similar to the System 5 job plan. Construction personnel reacted positively at the time the spill and successfully rebolted and tightened the leaking flanges on 5B and later on the 5A heat exchangers. This initial reaction stopped the leak and prevented a more severe incident. The spill incident resulted in a Site Alert declaration by the Shift Manager at 0220 hours when the Stack Tritium Monitor indicated a tritium release which exceeded the limits specified. After the event it was determined that a Temporary Procedure Change (TPC) to this DPSOL, had been approved and issued in April 1989. Had this TPC been available to the Shift Manager, the alert would not have been declared. Although the environmental impact of this event was negligible with no real radiological consequences minimal, the causal factors and programmatic deficiencies identified by this investigation show significant weakness in some critical areas.

  9. 77 FR 60454 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires..., conservation and environmental, public-at-large, recreation users, commercial tourism, science/technical, subsistence, commercial fishing, aquaculture and mariculture, and Native landowners. In order to ensure that a...

  10. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrical substations. Spills which occur in outdoor electrical substations, as defined under § 761.123... post-cleanup sampling as specified under § 761.130. At such times as outdoor electrical substations are... will jeopardize the integrity of the electrical equipment at the substation, the EPA regional office...

  11. 2nd FSC Workshop - Executive Summary and International Perspective, Stakeholder Involvement and Confidence in the Process of Decision-making for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Finland, 15-16 November 2001, Turku, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2. FSC workshop examined 'Stakeholder Involvement and Confidence in the Process of Decision-making for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Finland'. By gathering Finnish Stakeholders, those who expressed favour and opposition, as well as observer-participants from the other NEA/FSC countries, a joint reflection on a complex reality was achieved from which general conclusions can also be drawn concerning stakeholder involvement in the long-term management of radioactive waste. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Executive Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective

  12. Overview of studies to determine injury caused by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill to marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Thomas R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Wright, B.A.; Rice, S.D.; Spies, R.B.; Wolfe, D.A.; Wright, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Marine mammal damage assessment studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill concentrated on sea otters, harbor seals, Steller sea lions, killer whales, and humpback whales. Sea otter and harbor seals were the most affected marine mammal; it was estimated that several thousand otters and several hundred harbor seals died within months of the spill. Steller sea lion, harbor seal, and sea otter numbers were monitored using aerial surveys. Studies of humpback whales and killer whales used photoidentification techniques to determine changes in abundance, distribution, mortality, and natality. Tissues from animals found dead in spill and control areas were analyzed for hydrocarbon levels. Sea otters, sea lions and harbor seals had elevated hydrocarbon levels, but only sea otters and harbor seals showed population declines associated with the spill. Humpback whales were not severely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Killer whale numbers in the resident AB pod declined after the spill. Coincidental evidence supports the oil spill as the causative agent.

  13. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  14. An oil spill-food chain interaction model for coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yew Hoong Gin, K.; Huda, Md. K.; Tkalich, P.

    2001-01-01

    An oil spill-food chain interaction model, composed of a multiphase oil spill model (MOSM) and a food chain model, has been developed to assess the probable impacts of oil spills on several key marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, large fish and benthic invertebrates). The MOSM predicts oil slick thickness on the water surface; dissolved, emulsified and particulate oil concentrations in the water column; and dissolved and particulate oil concentrations in bed sediments. This model is used to predict the fate of oil spills and transport with respect to specific organic compounds, while the food chain model addresses the uptake of toxicant by marine organisms. The oil spill-food chain interaction model can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil spills in marine ecosystems. The model is applied to the recent Evoikos-Orapin Global oil spill that occurred in the Singapore Strait. (author)

  15. Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (pmarsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

  16. Assessment of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impact on Gulf coast microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina eLamendella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental concerns of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the ecological impact of the oil that reached shorelines of the Gulf Coast. Here we investigated the impact of the oil on the microbial composition in beach samples collected in June 2010 along a heavily impacted shoreline near Grand Isle, Louisiana. Successional changes in the microbial community structure due to the oil contamination were determined by deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Metatranscriptomics was used to determine expression of functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes. In addition, potential hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were obtained in culture. The 16S data revealed that highly contaminated samples had higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Successional changes in these classes were observed over time, during which the oil was partially degraded. The metatranscriptome data revealed that PAH, n-alkane, and toluene degradation genes were expressed in the contaminated samples, with high homology to genes from Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, and Pseudomonales. Notably, Marinobacter (Gammaproteobacteria had the highest representation of expressed genes in the samples. A Marinobacter isolated from this beach was shown to have potential for transformation of hydrocarbons in incubation experiments with oil obtained from the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252 well; collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. The combined data revealed a response of the beach microbial community to oil contaminants, including prevalence of Bacteria endowed with the functional capacity to degrade oil.

  17. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  18. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  19. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, M.; Mancini, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 microg/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 microg/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 microg/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species

  20. Behavior and persistence of spilled oil on shoreline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent oil spills have re-demonstrated the range of shoreline impacts that are possible from medium to large spills in the United States, i.e., the Exxon Valdez spill which significantly contaminated over 1000 km of shoreline in Alaska and the Mega Borg, which resulted in widely scattered tar balls over a small area. Immediate and total removal of stranded oil should not always be the primary objective. Instead, shoreline cleanup strategies developed for oil spills need to consider the persistence and short- to long-term persistence of stranded oil. There are several general guidelines on the persistence of stranded oil. High-energy shorelines are rapidly and effectively cleaned by natural processes, although there are micro-environments where oil tends to persist (wave shadows, supratidal zone, rock crevices, etc.). On sand and mixed sand and gravel beaches, oil tends to be buried below clean layers of sediment, but erosional/depositional cycles will result in oil removal, usually within one year. In sheltered environments (wetlands, tidal flats) oil will persist for long periods; therefore, oil removal is frequently required, though it is usually poorly implemented. Cobble/boulder beaches, while usually very complex, present a special problem. They can be found in a range of energy settings, with years between periods of storm activity. These beaches can hold large volumes of oil; they can be a source of long-term (> one year) leaching and sheening; subsurface oil is very difficult to remove by surface treatment methods; and they have poorly understood sedimentation patterns, so it is difficult to predict rates of sediment reworking. Studies of recent oil spills have shown a need for shoreline-specific technologies for these types of beaches

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29 Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-09-26

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting a closure recommendation for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29 Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU contains six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03, Oil Spills; 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); and 29-44-01, Fuel Spill, located within Areas 12, 18, and 29 on the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action or closure in place for CASs within CAU 394. Throughout late 2002 and early to mid 2003, closure activities were performed as set forth in the CAU 394 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan. The closure activities identified the nature and extent of contaminants of potential concern at the CASs, and provided sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Soil in CASs 18-25-02 and 18-25-03 containing polychlorinated biphenyls exceeding the action levels established by the Nevada Administrative Code were removed for proper disposal. The soil remaining in these CASs containing petroleum hydrocarbons exceeding the action level were closed in place with use restrictions. Corrective Action Sites 18-25-04 required no further corrective action; closure in place is required at CASs 12-25-04, 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03, and 29-44-01; and use restrictions are required at CASs 12-25-04, 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03 and 29-44-01. In summary, no corrective action plan is required for CAU 394.

  2. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  3. Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Klerks, P.L.; Nyman, J.A

    2003-04-01

    Toxicity of oil and diesel fuel to freshwater biota may be increased by use of oil spill cleaning agents. - Toxicity and temporal changes in toxicity of freshwater-marsh-microcosms containing South Louisiana Crude (SLC) or diesel fuel and treated with a cleaner or dispersant, were investigated using Chironomus tentans, Daphnia pulex, and Oryzias latipes. Bioassays used microcosm water (for D. pulex and O. latipes) or soil slurry (for C. tentans) taken 1,7, 31, and 186 days after treatment. SLC was less toxic than diesel, chemical additives enhanced oil toxicity, the dispersant was more toxic than the cleaner, and toxicities were greatly reduced by day 186. Toxicities were higher in the bioassay with the benthic species than in those with the two water-column species. A separate experiment showed that C. tentans' sensitivity was intermediate to that of Tubifex tubifex and Hyallela azteca. Freshwater organisms, especially benthic invertebrates, thus appear seriously effected by oil under the worst-case-scenario of our microcosms. Moreover, the cleaner and dispersant tested were poor response options under those conditions.

  4. The Prestige oil spill response on the sandy beaches in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerambrun, L.; Beau, N.

    2005-01-01

    The tanker Prestige sank of the northwest coast of Spain in November 2003, spilling large quantities of oil and affecting the coastline of France as well as the coastline from the Gironde River estuary to the Spanish border. The response effort was restricted to manual collection because of the widespread nature of the spill and the lack of financial resources. Most of the oil was washed by wave action in the areas that were affected. The most affected area was the Aquitaine coastline which consists mainly of long sandy dunes. Most of the beached fuel consisted of patches and tar balls scattered along the shore and mixed with floating debris. Surf-washing and nets were used as part of the manual recovery method. The response team was always looking for ways to deal with beached oil, which arrived continuously for several months following the incident. The response operation included a unique collection method which proved to be successful. It consisted of 1 or 2 drums lined with a geotextile netting to which the tar balls adhered to when they were fresh. The tar balls were later removed by scrapers and sent to a storage tank. The linings of the drums were interchangeable and replaced when saturated. The constant beaching of oil influenced the way the response operation was eventually organized. It was difficult to predict where and when the oil would land and available human resources were scarce. In addition, the response was challenged by the characteristics of the shoreline, which receives heavy wave action. 5 refs

  5. Comparative life cycle analysis of cement made with coal vs hazardous waste as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K.E.; Beeh, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this life cycle analysis (LCA) is to compare the life cycle of cement made with coal, the standard fuel used in a cement kiln, versus cement made with hazardous waste-derived fuels. The intent of the study is to determine whether the use of hazardous waste as a fuel in the production of cement could result in an increase in detrimental effects to either health or environment. Those evaluated for potential adverse effect include cement kiln workers, waste transporters, and consumers using the final product for private use. The LCA stages included all the processes involved with cement, including raw materials acquisition, transportation, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, use, recycling, and disposal. The overall conclusions of the LCA are that use of waste fuels instead of coal to make cement: (1) does not increase, and may reduce, the concentration of contaminants in the cement product due to the reduction or elimination of the use of coal; (2) reduces or eliminates use of non-renewable fossil fuels, such as coal, as well as the environmental damage and impacts associated with coal mining; (3) provides a more environmentally beneficial means of destroying many types of wastes than alternative treatment methods, including incineration, thus decreasing the need for waste treatment facilities and capacity; (4) decreases overall emissions during transportation but may increase the overall consequences of accidents or spills; (5) results in cement product which may be packaged, transported, distributed and used in the same manner as cement product made with coal; (6) lowers the cost of cement production; and (7) overall appears to result in less health and environmental impacts

  6. Transport and fate of phosphorus during and after manure spill simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Shalamar D; Smith, Douglas R; Joern, Brad C; Owens, Phillip R; Leytem, April B; Huang, C; Adeola, Layi

    2010-01-01

    Animal manure spills contribute to P loading of surface waters and little is known about the effectiveness of the current manure spill clean-up methods to mitigate P contamination. Manure spill clean-up consists of containing, removing, and land applying the contaminated water column, while P-enriched fluvial sediments remain in place. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (i) understand how P partitions between the water column and fluvial sediments during a manure spill, and (ii) evaluate the efficacy of current manure spill clean-up methods to remediate manure contaminated sediments. Manure spill simulations were conducted using fluvarium techniques and sediments collected from three drainage areas of two drainage ditches. Sediments with the greatest clay content (33%) resulted in a significantly greater P buffering capacity (10.3 L kg(-1)) and removed P from the water column at the greatest rate during the manure spill simulation relative to sediments with clay. Phosphorus uptake length for all sediments ranged from 574 to 815 m and the adsorption flux ranged from 8.9 to 16.7 mg m(-2) h(-1). After simulating the current manure spill remediation methods, P desorbed to the water from all sediments exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency total P criteria (0.076 mg L(-1)) for the region by at least 67%. Furthermore, results from this study suggest that the current manure spill remediation method needs refining to mitigate P from the total fluvial system water column and sediment following a spill.

  7. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  8. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated

  9. Hurricane Andrew causes major oil spill at Florida Power ampersand Light Company's Turkey Point Power Plant, Homestead, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Butts, R.L.; Lindsay, J.R.; McCully, B.S.; Pickering, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew slammed into South Florida with wind gusts in excess of 160 mph. At 4:00 a.m. that day, the eye of this category four storm passed over Florida Power ampersand Light Company's Turkey Point power plant, south of Miami. Although the plant's two nuclear units escaped any significant damage, the storm caused extensive destruction to buildings and transmission facilities, and damaged two 400 foot tall emission stacks associated with the site's two fossil fuel generating units. In addition, a 90,000 to 110,000 gallon spill of No. 6 fuel oil resulted when a piece of wind-blown debris punctured the steel of the unit One 12,000 barrel fuel oil metering tank approximately 30 feet up from the tank bottom. Despite the presence of a secondary containment structure around the tank, the intense wind blew oil throughout the plant site. The damage to the metering tank apparently occurred during the first half hour of the hurricane. As the tank's oil level fell due to the puncture, transfer pumps from the bulk oil storage tanks received a low level alarm which automatically began transferring oil to the damaged metering tank. To prevent the further discharge of oil, plant personnel entered the power block and secured the pumps during the passage of the hurricane eye. Immediately following the storm, facility personnel deployed booms across the barge canal and the Units 1 and 2 intake canal to contain the oil which had entered the water. The response strategy and implementation is described in detail. The remediation costs were approximately $14/gallon spilled, including 54,000 gallons recovered for electricity generation

  10. The application of a weight of evidence approach to compare the quality of coastal sediments affected by acute (Prestige 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Riba, Inmaculada; Sarasquete, Carmen; Valls, T. Angel del

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate sediment quality in different areas affected by oil spills, a weight of evidence approach was employed by including a complete set of parameters as part of four lines of evidence: sediment contamination, biological effects (including biomarkers) and bioaccumulation under laboratory conditions, toxicity in field conditions and benthic community structure. The methodology was applied to sediments from the Bay of Algeciras (S Spain) chronically impacted by different spills, and the Galician Coast (NW Spain) acutely impacted by an oil spill (Prestige 2002). Results obtained have elucidated the sources and fates of pollutants and the type of risk involved for the ecosystem. Factorial analysis revealed that the main factors were those containing toxicity, chemistry and benthic community variables indicating degradation in Algeciras. It has been demonstrated that the impact associated with chronic event of contamination by oil spills are significantly more dangerous and polluted than those related to acute effects. - Chronic inputs due to the continuous entrance of contaminants result in much more harm to coastal ecosystems than major but precise environmental impacts

  11. The application of a weight of evidence approach to compare the quality of coastal sediments affected by acute (Prestige 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen [Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); UNESCO UNITWIN/WiCop, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail: carmen.morales@uca.es; Riba, Inmaculada [Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); UNESCO UNITWIN/WiCop, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Sarasquete, Carmen [Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Valls, T. Angel del [Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); UNESCO UNITWIN/WiCop, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    To evaluate sediment quality in different areas affected by oil spills, a weight of evidence approach was employed by including a complete set of parameters as part of four lines of evidence: sediment contamination, biological effects (including biomarkers) and bioaccumulation under laboratory conditions, toxicity in field conditions and benthic community structure. The methodology was applied to sediments from the Bay of Algeciras (S Spain) chronically impacted by different spills, and the Galician Coast (NW Spain) acutely impacted by an oil spill (Prestige 2002). Results obtained have elucidated the sources and fates of pollutants and the type of risk involved for the ecosystem. Factorial analysis revealed that the main factors were those containing toxicity, chemistry and benthic community variables indicating degradation in Algeciras. It has been demonstrated that the impact associated with chronic event of contamination by oil spills are significantly more dangerous and polluted than those related to acute effects. - Chronic inputs due to the continuous entrance of contaminants result in much more harm to coastal ecosystems than major but precise environmental impacts.

  12. Low Loss Advanced Metallic Fuel Casting Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kihwan; Ko, Youngmo; Kim, Jonghwan; Song, Hoon; Lee Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of fuel slug casting, loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and the fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycles streams in the fabrication process. Recycle streams include fuel slug reworks, returned scraps, and fuel casting heels, which are a special concern in the counter gravity injection casting process because of the large masses involved. Large recycle and waste streams result in lowering the productivity and the economic efficiency of fuel production. To increase efficiency the fuel losses in the furnace chamber, crucible, and the mold, after casting a considerable amount of fuel alloy in the casting furnace, will be quantitatively evaluated. After evaluation the losses will be identified and minimized. It is expected that this study will contribute to the minimization of fuel losses and the wastes streams in the fabrication process of the fuel slugs. Also through this study the technical readiness level of the metallic fuel fabrication process will be further enhanced. In this study, U-Zr alloy system fuel slugs were fabricated by a gravity casting method. Metallic fuel slugs were successfully fabricated with 19 slugs/batch with diameter of 5mm and length of 300mm. Fuel losses was quantitatively evaluated in casting process for the fuel slugs. Fuel losses of the fuel slugs were so low, 0.1∼1.0%. Injection casting experiments have been performed to reduce the fuel loss and improve the casting method. U-Zr fuel slug having φ5.4-L250mm was soundly fabricated with 0.1% in fuel loss. The fuel losses could be minimized to 0.1%, which showed that casting technology of fuel slugs can be a feasible approach to reach the goal of the fuel losses of 0.1% or less in commercial scale

  13. French programme for HTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is reported that in the frameworks of the French HTR research program, stopped in 1979 the HTR coated particle fuel, fuel rod and prismatic fuel element design have been successfully developed and irradiation tested in France and specific examination methods for irradiated fuel particles, rods and graphite blocks have been developed. Currently CEA is involved in fission product transport experiments sponsored by the US Department of Energy and performed in the COMEDIE loop. Finally the CEA follows progress and developments in HTR fuel research and development throughout the world. 1 tab

  14. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  16. A pro-active spill response training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, D.

    1993-01-01

    Training is necessary, required by agencies, and cost-effective in dealing with response to oil spills. Clean Seas has, for the past 22 years, developed and provided over 10,000 training days to member company personnel as well as contractors and regulatory agencies. The practice of having an annual drill, reviewing the contingency plan, having a cookout, and going back to real work is over. Member companies in the Santa Barbara Channel work in a tightly regulated environment that hasn't noticed the change that other areas felt after the Exxon Valdez. On-the-job training has no place when a spill occurs. A proactive training program has proven to be cost-effective whenever contingency plans have had to be used

  17. Spilling of electronic states in Pb quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałochowski, M.; Palotás, K.; Krawiec, M.

    2016-01-01

    Energy-dependent apparent step heights of two-dimensional ultrathin Pb islands grown on the Si(111)6 ×6 -Au surface have been investigated by a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, first-principles density-functional theory, and the particle-in-a-box model calculations. The apparent step height shows the thickness- and energy-dependent oscillatory behaviors, which are directly related to the spilling of electron states into the vacuum exhibiting a quantum size effect. This has been unambiguously proven by extensive first-principles scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy simulations. An electronic contribution to the apparent step height is directly determined. At certain energies it reaches values as high as a half of the atomic contribution. The applicability of the particle-in-a-box model to the spilling of electron states is also discussed.

  18. Effects of oil spill responses on key Arctic zooplankton species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Kirstine Underbjerg; Hansen, Pil Hagenbøl; Köhler, Eva

    The copepod Calanus glacialis is a key species in the Arctic ecosystem. Increased shipping and oil and gas activities in the Arctic increase the risk of an oil spill. It is therefore important to study the potential consequences of an oil spill on this key species in the Arctic marine ecosystems...... and hatching of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis. Eight mesocosms with open top and bottom were deployed in the sea ice in Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard, in February 2015. Two replicates were used for all treatments. After application, surface ice was allowed to re-establish. Water was collected from the top...... 2 cm water column in March and just before sea ice break up in May, and was used in two 14-day incubation experiments with C. glacialis collected in Isfjorden. Copepods were fed during the experiment and eggs and pellets were quantified daily. Egg hatching was determined in the beginning and end...

  19. Removal of Petroleum Spill in Water by Chitin and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio de Freitas Barros

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the capacity of adsorption of crude oil spilled in seawater by chitin flakes, chitin powder, chitosan flakes, chitosan powder, and chitosan solution. The results showed that, although chitosan flakes had a better adsorption capacity by oil (0.379 ± 0.030 grams oil per gram of adsorbent, the biopolymer was sinking after adsorbing oil. Chitosan solution did not present such inconvenience, despite its lower adsorption capacity (0.013 ± 0.001 grams oil per gram of adsorbent. It was able to form a polymeric film on the oil slick, which allowed to restrain and to remove the oil from the samples of sea water. The study also suggests that chitosan solution 0.5% has greater efficiency against oil spills in alkaline medium than acidic medium.

  20. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutual Interest: Engaging Vietnam on Oil Spill Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    industrial disaster grows. An industrial accident like the Deepwater Horizon (DH) incident in the Gulf of Mexico would have a crippling effect on the...are pursuing a multi- lateral Trans-Pacific Partnership ( TPP ) free trade agreement. Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization in 2007 and global...An oil spill in the South China Sea on the scale of the Deepwater Horizon (DH) incident in the Gulf of Mexico could increase tension in the region and

  2. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  3. Fill and spill drives runoff connectivity over frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, A. E.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Snowmelt-runoff processes on frozen ground are poorly understood at the hillslope scale. This is especially true for hillslopes on the northern Great Plains of North America where long periods of snow-covered frozen ground with very shallow slopes mask any spatial patterns and process controls on connectivity and hillslope runoff generation. This study examines a 4.66 ha (46,600 m2) hillslope on the northern Great Plains during the 2014 spring snowmelt season to explore hillslope runoff processes. Specifically, we explore the spatial patterns of runoff production source areas and examine how surface topography and patterns of snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil water content, and thawed layer depth - which we measured on a 10 m grid across our 46,600 m2 hillslope - affect melt water partitioning and runoff connectivity. A key question was whether or not the controls on connectivity are consistent with the fill and spill mechanism found in rain-dominated and unfrozen soil domains. The contrast between the slow infiltration rates into frozen soil and the relatively fast rates of snowmelt delivery to the soil surface resulted in water accumulation in small depressions under the snowpack. Consequently, infiltration was minimal over the 12 day melt period. Instead, nested filling of micro- and meso-depressions was followed by macro-scale, whole-slope spilling. This spilling occurred when large patches of ponded water exceeded the storage capacity behind downslope micro barriers in the surface topography, and flows from them coalesced to drive a rapid increase in runoff at the hillslope outlet. These observations of ponded water and flowpaths followed mapable fill and spill locations based on 2 m resolution digital topographic analysis. Interestingly, while surface topography is relatively unimportant under unfrozen conditions at our site because of low relief and high infiltrability, surface topography shows episodically critical importance for connectivity and

  4. Community Adaptation to the Hebei-Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    So-Min Cheong

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the research is the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. It shifts the emphasis on self-reliant communities for survival and examines the types and effects of dependence and external linkages by analyzing the range of community responses that include initial responses, early social impact, compensation, and conflicts after the Hebei-Spirit oil spill in December 2007 in Korea. The findings reveal that dependence is ...

  5. The management of acute risks. Oil spill contingency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, D.C.; Cormack, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the risks of environmental damage can be best minimized by preventing oil spills from occurring at all. Since absolute prevention is unrealistic, however, early detection is essential and aerial surveillance techniques are of great value in this connection. If spills do occur, proper contingency planning and clean-up techniques can minimize impacts, but will rarely avoid them completely if the spilled oil reaches the coastline. It is evident that a main priority should be to prevent spilled oil reaching the coastline. The way in which oil spill response strategy is implemented is discussed in detail. It is based on four key elements: the allocation of responsibilities; contingency planning; training and exercises; regular audit of plans and response mechanisms. A case study of the oil spill strategy employed at the Sullom Voe oil terminal in Shetland is used as an illustration. (UK)

  6. The use of mesocosms in marine oil spill - ecological research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of mesocosms which are partly enclosed, bounded, outdoor experimental systems for simulating marine oil spill environments for use in examining the ecological impact of the spill response. System requirements for mesocosms in marine oil spill ecological research and development are discussed, and the question of scaling, and mesocosm tank features useful in coastal/nearshore ecological marine oil spill research are considered. Details are given of the MERL mesocosm facility at the University of Rhode Island, and the Coastal Oil-Spill Simulation System (COSS) multiple tank mesocosm facility in Texas, and recommendations for the design and use of marine mesocosms in oil spill ecological impact studies are presented. (UK)

  7. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S.; Shinn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hesse, D [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States); Kaninich, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lazaro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mubayi, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

  9. Spill-of-opportunity testing of dispersant effectiveness at the Mega Borg oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.R.; Martrano, R.J.; Reilly, T.J.; Lindblom, G.P.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The release of 3.9 million gallons of Angola Planca crude oil from the stricken tanker Mega Borg 57 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in June 1990 provided a valuable opportunity to document dispersant effectiveness under field conditions. Aerial application of Corexit 9527 (968 gallons total in four adjacent passes) onto an identified test portion of the slick was evaluated by concurrent observations from a command-and-control aircraft and surface vessels (with videotape and 35-mm photographic documentation) and ground truth measurements, including continuous 4-meter-depth ultraviolet/fluorescence and a discrete water sampling program. Using the study plan outlined by Payne and colleagues, target and control areas were designated before dispersant application by deployment of smoke bombs and coded three-meter drogues. Postdispersant surface vessel placement and 30 liter water sampling activities from the Texas A ampersand M research vessel HOS Citation were aided by the smoke bombs, the free-drifting drogues, and directions from the command-and-control aircraft. Subsequent FID GC and GC/MS analyses of water sample extracts allowed quantitation of the dispersed oil concentrations under both treated and control areas. Although the spilled oil was extremely light (API gravity 39.0) and subject to significant natural dispersion, the field observations, filmed documentation, and water column data clearly demonstrated an increase in dispersed oil concentrations beneath the treated slick. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets was very heterogeneous and reflected the patchy distribution of oil on the water surface before dispersant application. Maximum concentrations of dispersed hydrocarbons in the center of the treated zone were 22,000 μg/L (22 ppm) for total aliphatic and 5.6 μg/L (5.6 ppb) for total aromatics 60 to 90 minutes after dispersant application. Elevated levels were generally limited to the upper 1 to 3 meters of the water column

  10. Spill sorbents: A comparison of water and oil sorbency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.

    1993-01-01

    Sorbents for oil spills come in three general classes: organic, such as peat moss, sawdust, and paper fibre; inorganic, such as clay, vermiculite, and diatomaceous earth; and synthetic, including a variety of materials made from polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene. The water and oil sorptive properties of various sorbents are listed and their characteristics are described. In spill remediation, most synthetic adsorbents are oleophilic with some degree of hydrophobic properties to prevent them from taking up water as they clean up the oil. In some situations, such as maintenance spills where aqueous liquids are also encountered, universal sorbents which have both oleophilic and hydrophilic properties are used. Sorbents are sold in a variety of product configurations, including powders, beads, rolls, ropes, and booms. Melt blown polypropylene is widely used since it is inexpensive, easy to apply, a good insulator, relatively inert, non-hazardous, and available in a wide variety of configurations. Its approximate oil sorbency is 20-30 times its own weight while its water sorbency is 0.0-0.1 times its own weight. In the Canadian market, sorbent products are available from importers, packagers, and manufacturers. The market is dominated by a few large companies that provide a range of high- and low-tech products in addition to ancillary products such as drums and skimmers. 2 tabs

  11. Alyeska/SERVS technological innovations for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of technological innovations in spill response by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company/SERVS (ship escort response vessel system), was presented. The company has developed a number of spill response techniques which have needed new strategies and modified equipment for fulfillment of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. One of the strategies was the training of personnel to be ready to deploy massive quantities of equipment on short notice to potential spill sites over an 11,000 square mile water body with more than 3,200 miles of wilderness shoreline. Specific response equipment and decision-making tools have been developed in direct support of large scale programs. Along with oil slick tracking buoys and mini barges, SERVS has developed high capacity skimmers with recovery capacities approaching 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of liquid per hour and strategy boom-towing vessels which divert oil into a long U shaped containment boom. SERVS fishing vessel program, hatchery protection and remote response center equipment program, and wildlife treatment facilities were also described. 10 refs., 13 figs

  12. Integration of multi-technology on oil spill emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hannam, Phillip M; Xia, Xiaowei; Zhao, Tingting

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of technologies including Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for establishing emergency preparedness for oil spill accidents. In CBR, the Frame method is used to define case representation, and the HEOM (Heterogeneous Euclidean-Overlap Metric) is improved to define the similarity of case properties. In GA, we introduce an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) that achieves case adaptation, in which technologies include the Multi-Parameter Cascade Code method, the Small Section method for generation of an initial population, the Multi-Factor Integrated Fitness Function, and Niche technology for genetic operations including selection, crossover, and mutation. In ANN, a modified back-propagation algorithm is employed to train the algorithm to quickly improve system preparedness. Through the analysis of 32 fabricated oil spill cases, an oil spill emergency preparedness system based on the integration of CBR, GA and ANN is introduced. In particular, the development of ANN is presented and analyzed. The paper also discusses the efficacy of our integration approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thickness characterisation of oil spills using active microwave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Michael; Shuchman, Robert A.; Kletzli, D. W., Jr.; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Digranes, Gunar; Berg, Sverre; Dalland, Kjell

    1994-12-01

    Oil thickness is a crucial parameter in the characterization of oil spills for environmental impact. The feasibility of using active microwave sensors to measure thickness was addressed in a series of microwave scatterometer experiments performed by Simrad Marine A/S in a wave tank at the Nansen Environmental Remote Sensing Center. The thickness of the oil layer was maintained at levels similar to the thick part of an oil spill (0.1 - 1 mm). The measurements showed the capability of active microwave sensors to measure oil spill thickness when the oil type is known. In addition to thickness characterization, the experiment studied the effects of oil viscosity, incidence angle, wind speed, wind angle, microwave frequency, and polarization. The backscatter contrast was observed to be greater for lower incidence angles which indicates that the ERS-1 viewing geometry is optimum for the detection and measurement of thick oil slicks. A thickness-dependent backscatter model was developed which included the effects of oil viscosity, composite surface effects, and oil-water reflectivities. The model viscous effects saturated when the oil thickness was greater than the viscous boundary layer thickness. This explained the observed C-VV backscatter contrast saturation for low viscosity diesel oil at thicknesses greater than 0.15 mm. The model predicted contrast saturation at greater thicknesses for the higher viscosity oils. The data showed this trend but the measurements did not extend to thicknesses which tested the model completely.

  14. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillen, S.J.; Young, G.N.; Davis, P.S.; Cook, P.D.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  15. Modelling Oil-Spill Detection with Swarm Drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aznar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, swarm robotics research is having a great increase due to the benefits derived from its use, such as robustness, parallelism, and flexibility. Unlike distributed robotic systems, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability. Among the multiple applications of such systems we could find are exploring unstructured environments, resource monitoring, or distributed sensing. Two of these applications, monitoring, and perimeter/area detection of a given resource, have several ecological uses. One of them is the detection and monitoring of pollutants to delimit their perimeter and area accurately. Maritime activity has been increasing gradually in recent years. Many ships carry products such as oil that can adversely affect the environment. Such products can produce high levels of pollution in case of being spilled into sea. In this paper we will present a distributed system which monitors, covers, and surrounds a resource by using a swarm of homogeneous low cost drones. These drones only use their local sensory information and do not require any direct communication between them. Taking into account the properties of this kind of oil spills we will present a microscopic model for a swarm of drones, capable of monitoring these spills properly. Furthermore, we will analyse the proper macroscopic operation of the swarm. The analytical and experimental results presented here show the proper evolution of our system.

  16. Canadian coastal environments, shoreline processes, and oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1994-03-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic environment, so that in developing practical and effective oil spill response strategies it is necessary to understand the forces that contribute to shore-zone processs. The coasts of Canada encompass a wide range of environments and are characterized by a variety of shoreline types that include the exposed, resistant cliffs of eastern Newfoundland and the sheltered marshes of the Beaufort Sea. A report is presented to provide an understanding of the dynamics and physical processes as they vary on the different coasts of Canada, including the Great Lakes. An outline of the general character and processes on a regional basis describes the coastal environments and introduces the literature that can be consulted for more specific information. The likely fate and persistence of oil that reaches the shoreline is discussed to provide the framework for development of spill response strategies and for the selection of appropriate shoreline cleanup or treatment countermeasures. Lessons learned from recent experience with major oil spills and field experiments are integrated into the discussion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the four sections of this report. 502 refs., 5 figs

  17. Sexual reproduction in species of the brown seaweed, Fucus, to assess damage and recovery from the World Prodigy oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thursby, E.; Tagliabue, M.; Sheehan, C.; Steele, R.

    1990-01-01

    On Friday, June 23, 1989, the oil tanker World Prodigy ran aground on Brenton Reef off Newport, Rhode Island, USA, spilling No. 2 fuel oil into the mouth of Narragansett Bay. This paper reports that a shoreline survey of the intertidal and upper subtidal macroalgae was begun on June 24th as part of a larger effort to document the fate and effect of the oil. There was little evidence of necrotic tissue among the attached plants at most of the site visited. However, several species of the brown alga, Fucus, showed inhibition of sexual reproduction. Reproductive material of F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis or F. spiralis var. limitaneus was collected from various sites for later laboratory assessment of viability. Viability was determined by germination rate of embryos. Summer is not the optimal reproductive time for Fucus, and embryos of F. spiralis var. limitaneus never germinated at a rate greater than 25%, even from clean sites. Fucus spiralis plants were collected at Narragansett Pier, before arrival of oil from the spill. Embryos at this site had a germination rate of 63%. There was essentially no germination by either F. vesiculosus or F. spiralis at any oil sites visited during the first collections. However, by July 5th at some sites, and by July 13th at all sites, the germination rate of these two species averaged from 60 to 88%

  18. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  19. Burden of disease attributable to the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Min; Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Kyusik; Noh, Su Ryeon; Choi, Young-Hyun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the burden of disease (BOD) of the residents living in contaminated coastal area with oil spill and also analysed the BOD attributable to the oil spill by disease, age, sex and subregion. Design Health impact assessment by measuring years lived with disability (YLD) due to an oil spill. Setting A whole population of a community affected by an anthropogenic environmental disaster and secondary health outcome data. Participants Based on the health outcome survey in...

  20. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the res...

  1. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT), was administered. The children were assigned to two groups: those who lived close to the oil spill area and those who lived far from the oil spill area. Results The children who lived close to the oil spill area showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), an increased prevalence of 'asthma ever' (based on a questionnaire), and 'airway hyperresponsiveness' (based on the MBPT) than those who lived far from the oil spill area (FEV1; P=0.011, prevalence of 'asthma ever' based on a questionnaire; P=0.005, prevalence of 'airway hyperresponsiveness' based on the MBPT; P=0.001). The onset of wheezing after the oil spill was significantly higher in children who lived close to the oil spill area than in those who lived far from the oil spill area among the 'wheeze ever' group (P=0.002). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, family history of asthma, and residence near the oil spill area were significant risk factors for asthma (sex [male/female]: odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.91; family history of asthma [No/Yes]: OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.83-7.75; exposure group [low/high]; OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.27-4.65). Conclusions This study suggests that exposure to an oil spill is a risk factor for asthma in children. PMID:24179682

  2. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il; Jee, Young-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, an...

  3. Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Frances J; King, Catherine K; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no standard or suitable response methods under extreme Antarctic conditions. Fuel dispersants may present a possible solution; however, little data exist on the toxicity of dispersants or fuels to Antarctic species, thereby preventing informed management decisions. Larval development toxicity tests using 3 life history stages of the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri) were completed to assess the toxicity of physically dispersed, chemically dispersed, and dispersant-only water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of an intermediate fuel oil (IFO 180, BP) and the chemical dispersant Slickgone NS (Dasic International). Despite much lower total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations, physically dispersed fuels contained higher proportions of low-to-intermediate weight carbon compounds and were generally at least an order of magnitude more toxic than chemically dispersed fuels. Based on concentrations that caused 50% abnormality (EC50) values, the embryonic unhatched blastula life stage was the least affected by fuels and dispersants, whereas the larval 4-armed pluteus stage was the most sensitive. The present study is the first to investigate the possible implications of the use of fuel dispersants for fuel spill response in Antarctica. The results indicate that the use of a fuel dispersant did not increase the hydrocarbon toxicity of IFO 180 to the early life stages of Antarctic sea urchins, relative to physical dispersal. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1563-1571. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW) [de

  5. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  6. Effects of Stress Related to the Gulf Oil Spill on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Weems, Carl F; Hansel, Tonya C; King, Lucy S

    2016-01-01

    To examine the interactive effects of stress related to the Gulf oil spill on mental health of children and adolescents on the Gulf Coast who were also affected by previous hurricanes. A prospective design, with n = 1,577 youth (aged 3-18 years), evaluated pre-oil spill and again post-oil spill for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, previous hurricane exposure, and amount of oil spill stress. Stressors related to the spill were common and were associated with PTSD symptoms. Moreover, there was an interactive effect such that those with high preexisting PTSD symptoms, high previous hurricane exposure, and high oil spill stress had the most elevated post-oil spill PTSD symptoms. This study provides initial evidence linking stress related to the Gulf oil spill to youth mental health symptoms. The effects of the oil spill on youth mental health were most evident among those with cumulative risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Maximum tech, minimum time. Response and cleanup of the Fidalgo Bay oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintler, L.R. (Burlington Environmental Inc., Seattle, WA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A booster pump failure on a pipeline at Texaco's Anacortes refinery spilled more than 17,000 gallons of oil into Fidalgo Bay. A description is given of the spill control measures taken under Texaco's Spill Prevention and Control Countermeasures and facility contingency plans. The spill was addressed quickly, and containment booms were used to cordon off the spill. Vacuum trucks, rope mop machines and disk skimmers were used to collect the thickest concentrations of oil, and the oil and water collected was separated at the refinery's wastewater treatment centre. Nonwoven polypropylene sorbent pads, sweeps, booms and oil snares were used to clean up thinner concentrations of oil. Essential steps for a smooth spill response include the following: a comprehensive spill prevention and control countermeasures plan, training and regular drills and testing; immediate notification of appropriate regulatory agencies and company emergency response personnel; and the use of professional oil spill management contractors to assist in spill cleanup. 2 figs.

  8. A Dynamic Remote Sensing Data-Driven Approach for Oil Spill Simulation in the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that oil spill remote sensing could only generate the oil slick information at a specific time and that traditional oil spill simulation models were not designed to deal with dynamic conditions, a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS was introduced. The DDDAS entails both the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. Based on the DDDAS, combing a remote sensor system that detects oil spills with a numerical simulation, an integrated data processing, analysis, forecasting and emergency response system was established. Once an oil spill accident occurs, the DDDAS-based oil spill model receives information about the oil slick extracted from the dynamic remote sensor data in the simulation. Through comparison, information fusion and feedback updates, continuous and more precise oil spill simulation results can be obtained. Then, the simulation results can provide help for disaster control and clean-up. The Penglai, Xingang and Suizhong oil spill results showed our simulation model could increase the prediction accuracy and reduce the error caused by empirical parameters in existing simulation systems. Therefore, the DDDAS-based detection and simulation system can effectively improve oil spill simulation and diffusion forecasting, as well as provide decision-making information and technical support for emergency responses to oil spills.

  9. 75 FR 61771 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires a public... users, commercial tourism, science/technical, subsistence, commercial fishing, aquaculture and...

  10. Quantitative risk assessment of continuous liquid spill fires based on spread and burning behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Huang, Hong; Li, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Spill fires usually occur during the storage and transportation of hazardous materials, posing a threat to the people and environment in their immediate proximity. In this paper, a classical Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) method is used to assess the risk of spill fires. In this method, the m......, large-scale experiments of spill fires on water and a glass sheet were conducted to verify the accuracy and application of the model. The results show that the procedure we developed can be used to quantitatively calculate the risk associated with a continuous spill fire....

  11. Fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel pellet for insertion into a cladding tube in order to form a fuel element or a fuel rod. The fuel pellet has got a belt-like projection around its essentially cylindrical lateral circumferential surface. The upper and lower edges in vertical direction of this belt-like projection are wave-shaped. The projection is made of the same material as the bulk pellet. Both are made in one piece. (orig.) [de

  12. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiecki, Jennifer; Alexander, Melannie; Schwartz, Erica G; Wang, Li; Weems, Laura; Barrett, John; Christenbury, Kate; Johndrow, David; Funk, Renée H; Engel, Lawrence S

    2018-03-01

    Long-term studies of oil spill responders are urgently needed as oil spills continue to occur. To this end, we established the prospective Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study. DWH oil spill responders (n=8696) and non-responders (n=44 823) who were members of the US Coast Guard (20 April-17 December 2010) were included. This cohort uses both prospective, objective health data from military medical encounters and cross-sectional survey data. Here, we describe the cohort, present adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) estimating cross-sectional associations between crude oil exposure (none, low/medium, high) and acute physical symptoms, and present adjusted relative risks (RRs) based on longitudinal medical encounter data (2010-2012) for responders/non-responders and responders exposed/not exposed to crude oil. Responders and non-responders in this large cohort (n=53 519) have similar characteristics. Crude oil exposure was reported by >50% of responders. We found statistically significant associations for crude oil exposure with coughing (PR high =1.78), shortness of breath (PR high =2.30), wheezing (PR high =2.32), headaches (PR high =1.46), light-headedness/dizziness (PR high =1.96), skin rash/itching (PR high =1.87), diarrhoea (PR high =1.76), stomach pain (PR high =1.67), nausea/vomiting (PR high =1.48) and painful/burning urination (PR high =2.89) during deployment. Longitudinal analyses revealed that responders had elevated RRs for dermal conditions (RR=1.09), as did oil-exposed responders for chronic respiratory conditions (RR=1.32), asthma (RR=1.83) and dermal conditions (RR=1.21). We found positive associations between crude oil exposure and various acute physical symptoms among responders, as well as longer term health effects. This cohort is well positioned to evaluate both short-term and long-term effects of oil spill exposures using both self-reported and clinical health data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  13. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  14. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  15. Composite Solid Fuel: Research of Formation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving of local low-grade fuels resources in fuel and energy balance is actual question of research in the present. In this paper the possibility of processing low-grade fuel in the solid fuel composite was considered. The aim of the work is to define the optimal parameters for formation of the solid composite fuel. A result of researches determined that dextrin content in the binder allows to obtain solid composite fuel having the highest strength. The drying temperature for the various fuels was determined: for pellets production was 20-80 °C, for briquettes – 20-40 °C.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Law, Jack D.

    2010-01-01

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  17. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  18. Update on the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon investigation in fish and waterfowl following the August 3, 2005 CN train derailment and oil spill into Wabamun Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, J. [Health Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety; Rowat, C. [Health Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Safe Environments Programme

    2008-07-01

    A CN train derailment that occurred in August 2005 resulted in a spill of 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into Wabamun Lake, Alberta. Concerns were raised regarding the potential exposure of humans to PAHs from the spill via consumption of fish and waterfowl. Biological samples of fish and waterfowl were collected and analyzed to determine the magnitude of potential risks and to develop a food chain bioaccumulation model to evaluate potential human exposure to PAHs from Wabamun Lake. Three different sets of samples were submitted at different times of the year for PAH analysis in order to observe seasonal variability. This report presented the results of PAH concentration in muscle and liver samples of fish and waterfowl analyzed between the period of August 2005 to Aug 2006. It was determined that there was potential for some adverse health effects immediately after the spill. However, a simplified food chain bioaccumulation model predicted that the risk of human health impacts from the consumption of wild game and fish near the lake was low, with the possible exception of exposure to methylnaphthalene. It was determined that although low levels of some PAHs were found in some fish and waterfowl, they would not present an unacceptable risk to human health. The levels of PAHs found in the samples collected in February and August 2006 were much lower in magnitude than the samples collected shortly after the spill. With time, PAH concentrations in fish and waterfowl have stabilized to very low levels. It was concluded that the PAH concentrations posed little or no risk for adverse health effects from PAHs to humans consuming fish and edible waterfowl, even to avid consumers. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  19. Technology for the oil spills clean-up which provides preliminary accumulation of sorbents into the area of emergence and localization oil spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.Soroka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of measures for the prevention and spill of dangerous goods is an important aspect of sustainable development of railway transport. oil spills accident are the most dangerous. They are accompanied by significant pollution of all environmental objects. Studying and development of oil localization and clean-up technologies of such accidents is an important problem of environmental protection to modern conditions of railway transport development. The purpose: to improve the effectiveness of traditional methods of oil spill elimination and the development of new clean-up technologies adapted to the real conditions of the railway transport of Ukraine. Methods: To achieve the research purposes was used analysis of material flows, typical for places emergence and localization of the oil spill on the railways. Results: Analysis of standard technological scheme for the oil spills eliminations has shown that the most difficult task of effective clean-up surfaces is the timely delivery of oil sorbents and special equipment to the area spill containment. The general effectiveness of the elimination activities specifies the time from the beginning contact of dangerous goods with environmental objects to the absorption it into the structure of sorbent . Us was developed the technological scheme of oil spill elimination. This scheme provide a permanent and fast access to the sorbents into the oil spill localization area. It was proposed to device that allows you to transport the sorbent into sorption booms directly on the tank for transportation of petroleum products. Conclusions: Preventative accumulation of sorbents to the oil spill elimination into the localization area provides the organizational and operational simplicity of all stages of clean-up technology. Technical and economic assessment shows that the proposed technology is effective, technologically feasible and economically competitive.

  20. The fuel of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the different steps of the preparation of nuclear fuels performed by Cogema. The documents starts with a presentation of the different French reactor types: graphite moderated reactors, PWRs using MOX fuel, fast breeder reactors and research reactors. The second part describes the fuel manufacturing process: conditioning of nuclear materials and fabrication of fuel assemblies. The third part lists the different companies involved in the French nuclear fuel industry while part 4 gives a short presentation of the two Cogema's fuel fabrication plants at Cadarache and Marcoule. Part 5 and 6 concern the quality assurance, the safety and reliability aspects of fuel elements and the R and D programs. The last part presents some aspects of the environmental and personnel protection performed by Cogema. (J.S.)

  1. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mitsuya; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Mochida, Takaaki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the fuel economy by increasing the reactivity at the latter burning stage of fuel assemblies and thereby increasing the burn-up degree. Constitution: At the later stage of the burning where the infinite multiplication factor of a fuel assembly is lowered, fuel rods are partially discharged to increase the fuel-moderator volume ratio in the fuel assembly. Then, plutonium is positively burnt by bringing the ratio near to an optimum point where the infinite multiplication factor becomes maximum and the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased by utilizing the spectral shift effect. The number of the fuel rods to be removed is selected so as to approach the fuel-moderator atom number ratio where the infinite multiplication factor is maximum. Further, the positions where the thermal neutron fluxes are low are most effective for removing the rods and those positions between which no fuel rods are present and which are adjacent with neither the channel box nor the water rods are preferred. The rods should be removed at the time when the burning is proceeded at lest for one cycle. The reactivity is thus increased and the burn-up degree of fuels upon taking-out can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  3. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  5. Lagrangian-based Backtracking of Oil Spill Dynamics from SAR Images: Application to Montara Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautama, Budhi Gunadharma; Mercier, Gregoire; Fablet, Ronan; Longepe, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Within the framework of INDESO project (Infrastructure Development Space Oceanography), we address the issue of oilspill and aim at developing an operational SAR- based system for monitoring this issue in Indonesian waters from space. In this work, we focus on the backtrack- ing of an oilspill detected from SAR observations. As a case-study, we consider one large oil spill event that happened in Indonesian waters in 2009, referred to as the Montara oilspill. On 21 August 2009, the Montara Wellhead Platform had an uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from one of the platform wells. It was estimated that 400 barrels (or approximately 64 tonnes) of crude oil were being lost per day. The uncontrolled release continued until 3 November 2009 and response operations continued until 3 December 2009. In this work, we develop a Langragian analysis and associated numerical inversion tools with a view to further analyzing the oil spread due to the Montara Wellhead Platform. Our model relies on a 2D Lagrangian transport model developed by CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite). Our model involves four main parameters : the weights of wind- related and current-related advection, the origin and the duration of the oil leakage. Given SAR oilspill detections, we propose a numerical inversion of the parameters of the Lagrangian model, so that the simulated drift match the SAR observations of the oil spill. We demonstrate the relevance of the proposed model and numerical scheme for the Montara oilspill and further discuss their operational interest for the space-based oilspill backtracking and forecasting.

  6. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED... of the steps you are taking to prevent spills of oil or mitigate a substantial threat of such a...

  7. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Stream remediation following a gasoline spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Reiter, G.A. [Westcliffe Environmental Management Inc., Westcliffe, CO (United States); Challenger, G. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Kirkland, WA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    On June 10, 1999, a pipe ruptured on the Olympic Pipe Line causing the release, explosion and fire of up to one million litres of gasoline in Bellingham, Washington. It affected approximately 5 km of the Whatcom Creek ecosystem. Following the incident, several concurrent activities in the source area and downstream occurred. This paper discussed the remediation of the affected stream bed sections. During the period July 6 - August 16, an interagency project was implemented. It involved mechanical, manual, and hydraulic in-situ treatment techniques to remove the gasoline from the stream bed and the banks. In addition, a series of controlled, hydraulic flushes were conducted. The sluice or control gates at the head of the Whatcom Creek were opened each night, and bigger flushes took place before and after the treatments. Simultaneously, water and sediment were sampled and analysed. The data obtained provided information on the state of the initial stream water and stream sediment and on the effects that the remediation had had. The residual gasoline was successfully removed from the sediments and river banks in six weeks. No downstream movement of the released gasoline towards Bellingham was detected. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaoka, Noriyuki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain a satisfactory integrity by preventing the increase of corrosion at the outer surface of a fuel can near the point of contact between the fuel can and the spacer due to the use of fuel pellets incorporated with burnable poisons. Constitution: Since reactor coolants are at high temperature and high pressure, zirconium and water are brought into reaction to proceed oxidation at the outer surface of a fuel can to form uniform oxidation layers. However, abrasion corrosion is additionally formed at the contact portion between the spacer and the fuel can, by which the corrosion is increased by about 25 %. For preventing such nodular corrosion, fuel pellets not incorporated with burnable poisons are charged at a portion of the fuel rod where the spacer is supported and fuel pellets incorporated with burnable poisons are charged at the positions other than about to thereby suppress the amount of the corrosion at the portion where the corrosion of the fuel can is most liable to be increased to thereby improve the fuel integrity. That is, radiolysis of coolants due to gamma-rays produced from gadolinium is lowered to reduce the oxygen concentration near the outer surface thereby preventing the corrosion. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Environmental Assessment for Construction and Repair of Fuel Storage and Offloading Facilities at Kirtland Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    aboveground storage tanks containing JP-8, unleaded gasoline, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and biodiesel . The Kirtland AFB Spill Plan sets policies and...which would be demolished to make room for the campus in 2006 to 2009; the proposed construction and operation of a car wash and drive-thru coffee

  11. Taluka level environmental sensitivity index (ESI) and vulnerability mapping for oil spills: A pilot study from Goa state, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Kumar, R.; Vethamony, P.

    . Oil spill is having tendency to float over the water surface and it can easily reach the shore with the wave or tidal actions. Once this spill reaches the shore it creates major ecological damage. Shore line is rich in biodiversity. It is home...-spill contingency planning and response since 1979. Significant effort has been put for developing sensitivity mapping components of oil spill contingency plans around the world. The Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) system is an international scheme...

  12. Biological conditions of shorelines following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, S.W.; Neff, J.M.; Schroeder, T.R.; McCormick, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report is based primarily on survey results from Prince William Sound, where most of the heavy shoreline oiling occurred. Although not strictly quantitative, the shoreline surveys provide an unprecedented, broad base of professional observations covering the entire spill-affected area from 1989 through 1992 by which to evaluate spill impacts and recovery. Shoreline surveys documented that the extent of shoreline oiling declined substantially from 1989 to 1992. In 1989, oil was found on about 16 percent of the 3,000 miles of shoreline in Prince William Sound; by the spring of 1991, oil was found on only about 2 percent of the shoreline; and by May of 1992, on only 0.2 percent. In all years, most of this oil was located in the biologically least productive upper intertidal and supratidal zones. In both 1991 and 1992, small, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found on some boulder/cobble beaches. Most of these deposits were also located in the upper intertidal and were usually buried beneath clean sediments. In almost all cases, the condition of intertidal biological communities improved correspondingly from 1989 to 1992. By the spring of 1991, recovery appeared to be well under way on virtually all previously oiled shores, with species composition, abundance, and diversity levels usually comparable to those of nearby shores that were not oiled in 1989. Recruitment of intertidal plants and animals was observed as early as the summer of 1989, and increasingly through 1991 and 1992. Recruitment was evident even in areas with remnant deposits of surface and subsurface oil, indicating that toxicity levels of the oil had declined substantially and that, in most cases, the residual oil no longer interfered with biological recovery. Observations of birds and marine mammals on or near shorelines surveyed during 1991 and 1992 confirmed that species present before the spill were still present and were feeding and reproducing in areas affected by oil in 1989

  13. New Learning Methods for Marine Oil Spill Response Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justiina Halonen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Finland the Regional Fire and Rescue Services (RFRS are responsible for near shore oil spill response and shoreline cleanup operations. In addition, they assist in other types of maritime incidents, such as search and rescue operations and fire-fighting on board. These statutory assignments require the RFRS to have capability to act both on land and at sea. As maritime incidents occur infrequently, little routine has been established. In order to improve their performance in maritime operations, the RFRS are participating in a new oil spill training programme to be launched by South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences. This training programme aims to utilize new educational methods; e-learning and simulator based training. In addition to fully exploiting the existing navigational bridge simulator, radio communication simulator and crisis management simulator, an entirely new simulator is developed. This simulator is designed to model the oil recovery process; recovery method, rate and volume in various conditions with different oil types. New simulator enables creation of a comprehensive training programme covering training tasks from a distress call to the completion of an oil spill response operation. Structure of the training programme, as well as the training objectives, are based on the findings from competence and education surveys conducted in spring 2016. In these results, a need for vessel maneuvering and navigation exercises together with actual response measures training were emphasized. Also additional training for maritime radio communication, GMDSS-emergency protocols and collaboration with maritime authorities were seemed important. This paper describes new approach to the maritime operations training designed for rescue authorities, a way of learning by doing, without mobilising the vessels at sea.

  14. Microcosm evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation to combat marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Eickenbusch, P; Pasadakis, Nikos; Venieri, Danae; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2013-09-25

    Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of an ABA strategy for the successful remediation of polluted marine environments. A consortium was enriched from seawater samples taken from Elefsina Gulf near the Hellenic Petroleum Refinery, a site exposed to chronic crude oil pollution. Pre-adapted consortium was tested alone or in combination with inorganic nutrients in the presence (or not) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) in 30-day experiments. Treatment with fertilizers in the presence of biosurfactants exhibited the highest alkane and PAH degradation and showed highest growth over a period of almost 15 days. Considering the above, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon degrading consortia has proved to be a very effective treatment and it is a promising strategy in the future especially when combined with lipophilic fertilizers instead of inorganic nutrients. Such an approach becomes more pertinent when the oil spill approaches near the shoreline and immediate hydrocarbon degradation is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of sensors and aircraft for oil spill remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fruhwirth, M.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada has assessed sensors and aircraft suitable for remote sensing, particularly the capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets. The assessment was based on past experience and technical considerations. The first sensor recommended for use is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This recommendation is based on the system's ability to detect oil and discriminate this from the background, and the low cost of these sensors. The laser fluorosensor is recommended as the second device, as it is the only unit capable of positively discriminating oil on water, among weeds, and in sediment or beach material. Cameras operating in the visible region of the spectrum are recommended for two functions: documentation and providing background or location imagery for other sensors. Imaging radars, be they SAR or SLAR, are recommended for long-range searches or for oil spill work at night or when fog is present. Radars are expensive and require dedicated aircraft. Passive microwave devices are currently being developed but have not been proven as an alternative to radar or for measuring slick thickness. A laser based thickness sensor is under development. Satellite systems were also assessed. Satellite sensors operating in the visible spectrum have only limited application to major oil spills. New radar sensors show limited potential. The major limitation of any satellite system is the limited coverage time that is a function of its orbit. A study of aircraft and aircraft modifications was carried out to catalog aircraft modifications necessary to operate oil spill remote sensors. A potential user could select modifications that are already approved and thus save the high costs of aircraft modification design. The modifications already approved in Canada and the US for a given aircraft provide criteria for the selection of an aircraft

  16. Spill-Resistant Alkali-Metal-Vapor Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, William

    2005-01-01

    A spill-resistant vessel has been developed for dispensing an alkali-metal vapor. Vapors of alkali metals (most commonly, cesium or rubidium, both of which melt at temperatures slightly above room temperature) are needed for atomic frequency standards, experiments in spectroscopy, and experiments in laser cooling. Although the present spill-resistant alkali-metal dispenser was originally intended for use in the low-gravity environment of outer space, it can also be used in normal Earth gravitation: indeed, its utility as a vapor source was confirmed by use of cesium in a ground apparatus. The vessel is made of copper. It consists of an assembly of cylinders and flanges, shown in the figure. The uppermost cylinder is a fill tube. Initially, the vessel is evacuated, the alkali metal charge is distilled into the bottom of the vessel, and then the fill tube is pinched closed to form a vacuum seal. The innermost cylinder serves as the outlet for the vapor, yet prevents spilling by protruding above the surface of the alkali metal, no matter which way or how far the vessel is tilted. In the event (unlikely in normal Earth gravitation) that any drops of molten alkali metal have been shaken loose by vibration and are floating freely, a mesh cap on top of the inner cylinder prevents the drops from drifting out with the vapor. Liquid containment of the equivalent of 1.2 grams of cesium was confirmed for all orientations with rubbing alcohol in one of the prototypes later used with cesium.

  17. Marsh canopy structure changes and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Marsh canopy structure was mapped yearly from 2009 to 2012 in the Barataria Bay, Louisiana coastal region that was impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Based on the previously demonstrated capability of NASA's UAVSAR polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image data to map Spartina alterniflora marsh canopy structure, structure maps combining the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD, orientation) were constructed for yearly intervals that were directly relatable to the 2010 LAI-LAD classification. The yearly LAI-LAD and LAI difference maps were used to investigate causes for the previously revealed dramatic change in marsh structure from prespill (2009) to postspill (2010, spill cessation), and the occurrence of structure features that exhibited abnormal spatial and temporal patterns. Water level and salinity records showed that freshwater releases used to keep the oil offshore did not cause the rapid growth from 2009 to 2010 in marsh surrounding the inner Bay. Photointerpretation of optical image data determined that interior marsh patches exhibiting rapid change were caused by burns and burn recovery, and that the pattern of 2010 to 2011 LAI decreases in backshore marsh and extending along some tidal channels into the interior marsh were not associated with burns. Instead, the majority of 2010 to 2011 shoreline features aligned with vectors displaying the severity of 2010 shoreline oiling from the DWH spill. Although the association is not conclusive of a causal oil impact, the coexistent pattern is a significant discovery. PolSAR marsh structure mapping provided a unique perspective of marsh biophysical status that enhanced detection of change and monitoring of trends important to management effectiveness.

  18. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  19. Phosphorus and nitrogen loading depths in fluvial sediments following manure spill simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure spills that enter streams can devastate the aquatic ecosystem. The depth of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading in fluvial sediments following a manure spill have not been documented. Thus, the objectives of this study were (i) to determine the depth of N and P contamination as a result o...

  20. Development and prototype application of an oil spill risk analysis in a coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the development of a methodology for performance of oil spill risk analysis in coastal zones through a prototype application. The main objective of the research effort is to develop the basis for a tool that can assess risks due to the occurrence of an oil spill event aiming at

  1. Trade spill-overs of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2006-01-01

    Spill-overs in the EU We explore international spill-overs from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. To assess and quantify the channels through which a fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, foreign exports, and foreign output, we estimate a dynamic empirical model of government

  2. Timelines and mechanisms of wildlife population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Matkin, Craig O.; Cushing, Daniel; Kaler, Robert; Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel; Esslinger, George; Kloecker, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Research and monitoring activities over the 28 years since the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground and spilled oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska have led to an improved understanding of how wildlife populations were damaged, as well as the mechanisms and timelines of recovery. A key finding was that for some species, such as harlequin ducks and sea otters, chronic oil spill effects persisted for at least two decades and were a larger influence on population dynamics over the long term than acute effects of the spill. These data also offer insights into population variation resulting from factors other than the oil spill. For example, while many seabirds experienced direct and indirect effects of the spill, population trajectories of some piscivorous birds, including pigeon guillemots and marbled murrelets, were linked to long-term environmental changes independent of spill effects. Another species, killer whales, suffered population declines due to acute spill effects that have not been resolved despite lack of chronic direct effects, representing a novel pathway of long-term injury. The observed variation in mechanisms and timelines of recovery is linked to species specific life history and natural history traits, and thus may be useful for predicting population recovery for other species following other spills.

  3. Respons of archaeal communities in beach sediments to spilled oil and bioremediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; Couo de Brito, I.R.; Swannell, R.P.J.; Head, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    While the contribution of Bacteria to bioremediation of oil-contaminated shorelines is well established, the response of Archaea to spilled oil and bioremediation treatments is unknown. The relationship between archaeal community structure and oil spill bioremediation was examined in laboratory

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum spills in Arctic and Sub-Arctic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Unaided rehabilitation of petroleum spills can affect tundra soils for up to 30 years. Effects of oil spills on Sub-Arctic forest soils last for at least a decade. Natural remediation is slow because of the cold dominated climate and short growing se...

  5. Original Paper Ecological effects of oil spill on water and sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological effects of oil spill in the environment were studied in Warri riverine areas of Ubeji and. Jeddo, Delta State, where an oil spill occurred and cleanup or remediation was not carried out for over a year prior to this evaluation. The American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Society for.

  6. Detection and Classification of Land Crude Oil Spills Using Color Segmentation and Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’tega Ejofodomi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil spills have negative consequences on the economy, environment, health and society in which they occur, and the severity of the consequences depends on how quickly these spills are detected once they begin. Several methods have been employed for spill detection, including real time remote surveillance by flying aircrafts with surveillance teams. Other methods employ various sensors, including visible sensors. This paper presents an algorithm to automatically detect the presence of crude oil spills in images acquired using visible light sensors. Images of crude oil spills used in the development of the algorithm were obtained from the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC Nigeria website The major steps of the detection algorithm are image preprocessing, crude oil color segmentation, sky elimination segmentation, Region of Interest (ROI extraction, ROI texture feature extraction, and ROI texture feature analysis and classification. The algorithm was developed using 25 sample images containing crude oil spills and demonstrated a sensitivity of 92% and an FPI of 1.43. The algorithm was further tested on a set of 56 case images and demonstrated a sensitivity of 82% and an FPI of 0.66. This algorithm can be incorporated into spill detection systems that utilize visible sensors for early detection of crude oil spills.

  7. Oil spill impact on the finfish of Azhiwari swamp, Joinkrama in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of an oil spill on surface water, sediment and finfish assemblage characteristics in a freshwater swamp forest was assessed by dividing the wetland into four zones on the basis of spilled oil cover on the water surface – High Impact Zone (HIZ >60%), Medium Impact Zone (MIZ 30 – 60%), Low Impact Zone - (LIZ 5 ...

  8. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must be...

  9. Oil spill monitoring and forecasting on the Prestige-Nassau accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, P.; Blanco, J.; Cabanas, J.M.; Maneiro, J.; Pazos, Y.; Morono, A. [Unidade de Observacion Proxima CPAM, Vilaxoan, Pontevedra (Spain); Balseiro, C.F.; Carracedo, P.; Gomez, B.; Penabad, E.; Perez-Munuzuri, V. [MeteoGalicia CMA, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Braunschweig, F.; Fernandes, R.; Leitao, P.C.; Neves, R. [MARETEC IST, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    The Prestige-Nassau tanker ship spilled about 10,000 tons of oil off the coast of Spain on November 13, 2002 during a severe storm. On November 19, the ship split in half and sank 133 nautical miles from the Galician coast to a depth of 3,500 metres, spilling another 20,000 tons of oil. The Galician government set up an Office of Nearshore Surveillance and recruited people from the Galician Regional Meteorological Service and the Spanish Institute of Oceanography to monitor the slick and forecast its trajectory. The main spill arrived at Galicia on November 30, damaging most of the coast. A variety of models that combined surface wind drift and ocean currents were used to forecast the movement of the spill. These included the Mothy from MeteoFrance, and DERIVA from the Portuguese Hydrographic Institute. Two models were also developed by MeteoGalicia and MAETEC. The path followed by the oil spill was classified in three parts. The first spill of 10,000 tons took place from November 13 until the ship split in two. The second spill of around 20,000 tons of oil occurred when the ship sank on November 19. The last spill includes oil that continued to leak from the sunken tanker at a rate of 125 tons per day. The trajectory predictions were found to be in good agreement with aerial observations. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  10. 76 FR 11426 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA222 Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill..., will begin restoration scoping and preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS...

  11. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya C/ J G Salgado s/n, Campus Nord, Modul B-4, E-08034, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: redondo@fa.upc.es

    2009-01-15

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km{sup 2}, follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  12. 78 FR 66763 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Submitted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...] Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Submitted for OMB Review... information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. The information collection request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial...

  13. M. V. sea transporter oil spill and its environmental impact assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singbal, S.Y.S.; Fondekar, S.P.; Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; D'Silva, C.; Ingole, B.S.; Sawkar, K.; Verlecar, X.N.; Sawant, S.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Karim, S.A.; Mhamal, N.P.; Saldana, M.C.

    of residual oil. On 2 July 1994, due to gusty winds, a crack was developed on the starboard side, thus spilling oil from the ship. The amount of oil spilled was estimated around 2 tonnes. A team of scientists from National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) Goa...

  14. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Babu, M.T.; Jayakumar, S.; ManiMurali, R.; Saran, A.K.; Sharma, L.H.; Rajan, B.; Srivastava, M.

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of 2 vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly...

  15. 75 FR 57900 - FY 2010 Gulf Oil Spill Supplemental Federal Funding Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... institutions of higher education; or (5) public or private non-profit organization or association acting in... Gulf Oil Spill Supplemental Federal Funding Opportunity AGENCY: Economic Development Administration... application procedures for the FY 2010 Gulf Oil Spill Supplemental Federal Funding Opportunity. This...

  16. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  17. Water hammer likely cause of large oil spill in north sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Korst, H.J.C.; Lunde, K.; Myklebust, R.

    2010-01-01

    On December 12, 2007, the second largest oil spill in the history of Norwegian oil exploration occurred on StatoilHydro's Statfjord Alpha platform. The spill was caused by a snapped 20″ oil off-loading hose. Thorough investigations by StatoilHydro [1] and by the Norwegian authorities [2] revealed

  18. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K

    2009-01-01

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km 2 , follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  19. Liability and compensation for oil spill accidents : International regime and its implementation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Marine oil spill accidents have long been caused by ship collisions. However, the proliferation of offshore oil and gas installations portends a marked increase in oil spills from these sources. This presents a unique enforcement challenge for international and Chinese domestic systems for oil

  20. Oil spill related contaminant data for Arctic marine mammals - Obtaining baseline oil spill-related contaminant exposure data for Arctic marine mammals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — With increasing oil exploration and ship traffic in the U.S. Arctic, there is concern about the increased potential for an oil spill event in this region of the...

  1. CFD investigation of balcony spill plumes in atria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartney, C.J.; Lougheed, G.D.; Weckman, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Smoke management in buildings during fire events often uses mechanical ventilation systems to maintain smoke layer elevation above a safe evacuation path. Design of these systems requires accurate correlations for the smoke production rate of the buoyant fire plume. One design issue is the smoke production rate of fire plumes which spill out from a fire compartment, under a balcony and up through an atrium or other large volume. Current engineering correlations for these balcony spill plumes are based on a combination of one-tenth scale test data and theoretical analysis. Questions have arisen over the suitability of these correlations for real-scale designs. A combined program of full-scale experimentation and CFD modeling is being conducted to analyze the accuracy of these correlations. A full-scale experimental facility was constructed with a 5 m by 5 m by 15 m fire compartment connected to a four-story atrium. Propane fires in the compartment produce balcony spill plumes which form steady-state smoke layers in the atrium. Experimental variables include fire size, compartment opening width, balcony depth and compartment fascia depth. A variable exhaust system was used to achieve various smoke layer heights for each of 100 compartment configurations. Temperature, smoke obscuration and gas concentrations were measured in the compartment, atrium and exhaust system. The experimental data was used to determine the atrium smoke layer elevation and balcony spill plume smoke production rate for each configuration and fire size. Comparison of this data with zone model results and design correlations for atrium smoke management systems will be performed to evaluate their accuracy. A CFD model of the experimental facility was implemented using the Fire Dynamics Simulator software (Version 3). Large-eddy simulations of the flow were performed with a constant radiative fraction and an infinitely fast mixture fraction combustion model. A grid sensitivity analysis was

  2. Risk acceptance criterion for tanker oil spill risk reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Vanem, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating whether there is ample support for the view that the acceptance criterion for evaluating measures for prevention of oil spills from tankers should be based on cost-effectiveness considerations. One such criterion can be reflected by the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS) whereas its target value is updated by elaborating the inherent uncertainties of oil spill costs and establishing a value for the criterion's assurance factor. To this end, a value of $80,000/t is proposed as a sensible CATS criterion and the proposed value for the assurance factor F=1.5 is supported by the retrieved Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs' Annual Reports. It is envisaged that this criterion would allow the conversion of direct and indirect costs into a non-market value for the optimal allocation of resources between the various parties investing in shipping. A review of previous cost estimation models on oil spills is presented and a probability distribution (log-normal) is fitted on the available oil spill cost data, where it should be made abundantly clear that the mean value of the distribution is used for deriving the updated CATS criterion value. However, the difference between the initial and the updated CATS criterion in the percentiles of the distribution is small. It is found through the current analysis that results are partly lower than the predicted values from the published estimation models. The costs are also found to depend on the type of accident, which is in agreement with the results of previous studies. Other proposals on acceptance criteria are reviewed and it is asserted that the CATS criterion can be considered as the best candidate. Evidence is provided that the CATS approach is practical and meaningful by including examples of successful applications in actual risk assessments. Finally, it is suggested that the criterion may be refined subject to more readily available cost data and experience gained from future

  3. Phytoplankton dynamic responses to oil spill in Mumbai Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.J.; Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Karangutkar, S.H.; Yengal, B.; Dalvi, S.; Acharya, D.; Sharma, S.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    3-- P) were studied. The studies on phytoplankton in terms of biomass like chlorophyll a, phaeophytin and popula- tion such as cell counts and total species were under- taken at the same locations. The pH was measured by microprocessor con- trolled... are believed to be damaged by hydrocarbon molecules, leading to leakage of cell con- tents and entrance of oil into the cytoplasm [3]. This perhaps could be the reason for restricting the photo- synthesis and regulating the growth of phytoplankton in oil spill...

  4. Chemical monitoring of the World Prodigy oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.J.; Fluck, S.J.; Lake, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical monitoring efforts of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Research Laboratory in Narragansett, RI (ERLN) following the grounding and subsequent release of oil from the tanker World Prodigy. Discussions of the sampling sites, and the sampling and analytical protocols employed are included. The results of the chemical analyses are presented and discussed, with particular emphasis placed on the temporal and vertical profiles of oil in the Bay. The aliphatic and aromatic composition of the spilled oil is also discussed. Finally, recommendations on the sampling plan, design, or implementation, or the chemical analysis are included

  5. Free product recovery at spill sites with fluctuating water tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Katyal, A.K.; Zhu, J.L.; Kremesec, V.J.; Hockman, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Spills and leaks of hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks, pipelines and other facilities pose a serious potential for groundwater contamination which can be very costly to remediate. The severity of the impacts and the cost of remediation can be reduced by various means. Lateral spreading of free phase hydrocarbons on the groundwater table can be prevented by pumping water to control the hydraulic gradient. Recovery of floating product may be performed by skimming hydrocarbons from wells, usually in combination with water pumping to increase the gradient. The environmental variables (water table gradient, water table fluctuations due to regional recovery wells, rates of water pumping)

  6. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  7. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, David; Howard, John

    2012-07-18

    The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18.

  10. Detection of oil spills using a 13.3-GHz radar scatterometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, K.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an analysis of 13.3-GHz single-polarized scatterometer data collected during NASA/MSC mission 135, flown on March 16, 1970. Data were gathered over a crude oil spill on the Gulf of Mexico (test site 128) off the Mississippi delta. With the aid of RC-8 camera photographs the scattering cross section was correlated with the extent of the oil spill. The scattering cross section at higher incidence angles (25 to 50 deg) decreased by 5-10 db in the presence of the oil spill. This was attributed to the damping by oil of small gravity and capillary waves. The composite scattering theory and the scatterometer-acquired data were used to obtain an expression of radar scattering over ocean surfaces with oil spills. The study demonstrates that the presence and extent of oil spills can be detected with high-frequency radar systems.

  11. Detection of oil spills using 13.3 GHz radar scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, K.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analysis of 13.3-GHz single polarized scatterometer data collected during NASA/MSC Mission 135, flown on March 16, 1970 are reported. Data were gathered over a crude oil spill on the Gulf of Mexico off the Mississippi Delta. With the aid of RC-8 camera photographs, the scattering cross section was correlated with the extent of the oil spill. The scattering cross section at higher incidence angles decreased by 5 db to 10 db in the presence of the oil spill. This was attributed to oil's damping of small gravity and capillary waves. The composite scattering theory and the scatterometer acquired data were used to obtain an expression of radar scattering over ocean surfaces with oil spills. The study demonstrates that the presence and extent of oil spills can be detected using high frequency radar systems.

  12. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  15. Marinobacter sp. from marine sediments produce highly stable surface-active agents for combatting marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Totaro, Grazia; Fava, Fabio

    2017-11-02

    The application of chemical dispersants as a response to marine oil spills is raising concerns related to their potential toxicity also towards microbes involved in oil biodegradation. Hence, oil spills occurring under marine environments necessitate the application of biodispersants that are highly active, stable and effective under marine environment context. Biosurfactants from marine bacteria could be good candidates for the development of biodispersant formulations effective in marine environment. This study aimed at establishing a collection of marine bacteria able to produce surface-active compounds and evaluating the activity and stability of the produced compounds under conditions mimicking those found under marine environment context. A total of 43 different isolates were obtained from harbor sediments. Twenty-six of them produced mainly bioemulsifiers when glucose was used as carbon source and 16 were biosurfactant/bioemulsifiers producers after growth in the presence of soybean oil. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene classified most isolates into the genus Marinobacter. The produced emulsions were shown to be stable up to 30 months monitoring period, in the presence of 300 g/l NaCl, at 4 °C and after high temperature treatment (120 °C for 20 min). The partially purified compounds obtained after growth on soybean oil-based media exhibited low toxicity towards V. fischeri and high capability to disperse crude oil on synthetic marine water. To the best of our knowledge, stability characterization of bioemulsifiers/biosurfactants from the non-pathogenic marine bacterium Marinobacter has not been previously reported. The produced compounds were shown to have potential for different applications including the environmental sector. Indeed, their high stability in the presence of high salt concentration and low temperature, conditions characterizing the marine environment, the capability to disperse crude oil and the low ecotoxicity makes them interesting for

  16. Safe and reliable fuel solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Published by AREVA, this booklet highlights the main aspects regarding fuel-related activities within this company. It outlines the efforts to improve all the involved processes, briefly describes the components and structure of fuel assemblies, gives an overview of Areva's different activities related to nuclear fuels (design, variety of products, fabrication, services). It outlines the relationship with the client for each of these activities, briefly describes the different parts of a fuel assembly for a PWR, outlines the importance given to quality for the fabrication processes, and indicates the different services provided by AREVA to its clients (handling, maintenance, controls, inspection, repair, training, etc.)

  17. Oil spill detection from TerraSAR-X dual-polarized images using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Jung, H.-S.

    2017-10-01

    Marine pollution from oil spills destroys ecosystems. In order to minimize the damage, it is important to fast cleanup it after predicting how the oil will spread. In order to predict the spread of oil spill, remote sensing technique, especially radar satellite image is widely used. In previous studies, only the back-scattering value is generally used for the detection of oil spill. However, in this study, oil spill was detected by applying ANN (Artificial Neural Network) as input data from the back-scattering value of the radar image as well as the phase information extracted from the dual polarization. In order to maximize the efficiency of oil spill detection using a back-scattering value, the speckle noise acting as an error factor should be removed first. NL-means filter was applied to multi-look image to remove it without smoothing of spatial resolution. In the coherence image, the sea has a high value and the oil spill area has a low value due to the scattering characteristics of the pulse. In order to using the characteristics of radar image, training sample was set up from NL-means filtered images(HH, VV) and coherence image, and ANN was applied to produce probability map of oil spill. In general, the value was 0.4 or less in the case of the sea, and the value was mainly in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 in the oil spill area. Using coherence images generated from different polarizations showed better detection results for relatively thin oil spill areas such as oil slick or oil sheen than using back-scattering information alone. It is expected that if the information about the look-alike of oil spill such as algae, internal wave and rainfall area is provided, the probability map can be produced with higher accuracy.

  18. The fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this brochure the fuel cycle is presented. The following fuel cycle steps are described: (1) Front of the fuel cycle (Mining and milling; Treatment; Refining, conversion and enrichment; Fuel fabrication); (2) Use of fuel in nuclear reactors; (3) Back end of the fuel cycle (Interim storage of spent fuel; spent fuel reprocessing; Final disposal of spent fuel)

  19. The manufacturing role in fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturing companies have been involved in the CANDU fuel industry for more than 40 years. Early manufacturing contributions were the development of materials and processes used to fabricate the CANDU fuel bundle. As CANDU reactors were commissioned, the manufacturing contribution has been to produce economical, high quality fuel for the CANDU market. (author)

  20. An hydrodynamic model for the calculation of oil spills trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Emilio Ernesto; Maliska, Clovis Raimundo [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Dinamica dos Fluidos Computacionais]. E-mails: emilio@sinmec.ufsc.br; maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a mathematical model and its numerical treatment to forecast oil spills trajectories in the sea. The knowledge of the trajectory followed by an oil slick spilled on the sea is of fundamental importance in the estimation of potential risks for pipeline and tankers route selection, and in combating the pollution using floating barriers, detergents, etc. In order to estimate these slicks trajectories a new model, based on the mass and momentum conservation equations is presented. The model considers the spreading in the regimes when the inertial and viscous forces counterbalance gravity and takes into account the effects of winds and water currents. The inertial forces are considered for the spreading and the displacement of the oil slick, i.e., is considered its effects on the movement of the mass center of the slick. The mass loss caused by oil evaporation is also taken into account. The numerical model is developed in generalized coordinates, making the model easily applicable to complex coastal geographies. (author)

  1. Vessel and oil spill early detection using COSMO satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo, Natalia V.; Delrieux, Claudio A.

    2017-10-01

    Oil spillage is one of the most common sources of environmental damage in places where coastal wild life is found in natural reservoirs. This is especially the case in the Patagonian coast, with a littoral more than 5000 km long and a surface above a million and half square km. In addition, furtive fishery activities in Argentine waters are depleting the food supplies of several species, altering the ecological equilibrium. For this reason, early oil spills and vessel detection is an imperative surveillance task for environmental and governmental authorities. However, given the huge geographical extension, human assisted monitoring is unfeasible, and therefore real time remote sensing technologies are the only operative and economically feasible solution. In this work we describe the theoretical foundations and implementation details of a system specifically designed to take advantage of the SAR imagery delivered by two satellite constellations (the SAOCOM mission, developed by the Argentine Space Agency, and the COSMO mission, developed by the Italian Space Agency), to provide real-time detection of vessels and oil spills. The core of the system is based on pattern recognition over a statistical characterization of the texture patterns arising in the positive and negative conditions (i.e., vessel, oil, or plain sea surfaces). Training patterns were collected from a large number of previously reported contacts tagged by experts in the National Commission on Space Activities (CONAE). The resulting system performs well above the sensitivity and specificity of other avalilable systems.

  2. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines

  3. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR), Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at the Livermore Site.

  4. The vegetable oil spill that wasn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Initial reports of a yellow, waxy spill on the coastline of Anglesey, N. Wales in the United Kingdom stated that the material which had been washed ashore was vegetable oil. A sampling visit was made to the affected region on July 22, 2001, one day after the spill occurred. Local authorities estimated that 10 tonnes of material had washed ashore along a 20 km stretch of north facing beaches. Samples of the small, yellow, waxy globules with no odour were collected in glass pots for analysis. The samples were dissolved in 20 per cent DCM hexane. Large amounts of water was released from the samples, along with sand grains. The organic fraction was drawn off the top of the mixture and dried for further analysis in a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The material was also analyzed for radioactive components, key metals and detergents, all of which proved negative, but the initial supposition that the material was a vegetable oil was found to be incorrect. It is suggested that the material is likely slack wax based on its chemical composition. This is essentially a series of aliphatic hydrocarbons. There were no additives typical of lubricating oils or grease products present. The material probably came from a leak from a heated tank or from steam cleaning of tanks or pipework. However, the large quantity of the material suggests it was a planned loss rather than an accidental leak. 1 ref., 5 figs

  5. Oil spill monitoring via microwave tomography enhanced GPR surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Affinito, Antonio; Bertolla, Luciana; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Oil spill detection and monitoring deserve huge attention in environmental protection as well as for timely planning maintenance actions, with the final aim to mitigate soil pollution. In this frame, the requirement for detailed subsurface diagnostics, while performing non-invasive surveys, motivates the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems and their continuous development in order to improve the achievable performance. Moving in this direction, this paper aims at investigating the reconstruction capabilities of a full 3D microwave tomography approach as a tool for pollution characterization and imaging. The microwave tomography approach exploits a Born Approximation based model of the electromagnetic scattering phenomenon and is capable of accounting for the vectorial nature of the wave-material interaction. The reconstruction capabilities are assessed against experimental data referred to oil spill in dry and water saturated sand soils, gathered in laboratory controlled conditions at the Department of Geophysics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The provided results state that the full 3D microwave tomography approach is able to gain accurate images of the surveyed scenarios allowing to acquire information on the oil diffusion process in both the considered soils.

  6. LMFBR plant design features for sodium spill and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Design features have been developed for an LMFBR plant to protect the concrete structures from potential liquid spills and fires and prevent sodium-concrete reactions. The inclusion of these features in the plant design reduces the severity of design basis accident conditions imposed on containment and other critical plant structures. Steel liners are provided in cells containing radioactive sodium systems, and catch pans are located in non-radioactive sodium system cells. The design requirements and descriptions of each of these protective features are presented. The loading conditions, analytical approach and numerical results are also included. Design of concrete cell structures that are subject to high temperature effects from sodium spills is discussed. The structural design considers the influence of high temperature on design properties of concrete and carbon steel materials based on results of a comprehensive test program. The development of these design features and high temperature design considerations for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are presented in this paper

  7. Oil spill risk assessment in maritime transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudhbir, L.; Iakovou, E.

    2005-01-01

    Commercial shippers and regulatory agencies face the challenge of evaluating the merits of various alternative policies for the transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. This paper presented a new risk estimation and assignment methodology that assesses the risk costs for the bodies of water where shipping lanes exist. The methodology is based on historical spills and uses causal data to estimate risk cost between 2 points of reference for numerous products transported by a variety of vessels. In response to public concerns regarding the environmental impacts of accidental spills from tanker ships, laws have been imposed on companies for all costs relating to environmental damage. This measure has prompted the oil industry to take greater responsibility, but a better understanding of tanker re-routing on environmental sensitive areas is needed in order to implement detailed emergency response plans and greater safety precautions. This methodology addressed the need for an efficient maritime transportation system that provides routing for various vessels carrying different petroleum products. The risk estimation methodology successfully modeled a multi-objective, multi-commodity routing problem. 23 refs., 3 figs

  8. Site 300 Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) near Tracy, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at Site 300. This SPCC Plan has been prepared for the entire Site 300 facility and replaces the three previous plans prepared for Site 300: LLNL SPCC for Electrical Substations Near Buildings 846 and 865 (LLNL 2015), LLNL SPCC for Building 883 (LLNL 2015), and LLNL SPCC for Building 801 (LLNL 2014).

  9. Morphology and structure of the spill Arapey formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waichel, B.; Lima, E.; Dutra, G.; Muzio, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Paraná - Etendeka Province in the northern part of Uruguay is represented by strokes of Arapey Training and intrusive rocks. Fieldwork in this region allowed the identification of three types of stroke: pahoehoe , ' massive a'ae. The type pahoehoe has thicknesses between 10 and 30 m, and eventually lobed shapes with ropes at the top. In spills ' a'a thicknesses ranging from 10 to 20 m and are organized into four distinct levels: one top scummy a vesicular level, a solid core and a escoriaceous basis. The escoriáceos levels are composed of irregular fragments of vesicular basalt associated with quartz and carbonate. In vesicles vesicular level reaches to 7 cm long and are stretched horizontally. The core is a massive basalt and occur in the upper portion geodes filled by chalcedony and amethyst . The lower portion escoriaceous is slightly thicker and when two strokes ' a'a are overlapping merges with the top of the overlying stroke. The massive strokes have thickness of 30 to 50 meters and in general exhibit disjunctions vertical columnar forming irregular blocks . These strokes are similar to the central portion of the province Paraná - Etendeka that have been interpreted as thick pahoehoe . The prevalence of stroke in Uruguay pahoehoe indicates low rate of eruption established in soft paleosurfaces which must have facilitated the movement of lava causing volcanic successions with great lateral extent . Note also that the geodes Artigas occur associated with spills ' a'a bit thick

  10. Compound-specific isotope analysis of diesel fuels in a forensic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Syahidah A; Frew, Russell D; Hayman, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ(13)C and δ(2)H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.

  11. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Diesel Fuels in a Forensic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahidah Akmal Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ13C and δ2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin i.e. the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.

  12. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitosi.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel pellets containing burnable poison and fuel pellets not containing burnable poison are used together in burnable poison-incorporated fuel rods which is disposed at the outermost layer of a cluster. Since the burnable poison-incorporated fuel rods are disposed at the outermost layer of the cluster where a neutron flux level is high and, accordingly, the power is high originally, local power peaking can be suppressed and, simultaneously, fuels can be burnt effectively without increasing the fuel concentration in the inner and the intermediate layers than that of the outermost layer. In addition, a problem of lacking a reactor core reactivity at an initial stage is solved by disposing both of the fuel pellets together, even if burnable poisons of high concentration are used. This is because the extent of the lowering of the reactivity due to the burnable poison-incorporated fuels is mainly determined by the surface area thereof and the remaining period of the burnable poison is mainly determined by the concentration thereof. As a result, the burnup degree can be improved without lowering the reactor reactivity so much. (N.H.)

  14. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  16. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Mark S; Adams, S Marshall; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Mary K

    2016-04-01

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 millionm(3) of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill - the largest in U.S. history - we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinch Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means=4.9-5.3 and 6.7-9.0mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2-3.2mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6-4.8mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Results from this and related studies associated

  17. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  18. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Marine Oil Spills in the Luanjiakou District, near the Port of Yantai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation method for oil spills in a multi-island area. The simulation considers three parts, which consist of (1 the spreading of an oil slick on its edge as well as the diffusion and drift under dynamic actions, (2 the evaporation and spreading thickness of an oil slick in its interior, and (3 the adsorption and emulsification near shorelines and islands. The Euler-Lagrange method is adopted to track the spill location and particles positions on the edge of oil slicks. A mathematical model of marine oil spills is established for the Luanjiakou District of the Port of Yantai. The flow field verification shows that the BIAS of tidal level, flow velocity, and flow direction is below ±10 cm, 0.11 m/s, and ±2°, respectively, and the oil spill verification captures satisfactory results. Hence, the proposed model could reproduce the oil spill process in this region. Then, we simulate oil spills under various operating conditions. It is concluded that the transport of oil slicks is mainly influenced by flood/ebb currents, whereas the wind plays a major role in the drift and thickness of oil slicks. The study provides an important reference to controlling and handling of accidental oil spills.