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Sample records for involving calcium phosphorus

  1. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium and phosphorus supplementation of human milk for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jane E; Wilson, Jess; Brown, Julie

    2017-02-26

    Preterm infants are born with low skeletal stores of calcium and phosphorus. Preterm human milk provides insufficient calcium and phosphorus to meet the estimated needs of preterm infants for adequate growth. Supplementation of human milk with calcium and phosphorus may improve growth and development of preterm infants. To determine whether addition of calcium and phosphorus supplements to human milk leads to improved growth and bone metabolism of preterm infants without significant adverse effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 14 April 2016), Embase (1980 to 14 April 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 14 April 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases (11 May 2016) and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation of human milk with calcium and/or phosphorus versus no supplementation in hospitalised preterm infants were eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors (JB, JW) independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We reported dichotomous data as risk ratios (RRs) and continuous data as mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. This is an update of a 2001 review that identified no eligible trials. One trial including 40 infants met the inclusion criteria for this review. Using GRADE criteria, we judged the quality of the evidence as low owing to risk of bias (inadequate reporting of methods of randomisation, allocation concealment and/or blinding) and imprecision (wide confidence intervals and

  3. Seed selections for crystallization of calcium phosphate for phosphorus recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Dietfried DONNERT; Ute BERG; Peter G. WEIDLER; Rolf NUEESCH

    2007-01-01

    Seed induces and promotes the crystallization of calcium phosphate, and acts as carrier of the recovered phosphorus (P). In order to select suitable seed for P recovery from wastewater, three seeds including Apatite (AP), Juraperle (JP) and phosphate-modified Juraperle (M-JP) were tested and compared. Batch and fixed-bed column experiments of seeded crystallization of calcium phosphate were undertaken by using synthetic wastewater with 10 mg/L P phosphate. It shows that AP has bad enduring property in the crystallization process, while JP has better performance for multiple uses, and M-JP is a hopeful seed for P recovery by crystallization of calcium phosphate.

  4. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphorus binders in patients on chronic haemodialysis: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, T; Nielsen, C; Andersen, S P; Behrens, J K; Sodemann, B; Kornerup, H J

    1993-01-01

    The first reported double-blind cross-over comparison between the phosphorus binders calcium carbonate and calcium acetate was undertaken in 15 stable patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis. Detailed registration of diet and analysis of the protein catabolic rate suggested an unchanged phosphorus intake during the study. It was found that predialytic serum phosphate concentration was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/l (0.34 mg/dl) (P = 0.021, 95% confidence limits 0.02-0.21 mmol/l; 0.06-0.65 mg/dl) during calcium acetate treatment. The calcium phosphate product was insignificantly decreased during treatment with calcium acetate whereas we could not exclude the possibility that calcium concentration had increased.

  5. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  6. Effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and the nephrocalcinosis in rats fed excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Kado, S; Nagata, Y; Kimura, H; Uchida, K; Watanuki, M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and nephrocalcinosis in male Wistar rats made magnesium-deficient by adding excess dietary phosphorus (1.195 g of phosphorus/100 g of diet) and calcium (1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet) were compared with the effects of calcium carbonate. The effects of dietary magnesium concentration on the magnesium status and nephrocalcinosis were also examined. Adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium decreased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur and increased the deposition of calcium in the kidney, and the low magnesium condition (0.024 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) aggravated the deposition of calcium and the low magnesium status. The apparent magnesium absorption ratios and femur magnesium concentration in the rats fed a calcium gluconate diet (an equimolar mixture of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium) were significantly higher than in the rats fed a calcium carbonate diet (only calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium), irrespective of dietary magnesium concentration. Dietary calcium gluconate lessened the accumulation of calcium in the kidney and increased the serum magnesium concentration compared with dietary calcium carbonate, when the rats were fed the normal magnesium diet (0.049 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) but not the low magnesium diet. We speculate that the increased utilization of magnesium by feeding the calcium gluconate diet to a limited extent prevented the low magnesium status and the severity of nephrocalcinosis caused by adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

  7. Effect of calcium and phosphorus ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Rajchel, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium after surface modification by the ion implantation of calcium or phosphorus or calcium + phosphorus. Calcium and phosphorus ions were implanted in a dose of 10(17) ions/cm(2). The ion beam energy was 25 keV. The microstructure of the implanted layers was examined by TEM. The chemical composition of the surface layers was determined by XPS and SIMS. The corrosion resistance was examined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at a temperature of 37 degrees C. The biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro. As shown by TEM results, the surface layers formed during calcium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus implantation were amorphous. The results of the electrochemical examinations (Stern's method) indicate that the calcium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus implantation into the surface of titanium increases its corrosion resistance in stationary conditions after short- and long-term exposures in SBF. Potentiodynamic tests show that the calcium-implanted samples undergo pitting corrosion during anodic polarisation. The breakdown potentials measured are high (2.5 to 3 V). The good biocompatibility of all the investigated materials was confirmed under the specific conditions of the applied examination, although, in the case of calcium implanted titanium it was not as good as that of non-implanted titanium.

  8. Correlation between blood pressure and vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in sedentary postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtyar Tartibian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The studies show that factors such as vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus are involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood pressure with vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in sedentary postmenopausal women. Methods: This investigation is in the form of a descriptive correlational study that was performed in September 2015. The statistical population was all healthy and sedentary postmenopausal women 50-70 years old in Urmia city, Iran. Fifty-four sedentary postmenopausal women were selected as subjects and voluntarily and bona fide participated in this study. General and anthropometric characteristics of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI in subjects were measured by wall-meter with an accuracy of one millimeter, digital scale with precision of 100 g (Beurer, Germany, and dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (Hologic, USA machines, respectively. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure was measured by indicator machine. Serum levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus were measured by ELISA and Auto-analyzer (BT 1500, Biotecnica, Italy machines, respectively. Results: The mean general, anthropometric, and physiological/laboratory variables of subjects were: age 54 yr, height 156 cm; weight 72 kg; BMI 29 kg/m2; systolic and diastolic blood pressure 76.20 and 110.70, respectively; vitamin D 25.22 ng/ml, parathyroid hormone 33.29 ng/ml, calcium 9.44 ng/ml, and phosphorus 3.26 ng/ml. Moreover, results showed that there was no significant relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and vitamin D (P>0.581 and P>0.619, respectively. There was no significant relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and parathyroid hormone (P>0.623 and P>0.341, respectively. There was no significant

  9. Studies on the phosphorus requirement and proper calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of the black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Maotang; Wang, Keling; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Jianking

    1993-06-01

    An expriment on the phosphorus requirement and the proper Ca/P ratio in the diet of the black sea bream using the phosphorus gradient method (with casein as basic diet, sodium dihydrogen phosphate as source of phosphorus, and calcium lactate as source of calcium) showed that growth was greatly affected by the diet's phosphorus content and Ca/P ratio. Inadequate phosphorus in the diet resulted in slow growth and poor food conversion ratio (FCR). Analyses of the fish body showed it contained a high level of lipid but a low level of moisture, ash, calcium and phosphorus. The optimal values of phosphorus and Ca/P ratio in the black sea bream diet are 0.68% and 1∶2 respectively. Phosphorus in excess of this optimum value resulted in slow growth or even death. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that phosphorus is the principal mineral additive affecting black sea bream growth.

  10. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus metabolism in dogs given intravenous triacetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J W; Heath, H; Miles, J M

    1989-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that acetate in parenteral solutions may adversely affect mineral metabolism by causing sequestration of inorganic phosphate and calcium in the liver. In this study, triacetin, a short-chain triglyceride of acetate and a potential parenteral nutrient, was infused for 3 h at an isocaloric rate in mongrel dogs (n = 6) to test its effects on serum phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium metabolism. There was no change in serum P or Ca. The serum Mg concentration decreased from 0.7 +/- 0.03 to 0.57 +/- 0.03 mmol/L (p less than 0.001) by 90 min and remained at this level for the remainder of the study. The triacetin infusion did not influence fractional urinary Mg excretion; thus, the decrease in serum Mg was likely because of an increase in cellular transport of this cation. A short-chain triglyceride administered to dogs at a rate approximating resting energy expenditure has no demonstrable adverse effects on mineral metabolism.

  11. The relationship between habitual dietary phosphorus and calcium intake, and bone mineral density in young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sanae; Ishida, Hiromi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus and calcium are essential for bone health. There is a concern that a low calcium/phosphorus intake ratio resulting from low calcium intake coupled with high phosphorus intake may have a negative effect on bone mineral status, especially in Western countries. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectionally the influence of habitual phosphorus and calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio on the bone mineral density (BMD) in 441 young Japanese women (aged 18-22) whose calcium/phosphorus intake ratio was assumed to be lower than young Western women. We also ascertained the relationship between dietary intake and serum or urinary measurements of phosphorus and calcium. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) were also examined for 214 of the 441 subjects. Phosphorus and calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio had significant positive correlations with urinary phosphorus. Calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio independently had positive and significant associations with BMD in the distal radius adjusted for postmenarcheal age, body mass index, and physical activity. There were no significant associations with BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These results indicate that in young Japanese women, phosphorus intake did not have a significantly negative effect on bone mineral density, and calcium intake and calcium/phosphorus intake ratio had a small but significant association only in a site-specific manner with BMD.

  12. Influence of Hydrothermal Temperature on Phosphorus Recovery Efficiency of Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrate

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    Wei Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous calcium silicate hydrate (PCSH was synthesized by carbide residue and white carbon black. The influence of hydrothermal temperature on phosphorus recovery efficiency was investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Hydrothermal temperature exerted significant influence on phosphorus recovery performance of PCSH. Hydrothermal temperature 170°C for PCSH was more proper to recover phosphorus. PCSH could recover phosphorus with content of 18.51%. The law of Ca2+ and OH− release was the key of phosphorus recovery efficiency, and this law depended upon the microstructure of PCSH. When the temperature of synthesis reached to 170°C, the reactions between CaO and amorphous SiO2 were more efficient. Solubility of SiO2 was a limiting factor.

  13. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, S.J.; Thomsen, A.R.B.; Pang, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis are highly interrelated and share common regulatory hormones, including FGF23. However, little is known about calcium's role in the regulation of FGF23. We sought to investigate the regulatory roles of calcium and phosphorus in FGF23 production using genetic mouse...... models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR; PTH-CaSR DKO). In wild-type, PTH KO, and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, elevation of either serum calcium or phosphorus by intraperitoneal injection increased serum FGF23 levels. In PTH KO and PTH-CaSR DKO mice......, however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)D] despite no change in FGF23...

  14. [Bone involvement in idiopathic calcium lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A; Bataille, P; Solal, M C; Marié, A; Brazier, M; Sebert, J L; Prin, L; Fournier, A

    1995-01-01

    Bone involvement in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is characterized by the following abnormalities: a) the bone density is decreased, the severity of bone loss being dependent upon the existence of hypercalciuria and upon the pathophysiology of this latter: it is inconsistent in the absence of hypercalciuria or when hypercalciuria is of the absorptive type I or II, whereas it is almost constant in fasting hypercalciuria without secondary hyperparathyroidism and constant and severe in the rare true renal hypercalciuria. b) The bone histology (which has been evaluated only in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients) mainly shows a defect in bone formation at the exception of the rare renal hypercalciuria. Osteoclastic hyperresorption is only seen in this latter type of hypercalciuria whereas in the other types of hypercalciuria only an increase of the total or inactive resorption surface is observed. This phenomenon is possibly explained only by a delayed refilling of the resorption lacunae secondary to the decreased bone formation. The osteoid thickness is either normal or decreased despite decrease in mineralization apposition rate which seems therefore to be secondary to the decreased bone formation. c) Symptomatic bone disease in hypercalciuric stone formers is exceptional and always related to a severe long term calcium restriction. d) The biochemical markers of bone resorption tend to be increased in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Hydroxyprolinuria is more often elevated than pyridinolinuria. However pyridinolinuria is negatively correlated to bone density. The contrast between the increase of these bone resorption markers and the usual normality of plasma PTH and of the osteoclastic resorptive surfaces, suggest the role of meat induced acid load which may favor inactive resorption by dissolution of bone buffers. A disturbed profile synthesis of cytokines which induce differentiation and proliferation of the osteoclasts and which modulate the osteoblastic

  15. Phosphorus digestibility response of broiler chickens to dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J B; Chen, D W; Adeola, O

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the true digestibility of P in soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens fed diets with different dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios (Ca:P) using the regression method. The experiment used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 diets formulated to contain combinations of 4 levels of dietary Ca:P: 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, or 2.0 and 3 levels of SBM: 31.0, 44.0, or 57.0%. A total of 576 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 12 dietary treatments with 8 cages (6 birds per cage) per treatment from d 15 to 22 posthatching, and the BW between groups were similar. Chromic dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate P digestibility and retention. The results showed that BW gain and feed efficiency were increased (linear, P < 0.01), and prececal DM digestibility and DM retention were decreased (linear, P < 0.01) with graded SBM in diets for each Ca:P. Decreasing linear (P < 0.01) relationships were observed for apparent prececal P digestibility and total tract P retention with increased dietary SBM levels. The prececal and excreta P output increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) as increasing levels of SBM were added to the experimental diets. True prececal P digestibility in SBM was greater (P < 0.05) for birds fed a diet with Ca:P of 0.8 compared with those fed higher Ca:P, but there was no difference among the Ca:P ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. However, the total tract retention of P from SBM was not affected by Ca:P between 0.8 and 2.0. In conclusion, results of the present experiment demonstrated that prececal digestibility of P in SBM was not affected by Ca:P ratio between 1.2 and 2.0; and there was no difference in total tract retention of P from SBM among the Ca:P ratios between 0.8 and 2.0 in broiler chickens.

  16. Plasma calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in normal British schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M

    1973-07-21

    In a cross-sectional survey 624 schoolchildren were screened for plasma calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels. Plasma magnesium and alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were also estimated in some cases.No significant difference was found between adult and childhood values for calcium and magnesium. Levels of alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus varied with both age and sex. The magnitude of these variations in normal ranges is of clear importance in assessing data from individual paediatric or adolescent patients.

  17. Effect of dietary calcium: Phosphorus ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal calcium absorption in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshihara, Moyuru; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of dietary calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal Ca absorption in ovariectomized (OVX) rat models of osteoporosis and sham-operated rats. Thirty 12-wk-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of OVX rats and three groups of sham rats. Thirty days after the adaptation period, OVX rats and sham rats were fed a diet formulated Ca:P, 1:0.5, 1:1 or 1:2 (each diet containing 0.5% Ca), respectively for 42 d. In both sham and OVX rats, serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover, was increased by decreasing Ca:P ratio (1:2). In contrast, rats fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet (dietary P restriction) suppressed the increased serum parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline, and increased Ca absorption in both sham and OVX rats compared to the Ca:P = 1:1 and 1:2 diets. Especially, in OVX rats, the decreased bone mineral density of the fifth lumbar was also suppressed when rats were fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet. These results indicated that the elevation of dietary Ca:P ratio may inhibit bone loss and increase intestinal Ca absorption in OVX rats.

  18. Calcium and phosphorus contents of body parts of some domestic animals used as meat source in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith U Ebeledike; Godwin IC Nwokedi; Okechukwu O Ndu; Festus BC Okoye; Izuchukwu S Ochiogu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the calcium and phosphorus contents of four domestic animals used as sources of meat in Nigeria. Methods:The calcium contents of the body parts of the animals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. Their phosphorus contents were determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue method. Results:The calcium and phosphorus contents were significantly higher in the bone samples than in the other animal parts investigated (P<0.05). The calcium contents of all the edible parts were higher in chicken than in the other animals. High calcium and phosphorus contents were detected in the faeces of chicken and goat, and that of cattle and goat, respectively. Low calcium and phosphorus contents were detected in the urine samples. Calcium÷phosphorus ratios calculated for the bones of chicken, cattle and goat were satisfactory. Conclusions:In conclusion, calcium and phosphorus contents of the animal parts vary significantly and their relative contents may be related to the animal's diet. Chicken parts may be the preferred dietary source of these minerals. This study highlights the need for routine investigation of the mineral contents of food, which is necessary for proper nutritional guidelines.

  19. Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on intranephronic calculosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J C; Jee, W S

    1984-12-01

    The effects of varying dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on the incidence and severity of intranephronic calculosis were studied. Renal calculi were induced by feeding female rats the AIN-76TM semipurified diet for 4 weeks. During this time period, dietary levels of 350, 450 or 550 mg calcium per 100 g diet did not influence the occurrence of urolithiasis. Increasing dietary magnesium levels from 50 to 350 mg was beneficial in preventing the occurrence of calculi if the diet contained 400 mg or less phosphorus. The protective effects of dietary magnesium were counteracted when dietary phosphorus levels were increased from 400 mg to 550 or 700 mg. If the dietary content of phosphorus and magnesium permitted the formation of renal calculi, the severity of the condition was also influenced by the dietary level of calcium. Some animal groups fed semipurified diets did not have microscopic or radiographic evidence of renal calculi but were found to have significantly elevated renal calcium values. It was suggested that these animals might be in a precalculus-forming state.

  20. X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis for Barium, Zinc, Calcium and Phosphorus in Oil Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    HOAlD-I’ 908 XRAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS FOR BARIUM ZINC CALCIUM AND i/i PHOSPHORUS IN OIL HDDITIVES(U MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA...film technique was used by McGinness, Scott and Mortensen [101 for the quantitative x-ray emission analysis of paints . The paint films, "one-half mil

  1. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  2. A study of serum magnesium, calcium and phosphorus level, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.P. Basheer

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Magnesium (Mg2+), the fourth most abundant ion in the body and a cofactor for more than 300 ... mally low Mg incorporation and abnormally high aluminum ..... women.20 The mechanism for calcium's impact on brain func-.

  3. Uncorrected and Albumin-Corrected Calcium, Phosphorus, and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Matthew B; Ravel, Vanessa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Streja, Elani; Lau, Wei Ling; Nissenson, Allen R; Kestenbaum, Bryan; de Boer, Ian H; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2015-07-01

    Uncorrected serum calcium concentration is the first mineral metabolism metric planned for use as a quality measure in the United States ESRD population. Few studies in patients undergoing either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) have assessed the association of uncorrected serum calcium concentration with clinical outcomes. We obtained data from 129,076 patients on dialysis (PD, 10,066; HD, 119,010) treated in DaVita, Inc. facilities between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2006. After adjustment for potential confounders, uncorrected serum calcium excess mortality in patients on PD or HD (comparison group uncorrected calcium 9.0 to albumin concentration substantially attenuated the all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) associated with uncorrected calcium Albumin-corrected calcium ≥10.2 mg/dl and serum phosphorus ≥6.4 mg/dl were also associated with increased risk for death, irrespective of dialysis modality. In summary, in a large nationally representative cohort of patients on dialysis, abnormalities in markers of mineral metabolism, particularly high concentrations of serum calcium and phosphorus, were associated with increased mortality risk. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether control of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing dialysis results in improved clinical outcomes.

  4. Calcium and available phosphorus levels for laying hens in second production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelicia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the effect of four calcium (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5% and four available phosphorus levels (0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40% in the diet of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting. Hisex Brown® layers between 90 and 108 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement with 16 treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. mortality, egg production, feed intake, egg mass, average egg weight, calcium and phosphorus intake, feed conversion ratio (per dozen eggs and per kg eggs, eggshell percentage and thickness, eggshell strength, eggshell weight per surface area (ESWSA, yolk percentage and color, albumen percentage, albumen and yolk heights, and blood and excreta calcium and phosphorus concentrations. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between dietary Ca and avP for any of the studied parameters. There were linear increases in Ca intake (P0.05 by dietary Ca and avP levels. The diet containing 4.5% calcium improved feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and eggshell quality. The lowest avP level fed (0.25% is sufficient to maintain the performance and the egg quality of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting.

  5. Parathormone, Calcium And Phosphorus In Autotransplanted Parathyroid, Total Thyriodectomized Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Salam, I. M. [ابراهيم عبد السلام; M. Murad; Gamil, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The success of parathyroid autotransplantation was indicated by the postoperative assay of serum parathormone in thirteen out of fourteen patients to whom total thyroidectomy was carried out because of thyroid cancer during the past three years. Four glands were autotransplanted in four patients and froam two to three glamds were trasplanted in the remaineng nime patients. All patients were followed up with daily calcium and phosphate determinations. Patients with low ca"1"1" level and with h...

  6. [Characteristics of calcium-phosphorus metabolism and vitamin D allowance in the Far North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazheevich, N V; Spirichev, V B; Pereverzeva, O G; Tenditnaia, L V; Fanchenko, N D

    1983-01-01

    Examination of children aged 3 to 17 years and adult population including parturients living in Naryan-Mar and northern settlements of the Nenets national district revealed the reduced calcium and elevated phosphorus concentrations in the blood serum of the examinees as compared with respective parameters in analogous population groups living in the middle zone of Russia (Moscow and Kazan). These changes, particularly marked in winter and spring, are determined by national and local features of the diet poor in calcium and containing excess amount of phosphorus. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the blood serum of the population living in the Extreme North was 2 times lower than that in the population of the middle zone, constituting 15-20 and 30-40 ng/ml, respectively. The reason for a lower vitamin D supply in the North is insufficient insulation.

  7. Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Levels In Relation To AutonomicNervous System Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under hemodialysis. Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity during hemodialysis has not been fully studied. This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesi...

  8. Protein, calcium and phosphorus requirements in the maintenance of captive-bred capybaras

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    Sérgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the nitrogen-protein, calcium and phosphorus requirements of adult capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris bred in captivity through a nutritional balance study under conditions that favored the occurrence of cecotrophy. In a completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment, 16 adult female capybaras were fed isocaloric diets containing four levels of nitrogen (11.4, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.4 g N/kg dry matter-DM; calcium (3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g Ca/kg-DM; and phosphorus (2.0, 2.3, 2.7 and 3.0 g P/kg-DM. After 10 days of adaptation, the collection of feces was carried out for five consecutive days. Immediately following fecal collection, the animals were housed in metabolic cages for two days for urine collection. During the fecal collection, capybaras were observed to perform on average 0.32±0.27 cecotrophy acts per hour. Regression analyses allowed for estimating daily requirements of 0.25 g digestible nitrogen/kg LW0.75, which equals 1.56 g of digestible protein/kg LW0.75. Likewise, the available calcium and phosphorus requirements in 0.30 g Ca/kg LW0.75 and 0.15 g P/kg LW0.75 were estimated. The requirements of digestible nitrogen, as well as those of available calcium and phosphorus for the maintenance of capybaras are lower than those of domestic and other wild animal species with zootechnical potential.

  9. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, D.J.; Spann, K.P.

    1985-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  10. Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the hindgut of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, C; Sacquet, E

    1983-01-01

    For 4 weeks, 3-month old germfree (GF) and conventional (CV) rats were given a semi-synthetic diet sterilized by irradiation with or without 10% of lactose. During the 5th week, 0.2% of titanium oxide (TiO2) was added to the diet and the rats were killed at regular intervals throughout the light/dark cycle. The patterns of TiO2 and 45Ca excretion were similar, indicating that TiO2 was a good marker of unabsorbed calcium transit. The apparent absorption coefficient of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/TiO2 ratio. The effects of microflora and lactose varied with the mineral and the digestive tract level studied. --In the small intestine, microflora had no effect on the apparent absorption of calcium and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium and magnesium absorption, and this increase was similar in GF and CV rats, but lactose had a favorable effect on phosphorus absorption only in CV rats. --In the caecum, microflora had an unfavorable effect on the apparent absorption of calcium and magnesium and a favorable effect on phosphorus absorption. The ingestion of lactose reduced calcium and magnesium absorption in the caecum of GF rats and phosphorus absorption in the caecum of CV animals. --In the colon, mineral absorption was not significant in either CV or GF rats receiving the lactose-free diets. Lactose ingestion caused the absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus to rise significantly only in GF rats. This absorption contributed to the stronger effect of lactose on total calcium and phosphorus absorption in GF rats.

  11. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  12. Modelling biological and chemically induced precipitation of calcium phosphate in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, R; Montoya, T; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-06-01

    The biologically induced precipitation processes can be important in wastewater treatment, in particular treating raw wastewater with high calcium concentration combined with Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal. Currently, there is little information and experience in modelling jointly biological and chemical processes. This paper presents a calcium phosphate precipitation model and its inclusion in the Activated Sludge Model No 2d (ASM2d). The proposed precipitation model considers that aqueous phase reactions quickly achieve the chemical equilibrium and that aqueous-solid change is kinetically governed. The model was calibrated using data from four experiments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) operated for EBPR and finally validated with two experiments. The precipitation model proposed was able to reproduce the dynamics of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) formation and later crystallization to hydroxyapatite (HAP) under different scenarios. The model successfully characterised the EBPR performance of the SBR, including the biological, physical and chemical processes.

  13. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxyvitamin d in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F; Mikota, Susan; Dierenfeld, Ellen

    2009-06-01

    Seventy-two serum samples were collected from 14 healthy African elephants (Loxodonta africana), including three calves, to test for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] as well as for performing biochemical panels. Samples were collected between July 1997 and January 2008 to establish normal 25(OH)D values for the species and to examine the relationship of season and time on these values. Although the number of samples from the calves was small (n = 7), there was no statistically significant difference in the mean 25(OH)D levels between adults and calves (15.7 +/- 7.7 ng/ml versus 17.1 +/- 5.8 ng/ml, P > 0.05, respectively). The comparison of mean and individual values among seasons showed some variation, but was not statistically different; therefore, all values were combined for further analyses. The mean value of 25(OH)D for all samples was 15.8 +/- 7.5 ng/ml (n = 72), with a 95% confidence interval of 14.0-17.6 ng/ml. There did not appear to be a direct correlation between 25(OH)D levels and calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), or calcium:phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) based on regression analyses (P < 0.05). Values measured approximated normal distributions. Mean calcium value was 10.5 +/- 0.6 mg/dl (n = 61); mean phosphorus value was 5.2 +/- 0.8 mg/dl (n = 50); and mean Ca:P was 2.06 +/- 0.34. Since all animals appeared healthy during the course of sample collection, and bone density on foot radiographs was assessed as good, the results are considered to be normal for this herd. With the incidence of joint disease in older elephants, and metabolic bone disease in hand-reared calves, these values will provide a basis for further studies of calcium metabolism in elephants.

  14. The involvement of expansins in responses to phosphorus availability in wheat, and its potentials in improving phosphorus efficiency of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang-yang; Zhou, Shan; Chen, Yan-hui; Kong, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical macronutrient required for numerous functions in plants and is one of the limiting factors for plant growth. Phosphate availability has a strong effect on root system architecture. Expansins are encoded by a superfamily of genes that are organized into four families, and growing evidence has demonstrated that expansins are involved in almost all aspects of plant development, especially root development. In the current study, we demonstrate that expansins may be involved in increasing phosphorus availability by regulating the growth and development of plant roots. Multiple expansins (five α- and nine β-expansin genes) were up- or down-regulated in response to phosphorus and showed different expression patterns in wheat. Meanwhile, the expression level of TaEXPB23 was up-regulated at excess-P condition, suggesting the involvement of TaEXPB23 in phosphorus adaptability. Overexpression of the TaEXPB23 resulted in improved phenotypes, particularly improved root system architecture, as indicated by the increased number of lateral roots in transgenic tobacco plants under excess-P and low-P conditions. Thus, these transgenic plants maintained better photosynthetic gas exchange ability than the control under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions.

  15. Comparison Of Serum Calcium, Phosphorus And Total Protein Levels, In Pregnancy With Or Without Hypertensive Disorders

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    Rashid Pooraei M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension development and proteinuria during pregnancy. Hypertension disorder is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and death in worldwide. Although the pathophysiology of hypertension during pregnancy is unclear, but there is consensus that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is warranted to prevent complicated to both fetus and mother. The changes of serum trace elements during pregnancy are paramount important to predict and good understanding the situation of patients. The aim of this study was about this issue. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study we investigated the possible differences in the level of serum calcium, phosphorus and total protein in 55 healthy pregnant and 52 pregnant with hypertensive disease at 32-40 weeks of gestational age during the recent two years in Loghman hospital of Tehran. Some information such as age, blood group, parity number and blood pressure was taken from patients by a questionnaire. Results: The case population consisted of 22 sever preeclampsia, 15 mild preeclampsia, 8 eclampsia, and 7 chronic hypertensive. The mean serum calcium concentration (mg/dl was 9.180.74 in control group, 8.810.9 in mild preeclampsia, 7.850.38 in sever preeclampsia, 7.83 0.47 in eclampsia, 8.91 0.3 in chronic blood pressure. The mean serum phosphorus (mg/dl level observed, 4.27 in sever preeclampsia, 3.74 in eclampsia, 3.59 in mild eclampsia, 4.09 in chronic blood pressure, and 3.43 in control pregnant women. The mean serum total protein concentration level in sever preeclampsia and eclampsia was 5.46 and 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, sever preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with decreased level of calcium, total protein, and increased concentration of phosphorus.

  16. Phosphorus and Calcium Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women with Diabetes Mellitus: Effects of the Type and Duration of the Disease, Time of Menopause and Body Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Kyryliuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM on the phosphorus and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women, depending on the type and duration of the disease, duration of menopause, body mass and type of hypoglycemic therapy. The state of phosphorus and calcium metabolism in 86 women with type 1 DM (13 patients and type 2 DM (73 patients was studied. In all patients, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the blood was within normal limits. It was found that the concentration of ionized calcium, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the blood can not be the main criterion for the state of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with DM. Sulfonylureas and insulin in combination with biguanides have no effect on the status of phosphorus and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women with type 2 DM.

  17. Effect of resorbable calcium aluminate ceramics on regulation of calcium and phosphorus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B A; Bajpai, P K; Graves, G A

    1976-06-01

    Ions released from resorbable ceramics could be toxic to the animal. Experiments were designed to study the effect of implanting three different weights of porous resorbable calcium aluminate ceramics (0.172, 0.332, and 0.504 g) in rats for a total duration of 300 days. Gross and microscopic examination of heart, liver, kidneys, trachea with thyroid, and muscle adjacent to the implant did not show any pathological changes. Calcium and inorganic phosphate content of bone, serum and urine were not affected by the implants. Urine hydroxyproline excretion did not change in the animals implanted with ceramics. Animals implanted with 0.332 g of ceramics had a significantly higher serum alkaline phosphatase activity than the control animals. Resorption of calcium and depositon of inorganic phosphates in the implanted ceramics suggested that ions were being exchanged with the body fluids. Implantation of 0.172 to 0.332 g porous resorbable calcium aluminate ceramic was not toxic to the animal.

  18. [Calcium absorption by the rat from various milks in relation to their total phosphorus and lactose contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y; Fournier, A

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of calcium corresponds to a strictly determined mechanism inhibited by phosphates and activited by carbohydrates. We investigate in what extent the absorption of milk calcium from various species has the same proceeding. 4 months old rats are given orally solutions of CaCl2 alone or in combination with sodium dihydrogen phosphate or lactose or these both compounds. We compare calcium absorption of these solutions to that of milk from woman, cow or sow, or to dilutions of these two latter milks. All these fluids are dosed so that they correspond each other by their respective content in total calcium, total phosphorus and lactose. Each solution contains 45Ca. Blood samples 1,30, 4, 6 and 24 hours after ingestion allow establishing the variations of plasma radioactivity. Rats are sacrified after 24 hours. In certain cases, samples from digestive tube contents and feces provide a coefficient of calcium absorption. The osseous retention is obtained from femur radioactivity. In breif, we may consider that milks from cow and sow provide calcium the absorption of which is settled after their respective content of total phosphorus and lactose. Opposed effects of these inhibitors and activators of calcium absorption compensate so that calcium from these milks is just a little better utilized by adult rat than calcium from an isocalcic solution of CaCl2. Calcium from woman milk, rich in carbohydrates, poor in total phosphorus is better absorbed than that from the two latters, however less than we might expect from its high lactose content. We may wonder that calcium utilization from cow milk is as moderate as that of a solution of CaCl2. But skeleton mineralization which may be fulfilled by milk is made better because of that: it is not chloride but calcium phosphate which ensures this mineralization, a phosphate which alone would impair this mineralization without the compensative role of lactose.

  19. Analysis of different thermal processing methods of foodstuffs to optimize protein, calcium, and phosphorus content for dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Ivica; Panjkota Krbavčić, Ines; Bituh, Martina; Vrdoljak, Tea; Dujmić, Zoran

    2015-05-01

    To analyze how different thermal processing methods affect the protein, calcium, and phosphorus content of hospital food served to dialysis patients and to generate recommendations for preparing menus that optimize nutritional content while minimizing the risk of hyperphosphatemia. Standard Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC) methods were used to determine dry matter, protein, calcium, and phosphorus content in potatoes, fresh and frozen carrots, frozen green beans, chicken, beef and pork, frozen hake, pasta, and rice. These levels were determined both before and after boiling in water, steaming, stewing in oil or water, or roasting. Most of the thermal processing methods did not significantly reduce protein content. Boiling increased calcium content in all foodstuffs because of calcium absorption from the hard water. In contrast, stewing in oil containing a small amount of water decreased the calcium content of vegetables by 8% to 35% and of chicken meat by 12% to 40% on a dry weight basis. Some types of thermal processing significantly reduced the phosphorus content of the various foodstuffs, with levels decreasing by 27% to 43% for fresh and frozen vegetables, 10% to 49% for meat, 7% for pasta, and 22.8% for rice on a dry weight basis. On the basis of these results, we modified the thermal processing methods used to prepare a standard hospital menu for dialysis patients. Foodstuffs prepared according to the optimized menu were similar in protein content, higher in calcium, and significantly lower in phosphorus than foodstuffs prepared according to the standard menu. Boiling in water and stewing in oil containing some water significantly reduced phosphorus content without affecting protein content. Soaking meat in cold water for 1 h before thermal processing reduced phosphorus content even more. These results may help optimize the design of menus for dialysis patients. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 106, 1976: Decreased absorption of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus by humans due to increased fiber and phosphorus consumption as wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, J G; Faradji, B; Abadi, P; Ismail-Beigi, F

    1991-07-01

    During a 20 day period of high fiber consumption in the form of bread made partly from wheaten wholemeal, two men developed negative balances of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus due to increased fecal excretion of each element. The fecal losses correlated closely with fecal dry matter and phosphorus. Fecal dry matter, in turn, was directly proportional to fecal fiber excretion. Balances of nitrogen remained positive. Mineral elements were well-utilized by the same subjects during a 20 day period of white bread consumption.

  1. The influence of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and silica in vanadium precipitation in acidic sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A.H. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. E-mail: ahmartin@demet.ufmg.br

    2000-06-01

    The experimental research work was carried out in accordance with the Factorial Design Statistical Method to evaluate and analyze the influence of calcium, magnesium, silica and phosphorus on the precipitation of vanadates. precipitation was performed by neutralization with H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} of alkaline aqueous solutions containing vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2} O{sub 5}) at 60 {+-} 2 deg C. The experimental responses measured were percent of vanadium recovery and vanadium pentoxide content in the precipitate. These impurities are considered representative of those present in a leach liquor from the ore obtained at Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Brazil). The operational variables in this work were used optimum conditions as determined by the statistical approach. Among the impurities under study, phosphorus exhibited the highest negative influence on the experimental responses. Phosphorus diminished the percent of vanadium recovered from 98.9 to 34.5 and the vanadium oxide content in the precipitate from 91.2% to 39.3%. (author)

  2. The influence of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and silica on vanadium precipitation in acidic sulfate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Martins

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental research work was carried out in accordance with the Factorial Design Statistical Method to evaluate and analyze the influence of calcium, magnesium, silica and phosphorus on the precipitation of vanadates. Precipitation was performed by neutralization with H2SO4 of alkaline aqueous solutions containing vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 at 60± 2ºC. The experimental responses measured were percent of vanadium recovery and vanadium pentoxide content in the precipitate. These impurities are considered representative of those present in a leach liquor from the ore obtained at Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Brazil. The operational variables in this work were used under optimum conditions as determined by the statistical approach. Among the impurities under study, phosphorus exhibited the highest negative influence on the experimental responses. Phosphorus diminished the percent of vanadium recovered from 98.9 to 34.5 and the vanadium oxide content in the precipitate from 91.2 % to 39.3 %.

  3. Relation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with the incidence of dental caries in children

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    Vijayaprasad K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess possible relationship of Calcium, Phosphorus and Alkaline-phophatase levels in saliva with incidence of caries in child patients. Settings and Design: Children (n=75 attending Department of Pedodontics, St. Joseph Dental college, Eluru, with and without caries were categorized in to Group I: Consisting of 25 children with non-rampant caries, Group II: Consisting of 25 children with rampant caries, Group III: Consisting of 25 children without caries. (Control group. Materials and Methods: The samples of saliva were collected one week after oral prophylaxis. Unstimulated directly expectorated whole saliva samples were collected in clean, dry, sterilized glass bottles and fitted with proper rubber stoppers immediately. The samples were subjected to biochemical assay for estimation of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA. Results: The alkaline Phosphatase activity for rampant caries group was 18.66 K.A, and control group was 4.68 K.A. The values of alkaline phosphatase activity for minimal caries group was 6.16 KA. Conclusion: Saliva could reflect a caries risk situation was supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase activity was very much significantly higher in caries prone groups.

  4. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Electrocardiographic QT Interval Duration: Findings from NHANES III and ARIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Bansal, Sandeep; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Jan De Beur, Suzanne; Alonso, Alvaro; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Brugada, Ramón; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Disturbances in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations have been associated with increased risks of total and cardiovascular mortality. It is possible that changes in electrocardiographic QT interval duration may mediate these effects, but the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphorus, and calcium concentrations with QT interval duration has not been evaluated in general population samples. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphorus, and calcium concentrations with QT interval duration in two large samples of the U.S. general population. Design: This study included cross-sectional analyses the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Setting: The study was conducted in the general community. Patients or Other Participants: Patients included 7,312 men and women from NHANES III and 14,825 men and women from the ARIC study. Interventions: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, total and ionized calcium, and inorganic phosphorus were measured in NHANES III, and serum total calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured in ARIC. Main Outcome Measure: QT interval duration was obtained from standard 12-lead electrocardiograms. Results: In NHANES III, the multivariate adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of serum total calcium, ionized calcium, and phosphorus were −3.6 msec (−5.8 to −1.3; P for trend = 0.005), −5.4 msec (−7.4 to −3.5; P for trend <0.001), and 3.9 msec (2.0–5.9; P for trend <0.001), respectively. The corresponding differences in ARIC were −3.1 msec (−4.3 to −2.0; P for trend <0.001), −2.9 msec (−3.8 to −1.9; P for trend <0.001), and 2.3 msec (1.3–3.3; P for trend <0.001). No association was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and QT interval duration. Conclusions: In two large samples of the general

  5. Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Levels In Relation To AutonomicNervous System Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under hemodialysis. Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity during hemodialysis has not been fully studied. This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesium throughout the session (at predialysis state, middialysis state: after 2 hours of the session and postdialysis: at the end of the hemodialysis Session. We have also assessed autonomic function (sympathetic by cold pressor test and parasympathetic by Valsalva maneuver test. Autonomic function tests were assessed at predialysis state, middialysis state and postdialysis state. Calcuim level uncreased throughout the session (P<0.05, phosphorus leuel and Magnesium levels decreased , (P<0.001 and (P<0.05, throghout session . As reguards parasympathetie dysfunetion, there was a significamt relation (P<0.05 with calcuim changes at predialytic and post dialytic states, a highly significant relation (P<0.001 with phosphorus and (P<0.05 with magnesiun, both at predialysis states. Concerging sympathetie dysfunction, there was a significant relation (P<0.05 with calcium levels at end of session. There was a signifcant relation (P<0.05 with predialytic and postdialytic phosphorus levels .There was also significant relation (P<0.05 with predialytic magnesium level.

  6. Evaluation of calcium, phosphorus, and selected trace mineral status in commercially available dry foods formulated for dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective – To evaluate the mineral content including calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and selenium of canine commercial pet foods and compare them to current AAFCO recommendations for adult maintenance. Design - Descriptive study. Sample – Forty-five over the counter dry canine p...

  7. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  8. Blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations in cows with left displaced abomasum

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    Šamanc Horea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement is one of the most important disorders of the digestive tract in high-yield dairy cows. The etiology and pathogenesis of its occurrence has not been fully clarified to this day. The work examines calcaemia and phosphataemia in cows during the antepartal and postpartal periods and their connection with the incidence of abomasal displacement. The experiment covered 30 cows in advanced stages of gravidity. Blood samples were taken two weeks before expected parturition and two weeks after calving. In all blood samples (taken antepartal and postpartal, concentrations of calcium and an organic phosphorus were determined using a commercial test package (Bio-Merieux. Following parturition, left displacement of the abomasums was established in seven (23.33 % of the 30 cows covered by the experiment (experimental group. The remaining 23 cows in the experiment were clinically healthy, they were placed in a group and represented control animals. The average value of calcaemia for the control group of cows during the antepartal period was 2.72±0.25 mmol/l, and of phosphataemia 2.04±0.25 mmol/l. In the same cows postpartum, average calcaemia values were 2.46±0.22 mmol/l and phosphataemia 1.85±0.29 mmol/l. The average antepartal value for calcaemia in the experimental group of cows was 2.51±0.25 mmol/l, and for phosphataemia 1.73± 0.22 mmol/l. The average values for this group of cows postpartally was 2.13±0.31 mmol/l for calcaemia and 1.43±0.24 mmol/l for phosphataemia. The differences between the concentration values for calcium and phosphorus obtained postpartally between the experimental and control groups were statistically significant. .

  9. Blood lead, calcium, and phosphorus in women with preeclampsia in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechukwu, Ikaraoha Chidiebere; Ojareva, Oforofuo Isreal Agware; Ibhagbemien, Anetor John; Okhoaretor, Okogbo Felix; Oluwatomi, Okusanya Babasola; Akhalufo, Okogbenin Sylvanus; Oluwagbenga, Alonge Temitope; Chigaekwu, Mbadiwe Nkeiruka

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were significantly lower (p < .001) in preclamptics than in normal pregnant women (60.2 ± 12.8 vs 26.3 ± 8.0 μg/dL for Pb, 1.39 ± 0.33 vs 2.03 ± 0.22 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.76 ± 0.10 vs 0.99 ± 0.13 mmol/L for P, respectively). There was significant increase (p < .05) in BPb and decreases (p < .01) in serum Ca and P in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (35.7 ± 18.0 vs 13.1 ± 6.4 μg/dL for Pb, 1.85 ± 0.33 vs 2.33 ± 0.20 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.93 ± 0.38 vs 1.24 ± 0.26 mmol/L for P). Also, BPb was negatively correlated with serum Ca and, P, and positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy (r = -.804 for Ca, r = -.728 for P, r = .908 for SBP, and r = .842 for DBP) and preeclampsia (p < .01). It appears that increase in blood lead, which parallels decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus, may be related to the development and progression of preeclampsia in this environment.

  10. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilization by growing pigs: effect of dietary phosphorus, calcium and exogenous phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Jondreville, C; Sauvant, D; Narcy, A

    2012-10-01

    Optimizing phosphorus (P) utilization in pigs requires improving our capacity to predict the amount of P absorbed and retained, with the main modulating factors taken into account, as well as precisely determining the P requirements of the animals. Given the large amount of published data on P utilization in pigs, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the impact of the different dietary P forms, calcium (Ca) and exogenous phytases on the digestive and metabolic utilization criteria for dietary P in growing pigs. Accordingly, the amount of phytate P (PP) leading to digestible P (g/kg) was estimated to be 21%, compared with 73% for non-phytate P (NPP) from plant ingredients and 80% for NPP from mineral and animal ingredients (P < 0.001). The increase in total digestible dietary P following the addition of microbial phytase (PhytM) from Aspergillus niger (P < 0.001) was curvilinear and about two times higher than the increase following the addition of plant phytase, which leads to a linear response (P < 0.001). The response of digestible P to PhytM also depends on the amount of substrate, PP (PhytM(2) × PP, P < 0.001). The digestibility of dietary P decreased with dietary Ca concentration (P < 0.01) independently of phytase but increased with body weight (BW, P < 0.05). Although total digestible dietary P increased linearly with total NPP concentration (P < 0.001), retained P (g/kg), average daily gain (ADG, g/day) and average daily feed intake (ADFI, g/day) increased curvilinearly (P < 0.001). Interestingly, whereas dietary Ca negatively affected P digestibility, the effect of dietary Ca on retained P, ADG and ADFI depended on total dietary NPP (NPP × Ca, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Increasing dietary Ca reduced retained P, ADG and ADFI at low NPP levels, but at higher NPP concentrations it had no effect on ADG and ADFI despite a positive effect on retained P. Although the curvilinear effect of PhytM on digestible P increased with PP (P < 0

  11. Phosphorus from wastewater to crops: An alternative path involving microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Verschoor, Antonie M; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, a major plant nutrient that is essential for modern agriculture. Currently, global food and feed production depends on P extracted from finite phosphate rock reserves mainly confined to a small number of countries. P limitation and its potential socio-economic impact may well exceed the potential effects of fossil fuel scarcity. The efficiency of P usage today barely reaches 20%, with the remaining 80% ending up in wastewater or in surface waters as runoff from fields. When recovered from wastewater, either chemically or biologically, P is often present in a form that does not meet specifications for agricultural use. As an alternative, the potential of microalgae to accumulate large quantities of P can be a way to direct this resource back to crop plants. Algae can acquire and store P through luxury uptake, and the P enriched algal biomass can be used as bio-fertilizer. Technology of large-scale algae cultivation has made tremendous progress in the last decades, stimulated by perspectives of obtaining third generation biofuels without requiring arable land or fresh water. These new cultivation technologies can be used for solar-driven recycling of P and other nutrients from wastewater into algae-based bio-fertilizers. In this paper, we review the specifics of P uptake from nutrient-rich waste streams, paying special attention to luxury uptake by microalgal cells and the potential application of P-enriched algal biomass to fertilize crop soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systemic Assessment of Calcium and Phosphorus Level after Implantation of Porous Iron in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siallagan, S. F.; Amelia, F.; Utami, N. D.; Ulum, M. F.; Boediono, A.; Estuningsih, S.; Hermawan, H.; Noviana, D.

    2017-07-01

    One of important aspects in bone healing process is physiological level of calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) that can be altered by implantation of biodegradable porous iron. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the concentration of Ca, P and Ca/P ratio in the peripheral blood during the implantation period up to 4 months. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used and divided into 3 groups receiving different pore size of iron implants (pore size 450, 580, 800μm) and one group of sham. The implants (5x2x0.5mm) were inserted into flat bone defects at latero-medial of femoral bone. Blood sample was taken from ventral tail artery before and after 4 month of implantation. Calcium and P concentrations in the blood were determined by BA-88A Semi-Auto Chemistry Analyzer. Results showed that concentration of Ca and P are slightly higher after implantation than before implantation, except for the 450μm group. The Ca/P ratio before and after implantation was increased in the sham group, and decreased in the 450 and 800μm groups. Concentration of Ca, P and Ca/P ratio insignificantly change between before and 4 months after surgery in some groups.

  13. Calcium-phosphorus interactions at a nano-structured silicate surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C; Lewis, Trevor W; McFarlane, Andrew J; Borrmann, T; Johnston, Jim H

    2008-03-15

    Nano-structured calcium silicate (NCS), a highly porous material synthesized by controlled precipitation from geothermal fluids or sodium silicate solution, was developed as filler for use in paper manufacture. NCS has been shown to chemisorb orthophosphate from an aqueous solution probably obeying a Freundlich isotherm with high selectivity compared to other common environmental anions. Microanalysis of the products of chemisorption indicated there was significant change from the porous and nano-structured morphology of pristine NCS to fibrous and crystalline morphologies and non-porous detritus. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystalline products showed it to be brushite, CaHPO42H2O, while the largely X-ray amorphous component was a mixture of calcium phosphates. A two-step mechanism was proposed for the chemisorption of phosphate from an aqueous solution by NCS. The first step, which was highly dependent on pH, was thought to be desorption of hydroxide ions from the NCS surface. This was kinetically favoured at lower initial pH, where the predominant form of phosphate present was H2PO(-)4, and led to decreased phosphorus uptake with increasing pH. The second step was thought to be a continuing chemisorption process after stabilization of the pH-value. The formation of brushite as the primary chemisorption product was found to be consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  14. Effect of the method of preparation for consumption on calcium retention, calcium:phosphorus ratio, nutrient density and recommended daily allowance in fourteen vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr; Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate calcium retention in 14 species of vegetable (from four usable groups). The material investigated consisted of raw and boiled fresh vegetables and two types of frozen product prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: one traditionally produced; the other obtained using the modified method (convenience food). The highest calcium content was found in leafy vegetables, followed (in descending order) by leguminous, root and brassica vegetables. The proportion by weight of Ca to P was highest in leafy vegetables and decreased with calcium retention despite the fact that levels of phosphorus were highest in leguminous and lowest in leafy vegetables. The nutrient density (ND%) of calcium for adults exceeded 100 for each individual vegetable species. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) percentage value varied between 23.04 (kale) and 1.46 (white cauliflower). Of the three types of product, ND and RDA values were generally greater in the frozen convenience products.

  15. Zinc deficiency and supplementation in ovariectomized rats: their effect on serum estrogen and progesterone levels and their relation to calcium and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunar, Fusun; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Ergene, Neyhan; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine how zinc deficiency or supplementation affects estrogen and progesterone and calcium and phosphorus levels in the serum. The study was carried out on 40 adult female rats of Sprague-Dawley species. The rats were allocated to four groups: Group 1: Control, Group 2: Ovariectomized (OVX) control. Group 3: OVX-Zinc-supplemented. Group 4: OVX-Zinc-deficient. Blood samples were taken from the experimental animals by decapitation method and analyzed in terms of estrogen, progesterone, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc levels. Group 1 had the highest estrogen levels (pcalcium and phosphorus levels were obtained in groups 1 and 3 (pCalcium and phosphorus levels in group 2 were higher than those in group 4 (pcalcium and phosphorus levels and that zinc supplementation prevents these adversities in ovariectomized rats.

  16. Using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to study specific bacterial species involved in biological phosphorus removal from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    profiles by metatranscriptomics. To demonstrate this we revisited the bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater treatment plants. The EBPR process is used all over the world, has a large body of information regarding the underlying microbiology, and is often studied...

  17. Tibial bone mineral distribution as influenced by calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels in the growing turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrell, F. A.; Brenes, J.; Waibel, P.

    1974-01-01

    Roentgen signs, subperiosteal, endosteal, and trabecular bone growth are evaluated in turkeys fed phosphorus at the 0.5, 0.56, 0.68, 0.90, and 2.70 percent levels. Calcium levels of 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 1.2, and 3.60 percent were also tested. Vitamin D levels of 0, 100, 300, 900 and 27,000 I.U. per day were likewise evaluated. Roentgen signs, bone mineral as measured by T-125 gamma ray absorption, and bone mineral growth patterns as shown by radiograph area projection are correlated with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels. Differences in bone growth at the various feeding levels were observed which were not reflected by differences in other studied parameters.

  18. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus metabolism, and parathyroid-calcitonin function during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations on submarines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, A A; Heyder, E; Braithwaite, W R; McCluggage, C; Peck, A; Schaefer, K E

    1979-01-01

    Studies of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and acid-base balance were carried out on three Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) submarines during prolonged exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2. The average CO2 concentration in the submarine atmosphere during patrols ranged from 0.85% to 1% CO2. In the three studies, in which 9--15 subjects participated, the urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate fell during the first three weeks to a level commensurate with a decrease in plasma calcium and increase in phosphorus. In the fourth week of one patrol, a marked increase was found in urinary calcium excretion, associated with a rise in blood PCO2 and bicarbonate. Urinary calcium excretion decreased again during the 5th to 8th week, with a secondary decrease in blood pH and plasma calcium. During the third patrol, the time course of acid-base changes corresponded well with that found during the second patrol. There was a trend toward an increase in plasma calcium between the fourth and fifth week commensurate with the transient rise in pH and bicarbonate. Plasma parathyroid and calcitonin hormone activities were measured in two patrols and no significant changes were found. Hydroxyproline excretion decreased in the three-week study and remained unchanged in the second patrol, which lasted 57 days. It is suggested that during prolonged exposure to low levels of CO2 (up to 1% CO2), calcium metabolism is controlled by the uptake and release of CO2 in the bones. The resulting phases in bone buffering, rather than renal regulation, determine acid-base balance.

  19. True manganese absorption in chicks as affected by dietary excesses of calcium and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, K.J.; Titgemeyer, E.C.; Twardock, A.R.; Baker, D.H. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Two balance studies with growing chicks were conducted to evaluate the effects of excess calcium (Ca) or excess phosphorus (P) on endogenous fecal manganese (Mn) excretion and true Mn absorption determined using an isotope-dilution technique. Supplements were added to a corn-soybean meal diet containing 1% Ca, 0.7% P and 37 mg/kg Mn. In Exp. 1, supplemental Ca levels of 0, 0.5 and 1.0% from feedgrade limestone were compared. True absorption of Mn was not affected by Ca level and averaged 2.8% for birds fed the Mn-unsupplemented diet. In Exp. 2, a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments included: 100 and 1,000 mg/kg supplemental Mn and 0, 0.4 and 0.8% added P supplied by dicalcium phosphate. Excess P decreased true absorption of Mn. In birds fed 100 mg/kg supplemental Mn, absorption of Mn decreased 22% as excess P increased from 0 to 0.8%, whereas in birds fed 1,000 mg/kg supplemental Mn, Mn absorption decreased 58% as a result of 0.8% P supplementation. These results confirm that excess Ca has little effect while excess P has a marked effect on gut absorption of Mn.

  20. Preparation of calcium fluoroaluminosilicate glasses containing sodium and phosphorus by the nonhydrolytic sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cestari, Alexandre; Bandeira, Lucimara C.; Calefi, Paulo S. [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira 201, Pq. Universitario, 14404-600 Franca, SP (Brazil); Nassar, Eduardo J. [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira 201, Pq. Universitario, 14404-600 Franca, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: ejnassar@unifran.br; Ciuffi, Katia J. [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira 201, Pq. Universitario, 14404-600 Franca, SP (Brazil)

    2009-03-20

    Aluminum and silicon oxide-based inorganic matrices have been extensively studied because of their countless applications. Dental cements consist of aluminum and silicon-based amorphous polymeric materials containing fluoride, sodium, phosphorus and calcium, which are also good candidates for bone replacement. The nonhydrolytic sol-gel method has emerged as an alternative route for the preparation of these materials under milder conditions than those employed in traditional methods, such as oxide fusion. The main advantages of the nonhydrolytic sol-gel method include the use of low temperatures and the ready availability and easy purification of the precursors. Together, these factors have contributed to the production of highly pure materials with controlled porosity and nanometric particles. Dental restorations based on aluminosilicate matrices are known as glass ionomer cements. These materials have interesting physical and dental properties, mainly because they display anticariogenic activity and exhibit prolonged adhesiveness to the dental structure. The base of the ionomer is an aluminosilicate that is industrially synthesized by the fusion of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlF{sub 3}, CaF{sub 2}, NaF and AlPO{sub 4}, in various concentrations. The characterizations conducted in this study reveal that this ionomer displays interesting properties, so its use as a precursor of dental cement and a biomaterial for bone replacement is highly recommended.

  1. Association of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intake with caries status among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Shan; Lin, Jia-Rong; Hu, Suh-Woan; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between caries experience and daily intake of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and Ca/P ratio. A total of 2248 schoolchildren were recruited based on a population-based survey. Each participant received a dental examination and questionnaire interviews about the 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency. The daily intake of Ca, P, Mg, and Ca/P ratio were inversely associated with primary caries index, but only the Ca/P ratio remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. According to the Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes, the Ca/P ratio was related to both caries in primary teeth (odds ratio = 0.52, p = 0.02) and in permanent teeth (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.02). The daily intakes of Ca/P ratio remained an important factor for caries after considering potential confounding factors.

  2. Effect of dual ion implantation of calcium and phosphorus on the properties of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Rajchel, B

    2005-06-01

    This study is concerned with the effect of dual implantation of calcium and phosphorus upon the structure, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium. The ions were implanted in sequence, first Ca and then P, both at a dose of 10(17) ions/cm2 at a beam energy of 25 keV. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the implanted layer. The chemical composition of the implanted layer was examined by XPS and SIMS. The corrosion resistance was determined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at a temperature of 37 degrees C. The biocompatibility tests were performed in vitro in a culture of human-derived bone cells (HDBC) in contact with the tested materials. The viability of the cells was determined by an XTT assay and their activity by the measurements of the alkaline phosphatase activity in contact with implanted and non-implanted titanium samples. The in vitro examinations confirmed that, under the conditions prevailing during the experiments, the biocompatibility of Ca + P ion-implanted titanium was satisfactory. TEM results show that the surface layer formed by the Ca + P implantation is amorphous. The corrosion resistance of titanium, examined by the electrochemical methods, appeared to be increased after the Ca + P ion implantation.

  3. X-ray dual energy spectral parameter optimization for bone Calcium/Phosphorus mass ratio estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, P. I.; Fountos, G. P.; Martini, N. D.; Koukou, V. N.; Michail, C. M.; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Nikiforidis, G. C.

    2015-09-01

    Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) bone mass ratio has been identified as an important, yet underutilized, risk factor in osteoporosis diagnosis. The purpose of this simulation study is to investigate the use of effective or mean mass attenuation coefficient in Ca/P mass ratio estimation with the use of a dual-energy method. The investigation was based on the minimization of the accuracy of Ca/P ratio, with respect to the Coefficient of Variation of the ratio. Different set-ups were examined, based on the K-edge filtering technique and single X-ray exposure. The modified X-ray output was attenuated by various Ca/P mass ratios resulting in nine calibration points, while keeping constant the total bone thickness. The simulated data were obtained considering a photon counting energy discriminating detector. The standard deviation of the residuals was used to compare and evaluate the accuracy between the different dual energy set-ups. The optimum mass attenuation coefficient for the Ca/P mass ratio estimation was the effective coefficient in all the examined set-ups. The variation of the residuals between the different set-ups was not significant.

  4. Active vitamin D deficiency mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus results in male infertility in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Rong; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-01-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency results in male infertility mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 or extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) and their wild-type littermates fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet from weaning were mated at 6-14 wk of age with female wild-type mice on the same diet. The fertility efficiency of females was analyzed, and the reproductive phenotypes of males were evaluated by histopathological and molecular techniques. Hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice on a normal diet developed infertility characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, with downregulation of testicular calcium channels, lower intracellular calcium levels, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of the testes. The proliferation of spermatogenic cells was decreased with downregulation of cyclin E and CDK2 and upregulation of p53 and p21 expression, whereas apoptosis of spermatogenic cells was increased with upregulation of Bax and p-caspase 3 expression and downregulation of Bcl-xl expression. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, decreased sperm count and motility, histological abnormalities of testis, and defective spermatogenesis, was reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in male 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Initial amino acid intake influences phosphorus and calcium homeostasis in preterm infants--it is time to change the composition of the early parenteral nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN, consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA. A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. RESULTS: 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5% and hypercalcemia (9.8% were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8% and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%; both p<0.001. DISCUSSION: Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome. We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium the main determinants of cellular growth.

  6. P12 - PTHC1: A Continuing Cell Line Expressing PTH and Genes Involved in Calcium Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, S.; Mazzotta, C.; Ciuffi, S.; Mavilia, C; Galli, G; Zonefrati, R.; Strigoli, D.; Cavalli, L.; Cavalli, T.; Brandi, M L

    2010-01-01

    The main organs regulating serum levels of ionised calcium (Ca2+) are the parathyroids, which are composed of two different cell types: chief cells and oxyphil cells. Chief cells, through the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), are affected by changes in calcium concentration, modifying PTH secretion in proportion to calcium levels. Current understanding of calcium regulation mechanisms connected to PTH and of the signalling pathways involved derive from in vitro studies carried out on primary c...

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of calcium acetate on serum phosphorus concentrations in patients with advanced non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chiang-Hong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue calcification, and increased mortality risk. This trial was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of calcium acetate in controlling serum phosphorus in pre-dialysis patients with CKD. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 110 nondialyzed patients from 34 sites with estimated GFR 2 and serum phosphorus > 4.5 mg/dL were randomized to calcium acetate or placebo for 12 weeks. The dose of study drugs was titrated to achieve target serum phosphorus of 2.7-4.5 mg/dL. Serum phosphorus, calcium, iPTH, bicarbonate and serum albumin were measured at baseline and every 2 weeks for the 12 week study period. The primary efficacy endpoint was serum phosphorus at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints were to measure serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Results At 12 weeks, serum phosphorus concentration was significantly lower in the calcium acetate group compared to the placebo group (4.4 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. 5.1 ± 1.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04. The albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentration was significantly higher (9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 8.8 ± 0.8; p p Conclusions In CKD patients not yet on dialysis, calcium acetate was effective in reducing serum phosphorus and iPTH over a 12 week period. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00211978.

  8. Pediatric reference intervals for random urine calcium, phosphorus and total protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slev, Patricia R; Bunker, Ashley M; Owen, William E; Roberts, William L

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish age appropriate reference intervals for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and total protein (UTP) in random urine samples. All analytes were measured using the Roche MODULAR P analyzer and normalized to creatinine (Cr). Our study cohort consisted of 674 boys and 728 girls between 7 and 17 years old (y.o.), which allowed us to determine the central 95% reference intervals with 90% confidence intervals by non-parametric analysis partitioned by both gender and 2-year age intervals for each analyte [i.e. boys in age group 7-9 years (7-9 boys); girls in age group 7-9 years (7-9 girls), etc.]. Results for the upper limits of the central 95% reference interval were: for Ca/Cr, 0.27 (16,17 y.o.) to 0.46 mg/mg (7-9 y.o.) for the girls and 0.26 (16,17 y.o.) to 0.43 mg/mg (7-9 y.o.) for the boys; for P/Cr, 0.85 (16,17 y.o.) to 1.44 mg/mg (7-9 y.o.) for the girls and 0.87 (16,17 y.o.) to 1.68 mg/mg (7-9 y.o.) for the boys; for UTP/Cr, 0.30 (7-9 y.o.) to 0.34 mg/mg (10-12 y.o.) for the girls and 0.19 (16,17, y.o.) to 0.26 mg/mg (13-15 y.o.) for the boys. Upper reference limits decreased with increasing age, and age was a statistically significant variable for all analytes. Eight separate age- and gender-specific reference intervals are proposed per analyte.

  9. [Phosphorus and calcium metabolism and the cardiovascular system status in patients with early-stage chronic renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A V; Volkov, M M; Dobronravov, V A; Rafrafi, H

    2010-01-01

    To define the impact of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in patients with early-stage chronic renal disease (CRD) on the cardiovascular system. The levels of phosphate (P), calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25(OH) vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, serum lipidogram, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), and X-ray degree of abdominal artery calcification (AAC) were determined and echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure monitoring were made in 465 patients with Stages I-V CRD who did not receive renal replacement therapy (of them, 73.5% of the patients had early (I to III) stages). Blood 1,25(OH)2D was related inversely to left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, and the degree of AAC and correlated directly to the severity of LV diastolic dysfunction and inversely to IMT, the presence of coronary heart disease and heart failure (HF). ACC, LV hypertrophy, and arterial hypertension (AH) were more significant in patients with higher serum levels PTH and P. In patients with early-stage CRD, phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances promote the development of AH, vascular and cardiac valvular calcification, myocardial hypertrophy, and HF.

  10. Influence of Electrolyte Composition on the Calcium-Phosphorus compound Coating on Titanium Substrate by Micro-arc Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiu-hong; WANG Cong-zeng; KOU Bin-da; SU Xue-kuan; ZHANG Wen-quan

    2004-01-01

    The compound bioceramic coating containing calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) on titanium alloy substrate was prepared by means of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. The results show that under the different electrolyte the coating with the color of gray or black and surface morphology of cauliflower or honeycomb, where Ca content and P contain can attain 30% and 20% respectively, can be obtained. Meanwhile, the influences of electrolyte temperature, current density and discharge time on morphology and thickness of coating are also discussed here.

  11. Calcium and phosphorus determination in bones of low value fishes, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes and Trichiurus savala (Cuvier, from Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logesh AR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate calcium and phosphorus levels in the bones of low value fishes Sardinella longiceps (oil sardine and Trichiurus savala (ribbon fish. Methods: Bones and skeletal remains were subjected to alkaline-alcohol treatment for specified period of time and were then dried and pulverized. Calcium and phosphorus levels were determined by both volumetric and instrumental methods using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: Volumetric analysis of calcium and phosphorus were 28.98% and 14.2% in oil sardine; 24.2% and 11.6% in ribbon fish respectively. Atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis of calcium and phosphorus were 32.73% and 17.2% for oil sardine and 27.17% and 10.83% for ribbon fish respectively. Protein level was 4.82% in oil sardine and 3.97% in ribbon fishes. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that sardine bones are rich in calcium and will be utilized for the production of calcium powder to treat osteoporosis.

  12. Constructive interactions among nutrients and bone-active pharmacologic agents with principal emphasis on calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, R P

    2001-10-01

    Current and emerging bone active pharmacologic agents are capable of producing substantial gains in bone mass. However, nutrition must be adequate if this potential is to be realized. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation, for example, have both been demonstrated to augment substantially the skeletal response to estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women. The bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs) have all been tested only in the context of supplemental calcium and vitamin D. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that these bone active agents would be effective in the absence of these nutrients. Adequate protein intake has also been demonstrated to protect bone mass in the elderly and to improve recovery from osteoporotic fractures. Phosphorus intake, less extensively studied, may be more important than currently recognized, particularly in elderly individuals living alone, eating little meat, and receiving anti-osteoporosis treatment agents.

  13. Insights into Broilers' Gut Microbiota Fed with Phosphorus, Calcium, and Phytase Supplemented Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda-Molina, Daniel; Vital, Marius; Sommerfeld, Vera; Rodehutscord, Markus; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia

    2016-01-01

    Phytase supplementation in broiler diets is a common practice to improve phosphorus (P) availability and to reduce P loss by excretion. An enhanced P availability, and its concomitant supplementation with calcium (Ca), can affect the structure of the microbial community in the digestive tract of broiler chickens. Here, we aim to distinguish the effects of mineral P, Ca, and phytase on the composition of microbial communities present in the content and the mucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. Significant differences were observed between digesta and mucosa samples for the GIT sections studied (p = 0.001). The analyses of 56 individual birds showed a high microbial composition variability within the replicates of the same diet. The average similarity within replicates of digesta and mucosa samples across all diets ranged from 29 to 82% in crop, 19–49% in ileum, and 17–39% in caeca. Broilers fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca had the lowest body weight gain and feed conversion values while diets supplemented with P showed the best performance results. An effect of each diet on crop mucosa samples was observed, however, similar results were not obtained from digesta samples. Microbial communities colonizing the ileum mucosa samples were affected by P supplementation. Caeca-derived samples showed the highest microbial diversity when compared to the other GIT sections and the most prominent phylotypes were related to genus Faecalibacterium and Pseudoflavonifractor, known for their influence on gut health and as butyrate producers. Lower microbial diversity in crop digesta was linked to lower growth performance of birds fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca. Each diet affected microbial communities within individual sections, however, no diet showed a comprehensive effect across all GIT sections, which can primarily be attributed to the great variability among replicates. The substantial community differences between digesta

  14. Concentration changeability of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in selected partial drainage basins of the River Drwęca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research conducted between November 2008 and October 2009. The research included seasonal dynamics of the flow and runoff of phosphorus compounds (TP and P-PO43-, as well as Ca2+ and Mg2+ from 13 partial drainage basins of the River Drwęca. Water levels were registered automatically every day by recorders, and measurements of the flow were conducted once a month. Major differences were found in the water abundance as indicated by specific discharges in individual, partial drainage basins: from 1.87 dm3 s-1 km-2 (Lubianka - a lower part of the River Drwęca drainage basin to 8.22 dm3 s-1 km-2 (Gizela - an upper part of the River Drwęca drainage basin. The studied rivers were characterised by very diverse average content of total phosphorus compounds: from 0.047 mg dm-3 (Iłga to 0.816 mg dm-3 (Sandela; calcium: from 47.18 mg dm-3 (Iłga to 131.65 mg dm-3 (Trynka; and magnesium: from 9.71 mg dm-3 (Wel to 36.76 mg dm-3 (Struga Rychnowska. Analysis of variance carried out on hydrochemical properties of the studied rivers divides the rivers into two separate groups: rivers with much higher content of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium compounds (Struga Rychnowska, Trynka, Ruziec, Lubianka, Kujawka, Sandela and Gizela, and a group of rivers with low content of these compounds (Brynica, Brodniczanka, Skarlanka, Wel, Iłga.

  15. Three-year growth response of young Douglas-fir to nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and blended fertilizers in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Douglas B.; Maguire, Douglas A.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of nutrient limitation in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest focus predominantly on nitrogen, yet many stands demonstrate negligible or even negative growth response to nitrogen fertilization. To understand what nutrients other than nitrogen may limit forest productivity in this region, we tested six fertilizer treatments for their ability to increase stem volume growth response of dominant and co-dominant trees in young Douglas-fir plantations across a range of foliar and soil chemistry in western Oregon and Washington. We evaluated responses to single applications of urea, lime, calcium chloride, or monosodium phosphate at 16 sites, and to two site-specific nutrients blends at 12 of these sites. Across sites, the average stem volume growth increased marginally with urea, lime, and phosphorus fertilization. Fertilization responses generally aligned with plant and soil indicators of nutrient limitation. Response to nitrogen addition was greatest on soils with low total nitrogen and high exchangeable calcium concentrations. Responses to lime and calcium chloride additions were greatest at sites with low foliar calcium and low soil pH. Response to phosphorus addition was greatest on sites with low foliar phosphorus and high soil pH. Blended fertilizers yielded only marginal growth increases at one site, with no consistent effect across sites. Overall, our results highlight that calcium and phosphorus can be important growth limiting nutrients on specific sites in nitrogen-rich Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest.

  16. The abnormal phenotypes of cartilage and bone in calcium-sensing receptor deficient mice are dependent on the actions of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingning Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH(2D(3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR-deficient (CaR(-/- mice to those of double homozygous CaR- and 1α(OHase-deficient [CaR(-/-1α(OHase(-/-] mice or those of double homozygous CaR- and PTH-deficient [CaR(-/-PTH(-/-] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR(-/- mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1α(OHase in CaR(-/- mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR(-/- mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR(-/- mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR(-/- mice result from effects of the marked elevation in serum

  17. Initial Amino Acid Intake Influences Phosphorus and Calcium Homeostasis in Preterm Infants – It Is Time to Change the Composition of the Early Parenteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsante, Francesco; Iacobelli, Silvia; Latorre, Giuseppe; Rigo, Jacques; De Felice, Claudio; Robillard, Pierre Yves; Gouyon, Jean Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN), consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA) amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. Methods Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA). A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. Results 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5%) and hypercalcemia (9.8%) were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8%) and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%); both pnutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome). We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium) the main determinants of cellular growth. PMID:23977367

  18. Effect of compoundα-keto acid tablets on nutritional status, calcium-phosphorus metabolism and inflammatory factors in patients with maintenance hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Hui Xi; Pei-Ju Mao; Dan-Huan Zhang; Ling-Yun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of compoundα-keto acid tablets on nutritional status, calcium-phosphorus metabolism and inflammatory factors in patients with maintenance hemodialysis.Methods: 84 cases with maintenance hemodialysis were collected, according to the order of treatment were randomly divided into the observation group and control group, each of 42 cases. The control group was treated with maintenance hemodialysis, on the basis of this; the observation group was treated with compound-1α-keto acid tablets. The serum total protein(TP), serum albumin(ALB), hemoglobin (HB), transferrin (TRF), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), calcium phosphorus product (Ca×P), serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) of two groups were tested before and after treatment.Results:After treatment, the TP, ALB, HB, TRF of observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), and blood P, blood Ca×P, serum iPTH were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), serum IL-6, TNF-alpha and hs-CRP levels were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Compoundα-keto acid tablets can effectively improve the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients, maintain the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus balance, and can reduce the inflammatory reaction, is worth the clinical promotion and application.

  19. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  20. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, A C; Ferreira, W M; Pemberthy, D; Abad, E; Amaral, M A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorporation of phosphorus guest ions in the calcium silicate phases of Portland cement from 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Søren L; Jakobsen, Hans J; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2010-06-21

    Portland cements may contain small quantities of phosphorus (typically below 0.5 wt % P(2)O(5)), originating from either the raw materials or alternative sources of fuel used to heat the cement kilns. This work reports the first (31)P MAS NMR study of anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements that focuses on the phase and site preferences of the (PO(4))(3-) guest ions in the main clinker phases and hydration products. The observed (31)P chemical shifts (10 to -2 ppm), the (31)P chemical shift anisotropy, and the resemblance of the lineshapes in the (31)P and (29)Si MAS NMR spectra strongly suggest that (PO(4))(3-) units are incorporated in the calcium silicate phases, alite (Ca(3)SiO(5)) and belite (Ca(2)SiO(4)), by substitution for (SiO(4))(4-) tetrahedra. This assignment is further supported by a determination of the spin-lattice relaxation times for (31)P in alite and belite, which exhibit the same ratio as observed for the corresponding (29)Si relaxation times. From simulations of the intensities, observed in inversion-recovery spectra for a white Portland cement, it is deduced that 1.3% and 2.1% of the Si sites in alite and belite, respectively, are replaced by phosphorus. Charge balance may potentially be achieved to some extent by a coupled substitution mechanism where Ca(2+) is replaced by Fe(3+) ions, which may account for the interaction of the (31)P spins with paramagnetic Fe(3+) ions as observed for the ordinary Portland cements. A minor fraction of phosphorus may also be present in the separate phase Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), as indicated by the observation of a narrow resonance at delta((31)P) = 3.0 ppm for two of the studied cements. (31)P{(1)H} CP/MAS NMR spectra following the hydration of a white Portland cement show that the resonances from the hydrous phosphate species fall in the same spectral range as observed for (PO(4))(3-) incorporated in alite. This similarity and the absence of a large (31)P chemical shift ansitropy indicate that the hydrous (PO(4

  2. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  3. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shahana; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease. PMID:28168057

  4. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shahana; Adil, Mohammed Abdul Majid; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50-85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  5. Mechanistic analysis for time-dependent effects of cinacalcet on serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone levels in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Nakane, Masaki; Chen, Yung-wu; Mizobuchi, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the time-dependent effects of cinacalcet on serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency. In this study, 5/6 NX male, Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or cinacalcet (10 mg/kg, oral, 1× daily). On Day 0 (before treatment), Day 12 and 13 after treatment (to approximate the clinical practice), and also at 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours after the last dosing, blood was collected for analysis. After 12 or 13 days of cinacalcet treatment, modest changes were observed in serum Ca and phosphorus (Pi), while PTH decreased by >45% to Sham levels (152 ± 15 pg/mL). Detailed mapping found that cinacalcet caused a significant time-dependent decrease in serum Ca following dosing, reaching a lowest point at 8 hours (decrease by 20% to 8.43 ± 0.37 mg/dL), and then returning to normal at 24 hours. Cinacalcet also caused a significant increase in serum Pi levels (by 18%). To investigate the potential mechanism of action, a broad approach was taken by testing cinacalcet in a panel of 77 protein-binding assays. Cinacalcet interacted with several channels, transporters, and neurotransmitter receptors, some of which are involved in brain and heart, and may impact Ca homeostasis. Cinacalcet dose-dependently increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA expression by 48% in cardiomyocytes, but had no significant effects on left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac function. The results suggest that cinacalcet's hypocalcemic effect may be due to its nonspecific interaction with other receptors in brain and heart. PMID:24303131

  6. [Raman spectrometry applied to calcified tissue and calcium-phosphorus biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penel, G; Leroy, G; Leroy, N; Behin, P; Langlois, J M; Libersa, J C; Dupas, P H

    2000-01-01

    The rigid part of the human body consists essentially of carbonated apatite (calcium phosphate). Biologists don't have any tools to study this "mineral" phase, though its origin is organic. A new approach of some compounds like enamel or bone is obtained with the Raman micro-characterisation by a very fine analysis of chemical bonds in a micrometric scale. This method allows the characterisation, the analysis and the dosage of ions, like carbonate, acid phosphates, proteins and fatty acids. The identification of other organic or mineral compounds (e.g. calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, substitutant ions...) is also possible. The Raman microspectrometry can also be used to study the chemical and physical properties of biomaterials and their evolution after implantation in a dental or bone site. On synthetical calcium phosphate, beta-TCP, brushite and hydroxyapatite can be distinguished and the impurities found in plasma spray deposits can be measured. The detection of alpha-, beta-, or gamma-pyrophosphates could be obtained in some commercial beta-TCP. The Raman microspectrometry is the only non-destructive method which allows the identification of the chemical bonds in a micrometric scale and gives the "fingerprint" of the studied component.

  7. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  8. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelar, A.C., E-mail: avelara@ufmg.br [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Ferreira, W.M. [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Pemberthy, D. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería, Grupo Catálisis Ambiental, Calle 70 No. 52-2, Medellín (Colombia); Abad, E. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Amaral, M.A. [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50 pg WHO-TEQ g{sup −1}). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field. - Highlights: • PCDD/Fs dl- PCBs is not a matter since levels below the LOD in phosphate materials subject of study. • Significant accumulation of As and U in Limestone. Th was originally found in dicalcium phosphate. • High concentration of U in dicalcium phosphate suggests that a special attention should be paid.

  9. Effect of high calcium concentration influents on enhanced biological phosphorus removal process; Efecto del proceso de eliminacion biologica de fosforo en enfluentes con elevadas concentraciones de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya Martinez, T.; Aguado Garcia, D.; Ferrer Polo, J.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the effect of calcium concentration in wastewater on the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) is investigated as well as its influence in PAO metabolism, specifically in the Y{sub P}O4 (ratio between phosphorus release and acetic acid uptake). For this study a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anaerobic-aerobic was used, in which the PAO enriched biomass was exposed to different calcium concentrations in the influent wastewater. The results indicate that until a given calcium level in the influent wastewater (35 mg Ca/l) the metabolism is not affect, but higher calcium concentrations lead to significant Y{sub P}O4 decline. (Author) 18 refs.

  10. Microbial community analysis involved in the aerobic/extended-idle process performing biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tian-jing; Yang, Guo-jing; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that biological phosphorus removal can be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process using both glucose and acetate as the sole substrate. However, the microbial consortiums involved in glucose-fed and acetate-fed systems have not yet been characterized. Thus the aims of this paper were to investigate the diversities and dynamics of bacterial communities during the acclimation period, and to quantify polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the systems. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the microbial communities were mainly composed of phylum Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi and another six kinds of unclassified bacteria. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that PAOs and GAOs accounted for 43 ± 7 and 16 ± 3% of all bacteria in the glucose-fed system, and 19 ± 4 and 35 ± 5% of total bacteria in the acetate-fed system, respectively. The results showed that the conventional PAOs could thrive in the AEI process, and a defined anaerobic zone was not necessarily required for putative PAOs growth.

  11. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  12. Influence of proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists on serum phosphorus level control by calcium carbonate in patients undergoing hemodialysis: a retrospective medical chart review

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuzawa, Masaomi; Ogawa, Ryuichi; OHKUBO, Atsushi; Shimojima, Kazuyo; Maeda, Kunimi; Echizen, Hirotoshi; Miyazaki, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperphosphatemia is one of the common complications in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Although calcium carbonate (CaC) is often used to control serum inorganic phosphorus level in dialysis patients, co-administration of gastric acid reducers (ARs) may interfere with the phosphate binding effect of CaC. We performed a retrospective medical chart review to study whether ARs attenuate the hypophosphatemic effect of CaC in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods One hundred and e...

  13. Relationship between Calcium-Phosphorus Product and Severity of Valvular Heart Insufficiency in Patients Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent interests have mainly focused on the roles of serum calcium and phosphorus and their product (Ca-P product in the development of valvular heart disease. The present study assessed the relationship between the Ca-P product and the severity of valvular heart disease in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis.Methods: This cross-sectional study reviewed the clinical course of 72 consecutive patients with the final diagnosis of ESRD candidated for chronic hemodialysis. The severity of valvular heart disease was determined using M-mode two-dimensional echocardiography. The serum calcium and phosphate values adopted were those values measured on the day between the two consecutive dialyses, and the Ca-P product was calculated.Results: The most common causes of ESRD were diabetic nephropathy, malignant hypertension, and chronic glomerulonephritis. The mean Ca-P product level in the dialysis patients was 50.44 ± 17.78 mg2/dL2. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve illustrated that a Ca-P product level > 42 mg2/dL2 was the optimal value in terms of sensitivity and specificity for predicting the presence of valvular insufficiency. Aortic insufficiency was directly associated with a high Ca-P product value after adjustment for age, gender, serum albumin, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, and serum creatinine (β = 0.412, SE = 158, p value= 0.011.Conclusion: A positive relationship between the Ca-P product value and the severity of aortic insufficiency is expected. Achieving an appropriate control of the Ca-P product level may decrease aortic valve calcification and improve the survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis.

  14. Exigências nutricionais de cálcio e fósforo de codornas de corte em crescimento Calcium and phosphorus requirements of finishing meat quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Martins da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos três experimentos com o objetivo de estimar as exigências nutricionais de cálcio e fósforo disponível de codornas de corte em crescimento. No experimento 1 (1-14 dias de idade, 1.250 codornas de corte foram distribuídas em esquema fatorial 5 × 5 (níveis de cálcio = 0,65; 0,76; 0,87; 0,98 e 1,09% × níveis de fósforo = 0,12; 0,22; 0,32; 0,42 e 0,52%, totalizando 25 tratamentos com duas repetições e 25 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de cálcio não influenciaram o desempenho das aves, mas os níveis de fósforo afetaram de forma quadrática o peso corporal, o ganho de peso e a densitometria óptica, com estimativa de exigência em 0,41%. No experimento 2 (15-35 dias de idade, 1.500 codornas de corte foram distribuídas em esquema fatorial 5 × 5 (níveis de cálcio = 0,61; 0,71; 0,81; 0,91 e 1,01% × níveis de fósforo = 0,29; 0,34; 0,39; 0,44 e 0,49%, totalizando 25 tratamentos com duas repetições e 30 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de fósforo influenciaram de forma quadrática a densitometria óptica, e a exigência de fósforo foi estimada em 0,41%. No experimento 3, realizado para avaliação do balanço de cálcio e fósforo (28-35 dias de idade, constatou-se efeito linear crescente dos níveis de cálcio das dietas sobre a ingestão e excreção de cálcio e nenhum efeito dos níveis de cálcio sobre o desempenho nas fases de 1 a 14 e de 15 a 35 dias de idade. Os níveis 0,65% e 0,61% são suficientes para atender às exigências nutricionais de cordornas de corte nas fases de 1 a 14 e de 15 a 35 dias de idade, e o nível de 0,41% de fósforo disponível é o que promove máximo desempenho dessas aves.Three experiments were carried out to estimate the calcium and phosphorus requirements of meat quail. In the first experiment (1-14 days of age, 1,250 meat quails were placed in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement (calcium levels = 0.65, 0.76, 0.87, 0.98 and 1.09% × phosphorus levels = 0.12, 0

  15. The effects of prolonged consumption of wholemeal bread upon metabolism of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus of two young American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B J; Reinhold, J G; Cannell, J J; Nourmand, I

    1976-01-01

    The ability to adapt to a large daily intake of unleavened bread made from wheaten wholemeals of high extraction rate was examined in two young Americans who had not previously consumed fiber, phytate-, and phosphate-rich bread of this type. Adaptation was evaluated by comparing balances of zinc, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus for a 12 day period after ten days of bread consumption with those during a similar period after 50 days and also by observing changes in blood composition during this period of bread consumption. Significantly negative balances of zinc, magnesium and phosphorus were observed in the initial period. However, all had become positive or nearly so after 50 days. By contrast, calcium balances which were also negative during the initial period remained negative at the end of the study. Plasma calcium and zinc concentrations had declined to low normal or subnormal values at this time. The failure to overcome the disturbing effects of consumption of wholemeal bread upon calcium metabolism occurred despite daily exposure to sunshine for many hours under conditions favorable for Vitamin D biosynthesis.

  16. Effect of low ambient mineral concentrations on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus by early life stages of the air-breathing armoured catfish Megalechis personata (Siluriformes; Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.; Atsma, W.; Flik, G.; Bouwmeester, H.; Osse, J.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    he accumulation of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was measured during an 8-week period in the early life stages of the air-breathing armoured catfish Megalechis personata acclimated to low-mineral fresh water (0.073 mmol l-1 calcium, 0.015 mmol l-1 magnesium, <0.001 mmol l-1 phosphate) and high-m

  17. Involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in nicotinic calcium responses in dystrophic myotubes assessed by near-plasma membrane calcium measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Olivier; Boittin, François-Xavier; Dorchies, Olivier M; Chatton, Jean-Yves; van Breemen, Cornelis; Ruegg, Urs T

    2004-11-05

    In skeletal muscle cells, plasma membrane depolarization causes a rapid calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors triggering contraction. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal disease that is caused by the lack of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, the cytosolic calcium concentration is known to be increased, and this increase may lead to cell necrosis. Here, we used myotubes derived from control and mdx mice, the murine model of DMD, to study the calcium responses induced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation. The photoprotein aequorin was expressed in the cytosol or targeted to the plasma membrane as a fusion protein with the synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25, thus allowing calcium measurements in a restricted area localized just below the plasma membrane. The carbachol-induced calcium responses were 4.5 times bigger in dystrophic myotubes than in control myotubes. Moreover, in dystrophic myotubes the carbachol-mediated calcium responses measured in the subsarcolemmal area were at least 10 times bigger than in the bulk cytosol. The initial calcium responses were due to calcium influx into the cells followed by a fast refilling/release phase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition and unexpectedly, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor pathway was involved in these calcium signals only in the dystrophic myotubes. This surprising involvement of this calcium release channel in the excitation-contraction coupling could open new ways for understanding exercise-induced calcium increases and downstream muscle degeneration in mdx mice and, therefore, in DMD.

  18. Solid-state phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of synthetic solid phases of calcium phosphate: potential models of bone mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, W P; Roufosse, A H; Glimcher, M J; Griffin, R G

    1984-12-04

    Phosphorus-31 NMR spectra have been obtained from a variety of synthetic, solid calcium phosphate mineral phases by magic angle sample spinning. The samples include crystalline hydroxyapatite, two type B carbonatoapatites containing 3.2 and 14.5% CO3(2-), respectively, a hydroxyapatite in which approximately 12% of the phosphate groups are present as HPO4(2-), an amorphous calcium phosphate, monetite, brushite, and octacalcium phosphate. Spectra were observed by the standard Bloch decay and cross-polarization techniques, as well as by a dipolar suppression sequence, in order to distinguish between protonated and unprotonated phosphate moieties. The spectra of the synthetic calcium phosphates provide basic information that is essential for interpreting similar spectra obtained from bone and other calcified tissues.

  19. Response of broiler chickens to different levels of calcium, non-phytate phosphorus and phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, M; Graham, H; Iji, P A

    2016-12-01

    1. Five hundred and seventy six-d old Ross 308 broiler chicks (6 cages per diet, 8 birds per cage in 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) were fed on maize-soybean meal-based diets containing three concentrations of Ca (6, 8 or 10 g/kg), two concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) (3 or 4 g/kg) and two levels of exogenous microbial phytase (0 or 500 FTU/kg) from d 0 to 35. 2. Body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and mortality records were collected. Two birds per replicate were killed at 24 d of age to obtain tibia samples. 3. Increasing Ca level significantly reduced the FI and body weight gain (BWG) between hatch and 10 and 24 d, especially with the phytase-supplemented diets. However, phytase supplementation of the diet containing 4 g NPP/kg improved the FI and BWG at d 10 and 24. At d 24, phytase supplementation improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds that consumed diets containing high NPP. The overall FCR was better in birds offered the phytase-supplemented, medium-Ca diet. 4. There was a significant reduction in length, width and breaking strength of the tibia bone in birds fed on a diet with high Ca and low NPP. Phytase supplementation improved the tibia ash content and bone breaking strength of chicks fed on the diet containing 8 and 4 g/kg Ca and NPP, respectively. The Ca content of the tibia bone was low in birds fed on diets with 6 and 4 g/kg Ca and NPP, respectively, but this was counteracted by phytase supplementation. 5. Birds fed on diets with 4 g/kg NPP had the best carcass percentage and parts yield. Phytase supplementation to high-Ca diets significantly reduced the carcass yield of birds. 6. These results confirmed the detrimental effect of high dietary Ca on phytase activity and subsequent growth and bone development of birds, especially when NPP is in short supply.

  20. Influence of the calcium concentration in the presence of organic phosphorus on the physicochemical compatibility and stability of all-in-one admixtures for neonatal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm infants need high amounts of calcium and phosphorus for bone mineralization, which is difficult to obtain with parenteral feeding due to the low solubility of these salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical compatibility of high concentrations of calcium associated with organic phosphate and its influence on the stability of AIO admixtures for neonatal use. Methods Three TPN admixture formulas were prepared in multilayered bags. The calcium content of the admixtures was adjusted to 0, 46.5 or 93 mg/100 ml in the presence of a fixed organic phosphate concentration as well as lipids, amino acids, inorganic salts, glucose, vitamins and oligoelements at pH 5.5. Each admixture was stored at 4°C, 25°C or 37°C and evaluated over a period of 7 days. The physicochemical stability parameters evaluated were visual aspect, pH, sterility, osmolality, peroxide formation, precipitation, and the size of lipid globules. Results Color alterations occurred from the first day on, and reversible lipid film formation from the third day of study for the admixtures stored at 25°C and 37°C. According to the parameters evaluated, the admixtures were stable at 4°C; and none of them presented precipitated particles due to calcium/phosphate incompatibility or lipid globules larger than 5 μm, which is the main parameter currently used to evaluate lipid emulsion stability. The admixtures maintained low peroxide levels and osmolarity was appropriate for parenteral administration. Conclusion The total calcium and calcium/phosphorus ratios studied appeared not to influence the physicochemical compatibility and stability of AIO admixtures.

  1. BIOLOGY OF POLYPHOSPHATE-ACCUMULATING BACTERIA INVOLVED IN ENHANCED BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORTSTEE, GJJ; APPELDOORN, KJ; BONTING, CFC; VANNIEL, EWJ; VANVEEN, HW

    1994-01-01

    Recent research on the process of biological phosphorus removal in lab-scale treatment systems has indicated that: (i) the development of an actively polyP-accumulating bacterial community after the introduction of an anaerobic period may take at least 4 months; (ii) up to 80% of all aerobic

  2. A metabolic model for members of the genus Tetrasphaera involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Rikke; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2013-01-01

    Members of the genus Tetrasphaera are considered to be putative polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater. Although abundant in Danish full-scale wastewater EBPR plants, how similar their ecophysiology is to ‘Candidatus...

  3. BIOLOGY OF POLYPHOSPHATE-ACCUMULATING BACTERIA INVOLVED IN ENHANCED BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORTSTEE, GJJ; APPELDOORN, KJ; BONTING, CFC; VANNIEL, EWJ; VANVEEN, HW

    1994-01-01

    Recent research on the process of biological phosphorus removal in lab-scale treatment systems has indicated that: (i) the development of an actively polyP-accumulating bacterial community after the introduction of an anaerobic period may take at least 4 months; (ii) up to 80% of all aerobic bacteri

  4. BIOLOGY OF POLYPHOSPHATE-ACCUMULATING BACTERIA INVOLVED IN ENHANCED BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORTSTEE, GJJ; APPELDOORN, KJ; BONTING, CFC; VANNIEL, EWJ; VANVEEN, HW

    1994-01-01

    Recent research on the process of biological phosphorus removal in lab-scale treatment systems has indicated that: (i) the development of an actively polyP-accumulating bacterial community after the introduction of an anaerobic period may take at least 4 months; (ii) up to 80% of all aerobic bacteri

  5. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

    1984-04-01

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (40 ng 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3//day). Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal /sup 45/Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO/sub 3/ supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

  6. Effects of benzoic Acid and dietary calcium:phosphorus ratio on performance and mineral metabolism of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, A; Schlegel, P; Guggisberg, D; Stoll, P

    2014-04-01

    In a 2×2 factorial experiment the hypotheses tested were that the metabolic acid load caused by benzoic acid (BA) added to the feed affects bone mineralization of weanling pigs, and that a wide dietary calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio in phytase-supplemented feeds with a marginal P concentration has a positive effect on bone mineralization. The four experimental diets, which contained 0.4% P and were supplemented with 1,000 FTU phytase/kg, contained either 5 g BA/kg or no BA and either 0.77% Ca or 0.57% Ca. The 68 four-week-old Large White pigs were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for six weeks and were then slaughtered. Benzoic acid increased feed intake (p = 0.009) and growth rate (p = 0.051), but did not influence the feed conversion ratio (p>0.10). Benzoic acid decreased the pH of the urine (p = 0.031), but did not affect breaking strength and mineralization of the tibia (p>0.10). The wide Ca:P ratio decreased feed intake (p = 0.034) and growth rate (p = 0.007) and impaired feed the conversion ratio (p = 0.027), but increased the mineral concentration in the fat-free DM of the tibia (p = 0.013) without influencing its breaking strength (p>0.10). The observed positive effect of the wide Ca:P ratio on bone mineralization may be attributed, at least in part, to the impaired feed conversion ratio, i.e. to the higher feed intake and consequently to the higher mineral intake per kg BW gain. The negative impact on animal performance of the wide dietary Ca:P ratio outweighs its potentially positive effect on bone mineralization, precluding its implementation under practical feeding conditions.

  7. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-16

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops.

  8. Mechanisms involved in calcium deficiency development in tomato fruit in response to gibberellins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although gibberellins (GAs) have been shown to induce the calcium deficiency disorder, blossom-end rot (BER), development in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum), the mechanisms involved remain largely unexplored. Our objectives were to better understand how GAs and a GA biosynthesis inhibitor affect...

  9. Spermidine-Induced Improvement of Reconsolidation of Memory Involves Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Signor, Cristiane; Muller, Michele; Gais, Mayara Ana; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Rubin, Maribel Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in the improvement of fear memory reconsolidation induced by the intrahippocampal administration of spermidine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning apparatus using a 0.4-mA footshock as an unconditioned stimulus.…

  10. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. previous continue Working Calcium ... drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations for Building Bones Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, so it's ...

  11. Features of the physical development, calcium-phosphorus metabolism and mineral density of the bones in children with chronic lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olya Sharipova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied features of physical development, calcium-phosphorus metabolism and mineral density of the bones in children with chronic lung diseases. Comparison of received results with the standards of physical development in children and adolescents has shown the most significant differences in ages of 10, 11 and 15 years old who had the stature level lower than average. The data obtained suggest that children with this pathology undergoes substantial adverse changes in the main somatomertric indicators and bone mineral density, the degree of which depends on the nature of the primary lesion in the bronchopulmonary system, and duration and severity of disease.

  12. Calcium carbonate mineralization: involvement of extracellular polymeric materials isolated from calcifying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercole, Claudia; Bozzelli, Paola; Altieri, Fabio; Cacchio, Paola; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2012-08-01

    This study highlights the role of specific outer bacterial structures, such as the glycocalix, in calcium carbonate crystallization in vitro. We describe the formation of calcite crystals by extracellular polymeric materials, such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS) isolated from Bacillus firmus and Nocardia calcarea. Organic matrices were isolated from calcifying bacteria grown on synthetic medium--in the presence or absence of calcium ions--and their effect on calcite precipitation was assessed. Scanning electron microscopy observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that CPS and EPS fractions were involved in calcium carbonate precipitation, not only serving as nucleation sites but also through a direct role in crystal formation. The utilization of different synthetic media, with and without addition of calcium ions, influenced the biofilm production and protein profile of extracellular polymeric materials. Proteins of CPS fractions with a molecular mass between 25 and 70 kDa were overexpressed when calcium ions were present in the medium. This higher level of protein synthesis could be related to the active process of bioprecipitation.

  13. Phosphorus burial in sediments of the sulfidic deep Black Sea: Key roles for adsorption by calcium carbonate and apatite authigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary burial of the essential nutrient phosphorus (P) under anoxic and sulfidic conditions is incompletely understood. Here, we use chemical and micro-scale spectroscopic methods to characterize sedimentary P burial along a water column redox transect (six stations, 78-2107 m water depth) in the Black Sea from the shelf with its oxygenated waters to the anoxic and sulfidic deep basin. Organic P is an important P pool under all redox regimes, accounting for up to 60% of P burial. We find a general down-core increase in the relative importance of organic P, especially on the shelf where P bound to iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) (oxyhydr)oxides is abundant in the uppermost sediment but rapidly declines in concentration with sediment depth. Our chemical and spectroscopic data indicate that the carbonate-rich sediments (Unit I, ∼3000 years, ∼0-30 cm depth) of the sulfidic deep Black Sea contain three major P pools: calcium phosphate (apatite), organic P and P that is strongly associated with CaCO3 and possibly clay surfaces. Apatite concentrations increase from 5% to 25% of total P in the uppermost centimeters of the deep basin sediments, highlighting the importance of apatite formation for long-term P burial. Iron(II)-associated P (ludlamite) was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy but was shown to be a minor P pool (∼5%), indicating that lateral Fe-P transport from the shelf ("shuttling") likely occurs but does not impact the P burial budget of the deep Black Sea. The CaCO3-P pool was relatively constant throughout the Unit I sediment interval and accounted for up to 55% of total P. Our results highlight that carbonate-bound P can be an important sink for P in CaCO3-rich sediments of anoxic, sulfidic basins and should also be considered as a potential P sink (and P source in case of CaCO3 dissolution) when reconstructing past ocean P dynamics from geological records.

  14. The immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D in chickens is dose-dependent and influenced by calcium and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Yitbarek, A; Cuperus, T; Echeverry, H; van Dijk, A

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D requirement is estimated to be higher than recommended values for the first two weeks of a broiler chicken's life, and is heavily dependent on the concentrations of Ca and P in the diet. There are data indicating the beneficial effect of higher vitamin D levels on performance and overall health of the chickens. However, data on the role of higher vitamin D levels on the innate immune response of chickens are limited. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of higher doses of vitamin D supplementation on the innate immune response in broiler chickens receiving optimal or calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) deficient diets. Three hundred Ross-308 male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 60 cages with 5 birds per cage in a 3 × 2 factorial design with three levels of vitamin D and two levels of Ca/P with each experimental diet fed to 10 cages (10 replicates). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (n = 5) was used to assess Toll-like receptor (TLR2b and 4), cytokine/chemokine (IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4, IL-13, IL-18, CxCLi2) and cathelicidin (CATH1, CATHB1, CATH3) transcription levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. Vitamin D supplementation of the Ca and P deficient diet considerably augmented transcription of TLR2b, TLR4, CATH1, and CATHB1 and predominantly Th2 cytokines in spleen. Supplementation of the control diet with vitamin D downregulated TLR4 transcription, and dose-dependently increased CATH1, CATHB1, Th1, and Th2 cytokine transcription (Th2>Th1). All diets downregulated CATH3 transcription. In conclusion, vitamin D or its derivative 25-OH-D3 both have a robust immunomodulatory property with a more favorable Th2 response, while at the same time enhancing observed Th2 cytokine responses under both optimal and lower Ca and P inclusion levels in the diets of broiler chickens.

  15. Reference intervals of plasma calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda M; Gaunt, Stephen D; Kearney, Michael T; Rich, Gregory A; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-12-01

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) are important elements for body homeostasis in several diseases associated with imbalances in the plasma concentration of these ions. This is the first published report of reference intervals for Mg in association with Ca and P levels for psittacine species. One milliliter of blood was collected from 26 Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 24 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The plasma concentrations of Ca, P, and Mg were determined for each sample. Statistical analyses were performed including all data (analysis 1) and after exclusion of the subjects with Ca > or = 14.00 mg/dl (3.5 mmol) (analysis 2). The data from analysis 1 have a narrower interval than that observed in analysis 2. Following the normality test (Shapiro-Wilk, alpha = 0.05), the univariate and mean procedures were run. For the reference intervals, the lower and upper values were used, after elimination of the outliers calculated by Blom scores from the ranked variables. The analysis 1 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.40 mg/dl (2.20-2.60 mmol/L), P = 1.80-4.40 mg/dl (0.58-1.42 mmol/L), Mg = 1.80-3.10 mg/dl (0.74-1.27 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 1 references were Ca = 8.20-20.20 mg/dl (2.05-5.05 mmol/L), P = 2.50-5.90 mg/dl (0.81-1.91 mmol/L), Mg = 2.10-3.40 mg/dl (0.82-1.4 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 1.81-3.77. The analysis 2 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.30 mg/dl (2.20-2.58 mmol/L), P = 1.80-3.80 mg/dl (0.58-1.23 mmol/L), Mg = 1.90-3.00 mg/dl (0.82-1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 2 references were Ca = 1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 1.67-3.50. The results of this study are important for evaluating Mg concentrations in relation to the Ca and P parameters in psittacines. This information will be particularly helpful for veterinarians evaluating the hypocalcemic syndrome in African grey parrots and other disease processes

  16. Consequences of phosphorus interactions with calcium, phytase, and cholecalciferol on zootechnical performance and mineral retention in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Maertens, L; Huyghebaert, G

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of calcium (Ca), total phosphorus (Ptot), cholecalciferol, and phytase level in the diet on the performance, tibia ash percentage, and Ca and P retention in broilers until slaughter age. Broilers were randomly assigned to 12 treatments, each with 6 replicates, comprising 3 diets differing in Ca and P level: 1) normal Ca and Ptot level (NN); 2) normal Ca and low Ptot level (NL), 3) low Ca and Ptot level (LL). Broilers were also given 2 levels of cholecalciferol and 2 levels of phytase. The normal levels of Ca and Ptot for the starter, grower, and finisher phases were 0.90, 0.82, 0.74% and 0.67, 0.62, 0.57%, respectively. The low Ca and Ptot levels for the 3 phases were 0.67, 0.60, 0.52% and 0.57, 0.51, 0.46%, respectively. Broilers of the NL treatment obtained the lowest BW, whereas BW of the NN and LL groups were comparable. Cholecalciferol significantly affected the BW, with differences up to 2.6 and 1.2% for the starter and grower phases, respectively. The highest cholecalciferol effect was found in combination with the NN treatment. The percentage of retained Ca increased from 33% to 41% and 48% when the imbalanced diet was replaced by the NN and LL balanced diets, respectively. P release from phytate was 64 and 67% for the NL and LL diets, respectively. Phytase and cholecalciferol had significantly favorable effects on retention values but these effects were dependent on Ca and Ptot levels and their ratio. In conclusion, both diets with the balanced Ca/Ptot ratio resulted in the best performance, highest tibia ash percentage and P release from phytate. A reduction of the Aviagen (2009) recommended P requirements by 25 to 30% and Ca by 15 to 20% over the various phases did not negatively affect performance, bone development, and improved Ca and Ptot retention. The effects of supplementing cholecalciferol and phytase were additive but not significant and no synergism between both was present.

  17. Effect of Wheat Middlings, Microbial Phytase, and Citric Acid on Phytate-Phosphorus, Calcium, and Protein Utilization of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yi-feng; LIAO He-rong; WANG Jin-fu; LI Hong-yan

    2006-01-01

    A corn-soybean meal diet (CSB) (or Diet 1) containing 23% crude protein (CP) was used as the positive control, and another corn-soybean meal diet containing 21% CP and 15% wheat middlings (WM) (or Diet 2) was used as the basal diet, which was treated with four different treatments. Digestibility experiment was employed to discuss the collective effect of citric acid, and intrinsic and microbial phytase. By comparing and analyzing effects of them in the low-nutrient broiler diets, the results showed five treatments had similar effects on Tibia ash (%) (mg) (P > 0.05). Under the supplementation of bacterial phytase or citric acid, the daily body weight gain (ADG), gain:feed (G:F) ratio, and calcium (Ca) utilization were similar to that of standard-nutrient CSB diet (Diet 1) (P > 0.05). And, fecal phosphorus (P) and CP utilization were lower than (P < 0.05) that of Diet 1. But P utilization was significantly higher than (P < 0.01) that of Diet 1.However, the ADG, G:F, and CP utilization produced by supplementation of intrinsic phytase were lower than those of Diet 1, but other aspects were similar to those produced by Diet 1 (P > 0.05). In Diet 5, citric acid, intrinsic and bacterial phytase were added to the diet, which produced a 1.4% decrease on fecal P, a 7.2% increase on Ca utilization, which was significantly higher than (P < 0.01) those of the other four Diets, a 3.9% increase on G:F, which was similar to that of Diet 1, and a 2.3% increase on CP utilization, which was higher than (P < 0.05) that of the other three diets. In summary, the results of this study indicated that citric acid, intrinsic and bacterial phytase might have some additive or synergistic effects, and low-nutrient CSB diets with 15% wheat middlings, 750 U kg-1 phytase, and 3% citric acid might substitute completely for standard CSB in broilers.

  18. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating

  19. Synthesis of anionic phosphorus-containing heterocycles by intramolecular cyclizations involving N-functionalized phosphinecarboxamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas P; Goicoechea, Jose M

    2015-04-07

    We report that the 2-phosphaethynolate anion (PCO(-)) reacts with propargylamines in the presence of a proton source to afford novel N-derivatized phosphinecarboxamides bearing alkyne functionalities. Deprotonation of these species gives rise to novel five- and six-membered anionic heterocycles resulting from intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the resulting phosphide at the alkyne functionality (via 5-exo-dig or 6-endo-dig cyclizations, respectively). The nature of the substituents on the phosphinecarboxamide can be used to influence the outcome of these reactions. This strategy represents a unique approach to phosphorus-containing heterocylic systems that are closely related to known organic molecules with interesting bio-active properties.

  20. Population dynamics of bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in Danish wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-15

    The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint".

  1. A metabolic model for members of the genus Tetrasphaera involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Rikke; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Wimmer, Reinhard; Le, Vang Quy; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Petrovski, Steve; Seviour, Robert J; Calteau, Alexandra; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-01

    Members of the genus Tetrasphaera are considered to be putative polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater. Although abundant in Danish full-scale wastewater EBPR plants, how similar their ecophysiology is to 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' is unclear, although they may occupy different ecological niches in EBPR communities. The genomes of four Tetrasphaera isolates (T. australiensis, T. japonica, T. elongata and T. jenkinsii) were sequenced and annotated, and the data used to construct metabolic models. These models incorporate central aspects of carbon and phosphorus metabolism critical to understanding their behavior under the alternating anaerobic/aerobic conditions encountered in EBPR systems. Key features of these metabolic pathways were investigated in pure cultures, although poor growth limited their analyses to T. japonica and T. elongata. Based on the models, we propose that under anaerobic conditions the Tetrasphaera-related PAOs take up glucose and ferment this to succinate and other components. They also synthesize glycogen as a storage polymer, using energy generated from the degradation of stored polyphosphate and substrate fermentation. During the aerobic phase, the stored glycogen is catabolized to provide energy for growth and to replenish the intracellular polyphosphate reserves needed for subsequent anaerobic metabolism. They are also able to denitrify. This physiology is markedly different to that displayed by 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis', and reveals Tetrasphaera populations to be unusual and physiologically versatile PAOs carrying out denitrification, fermentation and polyphosphate accumulation.

  2. 吉富罗非鱼饲料钙磷比研究%Dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio requirement of GIFT tilapia fingerling,Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹰飞; 文华; 蒋明; 吴凡; 刘伟; 田娟

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects dietary calcium/phosphorus ratios(mass ratio) on the growth performance,feed utilization efficieny,the apparent digestibility of phosphorus,body composition,inorganic matter content in bone and serum biochemical indexes of GIFT tilapia fingering,to determine the optimal dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio of feed.【Method】 GIFT tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)(Initial weight(46.03±2.14) g) were satiably fed on six experimental isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purfied diets with increasing contents of total phosphate(9-10 g/kg)and calcium/phosphorus ratios(1.8∶1,1.3∶1,1∶1.1,1∶1.5,1∶2.5 and 1∶2.9)for 8 weeks respectively.Potassium dihydrogen phosphate was the source of phosphate and calcium chloride was the source of calcium.Each treatment was triplicate.【Result】 The results showed that fish fed the diet with high level of calcium/phosphorus ratio(diet 1) has significantly lower weight gain rate(WGR)and specific growth rate(SGR)than those of fish fed the test diets with diet 3,diet 4,diet 5,diet 6(P〈0.05),and there were no significant differences among treatments of diet 3,diet 4,diet 5,diet 6(P〉0.05);the feed conversion ratio(FCR)of fish fed the test diets with diet 5 was significantly lower than that fed diets 1(P〈0.05),while the survival rate(SR),fat factor(FR),viscerosomatic index(VSI),hepatosomatic index(HIS) of fish didn’t show significant differences among various dietary treatments(P〉0.05).The body composition analysis showed that dietary calcium/phosphorus ratios had no significant effect on crude protein and crude ash contents in the whole body,as well as vertebrae crude ash content(P〉0.05).The whole body and vertebrae caclcium,phosphorus concentration were significantly affected by dietary calcium/phosphorus ratios(P〈0.05),as well as the muscle crude lipid and crude ash contents

  3. Effect of Calcium and phosphorus supplement on White -lipped Deer%速补钙磷对白唇鹿发病率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进龙

    2012-01-01

    对65只白唇鹿在补饲过程中添加速补钙磷,结果表明补饲过程中添加速补钙磷的试验组与对照组相比,对白唇鹿异食癖,提高鹿茸产量、降低鹿软骨病骨质疏松、瘫痪等作用显著。平均每只鹿鹿茸产量增加139.5g。鹿软骨病、瘫痪下降1.48%、异食癖发病率降为零。鹿羔月体重平均增2.5kg。%The calcium and phosphorus were added to feed for 65 white - lipped deer. The result showed that the experiment group of adding calcium and phosphorus to feed has significant effect in pica, improving antler production, reducing osteomalacia,osteoprosis, paralysis than that of control group. The antler production of each deer increase by 139.5 grams on average. The rickets,paralysis decrease by 1.48%. Incidence rate of pica reduce to zero. Average body weight of deer aged 1 month increase by 2.5kg.

  4. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    -dependent manner suggests that calcium/CaM regulate ZmSAUR1 at the post-translational level. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of calcium/CaM-mediated signaling in auxin-mediated signal transduction.

  5. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    -dependent manner suggests that calcium/CaM regulate ZmSAUR1 at the post-translational level. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of calcium/CaM-mediated signaling in auxin-mediated signal transduction.

  6. Involvement of Antioxidative Defense System in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Aluminum Toxicity and Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-rong GUO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in acid soils may suffer both phosphorus (P deficiency and aluminum (Al toxicity. Hydroponic experiments were undertaken to assess the single and combination effects of Al toxicity and low P stress on seedling growth, chlorophyll and proline contents, antioxidative response and lipid peroxidation of two rice genotypes (Yongyou 8 and Xiushui 132 differing in Al tolerance. Al toxicity and P deficiency both inhibited rice seedling growth. The development of toxic symptoms was characterized by reduced chlorophyll content, increased proline and malondialdehyde contents in both roots and leaves, and increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in roots, but decreased in leaves. The stress condition induced more severe growth inhibition and oxidative stress in Yongyou 8, and Xiushui 132 showed higher tolerance to both Al toxicity and P deficiency. P deficiency aggravated Al toxicity to plant growth and induced more severe lipid peroxidation.

  7. Involvement of Antioxidative Defense System in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Aluminum Toxicity and Phosphorus Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; YAO Peng-cheng; ZHANG Zi-dong; WANG Jiang-jia; WANG Mei

    2012-01-01

    Plants growing in acid soils may suffer both phosphorus (P) deficiency and aluminum (AI) toxicity.Hydroponic experiments were undertaken to assess the single and combination effects of AI toxicity and low P stress on seedling growth,chlorophyll and proline contents,antioxidative response and lipid peroxidation of two rice genotypes (Yongyou 8 and Xiushui 132) differing in AI tolerance.AI toxicity and P deficiency both inhibited rice seedling growth.The development of toxic symptoms was characterized by reduced chlorophyll content,increased proline and malondialdehyde contents in both roots and leaves,and increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in roots,but decreased in leaves.The stress condition induced more severe growth inhibition and oxidative stress in Yongyou 8,and Xiushui 132 showed higher tolerance to both AI toxicity and P deficiency.P deficiency aggravated A(I) toxicity to plant growth and induced more severe lipid peroxidation.

  8. Evaluation of thermally-modified calcium-rich attapulgite as a low-cost substrate for rapid phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbin; Yan, Xiaowei; Gu, Xiaohong

    2017-05-15

    The cost-effective and geographically available substrates are vital for the design of constructed wetlands (CWs), especially the saturated subsurface flow CWs, which are deemed as an efficient way to remove the inlet-lake phosphorus concentrations. In this study, phosphorus removal of thermally-treated calcium-rich attapulgite (TCAP) with varied particle sizes (0.2-0.5 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 1-2 mm) was assessed using batch and long-term column experiments to evaluate its feasibility as a CWs substrate. The phosphorus-bound mechanism in TCAP was identified in various initial phosphorus concentrations. Batch studies indicated that more than 95% of P can be rapidly (<1 h) removed by TCAP from solution with a concentration of 20 mg P/L, and P sorption can be well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation. The maximum P sorption capacity of TCAP was in the range of 4.46-5.99 mg P/g, and the availability of Ca(2+) concentration might limit the P removal capacity of TCAP at high phosphorus concentrations. Both the P removal rate and capacities decreased with the increase of TCAP particle sizes. Column P removal experiments indicated that hydraulic retention time (HRT) exerts great influence on P removal performance and longer HRTs favor the dissolution of CaO in TCAP, consequently increasing the P removal rate. In a 150-day P removal experiment, TCAP removed an average of 93.1%-95.4% of the influent P with a HRT of eight hours. Both the batch and chemical extraction of the P fraction of TCAP showed that the P removed by TCAP was mainly through formation of Ca phosphate precipitation. However, the species of Ca-P precipitation formed might be varied in different phosphorus concentrations. All results indicated that TCAP can be a suitable substrate when used in CWs, and field experiments should be carried out to test its real P removal performance in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation of Calcium Sulfate Whiskers from Phosphorus Gypsum%磷石膏制备硫酸钙晶须的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华锋; 张肖肖; 李响

    2017-01-01

    采用常压酸化法对磷石膏分别进行硫酸除杂和盐酸溶解,将磷石膏中的钙富集于溶解液中.再对溶液进行处理制备硫酸钙晶须,考察硫酸钙初始浓度、结晶温度及添加助晶剂种类和用量对硫酸钙晶须组成、结构和形貌的影响.实验结果表明:所制晶须均为二水硫酸钙晶须;以乙醇作为助晶剂所制备的晶须形貌最好.当乙醇的添加量为15 mL(即V乙醇∶V盐酸=1∶2)时所制备的晶须比较均一,平均直径为25 μm,平均长径比约为80.%The phosphate gypsum was dissolved in sulfuric acid solution to remove the impurities and then the insoluble solid was dissolved in hydrochloric acid at normal pressure, the calcium in the phosphorus gypsum was enriched in the solution.The calcium sulfate whiskers were prepared by treating the solution.The effects of initial concentration of calcium sulfate, crystallization temperature, the types and amount of crystallization promoting agents on the content, structure and morphology of calcium sulfate whiskers were investigated.The results show that the whiskers are calcium sulfate dihydrate;Ethanol is the best crystallization promoting agent;The uniform whiskers with diameter of 25 μm, aspect ratio of about 80 is prepared when the amount of ethanol is 15 mL(Vethanol∶Vhydrochloric acid=1∶2).

  10. 饲粮不同磷水平和钙磷比对冬毛期水貂生长性能、营养物质消化率及氮、钙、磷代谢的影响%Effects of Different Dietary Phosphorus Levels and Calcium/Phosphorus Ratios on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism of Minks during Winter Fur-Growing Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 张铁涛; 邢敬亚; 李欣彤; 陈明帅; 孙皓然; 岳志刚; 杨福合

    2016-01-01

    Ⅶ组外的其他各组( P<0.05或P<0.01)。饲粮磷水平和钙磷比极显著影响钙消化率( P<0.01)。随着饲粮钙磷比的升高,钙消化率极显著升高(P<0.01)。Ⅲ组钙消化率最高,极显著高于除Ⅵ和Ⅸ组外的其他各组(P<0.01)。饲粮磷水平和钙磷比对磷消化率的影响不显著(P>0.05),但二者的交互作用对磷消化率有显著影响(P<0.05)。磷消化率以Ⅰ组最低,Ⅲ组最高。综合各项指标,从降低饲粮成本、保护环境和维持冬毛期水貂生长性能的角度出发,饲粮磷水平在1.4%、钙磷比在1.5~2.0时较为适宜。%This study was conducted to study the effects of different dietary phosphorus levels and calcium/phosphorus ratios on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabo⁃lism of minks during winter fur⁃growing period. Ninety healthy female minks at the age of ( 130 ± 10 ) days with the similar body weight were randomly divided into 9 groups with 10 replicates each and 1 mink per repli⁃cate. Nine experimental diets were formulated by using 3×3 double factorial experiment design, firstly, setting 3 phosphorus levels:1. 0%, 1. 4% and 1. 8%; secondly, setting 3 calcium/phosphorus ratios: 1. 0, 1. 5 and 2.0. The minks in 9 groups were fed experimental diets with 1. 03% calcium and 0. 97% phosphorus ( groupⅠ) , 1.47% calcium and 0.98% phosphorus ( groupⅡ) , 1.98% calcium and 0.99% phosphorus ( groupⅢ) , 1.45% calcium and 1. 37% phosphorus ( group Ⅳ) , 2. 08% calcium and 1. 38% phosphorus ( group Ⅴ) , 2.79% calcium and 1. 38% phosphorus ( group Ⅵ) , 1. 81% calcium and 1. 75% phosphorus ( group Ⅶ) , 2.70% calcium and 1.79% phosphorus (group Ⅷ), 3.59% calcium and 1.80% phosphorus (group Ⅸ),re⁃spectively. The adaptation period lasted for 10 days and the formal period lasted for 67 days. The results showed as follows:1) dietary phosphorus level and calcium/phosphorus

  11. 肝硬化患者血清钙磷及钙调节激素的检测及意义%Significance of detecting serum calcium, serum phosphorus and calcium-regulating hormones in patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨检测肝硬化患者血清钙磷及钙调节激素包括甲状旁腺激素(PTH)、降钙素(CT)及25-羟维生素D3[25-(OH)D3]的临床意义。方法釆集83例肝硬化患者及66例正常人的血清,血清钙测定用偶氮砷Ⅲ比色法,血清磷测定用磷钼酸盐法;甲状旁腺激素、降钙素及2-羟维生素D3的测定采用电化学发光法。结果 Child- pugh C级肝功能患者与对照组、A级及B级比较血清钙降低(<0.05),血磷的变化在4组患者之间差异无统计学意义。C级肝功能患者与对照组、A级及B级比较CT(<0.05)及25-(OH)D3(<0.01)降低,PTH升高(<0.01)。结论肝硬化患者存在血清钙及其调节激素的代谢紊乱,并随病情发展而加重。监测肝硬化血清钙及相关激素水平的变化可能有助于判断肝功能损害程度。%Objective To evaluate clinical significance of detecting serum calcium, serum phosphorus and calcium-regulating hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D3] in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Methods We collected serum samples of 83 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 66 normal people. Serum calcium was detected by Arsenazo Ⅲ colorimetric method and serum phosphorus by molybdophosphate photometric method; Electrochemiluminescence method was used to detect parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Results In Child-pugh class C patients, serum calcium levels was significantly lower than in control group and in class A and B patients ( <0.05). Serum phosphorus level was no significantly different in the four groups. Child-pugh class C patients had significantly lower 25-(OH) D3 (P< 0.01) and CT ( <0.05) level, but higher PTH ( <0.01) level compared with control group and with class A and B. Conclusions In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, there were disturbances of serum calcium and calcium-regulating hormone, which deteriorate with

  12. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on periparturient calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M D

    2002-01-01

    One potential way of preventing parturient hypocalcemia in the dairy cow is to feed dry cow rations very low in calcium (......One potential way of preventing parturient hypocalcemia in the dairy cow is to feed dry cow rations very low in calcium (...

  13. Vitamin D Metabolites and Their Association with Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH Concentrations, Severity of Illness, and Mortality in Hospitalized Equine Neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Kamr

    Full Text Available Hypocalcemia is a frequent abnormality that has been associated with disease severity and outcome in hospitalized foals. However, the pathogenesis of equine neonatal hypocalcemia is poorly understood. Hypovitaminosis D in critically ill people has been linked to hypocalcemia and mortality; however, information on vitamin D metabolites and their association with clinical findings and outcome in critically ill foals is lacking. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (hypovitaminosis D and its association with serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalized newborn foals.One hundred newborn foals ≤72 hours old divided into hospitalized (n = 83; 59 septic, 24 sick non-septic [SNS] and healthy (n = 17 groups were included. Blood samples were collected on admission to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH 2D3], and PTH concentrations. Data were analyzed by nonparametric methods and univariate logistic regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [defined as 25(OHD3 <9.51 ng/mL] was 63% for hospitalized, 64% for septic, and 63% for SNS foals. Serum 25(OHD3 and 1,25(OH 2D3 concentrations were significantly lower in septic and SNS compared to healthy foals (P<0.0001; P = 0.037. Septic foals had significantly lower calcium and higher phosphorus and PTH concentrations than healthy and SNS foals (P<0.05. In hospitalized and septic foals, low 1,25(OH2D3 concentrations were associated with increased PTH but not with calcium or phosphorus concentrations. Septic foals with 25(OHD3 <9.51 ng/mL and 1,25(OH 2D3 <7.09 pmol/L were more likely to die (OR=3.62; 95% CI = 1.1-12.40; OR = 5.41; 95% CI = 1.19-24.52, respectively.Low 25(OHD3 and 1,25(OH2D3 concentrations are associated with disease severity and mortality in hospitalized foals. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to a pro-inflammatory state in equine

  14. 冠状动脉钙化积分与血钙、血磷的关系探讨%Association of Coronary Artery Calcification Scores with Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春旺; 郭维军; 严士荣; 王连生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨64排螺旋CT冠状动脉钙化积分(CACS)与血清钙、磷的关系.方法 入选可疑冠状动脉粥样硬化患者84例,所有患者均行64排螺旋CT测量CACS以及行相关血液生化检查.结果 CACS与血清钙、磷有明显的相关性,血清钙、磷水平越高,CACS值越大.结论 血清钙、磷水平的变化能较好的预测冠状动脉粥样钙化的发生、发展.%Objective To explore the relationship between the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels and coronary artery calcification scores(CACS) in coronary atherosclerosis patients,and to investigate its clinical value in the diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods Eighty- four patients with doubtful coronary atherosclerosis were enrolled in this study. All of them performed 64 slice spiral CT angiography and blood biochemical test. CACS were calculated using the computer. Results There was a significant correlation between CACS and the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels. As the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels increased , CACS tended to increase. Conclusion The scrum calcium and phosphorus levels could predict the occurrence and development of coronary artery calcification.

  15. The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 gene GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-An; Li, Qing; Ge, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Lin; Luo, Xiao-Li; Zhang, An-Hong; Xiao, Juan-Li; Tian, Ying-Chuan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Wu, Jia-He

    2015-07-16

    Cotton, an important commercial crop, is cultivated for its natural fibers, and requires an adequate supply of soil nutrients, including phosphorus, for its growth. Soil phosporus exists primarily in insoluble forms. We isolated a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, designated as GhmMDH1, from Gossypium hirsutum L. to assess its effect in enhancing P availability and absorption. An enzyme kinetic assay showed that the recombinant GhmMDH1 possesses the capacity to catalyze the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. The malate contents in the roots, leaves and root exudates was significantly higher in GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants and lower in knockdown plants compared with the wild-type control. Knockdown of GhmMDH1 gene resulted in increased respiration rate and reduced biomass whilst overexpression of GhmMDH1 gave rise to decreased respiration rate and higher biomass in the transgenic plants. When cultured in medium containing only insoluble phosphorus, Al-phosphorus, Fe-phosphorus, or Ca-phosphorus, GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants produced significantly longer roots and had a higher biomass and P content than WT plants, however, knockdown plants showed the opposite results for these traits. Collectively, our results show that GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton, owing to its functions in leaf respiration and P acquisition.

  16. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  17. Effect of phosphorus addition on the reductive transformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and iron reduction with microorganism involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongkui; Liu, Xianli; Huang, Jiexun; Xiao, Wensheng; Zhang, Jiaquan; Yin, Chunqin

    2017-04-25

    The transformation of phosphorus added to the soil environment has been proven to be influenced by the Fe biochemical process, which thereby may affect the transformation of organic chlorinated contaminants. However, the amount of related literatures regarding this topic is limited. This study aimed to determine the effects of phosphorus addition on pentachlorophenol (PCP) anaerobic transformation, iron reduction, and paddy soil microbial community structure. Results showed that the transformation of phosphorus, iron, and PCP were closely related to the microorganisms. Moreover, phosphorus addition significantly influenced PCP transformation and iron reduction, which promoted and inhibited these processes at low and high concentrations, respectively. Both the maximum reaction rate of PCP transformation and the maximum Fe(II) amount produced were obtained at 1 mmol/L phosphorus concentration. Among the various phosphorus species, dissolved P and NaOH-P considerably changed, whereas only slight changes were observed for the remaining phosphorus species. Microbial community structure analysis demonstrated that adding low concentration of phosphorus promoted the growth of Clostridium bowmanii, Clostridium hungatei, and Clostridium intestinale and Pseudomonas veronii. By contrast, high-concentration phosphorus inhibited growth of these microorganisms, similar to the curves of PCP transformation and iron reduction. These observations indicated that Clostridium and P. veronii, especially Clostridium, played a vital role in the transformation of related substances in the system. All these findings may serve as a reference for the complicated reactions among the multiple components of soils.

  18. Neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is not involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion.

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    Natalia Gustavsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin secretion is a complex and highly regulated process. It is well established that cytoplasmic calcium is a key regulator of insulin secretion, but how elevated intracellular calcium triggers insulin granule exocytosis remains unclear, and we have only begun to define the identities of proteins that are responsible for sensing calcium changes and for transmitting the calcium signal to release machineries. Synaptotagmins are primarily expressed in brain and endocrine cells and exhibit diverse calcium binding properties. Synaptotagmin-1, -2 and -9 are calcium sensors for fast neurotransmitter release in respective brain regions, while synaptotagmin-7 is a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin release. Unlike the three neuronal calcium sensors, whose deletion abolished fast neurotransmitter release, synaptotagmin-7 deletion resulted in only partial loss of calcium-dependent insulin secretion, thus suggesting that other calcium-sensors must participate in the regulation of insulin secretion. Of the other synaptotagmin isoforms that are present in pancreatic islets, the neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is expressed at the highest level after synaptotagmin-7. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we tested whether synaptotagmin-9 participates in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release by using pancreas-specific synaptotagmin-9 knockout (p-S9X mice. Deletion of synaptotagmin-9 in the pancreas resulted in no changes in glucose homeostasis or body weight. Glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in vivo and from isolated islets were not affected in the p-S9X mice. Single-cell capacitance measurements showed no difference in insulin granule exocytosis between p-S9X and control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, synaptotagmin-9, although a major calcium sensor in the brain, is not involved in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic β-cells.

  19. Dynamic observing the effect of different calcium concentration peritoneal dialysate on calcium-phosphorus metabolism in uremia patients under peritoneal dialysis%动态监测不同钙浓度腹膜透析液对尿毒症患者钙磷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军; 刘楠梅; 张金元; 张雨帆; 高晶

    2008-01-01

    目的 动态监测使用不同钙浓度腹膜透析液行持续性不卧床腹膜透析(CAPD)对尿毒症患者钙磷代谢的影响.方法 将40例初行CAPD的尿毒症患者随机分为标准钙组和低钙组,每组各20例,行正规CAPD治疗并配合碳酸钙口服,观察12个月.结果 两组患者初行CAPD时,血清钙、磷、钙磷乘积及免疫反应性甲状旁腺索(iPTH)浓度比较差异均无统计学意义,普遍存在高磷血症及低iPTH血症.经过6个月的治疗,标准钙组患者的高钙、高磷血症进一步加重,而低钙组患者的血清钙[(2.29±0.27)mmol/L]、血清磷[(1.50±0.25)mmol/L]及钙磷乘积[(41.62±19.55)mg2/dl2]较治疗前显著降低,且均低于治疗后的同期标准钙组患者(P<0.01),iPTH则显著上升(P<0.01).在随后的6个月中,低钙组患者血清钙、钙磷乘积保持稳定并维持在正常范围,血清磷进一步降至正常范围(0.8~1.5 mmol/L),iPTH则维持在150 ng/L左右,与标准钙组比较有显著改善(P<0.01).结论 低钙浓度腹膜透析液有助于减轻尿毒症CAPD患者的钙磷代谢紊乱,延缓并发症的发生.%Objective To observe the effect of different calcium concentration peritoneal dialysate on calcium-phosphorus metabohsm in uremia patients under peritoneal dialysis. Methods Forty uremia patients who the first entered peritoneal dialysis were divided into two groups: standard calcium concentration group (20 cases), low calcium concentration group (20 cases). Treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), combining with oral calcium carbonate, observing 12 months. Results When the first entering CAPD, serum calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) of the two groups had no differences. Hyperphosphatemia, lower iPTH were universal. After 6 months' treatment, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in standard calcium concentration group got increasingly serious.While in low calcium concentration group

  20. The curative effect of zoledronic acid and pamidronic acid on treating ostealgia in malignant tumor with bone metastases and its side effects on serum calcium and phosphorus*%双膦酸盐对骨转移癌骨痛治疗及血清钙磷影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuedi Dai; Meixing Wang; Li Tao; Anqi Li; Haixia Wu; Mi Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Bisphosphonates were widely used with the rate of malignant tumor with bone metastases increasing rapidly. The aim of this study was to evaluate zoledronic acid and pamidronic acid on treating ostealgia of malignant tumor with bone metastases and serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphorus movement. Methods: One Hundred cancer patients with bone metastases were diagnosed according to pathological and imaging methods. After zoledronic acid or pamidronic acid intravenous infusion one and two months, ostealgia degree, serum calcium, serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphorus were observed before bisphosphonates treatment, one and two months after treatment, respectively. Results:Ostealgia degree did not change significantly after diphosphonates treatment from one to two months (P > 0.05). The linear correlation between serum calcium and serum phosphorus on bone metastases cancer patients before therapy was dismissed after bisphosphonates treatment one month and did not recover in two months. The incidence of hypo-calcium after diphosphonate treatment one month (54%) and two months (56%) were significantly increased than that before treatment (36%) (x2 = 6.55, P = 0.011; x2 = 8.05, P = 0.005). Serum calcium and serum phosphorus were both decreased after treatment one month (t = 4.39, P = 0.000; t = 2.50, P = 0.014) and two months (t = 4.32, P = 0.000; t = 2.49, P = 0.010). There had no difference between zoledronic acid and pamidronic acid on treating of ostealgia and serum calcium and phosphorus changing.Conclusion: Zoledronic acid and pamidronic acid can relief ostealgia of cancer patients with bone metastases and induce hypo-calcium, break the linear relationship between calcium and phosphorus. There have no difference between zoledronic acid and pamidronic acid on treating ostealgia and inducing hypo-calcium and hypo-phosphorus.

  1. Study on the Variation of Calcium and Phosphorus in Nano Hydroxyapatie Treated Cancer Cells through Synchrotron Radiation XRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The HAP nanoparticles were synthesized with a chemical co-precipitation method. It was monodispersed in needle shape. Its average diameter was 30 nm and length was 70 am. Human liver cancer cells and normal hepatic cells were treated by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. SR-XRF analysis was used to detect the content variation of calcium and phosphor elements in cancer cells when the cells were treated by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. It was introduced to reveal the anti-cancer mechanism of HAP nanoparticles. Experiments verified that the contents of calcium and phosphor elements in hepatocellular carcinoma had been obviously increased after the cells were treated by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. And the contents increased with hydroxyapatite concentration and treatment time increasing. The Ca/P molar ratio in treated cell was different from both that in hydroxyapatite and that in untreated cancer cell. Apatite nanoparticles evidently altered the calcium and phosphor environments in treated hepatocellular carcinoma cells. That finally halted the proliferation of carcinoma cells.

  2. Effects of acute and chronic nicotine on elevated plus maze in mice: involvement of calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biala, Grazyna; Budzynska, Barbara

    2006-05-30

    The current experiments examined the anxiety-related effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration using the elevated plus maze test in mice. Nicotine (0.1 mg/kg s.c., 5 and 30 min after injection; 0.5 mg/kg, s.c., 5 min after injection) had an anxiogenic effect, shown by specific decreases in the percentage of time spent on the open arms and in the percentage of open arm entries. Tolerance developed to this anxiogenic action after 6 days of daily nicotine administration (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.). Five minutes after the seventh injection, an anxiolytic effect was observed, i.e., specific increases in the percentage of time spent on the open arms and in the percentage of open arm entries. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists nimodipine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), flunarizine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), verapamil (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and diltiazem (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) were also injected prior to an acute low dose of nicotine or to each injection of chronic nicotine. Our results revealed that calcium channel blockers dose-dependently attenuated both an anxiogenic effect of nicotine as well as the development of tolerance to this effect. Our results suggest that neural calcium-dependent mechanisms are involved in the anxiety-related responses to acute and chronic nicotine injection that may ultimately lead to addiction and smoking relapse in human smokers.

  3. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemkova, Hana; Tomić, Melanija; Kucka, Marek; Aguilera, Greti; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the tdimer2(12) form of Discosoma red fluorescent protein under control of the proopiomelanocortin gene's regulatory elements are a useful model for studying corticotrophs. Using these mice, we studied the ion channels and mechanisms controlling corticotroph excitability. Corticotrophs were either quiescent or electrically active, with a 22-mV difference in the resting membrane potential (RMP) between the 2 groups. In quiescent cells, CRH depolarized the membrane, leading to initial single spiking and sustained bursting; in active cells, CRH further facilitated or inhibited electrical activity and calcium spiking, depending on the initial activity pattern and CRH concentration. The stimulatory but not inhibitory action of CRH on electrical activity was mimicked by cAMP independently of the presence or absence of arachidonic acid. Removal of bath sodium silenced spiking and hyperpolarized the majority of cells; in contrast, the removal of bath calcium did not affect RMP but reduced CRH-induced depolarization, which abolished bursting electrical activity and decreased the spiking frequency but not the amplitude of single spikes. Corticotrophs with inhibited voltage-gated sodium channels fired calcium-dependent action potentials, whereas cells with inhibited L-type calcium channels fired sodium-dependent spikes; blockade of both channels abolished spiking without affecting the RMP. These results indicate that the background voltage-insensitive sodium conductance influences RMP, the CRH-depolarization current is driven by a cationic conductance, and the interplay between voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels plays a critical role in determining the status and pattern of electrical activity and calcium signaling.

  4. 硅钙镁磷钾肥不同用量对超级稻产量及磷钾吸收利用的影响%The Effects of Silicon, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization Level on Yield and Phosphorus and Potassium Absorption of Super Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 叶舒娅; 刘枫; 郭熙盛; 黄义德

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the application effect of silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer on super rice, a field plots experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer on the yield and phosphorus and potassium absorption of rice and soil nutrient contents. The results showed that in comparison with farmer custom fertilizer (CF 1) and custom fertilizer with phosphorus and potassium halving (CF2), silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer could increase yield of super-rice, and the yield increased 1.87%-10.65% and 3.69%-12.63%, respectively. The yield was consistent between T100 and T125. Silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer could increase filled grain. With the increasing of the application, contents and uptake amounts of phosphorus and potassium in grain and straw increased. Silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer could increase soil available phosphorus, available potassium and pH value, but had no significant effects on soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic matter and available nitrogen content. The feasible silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium fertilization was 1500 kg/hm2 (T100) and the yield, phosphorus and potassium absorption and soil nutrient contents would be increased.%为了探讨硅钙镁磷钾肥在超级稻上施用效果,通过采用田间小区试验,研究了硅钙镁磷钾肥不同用量和习惯施肥磷钾减半(CF2)配合施用对水稻产量磷钾吸收利用及土壤养分含量的影响。结果表明,施用硅钙镁磷钾肥较习惯施肥能够有效提高超级稻产量,随着施用量的增加而增大,比习惯施肥(CF1)增产1.87%~10.65%,比习惯施肥磷钾减半(CF2)增产3.69%~12.63%,施用量1500 kg/hm2(T100)和1875 kg/hm2(T125)产量结果一致。施用硅钙镁磷钾肥通过提高每穗实粒数来提高水稻产量。

  5. Detergent resistant membrane fractions are involved in calcium signaling in Müller glial cells of retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopinath; Chatterjee, Nivedita

    2013-08-01

    Compartmentalization of the plasma membrane into lipid microdomains promotes efficient cellular processes by increasing local molecular concentrations. Calcium signaling, either as transients or propagating waves require integration of complex macromolecular machinery. Calcium waves represent a form of intercellular signaling in the central nervous system and the retina. We hypothesized that the mechanism for calcium waves would require effector proteins to aggregate at the plasma membrane in lipid microdomains. The current study shows that in Müller glia of the retina, proteins involved in calcium signaling aggregate in detergent resistant membranes identifying rafts and respond by redistributing on stimulation. We have investigated Purinoreceptor-1 (P2Y1), Ryanodine receptor (RyR), and Phospholipase C (PLC-β1). P2Y1, RyR and PLC-β1, redistribute from caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 positive fractions on stimulation with the agonists, ATP, 2MeS-ATP and Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA). Redistribution is absent on treatment with cyclopiazonic acid, another SERCA inhibitor. Disruption of rafts by removing cholesterol cause proteins involved in this machinery to redistribute and change agonist-induced calcium signaling. Cholesterol depletion from raft lead to increase in time to peak of calcium levels in agonist-evoked calcium signals in all instances, as seen by live imaging. This study emphasizes the necessity of a sub-population of proteins to cluster in specialized lipid domains. The requirement for such an organization at the raft-like microdomains may have implications on intercellular communication in the retina. Such concerted interaction at the rafts can regulate calcium dynamics and could add another layer of complexity to calcium signaling in cells.

  6. Mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate endocytosis by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Campos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals adhere to and are internalized by tubular renal cells and it seems that this interaction is related (positively or negatively to the appearance of urinary calculi. The present study analyzes a series of mechanisms possibly involved in CaOx uptake by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. CaOx crystals were added to MDCK cell cultures and endocytosis was evaluated by polarized light microscopy. This process was inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium by means of ionomycin (100 nM; N = 6; 43.9% inhibition; P<0.001 or thapsigargin (1 µM; N = 6; 33.3% inhibition; P<0.005 administration, and via blockade of cytoskeleton assembly by the addition of colchicine (10 µM; N = 8; 46.1% inhibition; P<0.001 or cytochalasin B (10 µM; N = 8; 34.2% inhibition; P<0.001. Furthermore, CaOx uptake was reduced when the activity of protein kinase C was inhibited by staurosporine (10 nM; N = 6; 44% inhibition; P<0.01, or that of cyclo-oxygenase by indomethacin (3 µM; N = 12; 17.2% inhibition; P<0.05; however, the uptake was unaffected by modulation of potassium channel activity with glibenclamide (3 µM; N = 6, tetraethylammonium (1 mM; N = 6 or cromakalim (1 µM; N = 6. Taken together, these data indicate that the process of CaOx internalization by renal tubular cells is similar to the endocytosis reported for other systems. These findings may be relevant to cellular phenomena involved in early stages of the formation of renal stones.

  7. Characterization of Two Putative Protein Phosphatase Genes and Their Involvement in Phosphorus Efficiency in Phaseolus vulgari

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Yue Liang; Zhi-Jian Chen; Zhu-Fang Yao; Jiang Tian; Hong Liao

    2012-01-01

    Protein dephosphorylation mediated by protein phosphatases plays a major role in signal transduction of plant responses to environmental stresses.In this study,two putative protein phosphatases,PvPS2:1 and PvPS2:2 were identified and characterized in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).The two PvPS2 members were found to be localized to the plasma membrane and the nucleus by transient expression of PvPS2:GFP in onion epidermal cells.Transcripts of the two PvPS2 genes were significantly increased by phosphate (Pi) starvation in the two bean genotypes,G19833 (a P-efficient genotype) and DOR364 (a P-inefficient genotype).However,G19833 exhibited higher PvPS2:1 expression levels than DOR364 in both leaves and roots during P1 starvation.Increased transcription of PvPS2:1 in response to Pi starvation was further verified through histochemical analysis of PvPS2:1 promoter fusion β-glucuronidase (GUS) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.Analysis of PvPS2∶1 overexpression lines in bean hairy roots and Arabidopsis showed that PvS2:1 was involved in root growth and P accumulation.Furthermore,expression levels of two P(1) starvation responsive genes were upregulated and the APase activities were enhanced in the overexpressing PvPS2∶1 Arabidopsis lines.Taken together,our results strongly suggested that PvPS2∶1positively regulated plant responses to P1 starvation,and could be further targeted as a candidate gene to improve crop P efficiency.

  8. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.

  9. Mechanisms involved in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption and in non-classical actions of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Ajibade, Dare; Benn, Bryan S; Feng, Jingjing; Joshi, Sneha S

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory using calbindin-D9k null mutant mice as well as mice lacking the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) inducible epithelial calcium channel TRPV6 provide evidence for calbindin-D9k and TRPV6 independent regulation of active intestinal calcium absorption. These findings suggest that in the knock out (KO) mice there is compensation by another calcium channel or protein and that other novel factors are involved in 1,25(OH)2D3 mediated active intestinal calcium absorption. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 mediated paracellular transport of calcium may have contributed to the normalization of serum calcium in the null mutant mice. 1,25(OH)2D3 downregulates cadherin-17 and upregulates claudin-2 and claudin-12 in the intestine, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3, by regulating these epithelial cell junction proteins, can route calcium through the paracellular path. With regard to non-classical actions, 1,25(OH)2D3 has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of a number of malignant cells and to regulate adaptive as well as innate immunity. This article will review new developments related to the function and regulation of vitamin D target proteins in classical and non-classical vitamin D target tissues that have provided novel insight into mechanisms of vitamin D action.

  10. Efficiency of microbial phytase supplementation in diets formulated with different calcium:phosphorus ratios, supplied to broilers from 22 to 33 days old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, L de P; Rodrigues, P B; Teixeira, L do V; de Oliveira, E C; Saldanha, M M; Alvarenga, R R; Corrêa, A D; Lima, R R

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted with broilers from 22 to 33 days of age to evaluate the efficiency of six microbial phytases supplemented in diets (1500 FTU/kg) that were formulated with three different calcium:available phosphorus (Ca:P(avail)) ratios (4.5:1.0, 6.0:1.0 and 7.5:1.0). A positive control diet without phytase was formulated with a Ca:P(avail) ratio of 7.5:3.4 to meet the nutritional requirements of the broilers. The P and ash contents of the tibia, magnesium in the plasma, performance, balance and retention of phytate phosphorus (P(phyt)), intake of total P and nitrogen (N), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and apparent digestibility of dry matter of the diets were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the type of phytase or the dietary Ca:P(avail) ratio. However, there was an interaction (p phytase type and the Ca:P(avail) ratio for the retention coefficients of total P, Ca and N. Phytase B resulted in the highest Ca deposition in the tibia (p Phytases D, E and F reduced the Ca concentrations in the tibia (p Phytase D increased the P level in the plasma and decreased the total P excretion (p Phytases E and F increased Ca excretion, while phytase A reduced it (p phytase type, increasing the dietary Ca:P(avail) ratio reduced (p phytase A, C, D or E/kg. This diet allows the maintenance of performance and adequate bone mineralization, and it improves the Ca, total P and P(phyt) utilization in addition to reducing the excretion of N and P into the environment.

  11. The influence of various doses of phosphorus and of the addition of calcium or potassium fertilization upon the yield of tomatoes in Wrocław hydroponic culture using two intensities of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out with phosphate fertilization of tomatoes in hydroponic culture. It has been proved that an additional dose of phosphorus given during the second cluster bloom, caused an yield increase. The optimal dose is 12 g of superphosphate (16% P2O5 per plant. The "green back" symptoms did not appear in these conditions. The parallel additional applying of calcium or potassium gave a decrease of the yield. When the light intensity was lowered to about 50%, the yield has decreased by half. In these conditions an additional applying of calcium (0,4 g CaCO3 and phosphorus (1g superphosphate annulated the negative influence of the low light intensity.

  12. Calcium-regulated in vivo protein phosphorylation in Zea mays L. root tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghothama, K. G.; Reddy, A. S.; Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium dependent protein phosphorylation was studied in corn (Zea mays L.) root tips. Prior to in vivo protein phosphorylation experiments, the effect of calcium, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N-N' -tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and calcium ionophore (A-23187) on phosphorus uptake was studied. Calcium increased phosphorus uptake, whereas EGTA and A-23187 decreased it. Consequently, phosphorus concentration in the media was adjusted so as to attain similar uptake in different treatments. Phosphoproteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct changes in phosphorylation were observed following altered calcium levels. Calcium depletion in root tips with EGTA and A-23187 decreased protein phosphorylation. However, replenishment of calcium following EGTA and ionophore pretreatment enhanced phosphorylation of proteins. Preloading of the root tips with 32P in the presence of EGTA and A-23187 followed by a ten minute calcium treatment, resulted in increased phosphorylation indicating the involvement of calcium, calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinases. Calmodulin antagonist W-7 was effective in inhibiting calcium-promoted phosphorylation. These studies suggest a physiological role for calcium-dependent phosphorylation in calcium-mediated processes in plants.

  13. 腹膜透析患者钙磷代谢紊乱临床分析%A Clinical Analysis of the Disorders of Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仉超; 王莹莹; 张艳玲; 唐晓红; 秦敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of physiological calcium dialysate on the calcium and phosphorus metabolism in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 60 patients having undergone CAPD in West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2008 and December 2009. The patients were divided into two groups with 30 in each by calcium concentration of the dialysate: the physiological calcium dialysate group ( 1.25 mmol/L) and the standard calcium dialysate group (1.75 mmol/L). The metabolism indexes of calcium and phosphorus for the two group of patients were compared.Results Levels of Serum phosphate, calcium-phosphate product and immoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) of all the patients in both groups before and after treatment showed no significant differences (P>0. 05). Sertm calcium increased significantly in patients treated with standard calcium dialysate (P < 0. 05), while it did not change significantly in patients treated with physiological calcium dialysate (P>0. 05). Conclusions Dialysate with different concentrations of calcium provides different influence on the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Changing calcium concentration to 1. 25 mmol/L in the dialysate can lower the calcium load for patients with hypercalcium and/or hyperphosphate with low bone turnover, providing treatment space for clinical doctors to use binders containing both calcium and phosphorus.%目的 探讨生理钙透析液对持续性不卧床腹膜透析(CAPD)患者钙磷代谢的影响.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月-2009年12月腹膜透析患者的钙磷指标,资料齐全的患者中使用钙浓度为1.25 mmol/L的腹膜透析液(生理钙组)的患者有30例,使用钙浓度为1.75 mmol/L的透析液(标准钙组)患者30例.对两组患者钙磷代谢指标进行比较.结果 治疗前后两组的血磷、钙磷乘积和全段甲状旁腺素

  14. 磷石膏脱硫钙渣制备轻质碳酸钙%Preparation of light calcium carbonate from phosphorus gypsum desulfurization slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时婷; 王新刚; 巫建锋; 杨秀山; 杨林; 王辛龙

    2015-01-01

    To recycle desulfurization slag from phosphorous gypsum,spherical calcium carbonate was prepared from calcium-containing phosphorus gypsum desulfurization slag. The composition of raw materials were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The main substance was calcium oxide and the main impurity was silica. It also contained a small amount of iron,aluminum and magnesium. A new process leaching desulfurization slag by ammonium chloride and subsequent carbonization was firstly proposed. The affecting factors , such as amount of ammonium chloride , ratio of water and desulfurization slag(mass ratio),and temperature on the performance of leaching were investigated. The optimal conditions were: Amount of ammonium chloride 50% of the total weight of the solid, ratio of water and desulfurization slag 9∶1,temperature 40℃. Conversion of calcium was about 67.98% and removal of silica was 97.80% under the optimal conditions. The purity of the obtained calcium carbonate was 97.90%,sedimentation volume was 3.5mL/g and whiteness was 94.2, meeting the norm of first grade product in(HG/T 2226—2010). Main polymorph of calcium carbonate crystals was vaterite.%为了有效利用磷石膏脱硫钙渣资源,以磷石膏脱硫钙渣为原料合成了球形轻质碳酸钙。本文首先利用XRD 和 SEM 等测试手段分析了磷石膏脱硫钙渣的主要组成是氧化钙,主要杂质为二氧化硅以及少量铁铝镁。在此基础上首次提出了氯化铵浸取磷石膏脱硫钙渣,而后碳化合成轻质碳酸钙的新工艺。探讨了浸取过程中氯化铵的添加量,水与钙渣的液固比(质量比),温度工艺参数对钙浸取率和硅脱除率的影响,确定了较优工艺条件为:氯化铵添加量为总固体质量的50%,水与钙渣的液固比为9∶1,温度为40℃。在该工艺条件下,钙的浸取率可达67.98%,硅的脱除率可达97.80%。对上述浸取液经碳化制备出的轻质碳酸钙,其纯度为97.90%,白度为94.2

  15. [Prevalence of anemia, calcium-phosphorus abnormalities and metabolic acidosis in different stages of chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzecki, Miłosz; Chudek, Jerzy; Kukla, Małgorzata; Kopeć, Paulina; Mamcarz, Ewelina; Wnuk, Zuzanna; Kokot, Franciszek; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2004-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the reduction of haemoglobin concentration and a variety of biochemical abnormalities including changes in serum concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, and hydrogen ions. However, data concerning epidemiology of these abnormalities are rare and incomplete, especially among subjects with mild to moderate CKD. Patients with a serum creatinine concentration > 110 micromol/l hospitalized in the Department of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Medical University of Silesia from 1998 to 2002 were analyzed. Patients with acute renal failure or chronic renal failure treated with renal replacement therapy were excluded from this study. A total of 653 patients (262F and 391M) were divided into 9 subgroups differing from each other by progressive decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A statistically significant decrease in haemoglobin concentration and increase in the prevalence of anaemia were found in patients with GFR 50 ml/min, Hb concentration 4.44 mmol2/12) was noticed almost exclusively in patients with GFR< 30 ml/min. A decompensated metabolic acidosis was observed in 29.8% of patients with GFR <30 ml/min. Anaemia is an early symptom of chronic kidney disease preceding disturbances of calcium, phosphate and hydrogen ions metabolism. These abnormalities seem to be of therapeutic relevance.

  16. Differential expression of genes involved in the calcium homeostasis in masticatory muscles of MDX mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert-Keil, C H; Gredes, T; Lucke, S; Botzenhart, U; Dominiak, M; Gedrange, T

    2014-04-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and its murine model, mdx, are characterized by Ca(2+) induced muscle damage and muscle weakness followed by distorted dentofacial morphology. In both, DMD patients and in mdx mice, could be proven so far that only the extraocular muscles (EOM) are not affected by muscular dystrophy. The EOMs are protected against calcium overload by enhanced expression of genes involved in the Ca(2+) homeostasis. We could recently demonstrate that masticatory muscles of mdx mice are differentially affected by muscle dystrophy. The dystrophic masseter and temporalis shows muscle histology comparable to all other skeletal muscles in this animal model, whereas dystrophic tongue muscles seem to develop a milder phenotype. Due to this fact it is to hypothesize that an altered Ca(2+) homeostasis seems to underlie the mdx masticatory muscle pathology. Aim of this study was to examine the mRNA and protein levels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases SERCA1 and SERCA2, the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases Atp2b1 and Atp2b4, the sodium/calcium exchanger NCX1, the ryanodine receptor 1, parvalbumin, sarcolipin, phospholamban and the L-type Ca(2+) channel alpha-1 subunit (Cacna1s) in Musculus masseter, temporalis, and tongue of 100 day old control and mdx mice. In mdx masseter muscle significant increased mRNA levels of NCX1 and Cacna1s were found compared to control mice. In contrast, the mRNA amount of RYR1 was significant reduced in mdx temporalis muscle, whereas ATP2b4 was significant increased. In mdx tongue a down-regulation of the ATP2b1, sarcolipin and parvalbumin mRNA expression was found, whereas the phospholamban mRNA level was significantly increased compared to controls. These data were verified by western blot analyses. Our findings revealed that mdx masticatory muscles showed an unequally altered expression of genes involved in the Ca(2+) homeostasis that can support the differences in masticatory muscles response to dystrophin deficiency.

  17. Effects of high dietary contents of calcium and phosphorus on mineral metabolism and growth of vitamin D-deficient suckling and weaned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S A; Boass, A; Toverud, S U

    1987-07-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that normalization of the plasma calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by dietary means in vitamin D-deficient rat pups will prevent rickets. From day 6 of pregnancy rats were given a vitamin D-free diet containing 1.6% Ca and 1.4% P (-D 1.6) which normalized plasma Ca during lactation. Pups weaned from these mothers, and continuing on the -D 1.6 diet until 56 days of age, had a mean plasma Ca value of 8.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dl and were not significantly different from pups fed a vitamin D-replete diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P in the following parameters: body weight (mean +/- SE for -D 1.6 rats: 197 +/- 4 g), percent bone ash (53 +/- 0.5), and tibia epiphyseal cartilage width (385 +/- 26 micron). In contrast, pups consuming the vitamin D-free diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P had plasma Ca of 4.9 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, body weight of 156 +/- 4 g, reduced bone ash (45 +/- 0.5%) and abnormally wide epiphyseal cartilage (727 +/- 113 micron). Thus, elevating the plasma Ca level of vitamin D-deficient rat pups by dietary means can normalize body weight, epiphyseal cartilage width and bone mineral content.

  18. Effects of Biochar on Air and Water Permeability and Colloid and Phosphorus Leaching in Soils from a Natural Calcium Carbonate Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos;

    2014-01-01

    in an agricultural field in Denmark with a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) gradient. The field comprised four reference plots and four plots to which biochar (birch wood pyrolyzed at 500°C) was applied at a rate of 20 t ha−1. Five undisturbed soil columns (10 cm diam., 8 cm height) were sampled from each plot 7 mo after...... biochar application, and a series of leaching experiments was conducted. The leachate was analyzed for tritium (used as a tracer), colloids, and phosphorus concentration. The results revealed that the presence of CaCO3 has resulted in marked changes in soil structure (bulk density) and soil chemical...... to be time dependent in soils with low CaCO3. Biochar-amended soils showed higher colloid and P release than reference soils. Field-scale variations in total colloid and P leaching reflected clear effects of changes in pH and ionic strength due to the presence of CaCO3. There was a linear relationship...

  19. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  20. Involvement of intracellular calcium stores during oxygen/glucose deprivation in striatal large aspiny interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, A; Bonsi, P; Centonze, D; Giacomini, P; Calabresi, P

    2000-05-01

    Striatal large aspiny interneurons were recorded from a slice preparation using a combined electrophysiologic and microfluorometric approach. The role of intracellular Ca2+ stores was analyzed during combined oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). Before addressing the role of the stores during energy deprivation, the authors investigated their function under physiologic conditions. Trains of depolarizing current pulses caused bursts of action potentials coupled to transient increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (30 micromol/L), a selective inhibitor of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps, or when ryanodine receptors were directly blocked with ryanodine (20 [micromol/L), the [Ca2+]i transients were progressively smaller in amplitude, suggesting that [Ca2+]i released from intracellular stores helps to maintain a critical level of [Ca2+]i during physiologic firing activity. As the authors have recently reported, brief exposure to combined OGD induced a membrane hyperpolarization coupled to an increase in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid or ryanodine, the hyperpolarization and the rise in [Ca2+]i induced by OGD were consistently reduced. These data support the hypothesis that Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ pools is involved not only in the potentiation of the Ca2+ signals resulting from cell depolarization, but also in the amplification of the [Ca2+]i rise and of the concurrent membrane hyperpolarization observed in course of OGD in striatal large aspiny interneurons.

  1. Hyaline cartilage involvement in patients with gout and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. An ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippucci, E; Riveros, M Gutierrez; Georgescu, D; Salaffi, F; Grassi, W

    2009-02-01

    The main aim of the present study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in detecting monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals deposits at knee cartilage level using clinical definite diagnosis as standard reference. A total of 32 patients with a diagnosis of gout and 48 patients with pyrophosphate arthropathy were included in the study. Fifty-two patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis or osteoarthritis (OA) were recruited as disease controls. All diagnoses were made using an international clinical criterion. US examinations were performed by an experienced sonographer, blind to clinical and laboratory data. Hyaline cartilage was assessed to detect two US findings recently indicated as indicative of crystal deposits: hyperechoic enhancement of the superficial margin of the hyaline cartilage and hyperechoic spots within the cartilage layer not generating a posterior acoustic shadow. Hyperechoic enhancement of the chondrosynovial margin was found in at least one knee of 14 out of 32 (43.7%) patients with gout and in a single knee of only one patient affected by pyrophosphate arthropathy (specificity=99%). Intra-cartilaginous hyperechoic spots were detected in at least one knee of 33 out of 48 (68.7%) patients with pyrophosphate arthropathy and in two disease controls one with OA and the second with RA (specificity=97.6%). The results of the present study indicate that US may play a relevant role in distinguishing cartilage involvement in patients with crystal-related arthropathy. The selected US findings were found to be highly specific.

  2. Effect of reduced dietary calcium concentration and phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus utilization in weanling pigs with modified mineral status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Magnin, M; Sauvant, D; Bernier, J F; Pomar, C; Jondreville, C

    2010-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effect of 2 dietary Ca concentrations on P and Ca digestive and metabolic utilization in weanling pigs fed diets providing practical concentrations of P, with or without phytase. The responses of pigs fed diets adequate or moderately deficient in Ca and P postweaning were compared. A total of 60 pigs weaned at 28 d of age were used. Two groups of 30 pigs with differing mineral status resulted from a 10-d depletion period, during which the animals received depletion diets (DD) that consisted of corn-soybean meal with either 1.42% Ca and 0.80% P (DD+) or 0.67% Ca and 0.43% P (DD-), designed to achieve the same Ca:digestible P ratio. At the end of the depletion period, a plasma sample was taken from each pig and 12 pigs (6 from each group) were slaughtered for bone assessment to establish the baseline mineral status. The animals fed the DD- diet had signs of P deficiency with reduced plasma P (13%; P pigs from each group were fed 1 of 4 repletion diets: 1) 0.56% P, 1.06% Ca; 2) 0.56% P, 0.67% Ca; 3) diet 1 + 1,000 phytase units (FTU) of Natuphos phytase/kg; and 4) diet 2 + 1,000 FTU of Natuphos phytase/kg. Total feces and urine were collected from d 5 to 11, and a blood sample was taken from each pig at d 11 and 25. The initial moderate P deficiency (DD-) stimulated Ca absorption (5%; P pigs achieved full recovery of femur DM and ash weight when they received phytase, whereas ash concentration tended to remain reduced by 3% (P = 0.08). Phosphorus digestibility was improved in the diets supplemented with phytase (73.0 vs. 56.0%; P dietary Ca decreased P digestibility (65.6 vs. 63.4%; P dietary Ca reduced equally P digestibility with and without phytase and did not influence the efficiency of phytase in releasing P in the digestive tract. In pigs fed diets with phytase, however, the reduction of Ca (Ca:P from 1.9 to 1.3) increased urinary P losses 5-fold. Those extra losses were due to a lack of Ca for skeleton ash

  3. Are calcium oxalate crystals involved in the mechanism of acute renal failure in ethylene glycol poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning often results in acute renal failure, particularly if treatment with fomepizole or ethanol is delayed because of late presentation or diagnosis. The mechanism has not been established but is thought to result from the production of a toxic metabolite. A literature review utilizing PubMed identified papers dealing with renal toxicity and EG or oxalate. The list of papers was culled to those relevant to the mechanism and treatment of the renal toxicity associated with either compound. ROLE OF METABOLITES: Although the "aldehyde" metabolites of EG, glycolaldehyde, and glyoxalate, have been suggested as the metabolites responsible, recent studies have shown definitively that the accumulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in kidney tissue produces renal tubular necrosis that leads to kidney failure. In vivo studies in EG-dosed rats have correlated the severity of renal damage with the total accumulation of COM crystals in kidney tissue. Studies in cultured kidney cells, including human proximal tubule (HPT) cells, have demonstrated that only COM crystals, not the oxalate ion, glycolaldehyde, or glyoxylate, produce a necrotic cell death at toxicologically relevant concentrations. COM CRYSTAL ACCUMULATION: In EG poisoning, COM crystals accumulate to high concentrations in the kidney through a process involving adherence to tubular cell membranes, followed by internalization of the crystals. MECHANISM OF TOXICITY: COM crystals have been shown to alter membrane structure and function, to increase reactive oxygen species and to produce mitochondrial dysfunction. These processes are likely to be involved in the mechanism of cell death. Accumulation of COM crystals in the kidney is responsible for producing the renal toxicity associated with EG poisoning. The development of a pharmacological approach to reduce COM crystal adherence to tubular cells and its cellular interactions would be valuable as this would decrease the renal

  4. In vitro versus in situ evaluation of the effect of phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus solubility in soya bean and rapeseed meal broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2014-01-01

    1. In vitro assays provide a rapid and economical tool to evaluate dietary effects, but have limitations. In this study, the effect of phytase supplementation on solubility, and presumed availability, of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in soya bean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) based diets were evaluated both in situ and by a two-step in vitro digestion assay that simulated the gastric and small intestine (SI) phases of digestion. 2. Comparison of the in vitro findings to in situ findings was used to evaluate the in vitro assay. Ross 308 broilers (n = 192) were fed on one of 6 SBM or RSM diets supplemented with 0, 500 or 5000 FTU/kg phytase from 0 to 28 d post hatch. The 6 diets and raw SBM and RSM were exposed to a two-step in vitro assay. Ca and P solubility and pH in the gizzard and jejunal digesta and in the gastric and SI phase of in vitro digestion were measured. 3. Both in vitro and in situ analyses detected that Ca solubility was lowest when diets were supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase, compared to the control diets and diets supplemented with 5000 FTU/kg phytase. Phosphorus solubility increased with increasing phytase level. Both methods also identified that mineral solubility plateaus in the gastric phase. 4. Overall relationship of the two methods was strong for both determination of gastric phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.96 and 0.92, respectively) and also SI phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.71 and 0.82, respectively). However, mineral solubility and pH were higher when measured in vitro than in situ, and the in situ assay identified an interaction among the effects of phase, protein source and phytase inclusion level on Ca solubility that the in vitro assay did not detect. 5. This two-step in vitro assay successfully predicted phytase efficacy, but to determine detailed response effects in the animal, in situ data is still required.

  5. Actin filaments as the fast pathways for calcium ions involved in auditory processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Miljko V Sataric; Dalibor L Sekulic; Bogdan M Sataric

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the polyelectrolyte properties of actin filaments which are in interaction with myosin motors, basic participants in mechano-electrical transduction in the stereocilia of the inner ear. Here, we elaborated a model in which actin filaments play the role of guides or pathways for localized flow of calcium ions. It is well recognized that calcium ions are implicated in tuning of actin-myosin cross-bridge interaction, which controls the mechanical property of hair bundle. Actin filaments enable much more efficient delivery of calcium ions and faster mechanism for their distribution within the stereocilia. With this model we were able to semiquantitatively explain experimental evidences regarding the way of how calcium ions tune the mechanosensitivity of hair cells.

  6. Water Channels Are Involved in Stomatal Oscillations Encoded by Parameter-Specific Cytosolic Calcium Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that various stimuli can induce specific cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) oscillations in guard cells and various oscillations in stomatal apertures. Exactly how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation signaling functions in stomatal oscillation is not known. In the present study, the epidermis of broad bean (Vicia faba L.)was used and a rapid ion-exchange treatment with two shifting buffers differing in K+ and Ca2+ concentrations was applied. The treatment for five transients at a 10-min transient period induced clear and regular stomatal oscillation. However, for other transient numbers and periods, the treatments induced some irregular oscillations or even no obvious oscillations in stomatal aperture. The results indicate that stomatal oscillation is encoded by parameter-specific [Ca2+]cyt oscillation: the parameters of [Ca2+]cyt oscillation affected the occurrence rate and the parameters of stomatal oscillation. The water channel inhibitor HgCl2 completely inhibited stomatal oscillation and the inhibitory effect could be partially reversed by β-mercaptoethanol (an agent capable of reversing water channel inhibition by HgCl2). Other inhibitory treatments against ion transport (i.e. the application of LaCl3, EGTA, or tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl))weakly impaired stomatal oscillation when the compounds were added after rapid ion-exchange treatment.If these compounds were added before rapid-ion exchange treatment, the inhibitory effect was much more apparent (except in the case of TEACI). The results of the present study suggest that water channels are involved in stomatal oscillation as a downstream element of [Ca2+]cyt oscillation signaling.

  7. Influence of blood purification for calcium and phosphorus metabolism of maintenance hemodialysis patients%血液净化方式对维持性血液透析患者钙磷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀瓒; 徐琴; 孙世泽

    2014-01-01

    目的:前瞻性研究血液透析、血液透析+血液灌流、血液透析+血液透析滤过3种不同血液净化方式对维持性血液透析患者血清PTH、钙、磷的临床疗效的影响。方法:46例维持性血液透析患者随机分为血液透析组15例,血液灌流组15例和血液透析滤过组16例。观察3组试验前(0个月)、治疗6个月后血清钙、磷、PTH 水平变化。结果:血液透析组试验前(0个月)与治疗6个月后钙、磷、PTH水平无明显变化(P>0.05);血液透析滤过组、血液灌流组试验前(0个月)与治疗6个月后钙、磷、PTH测定水平比较,磷及PTH水平下降,钙水平升高(P<0.05)。结论:血液透析滤过和血液灌流两种血液净化方式比血液透析能较好改善维持性血液透析患者矿物质及钙磷代谢紊乱,提高患者生活质量。%Objective:To prospective study of hemodialysis,hemoperfusion and hemodialysis,hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration about 3 different ways of blood purification on clinical curative effect of maintenance hemodialysis patients with serum PTH,calci-um,phosphorus.Methods:We selected 46 cases of maintenance hemodialysis patients.These patients were randomly divided into hemodialysis group with 15 cases,the blood perfusion group with 15 cases,and hemodiafiltration group with 16 cases.Before the experiment(0 months),6 months after treatment the changes of serum calcium,phosphorus,PTH levels were compared.The changes of serum calcium,phosphorus,PTH levels before the experiment(0 months)and 6 months after treatment were compared.Results:In hemodialysis group,there were no significant changes of calcium,phosphorus,PTH levels before the experiment(0 months)and 6 months after treatment(P>0.05);In Hemodiafiltration group and hemoperfusion group,calcium,phosphorus,PTH levels before the test(0 months)were compared with 6 months after treatment,phosphorus and PTH levels were reduced,calcium levels were elevat-ed(P<0

  8. Fontes alternativas de cálcio e fósforo para poedeiras comerciais Alternative sources of calcium and phosphorus for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Pena Couto

    2008-08-01

    .The objective of this study was to evaluate the monoammonium phosphate (MAP as a source of phosphorus and Paraíso limestone (CP with higher magnesium levels (1.92% as a source of calcium for commercial layers. A total of 280 white Dekalb chickens were housed in individual cages during the period from 46 to 58 weeks old. A completely randomized experimental design, with four diets, seven replicates and ten birds per experimental unit were used. The diets were: FBC/CB - dicalcium phosphate and Barroso limestone (gray; FBC/CP - dicalcium phosphate and Paraíso limestone (white; MAP/CB - monoammonium phosphate and Barroso limestone; MAP/CP - monoammonium phosphate and Paraíso limestone. Egg production, mean weight and egg mass; feed intake and feed conversion were evaluate, and also shell percentage and thickness. Egg production, mean egg weight and mass improved with the use MAP with both evaluated limestone. Feed intake and feed conversion improved with utilization of MAP as source of phosphorus. Egg shell percentage and thickness were not affected by calcium source in the diet, hence, the higher level of Mg and finer particles of Paraíso limestone did not impaired egg shell quality. No alterations were observed in feces consistency and survival rate of the layers. The nitrogen excretion was 10% higher for birds that received MAP as a phosphorus source. Monoammonium phosphate could be used as an alternative source of phosphorus replacing dicalcium phosphate; and Paraíso limestone is technically viable for feeding commercial layers without problems for egg production and shell quality.

  9. Changing dietary calcium-phosphorus level and cereal source selectively alters abundance of bacteria and metabolites in the upper gastrointestinal tracts of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Mann, Evelyne; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Wagner, Martin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-12-01

    Several dietary ingredients may affect the bacterial community structure and metabolism in the porcine gut and may therefore influence animals' health and performance. This study investigated the effects of cereal source and calcium-phosphorus (CaP) level in the diet on bacterial microbiota and metabolites, nutrient intake, and gut environment in weaned pigs. Pigs (n=8/treatment) were fed wheat-barley- or corn-based diets with an adequate or high CaP level for 14 days. Effects on microbiota in the stomach, ileum, and midcolon were assessed using quantitative PCR. Data showed that Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter spp., and Helicobacter spp., which all contain highly immune reactive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were abundant at all gut sites. Diet effects on bacteria and metabolites were moderate and occurred mainly in the upper gut, whereas no effects on bacteria, fermentation products, and LPS could be observed in the colon. Differences in carbohydrate intake with corn versus wheat-barley diets selectively stimulated Bifidobacterium in the stomach and ileum. There was a growth advantage for a few bacterial groups in the stomach and ileum of pigs fed the high versus adequate CaP level (i.e., gastric Enterobacteriaceae and ileal Enterococcus, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas, and Campylobacter). Interestingly, gastrointestinal pH was not affected by dietary CaP level. The present findings demonstrate the stability of the bacterial community and gut environment toward dietary changes even in young pigs. The results on stimulation of gastric and ileal Bifidobacterium by corn diets may be employed in nutritional strategies to support gut health after weaning.

  10. Fetal calcium regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing human and mouse lung: involvement of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sarah C; Finney, Brenda A; Lazarou, Maria; Rosser, Anne E; Scherf, Caroline; Adriaensen, Dirk; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Airway branching morphogenesis in utero is essential for optimal postnatal lung function. In the fetus, branching morphogenesis occurs during the pseudoglandular stage (weeks 9-17 of human gestation, embryonic days (E)11.5-16.5 in mouse) in a hypercalcaemic environment (~1.7 in the fetus vs. ~1.1-1.3 mM for an adult). Previously we have shown that fetal hypercalcemia exerts an inhibitory brake on branching morphogenesis via the calcium-sensing receptor. In addition, earlier studies have shown that nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), inhibits fetal lung growth, suggesting a role for VGCC in lung development. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of VGCC in the pseudoglandular human and mouse lung, and their role in branching morphogenesis. Expression of L-type (CaV1.2 and CaV1.3), P/Q type (CaV2.1), N-type (CaV2.2), R-type (CaV2.3), and T-type (CaV3.2 and CaV3.3) VGCC was investigated in paraffin sections from week 9 human fetal lungs and E12.5 mouse embryos. Here we show, for the first time, that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are expressed in both the smooth muscle and epithelium of the developing human and mouse lung. Additionally, Cav2.3 was expressed in the lung epithelium of both species. Incubating E12.5 mouse lung rudiments in the presence of nifedipine doubled the amount of branching, an effect which was partly mimicked by the Cav2.3 inhibitor, SNX-482. Direct measurements of changes in epithelial cell membrane potential, using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSBAC2(3), demonstrated that cyclic depolarisations occur within the developing epithelium and coincide with rhythmic occlusions of the lumen, driven by the naturally occurring airway peristalsis. We conclude that VGCC are expressed and functional in the fetal human and mouse lung, where they play a role in branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, rhythmic epithelial depolarisations evoked by airway peristalsis would allow for branching to match

  11. Fetal calcium regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing human and mouse lung: involvement of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Brennan

    Full Text Available Airway branching morphogenesis in utero is essential for optimal postnatal lung function. In the fetus, branching morphogenesis occurs during the pseudoglandular stage (weeks 9-17 of human gestation, embryonic days (E11.5-16.5 in mouse in a hypercalcaemic environment (~1.7 in the fetus vs. ~1.1-1.3 mM for an adult. Previously we have shown that fetal hypercalcemia exerts an inhibitory brake on branching morphogenesis via the calcium-sensing receptor. In addition, earlier studies have shown that nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels (VGCC, inhibits fetal lung growth, suggesting a role for VGCC in lung development. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of VGCC in the pseudoglandular human and mouse lung, and their role in branching morphogenesis. Expression of L-type (CaV1.2 and CaV1.3, P/Q type (CaV2.1, N-type (CaV2.2, R-type (CaV2.3, and T-type (CaV3.2 and CaV3.3 VGCC was investigated in paraffin sections from week 9 human fetal lungs and E12.5 mouse embryos. Here we show, for the first time, that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are expressed in both the smooth muscle and epithelium of the developing human and mouse lung. Additionally, Cav2.3 was expressed in the lung epithelium of both species. Incubating E12.5 mouse lung rudiments in the presence of nifedipine doubled the amount of branching, an effect which was partly mimicked by the Cav2.3 inhibitor, SNX-482. Direct measurements of changes in epithelial cell membrane potential, using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSBAC2(3, demonstrated that cyclic depolarisations occur within the developing epithelium and coincide with rhythmic occlusions of the lumen, driven by the naturally occurring airway peristalsis. We conclude that VGCC are expressed and functional in the fetal human and mouse lung, where they play a role in branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, rhythmic epithelial depolarisations evoked by airway peristalsis would allow for branching to

  12. Integration of gene expression and GWAS results supports involvement of calcium signaling in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, L; Katsel, P; Roussos, P; Haroutunian, V; Domany, E

    2015-05-01

    The number of Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia is rapidly growing. However, the small effect of individual genes limits the number of reliably implicated genes, which are too few and too diverse to perform reliable pathway analysis; hence the biological roles of the genes implicated in schizophrenia are unclear. To overcome these limitations we combine GWAS with genome-wide expression data from human post-mortem brain samples of schizophrenia patients and controls, taking these steps: 1) Identify 36 GWAS-based genes which are expressed in our dataset. 2) Find a cluster of 19 genes with highly correlated expression. We show that this correlation pattern is robust and statistically significant. 3) GO-enrichment analysis of these 19 genes reveals significant enrichment of ion channels and calcium-related processes. This finding (based on analyzing a small number of coherently expressed genes) is validated and enhanced in two ways: First, the emergence of calcium channels and calcium signaling is corroborated by identifying proteins that interact with those encoded by the cluster of 19. Second, extend the 19 cluster genes into 1028 genes, whose expression is highly correlated with the cluster's average profile. When GO-enrichment analysis is performed on this extended set, many schizophrenia related pathways appear, with calcium-related processes enriched with high statistical significance. Our results give further, expression-based validation to GWAS results, support a central role of calcium-signaling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and point to additional pathways potentially related to the disease.

  13. Calcium Signaling is Involved in Negative Phototropism of Rice Seminal Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; MO Yi-wei; XU Hua-wei

    2014-01-01

    Calcium ions (Ca2+) act as an intracellular second messenger and affect nearly all aspects of cellular life. They are functioned by interacting with polar auxin transport, and the negative phototropism of plant roots is caused by the transport of auxin from the irradiated side to the shaded side of the roots. To clarify the role of calcium signaling in the modulation of rice root negative phototropism, as well as the relationship between polar auxin transport and calcium signaling, calcium signaling reagents were used to treat rice seminal roots which were cultivated in hydroculture and unilaterally illuminated at an intensity of 100-200μmol/(m2·s) for 24 h. Negative phototropism curvature and growth rate of rice roots were both promoted by exogenous CaCl2 lower than 100 μmol/L, but inhibited by calcium channel blockers (verapamil and LaCl3), calcineurin inhibitor (chlorpromazine, CPZ), and polar auxin transport inhibitor (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, NPA). Roots stopped growing and negative phototropism disappeared when the concentrations increased to 100μmol/L verapamil, 12.500μmol/L LaCl3, 60μmol/L CPZ, and 6μmol/L NPA. Moreover, 100 μmol/L CaCl2 could relieve the inhibition of LaCl3, verapamil and NPA. The enhanced negative phototropism curvature was caused by the transportation of more auxin from the irradiated side to the shaded side in the presence of exogenous Ca2+. Calcium signaling plays a key role as a second messenger in the process of light signal regulation of rice root growth and negative phototropism.

  14. Effect of NH4-N/P and Ca/P molar ratios on the reactive crystallization of calcium phosphates for phosphorus recovery from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasenko, Liubov; Qu, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the effects of operational parameters, initial phosphorus concentration and molar ratios of Ca/P and NH4-N/P (further in the text N/P), on the nature and purity of precipitated phosphorus products have been investigated in an artificial system that mimics the supernatant in wastewat...

  15. 对血液透析患者钙磷代谢异常改进治疗的研究%Improvement of abnormal calcium-phosphorus metabolism in hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓英辉; 吴靖林; 付文静; 贾强

    2009-01-01

    Objective To improve the treatment of abnormal calcium-phosphorus metabolism in hemodialysis patients, and observe its influence on the quality of life. Methods Implemented the kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in hemodialysis patients, improved the treatment of abnormal calcium-phesphoms metabolism in hemodialysis patients. After 1 year, the values were compared between before and after application of K/DOQI guidelines, including albumin-adjusted serum calcium, phosphorus, calcium × phosphorus (Ca × P) product, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and their achieved target range rates. The quality of life were evaluated by using the kidney disease questionnaire (KDQ). Results One year later, the levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, Ca × P product, and iPTH were all decreased (P<0.01 or <0.05) compared with before the application of K/DOQI guidelines. The percentage of patients fell within the guideline range were as follows: 74.42% (32/43), calcium; 62.79%(27/43), phosphorus; 55.81%(24/43), Ca × P product; 60.47%(26/43), iPTH; 25.58%(11/43), all four criteria, higher than before (P<0.01 or <0.05). The scores of KDQ in global indices and symptom scores of physical symptoms, fatigue, depression, relationships with others and frustration dimension were also all increased (P<0.01). Conclusion The state of calcium-phospberns metabolism in hemodialysis patients is improved, the quality of life is also enhanced.%目的 改进对血液透析患者钙磷代谢异常的治疗,观察患者生活质量的改善.方法按照美国肾脏基金会(NKF)制定的"慢性肾脏病,透析病人生存质量指南(K/DOQI)"改进对血液透析患者钙磷代谢异常的治疗,观察1年后患者的血清钙、磷、钙磷乘积、全段甲状旁腺素(iPTH)等水平及治疗达标率的变化.应用肾脏病调查表(KDQ)评估患者生活质量的改善.结果改进治疗后患者的血清钙、磷、

  16. 氧弹燃烧灰化法测定奶粉中的钙和磷%Determination the Content of Calcium and Phosphorus in Milk Powder by Oxygen Bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党民团; 刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen bomb combustion method, which destroys the organic substances, is both simple and convenient as well as fast in operation, and pollution free in element analysis. With satisfactory result, this method has been applied to the determination of the content of calcium and phosphorus in milk powder by ashes of oxygen bomb which proves to be valid and reliable.%用氧弹燃烧灰化法分解有机物进行元素测定,操作简便、快速、无污染.该方法用于测定奶粉中的钙和磷,结果可靠.

  17. The involvement of the Mid1/Cch1/Yvc1 calcium channels in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

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    Patrícia Alves de Castro

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is a major opportunistic pathogen and allergen of mammals. Calcium homeostasis and signaling is essential for numerous biological processes and also influences A. fumigatus pathogenicity. The presented study characterized the function of the A. fumigatus homologues of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcium channels, voltage-gated Cch1, stretch-activated Mid1 and vacuolar Yvc1. The A. fumigatus calcium channels cchA, midA and yvcA were regulated at transcriptional level by increased calcium levels. The YvcA::GFP fusion protein localized to the vacuoles. Both ΔcchA and ΔmidA mutant strains showed reduced radial growth rate in nutrient-poor minimal media. Interestingly, this growth defect in the ΔcchA strain was rescued by the exogenous addition of CaCl2. The ΔcchA, ΔmidA, and ΔcchA ΔmidA strains were also sensitive to the oxidative stress inducer, paraquat. Restriction of external Ca(2+ through the addition of the Ca(2+-chelator EGTA impacted upon the growth of the ΔcchA and ΔmidA strains. All the A. fumigatus ΔcchA, ΔmidA, and ΔyvcA strains demonstrated attenuated virulence in a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Infection with the parental strain resulted in a 100% mortality rate at 15 days post-infection, while the mortality rate of the ΔcchA, ΔmidA, and ΔyvcA strains after 15 days post-infection was only 25%. Collectively, this investigation strongly indicates that CchA, MidA, and YvcA play a role in A. fumigatus calcium homeostasis and virulence.

  18. Potassium-induced contraction in the lamb proximal urethra: Involvement of norepinephrine and different calcium entry pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pascual, A.; Costa, G.; Isla, M.; Jimenez, E.; Garcia-Sacristan, A. (Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the peculiar biphasic response of the lamb urethral smooth muscle to high K+ solutions. The relative amplitude of the phasic and tonic components of the contraction and its reproducibility were dependent on the concentration of K+ used. Only concentrations higher than 80 mM (i.e., 120 mM) showed a tonic component greater in amplitude than the phasic one and manifested a tachyphylactic effect. Phentolamine (10(-6) M), prazosin (10(-6) M) and chemical denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine significantly inhibited the tonic component of the K+ (120 mM)-induced contraction, modifying its morphology. Reproducible contractions to K+ (120 mM) could be obtained in the presence of prazosin (10(-6) M) or cocaine (10(-6) M). The preparations were also shown to accumulate (3H)noradrenaline and release it upon depolarization with K+ (60 and 120 mM). Calcium removal inhibited the K+ (120 mM)-induced contraction. After addition of calcium (0.5-5 mM) the contractile activity was restored. Nifedipine (10(-6) M) and verapamil (10(-6) M) but not sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) M) significantly blocked the contractile response for calcium as well as the phasic component of the K+ contraction in calcium-containing medium. In preparations treated with prazosin (10(-6) M) the tonic component of the K+ (120 mM) contraction was more sensitive to nifedipine and removal of extracellular calcium than the phasic one.

  19. 透析患者血钙血磷代谢紊乱的危险因素分析%Risk Factors Analysis on Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Dysmetabolism of Hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷锋; 李建秋; 周薇薇

    2012-01-01

    [目的]评价慢性肾衰竭维持性血液透析患者钙磷代谢紊乱的危险因素,为临床治疗提供依据.[方法]对温岭市中医院血液净化中心2010年12月至2011年5月178例维持性血液透析患者的临床资料进行研究,并对其年龄、透析时间、透析频率及生化指标等进行统计学分析.[结果]178例患者血钙<2.1 mmol.L-1占47.2%,血磷>1.78 mmol· L-1者占65.2%,平均PTH浓度为(372.48±364.50)pg.mL-1,高于标准(PTH<300 pg.mL-1)水平(P<0.01).患者PTH升高与透析时间的增长、高钙磷乘积及高磷血症相关(P<0.05),透析时间≥36月组较<36月组甲状旁腺激素( PTH)、血钙、钙磷乘积高(P<0.05).透析频率高组较低组血钙、血磷控制得好(P<0.05).[结论]基层医院的透析患者钙磷代谢紊乱及继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进等问题比较明显,随着透析时间的延长,这种钙磷代谢紊乱问题有所加重,高磷血症尤为突出,应进一步加强透析,增加透析频率,加强对钙磷的控制.%[Objective] To evaluate the risk of abnormal calcium and phosphorus metabolism in patients with maintenance hemodialysis,so as to gain insight in the status of the bone metabolism and bone disease of those patients and provide evidence to clinical treatment .[Methods] Investigate the age, hemodialysis time, hemodialysis frequency and bio -chemical item of the 178 maintenance hemodialysis patients from Wenling hospital of traditional medicine, and then analyse those data. [Results] The average blood calcium density of 178 patients is 2.10+0.25 mmol/I. About 47.2% of the patients have values lower than that. The average blood phosphorus density is 2.10 ±0.67mmol/l, which is higher than the normal value. About 65.2% are higher than 1.78mmol/l .The average PTH density is 372.48±364.50 pgs/ml which is higher than the upper limit suggested in the KDOQI guideline. The growth of PTH is related to dialysis time, high serum phosphorus and high

  20. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  1. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were pcambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of

  2. Effects of calcium to non-phytate phosphorus ratio and different sources of vitamin D on growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - A 7 × 2 factorial experiment was designed to test the effects of calcium (Ca to non-phytate phosphorus (NPP ratio (1.14, 1.43, 1.71, 2.00, 2.29, 2.57, and 2.86 and different sources of vitamin D (1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D3 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on growth performance and bone mineralization in 1- to 42-d-old broiler chickens. On the day of hatch, 700 female Ross 308 broilers were weighed and randomly assigned to 14 treatments with five stainless steel cages of 10 birds each. Dietary Ca levels were 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0 g kg−1 and the NPP content was 3.5 g kg−1. The dose of 1α-OH-D3 or 25-OH-D3 was 5 µg kg−1. Diets were not supplemented with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3. Results showed that the Ca to NPP ratio, vitamin D source, and their interaction affected body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, feed efficiency (FE, and carcass and breast yields, as well as tibia weight and length and ash weight in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. Broilers fed 1α-OH-D3 had higher BWG and FI as well as tibia breaking strength, weight, length, diameter, and ash weight than birds fed 25-OH-D3 at 42 d of age. The Ca to NPP ratio had a quadratic effect on BWG, FI, mortality, as well as tibia breaking strength, weight, length, ash weight, and ash and P contents in 42-d-old broilers. Broiler chickens at 42 d of age obtain optimal growth performance and bone mineralization at the Ca to NPP ratio of 2.32 when 1α-OH-D3 or 25-OH-D3 are used as the vitamin D source.

  3. Lead Poisoning Disturbs Oligodendrocytes Differentiation Involved in Decreased Expression of NCX3 Inducing Intracellular Calcium Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb poisoning has always been a serious health concern, as it permanently damages the central nervous system. Chronic Pb accumulation in the human body disturbs oligodendrocytes (OLs differentiation, resulting in dysmyelination, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, Pb at 1 μM inhibits OLs precursor cells (OPCs differentiation via decreasing the expression of Olig 2, CNPase proteins in vitro. Moreover, Pb treatment inhibits the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3 mRNA expression, one of the major means of calcium (Ca2+ extrusion at the plasma membrane during OPCs differentiation. Also addition of KB-R7943, NCX3 inhibitor, to simulate Pb toxicity, resulted in decreased myelin basic protein (MBP expression and cell branching. Ca2+ response trace with Pb and KB-R7943 treatment did not drop down in the same recovery time as the control, which elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration reducing MBP expression. In contrast, over-expression of NCX3 in Pb exposed OPCs displayed significant increase MBP fluorescence signal in positive regions and CNPase expression, which recovered OPCs differentiation to counterbalance Pb toxicity. In conclusion, Pb exposure disturbs OLs differentiation via affecting the function of NCX3 by inducing intracellular calcium overload.

  4. Effect of lanthanum carbonate combined calcium acetate on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in patients with mai-ntenance hemodialysis%碳酸镧联合醋酸钙对维持性血液透析患者钙磷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪嘉莉; 杨晗; 张林; 廖丹; 张逢莲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of lanthanum carbonate combined calcium acetate in maintaining he-modialysis patients.Methods Seventy-eighy cases of maintenance hemodialysis patients in Mianyang Central Hospital from December 2014 to January 2009 were randomly divided into 3 groups:lanthanum carbonate group (16 cases), calcium acetate group (37 cases) and lanthanum carbonate group ( combined group 25 cases) .Treatment of 12 weeks, compared the 3 groups of patients'calcium and phosphorus metabolism.Results ( 1 ) Calcium and phosphorus metabolism: Compared with before treatment, serum calcium levels after 12 weeks in the three groups showed no significant changes, the difference was not statis-tically significant ( P >0.05), serum phosphorus, serum calcium and phosphorus product parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were significantly lower, the difference was statistically significant (lanthanum carbonate group:t =5.88,2.22,6.20,calcium ace-tate group:t =5.11,3.28,6.02, combined group:t =10.08,6.90,9.33, P 0.05);among the three groups, before and after treatment, the indicators showed no significant differences ( P >0.05).(3)Ultrasound:3 groups of patients before and after treatment of carotid intimal thickening and plaque formation ratio's difference did not show statistically significant ( P >0.05).Conclusion Lanthanum carbonate combined with calcium acetate can be used in the treatment of chronic kidney dis-ease hemodialysis patients with high phosphorus, it can effectively reduce the level of serum phosphorus and PTH.%目的 观察碳酸镧联合醋酸钙对维持性血液透析患者钙磷代谢的影响.方法 选取2009年1月—2014年12月绵阳市中心医院维持性血液透析高磷血症患者78例,采用简单随机化分组法分为碳酸镧组(16例)、醋酸钙组(37例)和碳酸镧联合醋酸钙组(联合组,25例).治疗12周,比较3组患者的钙磷代谢情况.结果 (1)钙磷代谢指标:与治疗前比较,治疗12周后3组患者血钙水平均

  5. O recordatório de 24 horas como instrumento na avaliação do consumo alimentar de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura The 24-hour recall for the assessment of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D intakes in stunted children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar em que medida o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas como instrumento de avaliação do consumo alimentar contribui para a avaliação de parâmetros biológicos envolvidos no metabolismo de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 59 crianças e adolescentes com baixa estatura do Ambulatório de Baixa Estatura do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Causas orgânicas, genéticas e endócrinas de baixa estatura foram excluídas da avaliação. Foram dosados cálcio, fósforo, creatinina, vitamina D, paratormônio fosfatase alcalina no soro e cálcio, fósforo, creatinina e sódio em urina de Recordatório Alimentar de 24h foi empregado para estimar o consumo dietético. RESULTADOS: Foi constatada ingestão reduzida de cálcio e vitamina D, em relação ao recomendado para idade e sexo. Verificou-se correlação negativa entre paratormônio e vitamina D dietética (r= -0,46; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the extent to which the 24 hour recall, used as a tool to assess dietary intake, contributes to the assessment of biological parameters involved in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in stunted children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 59 stunted children and adolescents seen at the outpatient clinic that specializes in stunting of the Endocrinology Service of Hospital das Clínicas in Porto Alegre, were assessed. Organic, genetic and endocrine causes of stunting were excluded from the assessment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, vitamin D, parathormone and alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and sodium were measured. The 24 hour recall was used to determine dietary intake of these nutrients. RESULTS: Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low according to the values recommended for the two genders and studied age groups. There was a negative correlation

  6. Membrane Properties Involved in Calcium-Stimulated Microparticle Release from the Plasma Membranes of S49 Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauryl E. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study answered the question of whether biophysical mechanisms for microparticle shedding discovered in platelets and erythrocytes also apply to nucleated cells: cytoskeletal disruption, potassium efflux, transbilayer phospholipid migration, and membrane disordering. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton of S49 lymphoma cells and produced rapid release of microparticles. This release was significantly inhibited by interventions that impaired calcium-activated potassium current. Microparticle release was also greatly reduced in a lymphocyte cell line deficient in the expression of scramblase, the enzyme responsible for calcium-stimulated dismantling of the normal phospholipid transbilayer asymmetry. Rescue of the scrambling function at high ionophore concentration also resulted in enhanced particle shedding. The effect of membrane physical properties was addressed by varying the experimental temperature (32–42°C. A significant positive trend in the rate of microparticle release as a function of temperature was observed. Fluorescence experiments with trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene and Patman revealed significant decrease in the level of apparent membrane order along that temperature range. These results demonstrated that biophysical mechanisms involved in microparticle release from platelets and erythrocytes apply also to lymphocytes.

  7. Membrane properties involved in calcium-stimulated microparticle release from the plasma membranes of S49 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lauryl E; Nelson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2014-01-01

    This study answered the question of whether biophysical mechanisms for microparticle shedding discovered in platelets and erythrocytes also apply to nucleated cells: cytoskeletal disruption, potassium efflux, transbilayer phospholipid migration, and membrane disordering. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton of S49 lymphoma cells and produced rapid release of microparticles. This release was significantly inhibited by interventions that impaired calcium-activated potassium current. Microparticle release was also greatly reduced in a lymphocyte cell line deficient in the expression of scramblase, the enzyme responsible for calcium-stimulated dismantling of the normal phospholipid transbilayer asymmetry. Rescue of the scrambling function at high ionophore concentration also resulted in enhanced particle shedding. The effect of membrane physical properties was addressed by varying the experimental temperature (32-42°C). A significant positive trend in the rate of microparticle release as a function of temperature was observed. Fluorescence experiments with trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene and Patman revealed significant decrease in the level of apparent membrane order along that temperature range. These results demonstrated that biophysical mechanisms involved in microparticle release from platelets and erythrocytes apply also to lymphocytes.

  8. Neuroprotective activity of stiripentol with a possible involvement of voltage-dependent calcium and sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleye, Marc; Buttigieg, Dorothée; Steinschneider, Rémy

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of data has shown that recurrent epileptic seizures may be caused by an excessive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Glutamatergic overstimulation results in massive neuronal influxes of calcium and sodium through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainic acid glutamate subtype receptors and also through voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. These persistent and abnormal sodium and calcium entry points have deleterious consequences (neurotoxicity) for neuronal function. The therapeutic value of an antiepileptic drug would include not only control of seizure activity but also protection of neuronal tissue. The present study examines the in vitro neuroprotective effects of stiripentol, an antiepileptic compound with γ-aminobutyric acidergic properties, on neuronal-astroglial cultures from rat cerebral cortex exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or to glutamate (40 µM for 20 min), two in vitro models of brain injury. In addition, the affinity of stiripentol for the different glutamate receptor subtypes and the interaction with the cell influx of Na(+) and of Ca(2+) enhanced by veratridine and NMDA, respectively, are assessed. Stiripentol (10-100 µM) included in the culture medium during OGD or with glutamate significantly increased the number of surviving neurons relative to controls. Stiripentol displayed no binding affinity for different subtypes of glutamate receptors (IC50  >100 µM) but significantly blocked the entry of Na(+) and Ca(2+) activated by veratridine and NMDA, respectively. These results suggest that Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels could contribute to the neuroprotective properties of sitiripentol.

  9. Metabolic acidosis and its effect on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis patients%维持性血液透析患者代谢性酸中毒对钙磷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎晓磊; 邵咏红; 孔耀中

    2012-01-01

    分析比较维持性血液透析(MHD)患者的代谢性酸中毒对钙磷代谢的影响.方法:选择MHD患者120例,测定透析前碳酸氢根(HCO3-)、血尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(CR)、钙(Ca)、磷(P)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、甲状旁腺激素(iPTH)及透析后BUN和CR,计算钙磷乘积(Ca×P)、Kt/V.根据HCO3-分为3组:A组(HCO3-< 20 mmol/L)、B组(HCO3-为20~24 mmol/L)和C组(HCO3-≥24 mmol/L),比较3组酸中毒对钙磷紊乱的影响.结果:B、C组的P、ALP及iPTH均低于A组(P<0.05),C组的P、Ca×P低于A、B组(P<0.05).HCO3-浓度与P、iPTH、ALP及Ca×P呈负相关(P<0.05).结论:对于MHD患者,HCO3-< 20 mmol/L较HCO3-≥20 mmol/L者易合并高磷血症、低钙血症,可刺激iPTH的合成,最终导致肾性骨病及转移性钙化.%Objective To evaluate the effect of metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis(MHD) patients. Methods 120 MHD patients were enrolled in the present study. Predialysis laboratory detections including HC03", BUN creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were performed. Calcium-phosphate product and Kt/V were also determined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups: group A(HCO3- < 20 mmol/L), group B (20 mmol/L≤HCO-3< 24 mmol/L), group C (HCO3-≥ 24 mmol/L). Results The concentrations of phosphorus, ALP and iPTH were decreased in groups B and C in comparation to that in group A (P < 0.05). Compared with group A and B, the phosphorus and calcium-phosphate product level in group C were decreased (P < 0.05). The serum HCO3" level correlated negatively with the serum phosphorus, iPTH, ALP and calcium-phosphate product (P < 0.05). Conclusions Correction of metabolic acidosis (bicarbonate level -S 20 mmol/L) may prevent the deleterious long-term consequences such as CKD-MBD, but further investigation of the long-term effect still needs to be done.

  10. The involvement of calcium and MAP kinase signaling pathways in the production of radiation-induced bystander effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyng, F M

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence now exists regarding radiation-induced bystander effects, but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to growth factor-mediated regulation of cellular events such as proliferation, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. Activation of multiple MAPK pathways such as the ERK, JNK and p38 pathways have been shown to occur after exposure of cells to radiation and a variety of other toxic stresses. Previous studies have shown oxidative stress and calcium signaling to be important in radiation-induced bystander effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate MAPK signaling pathways in bystander cells exposed to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and the role of oxidative metabolism and calcium signaling in the induction of bystander responses. Human keratinocytes (HPV-G cell line) were irradiated (0.005-5 Gy) using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The medium was harvested 1 h postirradiation and transferred to recipient HPV-G cells. Phosphorylated forms of p38, JNK and ERK were studied by immunofluorescence 30 min-24 h after exposure to ICCM. Inhibitors of the ERK pathway (PD98059 and U0126), the JNK pathway (SP600125), and the p38 pathway (SB203580) were used to investigate whether bystander-induced cell death could be blocked. Cells were also incubated with ICCM in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, EGTA, verapamil, nifedipine and thapsigargin to investigate whether bystander effects could be inhibited because of the known effects on calcium homeostasis. Activated forms of JNK and ERK proteins were observed after exposure to ICCM. Inhibition of the ERK pathway appeared to increase bystander-induced apoptosis, while inhibition of the JNK pathway appeared to decrease apoptosis. In addition, reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and calcium signaling were found to be important modulators of

  11. Involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor in human taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsu, Takeaki; Amino, Yusuke; Nagasaki, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Tomohiko; Takeshita, Sen; Hatanaka, Toshihiro; Maruyama, Yutaka; Miyamura, Naohiro; Eto, Yuzuru

    2010-01-08

    By human sensory analyses, we found that various extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists enhance sweet, salty, and umami tastes, although they have no taste themselves. These characteristics are known as "kokumi taste" and often appear in traditional Japanese cuisine. Although GSH is a typical kokumi taste substance (taste enhancer), its mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate how the kokumi taste is enhanced by the CaSR, a close relative of the class C G-protein-coupled receptors T1R1, T1R2, and T1R3 (sweet and umami receptors). We identified a large number of CaSR agonist gamma-glutamyl peptides, including GSH (gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly) and gamma-Glu-Val-Gly, and showed that these peptides elicit the kokumi taste. Further analyses revealed that some known CaSR agonists such as Ca(2+), protamine, polylysine, L-histidine, and cinacalcet (a calcium-mimetic drug) also elicit the kokumi taste and that the CaSR-specific antagonist, NPS-2143, significantly suppresses the kokumi taste. This is the first report indicating a distinct function of the CaSR in human taste perception.

  12. Noscapine protects OLN-93 oligodendrocytes from ischemia-reperfusion damage: Calcium and nitric oxide involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjafi, S; Ebrahimi, S-A; Rahbar-Roshandel, N

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from opium poppy, on oligodendrocyte during ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury. Changes in intracellular calcium levels due to chemical ischemia and nitric oxide (NO) production during ischemia/reperfusion were evaluated as the hallmarks of ischemia-derived excitotoxic event. OLN-93 cell line (a permanent immature rat oligodendrocyte) was used as a model of oligodendrocyte. 30- or 60-minute-oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 hours reperfusion were used to induce excitotoxicity. MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Ratiometric fluorescence microscopy using Ca(2+)-sensitive indicator Fura-2/AM was utilized to assess intracellular calcium levels. NO production was evaluated by Griess method. Noscapine (4 μM) significantly attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) elevation (P noscapine significantly decreased NO production during a 30-minute oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (P noscapine (4 μM) on intracellular Ca(2+) was greater than ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists. Noscapine is protective against ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury in OLN-93 oligodendrocyte. This protective effect seems to be related to attenuation of intracellular Ca(2+) overload and NO production.

  13. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs.

  14. Overexpression of a Gene Involved in Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Substantially Increases Phytic Acid and Total Phosphorus in Rice Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagashira, Yusuke; Shimizu, Tomoe; Miyamoto, Masanobu; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-04-24

    The manipulation of seed phosphorus is important for seedling growth and environmental P sustainability in agriculture. The mechanism of regulating P content in seed, however, is poorly understood. To study regulation of total P, we focused on phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP₆) biosynthesis-related genes, as InsP₆ is a major storage form of P in seeds. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) low phytic acid mutant lpa1-1 has been identified as a homolog of archael 2-phosphoglycerate kinase. The homolog might act as an inositol monophosphate kinase, which catalyzes a key step in InsP₆ biosynthesis. Overexpression of the homolog in transgenic rice resulted in a significant increase in total P content in seed, due to increases in InsP₆ and inorganic phosphates. On the other hand, overexpression of genes that catalyze the first and last steps of InsP₆ biosynthesis could not increase total P levels. From the experiments using developing seeds, it is suggested that the activation of InsP₆ biosynthesis in both very early and very late periods of seed development increases the influx of P from vegetative organs into seeds. This is the first report from a study attempting to elevate the P levels of seed through a transgenic approach.

  15. Overexpression of a Gene Involved in Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Substantially Increases Phytic Acid and Total Phosphorus in Rice Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tagashira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of seed phosphorus is important for seedling growth and environmental P sustainability in agriculture. The mechanism of regulating P content in seed, however, is poorly understood. To study regulation of total P, we focused on phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6 biosynthesis-related genes, as InsP6 is a major storage form of P in seeds. The rice (Oryza sativa L. low phytic acid mutant lpa1-1 has been identified as a homolog of archael 2-phosphoglycerate kinase. The homolog might act as an inositol monophosphate kinase, which catalyzes a key step in InsP6 biosynthesis. Overexpression of the homolog in transgenic rice resulted in a significant increase in total P content in seed, due to increases in InsP6 and inorganic phosphates. On the other hand, overexpression of genes that catalyze the first and last steps of InsP6 biosynthesis could not increase total P levels. From the experiments using developing seeds, it is suggested that the activation of InsP6 biosynthesis in both very early and very late periods of seed development increases the influx of P from vegetative organs into seeds. This is the first report from a study attempting to elevate the P levels of seed through a transgenic approach.

  16. Microbial communities involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater--a model system in environmental biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Larsen, Poul; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is one of the most advanced and complicated wastewater treatment processes applied today, and it is becoming increasingly popular worldwide as a sustainable way to remove and potentially reuse P. It is carried out by complex microbial communities consisting primarily of uncultured microorganisms. The EBPR process is a well-studied system with clearly defined boundaries which makes it very suitable as a model ecosystem in microbial ecology. Of particular importance are the transformations of C, N, and P, the solid-liquid separation properties and the functional and structural stability. A range of modern molecular methods has been used to study these communities in great detail including single cell microbiology, various -omics methods, flux analyses, and modeling making this one of the best studied microbial ecosystems so far. Recently, an EBPR core microbiome has been described and we present in this article some highlights and show how this complex microbial community can be used as model ecosystem in environmental biotechnology.

  17. Pathway Network Analyses for Autism Reveal Multisystem Involvement, Major Overlaps with Other Diseases and Convergence upon MAPK and Calcium Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya; Alshikho, Mohamad J; Herbert, Martha R

    2016-01-01

    We used established databases in standard ways to systematically characterize gene ontologies, pathways and functional linkages in the large set of genes now associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). These conditions are particularly challenging--they lack clear pathognomonic biological markers, they involve great heterogeneity across multiple levels (genes, systemic biological and brain characteristics, and nuances of behavioral manifestations)-and yet everyone with this diagnosis meets the same defining behavioral criteria. Using the human gene list from Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI) we performed gene set enrichment analysis with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway Database, and then derived a pathway network from pathway-pathway functional interactions again in reference to KEGG. Through identifying the GO (Gene Ontology) groups in which SFARI genes were enriched, mapping the coherence between pathways and GO groups, and ranking the relative strengths of representation of pathway network components, we 1) identified 10 disease-associated and 30 function-associated pathways 2) revealed calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction as the most enriched, statistically significant pathways from the enrichment analysis, 3) showed calcium signaling pathways and MAPK signaling pathway to be interactive hubs with other pathways and also to be involved with pervasively present biological processes, 4) found convergent indications that the process "calcium-PRC (protein kinase C)-Ras-Raf-MAPK/ERK" is likely a major contributor to ASD pathophysiology, and 5) noted that perturbations associated with KEGG's category of environmental information processing were common. These findings support the idea that ASD-associated genes may contribute not only to core features of ASD themselves but also to vulnerability to other chronic and systemic problems potentially including cancer, metabolic conditions

  18. Involvement of phospholipase D in store-operated calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M; Tepel, M; Nofer, J R; Neusser, M; Assmann, G; Zidek, W

    2000-08-11

    In non-excitable cells, sustained intracellular Ca2+ increase critically depends on influx of extracellular Ca2+. Such Ca2+ influx is thought to occur by a 'store-operated' mechanism, i.e. the signal for Ca2+ entry is believed to result from the initial release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular stores. Here we show that the depletion of cellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin or bradykinin is functionally linked to a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase D (PLD) activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and that phosphatidic acid formed via PLD enhances sustained calcium entry in this cell type. These results suggest a regulatory role for PLD in store-operated Ca2+ entry in VSMC.

  19. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter protein MCU is involved in oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yajin; Hao, Yumin; Chen, Hong; He, Qing; Yuan, Zengqiang; Cheng, Jinbo

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a conserved Ca(2+) transporter at mitochondrial in eukaryotic cells. However, the role of MCU protein in oxidative stress-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we showed that ectopically expressed MCU is mitochondrial localized in both HeLa and primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Knockdown of endogenous MCU decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake following histamine stimulation and attenuates cell death induced by oxidative stress in both HeLa cells and CGNs. We also found MCU interacts with VDAC1 and mediates VDAC1 overexpression-induced cell death in CGNs. This finding demonstrates that MCU-VDAC1 complex regulates mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, which might represent therapeutic targets for oxidative stress related diseases.

  20. Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, Gregory Lee

    2009-01-01

    Discusses potential environmental impacts of phosphorus, the functions of phosphorus in plants and animals, and the soil phosphorus cycle. Notes methods for controlling phosphorus losses to surface waters

  1. The Calcium Sensor CBL-CIPK Is Involved in Plant’s Response to Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Nuruzzaman Manik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress halts the physiological and developmental process of plant. During stress condition, CBL-CIPK complex is identified as a primary element of calcium sensor to perceive environmental signals. Recent studies established that this complex regulates downstream targets like ion channels and transporters in adverse stages conditions. Crosstalks between the CBL-CIPK complex and different abiotic stresses can extend our research area, which can improve and increase the production of genetically modified crops in response to abiotic stresses. How this complex links with environmental signals and creates adjustable circumstances under unfavorable conditions is now one of the burning issues. Diverse studies are already underway to delineate this signalling mechanism underlying different interactions. Therefore, up to date experimental results should be concisely published, thus paving the way for further research. The present review will concisely recapitulate the recent and ongoing research progress of positive ions (Mg2+, Na+, and K+, negative ions (NO3-, PO4-, and hormonal signalling, which are evolving from accumulating results of analyses of CBL and CIPK loss- or gain-of-function experiments in different species along with some progress and perspectives of our works. In a word, this review will give one step forward direction for more functional studies in this area.

  2. Identification of the hydrate gel phases present in phosphate-modified calcium aluminate binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Mehul A.; Bernal, Susan A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Apperley, David C. [Solid-State NMR Group, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kinoshita, Hajime [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    The conversion of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates to cubic phases in hydrated calcium aluminate cements (CAC) can involve undesirable porosity changes and loss of strength. Modification of CAC by phosphate addition avoids conversion, by altering the nature of the reaction products, yielding a stable amorphous gel instead of the usual crystalline hydrate products. Here, details of the environments of aluminium and phosphorus in this gel were elucidated using solid-state NMR and complementary techniques. Aluminium is identified in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination states, and phosphorus is present in hydrous environments with varying, but mostly low, degrees of crosslinking. A {sup 31}P/{sup 27}Al rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiment showed the existence of aluminium–phosphorus interactions, confirming the formation of a hydrated calcium aluminophosphate gel as a key component of the binding phase. This resolves previous disagreements in the literature regarding the nature of the disordered products forming in this system.

  3. Follow up of low calcium dialysate and lanthanum carbonate in peritoneal dialysis patients with calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder%腹膜透析钙磷代谢紊乱患者使用低钙腹膜透析液及碳酸镧的随访分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏阳阳; 万骋; 张庆燕; 汤天凤; 张苗

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查腹膜透析患者血钙(Ca)、血磷(P)及甲状旁腺激素的情况,并观察使用低钙腹膜透析液结合药物治疗高 Ca、高 P 及甲状旁腺功能亢进(甲旁亢)的效果。方法统计2010年以后在南京鼓楼医院规律随访一直使用普通钙腹膜透析液(钙离子浓度为1.75 mmol·L -1)1年以上时间的腹膜透析患者血 Ca、血 P 及全段甲状旁腺激素(iPTH)水平。根据患者血Ca、血 P 及 iPTH 水平挑选120例高 Ca、高 P、甲旁亢患者,随机平均分为 A、B 两组,A 组改用低钙腹膜透析液(钙离子浓度为1.25 mmol·L -1),B 组改用低钙腹膜透析液的同时加用碳酸镧降磷治疗。结果6个月后,A 组与之前比较,血 Ca 降低,血P、iPTH 升高(P <0.05),B 组与之前比较血 Ca、血 P、iPTH 降低(P <0.05),半年后 B 组与 A 组比较血 Ca、血 P、iPTH 降低(P<0.05)。结论对于出现高 Ca、高 P 及高 iPTH 的患者建议使用低钙腹膜透析液,同时必须使用碳酸镧加强降磷治疗。%Objective To investigate blood calcium,phosphate and intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH)in peritoneal dialysis patients treated at The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School,and to observe the efficacy of high blood calcium, phosphate and iPTH by using low calcium dialysate with medicine.Methods We investigated blood calcium,phosphate and iPTH in peritoneal dialysis patients who were regularly followed up at least one year using regular calcium dialysate (calcium concentration was 1.75mmol/L).One hundred and twenty patients with high calcium phosphorus and iPTH were selected,who were randomized into group A,and group B.Group A with sixty patients changed to low calcium dialysate (calcium concentration was 1.25 mmol·L -1 ), while group B with sixty patients changed to low calcium dialysate and used lanthanum carbonate at the same time.Results After six

  4. Genetic Evidence for Possible Involvement of the Calcium Channel Gene CACNA1A in Autism Pathogenesis in Chinese Han Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent studies suggested that calcium channel genes might be involved in the genetic etiology of ASD. CACNA1A, encoding an alpha-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channel, has been reported to play an important role in neural development. Previous study detected that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in CACNA1A confers risk to ASD in Central European population. However, the genetic relationship between autism and CACNA1A in Chinese Han population remains unclear. To explore the association of CACNA1A with autism, we performed a family-based association study. First, we carried out a family-based association test between twelve tagged SNPs and autism in 239 trios. To further confirm the association, the sample size was expanded to 553 trios by recruiting 314 additional trios. In a total of 553 trios, we identified association of rs7249246 and rs12609735 with autism though this would not survive after Bonferroni correction. Our findings suggest that CACNA1A might play a role in the etiology of autism.

  5. Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: pH buffering properties of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, P; Bühlmann, P; Metzger, L E

    2006-03-01

    The pH buffering capacity of cheese is an important determinant of cheese pH. However, the effects of different constituents of cheese on its pH buffering capacity have not been fully clarified. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical species and chemical equilibria that are responsible for the pH buffering properties of cheese. Eight cheeses with 2 levels of Ca and P (0.67 and 0.47% vs. 0.53 and 0.39%, respectively), residual lactose (2.4 vs. 0.78%), and salt-to-moisture ratio (6.4 vs. 4.8%) were manufactured. The pH-titration curves for these cheeses were obtained by titrating cheese:water (1:39 wt/wt) dispersions with 1 N HCl, and backtitrating with 1 N NaOH. To understand the role of different chemical equilibria and the respective chemical species in controlling the pH of cheese, pH buffering was modeled mathematically. The 36 chemical species that were found to be relevant for modeling can be classified as cations (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+), anions (phosphate, citrate, lactate), protein-bound amino acids with a side-chain pKa in the range of 3 to 9 (glutamate, histidine, serine phosphate, aspartate), metal ion complexes (phosphate, citrate, and lactate complexes of Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), and calcium phosphate precipitates. A set of 36 corresponding equations was solved to give the concentrations of all chemical species as a function of pH, allowing the prediction of buffering curves. Changes in the calculated species concentrations allowed the identification of the chemical species and chemical equilibria that dominate the pH buffering properties of cheese in different pH ranges. The model indicates that pH buffering in the pH range from 4.5 to 5.5 is predominantly due to a precipitate of Ca and phosphate, and the protonation equilibrium involving the side chains of protein-bound glutamate. In the literature, the precipitate is often referred to as amorphous colloidal calcium phosphate. A comparison of experimental data and model predictions shows

  6. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Akihiro, E-mail: ayoneda@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan); Division of Molecular Therapeutics, Center for Food & Medical Innovation, Hokkaido University (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomasa [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  7. Calcium paradox induces apoptosis in the isolated perfused Rana ridibunda heart: involvement of p38-MAPK and calpain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aggeli, Ioanna-Katerina; Zacharias, Triantafyllos; Papapavlou, Georgia; Gaitanaki, Catherine; Beis, Isidoros

    2013-01-01

    "Calcium paradox" as a term describes the deleterious effects conferred to a heart perfused with a calcium-free solution followed by repletion, including loss of mechanical activity and sarcomere disruption...

  8. Degradation of Calcium/Phosphorus Coating Plasma Sprayed on Magnesium Alloy in SBF Solution%镁合金表面等离子喷涂钙/磷涂层在SBF中的降解行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭远军; 宁成云; 谭帼馨; 黄闪闪; 熊文名; 朱红

    2012-01-01

    采用大气等离子喷涂在镁合金AZ31B表面制备了可降解钙/磷涂层.利用XRD、SEM、EDS分析了涂层的相组成、结晶度及在人体模拟液(SBF)中浸泡前后的显微形貌和元素组成,根据pH值和降解速率研究了涂层的体外降解性能.研究表明:钙/磷涂层与镁合金基体紧密结合,致密度高,涂层由较难降解的HA相和较易降解的Ca3(PO4)2、Ca4P2O9和CaO组成,涂层中HA结晶度为49.3%.生物降解性能研究显示,钙/磷涂层材料在SBF溶液中的pH值和降解速率均小于镁合金基体,且较小的变化幅度使涂层材料的降解行为控制在稳定范围内.%The biodegradable calcium/phosphate coating on the surface of the magnesium alloy AZ31B was prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying. The phase compositions and crystallinity of the coating were quantitative investigated by XRD, and the microscopic morphology and elemental composition of the coating before and after immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated by SEM and EDS. The degradability of magnesium alloy with calcium/phosphorus coating in SBF solution were studied according to the pH value and the degradation rate of the coating. The results show that the high density calcium/phosphate coating is closely integrated with the magnesium alloy substrate. The coating is composed of HA with difficult degradation and Ca3(PO4)2, Ca4P2O9 and CaO with easy degradation, and the crystallinity of HA in the coating is 49.3%. In addition, the study of biodegradation shows that the pH value and the degradation rate of the calcium/phosphorus coating in SBF are less than that of magnesium alloy, and the smaller change magnitude makes the coating material's degradation be controlled in a stable range.

  9. 过磷酸钙肥料中磷含量的测定方法探讨%Discussion on the Determination of Phosphorus Content in Calcium Superphosphate Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景迅; 魏雨; 范娟娟; 张中政

    2014-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus content in calcium superphosphate fertilizer was carried out with three different methods of quinolone phosphomolybdate gravimetric method , quinoline phosphomolybdate volumetry method and ammonium molybdate weight method.The results showed that the determination of phosphorus content using quinolone phosphomolybdate gravimetric method and quinoline phosphomolybdate volumetry method was close to each other , however , the quinolone phosphomolybdate gravimetric method was simplified and showed good repeatability.On the other hand , ammonium molybdate weight method considered to be an alternative method for routine determination of phosphorus pentoxide without the use of toxic reagents.%分别采用磷钼酸喹啉重量法、磷钼酸喹啉容量法以及钼酸铵重量法三种方法对过磷酸钙肥料中五氧化二磷的含量进行了分析对比。结果表明,磷钼酸喹啉重量法与容量法测定的五氧化二磷含量较为接近,但磷钼酸喹啉重量法操作过程与容量法相比较为简化,且重现性较好。钼酸铵重量法在测定过程中避免了有毒试剂喹啉的使用,可以考虑作为常规测定五氧化二磷含量的替代方法使用。

  10. Development of a method based on inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of phosphorus, calcium and strontium in bone and dental tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Muynck, David [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, BE-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: David.DeMuynck@UGent.be; Vanhaecke, Frank [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, BE-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Frank.Vanhaecke@UGent.be

    2009-05-15

    A method, based on the use of a quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry instrument equipped with a quadrupole-based collision/reaction cell (dynamic reaction cell, DRC), was developed for the simultaneous determination of phosphorus, calcium and strontium in bone and dental (enamel and dentine) tissue. The use of NH{sub 3}, introduced at a gas flow rate of 0.8 mL min{sup -1} in the dynamic reaction cell, combined with a rejection parameter q (RPq) setting of 0.65, allows interference-free determination of calcium via its low-abundant isotopes {sup 42}Ca, {sup 43}Ca and {sup 44}Ca, and of strontium via its isotopes {sup 86}Sr and {sup 88}Sr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of ArCa{sup +} and/or Ca{sub 2}{sup +} ions. Also the determination of phosphorus ({sup 31}P, mono-isotopic) was shown to be achievable using the same dynamic reaction cell operating conditions. The bone certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for validation of the measurement protocol that was shown capable of providing accurate and reproducible results. Detection limits of P, Ca and Sr in dental tissue digests were established as 3 {mu}g L{sup -1} for P, 2 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Ca and 0.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Sr. This method can be used to simultaneously (i) evaluate the impact of diagenesis on the elemental and isotopic composition of buried skeletal tissue via its Ca/P ratio and (ii) determine its Sr concentration. The measurement protocol was demonstrated as fit-for-purpose by the analysis of a set of teeth of archaeological interest for their Ca/P ratio and Sr concentration.

  11. Variations in the constant component of the phase voltage in ore-smelting furnaces for the production of phosphorus and calcium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, A. A.; Arlievskii, M. P.

    2009-12-01

    Phosphorus and carbide furnaces are considered as an example to study the character of changes in and the nature of constant component U cc in the phase voltage of an ore-smelting furnace with a closed furnace top. The value and polarity of U cc depend on the relation between the chemical interaction of an electrode with the reaction-zone components and the degree of development and the conditions of an electric arc.

  12. P/Q-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels are involved in the contraction of mammary and brain blood vessels from hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, A D; Lyngsø, K S; Rasmussen, L

    2017-01-01

    channels are involved in the contraction of mammary arteries from hypertensive patients but not from normotensive patients. Furthermore, in cerebral arterioles P/Q-type channels importance was restricted to hypertensive patients might lead to that T- and P/Q-type channels could be a new target......AIM: Calcium channel blockers are widely used in cardiovascular diseases. Besides L-type channels, T- and P/Q-type calcium channels are involved in the contraction of human renal blood vessels. It was hypothesized that T- and P/Q-type channels are involved in the contraction of human brain...... contraction in cerebral arterioles from hypertensive patients. L-type blocker nifedipine abolished the contraction in mammary arteries. PCR analysis showed expression of P/Q-type (Cav 2.1), T-type (Cav 3.1 and Cav 3.2) and L-type (Cav 1.2) calcium channels in mammary and cerebral arteries. Immunohistochemical...

  13. Effect of NH4-N/P and Ca/P molar ratios on the reactive crystallization of calcium phosphates for phosphorus recovery from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenko, Liubov; Qu, Haiyan

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the effects of operational parameters, initial phosphorus concentration and molar ratios of Ca/P and NH4-N/P (further in the text N/P), on the nature and purity of precipitated phosphorus products have been investigated in an artificial system that mimics the supernatant in wastewater treatment plants. Metastable zone width was determined for two target phosphorus products: DCPD (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) and HAp (hydroxyapatite) in the range of pH 4.5 - 7. HAp crystallizes at final pH higher than 6.3 while DCPD crystallizes at the final pH in between 4.7 and 5.7. At the final pH 5.7 - 6.3 and at pH lower than 4.7 the mixtures of DCPD and HAp were obtained. It was observed that N/P ratio affects not only the metastable zone width but also the kinetics of crystal growth for both DCPD and HAp: the higher the N/P ratio, the lower is the growth rate for both P-products. Investigation of the effect of Ca/P and N/P ratios on the nucleation and crystal growth of DCPD in batch crystallization experiment was performed. It showed that at high supersaturation level, crystals with larger median size can be obtained at higher N/P ratio despite the negative effects of N/P ratio on the growth rate of the crystals.

  14. Phosphorus Deficiency in Ducklins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiHengmin; LuoLingping

    1995-01-01

    20 one-day-old Tianfu ducklings were fed on a natural diet deficient in phosphorus(Ca 0.80%,P 0.366%)for three weeks and examined for signs and lesions.Signs began to appear at the age of one week,and became serous at two weeks.13 ducklings died during the experiment.Morbidity was 100% and mortality was 65%.The affected ducklings mainly showed leg weakness,severe lamencess,deprssion,lack of appetite and stunted growth,The serum alkaline phosphatase activities increased markedly.The serum phosphorus concentration,tibial ash,ash calcium and phosphorus content decreased obviously.At necropsy,maxillae and ribe were soft,and the latter was crooked.Long ones were soft and broke easily.The hypertrophic zone of the growth-plate in the epiphysis of long ones was lengthened and osteoid tissue increased in the metaphyseal spongiosa histopathologically.The above mentioned symptoms and lesions could be prevented by adding phosphorus to the natural deficient diet(up to 0.65%),The relationship between lesions and signs,pathomorphological characterisation and pathogensis were also discussed in this paper.

  15. [Bone and Nutrition. A novel function of phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Yutaka; Imi, Yukiko; Abuduli, Maerjianghan

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for bone formation by forming hydroxyapatite with calcium. Simultaneously, phosphorus is also a component of high energy bond of ATP, nucleic acids, and phospholipids. Recent studies have demonstrated that excess or lack of dietary phosphorus intake may cause vascular dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and impaired glucose tolerance. Here, we introduce recent findings about the effects of high or low dietary phosphorus intake on several organs except for bone.

  16. The Involvement of Ser1898 of the Human L-Type Calcium Channel in Evoked Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv Bachnoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A PKA consensus phosphorylation site S1928 at the α11.2 subunit of the rabbit cardiac L-type channel, CaV1.2, is involved in the regulation of CaV1.2 kinetics and affects catecholamine secretion. This mutation does not alter basal CaV1.2 current properties or regulation of CaV1.2 current by PKA and the beta-adrenergic receptor, but abolishes CaV1.2 phosphorylation by PKA. Here, we test the contribution of the corresponding PKA phosphorylation site of the human α11.2 subunit S1898, to the regulation of catecholamine secretion in bovine chromaffin cells. Chromaffin cells were infected with a Semliki-Forest viral vector containing either the human wt or a mutated S1898A α11.2 subunit. Both subunits harbor a T1036Y mutation conferring nifedipine insensitivity. Secretion evoked by depolarization in the presence of nifedipine was monitored by amperometry. Depolarization-triggered secretion in cells infected with either the wt α11.2 or α11.2/S1898A mutated subunit was elevated to a similar extent by forskolin. Forskolin, known to directly activate adenylyl-cyclase, increased the rate of secretion in a manner that is largely independent of the presence of S1898. Our results are consistent with the involvement of additional PKA regulatory site(s at the C-tail of α11.2, the pore forming subunit of CaV1.2.

  17. Calcium, essential for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Victoria, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  18. The involvement of intracellular calcium ion concentration and calmodulin in the 25-hydroxylation of cholecalciferol in ovine and rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, S C; Chaudhary, M S; Tomlinson, S; Care, A D

    1987-08-01

    The effect of Ca2+ ion concentration on the 25 hydroxylation of tritiated cholecalciferol (3HD3) was investigated using homogenates of ovine liver from vitamin D replete sheep. A significant decrease in the production of 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) was observed when the concentration of Ca2+ in the homogenate was raised above 0.68 mmol/l by the addition of calcium gluconate. Similarly, a final concentration of 37 mumol EGTA/1 (equivalent to a Ca2+ concentration of 26.5 nmol/l) was associated with a 50% reduction of 25OHD3 production. That is, a broad bell-shaped relationship was observed between the production of 25OHD3 and the Ca2+ concentration in the homogenate. These changes in the rate of production of 25OHD3 were reproduced with hepatocytes from vitamin D replete rats, prepared by collagenase perfusion, using the drugs dantrolene sodium (DaNa) to reduce (ED50 = 57 mmol/l) and veratridine to increase (ED50 = 550 mmol/l) the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Hepatocytes from vitamin D replete rats also showed a reduction in 25 hydroxylation of D3 (ED50 = 6 ng/ml) in response to the addition of 1-25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1-25 (OH)2D3). The calmodulin antagonists; W7, compound 48/80, trifluoperazine (TFP) and calmidazolium (R24571) were all found to effect a dose response inhibition of the 25 hydroxylation of cholecalciferol by homogenates of ovine liver. R24571 had a similar inhibitory effect (ED50 = 70 mumol/l) upon the 25 hydroxylase enzyme of rat hepatocytes. It is concluded that the 25 hydroxylation of cholecalciferol in liver of vitamin D replete rats and sheep is calcium sensitive and is reduced in the presence of increased concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3. Calmodulin may also be involved in the regulation of hepatocyte 25-hydroxylase activity by Ca2+.

  19. Oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels at least partially via stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Akutsu, Miho; Nagata, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Oral phosphorus supplementation stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in increased plasma FGF23 levels after oral phosphorus supplementation in rats. Rats received single dose of phosphate with concomitant subcutaneous injection of saline or human PTH (1-34) after treatment with cinacalcet or its vehicle. Cinacalcet is a drug that acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor and reduces PTH secretion. Plasma phosphorus and PTH levels significantly increased 1 h after oral phosphorus administration and returned to basal levels within 3 h, while plasma FGF23 levels did not change up to 2 h post-treatment, but rather significantly increased at 3 h after administration and maintained higher levels for at least 6 h compared with the 0 time point. Plasma PTH and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats. Plasma phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats at 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral phosphorus administration. Furthermore, rats treated with cinacalcet+human PTH (1-34) showed transiently but significantly higher plasma FGF23 levels at 3 h after oral phosphorus administration compared with cinacalcet-treated rats. These results suggest that oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating FGF23 levels at least partially by stimulation of PTH secretion.

  20. Endogenous and Exogenous Calcium Involved in the Betulin Production from Submerged Culture of Phellinus linteus Induced by Hydrogen Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guizhi; Jian, Duan; Sun, Meiling; Zhan, Yaguang; Sun, Feifei

    2016-02-01

    Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, Ca(2+) involved in the betulin production in mycelia of Phellinus linteus induced by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were investigated. The results showed that 2 mM H2S donor NaHS or 10 mM CaCl2 was found to enhance the betulin content in the mycelia of Phellinus to the maximum, which were 112.43 and 93.24% higher than that in the control, respectively. Further, NaHS and CaCl2 co-treatment also showed positive outcome, which were 128.95 or 24.52% higher than that in the control or NaHS treatment. At the same time, NaHS also enhanced the content of Ca(2+) and CaM. But, the above positive inductive effects for Ca(2+), CaM, and betulin production can be blocked with either Ca(2+) channel blocker (LaCl3, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) or Ca(2+) chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among of them, betulin content was reduced 35.06% by NaHS and EGTA to the minimum, and this reduction could be reversed by the application of CaCl2 (NaHS + EGTA + CaCl2). From above results, it can be concluded that endogenous and exogenous calcium involved in the betulin production from submerged culture of P. linteus induced by hydrogen sulfide.

  1. Interactions between salinity and boron toxicity in tomato plants involve apoplastic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Elizabeth; Alcaraz-López, Carlos; Bonilla, Ildefonso; Martínez-Ballesta, M Carmen; Bolaños, Luis; Carvajal, Micaela

    2010-01-01

    The lack of consensus about the mutual relations between salinity and boron (B) toxicity with respect to the physiological response of plants necessitates investigation of the interactions of soluble B with salinity. In this investigation, the effect of B was compared with Ca in order to elucidate whether the two nutrients have similar effects and/or to elucidate a relationship under salinity. Following addition of B or Ca, salinity was applied to tomato plants and the cell wall and plasma membrane permeability, measured as water permeability and electrolyte leakage, in relation to amino acid and ion cell wall composition, were determined. As the relationship between B and salinity was complex, several hypotheses are established. The increase of aquaporin functionality due to the presence of B and Ca compared with NaCl-treated plants could be the most feasible, whereas there is currently no satisfactory explanation for the results for the cell wall amino acid composition. In addition, the elemental composition results revealed that, in addition the known interactions between B and Ca with respect to cell wall stability, Mg and Mn were also increased in NaCl+B and NaCl+Ca treatments, suggesting their possible involvement in the cell wall function necessary for plant growth.

  2. Absence of aquaporin-4 in skeletal muscle alters proteins involved in bioenergetic pathways and calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Basco

    Full Text Available Aquaporin-4 (AQP4 is a water channel expressed at the sarcolemma of fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers, whose expression is altered in several forms of muscular dystrophies. However, little is known concerning the physiological role of AQP4 in skeletal muscle and its functional and structural interaction with skeletal muscle proteome. Using AQP4-null mice, we analyzed the effect of the absence of AQP4 on the morphology and protein composition of sarcolemma as well as on the whole skeletal muscle proteome. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the absence of AQP4 did not perturb the expression and cellular localization of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex proteins, aside from those belonging to the extracellular matrix, and no alteration was found in sarcolemma integrity by dye extravasation assay. With the use of a 2DE-approach (BN/SDS-PAGE, protein maps revealed that in quadriceps, out of 300 Coomassie-blue detected and matched spots, 19 proteins exhibited changed expression in AQP4(-/- compared to WT mice. In particular, comparison of the protein profiles revealed 12 up- and 7 down-regulated protein spots in AQP4-/- muscle. Protein identification by MS revealed that the perturbed expression pattern belongs to proteins involved in energy metabolism (i.e. GAPDH, creatine kinase, as well as in Ca(2+ handling (i.e. parvalbumin, SERCA1. Western blot analysis, performed on some significantly changed proteins, validated the 2D results. Together these findings suggest AQP4 as a novel determinant in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and better define the role of this water channel in skeletal muscle physiology.

  3. Absence of aquaporin-4 in skeletal muscle alters proteins involved in bioenergetic pathways and calcium handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basco, Davide; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2011-04-28

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel expressed at the sarcolemma of fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers, whose expression is altered in several forms of muscular dystrophies. However, little is known concerning the physiological role of AQP4 in skeletal muscle and its functional and structural interaction with skeletal muscle proteome. Using AQP4-null mice, we analyzed the effect of the absence of AQP4 on the morphology and protein composition of sarcolemma as well as on the whole skeletal muscle proteome. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the absence of AQP4 did not perturb the expression and cellular localization of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex proteins, aside from those belonging to the extracellular matrix, and no alteration was found in sarcolemma integrity by dye extravasation assay. With the use of a 2DE-approach (BN/SDS-PAGE), protein maps revealed that in quadriceps, out of 300 Coomassie-blue detected and matched spots, 19 proteins exhibited changed expression in AQP4(-/-) compared to WT mice. In particular, comparison of the protein profiles revealed 12 up- and 7 down-regulated protein spots in AQP4-/- muscle. Protein identification by MS revealed that the perturbed expression pattern belongs to proteins involved in energy metabolism (i.e. GAPDH, creatine kinase), as well as in Ca(2+) handling (i.e. parvalbumin, SERCA1). Western blot analysis, performed on some significantly changed proteins, validated the 2D results. Together these findings suggest AQP4 as a novel determinant in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and better define the role of this water channel in skeletal muscle physiology.

  4. Effects of Phytase on Tibia Indicators, Calcium and Phosphorus Utilization in Broilers%植酸酶对肉鸡胫骨指标和钙磷利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 蒋桂韬; 王向荣; 李昊帮; 戴求仲

    2012-01-01

    :通过对胫骨指标的测定和代谢试验,研究了微生物植酸酶在两个不同磷酸氢钙添加水平下对肉仔鸡胫骨指标和钙、磷利用率的影响试验结果表明,与正常磷酸氢钙添加水平(1-10%)的对照组相比,降低磷酸氢钙用量并添加植酸酶,可以提高24日龄肉仔鸡的胫骨长度,提高24和42日龄肉仔鸡的胫骨重量/体积;0.44%磷酸氢钙水平添加植酸酶组的24日龄肉鸡的脱脂干骨重和粗灰分含量较对照组显著降低(P〈0.05);降低磷酸氢钙水平并添加植酸酶不会对肉鸡胫骨的钙、磷含量造成影响(P〉0.05);降低磷酸氢钙水平并添加植酸酶能够显著提高磷的消化利用率(P〈0.05),极显著提高24日龄肉仔鸡的钙表观消化率(P〈O.01),提高42日龄肉仔鸡的钙表观消化率,但差异不显著(P〉O.05),%To study the impacts of microbial phytase added in two different CaHP04 addition levels of the broiler tibia indicators and calcium and phosphorus utilization through determination of tibia indicators and broiler metabolic test. The results showed that, compared with the control group of normal CaHP04 addition level(1.10%), reduce CaHP04 dosage and phytase supplementation increased the length of the 24-day-old broiler tibia, improved the tib- ia weight / volume ratio of 24-day-old and 42-day-old broilers; nonfat dry bone weight and crude ash content of 24-day-old broilers at the CaHP04 level of 0.44% phytase group were lower than the control group(P〈0.05); re- duce CaHPO~ levels and adding phytase had no impact on calcium and phosphorus content of broiler tibia(P〉0.05); reduce the CaHP04 level and add phytase c ouht significantly improved the digestibility of apparent phosphorus(P〈 0.05), and a very significant increase in the 24 days broilers'calcium apparent digestibility(P〈0.01), and increased in the 42 days broilers calcium apparent digestibility(P〉0.05).

  5. Effects of Tonifying Kidney and Invigorating Spleen Prescription on the Metabolism of Calcium and Phosphorus in Rat Tail Suspension Model%补肾、健脾和补肾健脾方对尾部悬吊大鼠钙、磷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 范颖; 陈文娜; 孙宏伟; 马贤德

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察补肾、健脾和补肾健脾3方对模拟失重大鼠钙、磷代谢的作用,比较其促进骨矿化能力的异同.方法:大鼠随机分为正常对照、悬吊、补肾、健脾和补肾健脾共5组.后4组大鼠头低位-30度尾部悬吊连续21 d模拟失重,补肾、健脾和补肾健脾组大鼠从实验第1天开始依次按2.4,3.2,5.7g·kg-1·d-1给予补肾方、健脾方和补肾健脾方灌胃,其余各组大鼠灌服等容积的生理盐水.实验第22天取材,双能X射线骨密度仪测左侧胫骨骨密度,全自动生化分析仪检测血和尿中钙磷含量,EDTA法检测粪钙和饲料钙含量.结果:较之正常对照组,悬吊组大鼠左侧胫骨骨密度显著降低(P<0.01),血钙和血磷含量、钙的表观吸收率明显降低(P<0.01),尿钙、尿磷、粪钙含量明显增高(P<0.01);较之悬吊组,补肾健脾组大鼠左侧胫骨骨密度、血钙和血磷含量、摄入钙量、钙的表观吸收率明显升高(P<0.01),尿钙、尿磷、粪钙含量明显降低(P<0.01),补肾组和健脾组大鼠左侧胫骨骨密度、血钙升高(P<0.05),钙的表观吸收率均明显升高(P<0.01),补肾组大鼠血磷含量明显升高(P<0.01),尿钙、尿磷含量显著降低(P<0.01),粪钙含量降低(P<0.05),健脾组大鼠血磷和摄入钙量增加(P<0.05),尿钙、尿磷和粪钙含量降低(P <0.05,P<0.01);较之补肾健脾组,补肾组和健脾组大鼠左侧胫骨骨密度、血钙含量降低(P<0.05),补肾组大鼠钙的表观吸收率明显降低(P<0.01).结论:补肾、健脾和补肾健脾3方均能改善模拟失重引起的钙磷代谢异常,健脾方在促进钙吸收和维持血钙处于正常水平方面对补肾方具有协同增效作用.%Objective:To observe the action of tonifying kidney prescription,invigorating spleen prescription and tonifying kidney and invigorating spleen prescription on the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in tail suspension model rats

  6. Calcium Influx Inhibition is Involved in the Hypotensive and Vasorelaxant Effects Induced by Yangambin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islania Giselia Albuquerque Araújo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system of yangambin, a lignan isolated from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae, were studied in rats using combined functional and biochemical approaches. In non-anaesthetized rats, yangambin (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg, i.v. induced hypotension (−3.5 ± 0.2; −7.1 ± 0.8; −8.9 ± 1.3; −14 ± 2.3, −25.5% ± 2.6%, respectively accompanied by tachycardia (5.9 ± 0.5; 5.9 ± 1.6; 8.8 ± 1.4; 11.6, 18.8% ± 3.4%, respectively. In isolated rat atria, yangambin (0.1 µM–1 mM had very slight negative inotropic (Emax = 35.6% ± 6.4% and chronotropic effects (Emax = 10.2% ± 2.9%. In endothelium-intact rat mesenteric artery, yangambin (0.1 µM–1 mM induced concentration-dependent relaxation (pD2 = 4.5 ± 0.06 of contractions induced by phenylephrine and this effect was not affected by removal of the endothelium. Interestingly, like nifedipine, the relaxant effect induced by yangambin was more potent on the contractile response induced by KCl 80 mM (pD2 = 4.8 ± 0.05 when compared to that induced by phenylephrine. Furthermore, yangambin inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This lignan also induced relaxation (pD2 = 4.0 ± 0.04 of isolated arteries pre-contracted with S(−-Bay K 8644. In fura-2/AM-loaded myocytes of rat mesenteric arteries, yangambin inhibited the Ca2+ signal evoked by KCl 60 mM. In conclusion, these results suggest that the hypotensive effect of yangambin is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation that involves, at least, the inhibition the Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

  7. 不同钙、磷水平饲粮对12~15月龄梅花鹿生长性能、营养物质消化率及钙、磷代谢的影响%Effects of Diets with Different Calcium and Phosphorus Levels on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism of 12 to 15 Months Old Sika Deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟丽; 赵海平; 王晓旭; 樊燕燕; 鲍坤; 王艳梅; 李光玉

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to study the effects of diets with different calcium and phosphorus levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, calcium and phosphorus metabolism of 12 to 15 months old sika deer, in order to confirm the appropriate calcium and phosphorus levels for 12 to 15 months old sika deer. Six⁃teen healthy male sika deer of similar hereditary were randomly divided into four groups, and the difference in body weight was not significant among groups ( P>0.05) . Each group contained four replicates and each repli⁃cate had one deer. The levels of calcium and phosphorus in the four groups were 0. 49% and 0. 33% ( groupⅠ), 0.82% and 0.56% (group Ⅱ), 1.16% and 0.80% (group Ⅲ), 1.61% and 1.12% (group Ⅳ), re⁃spectively. The experimental period was from May 15th, 2015 to August 7th, 2015. The results showed as fol⁃lows:1) there were no significant differences in body weight, average daily gain ( ADG) , average daily feed intake ( ADFI) and feed weight ratio ( F/G) of 12 to 15 months old sika deer in different time among four groups ( P>0.05) . From the whole experimental period, the growth performance of group Ⅳ was better than other three groups. 2) Serum calcium level in groupⅢwas significantly lower than that in groupsⅠandⅣon the 30th day (P0.05) . As the extension of experimental time, serum calci⁃um level in groups Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ had no significant change ( P>0.05) , but the group Ⅳ showed a gradually upward trend, and obtained the highest value of 2.415 nmol/L on the 83rd day which significantly higher than the value of 2.280 nmol/L on the 1st day ( P0.05) , and the serum phosphorus level in each group had no significant change on different time points ( P>0.05) . Serum magnesium level in group Ⅰ was signifi⁃cantly higher than that in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ on the 1st day (P0.05) , but the group Ⅳ showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing and it on the 30th day and the 60th day was significantly higher

  8. Clinical observation ofα-ketoacid combined with calcium carbonate in improvement of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in patients with maintenance hemodialysis%α-酮酸联合碳酸钙改善维持性血液透析患者钙磷代谢的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐方

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effects ofα-ketoacid combined with calcium carbonate in improvement of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in patients with maintenance hemodialysis.MethodsPatients (82 cases) with maintenance hemodialysis in Chongzhou Hospital from January in 2015 to July in 2015 were randomly divided into control group and treatment group, and each group had 41 cases. The patients in the control group werepo administered with Calcium Carbonate D3 Tablets, 600 mg/time, twice daily. The patients in the treatment group werepo administered with Compoundα-Ketoacid Tablets during the meals on the basis of the control group, 4 tablets/time, three times daily. The treatment time of two groups was not less than 6 months. Calcium and phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, AKP, PTH, serum albumin, SGA scores, and BMI in two groups before treatment and after treatment for 3 and 6 months were compared.Results After treatment for 3 and 6 months, blood phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus product in two groups were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant in the same group (P < 0.05). And the decreased degree in the treatment group was better than that in the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment for 3 and 6 months, PTH values in two groups were significantly decreased, and there were differences in the same group (P < 0.05). And PTH values in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group, with significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). After treatment for 3 and 6 months, serum albumin, SGA scores, and BMI in two groups were improved, and the difference was statistically significant in the same group (P < 0.05). And these observational indexes in the treatment group were significantly better than those in the control group, with significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion Compoundα-ketoacid combined with calcium carbonate can improve calcium and phosphorus

  9. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  10. Extracellular calcium is involved in egg yolk-induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D H; McMillan, A G; Standley, N T; Shannon, P; Xu, Z Z

    2012-10-15

    Head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm occurs when semen is highly diluted in an egg yolk-citrate diluent without streptomycin. The objectives were to investigate causes of sperm agglutination and the underlying mechanism. Aliquots of bull semen were diluted in a base diluent (BD) supplemented with various test components and the percentage of agglutinated sperm (% AggSp) was quantified at 1, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. When sperm were incubated at 22 °C, no agglutination was observed in BD for up to 72 h, whereas the % AggSp was 5.0, 41.7, 72.2, 91.1, and 92.8% in BD + 5% egg yolk (BD + EY) at 1, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. However, no sperm agglutination was observed in BD + EY if incubation temperature was 37 °C. Addition of 5 or 10 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid to BD + EY reduced the % AggSp from 95% to sperm agglutination in the absence of egg yolk, implicating calcium and other factors in egg yolk. Addition of the citrate-soluble fraction (CSF) of egg yolk to BD induced sperm agglutination similar to whole egg yolk, whereas water- and saline-soluble fractions of egg yolk were ineffective. The sperm-agglutinating efficacy of CSF (the % AggSp = 95% at 72 h) was reduced by dialysis (20%; P sperm agglutination, whereas addition of 2 mM of a cAMP analogue, dbcAMP, to a nonagglutinating diluent failed to induce sperm agglutination. Agglutination status had no effect on sperm plasma membrane/acrosome status and mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, calcium and other component(s) in the CSF of egg yolk induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Although the mechanism of agglutination was not determined, the cAMP- protein kinase A signaling pathway was not involved.

  11. Calcium paradox induces apoptosis in the isolated perfused Rana ridibunda heart: involvement of p38-MAPK and calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeli, Ioanna-Katerina; Zacharias, Triantafyllos; Papapavlou, Georgia; Gaitanaki, Catherine; Beis, Isidoros

    2013-12-01

    "Calcium paradox" as a term describes the deleterious effects conferred to a heart perfused with a calcium-free solution followed by repletion, including loss of mechanical activity and sarcomere disruption. Given that the signaling mechanisms triggered by calcium paradox remain elusive, in the present study, we tried to investigate them in the isolated perfused heart from Rana ridibunda. Calcium paradox was found to markedly activate members of the MAPKs (p43-ERK, JNKs, p38-MAPK). In addition to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the perfusate (indicative of necrosis), we also confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis by using the TUNEL assay and identifying poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fragmentation and upregulated Bax expression. Furthermore, using MDL28170 (a selective calpain inhibitor), a role for this protease was revealed. In addition, various divalent cations were shown to exert a protective effect against the calcium paradox. Interestingly, SB203580, a p38-MAPK inhibitor, alleviated calcium-paradox-conferred apoptosis. This result indicates that p38-MAPK plays a pro-apoptotic role, contributing to the resulting myocardial dysfunction and cell death. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the calcium paradox has been shown to induce apoptosis in amphibians, with p38-MAPK and calpain playing significant roles.

  12. Types of voltage—dependent calcium channels involved in high potassium depolarization—induced amylase secretion in the exocrine pancreatic tumour cell line AR4—2J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIZONGJIE

    1998-01-01

    In the perifused fura-2 loaded exocrine pancreatic acinar cell line AR4-2J pulses of high potassium induced repetitive increases in intracellular calcium,Attached cells when stimulated with high potassium secreted large amount of amylase.High potassium-induced secretion was dependent both on the concentration of potassium and duration of stimulation.High potassium induced increases in intracellular calcium were inhibited by voltage-dependent calcium channel anatagonists with an order of potency as follows:nifedipine>ω-agatoxin IVA>ω-conotoxin GVIA.In contrast,the L-type calcium channel anatagonist nifedipine almost completely inhibited potassium-induced amylase secretion,whereas the N-type channel antagonist ω-conotoxin GVIA was without effect.The P-type channel antagonist ω-agatoxin IVA had a small inhibitory effect,but this inhibition was not significant at the level of amylase secretion.In conclusion,the AR4-2J cell line posesses different voltage-dependent calcium channels(L,P,N)with the L-type predominantly involved in depolarization induced amylase secretion.

  13. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss. by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM in controlling cadmium (Cd uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L. plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1 and 300 mg L(-1. The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

  14. Clinical value study of low molecular heparin sodium for calcium-phosphorus metabolism and blood lipid of hemodialysis patients%探究低分子肝素钠对血液透析患者钙磷代谢及血脂影响的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical value of low molecular heparin sodium for calcium-phosphorus metabolism and blood lipid of hemodialysis patients.MethodsChoose 60 cases hemodialysis patients in our hospital from August 2014 to August 2015, and randomly divide them into two groups, 30 cases in control group, 30 in study group, which was treated with common heparin sodium and low molecular heparin sodium injection. Analyze and compare two groups with changes of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), calcium and phosphorus before treatment, 6 months and one year after treatment.results Before treatment, TG, TC, calcium, phosphorus indexes of two groups patients showed no significant difference (P> 0.05). 6 months after treatment, the above indexes improvement of study group was significantly better than control group, difference between groups showed statistical significant (P0.05)),治疗6个月后,研究组在上述各项质改善情况显著优于对照组,组间数据对比差异明显,(P<0.05)具有统计学意义。结论对血液透析患者采用低分子肝素注射,可有效改善他们钙磷代谢、血脂紊乱的情况,效果安全,值得推广。

  15. 施用硅钙磷肥对酸化蔗地甘蔗生长及土壤肥力的影响%Effects of silicon-calcium-phosphorus fertilizer on sugarcane growth and soil fertility of acidified filed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢颖; 潘丽萍; 江泽普; 谭裕模; 廖青; 蒙炎成; 杨绍锷; 陈桂芬; 梁潘霞; 黄太庆

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]The present study was conducted to discuss effects of silicon-calcium-phosphorus fertilizer with different proportions and organic fertilizer on sugarcane growth and soil nutrient, in order to provide scientific evidences for increasing yield and quality of sugarcane. [Method]Acidified field for continuous sugarcane growth was selected in the research. Six treatments were set, such as treatment A(CK, applying nitrogen and potassium fertilizers). On the basis of treatment A, different proportions of silicon-calcium-phosphorus fertilizer and organic fertilizer were applied: treatment B (SiO2 450 kg/ha, CaO 300 kg/ha, P2O5 225 kg/ha), treatment C(SiO2 450 kg/ha, CaO 300 kg/ha, P2O5 300 kg/ha), treatment D(SiO2 450 kg/ha, CaO 450 kg/ha, P2O5 225 kg/ha), treatment E(SiO2 450 kg/ha, CaO 450 kg/ha, P2O5 300 kg/ha), treatment F(treatment B+organic fertilizer 7500 kg/ha). Agronomic traits like emergence rate, yield, brix, nitrogen phos-phorus and potassium content in different parts of sugarcane, soil nutrient content in sample soil were measured. [Result]Compared with CK,different treatments posed significant influence on sugarcane tiller, height, millable stalks and yield (P0.05, the same below). At the same time, soil pH improved 0.11-0.38 compared with CK, but no significant effect on soil nutrients were shown. [Conclusion]Application of silicon-calcium-phosphorus and organic fertilizer on basis of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium fertilizer can increase number of base cations in soil, reduce contents of exchangeable acidity and exchangeable aluminum, effectively alle-viate soil acidification procedure. Application of SiO2 450 kg/ha,CaO 300 kg/ha, P2O5 225 kg/ha and organic fertilizer 7500 kg/ha promotes nitrogen and potassium nutrient accumulation in steam, increase sugarcane yield and alleviate soil acidification.%【目的】探讨不同配比硅钙磷肥和有机肥对甘蔗生长及土壤养分等的影响,为改善蔗区土壤酸化状况及提高

  16. 白砂糖混浊度与钙、磷、硫含量的分析研究%Analysis of Turbidity of White Granulated Sugar and Its Content of Calcium, Phosphorus and Sulfur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪珍; 吴益娟; 郭家文

    2014-01-01

    亚硫酸法甘蔗制糖在糖汁提净脱色过程中添加石灰乳、磷酸、二氧化硫等,蔗汁中的有机非糖分如淀粉、胶质、蛋白质存留在白砂糖中能引起白砂糖糖液混浊。本文针对白砂糖中无机成分如钙、磷、硫的含量与白砂糖的混浊度之间的关系作了基本的分析研究。%In the process of sulfite flocculation clarifying process, lime, phosphoric acid and sulfur dioxide were added to the cane juice to clear the non-sugar organisms such as starch, pectin, protein whose residue in white granulated sugar causes turbidity its solution. A basic analysis was presented in this paper on the relationship between the turbidity of the solutions of white granulated sugar and its residual component of inorganic materials such as calcium, phosphorus and sulphur.

  17. The addition of a Buttiauxella sp. phytase to lactating sow diets deficient in phosphorus and calcium reduces weight loss and improves nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A

    2015-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.

  18. Prenatal nicotine is associated with reduced AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated rises in calcium within the laterodorsal tegmentum: a pontine nucleus involved in addiction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, L F; Kohlmeier, K A

    2015-06-01

    Despite huge efforts from public sectors to educate society as to the deleterious physiological consequences of smoking while pregnant, 12-25% of all babies worldwide are born to mothers who smoked during their pregnancies. Chief among the negative legacies bestowed to the exposed individual is an enhanced proclivity postnatally to addict to drugs of abuse, which suggests that the drug exposure during gestation changed the developing brain in such a way that biased it towards addiction. Glutamate signalling has been shown to be altered by prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), which is a brainstem region importantly involved in responding to motivational stimuli and critical in development of drug addiction-associated behaviours, however, it is unknown whether PNE alters glutamate signalling within this nucleus. Accordingly, we used calcium imaging, to evaluate AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated calcium responses in LDT brain slices from control and PNE mice. We also investigated whether the positive AMPA receptor modulator cyclothiazide (CYZ) had differential actions on calcium in the LDT following PNE. Our data indicated that PNE significantly decreased AMPA receptor-mediated calcium responses, and altered the neuronal calcium response to consecutive NMDA applications within the LDT. Furthermore, CYZ strongly potentiated AMPA-induced responses, however, this action was significantly reduced in the LDT of PNE mice when compared with enhancements in responses in control LDT cells. Immunohistochemical processing confirmed that calcium imaging recordings were obtained from the LDT nucleus as determined by presence of cholinergic neurons. Our results contribute to the body of evidence suggesting that neurobiological changes are induced if gestation is accompanied by nicotine exposure. We conclude that in light of the role played by the LDT in motivated behaviour, the

  19. Influence of a low calcium and phosphorus diet on the anabolic effect of human parathyroid hormone (1-38) in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, P.D.; Forrer, R.; Kneissel, Michaela;

    2001-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or synthetic N-terminal PTH fragments administered intermittently have been established as anabolic agents in animal and human bones. In the present study, the influence of a low calcium diet on the anabolic effect of human PTH(1-38) [hPTH(1-38)] was investigated. Forty....../-RCa) for an additional 14 days. Total bone mineral density (BMD) values of several bones were determined using quantitative computed tomography and from ratios of ash weight to volume. Biomechanical competence of the fourth lumbar vertebrae and of the right femora was assessed. An anabolic effect could be detected...... in both PTH-treated groups. However, the bones of the +LCa group showed significantly lower BMD and also a diminished increase in maximal breaking force compared with those of the +RCa group. The study demonstrates that the anabolic effect of hPTH(1-38) is blunted by the LCa diet. This suggests that...

  20. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  1. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrient," she said. "For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects ... which was not originally designed to assess calcium intake," MacKay noted. "Further, the new analysis included only ...

  2. Ethylene: a regulator of root architectural responses to soil phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Lynch, J.P.; Brown, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in root architectural responses to phosphorus availability was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L,) plants grown with sufficient and deficient phosphorus. Although phosphorus deficiency reduced root mass and lateral root number, main root length was

  3. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes.

  4. Rapid and Localized Mechanical Stimulation and Adhesion Assay: TRPM7 Involvement in Calcium Signaling and Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Wagner Shin; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Wang, Yingxiao

    2015-01-01

    A cell mechanical stimulation equipment, based on cell substrate deformation, and a more sensitive method for measuring adhesion of cells were developed. A probe, precisely positioned close to the cell, was capable of a vertical localized mechanical stimulation with a temporal frequency of 207 Hz, and strain magnitude of 50%. This setup was characterized and used to probe the response of Human Umbilical Endothelial Vein Cells (HUVECs) in terms of calcium signaling. The intracellular calcium ion concentration was measured by the genetically encoded Cameleon biosensor, with the Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7) expression inhibited. As TRPM7 expression also regulates adhesion, a relatively simple method for measuring adhesion of cells was also developed, tested and used to study the effect of adhesion alone. Three adhesion conditions of HUVECs on polyacrylamide gel dishes were compared. In the first condition, the substrate is fully treated with Sulfo-SANPAH crosslinking and fibronectin. The other two conditions had increasingly reduced adhesion: partially treated (only coated with fibronectin, with no use of Sulfo-SANPAH, at 5% of the normal amount) and non-treated polyacrylamide gels. The cells showed adhesion and calcium response to the mechanical stimulation correlated to the degree of gel treatment: highest for fully treated gels and lowest for non-treated ones. TRPM7 inhibition by siRNA on HUVECs caused an increase in adhesion relative to control (no siRNA treatment) and non-targeting siRNA, but a decrease to 80% of calcium response relative to non-targeting siRNA which confirms the important role of TRPM7 in mechanotransduction despite the increase in adhesion.

  5. Rapid and Localized Mechanical Stimulation and Adhesion Assay: TRPM7 Involvement in Calcium Signaling and Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Shin Nishitani

    Full Text Available A cell mechanical stimulation equipment, based on cell substrate deformation, and a more sensitive method for measuring adhesion of cells were developed. A probe, precisely positioned close to the cell, was capable of a vertical localized mechanical stimulation with a temporal frequency of 207 Hz, and strain magnitude of 50%. This setup was characterized and used to probe the response of Human Umbilical Endothelial Vein Cells (HUVECs in terms of calcium signaling. The intracellular calcium ion concentration was measured by the genetically encoded Cameleon biosensor, with the Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7 expression inhibited. As TRPM7 expression also regulates adhesion, a relatively simple method for measuring adhesion of cells was also developed, tested and used to study the effect of adhesion alone. Three adhesion conditions of HUVECs on polyacrylamide gel dishes were compared. In the first condition, the substrate is fully treated with Sulfo-SANPAH crosslinking and fibronectin. The other two conditions had increasingly reduced adhesion: partially treated (only coated with fibronectin, with no use of Sulfo-SANPAH, at 5% of the normal amount and non-treated polyacrylamide gels. The cells showed adhesion and calcium response to the mechanical stimulation correlated to the degree of gel treatment: highest for fully treated gels and lowest for non-treated ones. TRPM7 inhibition by siRNA on HUVECs caused an increase in adhesion relative to control (no siRNA treatment and non-targeting siRNA, but a decrease to 80% of calcium response relative to non-targeting siRNA which confirms the important role of TRPM7 in mechanotransduction despite the increase in adhesion.

  6. Exigências nutricionais de cálcio e fósforo para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica em postura Calcium and phosphorus nutritional requirements of laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nunes Martins

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências nutricionais de cálcio (Ca e fósforo (P para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica em postura, utilizaram-se 512 codornas, em esquema fatorial 4x4 (níveis de P (disponível - 0,27%, 0,32%, 0,37% e 0,42% e níveis de Ca-2,5%, 3,0%, 3,5% e 4,0%, com quatro repetições e oito codornas por unidade experimental. Houve interação linear (p To determine calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P nutritional requirements, 512 laying Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized 4x4 factorial design (P levels available – 0.27%, 0.32%, 0.37%, 0.42%, and CA levels – 2.5%, 3.0%, 3.5%, 4.0%, with four replicates and eight quails per experimental unit. A linear interaction (p < 0.05 was observed between P and Ca levels for production percentage; the P level that maximized the interaction was 0.36% and the Ca level was 3.06%. Ca levels decreased linearly (p < 0.01 feed intake and eggs weight, but increased linearly the egg shell percentage (p < 0.01 and tibia strength (p < 0.05. P levels decreased linearly (p < 0.05 feed conversion (kg/dz and caused a quadratic effect (p < 0.05 on feed intake, feed conversion (kg/kg, shell percentage and P percentage in bone; the optimum levels were, respectively, 0.36%, 0.36%, 0.37% and 0.35%. It may be concluded that the laying Japanese guail nutritional requirements are 2.5%Ca and 0.36% P.

  7. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and nonphytate phosphorus concentrations in the presence or absence of phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) degradation in different segments of broilers digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Brady, K; Yu, S; Plumstead, P W

    2016-03-01

    A total of 1,440 straight-run Heritage 56M × fast-feathering Cobb 500F broiler birds were fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), nonphytate P (NPP) and phytase concentrations on the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) flow through the different parts of gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The experiment was a 2×2×2×3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%), 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%), 2 nPP (0.28 and 0.45%) and 3 phytase (0-, 500-, and 1,000-phytase unit (FTU)/kg) concentrations. The experiment was replicated twice (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (TRT) of 10 birds per block. Concentration of IP6 in crop, proventriculus (PROV) plus (+) gizzard (GIZ) and distal ileum digesta as well as the ileal IP6 disappearance was determined at 13 d of age. In crop, higher IP6 concentration was seen with increased Ca (P IP6 concentration (P IP6 concentration was seen in Prov+Giz (P IP6 disappearance was found at higher Ca (62.3% at 0.7% Ca vs. 57.5% at 1.0% Ca; P IP6 degradation but the degree of impact was dependent on nPP and PP (P IP6 concentration and IP6 disappearance in distal ileum regardless of GIT segments or diet composition, but impacts of dietary Ca, nPP, and PP differed depending on GIT segment examined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  8. Insulinotropic actions of Moringa oleifera involves the induction of membrane depolarization and enhancement of intracellular calcium concentration

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    Opeolu O. Ojo

    2015-03-01

    Methods: Phytochemical composition of M.oleifera extract was determined using standard procedures. Total flavonoid and total phenolic compounds in the extract were also quantified. Effects of the extracts on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, membrane depolarization and intracellular calcium concentration were investigated using BRIN-BD11 clonal pancreatic beta cells. Results: Results obtained showed the preponderance of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins and tannins in the extract. The glucose dependent insulinotropic effects of the extract were significantly inhibited in the presence of diazoxide (48% or verapamil (35% and in the absence of extracellular calcium (47%. Co-incubation of cells with the extract and IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or tolbutamide increased insulin secretion by 2-fold while a 1.2-fold increase was observed in cells depolarized with 30 mM KCl in the presence of the plant extract. The extract significantly induced membrane depolarization (7.1-fold and enhanced intracellular calcium concentration (2.6-fold in BRIN-BD11 cells. Conclusion: These observations suggest that the insulinotropic actions of acetone extract of M.oleifera may be mediated via the KATP-dependent pathway of insulin release. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(1.000: 36-41

  9. Dietary calcium, phosphorus, and phytase effects on bird performance, intestinal morphology, mineral digestibility, and bone ash during a natural necrotic enteritis episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Diego; Walk, Carrie; McElroy, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Ca, P, and phytase on performance, intestinal morphology, bone ash, and Ca and P digestibility during a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak. The 35-d trial was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial, which included 2 Ca levels (0.6 and 0.9%), 2 P levels (0.3 and 0.45%), and 2 levels of phytase [0 and 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg]. Birds were placed on litter from a previous flock that exhibited clinical signs of NE. Birds and feed were weighed on d 12, 19, and 35, and BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion were calculated. Mortality was recorded daily, and gastrointestinal pH was measured. Tibias and ileal digesta were also collected. Birds began exhibiting clinical signs of NE on d 9, and NE-associated mortality persisted until d 26. Dietary Ca supplemented at 0.9% or inclusion of 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase significantly increased mortality compared with 0.6% Ca or 0 FTU/kg of phytase, respectively. From d 0 to 12, birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P with phytase had greater BW gain compared with birds fed 0.6% Ca, 0.45% available P, and phytase. From d 0 to 19, birds fed diets with 0.9% Ca and 0.3% available P had decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion compared with birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P. Calcium at 0.9% increased gizzard (d 19) and jejunum (d 12) pH. Phytase supplementation significantly increased Ca digestibility regardless of Ca and P levels of the diets. In addition, diets containing 0.6% Ca and 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase resulted in a significant increase in P digestibility. The results suggest that dietary Ca level may influence NE-associated mortality. In addition, bird performance was affected by interactions of Ca, P, and phytase during the exposure to Clostridium perfringens and the subsequent NE outbreak. Results showed improvements in bird performance when birds were fed 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P in diets supplemented with phytase, which was likely consequent to the

  10. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  11. Mepivacaine-induced contraction involves increased calcium sensitization mediated via Rho kinase and protein kinase C in endothelium-denuded rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Yeol Han, Jeong; Yu, Jongsun; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Heon-Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2014-01-15

    Mepivacaine is an aminoamide local anesthetic that produces vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to determine whether mepivacaine-induced contraction involves calcium sensitization in isolated endothelium-denuded aortas, and to investigate the specific protein kinases involved. The effects of mepivacaine and potassium chloride on intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) and tension in the presence or absence of Y-27632 or GF 109203X were measured simultaneously using the acetoxymethyl ester of fura-2-loaded aortic strips. Cumulative mepivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD 98059, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB 203580. Phosphorylation of PKC and MAPK, and membrane translocation of Rho kinase were detected in vascular smooth muscle cells by Western blotting. The slope of the mepivacaine-induced [Ca(2+)]i-tension curve was higher than that of the KCl-induced [Ca(2+)]i-tension curve. Pretreatment with Y-27632 or GF 109203X shifted the mepivacaine-induced [Ca(2+)]i-tension curve to the lower right. Pretreatment with Y-27632, GF 109203X, PD 98059, or SP600125 attenuated mepivacaine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. Y-27632 and GF 109203X attenuated mepivacaine-induced Rho kinase membrane translocation and PKC phosphorylation, respectively. PD 98059 and SP600125 attenuated mepivacaine-induced ERK and JNK phosphorylation, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that mepivacaine-induced contraction involves increased calcium sensitization mediated by Rho kinase and PKC. Such contraction mainly involves activation of ERK- and JNK-mediated pathways. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

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    Huck Ywih Ch’ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp. to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus, and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  13. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  14. Production of Low-Phosphorus Molten Iron from High-Phosphorus Oolitic Hematite Using Biomass Char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiqing; Qi, Tengfei; Qin, Yanqi

    2015-09-01

    In this study, an energy-saving and environmentally friendly method to produce low-phosphorus molten iron from high-phosphorus oolitic hematite was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. The results indicate that biomass char is a suitable reducing agent for the proposed method. In the direct reduction stage, the ore-char briquette reached a metallization degree of 80-82% and a residual carbon content of 0.1-0.3 mass%. Under the optimized condition, phosphorus remained in the gangue as calcium phosphate. In the melting separation stage, phosphorus content ([%P]) in molten iron could be controlled by introducing a Na2CO3 additive, and the phosphorus behavior could be predicted using ion molecular coexistence theory. Molten iron with [%P] less than 0.3 mass% was obtained from the metallic briquettes with the aforementioned quality by introducing 2-4% Na2CO3 and the iron recovery rate was 75-78%.

  15. Composição corporal de cálcio e fósforo do útero gestante e da glândula mamária de ovelhas Santa Inês Calcium and phosphorus content in gravidic uterus and mammary gland of Santa Inês breed ewes

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    F.A. Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovelhas Santa Inês com gestação simples e múltipla foram alimentadas com dietas formuladas para atender a 100% - grupo não restrito - e 85% - grupo restrito - das suas necessidades de energia metabolizável (EM e proteína bruta (PB. Os animais foram abatidos aos 140 dias de gestação para a retirada do útero da glândula mamária e do útero gestante, os quais foram analisados para o conteúdo de cálcio e de fósforo em função dos tratamentos. A restrição nutricional não influenciou as concentrações de cálcio e fósforo no feto e no útero gestante. Foi observado um aumento de 11,68 gramas de cálcio e de 6,37 gramas de fósforo para cada quilograma de massa fetal produzido aos 140 dias de gestação. As concentrações de cálcio e de fósforo do útero e das membranas foram mais baixas nas ovelhas gestantes submetidas à restrição nutricional. O número de fetos e o manejo nutricional não resultaram em alterações na concentração nem no conteúdo de cálcio e fósforo nos fluidos fetais. O conteúdo de cálcio e de fósforo no útero gestante teve como principal fator de variação o tamanho da massa fetal produzida.Santa Inês breed ewes with single and multiple gestations were fed diets to meet 100% - Group ad libitum - and 85% - restricted group - of metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP needs. The animals were slaughtered at 140 days of gestation for the removal of the gravidic uterus and mammary gland which were analyzed for calcium and phosphorus content. The nutritional restriction did not influence the calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the fetus and the pregnant uterus. The calcium and phosphorus content in the gravidic utero increased 11.68 grams and 6.37 grams for each kilogram of fetal mass produced at 140 days of gestation respectively. The calcium and phosphorus concentration in the uterus and membranes were lower in pregnant ewes subjected to nutritional restriction. The number of fetuses

  16. ROS and calcium signaling mediated pathways involved in stress responses of the marine microalgae Dunaliella salina to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You

    2017-08-01

    UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m(-2) per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased. It suggested that it was cell division instead of cell growth that UV-B exerted negative effects on. The subcellular damages on nuclei and plasmalemma further evidenced the hypothesis. The nutrient absorption was affected with UV-B exposure, and the inhibition on PO4(3-) uptake was more serious compared to NO3(-) uptake. UV-B radiation promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents, decreased the redox status and altered the antioxidant enzyme activities. The addition of the ROS scavenger and the glutathione biosynthesis precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) alleviated the stress degree, implying ROS-mediated pathway was involved in the stress response to UV-B radiation. Transient increase in Ca(2+)-ATPase was triggered simultaneously with UV-B exposure. Meanwhile, the addition of an intracellular free calcium chelator aggravated the damage of cell division, but exogenous calcium and ion channel blocker applications did not, inferring that endogenously initiated calcium signaling played roles in response to UV-B. Cross-talk analysis showed a relatively clear relationship between ROS inhibition and Ca(2+)-ATPase suppression, and a relation between Ca(2+) inhibition and GPx activity change was also observed. It was thus presumed that ROS-coupled calcium signaling via the

  17. Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Abugassa, S.; Svensson, O.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and ...

  18. Pharmacological Characterization of the Mechanisms Involved in Delayed Calcium Deregulation in SH-SY5Y Cells Challenged with Methadone

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    Sergio Perez-Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that SH-SY5Y cells exposed to high concentrations of methadone died due to a necrotic-like cell death mechanism related to delayed calcium deregulation (DCD. In this study, we show that, in terms of their Ca2+ responses to 0.5 mM methadone, SH-SY5Y cells can be pooled into four different groups. In a broad pharmacological survey, the relevance of different Ca2+-related mechanisms on methadone-induced DCD was investigated including extracellular calcium, L-type Ca2+ channels, μ-opioid receptor, mitochondrial inner membrane potential, mitochondrial ATP synthesis, mitochondrial Ca2+/2Na+-exchanger, reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial permeability transition. Only those compounds targeting mitochondria such as oligomycin, FCCP, CGP 37157, and cyclosporine A were able to amend methadone-induced Ca2+ dyshomeostasis suggesting that methadone induces DCD by modulating the ability of mitochondria to handle Ca2+. Consistently, mitochondria became dramatically shorter and rounder in the presence of methadone. Furthermore, analysis of oxygen uptake by isolated rat liver mitochondria suggested that methadone affected mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in a respiratory substrate-dependent way. We conclude that methadone causes failure of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and this effect is associated with morphological and functional changes of mitochondria. Likely, this mechanism contributes to degenerative side effects associated with methadone treatment.

  19. Balanço de cálcio e fósforo e estudo dos níveis desses minerais em dietas para codornas japonesas (45 a 57 semanas de idade Balance of calcium and phosphorus and study of these minerals in diets for Japanese quails (from 45 to 57 weeks of age

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    Carlos Henrique Rocha Costa

    2010-08-01

    available phosphorus (aP in the diet on the performance, quality of eggs and the mineral excretion in Japanese quails during the final third of the production cycle. A total of 384 quails at 313 days of age was used. They were distributed in a complete random design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme composed of four levels of calcium (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5% and two levels of available phosphorus (0.15 and 0.35%, so each combination was evaluated in six replicates of eight birds. The experimental diets were isoprotein (19.31% CP, isocaloric (2,800 kcal/kg and isoaminoacids. It was evaluated the production, weight, mass, height and diameter of the eggs, ration consumption, feed conversion, viability, specific weight, the components of eggs (weight and percentage of shell, albumen and yolk, the balance of calcium and total phosphorus and excretion of mineral matter. There was no interaction between the used levels of calcium and available phosphorus. The increase in the level of calcium in the diet linearly improved the conversion by dozen and it reduced the consumption. It also promoted an increase on the specific weight, on the weight and on the percentage of shell and linear reduction on the weight of yolk and it increased the calcium content in the excreta. The viability and content of phosphorus in the excreta increased as the available phosphorus increased, whereas the other variables were not influenced by the levels of calcium and available phosphorus in the diet. The levels of 3.5% of calcium and 0.15% of available phosphorus are sufficient to provide good productive performance and satisfactory maintenance of the quality of eggs of Japanese quails in the final third of laying (45 to 57 weeks of age, and they correspond to a daily consumption of 899 mg of calcium and 40 mg of available phosphorus per bird.

  20. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

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    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  1. 磷酸钙沉淀法去除猪场废水中磷的实验研究%Research on Phosphorus Removal from Swine Wastewater by Precipitation of Calcium Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永会; 钱锋; 向连城

    2011-01-01

    Using synthetic swine wastewater, bench-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of pH, varied initial n( Ca)/n(P) molar ratio, carbonate ( CO23- ), magnesium ( Mg2+ ) as well as coexistence of CO23- and Mg2+ on calcium phosphate (CP) precipitation for phosphorus removal. The composition of the obtained precipitate was analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that with pH value of 8.0 and initial n( Ca)/n(P) of 3.33, through extending the reaction time to 360 rain, the removal rate of phosphate could reach 92. 2%. Higher pH value and initial n( Ca)/n(P) were beneficial to calcium phosphate precipitation. However, with pH ≥ 10. 0 and the initial n( Ca)/n (P) ≥ 3.33, these two factors had negligible effects on the improvement of phosphate removal rate. At pH = 9.0, the effects of the separately existing CO23 - and Mg2 + on the precipitation of phosphate was very small, with the phosphate removal rate keeping stable at 94. 1%, averagely. The reaction of CO23-and Ca2 + caused the formation of prior production of calcite ( CaCO3 ) and reduced the purity of HAP. The eoexisting of Mg2 + made the precipitate be transformed into amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP); through XRD analysis of the heat treated precipitate, it was found that Mg2+ incorporated into the calcium phosphate, forming Mg-substituted whitlockite (Ca, Mg)3 (PO4 )2, which changed the structure of the precipitate. When CO23- and Mg2+ coexisted, the interaction of CO23- and Mg2+ would be beneficial to calcium phosphate precipitation with controlled CO23- and Mg2+ concentration and elevated solution pH value (≥9.0).%以模拟猪场废水为处理对象,进行了磷酸钙沉淀除磷小试实验,考察了pH值、不同初始n(Ca)/n(P)、CO、Mg以及CO和Mg共存对磷酸钙沉淀反应的影响;利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)对沉淀产物进行了表征.结果表明,在溶液pH=8.0和初始n(Ca)/n(P)=3.33时,延长反应时间至360 min

  2. Cinética do fósforo em tecidos de ovinos em crescimento alimentados com diferentes fontes de cálcio Kinetics of phosphorus in tissues of lambs fed different sources of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Dias

    2007-02-01

    /animal for limestone (CC, alfalfa hay (FA, citrus pulp (PC and oyster shell meal (OSM, respectively. P resorption values were higher than P accretion in bone leading to a negative balance of P for the majority of animals. It was concluded that the different sources of calcium did not interfere in the kinetics of phosphorus and the amount of P absorbed did not attend P demands of the animals.

  3. The possible involvement of root-cap mucilage in gravitropism and calcium movement across root tips of Allium cepa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. grown in aerated water elongate rapidly, but are not graviresponsive. These roots (1) possess extensive columella tissues comprised of cells containing numerous sedimented amyloplasts, (2) lack mucilage on their tips, and (3) are characterized by a weakly polar movement of calcium (Ca) across their tips. Placing roots in humid air correlates positively with the (1) onset of gravicurvature, (2) appearance of mucilage on tips of the roots, and (3) onset of the ability to transport Ca polarly to the lower side of the root tip. Gravicurvature of roots previously submerged in aerated water is more rapid when roots are oriented vertically for 1-2 h in humid air prior to being oriented horizontally. The more rapid gravicurvature of these roots correlates positively with the accumulation of mucilage at the tips of roots during the time the roots are oriented vertically. Therefore, the onset of gravicurvature and the ability of roots to transport Ca to the lower sides of their tips correlate positively with the presence of mucilage at their tips. These results suggest that mucilage may be important for the transport of Ca across root caps.

  4. Calcium involved in the poly(γ-glutamic acid)-mediated promotion of Chinese cabbage nitrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongqi; Lei, Peng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Xianju; Liang, Jinfeng; Chi, Bo; Xu, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Plant growth can reportedly be promoted by poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA). However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. To reveal the mechanism of γ-PGA, we designed an experiment that investigated the effect of γ-PGA on the nitrogen metabolism of Chinese cabbage hydroponic cultured at different calcium (Ca) levels and varied exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors. The results showed that nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in leaves and roots were obviously enhanced by γ-PGA at the normal Ca(2+) level (4.0 mM). Meanwhile, γ-PGA increased the content of total nitrogen, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids in leaves. However, the promotional effect of γ-PGA on fresh weight weakened when Ca(2+) was inadequate. Moreover, γ-PGA not only induced the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) in organelles into cytoplasm, but also increased the Ca(2+)-ATPase level to modify Ca(2+) homeostasis in plant cells. In addition, exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors significantly suppressed the γ-PGA-mediated promotion of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) level, calmodulin (CaM) content, GS and glutamate dehydrogenase activities. In summary, γ-PGA accelerated the nitrogen metabolism of plants through the Ca(2+)/CaM signaling pathway, thereby improving the growth of the plant.

  5. Inhibition of ATP-induced calcium influx in HT4 cells by glucocorticoids: involvement of protein kinase A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-zhong HAN; Wen LIN; Yi-zhang CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: In our previous observations, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was found to evoke immediate elevations in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in HT4 neuroblastoma cells of mice. We tried to see if a brief pretreatment of glucocorticoids could inhibit the Ca2+ response and reveal the underlying signal ing mechanism. Methods: Measurement of [Ca2+]i was carried out using the dual-wavelength fluorescence method with Fura-2 as the indicator. Results: Pre incubation of HT4 cells for 5 min with corticosterone (B) or bovine serum albumin conjugated corticosterone (B-BSA) inhibited the peak [Ca2+]i increments in a concentration-dependent manner. Cortisol and dexamethasone had a similar action, while deoxycorticosterone and cholesterol were ineffective. Both extracellular Ca2+ influx and internal Ca2+ release contributed to ATP-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. The brief treatment with only B attenuated Ca2+ influx. Furthermore, the [Ca2+]i elevation induced by the P2X receptor agonist adenosine 5'-(β,γ-methylene) triphosphate (β,γ-meATP) was also suppressed. The rapid inhibitory effect of B can be reproduced by forskolin 1 mmol/L and blocked by H89 20 mmol/L. Neither nuclear glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone nor protein kinase C in hibitors influenced the rapid action of B. Conclusion: Our results suggest that glucocorticoids modulate P2X receptor-medicated Ca2+ influx through a membrane-initiated, non-genomic and PKA-dependent pathway in HT4 cells.

  6. 低分子肝素钠对血液透析患者钙磷代谢影响的临床观察%Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Sodium on Calcium Phosphorus Metabolism in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis:Clinical Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore the effect of low molecular weight heparin sodium on calcium-phosphorus metabolism in patients undergoing hemodialysis.METHODS: From May 2012 to May 2013, a total of 166 patients undergoing hemodialysis were randomly divided into either control group receiving unfractionated heparin or experimental group receiving low molecular weight heparin sodium.The two groups were followed and compared with regard to serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the incidences of bleeding and blood clotting during cardiopulmonary bypass.RESULTS:Before treatment, serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, PTH and ALP showed no significant difference between the two groups ( P >0.05 ) .Serum phosphorus and PTH levels did not change significantly in the control group before and after treatment ( P>0.05 ) . After hemodialysis, serum phosphorus and PTH levels were significantly reduced in the experimental group, and the differences were statistically significant between the experimental group and the control group ( P 0.05 ) .The incidence of bleeding in the experimental group was significantly lower than in the control group ( P0.05).CONCLUSION:The low molecular heparin sodium might be effective for improving calcium-phosphorus metabolism.%目的:探讨低分子肝素钠对维持性血液透析患者钙磷代谢的影响。方法:选取2012年5月至2013年5月收治的166例血液透析患者作为研究对象,按随机表法将其分成对照组和试验组,对照组予以普通肝素钠,试验组予以低分子肝素钠,对两组患者的血钙、血磷、甲状旁腺激素( PTH)、碱性磷酸酶( ALP)水平、出血发生率、体外循环凝血发生率进行观察比较。结果:治疗前两组患者血钙、血磷、PTH、ALP水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。对照组治疗前后血磷、PTH水平无明显变化(P>0.05)。透析后,试验组血磷及PTH水平显

  7. 恒牙牙体硬组织钙磷成分的检测:分光光度法与EDTA 滴定法%Detection of the calcium and phosphorus in the hard tissue of permanent teeth:spectrophotometry and ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻海亮; 于新波; 刘梦东; 贾婧; 符大勇

    2014-01-01

    背景:目前酸蚀与黏结技术已经广泛应用于口腔临床,有资料表明年轻恒牙与成年恒牙的牙体硬组织中的主要无机元素钙和磷的含量有一定的差异。目的:通过分光光度法与EDTA 滴定法测量年轻恒牙与成年恒牙的牙釉质与牙本质中主要无机元素(钙、磷)的含量。方法:年轻恒牙与成年恒牙离体牙各20 颗,用生石膏和水混合,待近干时,将牙齿垂直铸于其中,使牙面暴露。用syj-200 精密切割机将模型切割成切片,然后将切片放入浓硝酸中,通过加热器使之溶解,然后制备成标准溶液,最后采用分光光度法与滴定法分别测量两者硬组织的钙和磷的浓度。结果与结论:结果证实,年轻恒牙的牙体硬组织钙磷含量和钙/磷比值小于成年恒牙(P < 0.05),说明有机物含量较成年恒牙多;矿化程度低于成年恒牙(P < 0.05),相对于成年恒牙更加耐酸,临床操作可适当延长对年轻恒牙的酸蚀时间,以达到更佳的酸蚀效果。%BACKGROUND: Currently, acid etching and bonding technology have been widely used in clinical stomatology. Data have indicated that the main content of inorganic elements (calcium and phosphorus) has a certain difference between the dental enamel and dentin of the young and adult permanent teeth. OBJECTIVE:To measure the content of main inorganic elements, calcium and phosphorus, in the dental enamel and dentin from young and adult permanent teeth with spectrophotometry and ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid titration method. METHODS:Each 20 adult and young permanent teethin vitrowere selected. Plaster stone and water was mixed; when it was nearly dried, the teeth were verticaly cast in the mixture and the tooth surface was exposed. The models were cut into the slices using syj-200 precision cutting machine, and then the slices were put into nitric acid and dissolved through heater to prepare standard solution. At last

  8. Apatite as an interesting seed to remove phosphorus from wastewater in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, P; Liénard, A; Grasmick, A; Iwema, A; Kabbabi, A

    2005-01-01

    Intensive use of phosphates has resulted in high P levels in surface waters and therefore eutrophication problems. Over the last decade many studies have revealed the advantage of using specific materials with efficient phosphorus retention capacities. Recent studies state that Ca materials are of particular interest for long-term retention of P, but can induce negative effects. To improve P retention and avoid negative counter-effects we tested the potential of natural apatites. Apatite sorption was evaluated using batch and open reactor experiments. Batch experiments identify sorption mechanisms and the influence of the ionic characteristics of the solution; open reactor experiments evaluate sorption capacities in relation to the ionic composition of the solution and biomass development. In parallel, observation of the material by electron microscopy was used to give more precision information about the mechanisms involved. This work reveals the strong chemical affinity between apatites and phosphorus. Compared to other calcareous materials apatite is better able to maintain low outlet P levels. After more than 550 days feeding, sorption was still present and low P outlet levels were still being obtained when sufficient contact time and calcium content in the solution were ensured. This work demonstrates the advantages of using apatites for phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands. The behaviour of apatite in phosphorus retention is explained and its suitability for use in such extensive systems defined.

  9. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantar-Zadeh K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Kalantar-ZadehHarold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine’s School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USAObjectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia.Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed.Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels.Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, renal diet, phosphorus binders, educational programs, food fatigue, concordance

  10. Excreção fracionada do cálcio e fósforo em novilhas nelore antes e durante a gestação Calcium and phosphorus fractional excretion in nellore before and during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE SECORUN BORGES

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do cálcio e do fósforo nutricional é difícil quando se usam concentrações séricas desses elementos, pois estas permanecem dentro de valores normais apesar de variações do conteúdo desses minerais na dieta, pela alta eficiência do processo de homeostasia corporal. Alterações significativas serão observadas em processos carenciais crônicos, quando então as perdas econômicas já terão significado relevante. A técnica da excreção fracionada permite avaliação quantitativa sem a necessidade de determinação do volume urinário produzido. Com o objetivo de analisar a excreção fracionada de Ca e P, foram utilizadas 22 novilhas criadas extensivamente. As amostras de soro e urina foram colhidas a cada 45 dias, antes (duas coletas e durante a gestação (seis coletas. A excreção fracionada do Ca e do P apresentou medianas variando entre 1,06% e 3,72% e 1,09% e 2,70%, respectivamente. Houve tendência na diminuição dos valores da mediana da excreção fracionada do Ca, comparando-se os momentos em que os animais ainda não estavam gestantes com os valores obtidos durante a gestação. Este experimento demonstrou que existem amplas variações na excreção fracionada de Ca e P em diferentes animais em um mesmo momento, dificultando a utilização deste método na avaliação do estado nutricional desses elementos em bovinos criados extensivamente.The assessment of calcium and phosphorus nutrition is difficult when using serum concentrations of these elements, because they remain within normal ranges despite a wide variation in Ca and P contents in different diets due to the high efficiency of body homeostasis process. Significant alterations are observed in chronic deficiencies when economic losses have a relevant importance. The use of fractional excretion of Ca and P allow quantitative evaluation without need of timed urine volumetric determinations. Fractional excretion ratios for Ca and P were determined using

  11. 腹膜透析患者钙磷代谢与颈动脉钙化相关性临床研究%Clinical analysis on correlation between the calcium-phosphorus metabolism and carotid artery calcification in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 贺晓; 高德; 吴琼

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the relevant factor of carotid artery calcification and calcium-phosphorus metabolism and investi-gate the prevention and treatment of calcium-phosphorus metabolism to carotid artery calcification in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis ( CAPD). Methods 68 patients with peritoneal dialysis were divided into different groups according the dose of peritoneal dialysate exchanged everyday and the different level of carotid artery calcification. Meanwhile the relationships between carotid artery calcification and calcium, phosphate, and so on were analyzed. Results In total 68 patients with CAPD, ca-rotid calcification was confirmed in 51 patients (73 % ). The longer peritoneal dialysis time, the more severer carotid artery calcifi-cation (P <0.01). Patients with carotid artery calcification had higher serum phosphate level, calcium-phosphorus product, CRP level and lower serum albumin than those patients without carotid calcification ( P < 0.05 or 0. 01). Conclusion Carotid artery calcification with different levels are existed in CAPD patients. The nutritional status and the peritoneal dialysis time correlate with carotid artery calcification closely. The higher serum phosphate level, calcium-phosphorus product, CRP level and lower serum al-bumin are main influential factors of carotid artery calcification. They are the important dangerous factors to carotid artery calcifica-tion.%目的 观察钙磷代谢紊乱与颈动脉钙化的关系,探讨持续性非卧床腹膜透析(CAPD)患者颈动脉钙化的危险因素及防治.方法 将68例CAPD患者根据透析剂量及颈动脉钙化程度分组,观察颈动脉钙化与血钙、血磷等各生化指标的关系.采用彩色多普勒超声诊断仪观察腹透患者颈动脉钙化程度.结果 68例CAPD患者中不同程度颈动脉钙化者51例(75.0%),随着透析时间的延长,腹膜透析患者颈动脉钙化程度增加(P<0.01);钙化组血磷、钙磷乘积

  12. Glucose stimulates neurotensin secretion from the rat small intestine by mechanisms involving SGLT1 and GLUT2, leading to cell depolarization and calcium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Bechmann, Louise Ellegaard; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-06-15

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neurohormone produced in the central nervous system and in the gut epithelium by the enteroendocrine N cell. NT may play a role in appetite regulation and may have potential in obesity treatment. Glucose ingestion stimulates NT secretion in healthy young humans, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Here, we show that rats express NT in the gut and that glucose gavage stimulates secretion similarly to oral glucose in humans. Therefore, we conducted experiments on isolated perfused rat small intestine with a view to characterize the cellular pathways of secretion. Luminal glucose (20% wt/vol) stimulated secretion but vascular glucose (5, 10, or 15 mmol/l) was without effect. The underlying mechanisms depend on membrane depolarization and calcium influx, since the voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine and the KATP channel opener diazoxide, which causes hyperpolarization, eliminated the response. Luminal inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) (by phloridzin) eliminated glucose-stimulated release as well as secretion stimulated by luminal methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (20% wt/vol), a metabolically inactive SGLT1 substrate, suggesting that glucose stimulates secretion by initial uptake by this transporter. However, secretion was also sensitive to GLUT2 inhibition (by phloretin) and blockage of oxidative phosphorylation (2-4-dinitrophenol). Direct KATP channel closure by sulfonylureas stimulated secretion. Therefore, glucose stimulates NT secretion by uptake through SGLT1 and GLUT2, both causing depolarization either as a consequence of sodium-coupled uptake (SGLT1) or by closure of KATP channels (GLUT2 and SGLT1) secondary to the ATP-generating metabolism of glucose.

  13. 慢性肾脏病患者血清成纤维细胞生长因子23与肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系%Association of fibroblast growth factor 23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖辉; 李国刚

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者不同分期血中成纤维细胞生长因子23(FGF-23)的变化,探讨 FGF-23与 CKD 患者肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系。方法选择 CKD 患者124例,健康对照组32例,测定患者的血清 FGF-23、血钙、血磷、甲状旁腺激素(iPTH)、血清尿素氮(BUN)和肌酐(SCr),按照 CKD-EPI 公式计算肾小球滤过率(eGFR),分析 FGF-23与肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系。结果 CKD 患者血 FGF-23水平较对照组显著升高(P <0.01)。随着肾功能减退,CKD 患者血 FGF-23和 iPTH 水平逐渐增高,在 CKD3~4期与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(均 P <0.01),在 CKD5期明显高于对照组、CKD1~2期、CKD3~4期。随着肾功能减退血钙水平逐渐降低、血磷水平逐渐增高,CKD 患者在 CKD5期与对照组、CKD1~2期、CKD3~4期比较差异有显著统计学意义(均 P <0.01)。相关分析显示,LogFGF-23与血磷、LogiPTH、BUN、SCr 呈正相关,与 eGFR 呈负相关。多元线性回归表明,FGF-23与 CKD 患者 BUN、SCr 呈正相关。结论 CKD 患者血清 FGF-23在 CKD3~4期就显著增高,变化早于血磷的增高。肾功能状态、血磷、iPTH 与 FGF-23相关。肾功能状态可能是 CKD 患者血 FGF-23升高的主要影响因素。%ABSTRACT:Objective To investigate the change of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 )in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease(CKD);To analyze the association of FGF-23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism.Methods A total of 124 CKD patients were selected,and 32 healthy people were studied as control group.The levels of FGF-23,serum calcium,serum phosphorus,intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH),blood urea nitrogen(BUN)and serum creatinine(SCr)were measured in all subjects.The glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) was estimated according to CKD-EPI formula.The association of FGF-23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism were analyzed.Results The serum FGF-23 in CKD patients increased

  14. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  15. Effect of Reinforcing Kidney Prescription to the Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Contents of Ovx Rats with Osteoporosis%补肾中药复方对去卵巢骨质疏松症大鼠血清钙磷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦萍; 马越娇; 刘晓舒; 王剑; 宋光熠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the bone mineral density and the serum calcium and phosphorus of ovariectomized osteoporosis rats.to discuss the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis(PMOP) and the therapeutic ef ect and mechanism of reinforcing the kidney traditional Chinese herbs compound.Methods To establishe the osteoporosis rat models by ovariectomy.Al the rats were divided into the normal group,the model group,the sham operated group,the reinforcing the kidney traditional Chinese herbs compound group,the GAIERQI D group and the GUSHUKANG group.After 12 weeks of administrating by gavage,we detected the femur bone mineral density and the serum calcium and phosphorus contents. Results Compared with normal group,femur bone mineral density of model group decreased significantly. Compared with the model group, the reinforcing the kidney traditional Chinese herbs compound group the femur bone mineral density, the serum calcium and phosphorus content increased significantly. Conclusion The ovariectomized rats after 12 weeks can appear osteoporosis.The reinforcing the kidney traditional Chinese herbs compound has obvious preventing and treating ef ect. The mechanism is closely related with improve the contents of serum calcium and phosphorus.%目的:观察去卵巢骨质疏松症大鼠骨密度及血清钙磷含量,探讨绝经后骨质疏松症的发病机制以及补肾中药复方的作用机制。方法麻醉状态下手术摘除卵巢复制骨质疏松症大鼠模型,实验设正常对照组、模型对照组、假手术对照组、补肾中药复方组、钙尔奇D组、骨疏康组,灌胃给药12w。应用骨密度仪测定股骨骨密度,检测血清钙、磷含量。结果与正常对照组比较,模型对照组股骨骨密度明显降低。与模型对照组比较,补肾中药复方组股骨骨密度明显升高,血清钙、磷含量明显升高。结论手术摘除卵巢大鼠12w后可出现骨质疏松症,补肾中药复方

  16. Toward improved phosphorus efficiency in monogastrics-interplay of serum, minerals, bone, and immune system after divergent dietary phosphorus supply in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Michael; Just, Franziska; Büsing, Kirsten; Wolf, Petra; Polley, Christian; Vollmar, Brigitte; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2016-05-15

    Phosphorus (P) is of vital importance for many aspects of metabolism, including bone mineralization, blood buffering, and energy utilization. In order to identify molecular routes affecting intrinsic P utilization, we address processes covering P intake, uptake, metabolism, and excretion. In particular, the interrelation of bone tissue and immune features is of interest to approximate P intake to animal's physiology and health status. German Landrace piglets received different levels of digestible phosphorus: recommended, higher, or lower amounts. At multiple time points, relevant serum parameters were analyzed and radiologic studies on bone characteristics were performed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected to assess differential gene expression. Dietary differences were reflected by serum phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Bone reorganization was persistently affected as shown by microstructural parameters, cathepsin K levels, and transcripts associated with bone formation. Moreover, blood expression patterns revealed a link to immune response, highlighting bidirectional loops comprising bone formation and immune features, where the receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand/receptor-activator of NF-κB kinase system may play a prominent role. The modulated P supplementation provoked considerable organismal plasticity. Genes found to be differentially expressed due to variable P supply are involved in pathways relevant to P utilization and are potential candidate genes for improved P efficiency.

  17. Effect of combining different calcium concentration dialysate on calcium balance in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-ping; WU Bei; LU Li-xia; QIAO Jie; WU Xiang-lan; WANG Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcium and phosphorus metabolic disturbance are common in dialysis patients and associated with increased morbidity and mortality.Therefore,maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphate metabolism and suitable intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH)level has become the focus of attention.We investigated the effects of different peritoneal dialysate calcium concentrations on calcium phosphate metabolism and iPTH in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD)patients.Methods Forty stable CAPD patients with normal serum calcium were followed for six months of treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.25,PD4,22 patients)or a combination of 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.75,PD2)and PD4(18 patients)twice a day respectively.Total serum calcium(after albumin correction),serum phosphorus,iPTH,alkaline phosphatase(ALP)and blood pressure were recorded before and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment commenced.Results No significant difference was found in baseline serum calcium,phosphorus between the two patient groups,but the levels of iPTH were significantly different.No significant changes were found in the dosage of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D during 6 months.In the PD4 group,serum calcium level at the 1st,3rd,6th months were significantly lower than the baseline(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in serum phosphorus after 6 months treatment.iPTH was significantly higher(P<0.001)at the 1st,3rd,and 6th months compared with the baseline.No differences were seen in ALP and blood pressure.In the PD4+PD2 group,no significant changes in serum calcium,phosphorus,iPTH,ALP and BP during the 6-month follow-up period.Conclusions Treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate for six months can decrease serum calcium,increase iPTH,without change in serum phosphorus,ALP,and BP.The combining of PD4 and PD2 can stabilize the serum calcium and avoid fluctuations in iPTH levels.

  18. Oral activated charcoal decreases serum phosphate level and calcium phosphorus products in dialysis patients with refractory hyperphosphataemia%药用活性炭有效降低顽固性高磷血症透析患者血磷水平与钙磷乘积

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程叙扬; 甘红兵; 吕继成; 王芳; 左力

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究口服药用活性炭对未能控制的高磷血症透析患者血磷与钙磷乘积的作用.方法 采用单中心、前瞻性、自身前后对照研究.经含钙的磷结合剂治疗后仍存在高磷血症的血液透析或腹膜透析患者,餐中加服药用活性炭4.5~7.2 g/d治疗3个月.检测治疗前后血磷、钙、钙磷乘积、全段甲状旁腺激素( iPTH)、白蛋白、血红蛋白水平.用配对t检验进行统计学分析.结果 与治疗前比较,治疗3个月后患者血磷水平显著下降[(1.85±0.30)mmol/L比(2.16±0.34) mmol/L,P<0.01];血钙磷乘积也相应显著下降[(54.12±8.37) mg2/dl2比(63.93±8.83) mg2/dl2,P<0.01];有更多并发继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症的患者可以接受维生素D治疗(83.3%比50%);血钙与iPTH水平无显著性变化(P=0.734,0.665).活性碳治疗期间血白蛋白水平较前下降[(40.1±2.2)g/L比(41.7±2.9) g/L,P=0.001].结论 顽固性高磷血症透析患者在继续原有磷结合剂治疗基础上,口服药用活性炭可以有效地降低血磷水平与钙磷乘积,对血钙及iPTH水平没有显著性影响.活性炭治疗可使患者血白蛋白水平轻度下降.%Objective To study the effect of medically activated charcoal on serum phosphorus level and calcium-phosphorus products in dialysis patients with poorly controlled hyperphosphatemia. Methods A single-center,prospective,self-controlled study was performed.Medically activated charcoal was administered 4.5-7.2 g per day with meals for three months to hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia after taking calcium-based phosphate binders.The levels of blood phosphorus,calcium,calcium-phosphorus products,intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH),albumin and hemoglobin were detected before and after the treatment.The results were analyzed using paired t-test. Results After 3 months of treatment,the patients' serum phosphorus level was significantly reduced from (2.16 ±0.34) mmol

  19. Phosphorus speciation by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: low level determination of reduced phosphorus in natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Zachary; Pasek, Matthew; Sampson, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important minor element in the Earth's crust commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite. This constraint causes phosphorus to be a key limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus plays a direct role in the formation of DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that since reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus that it was integrally involved in the development of life on the early Earth and may continue to play a role in biologic productivity to this day. This work examines a new method for quantification and identification of reduced phosphorus as well as applications to the speciation of organo-phosphates separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that reduced phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICPMS reaction cell, using oxygen as a reaction gas to effectively convert elemental P to P-O. Analysis at M/Z= 47 producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography than analyses performed at M/Z = 31. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 μM) for P species analyzed as P-O. Additionally we show that this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other forms of phosphorus compounds. We verified the efficacy of method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks, suburban retention pond waters, blood and urine samples and most samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus and or organo-phaospates. This finding in nearly all substances analyzed supports the assumption that the redox processing of phosphorus has played a significant role throughout the history of the Earth and it's presence in the present environment is nearly ubiquitous with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  20. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  1. Níveis de fósforo e cálcio em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura Levels of phosphorus and calcium in diets of laying Japanese quails

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    Carlos Henrique Rocha Costa

    2007-12-01

    objective to verify the effect of different levels of available phosphorus (aP and of calcium (Ca in the diet on the performance, the quality of eggs and the nutritional status of the bone tissue of japanese quails during the initial laying phase. A total of 700 japanese quails, with 61 days of age, distributed in 70 experimental units with 10 birds each were used. A completely randomized experimental design was use, in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement with five levels of aP (0.15; 0.25; 0.35; 0.45 e 0,55% and two levels of Ca (2.5 e 3.2%, with seven replicates per treatments. The experimental diets were isoprotéicas (20.0% CP, isocalóricas (2.900 kcal ME/kg and isoaminoacids. The levels of aP influenced by a quadratic form, the height and the average diameter of the eggs, the Ca egg shell content and percentage of Ca (2.5% Ca and P (3.2% Ca in the bones. There was a linear improvement for the commercial egg production and percentage of P in the bones (lower level of tested Ca, up to the level of 0.31% and of 0.51% P, respectively, in the diet. As aP levels increased in the diet, the conversion for dozen of eggs linearly decreased and the percentage and yolk weight reduced up to the levels of 0.40 and 0.25% of aP, respectively, in the diet. The shell weight, percentage and thickness, specific weight, shell Ca content and percentage of Ca in the bones were influenced by the Ca levels in the diet. There was no influence of the Ca and a aP levels on eggs production, ration consumption, egg mass, feed conversion per eggs mass, viability, final average weight of the birds and percentage and weight of albumen in the eggs. Dietary levels of 2.5 and 0.31% aP are enough to provide good productive performance and satisfactory maintenance of the quality of eggs and nutritional status of bone tissues of Japanese quails during the initial laying period.

  2. Participação da excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio na homeostase em cães sadios e cães com doença renal crônica Participation of renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium on the homeostasis in healthy dogs and in dogs with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Martínez

    2010-10-01

    serum profile of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium in healthy dogs and in dogs with naturally acquired CKD. Three groups of adult male and female dogs of varied breeds were evaluated. Normal dogs were in the control group (G1 and the CKD dogs were distributed into two groups in accordance with the stage of renal function impairment (G2 e G3, respectively, stages 1-2 and stages 3-4, proposed by IRIS 2006 staging CKD. The G3 dogs showed increased serum levels of ionized calcium and phosphorus, in addition to the reduction of sodium levels. Regarding the renal excretion of the analyzed electrolytes, the G1 and G2 groups showed a decrease of filtered load and increase of fractional excretion, yet there were no significant variations on the urinary excretions. The results suggest that the kidneys of the CKD dogs can maintain similar values of electrolytes urinary excretion as the kidneys of normal dogs. The mechanism involves an increase of fractional excretion while glomerular filtration decreases. This compensation process, however, can lose its efficiency in the later stages of the disease, in relation to the maintenance of phosphorus and sodium serum levels.

  3. Effects of a sustained release formulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycosides for milk fever prevention on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcium and phosphorus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Heinrich; Lanz, Michael; Kehrle, Susanne; Bittner, Wolfgang; Toggenburger, Annick; Mathis, Georg A; Rambeck, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake. With the understanding of the underlying mechanism, calcium supply management and vitamin D supplementation became prime candidates for MF prevention and therapy. Several strategies have been developed for MF prevention. Application of the active form of Vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, was found to prevent MF effectively. In order to prevent a delayed hypocalcemia, which was occasionally seen after stopping the treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, a new approach was chosen by applying Solanum glaucophyllum extract (SGE), which contains 1,25(OH)2D3-glycosides, as instant-release (irSGE) in combination with slow-release (srSGE) tablets. In a first study, non-lactating cows were treated with a single bolus of either synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3, irSGE, or srSGE and the results were compared to a control group without treatment. Blood serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and magnesium (Mg) were followed for 11days and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Calcium and phosphate excretion in urine were determined during 15days. While serum concentration of 1,25(OH)2D3 was back to pre-treatment level in the irSGE, srSGE and 1,25(OH)2D3 treated group within 3days, calcium and phosphate levels remained elevated for up to 9days. AUC of serum 1,25(OH)2D3 was 2.89 (1,25D), 3.13 (irSGE) and 4.21 (srSGE) times higher than control. Serum calcium levels were 1.07(*) (for 1.25D); 1.08(*) (for irSGE) and 1.12(*) (for srSGE) times higher than control. Serum

  4. A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official Method (SM) 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

  5. Assessment of the place of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus in the diagnosis of osteopenia of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Duygu Besnili; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Çetinkaya, Merih; Petmezci, Ercüment; Dursun, Mesut; Korkmaz, Orhan; Altuncu, Emel Kayrak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the utility of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus in the diagnosis of osteopenia of prematurity in addition to biochemical markers. Materials and Method: Premature babies with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and/or a birth weight of ≤1 500 g who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit between June 2009 and March 2011 were included in the study. These babies were evaluated at the 40th gestational week and serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatinine, urinary calcium and phosphorus levels were measured and tubular reabsorption of phosphorus was determined. The subjects who had bone graphy findings and/or an alkaline phosphatase level of >400IU/L and a phosphorus value of 499 IU were compared with the newborns who were found to have a tubular reabsorption of phosphorus of ≥%95 for the objective of evaluating the specificity and sensitivity of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus in the diagnosis of osteopenia were found to be 27%, 82%, 17% and 89%, respectively. When the osteopenic and non-osteopenic patients were compared in terms of the levels of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions: It was thought that it was not appropriate to use tubular reabsorption of phosphorus alone in the diagnosis of osteopenia of prematurity. PMID:26078696

  6. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  7. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  8. Diagnosis of calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder in chronic renal failure and treatment with integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine%慢性肾衰竭钙磷代谢紊乱的诊断及中西医结合治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 周乐

    2013-01-01

    钙磷代谢紊乱及其骨病是慢性肾衰竭特别是透析患者的重要并发症之一。长期骨矿物质代谢异常会引起全身血管钙化,与心血管事件的发生及死亡密切相关。2009年改善全球肾脏病预后组织(KDIGO)发布了慢性肾脏病矿物质及骨代谢紊乱(CKD-MBD)的诊断、评估、预防和治疗的临床实践指南,2013年KDIGO新发布的《CKD评估与管理临床实践指南》又针对CKD骨代谢疾病提出了新的观点。治疗的重点是降低高血磷和维持血钙,控制甲状旁腺激素在目标范围。中医治疗慢性肾衰竭钙磷代谢紊乱有独到之处,通过辩证施治,同时结合必要的西药治疗,可显著改善患者的临床生化指标及自觉症状,改善预后。%Calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder and bone disease are important complications in patients with chronic renal failure especially undergoing dialysis.Long-term metabolism disorder of bone mineral content can cause systemic vascular calcification,which is closely associated with cardiovascular events and mortality.In 2009,Kidney Disease:Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) published the mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease (CKD)guidelines.In 201 3,KDIGO proposed some new perspectives about CKD metabolic bone diseases in “Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease”.The treatment for these complications mainly aims to decrease the high blood phosphate,maintain the level of blood calcium,and keep parathyroid hormone (PTH)within defined levels.It is unique for traditional Chinese medicine to treat the calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder through dialectical therapy and integration with western medicine necessary, which can significantly improve the clinical symptoms,biochemical indices,and the prognosis.

  9. Vitamin D and Intestinal Calcium Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J.; Seth, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium throu...

  10. The Effect of Continuous Quality Improvement(CQI) on Disorders of Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism Management in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis(CAPD) Patients%持续质量改进对老年腹膜透析患者钙磷代谢紊乱的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑设锋; 刘金女; 卢蝉; 毛红; 孙维文; 赵瑞育; 赵章健; 陈法东; 缪初升; 宋瑞芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of continuous quality improvement CQI ) on management of calcium and phos-phorus metabolism disorders in elderly patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis . Methods: With the use of PDCA four - step( plan, do, check and act), we designed and carried out treatments to improve calcium and phosphorus metabolism in ederly patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Results :45 elderly patients dialyzed for more than 3 months participated in the study. The overall incidence of calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders got down from 82. 22% to 42. 22% after CQI. In details, the level of serum calcium reduced from ( 2. 71 ± 0. 25 )mmol/L to( 2. 52 ± 0. 31 )mmol/L in hypercalcemia group( P 3个月的老年患者参与了此项研究.经9个月CQI,各种钙磷代谢紊乱总发生率由82.22%降至42.22%(P<0.05).其中高钙血症组血钙由(2.71±0.25)mmol/L降至(2.52±0.31)mmol/L(P<0.05),低钙血症组血钙由(1.78±0.42)mmol/L升至(2.11±0.24)mmol/L(P<0.05),血磷水平由(2.13±0.62)mmol/L降至(1.67±0.53)mmol/L(P<0.05),钙磷乘积由(80.22±16.61)mg2/dl2降至(54.58±15.93)mg2/dl2(P<0.05),继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进患者的血清全段甲状旁腺素(iPTH)由(488.12±227.31)pg/ml降至(290.3±171.15)pg/ml(P<0.01),血清碱性磷酸酶水平由(108.75±35.31)U/L降至(88.75±38.14)U/L(P<0.05).有残肾功能较无残肾功能组,虽KT/V差异不大,在CQI后纠正高磷血症、高钙血症、甲状旁腺功能亢进上差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:持续质量改进措施显著改善了老年腹膜透析患者的钙磷代谢紊乱.

  11. Geochemical records of phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay sediments-Implications for environmental changes in recent hundred years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jicui; SONG Jinming; LI Xuegang; YUAN Huamao; ZHENG Guoxia; LI Ning

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key element and plays an important role in global biogeochemical cycles. The evolution of sedimentary environment is also influenced by phosphorus concentrations and fractions as well as phosphate sorption characteristics of the marine sediments. The geochemical characteristics of phosphorus and their environmental records were presented in Jiaozhou Bay sediments.Profiles of different forms of phosphorus were measured as well as the roles and vertical distributions of phosphorus forms in response to sedimentary environment changes were investigated. The results showed that inorganic phosphorus (IP) was the major fraction of total phosphorus (TP); phosphorus which is bound to calcium, iron and occluded phosphorus, as well as the exchangeable phosphorus were the main forms of IP, especially calcium - phosphorus, including detrital carbonate-bound phosphorus (Det- P) and authigenic apatite-bound phosphorus (ACa- P), are the uppermost constituent of IP in Jiaozhou Bay sediments. Moreover, the lead-210 chronology technology was employed to estimate how much phosphorus was buried ultimately in sediments. And the research showed that the impacts of human activities have increased remarkably in recent years especially between the 1980s and 2000. According to research, the development of Jiaozhou Bay environment in the past hundred years can be divided into three stages: (1) before the 1980s characterized by the relatively low sedimentation rate, weak land-derived phosphorus inputs and low anthropogenic impacts; (2) from the 1980s to around 2000, accelerating in the 1990s, during which high sedimentation rates, high phosphorus abundance and burial fluxes due to the severe human activities impacted on the whole environmental system; (3) after 2000, the period of the improvement of environment, the whole system has been improved including the decreasing sedimentation rates, concentration and the burial fluxes of phosphorus.

  12. Phosphorus recovery from wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) is an important macro-nutrient essential for all living organisms and phosphate rock is the main raw material for all inorganic P fertilizers. It is expected that there will be a P peak and resulting P fertilizer shortage in near future. In general, phosphorus use efficiency is low a...

  13. 成纤维细胞生长因子-23与慢性肾病患者钙磷代谢的相关性研究%The Relationship Between Serum Level of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Phosphorus and Calcium Metabolism in CKD Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江蕾; 简桂花; 汪年松; 李青; 薛勤; 陈海冰; 高许萍; 贾伟平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the serum level of fibroblast growth factor 23( FGF -23 ) in CKD patients and explore the relationship bewteen FGF - 23 and phosphorus and calcium metabloism. Methods: Serum FGF - 23 level was determined by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA ) in CKD patients and twenty healthy controls. The levels of serum iPTH and 25( OH )D3 were measured by radioimmunology. At the same time, some other paremeters including serun creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, hemoglobin and c -reactive protein were measured in patients and healthy volunteers. Results :( 1 )The levels of serum FGF -23 in CKD group were significantly higher than that in normal controls( P < 0.01 ). ( 2 )In non - dialysis group, the level of serum FGF - 23 by Pearson relativity analysis was significantly correlated positively with intact parathomone( r= 0.619 ,P < 0.01 ), calcium - phosphorus product product( r= 0.533,P < 0.01 ), albumin( r= 0.312, P < 0.05 ) and c - reactive protein( r= 0.306,P < 0.05 ). The level of serum FGF -23 by Pearson relativity analysis was significantly correlated negatively with serum phosphorus( r= -0.621, P <0.01 ), corrected calcium( r= - 0.415, P < 0.01 ), eGFR( r= - 0.602, P < 0.01 ) and hemoglobin( r= - 0.628, P < 0.01 ) in non -dialysis group. In MHD group, the level of serum FGF -23 by Pearson relativity analysis was significantly correlated positively with intact parathormone( r= 0.390, P < 0.01 ) and c - reactive protein( r= 0.458,P < 0.01 ). In non - dialysis group, serum phosphorus, intact parathormone and creatinine clearance rate were found to be three variables independently that influence the level of serum FGF - 23 by multiple regression model. ( 3 )The regression equation is as follow: Y( FGF - 23 ) = 1.700 + 0.106( P ) + 0.048( LogPTH ) - 0.003( Ccr ). In MHD group, intact parathormone and c - reactive protein were significant variables that influenced the level of serum FGF- 23 in multiple regression

  14. Levels of available phosphorus and calcium for broilers from 8 to 35 days of age fed rations containing phytase Níveis de fósforo disponível e de cálcio para frangos de corte de 8 a 35 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimar Cardoso Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments using Cobb broiler chicks from 8 to 35 days of age were carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing levels of calcium and available phosphorus in diets supplemented with 500 ftu phytase/kg on the performance of the birds, the content of ashes in the tibia, the metabolizable energy of the diet, and the metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used 1,404 broiler chicks in the experiment 1 to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, food conversion and percentage of the ashes in the tibia. In the experiment 2, simultaneously carried out with experiment 1, a total of 390 birds were transferred to a metabolism room to determine the metabolizable energy and metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used in the two experiments, a complete random design in a 3 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme with three levels of available phosphorus (0.375; 0.325; and 0.275% and four levels of calcium (0.85; 0.75; 0.65 and 0.55% in the diets, supplemented with phytase. It was also used a control diet without phytase, based on corn and soybean bran, formulated with 0.425% of available phosphorus and 0.85% of calcium. In the experiment 1, the reduction of levels of calcium and phosphorus did not cause a significant difference on the performance and percentage of bone ashes. The levels of calcium and available phosphorus used in the experiment 2 can be reduced down to 0.65 and 0.325%, respectively, because the effects are similar to those obtained with the currently suggested levels.Dois experimentos com pintos de corte da linhagem Cobb no período de 8 a 35 dias de idade foram realizados para avaliar o efeito da redução dos níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 ftu de fitase/kg sobre o desempenho das aves, o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a energia metabolizável (EMAn da dieta e a metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 1

  15. 骨疏康胶囊对去卵巢骨质疏松大鼠骨密度及钙磷代谢的影响%Effect of Gushukang Capsule on Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rat about the Bone Density and Metabolism of Calcium and Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倚

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨骨疏康胶囊对去卵巢骨质疏松大鼠骨密度及钙磷代谢的影响。方法:选取雌性的 SD 大白鼠120只,随机分为四组,正常组、模型组、仙灵骨葆组、骨疏康组,每组30只,正常组不做造模手术,其余三组均做摘除卵巢的造模方法,术后10 d 开始给予灌药处理,模型组灌服生理盐水,仙灵骨葆组灌服仙灵骨葆水溶剂,骨疏康组给予骨疏康水溶剂灌服。90 d 后,检测4组大鼠的骨密度(BMD)、骨矿含量(BMC)、血清钙含量(Ca)、血清磷含量(P)等指标。结果:与正常组比较,模型组的大鼠骨密度及骨矿含量均显著下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),说明造模成功;与模型组比较,仙灵骨葆组与骨疏康组的鼠骨密度及骨矿含量均显著升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),与仙灵骨葆组比较,骨疏康组的鼠骨密度及骨矿含量均显著升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。与正常组比较,模型组的大鼠血钙及血磷含量均显著上升,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);与模型组比较,仙灵骨葆组与骨疏康组的血钙及血磷含量均显著下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);与仙灵骨葆组比较,骨疏康组的血钙及血磷含量均显著下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:骨疏康胶囊能够显著提高去卵巢骨质疏松大鼠的 BMD 及 BMC 的含量,降低血中 Ca 及 P 含量,对去卵巢骨质疏松大鼠具有一定的治疗价值。%Objective:To investigate the effect of Gushukang Capsule on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat about the bone density and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.Method:120 SD female rats were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups,normal group,model group,Xianlinggubao group, Gushukang group,30 rats in each group.The normal group were not given molding operation,the remaining 3 groups were given molding method of the ovaries removal,10 d

  16. The release of dissolved phosphorus from lake sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, P.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Chapter 1. Introduction: Eutrophication is one of the world's major water quality problems. Attempts to alleviate eutrophication of lakes have involved the control of phosphorus loadings. In such cases, an internal loading of phosphorus from the sediments may retard an improvement o

  17. Glacial atmospheric CO2 decline in association with decrease of marine sedimentary phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG; Huanxin; ZHANG; Xingmao; WU; Nengyou; WANG; Ying; CHEN; Lihong; ZHONG; Hexian; QIN; Yachao

    2006-01-01

    The environmental and biogeochemical information extracted from the sediments collected from the northern shelf of the South China Sea shows that terrigenous inputs of phosphorus into the sea remained relatively constant, and the variation of phosphorus contents at different depths was caused by climatic and environmental changes. The findings also suggest that the vertical variation of phosphorus content was opposite to those of calcium carbonate and cadmium, and the functional correlation between CO2 and PO43? in seawater was given by calculating the chemical equilibrium, indicating that the accumulation of marine sedimentary phosphorus may have something to do with the variation of atmospheric CO2. The decreased phosphorus accumulation as well as the correspondingly-increased calcium carbonate content might be one of key factors causing glacial atmospheric CO2 decline.

  18. Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P≥0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P≥0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

  19. Relação tireóide-gônadas e níveis plasmáticos de fósforo, cálcio e fosfatase alcalina em ratas Relationship between thyroid, gonads and plasmatic levels of phosphorus, calcium and alkaline phosphatase in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A relação tireóide-gônadas-metabolismo ósseo foi estudada em ratas Wistar adultas, castradas ou intactas e mantidas em estado hipertireóideo ou eutireóideo por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias. Foram utilizadas como características do metabolismo ósseo o cálcio, o fósforo e a atividade da fosfatase alcalina plasmáticos, correlacionando-os com os valores de estrógeno, de progesterona e de T4 livre. Verificou-se que o hipogonadismo e o hipertireoidismo alteram as características plasmáticas do metabolismo ósseo. O hipertireoidismo induz hiperfosfatemia e hipocalcemia, o hipogonadismo tem pouca influência sobre o fósforo, mas potencializa a hiperfosfatemia e a hipocalcemia desencadeadas pelo hipertireoidismo. Com relação à fosfatase alcalina, conclui-se que o hipertireoidismo reduz o efeito do hipogonadismo sobre a atividade dessa enzima.The interrelation between thyroid, gonads and osseous metabolism was studied in either intact or castrated adult female rats kept under hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism for 30, 60, or 90 days. Plasmatic levels of phosphorus, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were measured to assess the osseous metabolism. These characteristics were correlated to the levels of estrogen, progesterone, and free T4. Either hypogonadism or hyperthyroidism interfered with the plasmatic characteristics of osseous metabolism. Hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia were induced by hyperthyroidism, whereas the hypogonadism had little effect on the levels of phosphorus, but it had a potencialization effect on the hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia induced by hyperthyroidism. The effect of hypogonadism on the alkaline phosphatase activity was reduced by the hyperthyroidism.

  20. Ethylene: a regulator of root architectural responses to soil phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Lynch, J.P.; Brown, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in root architectural responses to phosphorus availability was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L,) plants grown with sufficient and deficient phosphorus. Although phosphorus deficiency reduced root mass and lateral root number, main root length was unchang

  1. Ethylene: a regulator of root architectural responses to soil phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Lynch, J.P.; Brown, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in root architectural responses to phosphorus availability was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L,) plants grown with sufficient and deficient phosphorus. Although phosphorus deficiency reduced root mass and lateral root number, main root length was unchang

  2. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  3. Calcium induces long-term legacy effects in a subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaffner

    Full Text Available Human activities have transformed a significant proportion of the world's land surface, with profound effects on ecosystem processes. Soil applications of macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, potassium or calcium are routinely used in the management of croplands, grasslands and forests to improve plant health or increase productivity. However, while the effects of continuous fertilization and liming on terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, remarkably little is known about the legacy effect of historical fertilization and liming events in terrestrial ecosystems and of the mechanisms involved. Here, we show that more than 70 years after the last application of lime on a subalpine grassland, all major soil and plant calcium pools were still significantly larger in limed than in unlimed plots, and that the resulting shift in the soil calcium/aluminium ratio continues to affect ecosystem services such as primary production. The difference in the calcium content of the vegetation and the topmost 10 cm of the soil in limed vs. unlimed plots amounts to approximately 19.5 g m(-2, equivalent to 16.3% of the amount that was added to the plots some 70 years ago. In contrast, plots that were treated with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the 1930s did not differ from unfertilized plots in any of the soil and vegetation characteristics measured. Our findings suggest that the long-term legacy effect of historical liming is due to long-term storage of added calcium in stable soil pools, rather than a general increase in nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate that single applications of calcium in its carbonated form can profoundly and persistently alter ecosystem processes and services in mountain ecosystems.

  4. A Brief Review on Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease (Pseudogout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD or pseudo gout is a metabolic arthropathy caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in and around joints especially in articular cartilage and fibro cartilage. Pseudo gout is a joint disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like gout, the condition involves the formation of crystals in the joints. But in pseudo gout, the crystals are formed from a salt instead of uric acid. Almost any joint may be involved by CPDD, although the knees, wrists, and hips are most often affected. Exact mechanism for the development of CPDD is still not known, but increased adenosine triphosphate breakdown which leads to increased inorganic pyrophosphate in the joints results from aging, genetic factors, or both. CPDD is a common condition that occurs with aging in all races. About 50% of people above 85 years have chondrocalcinosis in the United States. Physical examination findings show an acutely inflamed joint with swelling, effusion, warmth, tenderness and pain on motion similar to acute gouty arthritis and occur in the knee but may be present in the wrists, shoulders, ankles, hands and feet. Laboratory tests include serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, alkaline phosphatase levels, iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and ferritin, thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Imaging studies like radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and Ultrasonography is done. Management of CPPD includes surgery and pharmacotherapy with Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, anti-inflammatory agents like colchicine and corticosteroids such as prednisone and methylprednisolone.

  5. Evidence for the involvement of carbonic anhydrase and urease in calcium carbonate formation in the gravity-sensing organ of Aplysia californica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrozo, H. A.; Schwartz, Z.; Dean, D. D.; Harrison, J. L.; Campbell, J. W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Boyan, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms that could modulate the formation of otoconia, calcium carbonate granules in the inner ear of vertebrate species, we examined statoconia formation in the gravity-sensing organ, the statocyst, of the gastropod mollusk Aplysia californica using an in vitro organ culture model. We determined the type of calcium carbonate present in the statoconia and investigated the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and urease in regulating statocyst pH as well as the role of protein synthesis and urease in statoconia production and homeostasis in vitro. The type of mineral present in statoconia was found to be aragonitic calcium carbonate. When the CA inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZ), was added to cultures of statocysts, the pH initially (30 min) increased and then decreased. The urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), decreased statocyst pH. Simultaneous addition of AZ and AHA caused a decrease in pH. Inhibition of urease activity also reduced total statoconia number, but had no effect on statoconia volume. Inhibition of protein synthesis reduced statoconia production and increased statoconia volume. In a previous study, inhibition of CA was shown to decrease statoconia production. Taken together, these data show that urease and CA play a role in regulating statocyst pH and the formation and maintenance of statoconia. CA produces carbonate ion for calcium carbonate formation and urease neutralizes the acid formed due to CA action, by production of ammonia.

  6. Serum phosphorus reduction in dialysis patients treated with cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism results mainly from parathyroid hormone reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zitt, Emanuel; Fouque, Denis; Jacobson, Stefan H

    2013-01-01

    The calcimimetic cinacalcet lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). We explored serum P changes in dialysis patients treated with cinacalcet, while controlling for vitamin D sterol and phosphate binder (PB...

  7. Biogeochemistry: Early phosphorus redigested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Simon W.

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric oxygen was maintained at low levels throughout huge swathes of Earth's early history. Estimates of phosphorus availability through time suggest that scavenging from anoxic, iron-rich oceans stabilized this low-oxygen world.

  8. Phosphorus reduction by sifting fish waste meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lima de Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal is widely included in animal feed because it contains ideal essential amino acids profile, it is rich in energy, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals and with >80% apparent protein digestibility in peneid shrimp. In human nutrition, studies are investigating the inclusion of fish meal in snacks, cakes, breads and cookies, as an enrichment in calcium, phosphorus, iron, protein and, especially, omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids reduces heart diseases and have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties (eicosapentaenoic acid, and are essential to the formation of brain tissue and retina in infants and are important during pregnancy and lactation (docosahexaenoic acid. Fish meal produced from fish waste is rich in minerals (phosphorus, which may cause eutrophication and impair water quality in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to reduce phosphorus content from commercial fish meal produced from waste by sifting (0.60 - 1.00 - 1.18 - 1.40 - 2.36 and 3.35mm mesh sizes. Fish meal samples were collected monthly for 24 months. Proximate composition of subsamples per mesh size was compared to the unsieved sample. Results indicate that sifting through a 0.60mm sieve total phosphorus and ash contents were reduced up to 32% and 36%, respectively, further to increase protein content up to 20%. Average composition of the subsamples was 47.04% ash, 5.56% of total phosphorus and 39.45% protein, suggesting that the residue of the fractionation may be marketed as a mineral and protein supplement.

  9. Involvement of TRPV2 and SOCE in calcium influx disorder in DMD primary human myotubes with a specific contribution of α1-syntrophin and PLC/PKC in SOCE regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisseh, Rania; Chatelier, Aurélien; Magaud, Christophe; Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    Calcium homeostasis is critical for several vital functions in excitable and nonexcitable cells and has been shown to be impaired in many pathologies including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Various studies using murine models showed the implication of calcium entry in the dystrophic phenotype. However, alteration of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2)-dependant cation entry has not been investigated yet in human skeletal muscle cells. We pharmacologically characterized basal and store-operated cation entries in primary cultures of myotubes prepared from muscle of normal and DMD patients and found, for the first time, an increased SOCE in DMD myotubes. Moreover, this increase cannot be explained by an over expression of the well-known SOCE actors: TRPC1/4, Orai1, and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) mRNA and proteins. Thus we investigated the modes of regulation of this cation entry. We firstly demonstrated the important role of the scaffolding protein α1-syntrophin, which regulates SOCE in primary human myotubes through its PDZ domain. We also studied the implication of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) in SOCE and showed that their inhibition restores normal levels of SOCE in DMD human myotubes. In addition, the involvement of TRPV2 in calcium deregulation in DMD human myotubes was explored. We showed an abnormal elevation of TRPV2-dependant cation entry in dystrophic primary human myotubes compared with normal ones. These findings show that calcium homeostasis mishandling in DMD myotubes depends on SOCE under the influence of Ca(2+)/PLC/PKC pathway and α1-syntrophin regulation as well as on TRPV2-dependant cation influx.

  10. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by proteoliposomes and cultured rat sertoli cells: Evidence for involvement of voltage-activated and voltage-independent calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Albany Medical College, NY (USA))

    1989-12-01

    We have previously reported incorporation into liposomes of Triton X-100-solubilized FSH receptor-G-protein complexes derived from purified bovine calf testis membranes. In the present study we have used this model system to show that FSH induces flux of 45Ca2+ into such proteoliposomes in a hormone-specific concentration-dependent manner. FSH, inactivated by boiling, had no stimulatory effect on 45Ca2+ flux, nor did isolated alpha- or beta-subunits of FSH. Addition of GTP (or its analogs 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate and guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) or sodium fluoride (in the presence or absence of GTP or its analogs) failed to induce 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes, suggesting that the uptake of 45Ca2+ was receptor, and not G-protein, related. Voltage-independent (ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride) and voltage-activated (methyoxyverapamil and nifedipine) calcium channel-blocking agents reduced FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes to control levels. FSH also induced uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells. Ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake or estradiol secretion by cultured rat Sertoli cells, nor did methoxyverapamil or nifedipine. All four calcium channel blockers, however, were able to reduce FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake to basal levels and FSH-stimulated conversion of androstenedione to estradiol by up to 50%, indicating an involvement of Ca2+ in FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Our results suggest that the well documented changes in intracellular calcium levels consequent to FSH binding may be due, at least in part, to an influx of calcium through FSH receptor-regulated calcium channels.

  11. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, B.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the potential and limitations for recovery of phosphate from secondary materials in the production process for white phosphorus. This thermal process involves the feeding of phosphate rock, cokes and pebbles to a furnace. The reducing conditions in the furnace promote the forma

  12. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P generally occurs in soils as the anions H2PO4- or HPO4-2 depending on soil pH. These anions readily react with soil cations such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Crop recovery of applied phosphate fertilizer can be quite low during the season of application. In addition, the large amounts of crop residue present in no-tillage production systems can lower soil temperature thus reducing root growth and nutrient uptake of plants even on soils not low in available Phosphorus (P. Specialty Fertilizer Products, Leawood, KS has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of the applied P in available form for plant uptake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of AVAIL treated P-fertilizer on growth, P-uptake and yield of irrigated corn (Zea mays L. grown in a no-tillage production system. A 3-year experiment was conducted from 2001-2003 at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field, located near Scandia, KS, on a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Arquistoll. Treatments consisted of three rates of P with or without AVAIL. A no P check plot was also included. When averaged over the years and P rates, the use of AVAIL increased yield of corn by 1.1 Mg ha-1. AVAIL also increased corn dry weight at the six-leaf stage, whole plant P uptake at the six-leaf stage and P concentration at mid-silk. The use of AVAIL proved beneficial in overcoming many of the problems associated with P nutrition in corn. AVAIL consistently increased P uptake and yield in this experiment.

  13. Rações com níveis reduzidos de proteína bruta, cálcio e fósforo com fitase e aminoácidos para frangos de corte Diets with reduced crude protein, calcium and phosphorus levels with phytase and amino acids for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Minati Gomide

    2011-11-01

    ácidos.In performance and metabolism trials, diets with reduced levels of crude protein, calcium and available phosphorus on the performance, carcass characteristics, tibia ashes, balance and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus of broiler chickens in phase from 8 to 21 and 8 to 35 days were evaluated. In each phase, 30 and 25 birds per experimental unit were used in the performance assay and five and three in the metabolism assay, respectively, in a completely randomized experimental design, with six replications. Treatments consisted of diet with 21% crude protein without phytase (control, formulated with nutritional levels recommended on the Brazilian tables, and diets with 21, 20, 19 and 18% crude protein with phytase (8 to 21 days and from 8 to 35 days, the control diet had 20% crude protein without phytase (control, and others diets with 20, 19, 18, 17% crude protein, with phytase. In the diets with phytase (80 g of Ronozyme NP(M phytase per ton of diet, the level of available phosphorus was reduced in 0.15 and the calcium in 0.30 percentage points in relation to the control diet. No effect was observed with the reduction of nutrients on feed intake, weight gain, or feed conversion in either phase or for the study of carcass characteristics to the 35 days. However, higher abdominal fat percentage was observed when the broilers were fed diet with lower protein level. The excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased when birds received diets with reduced levels of these nutrients. Ash percentage in the tibia was not influenced by treatments. It is possible to reduce protein level, available phosphorus, and calcium of the diets in up to 3, 0.15 and 0.30 percentage points when the diets are supplemented with phytase and amino acids, respectively.

  14. Capsaicin mimics mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events: involvement of TRPV1-mediated calcium signaling in induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Naoki; Ruegg, Urs T; Kudo, Akira; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events are important for subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy. We previously showed that load-induced activation of the cation channel TRPV1 caused an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca ( 2+) ]i) and that this activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and promoted muscle hypertrophy. However, the link between mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events, and the TRPV1-mediated increases in [Ca ( 2+) ]i are not fully understood. Here we show that administration of the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, induces phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, S6, Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK, but not Akt, AMPK or GSK3β. Furthermore, the TRPV1-induced phosphorylation patterns resembled those induced by mechanical load. Our results continue to highlight the importance of TRPV1-mediated calcium signaling in load-induced intracellular signaling pathways.

  15. Gossypol increases expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein NOXA through a novel mechanism involving phospholipase A2, cytoplasmic calcium, and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Ryan S; Danilov, Alexey V; Eastman, Alan

    2014-06-06

    Gossypol is a putative BH3 mimetic proposed to inhibit BCL2 and BCLXL based on cell-free assays. We demonstrated previously that gossypol failed to directly inhibit BCL2 in cells or induce apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells or platelets, which require BCL2 or BCLXL, respectively, for survival. Here, we demonstrate that gossypol rapidly increased activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which led to an increase in cytoplasmic calcium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and up-regulation of the BH3-only protein NOXA. Pretreatment with the PLA2 inhibitor, aristolochic acid, abrogated the increase in calcium, ER stress, and NOXA. Calcium chelation also abrogated the gossypol-induced increase in calcium, ER stress, and NOXA, but not the increase in PLA2 activity, indicating that PLA2 is upstream of these events. In addition, incubating cells with the two products of PLA2 (lysophosphatidic acid and arachidonic acid) mimicked treatment with gossypol. NOXA is a pro-apoptotic protein that functions by binding the BCL2 family proteins MCL1 and BFL1. The BCL2 inhibitor ABT-199 is currently in clinical trials for CLL. Resistance to ABT-199 can occur from up-regulation of other BCL2 family proteins, and this resistance can be mimicked by culturing CLL cells on CD154(+) stroma cells. We report here that AT-101, a derivative of gossypol in clinical trials, overcomes stroma-mediated resistance to ABT-199 in primary CLL cells, suggesting that a combination of these drugs may be efficacious in the clinic.

  16. Involvement of reactive oxygen species and high-voltage-activated calcium currents in nanoparticle zinc oxide-induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jingxia [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China); Yao Yang [Tianjin First Central Hospital (China); Liu Shichang [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China); Zhang Tao [Nankai University, College of Life Science (China); Ren Guogang [University of Hertfordshire, Science and Technology Research Institute (United Kingdom); Yang Zhuo, E-mail: zhuoyang@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China)

    2012-11-15

    This study was to determine the possible neurotoxicity and mechanisms underlying the effects of nano-ZnO with sizes of 20-80 nm on central nervous system (CNS). The cytotoxicity of nano-ZnO was investigated in PC12 cells. The viability of cells was observed by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for cells was evaluated by a fluorometry assay. The apoptosis of cells was detected and analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, effects of nano-ZnO on the properties of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium currents were studied in acutely isolated rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results of MTT assay showed that nano-ZnO (10{sup -4} g/mL) caused a significant decrease in cell viability (P < 0.05). Nano-ZnO induced intracellular accumulation of ROS and the apoptosis of PC12 cells with the increasing concentration of nano-ZnO in flow cytometric assay (P < 0.05). Further results of electrophysiological recording indicated that 10{sup -4} g/mL nano-ZnO first altered the current-voltage curve and the peak amplitudes of HVA calcium currents at 10 min of the recording, and the peak current amplitudes were increased significantly at the end of 30 min (P < 0.05). All these results suggested that the increase of intracellular ROS was one of potential mechanisms of cellular apoptosis induced by nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO could cause the elevation of cytosolic calcium levels by enhancement of HVA calcium currents, which would increase the generation of intracellular ROS, and consequently promote the neuronal apoptosis.

  17. Involvement of transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) in menthol-induced calcium entry, reactive oxygen species production and cell death in rheumatoid arthritis rat synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang; Pan, Leiting; Yang, Shuang; Sun, Yonglin; Wang, Xinyu; Hu, Fen

    2014-02-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis is most prominently characterized by synoviocyte hyperplasia which therefore serves as an important target for clinical therapy. In the present study, it was observed that menthol, the specific agonist of transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8), could induce sustained increases of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in synoviocytes isolated from collagen-induced arthritis rats in dose-dependent manner, which was evidently blocked by applying an extracellular Ca(2+)-free buffer. Menthol-induced [Ca(2+)]c increase was also significantly inhibited by potent TRPM8 antagonist capsazepine (CZP), indicating that this [Ca(2+)]c elevation was mostly attributed to TRPM8-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Besides, RT-PCR indeed demonstrated presence of TRPM8 in the synoviocytes. Meanwhile, it was found that menthol evoked production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which could be abolished by Ca(2+) free solutions or CZP. Further experiments showed that menthol reduced the cell numbers and survival of synoviocytes. This reduction was associated with apoptosis as suggested by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, nuclear condensation and a caspase 3/7 apoptotic assay. Menthol-induced death and apoptosis of synoviocytes both were obviously inhibited by CZP, intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, respectively. Taken together, our data indicated that menthol resulted in synoviocyte death associated with apoptosis via calcium entry and reactive oxygen species production depending on TRPM8 activation.

  18. Effect of puerarin combined with estradiol on bone tissue and serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase in ovariectomized rats%葛根素联合雌二醇对去卵巢大鼠骨组织及血钙、磷和碱性磷酸酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 王金花; 黄海玲; 陈建海; 黎飚

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解小剂量葛根素联合雌二醇对去卵巢大鼠的骨组织、血钙、磷和碱性磷酸酶的影响,为中西医结合治疗绝经后骨质疏松症提供实验依据.方法:5月龄健康雌性大白鼠120只,分成5个实验组(每组24只):①假手术组(sham);②去卵巢模型组(OVX);③葛根索组(Pr),皮下注射葛根素,50 mg/kg,1次/d;④雌二醇组(E2),皮下注射雌二醇200 μg/kg,2次/周;⑤小剂量葛根素+雌二醇组(Pr+ E2),皮下注射雌二醇100 μg/kg,2次/周和葛根素25 mg/kg,1次/d.各实验组在第4、8、12和20周,随机取6只大鼠取股骨切片观察骨组织,采血测量血钙、磷和碱性磷酸酶,数据进行统计学分析.结果:OVX组第4、8、12、20周的骨组织呈骨质疏松病理改变,血钙、磷明显低于sham组(P<0.01),OVX组的第4、8、12、20周血碱性磷酸酶均明显高于sham组(P<0.01).3个治疗组各时间的骨组织和血钙、磷和碱性磷酸酶与sham组无统计学意义(P>0.05).小剂量的葛根素联合雌二醇治疗能使去卵巢大鼠骨组织和血钙、磷和血碱性磷酸酶基本恢复正常(P>0.05),与较大剂量的葛根素组或较大剂量的雌二醇组相比无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:小剂量的雌二醇与葛根素对去卵巢大鼠的骨质疏松症的治疗效果与单独使用较大剂量的葛根素或较大剂量的雌二醇相比治疗效果相近.%Objective: To understand the effect of puerarin combined with estradiol on bone tissue and serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase in ovariectomized rats, and provide experimental basis for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis with traditional Chinese medicine combined with Western medicine. Methods: One hundred and twenty 5 - month - old female rats were selected and divided into five experimental groups, 24 rats in each group: sham - operation group, ovariectomized model group, puerarin group (the rats were treated with subcutaneous injection of puerarin

  19. The effect of different modes of peritoneal dialysis treatment to the hemodialysis patients'calcium phosphorus metabolism and PTH%不同腹膜透析治疗模式对透析患者钙磷代谢及PTH的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娜孜亚·斯加克; 岳华

    2015-01-01

    目的 比较采用日间非卧床腹膜透析(DAPD)与经典持续非卧床腹膜透析(CAPD)对钙磷代谢及PTH的影响.方法 从新疆维吾尔自治区人民医院肾病科160例行腹膜透析患者中选取符合条件的83例,年龄在20~80岁,平均年龄为(45.26±16.14)岁,根据不同透析方式分为两组:CAPD组:共54例,男33例,女21例;DAPD组:共29例,男16例,女13例.CAPD组每次的透析剂量为6~8L、3~4次交换、夜间留腹(留腹的透析液浓度为1.5%);DAPD组日间采用6~8L的透析剂量,每袋透析液交换时间为3~4h,夜间干腹.观察这些患者相关临床指标包括患者的一般资料、血钙(Ca2+)、血磷(P3-)、甲状旁腺激素(PTH)以及残余肾功能.结果 两组在一般资料比较中差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),两组在血钙(Ca2+)、血磷(P3-)、甲状旁腺激素(PTH)等方面差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),比较两组的超滤量以及比较透前残余肾功能与透后一年后残余肾功能差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 行DAPD治疗的患者比经典的CAPD患者能更有效的控制钙磷代谢,并能更好的保护残余肾功能.%Objectives To compare the effect of daytime ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(DAPD) and classical continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) on calcium phosphorus metabolism and PTH.Methods Selected 83 cases of qualified patients from the 160 patients who got peritoneal dialysis in nephrology of Xinjiang Autonomous Region People's Hospital,age from 20 ~ 80,the average age was (45.26 ± 16.14),divided them into two groups according to the different method of dialysis:CADP group:54 cases,33 men,21 women;DAPD group:29 cases,16 men,13 women.Dialysis dose of the CAPD group was 6-8 L,exchange for 3 ~ 4 times,abdomen left at night (the abdomen left concentration of dialysate was 1.5%);DAPD group used 6 ~ 8L dialysis dose at day time,each bag of dialysate exchange time was 3 ~ 4h,dry abdomen at night.Observed these

  20. Adaptive Evolution of Phosphorus Metabolism in Prochlorococcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, John R; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    reactions involving 680 metabolites distributed in 6 subcellular locations. iJC568 was used to quantify metabolic fluxes under PLG conditions, and we observed a close correspondence between experimental and computed fluxes. We found that MED4 has minimized its dependence on intracellular phosphate, not only...... and in the field; however, the optimization of phosphorus metabolism and associated gains for its phosphorus-limited-growth (PLG) phenotype have not been studied. Here, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic network of the HLI axenic strain MED4 (iJC568), consisting of 568 metabolic genes in relation to 794...... and an extremely high proportion of essential metabolic genes (47%; defined as the percentage of lethal in silico gene knockouts). These strategies are examples of nutrient-controlled adaptive evolution and confer a dramatic growth rate advantage to MED4 in phosphorus-limited regions. ...

  1. Organic chemistry of elemental phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyukov, V A; Budnikova, Yulia H; Sinyashin, Oleg G [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-30

    The principal achievements and the modern trends in the development of the chemistry of elemental phosphorus are analysed, described systematically and generalised. The possibilities and advantages of the preparation of organophosphorus compounds directly from white phosphorus are demonstrated. Attention is focused on the activation and transformation of elemental phosphorus in the coordination sphere of transition metal complexes. The mechanisms of the reactions of white phosphorus with nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents are discussed. Electrochemical approaches to the synthesis of organic phosphorus derivatives based on white phosphorus are considered.

  2. Low Phosphorus Diet: Best for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet: Best for kidney disease? Why is a low-phosphorus diet useful in managing kidney disease? What ... choose foods that are lower in phosphorus. Choose low-phosphorus foods The best way to limit phosphorus ...

  3. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources.

  4. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  5. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretionin ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, David; Sauvant, Daniel; Bogaert, Catherine; Meschy, François

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus...

  6. Effects of lactic acid and glycolic acid on human osteoblasts: a way to understand PLGA involvement in PLGA/calcium phosphate composite failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Florent; Wardale, John; Best, Serena; Cameron, Ruth; Rushton, Neil; Brooks, Roger

    2012-06-01

    The use of degradable composite materials in orthopedics remains a field of intense research due to their ability to support new bone formation and degrade in a controlled manner, broadening their use for orthopedic applications. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA), a degradable biopolymer, is now a popular material for different orthopedic applications and is proposed for use in tissue engineering scaffolds either alone or combined with bioactive ceramics. Interference screws composed of calcium phosphates and PLGA are readily available in the market. However, some reports highlight problems of screw migration or aseptic cyst formation following screw degradation. In order to understand these phenomena and to help to improve implant formulation, we have evaluated the effects of PLGA degradation products: lactic acid and glycolic acid on human osteoblasts in vitro. Cell proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization, important for bone healing were studied. It was found that the toxicity of polymer degradation products under buffering conditions was limited to high concentrations. However, non-toxic concentrations led to a decrease in cell proliferation, rapid cell differentiation, and mineralization failure. Calcium, whilst stimulating cell proliferation was not able to overcome the negative effects of high concentrations of lactic and glycolic acids on osteoblasts. These effects help to explain recently reported clinical failures of calcium phosphate/PLGA composites, but further in vitro analyses are needed to mimic the dynamic situation which occurs in the body by, for example, culture of osteoblasts with materials that have been pre-degraded to different extents and thus be able to relate these findings to the degradation studies that have been performed previously.

  7. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadata. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of...

  8. Involvement of intracellular calcium and src tyrosine-kinase in capacitation of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa Participación del calcio intracelular y src tirosina quinasas en la capacitación del espermatozoide bovino criopreservado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Satorre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase of intracellular calcium concentration and tyrosine kinase involvement are pivotal in sperm capacitation. The aim was to determine the involvement of intracellular calcium and tyrosine kinases activity in frozen-thawed spermatozoa capacitated with heparin or quercetin. Genistein or PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl-7-(t-butylpyrazolo3,4, pyrimidine were used to inhibit tyrosine kinases, and methoxyverapamil to inhibit voltage dependent calcium channels. Capacitation was determined by chlortetracycline and calcium by fl uorescence spectrophotometry. Protein tyrosine-phosphorylation was determined by western blot. Pooled frozen semen samples from four bulls were used. In presence of heparin or quercetin capacitated spermatozoa percentage and intracellular calcium were greater (PEl incremento de calcio intracelular [Ca]i y la participación de tirosina quinasa son pasos cruciales en la inducción de la capacitación. El objetivo fue determinar en espermatozoides criopreservados, la variación [Ca]i y la actividad de tirosina quinasa en la capacitación con heparina o quercetina. Genisteina o PP2(4-amino-5-(4-clorofenil-7-(t-butilpirazolo3,4,d pirimidina son inhibidores de tirosinas quinasas y de la isoforma SRC, respectivamente. Metoxiverapamil es un inhibidor de canales de calcio voltaje dependiente (CCVD. La capacitación, [Ca]i y fosforilación en tirosina se evaluaron con clorotetraciclina, espectrofl uorometría y western blot, respectivamente. El porcentaje de espermatozoides capacitados y [Ca]i fueron mayores (P<0.05 en muestras con heparina o quercetina respecto a sus controles. Genisteina o PP2 disminuyeron (P<0.05 la capacitación y el incremento de [Ca]i en las muestras con heparina pero no en las tratadas con quercetina. Genisteina o PP2 inhibió diferencialmente la fosforilación de proteínas espermáticas con ambos inductores. Methoxiverapamil bloqueó el incremento de [Ca]i sólo en la muestras con heparina. Siendo los

  9. Involvement of phospholipase C and intracellular calcium signaling in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of prolactin release from lactotrophs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Weber, G M; Strom, C N

    2005-01-01

    pituitary gland from which a nearly pure population of PRL cells can be isolated, we examined whether GnRH might stimulate PRL release through an increase in phospholipase C (PLC), inositol triphosphate (IP3), and intracellular calcium (Ca(i)2+) signaling. Using Ca(i)2+ imaging and the calcium-sensitive dye...... fura-2, we found that chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) induced a rapid dose-dependent increase in Ca(i)2+ in dispersed tilapia lactotrophs. The Ca(i)2+ signal was abolished by U-73122, an inhibitor of PLC-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Correspondingly, cGnRH-II-induced tPRL188 secretion was inhibited...... by U-73122, suggesting that activation of PLC mediates cGnRH-II's stimulatory effect on PRL secretion. Pretreatment with 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8), an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, impeded the effect of cGnRH-II on Ca(i)2...

  10. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  11. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the total tract digestibility of innate and supplemental organic and inorganic microminerals in a corn-soybean meal based diet of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and micromineral sources on mineral digestibility were evaluated in growing pigs. Treatments consisted of 2 levels of CaP and 3 trace mineral (TM) treatments arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. The CaP levels evaluated were: 1) 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P [standard CaP (Std CaP)], and 2) 1.00% Ca and 0.85% P (High CaP). The TM treatments were: 1) Basal, without supplemental TM, 2) Basal supplemented with organic TM, and 3) Basal supplemented with inorganic TM. Both organic and inorganic TM premixes added 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn/kg diet. Diets were formulated using corn soybean meal with a Ca to P ratio of 1.18 in both CaP treatments. Barrows with an initial BW of 45 kg were acclimated to stainless steel metabolism crates where diets were fed for 14 d before a 10-d collection period. Pigs within replicates were fed equivalent amounts of feed at 0800 and 1600 h each day with water provided free choice. Total feces, urine, and feed orts were collected daily. Essential macro- and microminerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Increasing dietary CaP decreased the digestibility of Ca and Zn. Phosphorus digestibility did not change when the P inclusion level increased from 0.55 to 0.85% Ptotal. The High CaP level resulted in a lower urinary excretion of most minerals, particularly Cu (P dietary CaP level increased but the others were not statistically significant. A summary of the ATTD for each of the experimental variables was statistically analyzed and averaged for the experiment. Although there were few statistical differences with individual minerals, they generally demonstrated a decline in digestibility when the High CaP was fed, averaging a 3% lower digestibility consistently than when the Std CaP level was fed. Organic TM averaged an approximately 5% greater digestibility than the average inorganic microminerals with the difference

  12. Dietary phosphorus overload aggravates the phenotype of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Eiji; Yoshida, Mizuko; Kojima, Yoriko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Shiozuka, Masataka; Date, Munehiro; Higashi, Tetsuo; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked disease with no effective treatment. Progressive muscle degeneration, increased macrophage infiltration, and ectopic calcification are characteristic features of the mdx mouse, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because dietary phosphorus/phosphate consumption is increasing and adverse effects of phosphate overloading have been reported in several disease conditions, we examined the effects of dietary phosphorus intake in mdx mice phenotypes. On weaning, control and mdx mice were fed diets containing 0.7, 1.0, or 2.0 g phosphorus per 100 g until they were 90 days old. Dystrophic phenotypes were evaluated in cryosections of quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles, and maximal forces and voluntary activity were measured. Ectopic calcification was analyzed by electron microscopy to determine the cells initially responsible for calcium deposition in skeletal muscle. Dietary phosphorus overload dramatically exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes of mdx mice by increasing inflammation associated with infiltration of M1 macrophages. In contrast, minimal muscle necrosis and inflammation were observed in exercised mdx mice fed a low-phosphorus diet, suggesting potential beneficial therapeutic effects of lowering dietary phosphorus intake on disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that dietary phosphorus intake directly affects muscle pathological characteristics of mdx mice. Dietary phosphorus overloading promoted dystrophic disease progression in mdx mice, whereas restricting dietary phosphorus intake improved muscle pathological characteristics and function.

  13. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  14. 含聚乙二醇长侧链的无磷阻垢剂合成与阻磷酸钙性能%Synthesis of a Non-Phosphorus Antiscalant Containing Poly( ethylene glycol)Long-side Chains and Its Performance on Inhibition of Calcium Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世娟; 符嫦娥; 杨维本

    2011-01-01

    Acrylic acid (AA) /ammonium allylpoly (ethylene glycol) sulfate( AS10,10 is the degree of polymerization of polyethylene glycol) copolymers, as non-phosphorus antiscalants for calcium-phosphate precipitation, were synthesized by using AA and AS10 as monomers and ammonium persulfate as initiator. The copolymer of AA/AS10 was characterized by means of FTIR. Through a single factor test, the optimal synthetic conditions were ascertained as follows;mass ration of AS10 to AA was 2:1 ,dose of initiator accounted for 3% of the total monomer mass, reaction temperature was 80 ℃,and polymerization time was 1.5 h. The influence of dose of AA/AS10 on calcium-phosphate inhibition was also investigated. It was found that there was a threshold dose of AA/AS10 antiscalant and approximately 92% of calcium-phosphate inhibition ratio was reached when the dose of AA/AS10 was 6 mg· L-1. Scanning electron microscope(SEM) images show that the application of AA/AS10 inhibitor significantly reduced the size of calcium-phosphate solids, thereby making them disperse in water without any precipitation.%采用过硫酸铵为引发剂,丙烯酸(AA)和烯丙基聚乙二醇硫酸铵(AS10,10是聚乙二醇聚合度)为单体制备了一种用于阻磷酸钙垢的无磷阻垢剂AA/AS10,并利用红外光谱对其结构进行了表征.通过单因素法确定了合成反应的最佳工艺:单体AS10与AA的质量比为2∶1,引发剂用量为反应物单体总质量的3%、反应温度为80℃、聚合时间为1.5h.同时考察了阻垢剂AA/AS10用量对共聚物阻磷酸钙垢性能的影响.结果表明,阻垢剂AA/AS10用量存在临界值效应,在临界值6 mg/L时,阻磷酸钙垢率约92%.扫描电镜研究表明,阻垢剂AA/AS10减小了磷酸钙固体颗粒的尺寸从而使其分散在水中而不沉积.

  15. 2型糖尿病伴显性糖尿病性肾脏疾病患者钙磷水平变化及其相关性分析%Changes of calcium and phosphorus levels and the correlation analysis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周应基; 刘永梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze serum calcium and phosphorus levels and its related factors of clinical type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with overt diabetic kidney disease (T2-dDKD).Methods Ninety cases of T2DM patients according to K/DOQI Recommendations in 2007 were selected as the study subjects.Based on the patients' 2 times mean urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR),these people were divided into three groups,namely Normal albuminuria group (30 patients,ACR<30 mg/gCr),Microalbuminuria group (30 patients,ACr =30-300 mg/gCr),Macroalbuminuria group (30 patients,ACR>300 mg/gCr).Thirty cases of healthy at the same period were selected as the Control group.Serum calcium,phosphorus,hs-CRP,IL-6,HbA1c were detected.And glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated.Results The eGFR in Normal albuminuria group was more higher than other groups (P<0.05),the eGFR of Microalbuminuria group was significantly lower than other groups (P<0.05).Subgroups of T2DM with different albuminuria presence and severity,duration was also different between the groups,the more albumin in urine,the longer its duration.The contents of HbA1c in the groups of varying degrees of albuminuria increased as urinary albumin aggravation (HbA1c was (8.87±2.44) %,(9.27±2.74)%,(11.04±2.86)% respectively,P<0.05),but there was not statistically significant between Microalbuminuria group ((9.27±2.74)%) and Normal albuminuria group ((8.87±2.44) %).Compared with Control group,in subgroups of T2DM,serum calcium was decreased((2.22±0.19) mmol/L,(2.16±0.14) mmol/L,(2.13±0.18) mmol/L,and the Contorl group was (2.32±0.11)mmol/L,P<0.05),and serum phosphorus ((1.16±0.31) mmol/L,(1.42±0.52) mmol/L,(1.98±0.58)mmol/L,and the Control group was (1.08±0.28) mmol/L),hs-CRP ((4.82±0.89) mmol/L,(8.46± 2.85)mmol/L,(13.09±3.49) mmol/L,and the Control group was (2.46±0.48) mmol/L),IL-6((10.32±4.19)pg/L,(14.78±4.34) pg/L,(16.67±6.62) pg/L,and the Control group was (7.03±2.15) pg/L) were

  16. 磷源对福美双诱导的肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良及骨骼钙、磷代谢的影响%Effects of Phosphorous Sources on Thiram-Induced Tibia Dyschondroplasia and Bone Calcium-Phosphorus Metabolism in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂广运; 白世平; 张克英; 彭西; 丁雪梅; 曾秋凤

    2012-01-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate the effects of mono-dicalcium phosphate ( MDCP) and dical-ciumphosphate (DCP) on thiram-induced tibia dyschondroplasia (TD) and bone calcium-phosphorus metabolism in broilers. A total of 120 Cobb broilers at 1 day of age were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments according to phosphorous sources (DCP and MDCP) at 1 to 21 d, and each treatment had 60 broilers. At 22 to 42 d, the experimental design consisted of a 2 x2 factorial arrangement for 4 treatments. The broilers fed diets with DCP or MDCP at 1 to 21 d were divided into two treatments at 22 d and they were fed diets with two levels of thiram (0, 100 mg/kg). Each treatment was three replicates with ten broilers in each replicate. While the thiram diet was fed only at 22 to 28 d and then they were switched to normal diets without thiram. The results showed as follows: 1) TD scores of broilers from MDCP group were lower than those of broilers from DCP group at 35 d (P = 0. 09) , however, it showed no significant difference for TD scores at 28 and 42 d between the two phosphorus sources (P >0. 05). Thiram significantly increased TD scores of broilers at 28, 35 and 42 d (P <0. 05). 2) The interactions were significant for tibia ash, Ca and P contents at 35 d (P < 0.05). Tibia ash, Ca, and P contents of broilers from MDCP group were significantly higher than those of broilers from DCP group under thiram-induced condition at 35 d. 3) Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) content of broilers from DCP group was higher than that of broilers from DCP group at 35 d (P =0. 12). MDCP may slow down the development of thiram-induced TD compared with DCP, which is related to calcium-phosphorus metabolism. It shows no significant influence on final TD scores between the two phosphorus sources. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24(9) : 1674-1682]%本试验旨在研究磷酸一二钙(MDCP)和磷酸氢钙(DCP)对福美双诱导的肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良(TD)及骨骼

  17. 慢性肾功能衰竭患者血清 FGF-23、血钙及血磷水平对左心功能的影响%Effect of FGF-23,serum calcium and phosphorus levels of patients with chronic renal failure on the left ventricular function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of FGF-23,serum calcium and phosphorus levels of patients with chronic renal failure on the left ventricular function. Methods From June 2012 to June 2015,148 patients with chronic renal failure were selected randomly,and divided into dialysis group with 88 cases and non-dialysis group with 60 cases. The differences of biochemical indicators and left heart function indicators between the two groups were compared. Then all patients were divided into four levels based on the serum level of FGF-23 by the quartile method,the difference of left cardiac function indicators between the four levels were compared,and the correlation between serum FGF-23 and cardiac function was investigated. Results FGF-23 of dialysis group was(199. 9 ± 60. 2)pg / ml,serum calcium was(2. 2 ± 0. 2)mmol/ L,serum phosphorus was(2. 5 ± 0. 7)mmol/ L,in comparation with non-dialysis group,the differences were significant(P < 0. 05). The difference of LVEF,MPI,LVH between 4 levels patients showed significant difference(P < 0. 05). There were significant negative correlation of serum FGF-23 with LVEF(r = - 0. 623,P < 0. 05),and positive correlation of serum FGF-23 with MPI(r =0. 503,P < 0. 05). Conclusions FGF-23,serum calcium and phosphorus levels of patients with chron-ic renal failure has remarkable effects on LVEF,MPI and LVH,and has effect on the left ventricular function.%目的:探讨慢性肾功能衰竭(CRF)患者血清成纤维细胞生长因子-23(FGF-23)、血钙及血磷水平对左心功能的影响。方法随机选择2012年6月至2015年6月慢性肾功能衰竭患者148例,分为透析组88例和非透析组60例,比较两组间各生化指标及左心功能指标的差异,按四分位数法将所有患者血清 FGF-23水平分为4个等级,比较各等级间心功能指标的差异,分析血清 FGF-23与心功能间的相关性。结果透析组 FGF-23[(199.9±60.2)pg/ ml]、血钙[(2.2±0.2)mmol/ L]、血磷[(2.5±0

  18. Concentração plasmática de cortisol, uréia, cálcio e fósforo em vacas de corte mantidas a pasto suplementadas com levedura de cromo durante a estação de monta Cortisol, urea, calcium and phosphorus plasma concentration in grazing beef cows supplemented with high chromium yeast during breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fabian Aragón Vásquez

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a influência da suplementação com cromo (Cr sobre a concentração plasmática de cortisol, uréia, cálcio e fósforo em vacas zebu mantidas a pasto e numa situação de estresse calórico durante a estação de monta. Foram utilizadas trinta vacas primíparas com peso entre 380 e 385kg. Os animais foram divididos em grupos de 15 vacas, formando o tratamento suplementado com Cr e o tratamento não suplementado (controle. As vacas pastorearam em piquetes formados por Brachiaria brizanta cv. Marandu. A fonte de Cr foi levedura enriquecida (1g Cr kg-1 de produto comercial e foi adicionado à mistura mineral aportando 0,017% de Cr. Amostras de sangue foram tomadas em três períodos através de venipunção jugular e coletadas em tubos contendo heparina. As amostras de plasma foram analisadas para fósforo, cálcio, uréia e cortisol. Os dados foram analisados como um desenho de blocos ao acaso. O consumo médio diário de mistura mineral foi de 72,92g no grupo suplementado com Cr (12,40mg Cr/cabeça/dia e 77,84g no grupo controle (0,78mg Cr/cabeça/dia. A concentração plasmática de cortisol, no grupo suplementado com Cr, foi menor que no tratamento controle (2,11mg dl-1 vs. 3,29mg dl-1. As concentrações plasmáticas de fósforo (6,36mg dl-1 vs 3,56mg dl-1 e de cálcio (12,87mg dl-1 vs 9,02mg dl-1 foram maiores no grupo suplementado com Cr durante o primeiro período, mas não existiram diferenças no segundo e terceiro períodos de colheita. Os níveis plasmáticos de uréia (17,13mg dl-1 vs. 17,70mg dl-1 não foram diferentes entre os grupos experimentais.The influence of supplemental chromium (Cr on plasma cortisol, urea, calcium and phosphorus concentration were investigated in grazing cattle in caloric stress situation during the breeding season. Thirty primiparous zebu cows with 380 to 385kg of body weight were assigned to the following treatments: 15 cows fed supplemental Cr and 15 cows without supplemental Cr (Control

  19. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D is needed to help your body use calcium. Milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason. ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ...

  20. The antiatherogenic potential of calcium antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, D B

    1988-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an arterial disease characterized by focal accumulation of collagen, elastin, lipids, and calcium at sites associated with macrophage infiltration and altered smooth muscle metabolic function. Studies in several types of animal models, especially cholesterol-fed rabbits, have shown that calcium competitors, calcium chelators, anticalcifying agents, and calcium channel blockers can reduce the accumulation of atherogenic lesion components and thus apparently decrease the progression of lesions. Although there are some conflicting data in the animal model studies using calcium channel antagonists, as a result of differences in experimental designs, it is now apparent that several classes of calcium channel blockers inhibit the progression of early arterial lesions induced by cholesterol feeding. The dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers appear to be more potent antiatherosclerotic agents than other classes of calcium channel antagonists. Several mechanisms involving regulation of endothelial cell, smooth muscle cell, and macrophage metabolic functions may be responsible for the calcium channel blocker effects on early lesion progression. For example, recent studies in cell culture model systems suggest that calcium channel blockers may significantly alter activities that regulate lipoprotein-derived cholesterol accumulation by cells. Some of these activities are independent of calcium flux across voltage-operated calcium channels. Thus, calcium channel blockers may reduce the progression of atherogenic lesions by a combination of decreasing calcium accumulation within arterial wall cells and by altering calcium-independent metabolic activities.

  1. Phosphorus chemistry and bacterial community composition interact in brackish sediments receiving agricultural discharges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sinkko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: External nutrient discharges have caused eutrophication in many estuaries and coastal seas such as the Baltic Sea. The sedimented nutrients can affect bacterial communities which, in turn, are widely believed to contribute to release of nutrients such as phosphorus from the sediment. METHODS: We investigated relationships between bacterial communities and chemical forms of phosphorus as well as elements involved in its cycling in brackish sediments using up-to-date multivariate statistical methods. Bacterial community composition was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning of the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial community composition differed along gradients of nutrients, especially of different phosphorus forms, from the estuary receiving agricultural phosphorus loading to the open sea. This suggests that the chemical composition of sediment phosphorus, which has been affected by riverine phosphorus loading, influenced on bacterial communities. Chemical and spatial parameters explained 25% and 11% of the variation in bacterial communities. Deltaproteobacteria, presumptively sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing, were strongly associated to chemical parameters, also when spatial autocorrelation was taken into account. Sulphate reducers correlated positively with labile organic phosphorus and total nitrogen in the open sea sediments. Sulphur/iron reducers and sulphate reducers linked to iron reduction correlated positively with aluminium- and iron-bound phosphorus, and total iron in the estuary. The sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing bacteria can thus have an important role both in the mineralization and mobilization of nutrients from sediment. SIGNIFICANCE: Novelty in our study is that relationships between bacterial community composition and different phosphorus forms, instead of total phosphorus, were investigated. Total phosphorus does not necessarily bring out interactions

  2. A Putative Chloroplast-Localized Ca(2+)/H(+) Antiporter CCHA1 Is Involved in Calcium and pH Homeostasis and Required for PSII Function in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Weitao; Jin, Honglei; Zhang, Taijie; Lai, Jianbin; Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Shengchun; Liu, Shengjie; Duan, Xuewu; Wang, Hongbin; Peng, Changlian; Yang, Chengwei

    2016-08-01

    Calcium is important for chloroplast, not only in its photosynthetic but also nonphotosynthetic functions. Multiple Ca(2+)/H(+) transporters and channels have been described and studied in the plasma membrane and organelle membranes of plant cells; however, the molecular identity and physiological roles of chloroplast Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters have remained unknown. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the UPF0016 family, CCHA1 (a chloroplast-localized potential Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter), in Arabidopsis thaliana. We observed that the ccha1 mutant plants developed pale green leaves and showed severely stunted growth along with impaired photosystem II (PSII) function. CCHA1 localizes to the chloroplasts, and the levels of the PSII core subunits and the oxygen-evolving complex were significantly decreased in the ccha1 mutants compared with the wild type. In high Ca(2+) concentrations, Arabidopsis CCHA1 partially rescued the growth defect of yeast gdt1Δ null mutant, which is defective in a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter. The ccha1 mutant plants also showed significant sensitivity to high concentrations of CaCl2 and MnCl2, as well as variation in pH. Taken these results together, we propose that CCHA1 might encode a putative chloroplast-localized Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter with critical functions in the regulation of PSII and in chloroplast Ca(2+) and pH homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  3. The role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats involves regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Wang, Shilei; Li, Yu; Wang, Peng; Li, Shuhong; Guo, Yunliang; Yao, Ruyong

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) maintains intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis by transporting Ca2+ from the cell cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix and is important for shaping Ca2+ signals and the activation of programmed cell death. Inhibition of MCU by ruthenium red (RR) or Ru360 has previously been reported to protect against neuronal death. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanisms underlying the effects of MCU activity in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; sham, I/R, I/R + RR and I/R + spermine (Sper) and were subjected to reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h of reperfusion. A bolus injection of RR administered 30 min prior to ischemia was found to significantly decrease the total infarct volume and reduce neuronal damage and cell apoptosis compared with ischemia/reperfusion values. However, treatment with Sper, an activator of the MCU, increased the injury induced by I/R. Analysis of energy metabolism revealed that I/R induced progressive inhibition of complexes I‑IV of the electron transport chain, decreased ATP production, dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment with RR ameliorated the condition, while spermine had the opposite effect. In conclusion, blocking MCU was demonstrated to exert protective effects against I/R injury and this process may be mediated by the prevention of energy failure.

  4. A Novel Approach to Bioleach Soluble Phosphorus from Rock Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池汝安; 肖春桥; 黄晓慧; 王存文; 吴元欣

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach to bioleach soluble phosphorus from rock phosphate, involving the bio-oxidation of pyrite by adaptated Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. f) and the product of sulfuric acid to dissolve rock phosphate, has been proposed in this paper. The soluble phosphorus could be leached more effectively in the presence of pyrite by At. f than that leached directly by sulfuric acid. The optimal technological parameters are presented. The highest phosphorus leaching rate is 9.00% when the culture substrate is the mixture of FeSO4·7H2O and pyrite, the phosphorus leaching rate is 8.00% when the initial pH and culture time are 2.5 and 5 d, respectively. The optimal rock phosphate particle size is 0.05 mm for the leaching of phosphorus. The bigger the grains of pyrite, the lower the phosphorus leaching rate. The bacterium At. f should be appropriately adaptated, which makes it easier to bioleach soluble phosphorus from rock phosphate.

  5. Calcium acetate or calcium carbonate for hyperphosphatemia of hemodialysis patients: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available High levels of serum phosphorus both at baseline and during follow-up are associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients, and administration of phosphate binders was independently associated with improved survival among hemodialysis population. Calcium-based phosphate binders are the most commonly used phosphate binders in developing countries for their relatively low costs.To compare the efficacy and safety between calcium carbonate and calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients.PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google scholar and Chinese databases (Wanfang, Weipu, National Knowledge Infrastructure of China were searched for relevant studies published before March 2014. Reference lists of nephrology textbooks and review articles were checked. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-RCTs that assessed the effects and adverse events of calcium acetate and calcium carbonate in adult patients with MHD was performed using Review Manager 5.0.A total of ten studies (625 participants were included in this meta-analysis. There was insufficient data in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events for meta-analysis. Compared with calcium carbonate group, the serum phosphorus was significantly lower in calcium acetate group after4 weeks' administration (MD -0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.01 and after 8 weeks' administration (MD -0.25 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.11. There was no difference in serum calcium levels or the incidence of hypercalcemia between two groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. No statistical difference was found in parathyroid hormone (PTH levels or serum calcium by phosphorus (Ca x P product. There was significantly higher risk of intolerance with calcium acetate treatment (RR 3.46, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.26.For hyperphosphatemia treatment, calcium acetate showed better efficacy and with a higher incidence of intolerance compared with calcium carbonate. There are insufficient data

  6. Responses of Legumes to Phosphorus Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency is a universal problem in most world soils. Furthermore, of all nutrients, shortage of phosphorus has the biggest impact on legumes, therefore, lots of studies were carried out for identifying responses of legumes to shortage of phosphorus. They concluded that to maintain improved growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions plants develop two major mechanisms: (i) Phosphorus acquisition (root morphology, root exudation and phosphorus uptake mechanisms), (ii) Phosphorus utilization (internal mechanisms associated with better use of absorbed phosphorus at cellular level). The aim of this brief review is to elucidate root morphological changes and rhizophere acidification to phosphorus deficiency.

  7. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. Calcium and vitamin D: Important at every age. NIAMS.NIH.gov website. www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Bone_Health/Nutrition . Updated May 2015. Accessed March ...

  8. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  9. Calcium regulation in endosymbiotic organelles of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bussemer, Johanna; Vothknecht, Ute C.; Chigri, Fatima

    2009-01-01

    In plant cells calcium-dependent signaling pathways are involved in a large array of biological processes in response to hormones, biotic/abiotic stress signals and a variety of developmental cues. This is generally achieved through binding of calcium to diverse calcium-sensing proteins, which subsequently control downstream events by activating or inhibiting biochemical reactions. Regulation by calcium is considered as a eukaryotic trait and has not been described for prokaryotes. Neverthele...

  10. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tan; Yulin Deng; Hong Qing

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofi-brillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers in-volved in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  11. Relação cálcio:fósforo disponível e níveis de fitase para poedeiras semipesadas no primeiro e segundo ciclos de postura Calcium:available phosphorus ratio and phytase levels for semi heavy laying hens in the first and second posture cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2008-12-01

    ções deficientes em fósforo disponível com 600 UF melhora o peso dos ovos no segundo ciclo de postura.Two experiments were carried out to investigate the calcium (Ca:available phosphorus (aP ratio and the level of phytase in the first and second posture cycle. In the first posture cycle, 128 birds were distributed to a 3 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, composed of three Ca:aP ratio [14:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.30% aP, 12:1 (3.5% Ca and 0.30% aP, and 9:1 (3.5% Ca and 0.38% aP], two levels of phytase (0 and 600 Phytase Units - PU and a Ca:aP control [11:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.38% aP]. In the second posture cycle, 240 birds were distributed to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of two Ca (3.5 and 4.2%, two aP (0.30 and 0.38% levels and two phytase levels (0 and 600 PU. In the first posture cycle, among birds fed diets without phytase, the greater eggs weight was obtained with 9:1 Ca:aP ratio and the smaller, with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio. The best eggs mass and feed conversion by eggs mass (FCEM were observed in birds fed a diet with 14:1 Ca:Pd ratio and worse, with the ration with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio. In birds fed diet with phytase, the best FCEM was obtained with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio and worse, with 9:1 Ca:aP ratio. In the second posture cycle, the diet consumption decreased with increasing levels of calcium (3.5 to 4.2%, available phosphorus (0.30 to 0.38% and phytase (0 to 600 PU. Feed conversion by eggs mass or per dozen eggs improved, respectively, with increasing levels of available phosphorus and phytase, while specific gravity improved with the increase of dietary calcium level. For laying hens in the first posture cycle, it is recommended 14:1 (4.2% Ca:0.30% Pd ratio without phytase and 12:1 (3.5% Ca:0.30% Pd ratio with 600 PU and, for birds in the second posture cycle, it is recommended 14:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.38% Pd ratio. The supplementation of diets deficient in available phosphorus with 600 PU improves egg weight in the second posture cycle.

  12. Characterization and sonochemical synthesis of black phosphorus from red phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldave, Sandra H.; Yogeesh, Maruthi N.; Zhu, Weinan; Kim, Joonseok; Sonde, Sushant S.; Nayak, Avinash P.; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorene is a new two-dimensional material which is commonly prepared by exfoliation from black phosphorus bulk crystals that historically have been synthesized from white phosphorus under high-pressure conditions. The few layers of phosphorene have a direct band gap in the range of 0.3-2 eV and high mobility at room temperature comparable to epitaxial graphene. These characteristics can be used for the design of high speed digital circuits, radio frequency circuits, flexible and printed systems, and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we synthesized black phosphorus from red phosphorus, which is a safer solid precursor, using sonochemistry. Furthermore, via a variety of microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we report characterization results of the sonochemically synthesized black phosphorus in addition to the commercial black phosphorus. Finally, we describe the air stability of black phosphors and the crystalline structure of the synthesized material. This is the first result of sonochemical or solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus based on readily available low-cost red phosphorus. This solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus is suitable for printable applications of nanomaterial.

  13. Identification of functional FKB protein in Echinococcus granulosus: its involvement in the protoscolicidal action of rapamycin derivates and in calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumino, Andrea C; Lamenza, Pamela; Denegri, Guillermo M

    2010-05-01

    FK506 (tacrolimus) and polyketide macrolides such as rapamycin and its derivates bind to FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs). These proteins display a peptidyl-prolyl rotamase function that is believed to catalyze protein folding and they are well-validated anti-proliferative drug targets in certain pathogenic microorganisms, and their functions have been characterized in parasitic protozoa. However, much less is known in helminths and trials with rapalogs on cestoda have not yet been reported. Due to a growing need for new treatment options for human cystic echinococcosis, the in vitro efficacy of rapalogs in Echinococcus granulosus was investigated. We determined the effect of ramapycin, FK506 and everolimus against this cestode, demonstrating their protoscolicidal ability. Also, we observed synergic scolicidal actions during combined therapy with rapalogs plus cyclosporine A, proposing dual administration of drugs to improve pharmacological effects in vivo. We have identified an E. granulosus (Eg)-fkb1 gene that encodes Eg-FKBP, an archetypal protein of the FKBP family, which includes all residues implicated in the binding of pharmacological ligands, in the enzymatic activity and in interactions with possible target proteins. Levels of Eg-fkb1 mRNA are over-expressed by acid but not rapalog treatment. We also described the presence of receptor-operated calcium channels in the larval stage, suggesting that exogenous ligands may dissociate the interaction of Eg-FKBP from these intracellular channels, enhancing the activity of the Ca(2+) release and interfering with their normal regulatory functions. As rapamycin sensitivity is the major criterion used to detect targets of rapamycin kinase, we identified and analyzed in silico critical residues of putative homologs in the Echinococcus genome. These preliminary results will allow us to continue subsequent studies that could reveal the precise intracellular functions of Eg-FKBP, providing greater knowledge for further

  14. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  15. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  16. Glucose stimulates neurotensin secretion from the rat small intestine by mechanisms involving SGLT1 and GLUT2 leading to cell depolarization and calcium influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Bechmann, Louise Ellegaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    , but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Here, we show that rats express NT in the gut and that glucose gavage stimulates secretion similarly to oral glucose in humans. Therefore, we conducted experiments on isolated perfused rat small intestine with a view to characterize the cellular pathways...

  17. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  18. Sustainable Phosphorus Measures: Strategies and Technologies for Achieving Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus underpins the world’s food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the world’s main source of phosphorus—phosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the world’s food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.

  19. MULTIPLE SCATTERING IN THE EXAFS OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATES

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of the EXAFS spectra of hydroxyapatite, brushite and monetite, recorded above the calcium K edge, requires the inclusion of multiple scattering by phosphorus atoms at 0.37 nm, from calcium. If multiple scattering is not included, some variable parameters acquire physically unreasonable values. Atomic radii never had to be varied by more than 0.01 nm from their values in the accepted crystal structures.

  20. Effects of different phosphorus sources in the diet on bone composition and stability (breaking strength) in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemme, A; Spark, M; Wolf, P; Paschertz, H; Kamphues, J

    2005-01-01

    In two fattening trials (in each 100 broilers kept in four groups with 25 animals) as well as in a balance trial (four groups with four broilers in a group) the effects of inorganic phosphorus sources [monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (dihydrate; DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP)] in broiler diets were examined. The four diets contained up to 9 g calcium and 6 g phosphorus per kg and comparable energy and nutrient contents. Controls were fed a commercial diet with Ca-Na-phosphate as inorganic phosphorus source supplemented by phytase. In both fattening trials body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were proved as well as the calcium and phosphorus levels in serum, the breaking strength of tibia or humerus and the femur mineralization (ash content in the fat free dry matter). Furthermore, in the balance trial the retention of calcium and phosphorus was determined by calculation (intake minus excretion) as well as by analysis of body composition. On a high performance level (that was only slightly influenced by the different treatments), the addition of DFP resulted in significantly reduced phosphorus availability (estimated by analysis of the whole carcass: control/MCP/DCP/DFP: 48.6/46.0/45.7/35.5%). The significantly reduced phosphorus level in serum (1.77 +/- 0.20/1.77 +/- 0.24/1.73 +/- 0.28 1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/l) indicates the lower phosphorus retention in broilers given DFP. Furthermore, the crude ash content (582 +/- 17.6/580 +/- 18.6/563 +/- 15.2/547 +/- 29.7 g/kg fat free DM) and the breaking strength of bones (in right tibia in trial 2: 232 +/- 82.4/227 +/- 51.5/232 +/- 41.7/196 +/- 655 N) were lowest when given DFP. For diagnostic purposes it is of special interest that the phosphorus levels in the serum reflected markedly the different concentrations of available phosphorus in the diet.

  1. Relation of Serum Phosphorus Levels to the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation (from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities [ARIC] Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Faye L.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Grams, Morgan E.; Loehr, Laura R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Chen, Lin Y.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    High serum phosphorus levels have been linked with vascular calcification and greater cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We assessed whether serum phosphorus was associated with the atrial fibrillation (AF) incidence in a large community-based cohort in the United States. Our analysis included 14,675 participants (25% black, 45% men) free of AF at baseline (1987 to 1989) and with measurements of fasting serum phosphorus from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. The incidence of AF was ascertained through the end of 2008 from study visit electrocardiograms, hospitalizations, and death certificates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios of AF by the serum phosphorus levels, adjusting for potential confounders. During a median follow-up of 19.7 years, we identified 1,656 incident AF cases. Greater serum phosphorus was associated with a greater AF risk: the hazard ratio of AF with a 1-mg/dl increase in serum phosphorus was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.26). No significant interaction was seen by race (p = 0.88) or gender (p = 0.51). The risk of AF was increased in association with greater serum phosphorus in those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≥90 ml/min/1.72 m2 but not among those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <90 ml/min/1.72 m2. The total corrected calcium levels were not related to AF risk; however, greater levels of the calcium-phosphorus product were associated with greater AF risk. In conclusion, in the present large population-based study, greater levels of serum phosphorus and the related calcium-phosphorus product were associated with a greater incidence of AF. PMID:23273530

  2. Effect of dietary calcium intake on its retention by caged broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral in bone development and egg shell formation of broiler breeder hens. A study was undertaken to further examine the effect of dietary calcium intake on calcium retention of broiler breeder hens and to investigate the relationship between calcium retention and egg characteristics. Ninety broiler breeder hens were obtained from a previous study and allocated to three dietary treatments, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% calcium level. Feeds were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but differed only in calcium and phosphorus contents. Birds were fed and caged individually with metal trays placed below cages for excreta collection. Excreta samples (30 birds per treatment were collected for calcium and phosphorus determinations during a 7-day period at 3-weekly intervals, i.e., 27, 33, 36 and 42 weeks of age. Other parameters measured included calcium intake of hens, hen day production, egg mass, egg weight, shell weight, shell percentage, shell thickness, egg surface area, shell weight per unit surface area, total calcium retention, shell calcium excretion, shell calcium as a percentage of calcium intake and faecal calcium as percentage of calcium intake. These results showed that dietary calcium level had significant (P<.0001 effect on calcium intake and retention. Dietary calcium level had significant effect on all parameters except egg weight and shell calcium excretion as a percentage of calcium intake. Calcium retention of hens was correlated with age, calcium intake and eggshell characteristics. Age was significantly correlated with all traits except daily calcium intake, calcium retention and shell percentage. The net effect of calcium intake and total calcium excretion was that the 2.5% calcium level (3.8 g calcium /hen/day exhibit a significant (P<.05 higher calcium retention compared to 1.5% calcium level. This suggests that the calcium level of 2.5% and intake of 3.8 g/hen/day is adequate to support egg production, good shell

  3. Composição corporal e exigências nutricionais em cálcio e fósforo para ganho e mantença de cordeiros Santa Inês dos 15 kg aos 25 kg de peso vivo Body composition and requirements for calcium and phosphorus for gain and maintenance of Santa Ines lambs from 15 to 25 kg of body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Castro Geraseev

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Este trabalho foi conduzido para determinar a composição corporal e estimar as exigências de cálcio e fósforo de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros machos inteiros, com peso médio inicial de 15 kg, divididos em três grupos: seis animais abatidos no início do experimento, para avaliar o conteúdo de cálcio e fósforo corporal, servindo como animais referência para o método do abate comparativo; seis animais alimentados ad libitum; e seis com alimentação restrita (em nível de mantença + 20%. Os cordeiros que receberam dietas ad libitum e restritas entraram no experimento aos pares e foram abatidos concomitantemente, quando o primeiro atingiu 25 kg de peso vivo. A composição corporal foi estimada a partir de equações de regressão do logaritmo da quantidade de cálcio e fósforo presentes no corpo vazio, em função do logaritmo do peso corporal vazio. As exigências líquidas de mantença e o coeficiente de absorção destes minerais foram determinados a partir da correlação entre a quantidade de mineral ingerida e a quantidade retida no corpo, enquanto as exigências líquidas para o ganho em peso foram estimadas a partir da derivação de equações de predição da composição corporal. As exigências líquidas de mantença, para animais entre 15 e 25 kg de peso vivo, foram 305 mg de Ca/dia e 325 mg de P/dia e as exigências líquidas por kg de ganho de peso vivo, para animais com 15 e 25 kg de peso vivo, 11,41 e 10,33 g Ca e 5,72 e 4,94 g P, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de absorção encontrados neste trabalho foram 0,44 e 0,55 para Ca e P, respectivamente.ABSTRACT - The research was carried out to determine body composition and calcium and phosphorus requirements of Santa Ines lambs. Eighteen entire male lambs with average initial live weight of 15 kg were used. The animals were allotted to three groups: six animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment, to access the

  4. Corn-Soy-Blend Fortified with Phosphorus to Prevent Refeeding Hypophosphatemia in Undernourished Piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hother, Anne-Louise; Lykke, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soyblends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified...

  5. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  6. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

  7. Utilization of Glyphosate as Phosphate Source: Biochemistry and Genetics of Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechel, David L.; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses. PMID:24600043

  8. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  9. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL USING STEEL SLAG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Z. Lan; S. Zhang; J.K. Wang; R. W. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Steel slag is a byproduct produced in large amounts in the steel-making process. It is an important resource that can be effectively utilized. An experiment was described in which steel slag was tested as an adsorbent for the removal of phosphorus from waste water. Phosphorus removal depended on the amount of steel slag added, the pH value, the contact time, and the initial concentration. Under laboratory conditions when the added slag was 7.5g/L, the contact time 2h, and the pH value was equivalent to 6.5, over 99% of the phosphorus was removed; the experimental data on steel slag adsorption of phosphorus in the water fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. Steel slag was found to be very effective in adsorbing phosphorus.

  10. The molecular components of phospho- and glycolipid metabolism in plant cell membranes under the phosphorus deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svietlova N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the aspects of molecular regulation of phosphorus metabolism in plants, the lipid components of membrane structures, has been reviewed. The refocusing of phosphoand glycolipid metabolism is an indicator of phosphorus accessibility in plants. The compensatory mechanisms of substitution of phospholipids with non-phosphorus containing glycolipids in membranes, allow plants to adapt to the phosphate (Pi starvation. Phospholipids are the reserve pool of cellular phosphorus at reutilization of ions in the donor-acceptor system of plants. The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids under Pi deficit have been analyzed.

  11. Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement.

  12. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  13. Calcium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  14. Phosphorus cycling in the deep subseafloor biosphere at North Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Phosphorus is a macronutrient involved both in functional and structural components of all living cells. This makes it an essential nutrient for life, including microbial life in the deep subseafloor habitat. Phosphorus availability in this environment is limited since it is thought to be mainly present in refractory mineral phases. However, recent estimates suggest that the deep biosphere may contain up to 1% of Earth's total biomass, which implies that microorganisms may possess mechanisms to harvest recalcitrant phosphorus compounds in this environment. This study sheds light on those mechanisms by investigating phosphorus cycling in deep open-ocean sediments using stable oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate. Furthermore, this study provides insight into changes in phosphorus bioavailability and mobility under a range of natural environmental conditions within the deep biosphere. Sediment samples were collected from four boreholes drilled during the IODP Expedition 336 to North Pond, an isolated sediment pond on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sedimentary phosphorus compounds are characterized using sequential extractions (SEDEX), which separate them into five distinct pools. Phosphate from the various extracts are then concentrated, purified through a series of steps, then converted to silver phosphate, which is pyrolyzed and analyzed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). The isotopic signatures and/or fractionations associated with many of the potential reactions and transformations operating in the P cycle have been determined, and provide the basis for interpreting isotopic data that are obtained from the phosphate extracts.

  15. AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SELECTED INORGANIC PHOSPHATES TO JUVENILE ABALONE,HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭北平; 麦康森; 徐玮

    2002-01-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relativelyconstant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone.A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juvenilesof similar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shelllength (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganiccompounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and77%, respectively. ``

  16. Grape seed extract triggers apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species and calcium increase: extracellular signal-regulated kinase involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Simona; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Morabito, Caterina; Guarnieri, Simone; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2013-09-14

    Grape seed extract (GSE) from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In order to investigate the mechanism(s) supporting the apoptotic process, we analysed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, intracellular Ca2+ handling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Upon exposure to GSE, ROS and intracellular Ca2+ levels increased in Caco-2 cells, concomitantly with ERK inactivation. As ERK activity is thought to be essential for promoting survival pathways, inhibition of this kinase is likely to play a relevant role in GSE-mediated anticancer effects. Indeed, pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine, a ROS scavenger, reversed GSE-induced apoptosis, and promoted ERK phosphorylation. This effect was strengthened by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid-mediated inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx. ROS and Ca2+ influx inhibition, in turn, increased ERK phosphorylation, and hence almost entirely suppressed GSE-mediated apoptosis. These data suggested that GSE triggers a previously unrecognised ERK-based mechanism, involving both ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ increase, eventually leading to apoptosis in cancer cells.

  17. Phosphorus recovery by one or two-step technology with use of acids and bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Kristina; Hultman, Bengt

    2003-07-01

    The method of using sludge fractionation is considered to be a sustainable solution where the sludge is seen as the raw material from which products are recovered. This paper will present solutions of advanced technology system for a large wastewater treatment plant. Use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal and fractionation of the sludge in two stages is advantageous both with respect to low necessary chemical and energy demands and recovery efficiency. Phosphorous recovery may be based on one- or two-step technology. Experimental studies have shown that it is possible to recover phosphorus from sludge by the combination of supercritical water oxidation process and alkaline leaching. When the concentration of sodium hydroxide is around 1 M, approximate 50 % of total phosphorus is recovered in room temperature. Meanwhile, over 98 % of the soluble phosphorus is recovered from the liquid phase by adding calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). (author)

  18. The Relationship of Blood Pressure with Intra- Or extracellular and Bone Calcium Merabolisms in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Sugihara, Nobuyuki; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the correlations of blood pressure with intra- or extracellular and bone calcium matabolisms in the elderly. We measured serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (Pi), C-terminal parathyroid hormone fragment (PTH-C), and calcitonin. Intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]I) in platelet and erythrocyte was measured by fura- 2/AM from dual excitation wavelength using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. We calculated bone mineral content (BMC) of lumbar vertebral body using a calibratio...

  19. Is phosphorus recovery from waste water feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, U; Knoll, G; Kaschka, E; Weidler, P G; Nüesch, R

    2007-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste water must become a predominant goal of all countries to face the limited resources of this essential nutrient. The induced crystallisation of calcium phosphates straight from the waste water phase applying tobermorite-rich calcium silicate hydrate compounds (CSH) from the construction industry as the trigger material has proved to be a suitable method. Laboratory and semi-technical scale experiments were carried out in fixed bed, stirred reactor and expanded bed mode. P-loads of the crystallisation substrates of up to 13 wt-% total P (P-tot) (30 wt-% P2O5) were achieved. Recycling options of the generated products, both as substitute for phosphate rock in the phosphate industry and as a new fertiliser in agriculture, were demonstrated. Indicative operating and investment costs were estimated for conversion of conventional waste water treatment plants (WWTP) designed for nutrient removal and P-precipitation with iron and aluminium reagents to the proposed new crystallisation technology for simultaneous P-removal and P-recovery.

  20. Reduction in traumatic brain injury-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and calcium entry in rat hippocampus by melatonin: Possible involvement of TRPM2 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürüker, Vehbi; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Şenol, Nilgün

    2015-02-01

    Melatonin, which is a very effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, acts through a direct reaction with free radicals. Ca(2+) entry induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI) has deleterious effects on human hippocampal function. TRPM2 is a Ca(2+) permeable non-selective channel in hippocampal neurons, and its activation of during oxidative stress has been linked to cell death. Despite the importance of oxidative stress in TBI, its role in apoptosis and Ca(2+) entry in TBI is poorly understood. Therefore, we tested the effects of melatonin on apoptosis, oxidative stress, and Ca(2+) entry through the TRPM2 channel in the hippocampal neurons of TBI-induced rats. Thirty-two rats were divided into the following four groups: control, melatonin, TBI, and TBI + melatonin groups. Melatonin (5 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally given to animals in the melatonin group and the TBI + melatonin group after 1 h of brain trauma. Hippocampal neurons were freshly isolated from the four groups, incubated with a nonspecific TRPM2 blocker (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, 2-APB), and then stimulated with cumene hydroperoxide. Apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-9, intracellular ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) values were high in the TBI group, and low in the TBI + melatonin group. The [Ca(2+)]i concentration was decreased in the four groups by 2-APB. In our TBI experimental model, TRPM2 channels were involved in Ca(2+) entry-induced neuronal death, and the negative modulation of the activity of this channel by melatonin pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity of TRPM2 channels against oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry.

  1. The influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus on bone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of this study it was attempted to obtain a better insight into the possible influence of the diet on the development of human osteoporosis. This disease, which is a consequence of decalcification of the bones, occurs frequently in elderly people, particularly in postmenopausal women.On the

  2. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16...

  3. Effect of L-lactic acid on the absorption of calcium in gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1998-12-01

    The effect of dietary L-lactic acid (LA), (0.5, 1.0, or 2.5 g/100 g of diet) on the absorption of calcium in gastrectomized rats was evaluated for 28 d. Calcium phosphate was used as a source of calcium. The apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of the femur and tibia in gastrectomized rats fed the control diet were significantly less than those in sham-operated rats. In the gastrectomized rats, the apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of bone in the rats fed the lower doses of LA diets (LA 0.5 or 1.0 g/100 g of diet) were not affected; however, the apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of bone in the rats fed the highest doses of LA diet (LA 2.5 g/100 g of diet) were greater than those in gastrectomized rats fed the control diet. Dietary LA (2.5 g/100 g of diet) also enhanced the phosphorus absorption and bone phosphorus content in the gastrectomized rats. We speculated that the highest dose of dietary LA might be associated with the dissolving of a water-insoluble form of calcium salt in the diet, thereby facilitating the calcium absorption and resulting in increased bone calcium content in gastrectomized rats.

  4. Role of Vitamin D Glucosiduronate in Calcium Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Nagubandi, Sreeramulu; Kumar, Rajiv; Londowski, James M.; Corradino, R. A.; Tietz, Pamela S

    1984-01-01

    Evidence has been presented suggesting the presence of vitamin D3 3β-glucosiduronate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 glucosiduronate in rat bile. To evaluate the role of vitamin D glucosiduronates in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, we synthesized vitamin D3 3β-glucosiduronate and tested its biological activity in calcium- and vitamin D-deficient rats. After the intravenous administration of vitamin D3 3β-glucosiduronate to rats maintained on a low calcium diet, there was an increase in duode...

  5. Removal and retention of phosphorus by periphyton from wastewater with high organic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinxiang; Hong, Xiaoxing; Pei, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    The total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency from organic wastewater (pig farm and distillery wastewater) were estimated by using filamentous green algae (FGA) and benthic algal mats (BAM) treatment systems under laboratory conditions, and the contents of periphyton phosphorus fractions were determined by using a sequential extraction. The removal rates of TP reached 59-78% within the first 8 days of all treatment systems and could achieve average 80% during 30 day period, and the phosphorus removal rates by using BAM was higher than that of FGA. The ability of retention TP of periphyton enhanced gradually, the BAM TP contents were higher than that of FGA, the highest TP concentrations of BAM and FGA were 26.24 and 10.52 mg P g(-1)·dry weight. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) always exceeded 67.5% of TP, but the organic phosphorus fraction only made up less than 20% of TP. The calcium-binding phosphorus (Ca-P) was the dominant fraction and its relative contribution to TP was more than 40%. The TP was also strongly and positively correlated with the IP and Ca-P (p wastewater with high load phosphorus.

  6. Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

  7. Ab Initio Assessment of the Bonding in Disulfonates Containing Divalent Nitrogen and Phosphorus Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vinca Bonde; Berg, Rolf W.; Shim, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The iminodisulfonate, [N(SO3)2]3–, and phosphinodisulfonate, [P(SO3)2]3–, ions have been investigated by performing ab initio MP2/6-311+G**calculations. The nitrogen and phosphorus atoms as part of the ions are shown to be divalent with a negative charge and two lone pairs on the nitrogen...... and phosphorus atoms. The experimentally known calcium sodium iminodisulfonate trihydrate and the analogous unknown compound calcium sodium phosphinodisulfonate trihydrate have also been investigated using the MP2/6-311+G** calculations. For the nitrogen compound, only minor changes occur in the iminodisulfonate...... phosphinodisulfonate trihydrate are quite different from those of the phosphinodisulfonate ion. For calcium sodium iminodisulfonate trihydrate, the Raman spectrum has been measured, and it compares well with the spectrum derived using HF/6-311+G** calculations....

  8. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe and Aluminum (Al to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP, Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0 alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further

  9. Electric Conductivity of Phosphorus Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Xiang; LI Hui; ZHANG Xue-Qing; LIEW Kim-Meow

    2009-01-01

    We present the structures and electrical transport properties of nanowires made from different strands of phosphorus chains encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Optimized by density function theory, our results indicate that the conductance spectra reveal an oscillation dependence on the size of wires. It can be seen from the density of states and current-voltage curves that the structure of nanowires affects their properties greatly. Among them,the DNA-like double-helical phosphorus nanowire exhibits the distinct characteristic of an approximately linear I - V relationship and has a higher conductance than others. The transport properties of phosphorus nanowires are highly correlated with their microstructures.

  10. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  11. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite A treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Larsen, T.; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2007-01-01

    Ca and/or P to zeolite A treated dry cows. Twenty-one pregnant dry cows were assigned to four experimental groups receiving a dry cow ration unsupplemented or supplemented with extra Ca and/or P. During the last 2 weeks of the dry period all cows additionally received 600 g of zeolite A per day....... A high level of dietary P prepartum significantly decreased the plasma Ca concentration before as well as immediately after calving (day 0-3). Conversely, the plasma inorganic phosphate concentration was higher among these cows than among cows receiving no supplemental P. The prepartum dietary Ca level...... significantly affected the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration during zeolite supplementation, whereas the periparturient plasma Ca concentration was apparently not affected by the dietary Ca level. During zeolite A supplementation plasma parathyroid hormone was significantly higher among cows receiving...

  12. Calcium regulation in endosymbiotic organelles of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussemer, Johanna; Vothknecht, Ute C; Chigri, Fatima

    2009-09-01

    In plant cells calcium-dependent signaling pathways are involved in a large array of biological processes in response to hormones, biotic/abiotic stress signals and a variety of developmental cues. This is generally achieved through binding of calcium to diverse calcium-sensing proteins, which subsequently control downstream events by activating or inhibiting biochemical reactions. Regulation by calcium is considered as a eukaryotic trait and has not been described for prokaryotes. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence indicating that organelles of prokaryotic origin, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, are integrated into the calcium-signaling network of the cell. An important transducer of calcium in these organelles appears to be calmodulin. In this review we want to give an overview over present data showing that endosymbiotic organelles harbour calcium-dependent biological processes with a focus on calmodulin-regulation.

  13. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  14. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALP is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  15. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  16. Phosphorus balance with daily dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooienga, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an almost universal finding in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and vascular calcification. These associations have raised the question of whether reducing phosphorus levels could result in improved survival. In light of the recent findings that increased per-session dialysis dose, as assessed by urea kinetics, did not result in improved survival, the definition of adequacy of dialysis should be re-evaluated and consideration given to alternative markers. Two alternatives to conventional thrice weekly dialysis (CHD) are nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) and short daily hemodialysis (SDHD). The elimination kinetics of phosphorus as they relate to these alternative daily dialysis schedules and the clinical implications of overall phosphorus balance are discussed here. The total weekly phosphorus removal with NHD is more than twice that removed by CHD (4985 mg/week +/- 1827 mg vs. 2347 mg/week +/- 697 mg) and this is associated with a significantly lower average serum phosphorous (4.0 mg/dl vs. 6.5 mg/dl). In spite of the observed increase in protein and phosphorus intake seen in patients on SDHD, phosphate binder requirements and serum phosphorus levels are generally stable to decrease although this effect is strongly dependent on the frequency and overall treatment time.

  17. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  18. New insights into phosphorus management in agriculture--A crop rotation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2016-01-15

    This manuscript presents research results examining phosphorus (P) management in a soil–plant system for three variables: i) internal resources of soil available phosphorus, ii) cropping sequence, and iii) external input of phosphorus (manure, fertilizers). The research was conducted in long-term cropping sequences with oilseed rape (10 rotations) and maize (six rotations) over three consecutive growing seasons (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007) in a production farm on soils originated from Albic Luvisols in Poland. The soil available phosphorus pool, measured as calcium chloride extractable P (CCE-P), constituted 28% to 67% of the total phosphorus input (PTI) to the soil–plant system in the spring. Oilseed rape and maize dominant cropping sequences showed a significant potential to utilize the CCE-P pool within the soil profile. Cropping sequences containing oilseed rape significantly affected the CCE-P pool, and in turn contributed to the P(TI). The P(TI) uptake use efficiency was 50% on average. Therefore, the CCE-P pool should be taken into account as an important component of a sound and reliable phosphorus balance. The instability of the yield prediction, based on the P(TI), was mainly due to an imbalanced management of both farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizer. Oilseed rape plants provide a significant positive impact on the CCE-P pool after harvest, improving the productive stability of the entire cropping sequence. This phenomenon was documented by the P(TI) increase during wheat cultivation following oilseed rape. The Unit Phosphorus Uptake index also showed a higher stability in oilseed rape cropping systems compared to rotations based on maize. Cropping sequences are a primary factor impacting phosphorus management. Judicious implementation of crop rotations can improve soil P resources, efficiency of crop P use, and crop yield and yield stability. Use of cropping sequences can reduce the need for external P sources such as farmyard manure

  19. Effects of different phosphorus and potassium fertilization on contents and uptake of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in winter wheat I. Content of macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata GAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study carried out under field conditions was to evaluate the effect of differentiated phosphorus and potassium fertilization level on nutritional status of winter wheat at stem elongation (BBCH 31 and flowering (BBCH 65 development stages as well as on macronutrient contents in yield obtained (grain and straw. The research was conducted in 2007-2010, within an individual agricultural holding, on lessive soil with medium and high richness in potassium and phosphorus, respectively. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in wheat changed depending on the organ assessed and plant development stage. At BBCH 31, regardless fertilization level, the plants observed were malnourished with potassium, phosphorus and calcium and at the control site also with nitrogen. Furthermore, there were found significant correlation relationships among the contents of nutrient pairs: nitrogen-potassium, nitrogen-phosphorus, nitrogen-magnesium and nitrogen-calcium. The content of nitrogen in wheat grain and straw differed mainly due to weather conditions during the study. Irrespective of the years of observation, differentiated rates of P and K applied had no significant effect on N accumulation in wheat at full ripening stage. In contrast to nitrogen, the level of P and K fertilization significantly differentiated the contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in wheat grain and straw. In case of calcium, the effect of fertilization factor was indicated only as regards the content of this nutrient in grain.

  20. Preliminary validation of assays to measure parameters of calcium metabolism in captive Asian and African elephants in western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2011-05-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well known cause of dystocia in animals, including elephants in captivity. In order to study calcium metabolism in elephants, it is of utmost importance to use properly validated assays, as these might be prone to specific matrix effects in elephant blood. The aim of the current study was to conduct preliminary work for validation of various parameters involved in calcium metabolism in both blood and urine of captive elephants. Basal values of these parameters were compared between Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Preliminary testing of total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and creatinine appeared valid for use in plasma and creatinine in urine in both species. Furthermore, measurements of bone alkaline phosphatase and N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen appeared valid for use in Asian elephants. Mean heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration and pH were not significantly affected by 3 cycles of freezing and thawing. Storage at 4 °C, room temperature, and 37 °C for 6, 12, and 24 hr did not alter the heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration in Asian elephants. The following linear regression equation using pH (range: 6.858-7.887) and ionized calcium concentration in heparinized plasma was utilized: iCa(7.4) (mmol/l) = -2.1075 + 0.3130·pH(actual) + 0.8296·iCa(actual) (mmol/l). Mean basal values for pH and plasma in Asian elephant whole blood were 7.40 ± 0.048 and 7.49 ± 0.077, respectively. The urinary specific gravity and creatinine concentrations in both Asian and African elephants were significantly correlated and both were significantly lower in Asian elephants.

  1. Dynamics and Mechanisms of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Sublimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin-Deschênes, Matthieu; Levesque, Pierre L; Martel, Richard; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2016-05-05

    We report on real time observations of the sublimation of exfoliated black phosphorus layers throughout annealing using in situ low energy electron microscopy. We found that sublimation manifests itself above 375 ± 20 °C through the nucleation and expansion of asymmetric, faceted holes with the long axis aligned along the [100] direction and sharp tips defined by edges consisting of alternating (10) and (11) steps. This thermally activated process repeats itself via successive sublimation of individual layers. Calculations and simulations using density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo allowed to determine the involved atomic pathways. Sublimation is found to occur via detachments of phosphorus dimers rather than single atoms. This behavior and the role of defects is described using an analytical model that captures all essential features. This work establishes an atomistic-level understanding of the thermal stability of exfoliated black phosphorus and defines the temperature window available for material and device processing.

  2. The Relevance of Phosphorus and Iron Chemistry to the Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfert, Philipp; Kumar, Prashanth Suresh; Korving, Leon; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-08-18

    The addition of iron is a convenient way for removing phosphorus from wastewater, but this is often considered to limit phosphorus recovery. Struvite precipitation is currently used to recover phosphorus, and this approach has attracted much interest. However, it requires the use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). EBPR is not yet widely applied and the recovery potential is low. Other phosphorus recovery methods, including sludge application to agricultural land or recovering phosphorus from sludge ash, also have limitations. Energy-producing wastewater treatment plants increasingly rely on phosphorus removal using iron, but the problem (as in current processes) is the subsequent recovery of phosphorus from the iron. In contrast, phosphorus is efficiently mobilized from iron by natural processes in sediments and soils. Iron-phosphorus chemistry is diverse, and many parameters influence the binding and release of phosphorus, including redox conditions, pH, presence of organic substances, and particle morphology. We suggest that the current poor understanding of iron and phosphorus chemistry in wastewater systems is preventing processes being developed to recover phosphorus from iron-phosphorus rich wastes like municipal wastewater sludge. Parameters that affect phosphorus recovery are reviewed here, and methods are suggested for manipulating iron-phosphorus chemistry in wastewater treatment processes to allow phosphorus to be recovered.

  3. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources.Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individualbattery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5%eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feedexperiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Eachexperimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, proteinintake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Resultsof the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. Theuse of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake,egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was thatthe use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestoneor mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  4. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  5. Simulating complex calcium-calcineurin signaling network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.; Kaandorp, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding of processes in which calcium signaling is involved is of fundamental importance in systems biology and has many applications in medicine. In this paper we have studied the particular case of the complex calcium-calcineurin-MCIP-NFAT signaling network in cardiac myocytes, the understan

  6. Octreotide enhances positive calcium balance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutting, D F; Schriock, E A; Palmieri, G M; Bittle, J B; Elmendorf, B J; Horner, L H; Edwards, M C; Griffin, J W; Sacks, H S; Bertorini, T E

    1995-09-01

    Although receptors for somatostatin are found in bone cells, the effect of somatostatin analogs on calcium metabolism is unknown. The authors studied, in a metabolic ward, the effect of octreotide (a long-acting somatostatin analog) and a placebo in two 6-day calcium balance periods in 8 children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. As expected, octreotide (2 micrograms/kg, subcutaneously, every 8 hours) reduced serum growth hormone and somatomedin (IGF-1) to levels found in growth hormone deficiency. Octreotide enhanced calcium retention by 30% (96 mg daily [P < 0.04]) in 7 boys for whom complete data (diet, urine, and fecal calcium) were available. In 6 children with urinary calcium excretion (Uca) greater than 50 mg daily, octreotide markedly lowered Uca, from 114 +/- 23 mg daily to 61 +/- 9 mg daily (P < 0.03). Calcium retention occurred in patients with or without initial hypercalciuria, but the higher the basal Uca, the greater was the inhibition by octreotide (r = 0.79; P < 0.03). Inactive, nonambulatory patients had a more pronounced response of Uca to octreotide (P < 0.02). Octreotide caused a mild, nonsignificant reduction in fecal calcium, with no major changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, or in creatinine clearance. Based on the current observations and the presence of receptors for somatostatin in bone cells, this hormone may have, at least on a short-term basis, an anabolic effect on calcium, perhaps favoring its deposition in bone.

  7. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d......-saccharate becomes spontaneously supersaturated with both d-gluconate and d-saccharate calcium salts, from which only calcium d-saccharate slowly precipitates. Calcium d-saccharate is suggested to act as a stabilizer of supersaturated solutions of other calcium hydroxycarboxylates with endothermic complex formation...

  8. Phosphorus Removal From Aqueous Solution By Adsorption Onto La-modified Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Can

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A La-modified clinoptilolite adsorbent was developed for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution. The effects of operational parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on phosphorus adsorption were investigated. The results showed that the phosphorus removal ratio of modified clinoptilolite (99.45% was significantly improved, which was over triple than that of natural ones (31.50% under optimum conditions. The adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the adsorption data closely fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. The proper pH for phosphorus removal ranged from 5 to 8. The adsorption process was appeared to be controlled by chemical precipitation. The mechanism might involve ion complexation during subsequent adsorption of phosphorus on lanthanum hydroxides. It cost modified clinoptilolite less time to reach equilibrium. The application of modified clinoptilolite is available in wastewater treatment.

  9. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  10. Calcium levels during the initiation of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Lampros; Chasiotis, Georgios; Seferiadis, Konstantinos; Thanasoulias, Nikos C; Dousias, Vasilis; Tsanadis, Georgios; Stefos, Theodor

    2004-07-15

    To investigate the physiological role of calcium in the labor process. Eighty-eight term healthy pregnant women who gave birth to normal healthy neonates participated in our study. We compared calcium levels between pregnant women who had normal delivery and those who underwent scheduled cesarean section. The control group consisted of pregnant women with gestation > or =37 weeks without contractions. The groups were compared with respect to calcium levels: (a) in maternal blood serum; (b) in blood serum of the neonates and mothers; and (c) in blood serum between neonates. Significantly higher calcium levels were found in the group of pregnant women who delivered vaginally compared to those who delivered by scheduled cesarean section and those of the control group. We assume that the increased calcium levels during the first stage of labor are involved with a possible role of calcium in the mechanism of initiation of labor.

  11. Technological testing of calcium carbonate tablets for use in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Zotto, M; Ragazzi, E; Realdon, N; Dalla Fini, G

    1993-07-01

    Samples of calcium carbonate tablets produced by different manufacturers were subjected to various tests in order to evaluate tablet quality parameters, mostly indicative for calcium availability. Indications about tablet suitability for treatment of renal osteodystrophy in uremic patients were also tested. The disintegration test turned out to be the most useful in evaluating calcium carbonate availability from tablets. Samples from several manufacturers varied in their behaviour to disaggregation. The availability of calcium dissolved in gastric fluid and the extent of phosphorus binding appeared to depend on disintegration behaviour.

  12. Natural Phosphorus Sources for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be...

  13. Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

    2011-06-01

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view.

  14. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  15. Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a…

  16. Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.; Slomp, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area,

  17. Evolution of the global phosphorus cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Noah J. Planavsky; Gill, Benjamin C.; Ozaki, Kazumi; Robbins, Leslie J.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Wang, Chunjiang; Cole, Devon B.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    The macronutrient phosphorus is thought to limit primary productivity in the oceans on geological timescales. Although there has been a sustained effort to reconstruct the dynamics of the phosphorus cycle over the past 3.5 billion years, it remains uncertain whether phosphorus limitation persisted throughout Earth’s history and therefore whether the phosphorus cycle has consistently modulated biospheric productivity and ocean–atmosphere oxygen levels over time. Here we present a compilation o...

  18. The calcium paradox - What should we have to fear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseni; Cortez, José Luís Lasso; Goissis, Gilberto; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The calcium paradox was first mentioned in 1966 by Zimmerman et al. Thereafter gained great interest from the scientific community due to the fact of the absence of calcium ions in heart muscle cells produce damage similar to ischemia-reperfusion. Although not all known mechanisms involved in cellular injury in the calcium paradox intercellular connection maintained only by nexus seems to have a key role in cellular fragmentation. The addition of small concentrations of calcium, calcium channel blockers, and hyponatraemia hypothermia are important to prevent any cellular damage during reperfusion solutions with physiological concentration of calcium. PMID:25140476

  19. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons.

  20. Guiding phosphorus stewardship for multiple ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus is vital to agricultural production and water quality regulation. While the role of phosphorus in agriculture and water quality has been studied for decades, the benefits of sustainable phosphorus use and management for society due to its downstream impacts on multiple ecosystem services...

  1. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied (Ca-45)(2+) across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since: (1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and graviinduced polar calcium movement and (2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  2. Effects of modulation of calcium levels and calcium fluxes on ABA- induced gene expression in barley aleurone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present data to elucidate the involvement of calcium ions in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression. Modulation of external calcium concentrations was able to affect ABA-induced specific RAB gene expression. At a constant ABA level with increasing extracellular calcium level, an increasing R

  3. Effects of modulation of calcium levels and calcium fluxes on ABA- induced gene expression in barley aleurone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present data to elucidate the involvement of calcium ions in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression. Modulation of external calcium concentrations was able to affect ABA-induced specific RAB gene expression. At a constant ABA level with increasing extracellular calcium level, an increasing R

  4. Phosphorus removal in a sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihua; Yuan, Yulin; Zhan, Xinmin; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) biofilter was able to remove phosphorous from wastewater during autotrophic denitrification. Parameters influencing autotrophic denitrification in the SLAD biofilter, such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent nitrate (NO3(-)), and influent PO4(3-) concentrations, had significant effects on P removal. P removal was well correlated with total oxidized nitrogen (TON) removed in the SLAD biofilter; the more TON removed, the more efficient P removal was achieved. When treating the synthetic wastewater containing NO3(-)-N of 30 mg L(-1) and PO4(3-)-P of 15 mg L(-1), the SLAD biofilter removed phosphorus of 45% when the HRT was 6 h, in addition with TN removal of nearly 100%. The optimal phosphorus removal in the SLAD biofilter was around 60%. For the synthetic wastewater containing a PO4(3-)-P concentration of 15 mg L(-1), the main mechanism of phosphorus removal was the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates.

  5. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  6. Ruzigrass affecting soil-phosphorus availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of ruzigrass (Urochloaruziziensis in enhancing soil-P availability in areas fertilized with soluble or reactive rock phosphates. The area had been cropped for five years under no-till, in a system involving soybean, triticale/black-oat, and pearl millet. Previously to the five-year cultivation period, corrective phosphorus fertilization was applied once on soil surface, at 0.0 and 80 kg ha-1 P2O5, as triple superphosphate or Arad rock phosphate. After this five-year period, plots received the same corrective P fertilization as before and ruzigrass was introduced to the cropping system in the stead of the other cover crops. Soil samples were taken (0-10 cm after ruzigrass cultivation and subjected to soil-P fractionation. Soybean was grown thereafter without P application to seed furrow. Phosphorus availability in plots with ruzigrass was compared to the ones with spontaneous vegetation for two years. Ruzigrass cultivation increased inorganic (resin-extracted and organic (NaHCO3 soil P, as well as P concentration in soybean leaves, regardless of the P source. However, soybean yield did not increase significantly due to ruzigrass introduction to the cropping system. Soil-P availability did not differ between soluble and reactive P sources. Ruzigrass increases soil-P availability, especially where corrective P fertilization is performed.

  7. 熔融制样-波长色散X射线荧光光谱法测定红土镍矿中铁、镍、硅、铝、镁、钙、钛、锰、铜和磷%Determination of iron, nickel, silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, titanium, manganese,copper and phosphorus in laterite nickel ores by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with fusion sample preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠; 李卫刚; 褚宁; 蒋晓光; 孙涛; 林志伟; 王艳君

    2012-01-01

    A wavelength dispersive X - ray fluorescence spectrometry with fusion sample preparation has been developed for determination of iron, nickel, silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, titanium, manganese, copper and phosphorus in laterite nickel ores. Calibration samples were prepared by adding high pure oxides and standard solutions of pending elements into iron ore standards, which were applied as matrix and ignited in 1000 ℃. The experimental conditions including of fluxing agent, fusion time, dilution ratios, doffing membrane reagent and matrix effects were determined. The analytical results were proposed by loss on ignition calibration, which were agreement with those obtained by wet method analysis, and the relative standard deviation was between 0. 219 % and 2. 817 %. The method was satisfied the request of laterite nickel ores test.%建立了熔融制样-波长色散X射线荧光光谱法测定红土镍矿中铁、镍、硅、铝、镁、钙、钛、锰、铜和磷含量的方法.采用经1000℃灼烧后的铁矿标准样品为基体,添加相关待测元素的高纯氧化物和标准溶液制作校准曲线用的校准样品,确定了助熔剂、熔融时间、稀释比、脱模剂和基体效应校正方式等试验条件.样品分析结果进行烧失量校正,与湿法分析结果的相对标准偏差介于0.219%~2.817%之间,满足红土镍矿检测需要.

  8. Fish bones--a highly available calcium source for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, M K; Graff, I E; Siljander-Rasi, H; Venäläinen, E; Julshamn, K; Pedersen, J I; Valaja, J

    2010-10-01

    In general, there is a lack of scientific documentation of nutritional value of marine by-products. The bone fraction from fish has been regarded as waste. Due to the high mineral content of fish bones, this material can be well suitable as a natural calcium source. In the present study, apparent calcium absorption of different fish bone sources was tested using growing pigs. The experimental diets consisted of boiled salmon frames, or salmon, saithe or cod bones treated with enzymes. Calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was used as control. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.7% total calcium of which the added calcium source to be tested contributed about 71% (study 1) and 86% (study 2). Except for the calcium and phosphorus sources, the animals received similar basal diets. Apparent calcium digestibility coefficient was calculated using yttrium as indicator (both studies) and was based on complete collection of faeces and urine (study 2). The experimental design was parallel and cross-over in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In study 1, piglets getting salmon bone treated with enzymes had significantly higher calcium absorption than piglets getting boiled fish bone or calcium carbonate. Therefore, in the second study only enzymatically treated fish bones were included. The higher calcium absorption from enzymatically treated salmon bone was also found in study 2, but this time not significant. Calcium from boiled salmon bones in study I, and from enzymatically treated saithe and cod bones in study II were absorbed as well as the calcium carbonate control. The results indicate that fish bones may be a useful and well absorbed calcium source. Due to the high mineral content of the bone fraction, salmon bones can be well suitable as a natural calcium and phosphorus source in, for example, food, feed or as supplement.

  9. A study of the association between serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus concentration or dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraikawa, Mayu; Tanabe, Rieko; Sogabe, Natsuko; Sugimoto, Aoi; Kawamura, Yuka; Michigami, Toshimi; Hosoi, Takayuki; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes a variety of monophosphate esters into phosphoric acid and alcohol at a high optimum pH (pH 8-10). Human ALPs are classified into four types: tissue-non specific (TNSALP, liver/bone/kidney), intestinal, placental, and germ cell types. Based on studies of hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is a systemic bone disease caused by the presence of either one or two pathologic mutations in ALPL that encodes TNSALP, TNSALP was suggested to be indispensable for skeletal mineralization. In this study, we explored the possibility that dietary nutrients contribute to regulate serum bone-specific ALP (BAP) activity. Serum biochemical parameters, such as serum ALP, BAP, osteocalcin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), were measured in healthy young subjects (n=193). Dietary nutrient intakes were measured based on 3-d food records before the day of blood examinations. The presence of a carrier of the deletion of T at nucleotide 1559 (c.1559delT), which has been reported to be the most frequent in Japanese HPP, was not detected in any subject. By the analysis of BAP activity and other biochemical parameters or dietary nutrient intakes, we obtained significant correlations between BAP activity and serum phosphorus (r=-0.165, p=0.022), calcium intake (mg/1,000 kcal/d) (r=-0.186, p=0.010), or phosphorus intake (mg/1,000 kcal/d) (r=-0.226, p=0.002). Further study on the regulation of BAP activity and calcium and/or phosphorus homeostasis will provide useful data for improving skeletal health.

  10. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  11. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  12. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

  13. Greening the global phosphorus cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withers, Paul J.A.; Elser, James J.; Hilton, Julian; Ohtake, Hisao; Schipper, Willem J.; Dijk, Van Kimo C.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of global phosphorus (P) use is emerging as a major societal goal to secure future food, energy, and water security for a growing population. Phosphate rock (PR) is a critical raw material whose inefficiency of use is leading to widespread eutrophication and uncertainties about

  14. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Kesteloot, Hugo; Appel, Lawrence J; Dyer, Alan R; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian J; Zhao, Liancheng; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2008-03-01

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required. Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium on blood pressure. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 from 17 population samples in Japan, China, United Kingdom, and United States. Blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intakes were obtained from four 24-hour recalls plus data on supplement use. Dietary phosphorus was inversely associated with blood pressure in a series of predefined multiple regression models, with the successive addition of potential confounders, both nondietary and dietary. Estimated blood pressure differences per 232 mg/1000 kcal (2 SD) of higher dietary phosphorus were -1.1 to -2.3 mm Hg systolic/-0.6 to -1.5 mm Hg diastolic (n=4680) and -1.6 to -3.5 mm Hg systolic/-0.8 to -1.8 mm Hg diastolic for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals, ie, those without special diet/nutritional supplements or diagnosis/treatment for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Dietary calcium and magnesium, correlated with phosphorus (partial r=0.71 and r=0.68), were inversely associated with blood pressure. Blood pressures were lower by 1.9 to 4.2 mm Hg systolic/1.2 to 2.4 mm Hg diastolic for people with intakes above versus below country-specific medians for all 3 of the minerals. These results indicate the potential for increased phosphorus/mineral intake to lower blood pressure as part of the recommendations for healthier eating patterns for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension.

  15. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  16. Environmental Phosphorus Recovery Based on Molecular Bioscavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix

    Phosphorus is a ubiquitous element of all known life and as such it is found throughout numerous key molecules related to various cellular functions. The supply of phosphorus is tightly linked to global food security, since phosphorus is used to produce agricultural fertilizers, without which...... it would not be possible to feed the world population. Sadly, the current supply of phosphorus is based on the gradual depletion of limited fossil reserves, and some estimates predict that within 15-25 years we will consume more phosphorus than we can produce. There is therefore a strong international...

  17. Plant uptake of phosphorus from sparingly available P- sources as affected by Trichoderma asperellum T34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Garcia-Lopez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Trichoderma asperellum T34 to the plant uptake of phosphorus (P from sparingly phytoavailable forms such as insoluble calcium (Ca phosphates and phytates was studied. Two experiments with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. on siliceous sand were performed involving two factors, namely: (i P source, viz., KH2PO4, phytate (Ins6P, and phosphate rock (PR, and (ii inoculation with T34. Liquid pure cultures of T34 were also used. T34 increased the total content in P of cucumber roots irrespective of the particular P form and enhanced total P uptake by plants with P supplied as Ins6P or PR. The increased phytase activity observed with T34 contributes to explain its favourable influence on the uptake of P supplied as Ins6P. Solubilization of Ca phosphates from PR was favoured by the slightly acidifying effect and the increased organic anion concentration promoted by the fungus in the plant growth media. It can be concluded that T34 can improve P nutrition in plants grown on media containing phytates or insoluble Ca phosphates as dominant P forms.

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of niacinamide for reduction of phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Steven C; Young, Daniel O; Huang, Yihung; Delmez, James A; Coyne, Daniel W

    2008-07-01

    Niacinamide inhibits intestinal sodium/phosphorus transporters and reduces serum phosphorus in open-label studies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed for assessment of the safety and efficacy of niacinamide. Hemodialysis patients with phosphorus levels > or =5.0 mg/dl were randomly assigned to 8 wk of niacinamide or placebo, titrated from 500 to 1500 mg/d. After a 2-wk washout period, patients switched to 8 wk of the alternative therapy. Vitamin D analogs and calcimimetics were held constant; phosphorus binders were not changed unless safety criteria were met. Thirty-three patients successfully completed the trial. Serum phosphorus fell significantly from 6.26 to 5.47 mg/dl with niacinamide but not with placebo (5.85 to 5.98 mg/dl). A concurrent fall in calcium-phosphorus product was seen with niacinamide, whereas serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, uric acid, platelet, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol levels remained stable in both arms. Serum HDL levels rose with niacinamide (50 to 61 mg/dl but not with placebo. Adverse effects were similar between both groups. Among patients who were > or =80% compliant, results were similar, although the decrease in serum phosphorus with niacinamide was more pronounced (6.45 to 5.28 mg/dl) and the increase in HDL approached significance (49 to 58 mg/dl). In hemodialysis patients, niacinamide effectively reduces serum phosphorus when co-administered with binders and results in a potentially advantageous increase in HDL cholesterol. Further study in larger randomized trials and other chronic kidney disease populations is indicated.

  19. The behaviour of particle bound phosphorus during the combustion of phosphate doped coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jens Beck; Sven Unterberger [Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of the investigations described in this paper is to provide basic information on the interaction of phosphorus compounds with fly ash. The information shall give better knowledge on the deactivation of DeNOx-catalysts by phosphorus during co-combustion of sewage sludge or meat and bone meal. For the investigations, hard coal is doped with mineral or organic phosphates and sodium chloride. The fuel is burned in a plug flow reactor. Fly ash aerosols are collected at 900{sup o}C and 420{sup o}C. Enrichments of dopants on fine particulate matter indicate nucleation or condensation. This may significantly contribute to catalyst deactivation due to the high mobility and penetration capability of the small particles into the catalyst pores. The results show that the phosphorus concentration on the sub-micron particles is widely independent of the flue gas temperature. A strong relation of calcium and phosphorus is observed for the addition of both phosphates while sodium chloride shows an indirect influence only. Derived reactions of flue gas particles with sub-micron calcium phosphates indicate a contribution to catalyst deactivation at usual operating temperatures. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starter

  1. Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCZ Donato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.

  2. Effects of phase-feeding dietary phosphorus on survival, growth, and processing characteristics of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, W.A.; Barrows, F.T.; Hardy, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    A factorial experiment involving eight diets and three feeding periods was conducted to determine the minimal level of dietary phosphorus required to maintain survival, growth, and processing characteristics of post-juvenile rainbow trout. Trout were reared to an average size of 200, 300, or 400 g using a commercial feed (1.20% P), then allotted by triplicate groups of nine fish to one of seven experimental diets containing logarithmic increments of dietary phosphorus (0.15%%, 0.21%, 0.30%, 0.42%, 0.60%, 0.85%, and 1.20% P) or a commercial trout feed (1.20% P). At an average weight of 550 g, fish were transported to a commercial processing plant, mechanically filleted, and evaluated for quality. Fish survival and weight gain increased quadratically with increased dietary phosphorus for fish started on treatment at 200 and 300 g, but were similar among all fish started at 400 g. Phosphorus retention decreased with increasing dietary phosphorus level, from approximately 88% in groups fed diets containing 0.21% phosphorus to between 23% and 32% in groups fed diets containing 0.85% phosphorus. Calculated phosphorus losses increased as dietary phosphorus levels increased, from a low of approximately 0.4 g phosphorus kg-1 fish weight gain to between 9.5 and 13 g phosphorus kg-1 fish weight gain at the highest dietary phosphorus level. Dietary phosphorus did not affect carcass moisture, protein, lipid, or ash, but carcass phosphorus increased with increased dietary phosphorus among fish started on treatment at 200 and 300 g. There were no differences among any treatment group in carcass dressing or finishing percentage, or visual or textural appeal. The results indicate that available phosphorus levels can be reduced in rainbow trout diets to 0.60% at 200 g, to 0.30% at 300 g, or to 0.15% at 400 g live weight without loss in production or product quality in fish harvested at 550 g. Using these phase-feeding strategies would reduce the amount of phosphorus fed to the fish

  3. Analysis of the Chemical Modification of Dental Enamel Submitted to 35% Hydrogen Peroxide “In-Office” Whitening, with or without Calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudá França Moreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in calcium and phosphorus content in dental enamel when subjected to “in-office” whitening for an extended time by using a 35% hydrogen peroxide solution, with and without calcium. Materials and Methods. 10 human teeth, from which the roots had been removed, were embedded in epoxy resin, and their surfaces were smoothed. The specimens were divided into two groups; in group 1, a whitening solution without calcium was used, while in group 2, the solution included calcium. Each specimen was evaluated at 6 different points before the bleaching treatment, and these points were reassessed after each session. A total of five sessions were carried out. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were measured by using the technique of X-ray fluorescence. Results. After performing a statistical analysis, it was found that there was no statistically significant loss of calcium and phosphorus during the whitening treatment, and the groups showed no statistical differences. Conclusion. Excessive use of hydrogen peroxide, with or without calcium, causes no loss of calcium and phosphorus.

  4. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  5. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Emi; Taketani, Yutaka; Tanaka, Rieko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Isshiki, Masashi; Sato, Minako; Nashiki, Kunitaka; Amo, Kikuko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood. To determine whether postprandial hyperphosphatemia may promote endothelial dysfunction, we investigated the acute effect of phosphorus loading on endothelial function in vitro and in vivo. Exposing bovine aortic endothelial cells to a phosphorus load increased production of reactive oxygen species, which depended on phosphorus influx via sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, and decreased nitric oxide production via inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Phosphorus loading inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat aortic rings. In 11 healthy men, we alternately served meals containing 400 mg or 1200 mg of phosphorus in a double-blind crossover study and measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery before and 2 h after the meals. The high dietary phosphorus load increased serum phosphorus at 2 h and significantly decreased flow-mediated dilation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated inversely with serum phosphorus. Taken together, these findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction mediated by acute postprandial hyperphosphatemia may contribute to the relationship between serum phosphorus level and the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  6. Calcium channels and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    Missense mutations in CACNA1A, the gene that encodes the pore-forming α1 subunit of human voltage-gated Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, cause a rare form of migraine with aura (familial hemiplegic migraine type 1: FHM1). Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder whose key manifestations are recurrent attacks of unilateral headache that may be preceded by transient neurological aura symptoms. This review, first, briefly summarizes current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that are believed to underlie migraine headache, migraine aura and the onset of a migraine attack, and briefly describes the localization and function of neuronal Ca(V)2.1 channels in the brain regions that have been implicated in migraine pathogenesis. Then, the review describes and discusses i) the functional consequences of FHM1 mutations on the biophysical properties of recombinant human Ca(V)2.1 channels and native Ca(V)2.1 channels in neurons of knockin mouse models carrying the mild R192Q or severe S218L mutations in the orthologous gene, and ii) the functional consequences of these mutations on neurophysiological processes in the cerebral cortex and trigeminovascular system thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine, and the insights into migraine mechanisms obtained from the functional analysis of these processes in FHM1 knockin mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosti Elisabetta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During maturation, the last phase of oogenesis, the oocyte undergoes several changes which prepare it to be ovulated and fertilized. Immature oocytes are arrested in the first meiotic process prophase, that is morphologically identified by a germinal vesicle. The removal of the first meiotic block marks the initiation of maturation. Although a large number of molecules are involved in complex sequences of events, there is evidence that a calcium increase plays a pivotal role in meiosis re-initiation. It is well established that, during this process, calcium is released from the intracellular stores, whereas less is known on the role of external calcium entering the cell through the plasma membrane ion channels. This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals. The emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed.

  8. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

  9. In situ evaluation of low-fluoride toothpastes associated to calcium glycerophosphate on enamel remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaze, A C S F; Dias, A P; Amaral, J G; Miyasaki, M L; Sassaki, K T; Delbem, A C B

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-fluoride toothpastes with calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) on enamel remineralization in situ. Volunteers (n=10) wore palatal devices holding four bovine enamel blocks. The treatments involved 5 experimental phases of 3 days each according to the following toothpastes: placebo, 500 ppm F (500 NaF), 500 ppm F with 0.25% CaGP (500 NaF CaGP), 500 ppm F with 0.25% CaGP (500 MFP CaGP) and 1100 ppm F (1100; positive control). After this experimental period, the fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus ion concentrations from enamel were determined. Surface and cross-sectional hardness were also performed. Data were analysed by 1-way ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls' test and by Pearson's correlation. The addition of 0.25% CaGP improved the remineralization potential of low-fluoride toothpastes and the NaF as source of fluoride yielded the best results (pfluoride in the enamel after remineralization (pfluoride source (NaF or MFP), showed a potential of remineralization similar to commercial toothpaste. Although there is a need for confirmation in the clinical setting, these results point to an alternative for improving the risk-benefit relationship between fluorosis and dental caries in small children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum intact parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus in accessory diagnosis of kidney disease%血清全段甲状旁腺激素钙磷检测在肾脏疾病中的辅助诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑荣; 董矜; 高静; 田亚平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血清全段甲状旁腺激素(iPTH)、钙(Ca2+)、磷(P) 浓度对肾脏疾病的辅助诊断价值.方法 检测231 例慢性肾炎综合征患者、106 例肾病综合征患者、422 例慢性肾功能不全患者( 分为4 期) 和54 名正常人( 对照组) 血清iPTH、Ca2+、P 水平.结果 血清iPTH、Ca2+、P 浓度在慢性肾炎综合征组分别为37.02(26.61,51.33)pg/ml、(2.16±0.15)mmol/L、(1.25±0.27)mmol/L,肾病综合征组分别为29.08(22.65,42.63)pg/ml、(2.00±0.19)mmol/L、(1.27±0.24)mmol/L,对照组分别为38.78(32.39,51.19)pg/ml、(2.32±0.83)mmol/L、(1.16±0.15)mmol/L ;血清Ca 浓度在慢性肾功能不全4 期分别为(2.24±0.13)mmol/L、(2.09±0.18)mmol/L、(2.05±0.17)mmol/L、(2.01±0.30)mmol/L,血清iPTH、P 浓度慢性肾功能不全失代偿期组111.15(75.05,151.50)pg/ml、(1.40±0.31)mmol/L,肾功能衰竭期组187.10(130.20,285.93)pg/ml、(1.64±0.3)4mmol/L,尿毒症期组269.45(158.70,416.33)pg/ml、(2.09±0.53)mmol/L,与对照组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),随着肾功能进一步损害,iPTH、P 水平进一步升高(P<0.01) ;各肾脏病组血清Ca2+ 浓度与对照组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01) ;慢性肾功能不全失代偿期组、肾功能衰竭期组和尿毒症期组血清iPTH 与Ca2+ 呈明显负相关;肾功能衰竭期组和尿毒症期组血清iPTH 与P 呈明显正相关.结论 血清iPTH 联合Ca2+、P 检测可作为肾功能失代偿的预警指示之一,对临床不同类型肾脏疾病的早期诊断和治疗具有指导意义.%Objective To study the serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium (Ca2+)and phosphorus (P) in accessory diagnosis of kidney disease. Methods Serum levels of iPTH, Ca2+ and P in 231 patients with chronic nephritic syndrome, 106 patients with nephritic syndrome, 422 patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), and 54 normal subjects who served as controls were measured with Cobas601andCobas701 automatic analyzers. Results The serum levels

  11. Effect of Mashhad power plant Ca-waste and diet phosphorus level on performance and bone strength of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hasan pour Bashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing dietary limestone with Mashhad power plant Calcium-waste in combination with available phosphorus level on growth performance, tibial strength and blood alkaline phosphatase activity in broiler chickens. Three hundred and eighty four male broiler chickens were used in a complete randomized design experiment with a 4×2 factorial arrangement of treatments and four replicates of 12 birds each. Limestone was replaced with Ca-waste source at the rate of 0, 33.3, 66.6 and 100% in combination with two levels of available phosphorus (80% and 100% of Ross recommended in the starter, grower and finisher diets during 1- 42 days of age.Tibia ash, Ca and P percentage (only treatments contain 100% Ross recommended phosphorus and sera alkaline phosphatase activity of chicks, were measured at 21 days of age. One bird from each replicate was weighed, slaughtered and carcass weight and carcass cuts were weighed on 42 days of age. Experimental diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous with similar nutrients with the exception of total phosphorus.The results showed that the dietary limestone can be replaced up to 100% by Mashhad power plant Ca-waste source without any significant effect on body weight, serum alkaline phosphatase, carcass weight and cuts, tibia ash, calcium and total phosphorus. Also feed conversion ratio was significantly influenced by diet phosphorous levels during grows period.

  12. Antiatherogenic properties of calcium antagonists. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, D B; Heider, J G

    1989-04-17

    Atherosclerosis is an arterial disease characterized by localized accumulation of collagen, elastin, lipids, and calcium at sites associated with macrophage infiltration and altered smooth muscle metabolism. Studies in several types of animal models, especially cholesterol-fed rabbits, have shown that calcium competitors, calcium chelators, anticalcifying agents, and calcium antagonists can reduce the accumulation of atherogenic lesion components and decrease the progression of lesions. Although there are some conflicting data in the animal model studies, it is now apparent that several classes of calcium antagonists inhibit the progression of early arterial lesions induced by cholesterol-feeding in animals. The dihydropyridine class of calcium antagonists may be more potent as anti-atherosclerotic agents than the other classes. Mechanisms involving regulation of endothelial cell, smooth muscle cell, and macrophage metabolism may be responsible for the effects of calcium antagonists on early lesion progression. Recent studies in cell culture-model systems suggest that calcium antagonists may significantly alter activities that regulate lipoprotein-derived cholesterol accumulation by arterial wall cells. Some of these activities are independent of calcium flux across voltage-operated calcium channels. Thus, calcium antagonists may reduce the progression of atherogenic lesions by a combination of decreasing calcium accumulation within arterial wall cells and by altering calcium channel-independent metabolic activities, which affect lesion development.

  13. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nilesh C. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Starnes, Daniel L. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Sahi, Shivendra V. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States)]. E-mail: shiv.sahi@wku.edu

    2007-03-15

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils.

  14. Influence of colloidal calcium phosphate level on the microstructure and rheological properties of rennet-induced skim milk gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Andersen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    lactose, to obtain varying levels of micellar calcium and phosphorus but constant value of pH, serum and free calcium, and serum phosphorus. Bovine chymosin was added to the skim milk samples after dialysis and microstructural and rheological properties during gel formation were recorded at 30°C. Samples...... of rennet gel formation. The protein network of rennet gels after dialysis was more compact with many aggregates as demineralization decreased. The small protein particles are able to increase the potential connection points among proteins, support particle fusion and cause a compact structure....... after dialysis needed approximately 30min after the addition of chymosin to form rennet gels. In addition, low micellar calcium and phosphorus values were both found to correlate with slightly less time for the gels to be formed. This information highlights the importance of CCP in the primary phase...

  15. Integumentary loss of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J Y; Margen, S; Calloway, D H; Costa, F M

    1979-08-01

    Integumentary calcium loss was studied in 16 healthy young men. The daily loss by the 16 ambulatory but relatively sedentary young men in 52 determinations of 6-day periods each was 8.7 +/- 1.9 mg/m2 per day (average 15.8 mg/man per day). The amount lost was not influenced by calcium intake (0.1 to 2.3 g/day). In contrast to urinary calcium excretion, which is directly related to protein intake, there was no significant change in integumentary calcium loss with varying protein intakes (1 to 96 g nitrogen per day). No compensatory relationship between urinary and integumentary calcium excretion was noted. During strenuous exercise calcium loss increased to an average of 25 mg in 40 min. There was no compensatory decrease in urinary excretion on the day of strenuous exercise. It was also noted that integumentary calcium loss was not affected by general calcium balance.

  16. Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Fufa, H.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in

  17. Unusually Stable Helical Coil Allotrope of Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Guan, Jie; Jiang, Jingwei; Tománek, David

    2016-12-14

    We have identified an unusually stable helical coil allotrope of phosphorus. Our ab initio density functional theory calculations indicate that the uncoiled, isolated straight one-dimensional chain is equally stable as a monolayer of black phosphorus dubbed phosphorene. The coiling tendency and the attraction between adjacent coil segments add an extra stabilization energy of ∼12 meV/atom to the coil allotrope, similar in value to the ∼16 meV/atom interlayer attraction in bulk black phosphorus. Thus, the helical coil structure is essentially as stable as black phosphorus, the most stable phosphorus allotrope known to date. With an optimum radius of 2.4 nm, the helical coil of phosphorus may fit well and even form inside wide carbon nanotubes.

  18. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  19. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  20. Use of genetically-encoded calcium indicators for live cell calcium imaging and localization in virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jacob L; Ramachandran, Nina K; Utama, Budi; Hyser, Joseph M

    2015-11-15

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous and versatile process involved in nearly every cellular process, and exploitation of host calcium signals is a common strategy used by viruses to facilitate replication and cause disease. Small molecule fluorescent calcium dyes have been used by many to examine changes in host cell calcium signaling and calcium channel activation during virus infec