WorldWideScience

Sample records for investment support scheme

  1. Regulatory changes to renewable energy support schemes: An international investment law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paleckaite, Gintare

    2014-01-01

    Thesist analyzes how regulatory changes related to renewable energy investment support schemes can be perceived under international investment law standards and how possible decisions of international investment law tribunals could impact investment in this sector. This research is based on case studies of two states: Spain and the Czech Republic and claims against them. These cases will assist in analyzing the effects of the amendment/revocation of renewable energy support schemes. Answers t...

  2. Renewable energy investments under different support schemes: A real options approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Meade, Nigel; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    -in tariff encourages earlier investment. Nevertheless, as investment has been undertaken, renewable energy certificate trading creates incentives for larger projects. In our baseline scenario and taking the fixed feed-in tariff as a base, the revenue required to trigger investments is 61% higher......This paper adopts a real options approach to analyze investment timing and capacity choice for renewable energy projects under different support schemes. The main purpose is to examine investment behavior under the most extensively employed support schemes, namely, feed-in tariffs and renewable...... energy certificate trading. We consider both multiple sources of uncertainty under each support scheme and uncertainty with respect to any change of support scheme, and we obtain both analytical (when possible) and numerical solutions. In a Nordic case study based on wind power, we find that the feed...

  3. A real options approach to analyse wind energy investments under different support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Juul, Nina; Drud, Michael Stolbjerg Leni

    2016-01-01

    are combined into a single stochastic process, which allows for analytical (closed-form) solutions. The approach is well suited for quantitative policy analysis, such as the comparison of different support schemes. A case study for offshore wind in the Baltic Sea quantifies differences in investment incentives...... under feed-in tariffs, feed-in premiums and tradable green certificates. Investors can under certificate schemes require up to 3% higher profit margins than under tariffs due to higher variance in profits. Feed-in tariffs may lead to 15% smaller project sizes. This trade-off between faster deployment...... on investment incentives also depends on correlations between the underlying stochastic factors. The results may help investors to make informed investment decisions and policy makers to strategically design renewable support and develop tailor-made incentive schemes....

  4. A real options approach to analyse wind energy investments under different support schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitzing, Lena; Juul, Nina; Drud, Michael; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Real options model for wind projects considering investment timing and sizing. • Introducing a capacity constraint in the optimisation. • Addressing several uncertainty factors while still providing analytical solution. • Comparative policy analysis of investment incentives from different support schemes. • Improved quantification of trade-off between fast deployment and large projects. - Abstract: A real options model is developed to evaluate wind energy investments in a realistic and easily applicable way. Considering optimal investment timing and sizing (capacity choice), the model introduces a capacity constraint as part of the optimisation. Several correlated uncertainty factors are combined into a single stochastic process, which allows for analytical (closed-form) solutions. The approach is well suited for quantitative policy analysis, such as the comparison of different support schemes. A case study for offshore wind in the Baltic Sea quantifies differences in investment incentives under feed-in tariffs, feed-in premiums and tradable green certificates. Investors can under certificate schemes require up to 3% higher profit margins than under tariffs due to higher variance in profits. Feed-in tariffs may lead to 15% smaller project sizes. This trade-off between faster deployment of smaller projects and slower deployment of larger projects is neglected using traditional net present value approaches. In the analysis of such trade-off, previous real options studies did not consider a capacity constraint, which is here shown to decrease the significance of the effect. The impact on investment incentives also depends on correlations between the underlying stochastic factors. The results may help investors to make informed investment decisions and policy makers to strategically design renewable support and develop tailor-made incentive schemes.

  5. Carbon price instead of support schemes: wind power investments by the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie; Finon, Dominique; Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study the development of wind power by the electricity market without any usual support scheme which is aimed at subsidizing non mature renewables, with the sole incentive of a significant carbon price. Long term electricity market and investment decisions simulation by system dynamics modelling is used to trace the electricity generation mix evolution over a 20-year period in a pure thermal system. A range of stable carbon price, as a tax could be, is tested in order to determine the value above which wind power development by market forces becomes economically possible. Not only economic competitiveness in terms of cost price, but also profitability against traditional fossil fuel technologies are necessary for a market-driven development of wind power. Results stress that wind power is really profitable for investors only if the carbon price is very significantly higher than the price required for making wind power MWh's cost price competitive with CCGT and coal-fired plants on the simplistic basis of levelized costs. In this context, the market-driven development of wind power seems only possible if there is a strong commitment to climate policy, reflected by the preference for a stable and high carbon price rather than a fuzzy price of an emission trading scheme. Besides, results show that market-driven development of wind power would require a sky-rocketing carbon price if the initial technology mix includes a share of nuclear plants even with a moratorium on new nuclear development. (authors)

  6. Investment barriers under a renewable-electricity support scheme: Differences across investor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnerud, Kristin; Holden, Erling

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Norway and Sweden implemented a common market for tradable green certificates to achieve each country's renewable-energy target. This is the first example of a cooperation mechanism that the EU has suggested to improve the cost efficiency of its renewable-energy policies. We asked investors in 446 planned hydropower projects in Norway what type of barriers may prevent their project from being realized under this scheme, and how likely it is that their project will be realized. Based on a regression analysis we find that the responses to these questions vary systematically with investor, project and process characteristics. We find that investors are concerned with capacity barriers imposed on the market because of the short duration and abrupt termination of the subsidy scheme at the end of 2020. Consequently, the cost efficiency of this and similar schemes can be improved by choosing a better design. Moreover, experienced investors and local landowners without previous experience in the energy sector responded differently to these questions. Local landowners were more optimistic, less concerned with capacity barriers and more concerned with economic barriers than experienced investors were. These observations are interesting given the recent emergence of new investors in the renewable energy sector. - Highlights: • Norway and Sweden have implemented a common market for tradable green certificates. • We asked questions on barriers and potential to investors in 446 hydropower projects. • Capacity barriers imposed on the market by the support scheme design are important. • Local landowners are more optimistic than experienced investors are, all else equal. • They focus relatively more on economic barriers and risk and less on capacity barriers

  7. The Effects of the Investment Support Scheme on the Dynamics of the Swedish Photovoltaic Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmblad, Linus

    2006-01-01

    The support from the Swedish government to the PV sector has so far been focused on research and development. But in May 2005 the Swedish government showed that they want to follow the global trend and introduced a market deployment initiative directed to grid connected PV systems on buildings for public activities. Compared to subsidy schemes in other countries it is small. But the Swedish PV market is still under development and the market support will lead to a significant leap for the installed capacity of PV systems in Sweden. The aim of this study is to create a picture of the dynamics in the Swedish PV sector and make an early evaluation of the effects of the market deployment initiative. Information has been gathered from five new PV projects in Sweden through interviews with involved actors. The analysis is carried out with an innovation systems perspective. The goal of the market support is to create prerequisites for further diffusion of PV systems and development of a competent PV sector in Sweden. When evaluating the market support it is therefore more interesting to look at how the support has affected the dynamics of the Swedish PV innovation system instead of just looking at how many systems that have been built. Despite that this report was carried out in an early phase of the market deployment initiative, it shows that the market support has certainly had some effect on the Swedish PV innovation system. These effects are described and backed up by examples from the studied projects. The report also describes the most notable blocking mechanisms that became clear during the work. The occurrences of selfreinforcing mechanisms are crucial for the growth of the PV market. These mechanisms are also illustrated and together with the blocking mechanisms this gives a picture of the most important areas for policy measures. The results of this report shows that the market deployment initiative has lead to the start of a number of new PV projects and that

  8. The Effects of the Investment Support Scheme on the Dynamics of the Swedish Photovoltaic Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmblad, Linus

    2006-01-15

    The support from the Swedish government to the PV sector has so far been focused on research and development. But in May 2005 the Swedish government showed that they want to follow the global trend and introduced a market deployment initiative directed to grid connected PV systems on buildings for public activities. Compared to subsidy schemes in other countries it is small. But the Swedish PV market is still under development and the market support will lead to a significant leap for the installed capacity of PV systems in Sweden. The aim of this study is to create a picture of the dynamics in the Swedish PV sector and make an early evaluation of the effects of the market deployment initiative. Information has been gathered from five new PV projects in Sweden through interviews with involved actors. The analysis is carried out with an innovation systems perspective. The goal of the market support is to create prerequisites for further diffusion of PV systems and development of a competent PV sector in Sweden. When evaluating the market support it is therefore more interesting to look at how the support has affected the dynamics of the Swedish PV innovation system instead of just looking at how many systems that have been built. Despite that this report was carried out in an early phase of the market deployment initiative, it shows that the market support has certainly had some effect on the Swedish PV innovation system. These effects are described and backed up by examples from the studied projects. The report also describes the most notable blocking mechanisms that became clear during the work. The occurrences of selfreinforcing mechanisms are crucial for the growth of the PV market. These mechanisms are also illustrated and together with the blocking mechanisms this gives a picture of the most important areas for policy measures. The results of this report shows that the market deployment initiative has lead to the start of a number of new PV projects and that

  9. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    . The first example covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their support schemes, the second countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising...

  10. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    , Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project...

  11. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular...

  12. Joint support schemes for renewable generation and barriers for implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    expansion with lower prices that will affect existing conventional producers. Supporting that development will be opposed by producers whereas consumers will support such a strategy. However, the investment will be influenced by decisions of producers and the option of securing connection to other markets...... the 2020 RES targets. The countries might also find themselves competing for investment in a market with limited capital available. In both cases, the cost-efficiency of the renewable support policies will be reduced from a coordinated solution. We suggest possible policy solutions for joint support......EU has opened for using joint support schemes as support for promoting renewable energy to meet the 2020 targets. Countries are supporting renewable investment by many different types of support schemes and with different levels of support. The potential coordination benefits with more efficient...

  13. Accounting-information support investment in object of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.D. Krupka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the peculiarities of investments in tourism, their financial support through various sources. Given the branching system of travel, and additional related services offered by the author, each of the objects viewed as an investment project which, in turn, provides investment and obtaining from them certain benefits. In the article the system of investment projects, including the relationship of forms of investment (own cash and property investments of investors, credit and other borrowed resources, funds from sponsors and donations and the effects of investment (profit from operations, related income, social benefits for citizens and other benefits for society. Given the fact that every project goes through several stages since its launch and completion stages of submitted investment projects include the following phases: pre, investment process and control the results and return on capital investment projects under operation. The scheme of the project life cycle, which provided a way out of the project, corresponding interpretation investing activities international and national accounting standards and financial reporting. In this paper, special attention is paid to the rehabilitation of tourist visits, keeping investments in them, as well as an attempt to give an objective assessment of the effectiveness of such investments on the basis of accounting information.

  14. Support mechanisms for renewables: How risk exposure influences investment incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Kitzing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed-in premium scheme. The effect of differences in risk exposure from the support schemes is significant and cannot be neglected in policy making, especially when deciding between support instruments or when determining adequate support levels.

  15. The impact of Chinese carbon emission trading scheme (ETS) on low carbon energy (LCE) investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Jian-Lei; Agnolucci, Paolo; Jiang, Mao-Rong; Fan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    China is planning to introduce emission trading scheme (ETS) to decrease CO_2 emission. As low carbon energy (LCE) will play a pivotal role in reducing CO_2 emissions, our paper is to assess the extent and the conditions under which a carbon ETS can deliver LCE investment in China. We chose wind technology as a case study and a real-option based model was built to explore the impact of a number of variables and design features on investment decisions, e.g. carbon and electricity price, carbon market risk, carbon price floor and ceiling and on-grid ratio. We compute critical values of these variables and features and explore trade-offs among them. According to our work, a carbon ETS has a significant effect on wind power plant investment although it cannot support investment in wind power on its own. Carbon price stabilization mechanisms such as carbon price floor can significantly improve the effect of carbon ETS but the critical floor to support investment is still much higher than the carbon price in China pilot ETSs. Our results show that other policy measures will be needed to promote low-carbon energy development in China. - Highlights: • The impact of Chinese emission trading scheme on low carbon energy investment is assessed. • A real-option based investment decision model under uncertainty is built and employed. • Key variables and features of ETS influencing wind power investment are explored. • Chinese carbon ETS cannot support low carbon energy investment on its own. • Other policy measures complementing ETS are still needed and should be coordinated.

  16. Market-based support schemes for renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union set ambitious goals regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and the majority of European governments have implemented policies stimulating investments in such technologies. Support schemes differ in many aspects, not only in their effectivity and

  17. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed......We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital...

  18. Swedish-Norwegian tradable green certificates: Scheme design flaws and perceived investment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnerud, Kristin; Simonsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The EU Commission recommends using market-based support schemes for renewable-electricity projects. One example is the Swedish-Norwegian tradable green certificate scheme. We examine whether design features in the Norwegian part of this scheme, specifically, the scheme's short duration and the way it is to be abruptly terminated, contribute to investors' perceptions of barriers. We apply econometric techniques on primary data collected in two surveys of Norwegian investors in hydropower, and we use real options theory to predict and interpret investors' responses. We show that: (1) immediately after the scheme was introduced, investors are eager to lock in future subsidies by investing immediately and concerned with factors that may delay the completion of their projects; (2) as the certificate deadline neared, investors have become increasingly pessimistic and concerned with economic and risk barriers. Investors in big hydropower plants with regulation reservoirs are particularly concerned with the risk of not completing their projects in time to gain the right to sell certificates. These findings are consistent with the predicted responses to the scheme design derived from real options theory. In contrast to earlier studies, we find no difference in responses to the scheme design across investor types. - Highlights: • The Swedish-Norwegian tradable green certificate scheme is intended to promote cost-efficiency. • We examine the optimism about and barriers against investing in new hydropower projects in Norway. • We find that scheme design may have contributed to barriers against Norwegian hydropower projects. • Thus, scheme design flaws may have prevented the scheme from working as intended. • These findings are consistent with real options theory predictions.

  19. Support schemes and market design in international offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    International offshore grids can combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with the possibility for international power trading in the future. This paper investigates the choice of support scheme and power market design in international offshore grids and derives resulting incentives...... support. For a stable investment framework in the near future, a tendering/feed-in tariff may be the best choice. It avoids exposing wind farms to balancing with multiple countries. In the long run, also other support scheme options may be of interest....

  20. EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Investments in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, M.D.; Stefanoni, S.

    2007-07-01

    How environmental regulation affects electricity players' investment decisions? Should policy makers look beyond for alternative mechanisms - such as energy efficiency, capture and storage of carbon dioxide, and incentives for renewables - to fulfill the environmental objectives set by Kyoto Protocol? This paper suggests - through a Real Option approach - how the efficacy of the EU Emission Trading Scheme on technological innovation, emissions reduction and energy price dynamics, is strongly affected by the 'hysteresis' emerging from the capital budgeting process of main utilities. As a matter of fact, long-term substitutions between coal-fired units and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine plants production only take place under quite restrictive conditions. (auth)

  1. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  2. Government Strategic Support for Investment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turekulova, Assiya N.; Mukhambetova, Lyazzat K.; Doshan, Almagul S.; Issabekov, Baurzhan N.; Chimgentbayeva, Gulbakyt K.; Turegeldinova, Aliya Zh.

    2016-01-01

    When system risks are high most investors choose to exit the market; however, there are some contrarian investors who opt to make investments. The authors analyzed the main goals of the investment process and measures that should be provided by the government to stimulate investments and innovation especially by means of investment banking. The…

  3. Financing the energy renovation of residential buildings through soft loans and third-party investment schemes. Infinite Solutions Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilken, Peter; Cicmanova, Jana; Turner, Ian; Van Liefland, Stijn; Kaiser, Maaike; Ethuin, Perrine; Bernair, Corinne; Bertolotti, Enzo; Mordacci, Marco; Fraval, Jacques; Beaupetit, Helene; Safiulins, Timurs; Latisevs, Jevgenijs; Wenzel, Philipp; Dehghan, Bahram; Rask Nielsen, Poul

    2017-02-01

    Financing the energy retrofitting of buildings is a great challenge. With investments ranging from euros 200 to euros 1,200 /m 2 (CITYnvest study, 2015), access to attractive and long-term financing is perceived as the primary barrier to carrying out ambitious energy retrofits, in particular those aiming at achieving 50-75% energy savings. In this guidebook, Energy Cities' members share their experience and guide you through the process of setting up a soft loan financing scheme. The Stuttgart's 'care-free energy renovation package' and third party investment scheme are described in detail in a dedicated case study. The guidebook is intended for local and regional authorities, energy agencies and their associations, national energy agencies, ministries and fund managers, organisations providing training to cities and regions, banks and financing institutions. In short, all organisations and actors who could be interested in replicating these financing schemes or who could support cities and regions in doing so. The guidebook consists of four chapters: Chapter 1: an introduction to soft loan schemes. Chapter 2: step-by-step guidance on how to build a soft loan financing scheme, including an overview of three already tested alternative business models. Chapter 3: summary and recommendations. Chapter 4: case studies, including Stuttgart's third party investment scheme

  4. Nigerian banking sector Equity Investment Scheme in small and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst these government-led initiatives have been implemented through banking sector intermediation, they have largely failed to achieve their purpose for a number of reasons. In an effort to complement government's initiatives, the Nigerian banking sector introduced the small and medium enterprises equity investment ...

  5. Can the future EU ETS support wind energy investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the future Emissions Trading Scheme legislation should be designed to allow the European Union to comply with the 20% CO 2 emissions reduction target, while at the same time promoting wind energy investments. We examine whether CO 2 prices could eventually replace the existing support schemes for wind and if they adequately capture its benefits. The analysis also looks at the effectiveness of the clean development and joint implementation mechanisms to trigger wind projects and technology transfer in developing countries. We find out that climate policy is unlikely to provide sufficient incentives to promote wind power, and that other policies should be used to internalise the societal benefits that accrue from deploying this technology: CO 2 prices can only reflect the beneficial impact of wind on climate change but not its contribution to the security of supply or employment creation. A minimum price of around Euro 40/tCO 2 should be attained to maintain present support levels for wind and this excludes income risks and intermediation costs. Finally, CDM improves the return rate of wind energy projects in third countries, but it is the local institutional framework and the long-term stability of the CO 2 markets that matters the most

  6. Can the future EU ETS support wind energy investments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economic Analysis, Faculty of Economics,University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigues, Gloria [European Wind Energy Association, EWEA, Rue D' Arlon 63-65, 1040 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    This article discusses how the future Emissions Trading Scheme legislation should be designed to allow the European Union to comply with the 20% CO{sub 2} emissions reduction target, while at the same time promoting wind energy investments. We examine whether CO{sub 2} prices could eventually replace the existing support schemes for wind and if they adequately capture its benefits. The analysis also looks at the effectiveness of the clean development and joint implementation mechanisms to trigger wind projects and technology transfer in developing countries. We find out that climate policy is unlikely to provide sufficient incentives to promote wind power, and that other policies should be used to internalise the societal benefits that accrue from deploying this technology: CO{sub 2} prices can only reflect the beneficial impact of wind on climate change but not its contribution to the security of supply or employment creation. A minimum price of around EUR40/tCO{sub 2} should be attained to maintain present support levels for wind and this excludes income risks and intermediation costs. Finally, CDM improves the return rate of wind energy projects in third countries, but it is the local institutional framework and the long-term stability of the CO{sub 2} markets that matters the most. (author)

  7. An energy pricing scheme for the diffusion of decentralized renewable technology investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiam, Djiby Racine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate price support for market penetration of renewable energy in developing nations through a decentralized supply process. We integrate the new decentralized energy support: renewable premium tariff, to analyze impacts of tariff incentives on the diffusion of renewable technology in Senegal. Based on photovoltaic and wind technologies and an assessment of renewable energy resources in Senegal, an optimization technique is combined with a cash flow analysis to investigate investment decisions in renewable energy sector. Our findings indicate that this support mechanism could strengthen the sustainable deployment of renewable energy in remote areas of Senegal. Although different payoffs emerged, profits associated with a renewable premium tariff are the highest among the set of existing payoffs. Moreover in analyzing impacts of price incentives on social welfare, we show that price tariffing schemes must be strategically scrutinized in order to minimize welfare loss associated with price incentives. Finally we argue that a sustainable promotion of incentive mechanisms supporting deployment of renewable technology in developing nations should be carried out under reliable institutional structures. The additional advantage of the proposed methodology is its ability to integrate different stakeholders (producers, investors and consumers) in the planning process. - Highlights: → We simulate impacts of price support for market penetration of renewable technology in developing nations. → An array of price incentive mechanisms strengthens diffusion of renewable technology in Senegal. → Moreover, reliable institutional frameworks in developing nations are a requirement in order to strengthen diffusion path of renewable technologies.

  8. A new tailored scheme for the support of renewable energies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moner-Girona, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Historically the promotion of renewable energy technologies in isolated areas has involved international donors or governments subsidising the initial capital investment. This paper proposes an alternative support mechanism for remote villages based on the generation of renewable electricity. This communication presents an evaluation of the Renewable Energy Premium Tariff (RPT) scheme, a locally adapted variation of the Feed-in Tariff tailored for decentralised grids of developing countries. The RPT scheme stimulates the deployment of renewable energy technologies by paying for renewable electricity generated. A good-quality performance is secured since the support is given based on the electricity produced by renewables, not for the initial capital investment. The mechanism has been designed to provide a cost-effective scheme for the introduction of renewable energy technologies to remote villages, to provide sustainable and affordable electricity to local users, to make renewable energy projects attractive to policy-makers, and concurrently decrease financial risk to attract private sector investment. (author)

  9. An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E), e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

  10. Using Investment Funds to Support Advancements in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Nawar, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is about using investment funds to support advancements in healthcare. The structure is designed to identify the relevant elements in a funding strategy that can be used to support healthcare companies likely to produce usable solutions. The research objective is to establish a proper investment fund strategy that supports healthcare. Additionally, it is positioned to highlight the dynamic components that outline the viable fund. The preliminary scope of the ...

  11. A study of the feasibility of using standards of performance funding to support investment in active solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises the results of studies examining the feasibility of starting Standards of Performance (SOP) programmes to support investment in solar heating systems and develop tools for helping the implementation of the programmes. The background to the project is traced, and the scope for an active solar heating SOP scheme, the market potential for the SOP schemes in Great Britain, and the purchasing of the associated hardware within the SOP scheme are examined. (UK)

  12. Franchise Bidding in the Water Industry- Auction Schemes and Investment Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Urs Meister

    2004-01-01

    The periodical re-auction of a water monopoly concession causes the danger of underinvestment. If the life-time of specific assets such as water pipes exceeds the contract length and transferring the ownership of assets is difficult, the incumbent franchisee faces a hold-up problem. Using a simple auction model that considers the specifics of the piped water sector this paper shows that investment incentives may vary depending on the applied auction scheme. The model is designed as a two stag...

  13. Support schemes and ownership structures - the policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana; Obé, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    the national implementation of European legislation in Denmark, France and Portugal. Finally, resulting implications for ownership arrangements on the choice of support scheme are explained. From a conceptual point of view, investment support, feed-in tariffs and price premiums are the most appropriate schemes...... for fuel cell mCHP. This can be used for improved analysis of operational strategies. The interaction of this plethora of elements necessitates careful balancing from a private- and socio-economic point of view....

  14. Chemical plant innovative safety investments decision-support methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, G L L; Audenaert, A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which investing in safety during the creation of a new chemical installation proves profitable. The authors propose a management supporting cost-benefit model that identifies and evaluates investments in safety within a chemical company. This innovative model differentiates between serious accidents and less serious accidents, thus providing an authentic image of prevention-related costs and benefits. In classic cost-benefit analyses, which do not make such differentiations, only a rudimentary image of potential profitability resulting from investments in safety is obtained. The resulting management conclusions that can be drawn from such classical analyses are of a very limited nature. The proposed model, however, is applied to a real case study and the proposed investments in safety at an appointed chemical installation are weighed against the estimated hypothetical benefits resulting from the preventive measures to be installed at the installation. In the case-study carried out in question, it would appear that the proposed prevention investments are justified. Such an economic exercise may be very important to chemical corporations trying to (further) improve their safety investments.

  15. Optimal control, investment and utilization schemes for energy storage under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Niloufar Sadat

    Energy storage has the potential to offer new means for added flexibility on the electricity systems. This flexibility can be used in a number of ways, including adding value towards asset management, power quality and reliability, integration of renewable resources and energy bill savings for the end users. However, uncertainty about system states and volatility in system dynamics can complicate the question of when to invest in energy storage and how best to manage and utilize it. This work proposes models to address different problems associated with energy storage within a microgrid, including optimal control, investment, and utilization. Electric load, renewable resources output, storage technology cost and electricity day-ahead and spot prices are the factors that bring uncertainty to the problem. A number of analytical methodologies have been adopted to develop the aforementioned models. Model Predictive Control and discretized dynamic programming, along with a new decomposition algorithm are used to develop optimal control schemes for energy storage for two different levels of renewable penetration. Real option theory and Monte Carlo simulation, coupled with an optimal control approach, are used to obtain optimal incremental investment decisions, considering multiple sources of uncertainty. Two stage stochastic programming is used to develop a novel and holistic methodology, including utilization of energy storage within a microgrid, in order to optimally interact with energy market. Energy storage can contribute in terms of value generation and risk reduction for the microgrid. The integration of the models developed here are the basis for a framework which extends from long term investments in storage capacity to short term operational control (charge/discharge) of storage within a microgrid. In particular, the following practical goals are achieved: (i) optimal investment on storage capacity over time to maximize savings during normal and emergency

  16. Application of GIS in foreign direct investment decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianlan; Sun, Koumei

    2007-06-01

    It is important to make decisions on how to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) to China and know how the inequality of FDI introduction by locational different provinces. Following background descriptions on China's FDI economic environments and FDI-related policies, this paper demonstrates the uses of geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criterion decision-making (MCDM) framework in solving a spatial multi-objective problem of evaluating and ranking China's provinces for FDI introduction. It implements a foreign direct investment decision support system, which reveals the main determinants of FDI in China and gives some results of regional geographical analysis over spatial data.

  17. Assessing the Value of Housing Schemes through Sustainable Return on Investment: A Path towards Sustainability-Led Evaluations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Dean

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2016 United Nations (UN New Urban Agenda clearly reaffirms the concept that sustainable cities require intertwined environmental and social sustainability. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 11—“Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable”—sets (as a primary target the provision of sufficient affordable housing. Despite the central role that housing plays in ensuring sustainability and the importance of both environmental and social pillars in ensuring sustainable development, current evaluative methods that support decision making on social housing interventions fail to capture all of the socio-environmental value contained in the UN SDG 11. This paper addresses the issue by demonstrating how Sustainable Return on Investment can successfully describe and analyse a range of externalities related to the sustainable value generated by social housing regeneration schemes. To achieve this goal, a single case study strategy has been chosen. Two extant projects—a high-rise housing scheme and an environmental-led program developed by City West Housing Trust (a nonprofit housing association based in the Manchester area—have been assessed in order to monetise their social and environmental value through different methods. The findings show that, historically, the environmental and social value of regeneration schemes have been largely disregarded because of a gap in the evaluation methods, and that there is room for significant improvement for future evaluation exercises.

  18. Promoting renewable energy through capacity markets: An analysis of the Russian support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anatole

    2012-01-01

    Most existing support schemes aim to stimulate the deployment of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector on the basis of the electricity output (MW h) of renewable energy installations. Support is anchored in the electricity commodity market. In contrast to this established approach, Russia intends to promote renewable energy through the capacity market. The idea is to remunerate investors for the installed capacity (MW) of their installations, in particular for the availability of their installations to produce electricity. This article argues that, contrary to the implicit consensus, a capacity-based approach to supporting renewable energy can provide an alternative to the current output-based schemes. Capacity-based schemes limit the incentive that the operators of renewable energy installations currently have under output-based schemes to deliver electricity to the grid even in periods of low demand. These schemes also provide investors with a more predictable income flow. However, to be successful, the regulation of capacity supply – currently designed for flexible power plants – needs to accommodate the specific production patterns of variable renewable energy installations. This paper examines ways to overcome this challenge in Russia and provides more general conclusions on the complex interaction between capacity markets and renewable energy investments.

  19. Concentrating solar power plant investment and operation decisions under different price and support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Christoph; Flath, Christoph M.; Möst, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The dispatch opportunities provided by storage-enhanced Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants have direct implications on the investment decisions as not only nameplate capacity but also the storage capacity and the solar multiple play a crucial role for the viability of the plant investment. By integrating additional technical aspects and operation strategies, this paper extends the optimization model proposed by Madaeni et al., How Thermal Energy Storage Enhances the Economic Viability of Concentrating Solar Power. Using a mixed integer maximization approach the paper yields both the optimal layout decision and the operation of CSP plants. Subsequently, the economic value of CSP storage is analyzed via energy modeling of a Spanish plant location under the respective wholesale market prices as well as the local feed-in tariff. The analysis shows that investment incentives for CSP plants with storage need to appropriately account for the interdependency between the price incentives and the plant operating strategy. As the resulting revenue characteristics influence the optimal size of solar field and storage differing operating strategies also give rise to differing optimal plant layouts. Most noteworthy, the current Spanish support scheme offers only limited incentives for larger thermal storage capacity. - Highlights: • Dispatch opportunities of CSP have direct implications on both investment and operational decisions. • Valuation approach with a single mixed integer maximization problem. • Profitability of CSP plants under the premium feed-in tariff in Spain was assessed. • Layout decision and storage size are influenced by remuneration scheme. • Discuss alternative remuneration schemes for “dispatchable” RE technologies

  20. Assessing survivability to support power grid investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziolek, Anne; Avritzer, Alberto; Suresh, Sindhu; Menasché, Daniel S.; Diniz, Morganna; Souza e Silva, Edmundo de; Leão, Rosa M.; Trivedi, Kishor; Happe, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of power grids has been subject of study for the past few decades. Traditionally, detailed models are used to assess how the system behaves after failures. Such models, based on power flow analysis and detailed simulations, yield accurate characterizations of the system under study. However, they fall short on scalability. In this paper, we propose an efficient and scalable approach to assess the survivability of power systems. Our approach takes into account the phased-recovery of the system after a failure occurs. The proposed phased-recovery model yields metrics such as the expected accumulated energy not supplied between failure and full recovery. Leveraging the predictive power of the model, we use it as part of an optimization framework to assist in investment decisions. Given a budget and an initial circuit to be upgraded, we propose heuristics to sample the solution space in a principled way accounting for survivability-related metrics. We have evaluated the feasibility of this approach by applying it to the design of a benchmark distribution automation circuit. Our empirical results indicate that the combination of survivability and power flow analysis can provide meaningful investment decision support for power systems engineers. - Highlights: • We propose metrics and models for scalable survivability analysis of power systems. • The survivability model captures the system phased-recovery, from failure to repair. • The survivability model is used as a building block of an optimization framework. • Heuristics assist in investment options accounting for survivability-related metrics.

  1. The evolution of the support scheme for promoting renewable energy sources in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atănăsoae Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution of the support scheme for promoting renewable energy sources in Romania, following: the annual mandatory quotas of green certificate purchase and those achieved; the price of green certificates; the evolution of the RES-E installed capacity and implicitly of the investments in renewable energy sources; the structure of the installed power in RES-E (wind power plants, photovoltaic power plants, hydroelectric power plants with an installed capacity that is not larger than 10 MW, biomass power plants; the contribution of the renewable energy sources to the production of electricity in Romania.

  2. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...

  3. Forging alliance with Russia. The example of a Green Investment Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppoo, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Russian Kyoto related interests are economic and after the US withdrawal the mission of Russian actors has been to find new demand for Russian credits and allowances. Kyoto related benefits to Russia will be significantly smaller than earlier expected, however, the revenues are now more likely to be focused on climate change mitigation purposes. Competition in the Kyoto market has established buyers' market and Russia has to accommodate the interests of investors in order to gain benefits. The Russian initiative 'Green Investment Scheme' to recycle revenues from International Emissions Trading (IET) to further environmental activities would convene demand for Russian AAUs but experience the same problems than the previous initiatives: inadequate institutional arrangement, unclear division of responsibilities between domestic actors, prolonged ratification process and lack of eligibility strategy. These problems have prevented implementation of GIS so far. Therefore, these problems have to be addressed by high-level Russian policy-makers if serious benefits from Kyoto are sought. Actors building alliances with Russia should focus on assisting with solving these problems

  4. Incentive-based Financial Support Scheme for Immature Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2015-01-01

    Most of today’s renewable energy systems rely heavily on investments as well as public financial support. This support is often given by means of a higher sales price for each kWh produced, i.e. feed-in tariffs (FITs), green certificates or Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs), or by a fixed...... amount, being a percentage of the construction costs of the facility. All these ways of financing have different downsides. The feed-in tariff based kWh prices have some incentives to improve the technology, but enables infeasible solutions to stay financially supported even while R&D is in status quo....... The fixed amount only helps with installation costs, which should not be an issue once the technology is sufficiently feasible. This means that the current ways of granting financial support all lack incentives for increasing production or decreasing construction costs. This paper presents a unique scheme...

  5. Working capital management in the process of financial support of investment and construction projects and of the construction material industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilochkina, Nadezhda; Lukmanova, Inessa; Roshchina, Olga; Voytolovskiy, Nikolay

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the analysis of working capital in the process of financial support of high-rise construction investment projects. The factors influencing the choice of the working capital management model were analyzed, the reasons of the change in the requirement for the values of current assets in the process of construction of high-rise facilities were determined. The author has developed the scheme of interrelation between production, operational and financial activity cycles of enterprises implementing investment projects of unique buildings and structures and made a comparative description of their financing sources.

  6. Effect of a Green Investment Society on the Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme (SDE); Effect Groene Investeringsmaatschappij op SDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, S.M.; Van Stralen, J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-27

    On request of the Holland Financial Centre, ECN has projected the potential benefits of a Green Investment Company for the expenditure of the SDE+ Scheme (Renewable Energy Incentivisation Scheme). To this end, a calculation was made of the effects of an interest rebate for sustainable energy projects [Dutch] Op verzoek van Holland Financial Centre heeft ECN geraamd wat de voordelen kunnen zijn van een Groene Investeringsmaatschappij op de uitgaven voor de SDE+ (Stimuleringsregeling Duurzame Energie). Hiertoe diende een berekening gemaakt te worden van de effecten van een rentekorting voor duurzame energieprojecten.

  7. Understanding the effect of an emissions trading scheme on electricity generator investment and retirement behaviour: the proposed carbon pollution reduction scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambie, N.R. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Crawford School of Economics & Government

    2010-04-15

    The objective of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme (ETS) is to reduce emissions by transitioning the economy away from the production and consumption of goods and services that are GHG intensive. A GHG ETS has been a public policy issue in Australia for over a decade. The latest policy initiative on an ETS is the proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS). A substantial share of Australia's total GHG reduction under the CPRS is expected to come from the electricity generation sector. This paper surveys the literature on investment behaviour under an ETS. It specifically focuses on the relationship between the design of an ETS and a generator's decisions to invest in low emissions plant and retire high emissions plant. The proposed CPRS provides the context for presenting key findings along with the implications for the electricity generation sector's transition to lower emissions plant. The literature shows that design features such as the method of allocating permits, the stringency of the emissions cap along with permit price uncertainty, provisions for banking, borrowing and internationally trading permits, and the credibility of emissions caps and policy uncertainty may all significantly impact on the investment and retirement behaviour of generators.

  8. Investment appraisal of heat and power plants within an emissions trading scheme. Final Report of the INVIS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurikka, H.; Pirilae, P.

    2005-04-01

    The opportunity cost for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions has become a new factor influencing investments in heat and power production capacity globally, and in particular in countries with a greenhouse gas emissions trading system, such as the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). There is a considerable power capacity investment need in the coming decades in Finland, in Europe and globally. As the economic lifetime of an investment in heat and power capacity typically ranges from 20-40 years, 'carbon finance' and the EU ETS therefore introduce a considerable and fundamental price risk to the investment problem. In Europe, the price risk is present in all investments and divestments of power production licences or capacity, be it a green-field plant, a retrofit of an existing plant or an acquisition. The objective of the INVIS research project was to extend the knowledge on strategic implications of emissions trading in investments into heat and power generation. This report gives an overview on the main findings of the project. The focus of INVIS project was on (1) quantitative investment appraisal and (2) methods rather than tools or parameter values. Particular attention in the INVIS project was paid to the incorporation of emissions trading in new methods of investment appraisal, which aim at taking into account the value of real options, rights to postpone or revise decisions. The EU ETS modifies the quantitative investment appraisal of heat and power plants directly through the emission allowance price and the number of free allowances and indirectly through impacts on output prices, input prices, taxation, and subsidies. From the risk perspective, the most problematic impact seems to be the regulatory uncertainty in the number of free allowances, which can turn out to be a barrier for investment in fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants - even combined-cycle gas turbines. The emission allowance price is a stochastic variable, which implies it is

  9. Post-modern portfolio theory supports diversification in an investment portfolio to measure investment's performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Devinaga

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at the Post-Modern Portfolio Theory that maintains greater diversification in an investment portfolio by using the alpha and the beta coefficient to measure investment performance. Post-Modern Portfolio Theory appreciates that investment risk should be tied to each investor's goals and the outcome of this goal did not symbolize economic of the financial risk. Post-Modern Portfolio Theory's downside measure generated a noticeable distinction between downside and upside volatil...

  10. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi; Marcus, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. Connect is the only integrated learning system that empowers students by continuously adapting to deliver precisely what they need, when they need it, and how they need it, so that your class time is more engaging and effective.

  11. Risk analysis of the proxy life-cycle investments in the second pillar pension scheme in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kovačević

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the expected risk of pension funds with different risk profiles in the proxy life-cycle model of investments for the 2nd pillar pension scheme in Croatia. The benefits of implementing proxy life-cycle investments, compared to the previous model of mandatory pension funds investments, are clearly visible in the total expected amount of accumulated savings from the risk/return perspective. However, those benefits are partially diminished by the fact that the expected risk of a pension fund with the lowest risk profile is not substantially different from the expected risk of a pension fund with a medium risk profile, due to the lack of diversification. Additionally, we analyze the robustness of the proxy life-cycle model to a sudden and severe market shock, where we determine the presence of risk for those members who choose to switch to a pension fund with a lower risk profile at an unfavorable moment.

  12. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. McGraw-Hill's adaptive learning component, LearnSmart, provides assignable modules that help students master chapter core concepts and come to class more prepared. Bodie Investments' blend of practical and theoretical coverage combines with a complete digital solution to help your students achieve higher outcomes in the course

  13. The Model of Information Support for Management of Investment Attractiveness of Machine-Building Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernetska Olga V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the content of the definition of “information support”, identifies basic approaches to the interpretation of this economic category. The main purpose of information support for management of enterprise investment attractiveness is determined. The key components of information support for management of enterprise investment attractiveness are studied. The main types of automated information systems for management of the investment attractiveness of enterprises are identified and characterized. The basic computer programs for assessing the level of investment attractiveness of enterprises are considered. A model of information support for management of investment attractiveness of machine-building enterprises is developed.

  14. Support schemes and ownership structures - the policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana; Obé, Elisabeth

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to European energy policy goals, i.e., sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. Besides technical advances, regulatory framework and ownership structures are of crucial importance in order to achieve greater diffusion of the technology in residential applications. This paper analyses the interplay of policy and ownership structures for the future deployment of mCHP. Furthermore, it regards the three country cases Denmark, France and Portugal. Firstly, the implications of different kinds of support schemes on investment risk and the diffusion of a technology are explained conceptually. Secondly, ownership arrangements are addressed. Then, a cross-country comparison on present support schemes for mCHP and competing technologies discusses the national implementation of European legislation in Denmark, France and Portugal. Finally, resulting implications for ownership arrangements on the choice of support scheme are explained. From a conceptual point of view, investment support, feed-in tariffs and price premiums are the most appropriate schemes for fuel cell mCHP. This can be used for improved analysis of operational strategies. The interaction of this plethora of elements necessitates careful balancing from a private- and socio-economic point of view.

  15. Renewable energy production support schemes for residential-scale solar photovoltaic systems in Nordic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Cao, Sunliang; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of production-based support schemes on the economic feasibility of residential-scale PV systems (1–10 kW) in Finland. This was done by calculating the payback time for various sizes of newly installed PV systems for a Finnish detached house with district heating. Three types of economic support schemes (guaranteed selling price, fixed premiums and self-consumption incentives) were tested in an hourly simulation. The load of the building was based on real-life measurements, while PV output was simulated with TRNSYS software. The energy results were post-processed with economic data in MATLAB to find the payback time. Hourly electricity prices from the Nordic energy market were used with PV system prices from Finnish companies. Unsubsidised residential PV systems in Finland had payback times of more than 40 years. The production-based support for PV generation needs to be two to three times the buying price of electricity, to make it possible to pay back the initial investment in 20 years. Low capacity systems with more than 50% self-consumption (under 3 kW) were favoured by self-consumption incentives, while high capacity systems with less than 40% self-consumption (over 5 kW) were favoured by the FIT-type support schemes. - Highlights: • Unsubsidised residential PV is uneconomical in Finland. • Support rate must be 2 times the electricity price for reasonable payback time. • Even using all electricity on-site is not profitable enough without support. • Assumed real interest rate had great influence on payback time. • Hourly electricity prices are much lower than average values from Finnish statistics

  16. Design, Development and Implementation of Decision Support Systems for Private Equity Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Vroomen, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design, develop and implement an intelligent decision support system (IDSS) for making rational private equity investment decisions. (Private equity investments are capital investments in enterprises that are not traded on public equity markets; they include Equity Buy-Out, Venture Capital, and the new Equity Crowd Funding (ECF) asset classes). The design and development of the IDSS requires the integration of investment science (valuation theory, portfoli...

  17. Energy auditing in connection with subsidy schemes for energy saving investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broend, Evald

    1979-07-01

    A review of the energy situation in Denmark is presented. Government subsidies for investments aiding projects aimed at reducing process energy consumption are discussed. The law serves as an incentive for the implementation of energy saving measures which would not otherwise be carried out because they would not be sufficiently economic. Subsidies of up to 40% of the amount invested are available. The special form of energy auditing carried out on the part of society concerning industrial energy consumption and some idea of how energy auditing is practiced in the individual enterprise are discussed.

  18. Decision Support Tool for Prioritization of Surveillance and Maintenance Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, L.Y.; Conley, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently faces a difficult task in the disposition of the numerous excess or to-be excessed facilities owned by the Department. Many of these facilities are in various physical conditions and contain potentially hazardous nuclear, chemical, radiological or industrial materials left behind as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production, nuclear powered naval vessels and commercial nuclear energy production. During the last period of a facility's life cycle, it is important that surveillance and maintenance (S and M) be adequate to maintain the facility within an appropriate safety envelope. Inadequate investment in maintenance can cause facilities to deteriorate to the point they are unsafe for human entry. Too often this can mean tremendous increases to cost during deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). However, experiences often show that once buildings have been declared excess and enter the transition phase (as defined in DOE G 430.1-5 Transition Implementation Guide), maintenance budgets are drastically reduced. This is justified by the desire to not spend money 'on a building that is being torn down'. The objective of this study was to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) federal project directors and their contractors with a decision support tool to aid in prioritizing S and M investment across a site's excess facilities so that the limited budget available can be used most effectively. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP), a multi-criteria decision making method developed by Dr. Thomas Saaty in the 1970's, was used to derive the weight of importance of a defined list of risk-based criteria and typical S and M activities. A total of 10 facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) varying in perceived hazards and conditions were chosen to test the tool by evaluating them with respect to each risk criterion and combining these results with the weight of importance of the S and M

  19. Economic simulation to support investment decisions in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backus, G.B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on the development and use of a model that simulates the consequences of long-term investment decisions in pig farming. The thesis is composed of six parts. Chapter 1 deals with a basic review of the literature on strategic planning under risk and

  20. Psychosocial routes from housing investment to health: Evidence from England's home energy efficiency scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, Jan; Grimsley, Michael; Green, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade the Warm Front Scheme has been the English Government's principal programme for improving domestic energy efficiency and reducing fuel poverty. This paper reports on a cross-sectional survey of low income householders participating in the Warm Front Scheme in five urban areas of England. Surveys were conducted of 2685 individuals, before and or after intervention. Pathways to self reported health were modelled by logistic regression. Of all the dimensions of health examined, only self reported mental health is directly associated with Warm Front measures. Intermediary variables associated with Warm Front intervention were shown to be significantly correlated with more dimensions of self reported health status. Higher temperatures, satisfaction with the heating system, greater thermal comfort, reductions in fuel poverty and lower stress were significantly correlated with improved health. Alleviating fuel poverty and reducing stress appeared to be the main route to health. We conclude there are complex and indirect relationships linking energy efficiency measures to outcomes on all dimensions of health which contribute to significant material and psychosocial benefits. The impact of the Warm Front Scheme cannot be fully understood by a limited analysis which merely relates indoor temperature and property characteristics to physiological health outcomes. - Highlights: ► Warm Front improvements are linked to significant material and psychosocial benefits. ► The alleviation of fuel poverty and the reduction of stress emerge as the likely route to health. ► The scope for improving health is greater than implied by the UK Government's Fuel Poverty Strategy. ► A dual but integrated approach to alleviating cold living conditions and fuel poverty is required.

  1. Joint Support and Efficient Offshore Investment: Market and Transmission Connection Barriers and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Kitzing, Lena; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Different support schemes are applied for the promotion of renewable energy sources in EU Member States. Current EU legislation opens opportunities for international cooperation to achieve national renewable targets more efficiently, either by statistical transfers, joint projects or joint support...

  2. Support schemes and ownership structures - The policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S.; Thorsten Schroeder, S.; Costa, A.; Obe, E.

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects of the ongoing fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio-economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large-scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market-based operational support. The choice of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project, Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up previous findings and provides a short 'preview' of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way. (author)

  3. Investments

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    CCAA Financial summary for 2010–11. Budget vs. actual allocations. April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. 2010–11. 2006–10. Actuals. Budget. Actual. Allocations. Variance. 2011–12. Budget. 2012–13. Budget. TOTAL. Operations: PMU staff. 4,102,331. $1,376,281. 1,242,281. $134,000. Technical support. 691,122. 138,106.

  4. Assessment of Growth Enhancement Support Scheme among Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    result of the findings showed that the scheme had very low performance indices in ... direct fertilizer purchase and distribution, and introduce an alternative system of distribution ... effective delivery of yield-increasing farm input (FRN, 2013). ..... telecommunications service providers, making it difficult to get their packages.

  5. Investments

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technical Support. 160,675. 171,256. 207,675. 207,675. 141,535. 66,140. A dvisory Board. 57,072. 57,734. 70,000. 70,000. 55,325. 14,675. O ther. 734,691. 811,433. 933,149. 933,149. 830,396. 102,753. Dissemination/ C ommunications. 0 1. 90,835. 130,000. 130,000. 83,250. 46,750. 1,579,479. 2,144,928. 2,591,259.

  6. Investigation of factors determining risk-taking strategies in Pension fund investment of Defined Benefit schemes in the UK corporate pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chunan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates various incentives determining risk taking strategies of the corporate pension fund investment from the perspective of sponsors. In the United Kingdom, occupational pension plans especially defined benefit (DB) pension schemes play important roles in the financial market. Comparing with the conventional framework managing pension risk as a contained part of the whole firm risk, recent studies start to focus on pension risk especially investment risk as an individual to...

  7. A VR Based Interactive Genetic Algorithm Framework For Design of Support Schemes to Deep Excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Riyu; Wu, Heng

    2002-01-01

    An interactive genetic algorithm (IGA) framework for the design of support schemes to deep excavations is proposed in this paper, in which virtual reality (VR) is used as an aid to the evaluation of design schemes that is performed interactively. The fitness of a scheme individual is evaluated by two steps. Firstly a fitness value is automatically assigned to a scheme individual according to the the estimated construction cost of the individual. And the human evaluation is introduced to modify the fitness value by taking into account other factors, such as the feasibility factor. The design scheme is composed of four basic categories, i. e., cantilever walls, reinforced soil walls, tieback systems and bracing systems, each of which is encoded by a binary string. To assist human evaluation, 3D models of design schemes are created and visualized in a virtual reality environment, providing designers with a reality sense of various schemes

  8. DSMS investment in support of satellite constellations and formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, J. I.

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, NASA has supported unmanned space missions, beyond earth orbit, through a Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) that is developed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and subcontractors. The DSMS capabilities have been incrementally upgraded since its establishment in the late '50s and are delivered primarily through three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC 's) near Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia and from facilities at JPL. Traditionally, mission support (tracking, command, telemetry, etc) is assigned on an individual-mission basis, between each mission and a ground-based asset, independent of other missions. As NASA, and its international partners, move toward flying fullconstellations and precision formations, the DSMS is developing plans and technologies to provide the requisite support. The key activities under way are: (1) integrated communications architecture for Mars exploration, including relays on science orbiters and dedicated relay satellites to provide continuous coverage for orbiters, landers and rovers. JPL is developing an architecture, as well as protocols and equipment, required for the cost-effective operations of such an infrastructure. (2) Internet-type protocols that will allow for efficient operations across the deep-space distances, accounting for and accommodating the long round-trip-light-time. JPL is working with the CCSDS to convert these protocols to an international standard and will deploy such protocol, the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and on the Deep Impact (01) missions. (3) Techniques to perform cross-navigation between spacecrafi that fly in a loose formation. Typical cases are cross-navigation between missions that approach Mars and missionsthat are at Mars, or the determination of a baseline for missions that fly in an earth-lead- lag configuration. (4) Techniques and devices that allow the precise metrology and

  9. Using a group decision support system to make investment prioritisation decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Martin; Gear, Tony; Minkes, Leonard; Irving, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how decision making groups involved in making investment prioritisation decisions involving funding of technology and science projects may be supported by a group decision support system (GDSS). While interested in decision outcomes, the primary focus of this paper is the role of a group support system as an aid to developing shared understanding within a group. The paper develops the conceptual framework of decision-making, communication and group support, and de...

  10. The design of renewable support schemes and CO_2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Albrecht, Johan; Fan, Ying; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The renewable energy targets put forward by the Chinese government need comprehensive incentive schemes. This paper uses a multi-regional CGE model to evaluate two types of renewable support schemes; a subsidy scheme like a feed-in tariff (FIT) with a direct price impact for final consumers and a subsidy scheme without any price impact. We assess the CO_2 consequences of both approaches, as well as their impact on economic activity in terms of GDP, industrial structure, electricity generation structure, and regional final demand elasticities of electricity. We find that a support scheme with price impact is much more effective in reducing CO_2 emissions while the difference in GDP between the two policies is small. We estimate that the price implications of the support scheme allow for an additional emissions reduction of 113 Mt CO_2—or 0.07% of total emissions—in China during 2020–2035. The support scheme with a price impact does not lead to a negative impact on the Chinese economy although there are significant differences among regions. In addition, while the whole country faces an approximately unitary electricity elasticity demand, we find significant differences in electricity demand elasticities among Chinese regions. - Highlights: • Two types of FIT policies—with and without a price impact—are evaluated. • We assess the CO_2 emissions of both schemes and their impact on economic activity. • A support scheme with price impact is more effective in reducing CO_2 emissions. • The price impact allows for an additional reduction of 113 Mt CO_2 in China during 2020–2035. • Both of the FIT types have a very similar impact on coal consumption.

  11. Characterizing uncertain sea-level rise projections to support investment decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Robert J.; Wikman-Svahn, Per; Keller, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Many institutions worldwide are considering how to include uncertainty about future changes in sea-levels and storm surges into their investment decisions regarding large capital infrastructures. Here we examine how to characterize deeply uncertain climate change projections to support such decisions using Robust Decision Making analysis. We address questions regarding how to confront the potential for future changes in low probability but large impact flooding events due to changes in sea-levels and storm surges. Such extreme events can affect investments in infrastructure but have proved difficult to consider in such decisions because of the deep uncertainty surrounding them. This study utilizes Robust Decision Making methods to address two questions applied to investment decisions at the Port of Los Angeles: (1) Under what future conditions would a Port of Los Angeles decision to harden its facilities against extreme flood scenarios at the next upgrade pass a cost-benefit test, and (2) Do sea-level rise projections and other information suggest such conditions are sufficiently likely to justify such an investment? We also compare and contrast the Robust Decision Making methods with a full probabilistic analysis. These two analysis frameworks result in similar investment recommendations for different idealized future sea-level projections, but provide different information to decision makers and envision different types of engagement with stakeholders. In particular, the full probabilistic analysis begins by aggregating the best scientific information into a single set of joint probability distributions, while the Robust Decision Making analysis identifies scenarios where a decision to invest in near-term response to extreme sea-level rise passes a cost-benefit test, and then assembles scientific information of differing levels of confidence to help decision makers judge whether or not these scenarios are sufficiently likely to justify making such investments

  12. Characterizing uncertain sea-level rise projections to support investment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriver, Ryan L; Lempert, Robert J; Wikman-Svahn, Per; Keller, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Many institutions worldwide are considering how to include uncertainty about future changes in sea-levels and storm surges into their investment decisions regarding large capital infrastructures. Here we examine how to characterize deeply uncertain climate change projections to support such decisions using Robust Decision Making analysis. We address questions regarding how to confront the potential for future changes in low probability but large impact flooding events due to changes in sea-levels and storm surges. Such extreme events can affect investments in infrastructure but have proved difficult to consider in such decisions because of the deep uncertainty surrounding them. This study utilizes Robust Decision Making methods to address two questions applied to investment decisions at the Port of Los Angeles: (1) Under what future conditions would a Port of Los Angeles decision to harden its facilities against extreme flood scenarios at the next upgrade pass a cost-benefit test, and (2) Do sea-level rise projections and other information suggest such conditions are sufficiently likely to justify such an investment? We also compare and contrast the Robust Decision Making methods with a full probabilistic analysis. These two analysis frameworks result in similar investment recommendations for different idealized future sea-level projections, but provide different information to decision makers and envision different types of engagement with stakeholders. In particular, the full probabilistic analysis begins by aggregating the best scientific information into a single set of joint probability distributions, while the Robust Decision Making analysis identifies scenarios where a decision to invest in near-term response to extreme sea-level rise passes a cost-benefit test, and then assembles scientific information of differing levels of confidence to help decision makers judge whether or not these scenarios are sufficiently likely to justify making such investments

  13. Characterizing uncertain sea-level rise projections to support investment decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan L Sriver

    Full Text Available Many institutions worldwide are considering how to include uncertainty about future changes in sea-levels and storm surges into their investment decisions regarding large capital infrastructures. Here we examine how to characterize deeply uncertain climate change projections to support such decisions using Robust Decision Making analysis. We address questions regarding how to confront the potential for future changes in low probability but large impact flooding events due to changes in sea-levels and storm surges. Such extreme events can affect investments in infrastructure but have proved difficult to consider in such decisions because of the deep uncertainty surrounding them. This study utilizes Robust Decision Making methods to address two questions applied to investment decisions at the Port of Los Angeles: (1 Under what future conditions would a Port of Los Angeles decision to harden its facilities against extreme flood scenarios at the next upgrade pass a cost-benefit test, and (2 Do sea-level rise projections and other information suggest such conditions are sufficiently likely to justify such an investment? We also compare and contrast the Robust Decision Making methods with a full probabilistic analysis. These two analysis frameworks result in similar investment recommendations for different idealized future sea-level projections, but provide different information to decision makers and envision different types of engagement with stakeholders. In particular, the full probabilistic analysis begins by aggregating the best scientific information into a single set of joint probability distributions, while the Robust Decision Making analysis identifies scenarios where a decision to invest in near-term response to extreme sea-level rise passes a cost-benefit test, and then assembles scientific information of differing levels of confidence to help decision makers judge whether or not these scenarios are sufficiently likely to justify making

  14. Co-ordination of renewable energy support schemes in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power. The results are based on a deterministic partial equilibrium model, where two cases are studied. The first case covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their tradable green certificate (TGC) support schemes. The second, countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their TGC-support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising their RES-E support scheme already has a common liberalised power market. In this case, introduction of a common TGC-support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system. But if no such common power market exits, regionalising their TGC-schemes might, due to interactions, introduce distortions in the conventional power system. Thus, contrary to intentions, we might in this case end up in a system that is far from optimal with regard to efficiency and emissions. (au)

  15. Co-ordination of renewable energy support schemes in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.; Morthorst, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power. The results are based on a deterministic partial equilibrium model, where two cases are studied. The first case covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their tradable green certificate (TGC) support schemes. The second, countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their TGC-support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising their RES-E support scheme already has a common liberalised power market. In this case, introduction of a common TGC-support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system. But if no such common power market exits, regionalising their TGC-schemes might, due to interactions, introduce distortions in the conventional power system. Thus, contrary to intentions, we might in this case end up in a system that is far from optimal with regard to efficiency and emissions. (au)

  16. Impact of renewables on electricity markets – Do support schemes matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Jenny; Gaio, Alberto; Pfluger, Benjamin; Ragwitz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Rising renewable shares influence electricity markets in several ways: among others, average market prices are reduced and price volatility increases. Therefore, the “missing money problem” in energy-only electricity markets is more likely to occur in systems with high renewable shares. Nevertheless, renewables are supported in many countries due to their expected benefits. The kind of support instrument can however influence the degree to which renewables influence the market. While fixed feed-in tariffs lead to higher market impacts, more market-oriented support schemes such as market premiums, quota systems and capacity-based payments decrease the extent to which markets are affected. This paper analyzes the market impacts of different support schemes. For this purpose, a new module is added to an existing bottom-up simulation model of the electricity market. In addition, different degrees of flexibility in the electricity system are considered. A case study for Germany is used to derive policy recommendations regarding the choice of support scheme. - Highlights: •Renewable support schemes matter regarding the impact on electricity markets. •Market-oriented support schemes reduce the impact on electricity markets. •More flexible electricity systems reduce the need for market participation. •Sliding premiums combine market integration with a productive risk allocation.

  17. Status Review of Renewable and Energy Efficiency Support Schemes in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This document forms the latest update to the regular CEER Status Review of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Support Schemes in Europe and builds on the previous CEER report C10-SDE-19-04a. The purpose of Status Review publications is to collect comparable data on RES support in Europe in order to provide policy-makers, regulators and industry participants with information on support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources, by technology and type of instrument (e.g. Feed-in tariffs and Green Certificates). To collect this data, a questionnaire was circulated to CEER members in July 2012, to explore the renewable electricity support schemes currently in place in Member States across Europe.

  18. A Mathematical Model of Profit-Loss Sharing Scheme of Small Investment for Traditional Market Traders using The Semi-Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novriana Sumarti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of micro-finance investment using profit-loss sharing scheme are made and implemented to simulated data. Here profits from the venture will be shared in a portion between the investor and the entity running the business. The scheme can be classified as Musharaka type of investment in Sharia economy. The proposed model is theoretically implemented with data from small-scale traders at a local traditional market who have small turnover. They are common target of usurers who lend money with high interest rate and penalties. If the traders are in unfortunate conditions, they are potentially in poorer condition than before committing themselves to the usurer. In the conventional practices of the profit sharing scheme, the investor will get a fixed portion of the trader’s income, which is applied for all kind of small-scale traders. If the traders are diligent and hard worker and have very high turnover, then the investor will gain much more profit whether the contributed capital is small or large. In this paper, the scheme is implemented using Semi-Fuzzy Logic Approach so that the profit-loss sharing scheme can achieve its intended goal, which is to make a profitable investment not only for the investor but also for traders. The approach is not fully using Fuzzy Logic because some variables are still in crisp numbers and the optimization problem is regular in the form of crisp numbers. Based on the existing data, the results show that the optimal profit share is depended on the income of the traders. The higher the income coming from the venture, the lesser the profit share for the investor which is reasonable with the fixed initial contributed capital.

  19. Design, Implementation, and Performance Evaluation of Efficient PMIPv6 Based Mobile Multicast Sender Support Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6 is proposed as a promising network-based mobility management protocol, which does not need any participation of mobile nodes. PMIPv6 does not support the multicast well and most of the current research concentrates on the mobile multicast receiver. However, the mobile multicast sender is also very important and challenging, which has not been addressed well. Therefore, in this paper we propose two efficient PMIPv6 based mobile multicast sender support schemes which are PMIP bidirectional tunneling (PMIP-BT and PMIP direct routing (PMIP-DR. In the PMIP-BT, the multicast traffic can be delivered through the PMIPv6 bidirectional tunnel, while, in the PMIP-DR, the multicast data can be transmitted via an optimized direct multicast routing. Both of them can support the multicast sender mobility transparently enabled in the PMIPv6 networks. We evaluate the performance of the proposed schemes by theoretical analysis, and the numerical results show that the proposed schemes have a better performance in terms of the signaling cost than the current schemes. Meanwhile, the proposed schemes are also implemented on the test bed, and the experimental results not only verify the validity and feasibility of our proposed schemes, but also conclude the different scenarios to which they are applicable.

  20. Learning from peer support schemes--can prison listeners support offenders who self-injure in custody?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Louise; Bailey, Di

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the current evidence for peer support in prisons, in particular its contribution to working with prisoners who self-injure and the extent to which the success of peer support schemes such as the prison listeners, hinges upon staff's willingness to engage with the initiative. The review was constructed by using primary and secondary terms to search the literature. The studies focused on peer support in custody with reference to mental health and self-injury. Searches identified papers on the prison listener scheme and staff perspectives on prison peer support, as these formed a central focus of the review. Studies were excluded from the review if the participants' behaviours was explicitly linked to suicidal intent, as the review focused on self-injury as a coping strategy. A total of 24 studies were selected according to specific inclusion criteria (six were grey literature, 18 academic literature). Of the 24 studies ten studies focused on peer support and self-injury. Of the 24 studies the listener scheme was the focus of 16 studies, of these 16 studies self-injury and the listener scheme was a focus of eight studies. Evidence from the review suggests that prison peer support could be considered on a continuum depending on the different degrees of peer involvement.

  1. FINANCIAL-ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AS A TOOL FOR INCREASE OF INVESTMENT SUPPORT OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Zakirova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence and systematizes the advantages of financial and economic integration. In the agro-industrial complex, this kind of integration contributes to attracting investments and reducing risks for investors, increasing the competitiveness and economic growth of the region. The relevance of the study is due to insufficiently researched remains many aspects of the functioning of integrated business systems in relation to individual industries, in particular, to agroindustrial production. The aim of the article is to study theoretical approaches to the essence of financial and economic integration in agro-industrial production and analyze the mechanism of investment support for the Russian agrarian sector, taking into account financial and economic integration. In preparing the article, general scientific methods of research were used: analysis and synthesis, generalization, comparison, classification. Results. The interpretation of financial and economic integration in Russian and foreign scientific publications is generalized. Distinctions of financial and economic integration are distinguished from other economic processes. The advantages of financial and economic integration for the economy and business entities are systematized. The importance of integrating industries and business entities in the agro-industrial complex, which is of strategic importance for ensuring Russia's food security, was noted. The branch structure of the agro-industrial complex is analyzed. The scheme of the integrated financial and economic mechanism in the agroindustrial complex is described. The importance of an optimal balance between cooperation and integration was underscored. The insufficiency of the methodological level of studies of agro-industrial integration is grounded. The components of the effect of financial and economic integration are considered. Positive effects of integration processes in the agroindustrial complex are

  2. Similar goals, divergent motives. The enabling and constraining factors of Russia's capacity-based renewable energy support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Russian government set its first quantitative renewable energy target at 4.5% of the total electricity produced and consumed by 2020. In 2013, the Government launched its capacity-based renewable energy support scheme (CRESS), however, the expects it will merely add 0.3% to the current 0.67% share of renewables (Ministry of Energy, 2016c). This raises the question what factors might explain this implementation gap. On the basis of field research in Moscow, the article offers an in-depth policy analysis of resource-geographic, financial, institutional and ecologic enabling and constraining factors of Russia's CRESS between 2009 and 2015. To avoid the trap that policy intentions remain on paper, the entire policy cycle – from goal setting to implementation – has been covered. The article concludes that wind energy, which would have contributed the lion's share of new renewable energy capacity, lags behind, jeopardizing the quantitative renewable energy target. The depreciation of the rouble decreased return on investment, and the Local Content Requirement discouraged investors given the lack of Russian wind production facilities. Contrary to resource-geographic and financial expectations, solar projects have been commissioned more accurately, benefitting from access to major business groups and existing production facilities. - Highlights: • The support scheme is focused on the oversupplied integrated electricity market. • The scheme disregards the technical and economic potential in isolated areas. • The solar industry develops at the fastest rate, wind and small hydro lag behind. • Access to business groups and production facilities condition implementation. • The devaluation of the rouble necessitated a revision of the policy design.

  3. QoS Support Polling Scheme for Multimedia Traffic in Wireless LAN MAC Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhijun; ZHAO Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) support is a key attribute for multimedia traffic including video, voice, and data in wireless local area networks (LANs) but is limited in 802.11-based wireless LANs. A polling-based scheme called the point coordination function (PCF) was developed for 802.11 LANs to support the trans-mission of multimedia traffic. However, the PCF is not able to meet the desired practical traffic differentiation requirements for real-time data. This paper describes a QoS support polling scheme based on the IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol. The scheme uses a two-level polling mechanism with the QoS classes differentiated by two different access policies. Stations with higher priority traffic such as key or real-time data form the first level and can access the common channel through an exhaustive access policy. Other stations with lower priority traffic form the second level and can access the channel through a gated access policy. A system model based on imbedded Markov chain theory and a generation function were setup to explicitly analyze the mean information packet waiting time of the two-level polling scheme. Theo-retical and simulation results show that the new scheme efficiently differentiates services to guarantee better QoS and system stability.

  4. The role of government in supporting the emergence of clean energy venture capital investing in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerer, M.J.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the role of the Swiss government in supporting the provision of venture capital for clean energy projects. Topics examined include the lack of sufficient venture capital investment in clean energy technology, the situation encountered in Switzerland today as far as energy entrepreneurship is concerned, key challenges and cultural, legal and fiscal aspects. Present government support in these areas, the relevance of current Swiss programmes and improvements that are to be made are also discussed. Also, activities in other countries are examined and suggestions are made concerning new activities to improve the situation in Switzerland

  5. The role of government in supporting the emergence of clean energy venture capital investing in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerer, M J; Wuestenhagen, R

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the role of the Swiss government in supporting the provision of venture capital for clean energy projects. Topics examined include the lack of sufficient venture capital investment in clean energy technology, the situation encountered in Switzerland today as far as energy entrepreneurship is concerned, key challenges and cultural, legal and fiscal aspects. Present government support in these areas, the relevance of current Swiss programmes and improvements that are to be made are also discussed. Also, activities in other countries are examined and suggestions are made concerning new activities to improve the situation in Switzerland.

  6. A decision-support scheme for mapping endangered areas in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, R.H.A.; Benninga, J.; Bremmer, J.; Brunel, S.; Dupin, M.; Eyre, D.; Ilieva, Z.; Jarosik, V.; Kehlenbeck, H.; Kriticos, D.J.; Makowski, D.; Pergl, J.; Reynaud, P.; Robinet, C.; Soliman, T.; Werf, van der W.; Worner, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a decision-support scheme (DSS) for mapping the area where economically important loss is likely to occur (the endangered area). It has been designed by the PRATIQUE project to help pest risk analysts address the numerous risk mapping challenges and decide on the most suitable

  7. Towards Public Key Encryption Scheme Supporting Equality Test with Fine-Grained Authorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a new category of public key encryption schemes which supports equality test between ciphertexts. With this new primitive, two users, who possess their own public/private key pairs, can issue token(s) to a proxy to authorize it to perform equality test between their

  8. Atlantis Water Supply Scheme (AWSS) artificial recharge scientific and operational support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Scheme (AWSS) artifi cial recharge scientifi c and operational support N JOVANOVIC1, RDH BUGAN1, S ISRAEL1, C PETERSEN1, B GENTHE1, M STEYN1, G TREDOUX1, D ALLPASS2, R BISHOP2, V MARINUS2, P FLOWER2, 1CSIR, Natural Resources and Environment...

  9. Developing and supporting coordinators of structured mentoring schemes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Abbott

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this research is to discover what the characteristics of coordinators of structured mentoring schemes in South Africa are, what is required of such coordinators and how they feel about their role, with a view to improving development and support for them. Motivation for the study: The limited amount of information about role requirements for coordinators which is available in the literature is not based on empirical research. This study aims to supply the empirical basis for improved development and support for coordinators. Research design and method: A purposive sample of 25 schemes was identified and both quantitative and qualitative data, obtained through questionnaires and interviews, were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Main findings: Functions of coordinators tend to be similar across different types of mentoring schemes. A passion for mentoring is important, as the role involves many frustrations. There is little formalised development and support for coordinators. Practical/managerial implications: The study clarifies the functions of the coordinator, offers a job description and profile and makes suggestions on how to improve the development of the coordinator’s skills. Contribution/value-add: An understanding of what is required from a coordinator, how the necessary knowledge and skills can be developed and how the coordinator can be supported,adds value to an organisation setting up or reviewing its structured mentoring schemes.

  10. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Mardan, Nawzad; Karlsson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic

  11. [Selection of occlusal scheme on the basis of pressure distribution on supporting structures under complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kan; Kawano, Fumiaki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2004-12-01

    In case of making complete dentures, we have to consider not only denture stability but also the restoration of aesthetics and function such as mastication and speech. However these are contradictory theoretically from the point of view of denture stability, and it is very difficult to satisfy both requirements in the case of a patient who has poor upper and lower alveolar ridges. We investigated the effect of artificial posterior teeth form and occlusal scheme on the distribution of pressure on supporting structures under complete dentures during mastication with upper and lower edentulous simulators. In this report, a guideline for the selection of occlusal scheme for complete dentures, based on our previous investigations, is described. The occlusal scheme remarkably affected the distribution of pressure under simulated complete dentures, as shown by comparing the distribution of pressure using two different occlusal schemes:fully balanced occlusion and lingualized occlusion. However other factors such as posterior teeth form and position affect the distribution of pressure as well, and are related to each other. Therefore, not only occlusal scheme but also posterior artificial teeth form has to be considered, and the form of posterior teeth should be carefully and comprehensively decided when making complete dentures.

  12. Industrial energy efficiency: the need for investment decision support from a manager perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, Peter; Soederstroem, Mats

    2003-01-01

    Global competition, commitment to the Kyoto Protocol and a deregulated, integrated European electricity market will in all probability increase the demand for energy efficiency on the part of companies in Sweden. Investment decisions are an important part of meeting the new demands, because they decide the future efficiency of industrial energy systems. The objective of this study is to investigate, from a managerial perspective, the need to improve decision support in some industries, which can help to facilitate and improve investment decisions concerning energy efficiency. This work has been conducted through in-depth interviews with representatives for a number of energy-intensive companies and non-energy-intensive companies from different sectors. One need that was identified was the improvement of working methods in order to support the decision-making process. Here, external players seem to be playing an increasingly important role. Access to correct information, better follow-up activities, and transparent, understandable calculations are also considered to be important. The study will form the foundation for subsequent work on decision support and energy efficiency in industry

  13. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  14. BiodieselFAO: An Integrated Decision Support System for Investment Analysis in the Biodiesel Production Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Galvão da Silva Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the short and medium terms, biofuels are the most viable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels. The recent controversy over the competition between biofuels and food production increases the complexity of investment decisions in the biodiesel production chain. In this context, decision support tools are highly relevant. The purpose of this article is to describe the BiodieselFAO using the Unified Modeling Language (UML. An integrated analysis considering both agricultural and industrial sectors was identified as a key requirement to the system. Therefore, farmers and industry are the main actors in the use case diagram. As the raw material represents around 70% of the industrial cost of biodiesel production, the price negotiation of raw material (oilseeds is the central use case. Configuration, agriculture, industry, results and scenarios are the modules, which encompass the functionalities derived from the UML diagrams. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has made the BiodieselFAO available, free of charge, to around 180 professionals from 17 Latin American countries. Additionally, the developing team has supported the usage of the BiodieselFAO in several biodiesel investment analyses throughout Latin America. The system was also useful in the design and analysis of policy related to biodiesel industry in Brazil.

  15. Concerted actions to support investments exploiting low-enthalpy geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsis, P.; Papadopoulou, A.; Petrogona-Emmanouil, E.

    1996-01-01

    A brief outline is presented of the project 'Information and support to investors for establishment of plants exploiting geothermal energy' co-financed by the Directorate General for Energy of the European Commission in the context of ALTENER programme for promotion of renewable energy sources. The basic supporting products of this project are: 1) Information Guide on the Geothermal Energy Exploitation Possibilities in Greece: 2) Investment Guide for the Use of Geothermal Energy in Productive Activities in Greece: 3) A convenient and user-friendly software GAIN (Microsoft Access 2.0)) for designing and economic evaluation of investments for an 'ideal' geothermal plant . The following steps are executed by GAIN: representation of the entire plant; determination of the size and energy requirements of each respective uses; determination of the type of application installations (heating system); determination of equipment needed for the geothermal plant: series of calculations for economic evaluation. In addition, some organizational measures as training of personnel, demonstration activities, conferences etc. are also foreseen in the programme

  16. Revisiting support policies for RES-E adulthood: Towards market compatible schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, Samuel C.; Rodilla, Pablo; Herrero, Ignacio; Batlle, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The past two decades of growth in renewable energy sources of electricity (RES-E) have been largely driven by out-of-market support policies. These schemes were designed to drive deployment on the basis of specific subsidies sustained in time to allow for the larger costs as well as to limit investor risk. While these policies have proven to be effective, the way they have been designed to date has led to costly market distortions that are becoming more difficult to ignore as penetrations reach unpreceded levels. In the context of this growing concern, we provide a critical analysis of the design elements of RES-E support schemes, focusing on how they affect this trade-off between promoting and efficiently integrating RES-E. The emphasis is on the structure of the incentive payment, which in the end turns to be the cornerstone for an efficient integration. We conclude that, while needed, a well-designed and further developed capacity-based support mechanism complemented with ex-post compensations defined for reference benchmark plants, such as the mechanism currently implemented in Spain, is an alternative with good properties if the major goal is truly market integration. The approach is robust to future developments in technology cost, performance and market penetration of RES-E. - Highlights: • Market distortions due to RES support mechanisms are becoming difficult to ignore. • This paper provides a critical analysis of the design elements of RES support schemes. • The emphasis is on the structure of the incentive, key for an efficient integration. • We argue in favor of a further developed capacity-based support mechanism. • The incentive should be combined with the design of a set of reference plants.

  17. LoWMob: Intra-PAN Mobility Support Schemes for 6LoWPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Wha Yoo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobility in 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low Power Personal Area Networks is being utilized in realizing many applications where sensor nodes, while moving, sense and transmit the gathered data to a monitoring server. By employing IEEE802.15.4 as a baseline for the link layer technology, 6LoWPAN implies low data rate and low power consumption with periodic sleep and wakeups for sensor nodes, without requiring them to incorporate complex hardware. Also enabling sensor nodes with IPv6 ensures that the sensor data can be accessed anytime and anywhere from the world. Several existing mobility-related schemes like HMIPv6, MIPv6, HAWAII, and Cellular IP require active participation of mobile nodes in the mobility signaling, thus leading to the mobility-related changes in the protocol stack of mobile nodes. In this paper, we present LoWMob, which is a network-based mobility scheme for mobile 6LoWPAN nodes in which the mobility of 6LoWPAN nodes is handled at the network-side. LoWMob ensures multi-hop communication between gateways and mobile nodes with the help of the static nodes within a 6LoWPAN. In order to reduce the signaling overhead of static nodes for supporting mobile nodes, LoWMob proposes a mobility support packet format at the adaptation layer of 6LoWPAN. Also we present a distributed version of LoWMob, named as DLoWMob (or Distributed LoWMob, which employs Mobility Support Points (MSPs to distribute the traffic concentration at the gateways and to optimize the multi-hop routing path between source and destination nodes in a 6LoWPAN. Moreover, we have also discussed the security considerations for our proposed mobility schemes. The performance of our proposed schemes is evaluated in terms of mobility signaling costs, end-to-end delay, and packet success ratio.

  18. LoWMob: Intra-PAN Mobility Support Schemes for 6LoWPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Gargi; Raza, Muhammad Taqi; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Yoo, Seung-Wha

    2009-01-01

    Mobility in 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low Power Personal Area Networks) is being utilized in realizing many applications where sensor nodes, while moving, sense and transmit the gathered data to a monitoring server. By employing IEEE802.15.4 as a baseline for the link layer technology, 6LoWPAN implies low data rate and low power consumption with periodic sleep and wakeups for sensor nodes, without requiring them to incorporate complex hardware. Also enabling sensor nodes with IPv6 ensures that the sensor data can be accessed anytime and anywhere from the world. Several existing mobility-related schemes like HMIPv6, MIPv6, HAWAII, and Cellular IP require active participation of mobile nodes in the mobility signaling, thus leading to the mobility-related changes in the protocol stack of mobile nodes. In this paper, we present LoWMob, which is a network-based mobility scheme for mobile 6LoWPAN nodes in which the mobility of 6LoWPAN nodes is handled at the network-side. LoWMob ensures multi-hop communication between gateways and mobile nodes with the help of the static nodes within a 6LoWPAN. In order to reduce the signaling overhead of static nodes for supporting mobile nodes, LoWMob proposes a mobility support packet format at the adaptation layer of 6LoWPAN. Also we present a distributed version of LoWMob, named as DLoWMob (or Distributed LoWMob), which employs Mobility Support Points (MSPs) to distribute the traffic concentration at the gateways and to optimize the multi-hop routing path between source and destination nodes in a 6LoWPAN. Moreover, we have also discussed the security considerations for our proposed mobility schemes. The performance of our proposed schemes is evaluated in terms of mobility signaling costs, end-to-end delay, and packet success ratio.

  19. The PSO support scheme for natural gas - subsidy to industry or environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Some aspects of the PSO scheme for natural gas are examined critically. Two central arguments used for justifying the PSO subsidy scheme of natural gas and its distribution are reviewed; these include the 'smallholder argument' and the 'environmental argument'. The 'smallholder argument' claims that since Norway has the natural gas resources, it should also make use of the natural gas in the country, and not simply send the raw material to other countries. The 'environmental argument' states that natural gas compared to other fossil fuels such as coal and fuel oil, is a far cleaner alternative, thus an environmental-friendly alternative entitled to financial support. The arguments are critically examined by the author (ml)

  20. Energy efficiency in existing buildings: investment gap, incentives and supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varenio, Celine

    2012-01-01

    successive analyses - causes, appearance of the energy efficiency gap, national tools, programs implemented at the local level - we conclude to a necessary strengthening of non-financial measures which support agents to initiate an investment dynamic and in the meanwhile to an increase of the reliability of economic tools, such as taxes or subventions. (author) [fr

  1. On the management of life insurance company risk by strategic choice of product mix, investment strategy and surplus appropriation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnert, Alexander; Gatzert, Nadine; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of management’s strategic choice of asset and liability composition in life insurance on shortfall risk and the shareholders’ fair risk charge. In contrast to previous work, we focus on the effectiveness of management decisions regarding the product...... mix and the riskiness of the asset side under different surplus appropriation schemes. We propose a model setting that comprises temporary life annuities and endowment insurance contracts. Our numerical results show that the effectiveness of management decisions in regard to risk reduction strongly...

  2. The Influence of Small-Scale Power Plant Supporting Schemes on the Public Trader and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Varfolomejeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of support schemes for achieving the required share of renewable energy sources (RES was implemented into the energy sector. The issued amount of support requires state subsidies. The end-users of electricity are paying the mandatory procurement component taxes to cover these subsidies. The article examines the way of minimizing the influence of the existing RES supporting schemes on the consumers. The fixed purchased electricity price in the case of RES does not encourage producers to operate at hours of peak consumption or when the price is high. Modification of the RES support mechanisms at the legislative level, firstly, could minimize the influence of the mandatory procurement component on the end-users’ electricity price, and secondly, could provide a great opportunity for the public trader to forecast the operation of small power plants and their generation abilities. Numerical experiments with models of two types of power plants (biofuel and hydropower prove the existence of a problem and the presence of a solution. This problem constitutes the main subject of the present paper.

  3. Comparing the innovation effects of support schemes for renewable electricity technologies: A function of innovation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Bleda, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative assessment of the innovation effects of instruments which support the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies with a functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. The paper provides a link between two major streams of the literature: the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. We show that, when a functional perspective is adopted, feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other policy instruments (quotas with tradable green certificates and tendering), although they still need to be complemented with other instruments, most importantly, direct R and D support. Furthermore, those innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of the instruments chosen. - Highlights: ► A comparison of the innovation effects of instruments for the diffusion of renewable technologies. ► A functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. ► A link between the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. ► Feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other instruments. ► Innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of instruments.

  4. Predicting the filial behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian adolescents from perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and parental warmth and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertő, I.; Bakucs, Z.; Bojnec, S.; Latruffe, L.

    2017-01-01

    The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian) and West (French) European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  6. East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertő, I.; Bakucs, Z.; Bojnec, S.; Latruffe, L.

    2017-09-01

    The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian) and West (French) European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  7. Traffic-aware energy saving scheme with modularization supporting in TWDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yu; Sun, Peng; Liu, Chuanbo; Guan, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) is considered to be a primary solution for next-generation passive optical network stage 2 (NG-PON2). Due to the feature of multi-wavelength transmission of TWDM-PON, some of the transmitters/receivers at the optical line terminal (OLT) could be shut down to reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, a novel scheme called traffic-aware energy saving scheme with modularization supporting is proposed. Through establishing the modular energy consumption model of OLT, the wavelength transmitters/receivers at OLT could be switched on or shut down adaptively depending on sensing the status of network traffic load, thus the energy consumption of OLT will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, exploring the technology of optical network unit (ONU) modularization, each module of ONU could be switched to sleep or active mode independently in order to reduce the energy consumption of ONU. Simultaneously, the polling sequence of ONU could be changed dynamically via sensing the packet arrival time. In order to guarantee the delay performance of network traffic, the sub-cycle division strategy is designed to transmit the real-time traffic preferentially. Finally, simulation results verify that the proposed scheme is able to reduce the energy consumption of the network while maintaining the traffic delay performance.

  8. A Regional Decision Support Scheme for Pest Risk Analysis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; MacLeod, A; Mumford, J D; Nghiem, T P L; Tan, H T W; Papworth, S K; Corlett, R T; Carrasco, L R

    2016-05-01

    A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade. We review existing decision support schemes for PRAs and, following international standards for phytosanitary measures, propose new methods that adapt existing practices to suit the unique characteristics of Southeast Asia. Using a formal written expert elicitation survey, a panel of regional scientific experts was asked to identify and rate unique traits of Southeast Asia with respect to PRA. Subsequently, an expert elicitation workshop with plant protection officials was conducted to verify the potential applicability of the developed methods. Rich biodiversity, shortage of trained personnel, social vulnerability, tropical climate, agriculture-dependent economies, high rates of land-use change, and difficulties in implementing risk management options were identified as challenging Southeast Asian traits. The developed methods emphasize local Southeast Asian conditions and could help support authorities responsible for carrying out PRAs within the region. These methods could also facilitate the creation of other PRA schemes in low- and middle-income tropical countries. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Supply chain relationships, supplier support programs and stimulating on-farm investment: evidence from the Armenian dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L.K.E.; Gorton, M.; Urutyan, V.; White, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the determinants of supply chain relationships, the provision of supplier support measures and the role that support measures play in stimulating investment by suppliers in emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on survey

  10. Informational support of the investment process in a large city economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zurabovna Chargazia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large cities possess a sufficient potential to participate in the investment processes both at the national and international levels. A potential investor’s awareness of the possibilities and prospects of a city development is of a great importance for him or her to make a decision. So, providing a potential investor with relevant, laconic and reliable information, the local authorities increase the intensity of the investment process in the city economy and vice-versa. As a hypothesis, there is a proposition that a large city administration can sufficiently activate the investment processes in the economy of a corresponding territorial entity using the tools of the information providing. The purpose of this article is to develop measures for the improvement of the investment portal of a large city as an important instrument of the information providing, which will make it possible to brisk up the investment processes at the level under analysis. The reasons of the unsatisfactory information providing on the investment process in a large city economy are deeply analyzed; the national and international experience in this sphere is studied; advantages and disadvantages of the information providing of the investment process in the economy of the city of Makeyevka are considered; the investment portals of different cities are compared. There are suggested technical approaches for improving the investment portal of a large city. The research results can be used to improve the investment policy of large cities.

  11. Sensor proxy mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6)--a novel scheme for mobility supported IP-WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

    2011-01-01

    IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are gaining importance for their broad range of applications in health-care, home automation, environmental monitoring, industrial control, vehicle telematics and agricultural monitoring. In all these applications, mobility in the sensor network with special attention to energy efficiency is a major issue to be addressed. Host-based mobility management protocols are not suitable for IP-WSNs because of their energy inefficiency, so network based mobility management protocols can be an alternative for the mobility supported IP-WSNs. In this paper we propose a network based mobility supported IP-WSN protocol called Sensor Proxy Mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6). We present its architecture, message formats and also evaluate its performance considering signaling cost, mobility cost and energy consumption. Our analysis shows that with respect to the number of IP-WSN nodes, the proposed scheme reduces the signaling cost by 60% and 56%, as well as the mobility cost by 62% and 57%, compared to MIPv6 and PMIPv6, respectively. The simulation results also show that in terms of the number of hops, SPMIPv6 decreases the signaling cost by 56% and 53% as well as mobility cost by 60% and 67% as compared to MIPv6 and PMIPv6 respectively. It also indicates that proposed scheme reduces the level of energy consumption significantly.

  12. Risk-based assessment of the cost-efficiency and the effectivity of renewable energy support schemes: Certificate markets versus feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagiani, Riccardo; Barquín, Julián; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation mix has the potential to reduce power sector's emissions and countries' dependence on imported oil. Climate change concerns and highly volatile oil prices have attracted governments' interest and support to sustain investments in renewable energy capacity, and different support policies have been implemented in many countries around the world. This paper analyzes the effects of investors' risk aversion on the performance of support schemes. The analysis compares two policy options, a feed-in tariff mechanism with a certificate market system. Results show that while a tariff mechanism could obtain better results than a certificate market, its performance is strictly dependent on regulator choices. A certificate market instead, permits to obtain the desired level of renewable energy market share with good cost-efficiency as long as investors' risk aversion is moderate. Moreover, discounting future cash flows with higher social discount rates further benefits a certificate system making it preferable to feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► Paper analyzes the performance of feed-in tariffs and certificate markets. ► Model simulates the evolution of a power system considering investors' risk aversion. ► Tariffs could obtain better efficiency but also low effectiveness or over-investment. ► Barriers to entrance could result in higher certificates prices. ► Certificate performances benefit from higher social discount rates

  13. Supporting Building Portfolio Investment and Policy Decision Making through an Integrated Building Utility Data Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azizan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lasternas, Bertrand [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alschuler, Elena [US DOE; View Inc; Loftness, Vivian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Haopeng [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mo, Yunjeong [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Ting [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zhang, Chenlu [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sharma, Shilpi [Carnegie Mellon; Stevens, Ivana [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus funding of 2009 for smart grid projects resulted in the tripling of smart meters deployment. In 2012, the Green Button initiative provided utility customers with access to their real-time1 energy usage. The availability of finely granular data provides an enormous potential for energy data analytics and energy benchmarking. The sheer volume of time-series utility data from a large number of buildings also poses challenges in data collection, quality control, and database management for rigorous and meaningful analyses. In this paper, we will describe a building portfolio-level data analytics tool for operational optimization, business investment and policy assessment using 15-minute to monthly intervals utility data. The analytics tool is developed on top of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Standard Energy Efficiency Data (SEED) platform, an open source software application that manages energy performance data of large groups of buildings. To support the significantly large volume of granular interval data, we integrated a parallel time-series database to the existing relational database. The time-series database improves on the current utility data input, focusing on real-time data collection, storage, analytics and data quality control. The fully integrated data platform supports APIs for utility apps development by third party software developers. These apps will provide actionable intelligence for building owners and facilities managers. Unlike a commercial system, this platform is an open source platform funded by the U.S. Government, accessible to the public, researchers and other developers, to support initiatives in reducing building energy consumption.

  14. Adaptive Digital Watermarking Scheme Based on Support Vector Machines and Optimized Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is an effective solution to the problem of copyright protection, thus maintaining the security of digital products in the network. An improved scheme to increase the robustness of embedded information on the basis of discrete cosine transform (DCT domain is proposed in this study. The embedding process consisted of two main procedures. Firstly, the embedding intensity with support vector machines (SVMs was adaptively strengthened by training 1600 image blocks which are of different texture and luminance. Secondly, the embedding position with the optimized genetic algorithm (GA was selected. To optimize GA, the best individual in the first place of each generation directly went into the next generation, and the best individual in the second position participated in the crossover and the mutation process. The transparency reaches 40.5 when GA’s generation number is 200. A case study was conducted on a 256 × 256 standard Lena image with the proposed method. After various attacks (such as cropping, JPEG compression, Gaussian low-pass filtering (3,0.5, histogram equalization, and contrast increasing (0.5,0.6 on the watermarked image, the extracted watermark was compared with the original one. Results demonstrate that the watermark can be effectively recovered after these attacks. Even though the algorithm is weak against rotation attacks, it provides high quality in imperceptibility and robustness and hence it is a successful candidate for implementing novel image watermarking scheme meeting real timelines.

  15. Life support technology investment strategies for flight programs: An application of decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlater, Nelson J.; Simonds, Charles H.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Applied research and technology development (R&TD) is often characterized by uncertainty, risk, and significant delays before tangible returns are obtained. Given the increased awareness of limitations in resources, effective R&TD today needs a method for up-front assessment of competing technologies to help guide technology investment decisions. Such an assessment approach must account for uncertainties in system performance parameters, mission requirements and architectures, and internal and external events influencing a development program. The methodology known as decision analysis has the potential to address these issues. It was evaluated by performing a case study assessment of alternative carbon dioxide removal technologies for NASA's proposed First Lunar Outpost program. An approach was developed that accounts for the uncertainties in each technology's cost and performance parameters as well as programmatic uncertainties such as mission architecture. Life cycle cost savings relative to a baseline, adjusted for the cost of money, was used as a figure of merit to evaluate each of the alternative carbon dioxide removal technology candidates. The methodology was found to provide a consistent decision-making strategy for development of new life support technology. The case study results provided insight that was not possible from more traditional analysis approaches.

  16. Predicting the Filial Behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian Adolescents from Perceived Parental Investments, Filial Emotions, and Parental Warmth and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Ozdemir, Sevgi Bayram; Leung, Christy Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants…

  17. A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogass station investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis whichshould be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources.The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clearand always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protectthe investor against a direct damage and disappointment.

  18. Comparing Transition-Edge Sensor Response Times in a Modified Contact Scheme with Different Support Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, A. D.; Kenyon, M. E.; Bumble, B.; Runyan, M. C.; Echternach, P. E.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the thermal conductance, G, and effective time constants, tau, of three transition-edge sensors (TESs) populated in arrays operated from 80-87mK with T(sub C) approximately 120mK. Our TES arrays include several variations of thermal architecture enabling determination of the architecture that demonstrates the minimum noise equivalent power (NEP), the lowest tau and the trade-offs among designs. The three TESs we report here have identical Mo/Cu bilayer thermistors and wiring structures, while the thermal architectures are: 1) a TES with straight support beams of 1mm length, 2) a TES with meander support beams of total length 2mm and with 2 phononfilter blocks per beam, and 3) a TES with meander support beams of total length 2mm and with 6 phonon-filter blocks per beam. Our wiring scheme aims to lower the thermistor normal state resistance R(sub N) and increase the sharpness of the transition alpha=dlogR/dlogT at the transition temperature T(sub C). We find an upper limit of given by (25+/-10), and G values of 200fW/K for 1), 15fW/K for 2), and 10fW/K for 3). The value of alpha can be improved by slightly increasing the length of our thermistors.

  19. Comparative study of the efficiency of public supports to investments in energy management in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, Stefan; Ballu, Matthieu; Di Stefano, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a detailed overview of public budgets invested by the different member States of the European Union via subsidy systems, loans or tax arrangements in order to support investments in energy efficiency in buildings. The author also studied results published for these public instruments in terms of energy savings, and proposed a comparison which takes the lifetime of these savings into account. The study is based on available official information. Thus, before presenting the obtained results, the author describes how data have been collected and harmonised, presents the comparative analysis and discusses the lifetime measurement issue

  20. Developing long-term scenario forecasts to support electricity generation investment decisions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koen, Renée

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many decisions regarding capital investment in electricity generation technologies need to be made well in advance, usually when there is still a large amount of uncertainty regarding the favourability of future conditions. There may be uncertainty...

  1. Critical evaluation of financial supporting schemes for wind-based projects: Case study Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    After a long stagnating period during the second half of the 1990s, the market of wind energy in Greece was described by remarkable but unstable growth rates that resulted in the operation of 1 GW of wind power by the end of 2009. Still though, penetration of wind energy is not the one anticipated. On the other hand, national targets regarding the Renewable Energy Sources' (RES) contribution and existence of excellent wind potential areas across Greece challenge new wind energy investments. Acknowledging the unsteady development rates of wind power in Greece, efficiency of the State support mechanisms is currently investigated. Based on an analytical evaluation model, the investigation undertaken is extended to provide a detailed cost-benefit analysis of several wind energy case studies, including mainland and island applications as well as comparison with both conventional power stations and photovoltaic plants. For this purpose, the financial support provided by the State is directly compared with benefits accruing from the operation of wind parks, considering also the avoidance of social costs deriving from thermal power stations. Based on the results obtained, the beneficial characteristics of wind energy applications for the Greek society are clearly demonstrated, especially in the case of non-interconnected island grids. - Research highlights: → Since the mid-1990s, growth of wind power capacity in Greece has been unstable. → As a result, integration of wind energy is not the one anticipated. → Considering the situation, efficiency of State support mechanisms is evaluated. → An analytical cost-benefit model is developed and applied to various case studies. → Benefits from wind energy, especially in island regions, are designated.

  2. Current experience with support schemes for RES-E in Europe. A regulatory point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    The need to reduce the dependence of the European economy on imported primary energy and the impact of fossil fuels on the environment has encouraged countries to increase the share of renewable energy sources (RES) for electricity supply. EU Directive 2001/77/EC requires EU Member States to take appropriate steps to introduce new incentive mechanisms in order to reach the target of generating 21 % of the electricity in the EU from RES. At the same time EU Directive 2003/54/EC takes significant steps towards establishing a single market in electricity across the EU. Under this directive, European energy regulators have a number of responsibilities. These include the avoidance of discrimination and the promotion of effective competition along with an efficient functioning of the market. One of their main tasks is to ensure that European consumers pay a final electricity price that is as cost reflective as possible. The final price shall also reflect the social and the environmental costs. At the current stage it is not unlikely that the promotion of renewable energy sources will create significant barriers and distortions on the liberalized electricity market. Several issues arising from the implementation of renewable incentive schemes and policies can be identified and are analysed below; - Conflicting targets on EU-Level; - The variation in the level of incentives may be greater among Member States than is justified by the real level of technology costs, or other factors; - Unbalanced burden sharing for final consumers, due to different allocation mechanisms and designs of support schemes; -The regulation and charges for relevant items of the electricity chain, such as connection and balancing costs, vary significantly among Member States and may introduce competitive advantages. The contents of the paper is as follows: 1 Background; 2 Conflicting targets on EU-Level; 3 Different support levels; 4 Unbalanced burden sharing of final customers; 5 Allocation of

  3. Energy-Efficient Region Shift Scheme to Support Mobile Sink Group in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Yongbin; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Aldwairi, Monther; Kim, Ki-Il

    2017-12-30

    Mobile sink groups play crucial roles to perform their own missions in many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In order to support mobility of such sink groups, it is important to design a mechanism for effective discovery of the group in motion. However, earlier studies obtain group region information by periodic query. For that reason, the mechanism leads to significant signaling overhead due to frequent flooding for the query regardless of the group movement. Furthermore, the mechanism worsens the problem by the flooding in the whole expected area. To deal with this problem, we propose a novel mobile sink group support scheme with low communication cost, called Region-Shift-based Mobile Geocasting Protocol (RSMGP). In this study, we utilize the group mobility feature for which members of a group have joint motion patterns. Thus, we could trace group movement by shifting the region as much as partial members move out of the previous region. Furthermore, the region acquisition is only performed at the moment by just deviated members without collaboration of all members. Experimental results validate the improved signaling overhead of our study compared to the previous studies.

  4. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  5. Evaluation of the Norwegian R&D Tax Credit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ådne Cappelen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We find that the Norwegian R&D tax credit scheme introduced in 2002 mainly works as intended. The scheme is cost-effective and it is used by a large number of firms. It stimulates these firms to invest more in R&D, and, in particular, the effect is positive for small firms with little R&D experience. The returns on the R&D investments supported by the scheme are positive and generally not different from the returns to other R&D investments. We have found examples of what can be interpreted as tax motivated adjustments to the scheme, but to some extent this must be accepted as a cost to subsidy and support schemes intended for use by a large number of economic agents. This is particularly so when attempts are made to keep administrative expenditures and control routines at a low level.

  6. Research on the supercapacitor support schemes for LVRT of variable-frequency drive in the thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiguo; Zhu, Kai; Shi, Wenming; Wu, Kuayu; Chen, Kai

    2018-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of low voltage ride through(LVRT) of the major auxiliary equipment’s variable-frequency drive (VFD) in thermal power plant, the scheme of supercapacitor paralleled in the DC link of VFD is put forward, furthermore, two solutions of direct parallel support and voltage boost parallel support of supercapacitor are proposed. The capacitor values for the relevant motor loads are calculated according to the law of energy conservation, and they are verified by Matlab simulation. At last, a set of test prototype is set up, and the test results prove the feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  7. Principal scheme of preventive maintenance support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Takuya; Terano, Takao; Yokoo, Takeshi; Shinohara, Yasushi

    1985-01-01

    It is of great importance to turn lessons learned from abnormal event experiences to advantage as well as taking apriori actions for prevention of abnormal events in nuclear power plants. From this point of view, a consultation system, named as Preventive Maintenance Support System (PMSS), which is to possess accumulated knowledges drawn from the past abnormal events in nuclear power plants infer occurrences, factors and developments of abnormal events and recommend preventive countermeasures on the basis of the knowledges, has been proposed. This report presents the principal scheme of PMSS. To begin with, following to the discussion of the purpose and use of PMSS, the fundamental functions PMSS should perform are specified. They are (1) event factors analyzation, (2) event prediction (event development estimation and analogous event estimation), (3) event significance evaluation and (4) preventive countermeasures presentation. In the next place, it is asserted that such a system should be constructed as a knowledge engineering one. Then, the R and D subjects and related schedule for PMSS are set up. (author)

  8. Investment Decision Support for Engineering Projects Based on Risk Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment decisions are usually made on the basis of the subjective judgments of experts subjected to the information gap during the preliminary stages of a project. As a consequence, a series of errors in risk prediction and/or decision-making will be generated leading to out of control investment and project failure. In this paper, the variable fuzzy set theory and intelligent algorithms integrated with case-based reasoning are presented. The proposed algorithm manages the numerous fuzzy concepts and variable factors of a project and also sets up the decision-making process in accordance with past cases and experiences. Furthermore, it decreases the calculation difficulty and reduces the decision-making reaction time. Three types of risk correlations combined with different characteristics of engineering projects are summarized, and each of these correlations is expounded at the project investment decision-making stage. Quantitative and qualitative change theories of variable fuzzy sets are also addressed for investment risk warning. The approach presented in this paper enables the risk analysis in a simple and intuitive manner and realizes the integration of objective and subjective risk assessments within the decision-makers' risk expectation.

  9. 77 FR 10933 - Maximizing the Effectiveness of Federal Programs and Functions Supporting Trade and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    .... Creating good, high-paying jobs in the United States and ensuring sustainable economic growth are the top... sustainable economic growth through trade and foreign investment, and to ensure the effective [[Page 10936... publish this memorandum in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, February...

  10. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  11. Overlapping carbon pricing and renewable support schemes under political uncertainty: Global lessons from an Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahnazari, Mahdi; McHugh, Adam; Maybee, Bryan; Whale, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Uncertainty over overlapping energy and climate policies affects investment choices. •An integrated real options and portfolio optimisation model is used in a case study. •Interacting carbon pricing and renewable supports can create private and social hedge. •Political uncertainty may justify overlapping carbon pricing and renewable supports. -- Abstract: The translation of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction policy objective to the required investment in low emissions technologies may be hindered by political contest over the policy instruments employed to achieve it. Political contest may also result in enactment of overlapping policy instruments which, from a ‘policy purist’ perspective, may not appear well calibrated to a shared GHG emissions reduction objective. This paper reports insights gained from an integrated real options and portfolio optimisation model of electricity generation investment behaviour under political uncertainty over the futures of interacting carbon pricing and renewable portfolio standard (RPS) instruments. We compare modelling results and actual outcomes in Australia, where an emission reduction target has had bipartisan support but the means to achieve it has not, to test the assertion that overlapping policy instruments must always increase the social costs of GHG abatement. Results suggest that overlapping a politically contested carbon pricing policy with an RPS may result in a lower risk, renewable energy (RE) investment environment, as the overlap allows investors to hedge their portfolio against political uncertainty through RE additions. Consequently, GHG abatement objectives may be achieved at lower cost than would be the case without the policy interaction. The policies overlap can provide a ‘safety valve’ or ‘hedge’ to both private investors and policymakers when deep uncertainties over the future of energy and climate policies influence investment strategies.

  12. A Peer-Mentoring Scheme for Immigrant Students in English Secondary Schools: A Support Mechanism for Promoting Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiou, Kyriaki; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Immigration in Europe has increased rapidly over the last years. As a result, schools are accepting students arriving from other countries at various stages of the school year. This can be a challenging process both for students and for schools. This paper describes the introduction of a peer-mentoring scheme to support immigrant students in three…

  13. Maternal investment in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus: support for the differential allocation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Cardenas, Oscar; Brewer, Jason; Morris, Molly R

    2013-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that reproductive investment will be influenced by mate attractiveness, given a cost to reproduction and a tradeoff between current and future reproduction. We tested the differential allocation hypothesis in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus, where males have genetically influenced (patroclinous inheritance) alternative mating tactics (ARTs) maintained by a tradeoff between being more attractive to females (mature later as larger courting males) and a higher probability of reaching sexual maturity (mature earlier as smaller sneaker males). Males in X. multilineatus do not provide parental care or other resources to the offspring. Allelic variation and copy number of the Mc4R gene on the Y-chromosome influences the size differences between males, however there is no variation in this gene on the X-chromosome. Therefore, to determine if mothers invested more in offspring of the larger courter males, we examined age to sexual maturity for daughters. We confirmed a tradeoff between number of offspring and female offspring's age to sexual maturity, corroborating that there is a cost to reproduction. In addition, the ART of their fathers significantly influenced the age at which daughters reached sexual maturity, suggesting increased maternal investment to daughters of courter males. The differential allocation we detected was influenced by how long the wild-caught mother had been in the laboratory, as there was a brood order by father genotype (ART) interaction. These results suggest that females can adjust their reproductive investment strategy, and that differential allocation is context specific. We hypothesize that one of two aspects of laboratory conditions produced this shift: increased female condition due to higher quality diet, and/or assessment of future mating opportunities due to isolation from males.

  14. Maternal investment in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus: support for the differential allocation hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rios-Cardenas

    Full Text Available The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that reproductive investment will be influenced by mate attractiveness, given a cost to reproduction and a tradeoff between current and future reproduction. We tested the differential allocation hypothesis in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus, where males have genetically influenced (patroclinous inheritance alternative mating tactics (ARTs maintained by a tradeoff between being more attractive to females (mature later as larger courting males and a higher probability of reaching sexual maturity (mature earlier as smaller sneaker males. Males in X. multilineatus do not provide parental care or other resources to the offspring. Allelic variation and copy number of the Mc4R gene on the Y-chromosome influences the size differences between males, however there is no variation in this gene on the X-chromosome. Therefore, to determine if mothers invested more in offspring of the larger courter males, we examined age to sexual maturity for daughters. We confirmed a tradeoff between number of offspring and female offspring's age to sexual maturity, corroborating that there is a cost to reproduction. In addition, the ART of their fathers significantly influenced the age at which daughters reached sexual maturity, suggesting increased maternal investment to daughters of courter males. The differential allocation we detected was influenced by how long the wild-caught mother had been in the laboratory, as there was a brood order by father genotype (ART interaction. These results suggest that females can adjust their reproductive investment strategy, and that differential allocation is context specific. We hypothesize that one of two aspects of laboratory conditions produced this shift: increased female condition due to higher quality diet, and/or assessment of future mating opportunities due to isolation from males.

  15. Semiactive balancing control scheme in a rotor - bearing system supported on Mr. Dampers: design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Navarro, Gerardo; Cabrera Amado, Alvaro [Cinvestav, IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper deals with the problem of semiactive balancing control of a rotor-bearing system, where one journal bearings is supported on two radial Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers. The mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system results from an orthotropic Jeffcott-like model and the dynamics associated to the MR dampers, whose rheological properties depend on the current inputs. For control purposes we use the Choi-Lee-Park polynomial for the MR dampers, which is quite consistent with the tpical nonlinear and complex hysteresis behavior and also simplifies the physical implementation on an experimental setup. The semiactive control scheme for the unbalance reponse of the rotor-bearing system is synthesized using sliding-mode control techniques. Some numerical and experimental results are included to illustrate the dynamic performance and robustness of the overall system. [Spanish] En este trabajo se abora el problema de control semiactivo del desbalance en un sistema rotor-chumacera, donde una de las chumaceras convencionales se monta sobre una suspension con dos amortiguadores Magneto-Reologicos (MR) radiales. El modelo matematico del sistema rotorchumacera se obtiene de un modelo tipo Jefcott ortotropico y la dinamica de los amortiguadores MR, cuyas propiedades reologicas dependen de las corrientes electricas de alimentacion. Para propositos de control se emplea el modelo polinomial de Choi-Lee-Park para los dos amortiguadores MR, el cual es consistente con el tipico comportamiento no-lineal y de histeresis, permitiendo simplificar su implementacion fisica en una plataforma experimental. El esquema de control semiactivo de la respuesta al desbalance, en el sistema rotor-chumacera, se basa en las tecnicas de control por modos deslizantes. Se presentan algunos resultados de simulacion numerica y experimentos que utilizan el funcionamiento y robustez del sistema completo.

  16. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangxiang; Liu, Li; Leung, Stephen; Du, Jiangze; Wang, Xun; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model) is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  17. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Zeng

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  18. Developing support schemes for electric renewable energy in France: how to reconcile integration and deployment challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde; Ruedinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The reform for a greater integration of support schemes in the electricity market is not a marginal development, and should allow for a transition period for market actors to adapt. Lessons from the experience of neighboring countries will be valuable, especially in view of greater regional harmonization in the future. Better integration of solutions for reducing demand and greater system flexibility would also be advisable going forward. Finally, it is also essential to evaluate the impact of the reform on the risk of electricity market concentration and a reduced diversity of actors; as well as of the potential increase in barriers to entry which could hinder the emergence of collaborative or citizen projects, as these are crucial for improving project acceptance and sharing RES costs. Through stronger exposure to market signals, market premia can assist the technical and economic integration of renewable energy (RES). The resultant advantages in terms of improvements in forecasting and marketing tools, negative price management and support for more valuable technologies and practices in the system closely depends, however, on the precise calibration of the mechanisms involved. To address this, it seems essential to learn from the experiences of neighboring countries and to plan an adequate transition period for all actors to adapt to the change in regulation. The rise in transaction costs and risk premia can lead to additional costs under the new mechanisms. Direct costs, which are linked to the marketing of electricity and to rules aimed at curtailing negative prices, remain limited. However, a cost-benefit analysis must consider the impact of changes in regulation on risk perception and the cost of capital for financing projects - a determinant factor in the economic viability of the project. This further implies a need to consider complementary measures aimed at reducing the financial risks to limit production costs and incremental costs for society. The push

  19. Effect of Occlusal Scheme on the Pressure Distribution of Complete Denture Supporting Tissues: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madalli, Poornima; Murali, C R; Subhas, Sambit; Garg, Surbhi; Shahi, Prinka; Parasher, Pragati

    2015-01-01

    The complete denture teeth arrangement that gives maximum denture stability, comfort, esthetics, and function have been studied since several years. Many occlusal schemes have been advised in which the lingualized occlusion, balanced occlusion, and monoplane occlusion are advocated most popularly. The purpose of this study was to compare the pressure values on the supporting tissue using three diff erent posterior occlusal schemes: Balanced occlusion, lingualized occlusion, and monoplane occlusion in simulated dentures. The simulators used in this study, composed of the maxillary, and mandibular clear heat cure acrylic resin edentulous models. Pressures on the supporting structure under the complete denture were measured using eight strain gauges placed on the model surface on the buccal and lingual slopes of the ridges on the molar and pre-molar region. Pressure on the supporting structure was measured and signals from the sensors were amplifi ed and recorded by the multi-channel electronic strain indicator. The mean pressure which was obtained at each measurement point was compared by one-way ANOVA test. Overall monoplane occlusion had lesser pressure values compared to completely balanced and lingualized occlusal scheme. Lingualized occlusal scheme was found to transfer stresses from working side to non-working side to stabilize the mandibular denture.

  20. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes: The impact of different instruments and design elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del

    2010-01-01

    CO 2 emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the 'certificate' debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions.

  1. A hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis with K-means clustering and support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chi-Jie; Chang, Chi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA) with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR). The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT) product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting.

  2. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes: The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the 'certificate' debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions.

  3. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes. The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the certificate debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions. (author)

  4. Analytical Support for Selecting the Best Investment Project in the Presence of Fuzzy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsyuba Oleksiy S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of optimal choice in the field of real investments in case of fuzzy estimates of financial and economic parameters. The general methodological basis of the research is an integrated approach to solving decision-making problems under conditions of uncertainty, conflict, and risk generated by them, based on the game theory, proposed by R. I. Trukhayev. In recent decades, it has been actively developed in papers by the followers of the scientific school of riskology under the leadership of V. V. Vitlinsky. One of the system-forming components of the above integration and game methodology is the classifier of information situations (there singled out seven of them. In this case, the description of possible states of the economic environment by a fuzzy set (a subset corresponds to the seventh information situation. An attempt was made to develop a methodical apparatus for the task of selecting the best investment project from a variety of alternative projects in the presence of fuzzy data. As a result, a model based on the use of convolutions of local criteria is formulated. In accordance with the accepted methodological guidelines, the structure of the generalized (integral indicator of the economic attractiveness (efficiency of real investment provides for three hierarchical levels: 1 the level of detailed criteria in terms of partial criteria (financial effect, profitability, payback period, 2 the level of partial criteria, 3 the level presenting the very generalized indicator. In the basic version of the proposed model, among the possible techniques (methods for aggregating indicators detailing the aspects of fuzzy estimates of partial criteria, the preference is given to the method by which they are joined by a combined, additive and multiplicative convolution.

  5. Analysis Of Supporting Factors On Foreign Direct Investment And Its Impact Toward Indonesian Employment And Export Performance Period 2005-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes effects of foreign direct investment and Its Impact toward employment and export performance in Indonesia 2005-2015. This research with secondary data focuses on the Supporting factors in which attract foreign direct investment into Indonesia. This research focused on the problem First the impact of labor export results economic growth rate exchange rate inflation rate interest rate and tax toward foreign direct investment second the impact of foreign direct investment on the expansion of employment and export performance in Indonesia during the period 2005-2015. The result of this research explains that variables of human resourceslabor and export performance give positive effect as significantly to attracting foreign direct investment in Indonesia. While foreign direct investment in Indonesia gives positive effect to employment creation and to export performance.

  6. Do generation firms in restructured electricity markets have incentives to support social-welfare-improving transmission investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauma, Enzo E.; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the incentives that generation firms have in restructured electricity markets for supporting long-term transmission investments. In particular, we study whether generation firms, which arguably play a dominant role in the restructured electricity markets, have the incentives to fund or support incremental social-welfare-improving transmission investments. We examine this question in a two-node network and explore how such incentives are affected by the ownership of financial transmission rights (FTRs) by generation firms. In the analyzed two-node network, we show both (1) that the net exporter generation firm has the correct incentives to increase the transmission capacity incrementally up to a certain level and (2) that, although a policy that allocates FTRs to the net exporter generation firm can be desirable from a social point of view, such a policy would dilute the net-importer-generation-firm's incentives to support transmission expansion. Moreover, if all FTRs were allocated or auctioned off to the net exporter generation firm, then it is possible to increase both consumer surplus and social welfare while keeping the net exporter generation firm revenue neutral. (author)

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF OPEN-SOURCE WEB MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPORT MONITORING OF GOVERNMENTAL SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pulsani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several schemes are undertaken by the government to uplift social and economic condition of people. The monitoring of these schemes is done through information technology where involvement of Geographic Information System (GIS is lacking. To demonstrate the benefits of thematic mapping as a tool for assisting the officials in making decisions, a web mapping application for three government programs such as Mother and Child Tracking system (MCTS, Telangana State Housing Corporation Limited (TSHCL and Ground Water Quality Mapping (GWQM has been built. Indeed the three applications depicted the distribution of various parameters thematically and helped in identifying the areas with higher and weaker distributions. Based on the three applications, the study tends to find similarities of many government schemes reflecting the nature of thematic mapping and hence deduces to implement this kind of approach for other schemes as well. These applications have been developed using SharpMap Csharp library which is a free and open source mapping library for developing geospatial applications. The study highlights upon the cost benefits of SharpMap and brings out the advantage of this library over proprietary vendors and further discusses its advantages over other open source libraries as well.

  8. Comparation of the support schemes for generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and their influence on the electricity pr ices for the final electricity customers in Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veljanovska, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    , which is the most used support scheme for renewable energy in the world. The feed-in tariffs attract investments in building power plants using renewable energy, provide certainty and confidence for the investor, they are simple in design and implementation, implying low additional costs for the electricity customers compared to other schemes. The feed-in tariffs should be a set on a level that shall provide attractive rate of return of the investment as well as reasonable profit for the investors, but at the same time shall provide the least as possible influence of the purchased electricity price for the customers are given; proposals are given regarding the values of the feed-in tariffs, and also proposals to improve the current legislation in the Republic of Macedonia, in order to fulfill the strategic goals for share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption. (Author)

  9. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W; Schmitz-Borchert, H P [eds.

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  10. Personalization, Self-Advocacy and Inclusion: An Evaluation of Parent-Initiated Supported Living Schemes for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Marie-Sol; Waltz, Mitzi; Schippers, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on parent-initiated supported living schemes in the South of the Netherlands and the ability of these living schemes to enhance participation, choice, autonomy and self-advocacy for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities through personalized planning, support and care. Based on in-depth interviews with tenants,…

  11. Forecasting of Power Grid Investment in China Based on Support Vector Machine Optimized by Differential Evolution Algorithm and Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the construction of China’s power grid has experienced rapid development, and its scale has leaped into the first place in the world. Accurate and effective prediction of power grid investment can not only help pool funds and rationally arrange investment in power grid construction, but also reduce capital costs and economic risks, which plays a crucial role in promoting power grid investment planning and construction process. In order to forecast the power grid investment of China accurately, firstly on the basis of analyzing the influencing factors of power grid investment, the influencing factors system for China’s power grid investment forecasting is constructed in this article. The method of grey relational analysis is used for screening the main influencing factors as the prediction model input. Then, a novel power grid investment prediction model based on DE-GWO-SVM (support vector machine optimized by differential evolution and grey wolf optimization algorithm is proposed. Next, two cases are taken for empirical analysis to prove that the DE-GWO-SVM model has strong generalization capacity and has achieved a good prediction effect for power grid investment forecasting in China. Finally, the DE-GWO-SVM model is adopted to forecast power grid investment in China from 2018 to 2022.

  12. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.; Schmitz-Borchert, H.P. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  13. Computer-Based Decision Support for Railroad Transportation Systems: an Investment Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the development of the economical and social life increased the complexity of transportation systems. In this context, the role of Decision Support Systems (DSS became more and more important. The paper presents the characteristics, necessity, and usage of DSS in transportation and describes a practical application in the railroad field. To compute the optimal transportation capacity and flow on a certain railroad, specialized decision-support software which is available on the market was used.

  14. Digital Tools to Support Knowledge Sharing and Cooperation in High-Investment Product-Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aromaa, S.; Leino, S.P.; Reyes-Lecuona, A.; Frangakis, N.; Berglund, J.; Bosch, T.; Rhijn, G. van; Granholm, G.

    2018-01-01

    The manufacturing industry needs to adapt their product-services to meet customer requirements in today’s rapidly changing markets. This paper presents how technologies can support knowledge sharing and collaboration during product-service processes. This work was part of the European Union

  15. Proof of concept for a banding scheme to support risk assessments related to multi-product biologics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jeffrey W; Fikree, Hana; Haighton, Lois A; Blackwell, James; Felice, Brian; Wright, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    A banding scheme theory has been proposed to assess the potency/toxicity of biologics and assist with decisions regarding the introduction of new biologic products into existing manufacturing facilities. The current work was conducted to provide a practical example of how this scheme could be applied. Information was identified for representatives from the following four proposed bands: Band A (lethal toxins); Band B (toxins and apoptosis signals); Band C (cytokines and growth factors); and Band D (antibodies, antibody fragments, scaffold molecules, and insulins). The potency/toxicity of the representative substances was confirmed as follows: Band A, low nanogram quantities exert lethal effects; Band B, repeated administration of microgram quantities is tolerated in humans; Band C, endogenous substances and recombinant versions administered to patients in low (interferons), intermediate (growth factors), and high (interleukins) microgram doses, often on a chronic basis; and Band D, endogenous substances present or produced in the body in milligram quantities per day (insulin, collagen) or protein therapeutics administered in milligram quantities per dose (mAbs). This work confirms that substances in Bands A, B, C, and D represent very high, high, medium, and low concern with regard to risk of cross-contamination in manufacturing facilities, thus supporting the proposed banding scheme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Return on investment for vendor computerized physician order entry in four community hospitals: the importance of decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Keohane, Carol; Franz, Calvin; Everett, Wendy L; Seger, Diane L; Yoon, Catherine; Leung, Alexander A; Cadet, Bismarck; Coffey, Michael; Kaufman, Nathan E; Bates, David W

    2013-07-01

    In-hospital adverse events are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a major cost burden to health care systems. A study was conducted to evaluate the return on investment (ROI) for the adoption of vendor-developed computerized physician oder entry (CPOE) systems in four community hospitals in Massachusetts. Of the four hospitals, two were under one management structure and implemented the same vendor-developed CPOE system (Hospital Group A), while the other two were under a second management structure and implemented another vendor-developed CPOE system (Hospital Group B). Cost savings were calculated on the basis of reduction in preventable adverse drug event (ADE) rates as measured previously. ROI, net cash flow, and the breakeven point during a 10-year cost-and-benefit model were calculated. At the time of the study, none of the participating hospitals had implemented more than a rudimentary decision support system together with CPOE. Implementation costs were lower for Hospital Group A than B ($7,130,894 total or $83/admission versus $19,293,379 total or $113/admission, respectively), as were preventable ADE-related avoided costs ($7,937,651 and $16,557,056, respectively). A cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that Hospital Group A had an ROI of 11.3%, breaking even on the investment eight years following implementation. Hospital Group B showed a negative return, with an ROI of -3.1%. Adoption of vendor CPOE systems in community hospitals was associated with a modest ROI at best when applying cost savings attributable to prevention of ADEs only. The modest financial returns can beattributed to the lack of clinical decision support tools.

  17. Rural China will gain if Beijing cultivates change in farm support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    2017-01-01

    Direct payments and more open farm trade can help China to reduce agricultural support costs and so free up resources for rural development needs.......Direct payments and more open farm trade can help China to reduce agricultural support costs and so free up resources for rural development needs....

  18. CAKES (Cultural Awareness and Knowledge Exchange Scheme): A Holistic and Inclusive Approach to Supporting International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jane; O'Neill, Deborah; Petrakieva, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Transition support for international students has traditionally adopted deficit models which attempt to "fix" assumed academic literacy problems. This study explores a more culturally inclusive initiative which supported international students at a UK university in a holistic and developmental way. The initiative was delivered across an…

  19. Impact of support schemes and barriers in Europe on the evolution of cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of different support measures to promote cogeneration in the European Union. The analysis looks into the average progress of cogeneration between two different periods. The economic effect of the support measures in each country is quantified with the help of a cost–benefit analysis carried out by the Cogeneration Observatory and Dissemination Europe (CODE) project. The scope of this study is necessarily affected by the need to limit the number of projects and support measures. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the economic advantage offered by support measures and the deployment of cogeneration in the Member States. The study considers the effect of different barriers (reported by the Member States) on the promotion of cogeneration. The individual analyses of the barriers differ widely in quality and depth. When some barriers are reported, there is an increase of the variability of the penetration of cogeneration. This counter-intuitive fact leads us to conclude that there is a lack of consistency in the barriers reported, and a clear need for consistent reporting on barriers. The possible effect of competition between measures supporting combined heat and power and renewable energy sources is also analysed. - Highlights: • Support measures to promote cogeneration are analysed. • The growth of cogeneration in European countries is not aligned with the measures in place. • None of the reported barriers for cogeneration can be considered a clear show-stopper. • The variation in the development of cogeneration when some barriers are reported raises questions about the reporting. • Countries with a high share of cogeneration are sensitive to the continuity or discontinuity of support

  20. Sensor Proxy Mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6)—A Novel Scheme for Mobility Supported IP-WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

    2011-01-01

    IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are gaining importance for their broad range of applications in health-care, home automation, environmental monitoring, industrial control, vehicle telematics and agricultural monitoring. In all these applications, mobility in the sensor network with special attention to energy efficiency is a major issue to be addressed. Host-based mobility management protocols are not suitable for IP-WSNs because of their energy inefficiency, so network based mobility management protocols can be an alternative for the mobility supported IP-WSNs. In this paper we propose a network based mobility supported IP-WSN protocol called Sensor Proxy Mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6). We present its architecture, message formats and also evaluate its performance considering signaling cost, mobility cost and energy consumption. Our analysis shows that with respect to the number of IP-WSN nodes, the proposed scheme reduces the signaling cost by 60% and 56%, as well as the mobility cost by 62% and 57%, compared to MIPv6 and PMIPv6, respectively. The simulation results also show that in terms of the number of hops, SPMIPv6 decreases the signaling cost by 56% and 53% as well as mobility cost by 60% and 67% as compared to MIPv6 and PMIPv6 respectively. It also indicates that proposed scheme reduces the level of energy consumption significantly. PMID:22319386

  1. Sensor Proxy Mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6—A Novel Scheme for Mobility Supported IP-WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Motaharul Islam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs are gaining importance for their broad range of applications in health-care, home automation, environmental monitoring, industrial control, vehicle telematics and agricultural monitoring. In all these applications, mobility in the sensor network with special attention to energy efficiency is a major issue to be addressed. Host-based mobility management protocols are not suitable for IP-WSNs because of their energy inefficiency, so network based mobility management protocols can be an alternative for the mobility supported IP-WSNs. In this paper we propose a network based mobility supported IP-WSN protocol called Sensor Proxy Mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6. We present its architecture, message formats and also evaluate its performance considering signaling cost, mobility cost and energy consumption. Our analysis shows that with respect to the number of IP-WSN nodes, the proposed scheme reduces the signaling cost by 60% and 56%, as well as the mobility cost by 62% and 57%, compared to MIPv6 and PMIPv6, respectively. The simulation results also show that in terms of the number of hops, SPMIPv6 decreases the signaling cost by 56% and 53% as well as mobility cost by 60% and 67% as compared to MIPv6 and PMIPv6 respectively. It also indicates that proposed scheme reduces the level of energy consumption significantly.

  2. Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management support to the Atlantis water supply scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available model MODFLOW for groundwater flow and contaminant transport was used in support of the management of the AWSS. The aims were: (i) to calibrate the MODFLOW model for the MAR site at Atlantis; (ii) to run realistic scenarios that cannot be replicated...

  3. The vouchers scheme as a mechanism of public support allocation in theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pavlík

    2013-01-01

    Sport support at the municipal level has a long tradition, especially in Europe. Youth involvement to the sport is usually one of the important aspects of grant policies. There are questions regarding how to allocate public resources more efficiently and how to increase youth participation in sport. We analyze the sport vouchers as a tool for increasing transparency and efficiency as well as the involvement of youth and their parents in sport policy at the local level. Vouchers typically tran...

  4. Personalization, self-advocacy and inclusion: An evaluation of parent-initiated supported living schemes for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Marie-Sol; Waltz, Mitzi; Schippers, Alice

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on parent-initiated supported living schemes in the South of the Netherlands and the ability of these living schemes to enhance participation, choice, autonomy and self-advocacy for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities through personalized planning, support and care. Based on in-depth interviews with tenants, parents and caregivers, findings included that parent-initiated supported housing schemes made steps towards stimulating self-advocacy and autonomy for tenants. However, overprotective and paternalistic attitudes expressed by a significant number of parents, as well as structural constraints affecting the living schemes, created obstacles to tenants' personal development. The study calls for consideration of interdependence as a model for the relationship of parents and adult offspring with disabilities. The benefits and tensions inherent within this relationship must be taken into consideration during inclusive community building. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Short communication: East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Fertő

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian and West (French European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  6. Do Callable Convertibles Support The Investment Process Of A Company? An Analysis Of The World Market Of Hybrid Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźmierczak Damian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 1,705 convertible bonds issued by manufacturing and service companies from the United States (1,138 issues; Europe (270; and Asia (297 between 2004 and 2014 this paper investigates the role of callable convertibles in the corporate investment process. This research shows first that callable convertibles are used to finance investment projects particularly by American firms which may exercise new investment options to improve poor financial performance. Secondly, the same strategy may be followed by European companies, but they seem not to carry out investments on as large a scale as American firms. Thirdly, the research results do not provide evidence that Asian enterprises use callable convertibles for investment purposes: they likely use these instruments for different reasons.

  7. Assessing the economic value of co-optimized grid-scale energy storage investments in supporting high renewable portfolio standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Roderick S.; Munoz, Francisco D.; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a MILP to co-optimize generation, transmission, and storage investments. • We find significant value in co-optimized storage via investment deferrals. • Operational savings from bulk services are small relative to investment deferrals. • Co-optimized energy storage significantly reduces prices associated with RPS. - Abstract: Worldwide, environmental regulations such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) are being broadly adopted to promote renewable energy investments. With corresponding increases in renewable energy deployments, there is growing interest in grid-scale energy storage systems (ESS) to provide the flexibility needed to efficiently deliver renewable power to consumers. Our contribution in this paper is to introduce a unified generation, transmission, and bulk ESS expansion planning model subject to an RPS constraint, formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear program (MILP) optimization model, which we then use to study the impact of co-optimization and evaluate the economic interaction between investments in these three asset classes in achieving high renewable penetrations. We present numerical case studies using the 24-bus IEEE RTS-96 test system considering wind and solar as available renewable energy resources, and demonstrate that up to $180 million/yr in total cost savings can result from the co-optimization of all three assets, relative to a situation in which no ESS investment options are available. Surprisingly, we find that co-optimized bulk ESS investments provide significant economic value through investment deferrals in transmission and generation capacity, but very little savings in operational cost. Finally, we observe that planning transmission and generation infrastructure first and later optimizing ESS investments—as is common in industry—captures at most 1.7% ($3 million/yr) of the savings that result from co-optimizing all assets simultaneously.

  8. Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz de Miera, Gonzalo [Department of Public Economics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); del Rio Gonzalez, Pablo [Institute for Public Policies, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Vizcaino, Ignacio [Iberdrola, C/Tomas Redondo, 1, Madrid 28033 (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    It is sometimes argued that renewables are 'expensive'. However, although it is generally true that the private costs of renewable electricity generation are certainly above those of conventional electricity, that statement fails to consider the social benefits provided by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), including environmental and socioeconomic ones. This paper empirically analyses an additional albeit usually neglected benefit: the reduction in the wholesale price of electricity as a result of more RES-E generation being fed into the grid. The case of wind generation in Spain shows that this reduction is greater than the increase in the costs for the consumers arising from the RES-E support scheme (the feed-in tariffs), which are charged to the final consumer. Therefore, a net reduction in the retail electricity price results, which is positive from a consumer point of view. This provides an additional argument for RES-E support and contradicts one of the usual arguments against RES-E deployment: the excessive burden on the consumer. (author)

  9. Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenz de Miera, Gonzalo; Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del; Vizcaino, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that renewables are 'expensive'. However, although it is generally true that the private costs of renewable electricity generation are certainly above those of conventional electricity, that statement fails to consider the social benefits provided by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), including environmental and socioeconomic ones. This paper empirically analyses an additional albeit usually neglected benefit: the reduction in the wholesale price of electricity as a result of more RES-E generation being fed into the grid. The case of wind generation in Spain shows that this reduction is greater than the increase in the costs for the consumers arising from the RES-E support scheme (the feed-in tariffs), which are charged to the final consumer. Therefore, a net reduction in the retail electricity price results, which is positive from a consumer point of view. This provides an additional argument for RES-E support and contradicts one of the usual arguments against RES-E deployment: the excessive burden on the consumer

  10. Architecture-Level Exploration of Alternative Interconnection Schemes Targeting 3D FPGAs: A Software-Supported Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Siozios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In current reconfigurable architectures, the interconnection structures increasingly contribute more to the delay and power consumption. The demand for increased clock frequencies and logic density (smaller area footprint makes the problem even more important. Three-dimensional (3D architectures are able to alleviate this problem by accommodating a number of functional layers, each of which might be fabricated in different technology. However, the benefits of such integration technology have not been sufficiently explored yet. In this paper, we propose a software-supported methodology for exploring and evaluating alternative interconnection schemes for 3D FPGAs. In order to support the proposed methodology, three new CAD tools were developed (part of the 3D MEANDER Design Framework. During our exploration, we study the impact of vertical interconnection between functional layers in a number of design parameters. More specifically, the average gains in operation frequency, power consumption, and wirelength are 35%, 32%, and 13%, respectively, compared to existing 2D FPGAs with identical logic resources. Also, we achieve higher utilization ratio for the vertical interconnections compared to existing approaches by 8% for designing 3D FPGAs, leading to cheaper and more reliable devices.

  11. Retention payoff-based cost per day open regression equations: Application in a user-friendly decision support tool for investment analysis of automated estrus detection technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Heersche, G; Bewley, J M

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the economic implications of investing in automated estrus detection (AED) technologies can be overwhelming for dairy producers. The objectives of this study were to develop new regression equations for estimating the cost per day open (DO) and to apply the results to create a user-friendly, partial budget, decision support tool for investment analysis of AED technologies. In the resulting decision support tool, the end user can adjust herd-specific inputs regarding general management, current reproductive management strategies, and the proposed AED system. Outputs include expected DO, reproductive cull rate, net present value, and payback period for the proposed AED system. Utility of the decision support tool was demonstrated with an example dairy herd created using data from DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC), Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (Columbia, MO), and published literature. Resulting herd size, rolling herd average milk production, milk price, and feed cost were 323 cows, 10,758kg, $0.41/kg, and $0.20/kg of dry matter, respectively. Automated estrus detection technologies with 2 levels of initial system cost (low: $5,000 vs. high: $10,000), tag price (low: $50 vs. high: $100), and estrus detection rate (low: 60% vs. high: 80%) were compared over a 7-yr investment period. Four scenarios were considered in a demonstration of the investment analysis tool: (1) a herd using 100% visual observation for estrus detection before adopting 100% AED, (2) a herd using 100% visual observation before adopting 75% AED and 25% visual observation, (3) a herd using 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI) before adopting 100% AED, and (4) a herd using 100% TAI before adopting 75% AED and 25% TAI. Net present value in scenarios 1 and 2 was always positive, indicating a positive investment situation. Net present value in scenarios 3 and 4 was always positive in combinations using a $50 tag price, and in scenario 4, the $5

  12. Evaluating the Influence of Criteria to Attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI to Develop Supporting Industries in Vietnam by Utilizing Fuzzy Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Chin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, Vietnam’s government concentrated on the promotion of supporting industries which can be seen as a “key” solution to sustaining economic growth, thereby improving the national welfare. However, Vietnam’s supporting industries still exhibit lower development and competitive weakness. The main reason for this condition is due to a lack of capital, technological innovation, and necessary management skills for development. Therefore, attracting foreign direct investment (FDI for developing supporting industries offers the best strategy to realize this solution. However, attracting FDI to develop supporting industries represents a weakness which lies in both the quantity (total capital and projects and quality of investment. So which factors are effective to attract FDI for developing supporting industries in Vietnam? This investigation establishes an analytical hierarchy framework available to the Vietnamese government and to policymakers in order to evaluate the influence of criteria needed to attract FDI for developing supporting industries based on eight main criteria. They include legal and institutional criteria, the market size of supporting industries, human resources, infrastructure facilities, technological development and innovation, domestic supply capacity, international cooperation and competition, and other criteria. This paper uses fuzzy preference relations (FPR to evaluate the influence of criteria necessary to attract FDI for developing supporting industries, and these analytical results demonstrate that legal and institutional criteria, domestic supply capacity, human resources, technology development and innovation are all major considerations for attracting FDI.

  13. Development of the System of Investment Support of Projects in the Industrial-Innovative Development of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskaliyeva, Bayan B.; Orynbassarova, Yerkenazym D.; Omarkhanov?, Zhibek M.; Karibaev, Yerkebulan S.; Baimukhametova, Ayagul S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine specific features of investment regulation mechanism aimed at providing effective implementation of projects in the context of industrial-innovative development of Kazakhstan. There the used the system of general scientific and special research methods providing the possibility to disclose processes and…

  14. Scottish immunoassay support service quality control scheme for thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and digoxin assays: analysis of first 18 months' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, W.A.; Logue, F.C.; Ratcliffe, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Initial experience of the Scottish Immunoassay Support Service Quality Control scheme for thyroxin(T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and digoxin is analysed. For T4, radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods gave values close to the all-method mean. Competitive protein binding (CPB) kits gave values significantly higher (by 12%) in one and lower (by 10%) in another, probably due to the extraction of interfering substances such as non-esterified fatty acids or thyroid hormone binding proteins. The range of between-batch precision of individual laboratories was 10.8-47.5% (mean 17.8%) over the clinically relevant range. It was particularly poor at levels below the lower limit of the normal range. For T3 RIA, kit methods gave significantly higher values than independent methods although recovery of exogenous T3 was approximately quantitative with both. Cross reaction of T4 in T3 assays was insignificant. The range of between-batch precision for individual laboratories was 11.4-35.5% (mean 21.9%), and was poorest at levels of 1 nmol/l or less. For digoxin RIA, Lanoxitest γ gave significantly higher values than other methods, and over-recovered exogenous digoxin. The range of between-batch precision was 13.8-35.2% (mean 21.6%), and was poorest at levels of 1 nmol/l or less. The distribution of liquid human serum specimens at ambient temperature was satisfactory for quality control of T4, T3, and digoxin RIA but not for T4 by the Thyopac 4 method. Ox serum was unsuitable for certain T4 RIA methods. (author)

  15. A study of clinical assessment of frailty in patients on maintenance hemodialysis supported by cashless government scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Yadla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a prospective cohort study to assess the prevalence of frailty in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD under the government-funded scheme at our center and to assess the relationship between frailty and falls, hospitalizations, and mortality. This was done at our center which is completely supported by the government, which provides HD to all the patients under poverty line. Epidemiological data, anthropometric measurements, comorbidities assessment, frailty assessment using Fried criteria, subsequent hospitalizations, falls, and mortality were recorded in our prevalent dialysis population at our center between October 2014 and October 2015. Two hundred and twenty-six patients were enrolled during this period. Twenty-one patients were excluded as they did not satisfy the inclusion criteria. Two hundred and five prospective patients were studied for the predictors of frailty. Frailty was present in 82% of the study population. Mean age of our study population was 44.95 ± 13.27 years. On univariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension (HTN, cerebrovascular accident (CVA, left ventricular dysfunction (LVD, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, smoking, hepatitis C, inadequate dialysis, intradialytic hypotension (IDH, interdialytic weight gain, low serum creatinine <4 mg/dL, and anemia (Hb <10 g/dL were found to be statistically significantly different between frail and nonfrail groups On multivariate regression analysis, only HTN, PVD, CVA, anemia, smoking, and IDH were found to be significant. Frailty is highly prevalent among dialysis population. Factors predicting frailty include HTN, smoking, LVD, PVD, CVA, smoking, anemia, and IDH. Frailty is a significant risk factor for falls and hospitalizations.

  16. Determination of the Factors Affecting The Use of the Support Program of the Enterprises Benefiting from the Rural Development Investments Program in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Taşcıoğlu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With industrialization, change has taken place in the world and development efforts have concentrated in urban areas. This has affected the rural area negatively and the increase in rural development studies has increased with the emergence of interregional economic imbalances. With the planned period, rural development studies in Turkey have increased and strategies, projects and programs have begun to be developed. One of these activities is the Rural Development Investment Support Program (RDISP, which entered into force in 2006. The aim of the program is to increase the level of rural area income, to ensure integration of agricultural production and agricultural industry, to strengthen food safety, to create alternative income sources in the rural area. In this study, it was aimed to determine the attitudes and behaviors of program beneficiaries in the Western Mediterranean Region within the framework of the RDISP applied in Turkey, and the factors affecting their utilization from the program. In the study, a total of 96 enterprises provided interviews based on face to face interviews. In this study, Factor Analysis was applied to determine the factors that affect the preferences of the enterprises and to determine the factors affecting the investments of the enterprises. In the study, 12 variables that were effective in factor analysis in the utilization of this support were combined into 3 factors. These factors have been found to be “support for local support and information about support”, “employment support for support” and “environmental sensitivity for support”.

  17. Analysis of Social Return on Investment in two systems of support for people with severe disabilities: personal assistance and residential service. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Huete García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several alternatives to support daily life of people with disabilities, which require different resources: human, institutional, technical, material, financial, etc. In addition, these alternatives involve different impacts on both the life of people with disabilites and their immediate environment. This paper presents a case study that compares an user of personal assistance services of the Program for Independent Living (PAVI with an user of a residential service. The study method used is based on the approach of Social Return on Investment (SROI. It also specifies the selection of cases, the partners consulted to gather concepts and values, data collection, variables and formulas for calculating and monetization. Despite its limited scope, it is possible to draw conclusions about the social return on investment in a “standard profile” receiving personal assistance services compared with a “standard profile” in a residential service.

  18. Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA). Energy List for 2013; Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA). Energielijst 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) is a tax system by means of which the Dutch government supports companies with investments in energy-saving equipment and renewable energy. This brochure explains the assets eligible for EIA and how the scheme works [Dutch] De Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA) is een fiscale regeling waarmee de overheid ondersteuning biedt voor bedrijven bij investeringen in energiebesparende bedrijfsmiddelen en duurzame energie. In deze brochure wordt uitgelegd welke bedrijfsmiddelen in aanmerking komen voor EIA en hoe de regeling werkt.

  19. Private financing and operation of a space station: Investment requirements, risk, government support and other primary business management considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.

    1982-01-01

    Private investment in a manned space station is considered as an alternative to complete government sponsorship of such a program. The implications of manned space operations are discussed from a business perspective. The most significant problems and risks which would be faced by a private company involved in a space station enterprise are outlined and possible government roles in helping to overcome these difficulties suggested. Economic factors such as inflation and the rate of interest are of primary concern, but less obvious conditions such as antitrust and appropriate regulatory laws, government appropriations for space activities, and national security are also considered.

  20. Investment Avenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  1. Improving Business Investment Confidence in Culture-Aligned Indigenous Economies in Remote Australian Communities: A Business Support Framework to Better Inform Government Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. Fleming

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that culture-aligned economies are more effective in engaging remote-living Indigenous Australians in work long-term. Despite this evidence, governments remain resistant to investing substantially in these economies, with the result that low employment rates persist. This article argues that governmental systems of organisation are not designed to support non-mainstream economies and this position is unlikely to change. Similarly, the commercial sector lacks confidence that investing in culture-aligned economies will generate financial returns. This article presents a localised, pragmatic approach to Indigenous business support that works within existing systems of government, business and culture. Most unsuccessful programs fail to recognise the full suite of critical factors for sustained market engagement by both business and Indigenous people. This article reports on work to bring all critical factors together into a business support framework to inform the design and implementation of an aquaculture development program in a remote Indigenous Australian community.

  2. Behavioral and physiological flexibility are used by birds to manage energy and support investment in the early stages of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François VÉzina, Katrina G. SALVANTE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in phenotypic flexibility has increased dramatically over the last decade, but flexibility during reproduction has received relatively little attention from avian scientists, despite its possible impact on fitness. Because most avian species maintain atrophied reproductive organs when not active, reproduction in birds requires major tissue remodeling in preparation for breeding. Females undergo rapid (days recrudescence and regression of their reproductive organs at each breeding attempt, while males grow their organs ahead of time at a much slower rate (weeks and may maintain them at maximal size throughout the breeding season. Reproduction is associated with significant metabolic costs. Egg production leads to a 22–27% increase in resting metabolic rate (RMR over non-reproductive values. This is partly due to the activity of the oviduct, an organ that may allow females to adjust reproductive investment by modulating egg size and quality. In males, gonadal recrudescence may lead to a 30% increase in RMR, but the data are inconsistent and general conclusions regarding energetic costs of reproduction in males will require more research. Recent studies on captive female zebra finches describe the impacts of these costs on daily energy budgets and highlight the strategies used by birds to maintain their investment in reproduction when energy is limited. Whenever possible, birds use behavioral flexibility as a first means of saving energy. Decreasing locomotor activity saves energy during challenges such as egg production or exposure to cold temperatures and is an efficient way to buffer variation in individual daily energy budgets. However, when behavioral flexibility is not possible, birds must rely on flexibility at the physiological level to meet energy demands. In zebra finches breeding in the cold, this results in a reduced pace of laying, likely due to down-regulation of both reproductive and non-reproductive function, allowing

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF E-WALLET PRACTICE IN GRASSROOTS AGRICULTURAL SERVICES DELIVERY IN NIGERIA - A CASE STUDY OF KWARA STATE GROWTH ENHANCEMENT SUPPORT SCHEME

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Modupe ADEBO

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of the usages of mobile phone-based innovations to reaching small scale farmers in Nigeria using Kwara State growth enhancement support scheme as a case study. Two hundred farmers were randomly selected from four local government areas in the state. A structured interview schedule was used for eliciting information from them. The study revealed that 53.5, 51.0 & 87.2 percents of the respondents’ respectively benefited from improved seeds o...

  4. Federal Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…

  5. Yellow light for green scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2004-01-01

    The article asserts that there could be an investment boom for wind, hydro and bio power in a common Norwegian-Swedish market scheme for green certificates. The Swedish authorities are ready, and the Norwegian government is preparing a report to the Norwegian Parliament. What are the ambitions of Norway, and will hydro power be included? A green certificate market common to more countries have never before been established and requires the solution of many challenging problems. In Sweden, certificate support is expected to promote primarily bioenergy, wind power and small-scale hydro power. In Norway there is an evident potential for wind power, and more hydro power can be developed if desired

  6. Approach to analysis of inter-regional similarity of investment activity support measures in legislation of regions (on the example of Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Lapo

    2017-01-01

    revealed concurrence of dynamics to use some stimulation methods in Krasnoyarsk region and in the other regions of the Russian Federation for 2005 - 2016. Among them, there are some measures of subsidizing, concessionary terms of using the ground and granting of the ground areas, concession agreements on property and creation of industrial parks, state-private partnership and others. We have found the groups of regions in which there are the trends on harmonization or on a divergence to use the separate kinds of stimulation.Thus, the offered approach and a set of measuring instruments enable to carry out the research of inter-regional similarity of legal documents. It allows receiving the answer to a question on a degree of similarity of systems of investment activity stimulation, accepted in regions; to estimate joint dynamics of stimulation systems’ changes; to define a degree of concurrence on separate measures of support; to analyze similarity of a current condition and processes on the change of the legislation. The approach permits to investigate directions of harmonization or a divergence of regional approaches to investment activity stimulation. The received results can form a base for the further economic-statistical and econometric researches of efficiency of methods for the investment activity stimulation. It will allow to structure objects of research, to allocate more homogeneous group of regions on stimulation methods. The proximity coefficient matrix will be especially useful in spatial econometric models. The offered approach and parameters can be applied to research the other positions of the regional legislation.

  7. A Review of the Case of a Levy-Grant Scheme (LGS) in the UK Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Dainty, Andrew; Ison, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A Levy-Grant Scheme (LGS) has existed in the UK construction industry since 1964 to provide financial support for companies undertaking training activities. Despite the support of the LGS for various training activities, notably apprenticeships, the construction industry continues to suffer from both labour shortages and an under-investment in…

  8. Supporting Rape Survivors Through the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme: An Exploration of English and Welsh Independent Sexual Violence Advisors' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Olivia; Galey, Jessica

    2018-07-01

    English and Welsh responses to rape have long been critically examined, leading to attempted improvements in the criminal justice system. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (CICS) and the difficulties applying it to rape. To begin addressing this gap, researchers interviewed three, and qualitatively surveyed 22, Independent Sexual Violence Advisors. The findings suggest that CICS may not only reinforce rape myths and disadvantage vulnerable survivors, but is also a source of validation and contributes to survivor justice. The study, while exploratory, therefore, highlights the need for further discussion about rape survivor compensation.

  9. Understanding the stakeholders' intention to use economic decision-support tools: A cross-sectional study with the tobacco return on investment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kei Long; Evers, Silvia M A A; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Vokó, Zoltán; Pokhrel, Subhash; Jones, Teresa; Muñoz, Celia; Wolfenstetter, Silke B; Józwiak-Hagymásy, Judit; de Vries, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased number of economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions, the uptake by stakeholders continues to be limited. Understanding the underlying mechanism in adopting such economic decision-support tools by stakeholders is therefore important. By applying the I-Change Model, this study aims to identify which factors determine potential uptake of an economic decision-support tool, i.e., the Return on Investment tool. Stakeholders (decision-makers, purchasers of services/pharma products, professionals/service providers, evidence generators and advocates of health promotion) were interviewed in five countries, using an I-Change based questionnaire. MANOVA's were conducted to assess differences between intenders and non-intenders regarding beliefs. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the main explanatory variables of intention to use an economic decision-support tool. Ninety-three stakeholders participated. Significant differences in beliefs were found between non-intenders and intenders: risk perception, attitude, social support, and self-efficacy towards using the tool. Regression showed that demographics, pre-motivational, and motivational factors explained 69% of the variation in intention. This study is the first to provide a theoretical framework to understand differences in beliefs between stakeholders who do or do not intend to use economic decision-support tools, and empirically corroborating the framework. This contributes to our understanding of the facilitators and barriers to the uptake of these studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Local Content Requirements in Renewable Energy Schemes - Government Procurement or a Violation of International Obligations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Numerous States have adopted renewable energy schemes aimed at incentivising investments in renewable energy generation capacity that contain local content requirements as an eligibility criterion to obtain support, such as a feed-in tariff. However, these requirements may violate the international

  11. Irrigation Water Value at Small-scale Schemes: Evidence from the North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Perret, S.; Haese, D' L.; Haese, D' M.

    2008-01-01

    Insight into the value of water is essential to support policy decision making about investments in the water sector, efficient allocation of water and water pricing. However, information on irrigation water values at small-scale schemes is scarce and in general little attention is paid to the

  12. A public choice view on the climate and energy policy mix in the EU — How do the emissions trading scheme and support for renewable energies interact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Strunz, Sebastian; Lehmann, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the rationale for an energy policy mix when the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is considered from a public choice perspective. That is, we argue that the economic textbook model of the ETS implausibly assumes (1) efficient policy design and (2) climate protection as the single objective of policy intervention. Contrary to these assumptions, we propose that the ETS originates from a political bargaining game within a context of multiple policy objectives. In particular, the emissions cap is negotiated between regulators and emitters with the emitters' abatement costs as crucial bargaining variable. This public choice view yields striking implications for an optimal policy mix comprising RES supporting policies. Whereas the textbook model implies that the ETS alone provides sufficient climate protection, our analysis suggests that support for renewable energies (1) contributes to a more effective ETS-design and (2) may even increase the overall efficiency of climate and energy policy if other externalities and policy objectives besides climate protection are considered. Thus, our analysis also shows that a public choice view not necessarily entails negative evaluations concerning efficiency and effectiveness of a policy mix. - Highlights: • We analyze the interaction of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and support policies for RES. • Stylized framework with emission cap as variable to be negotiated between regulators and emitters. • RES-support contributes to a more stringent emission cap and may even increase overall efficiency

  13. Investing in deliberation: a definition and classification of decision support interventions for people facing difficult health decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Frosch, Dominick; Volandes, Angelo E; Edwards, Adrian; Montori, Victor M

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of 'decision aids', interventions to support patients facing tough decisions. Interest has increased since the concept of shared decision making has become widely considered to be a means of achieving desirable clinical outcomes. We consider the aims of these interventions and examine assumptions about their use. We propose three categories, interventions that are used in face-to-face encounters, those designed for use outside clinical encounters and those which are mediated, using telephone or other communication media. We propose the following definition: decision support interventions help people think about choices they face; they describe where and why choice exists; they provide information about options, including, where reasonable, the option of taking no action. These interventions help people to deliberate, independently or in collaboration with others, about options, by considering relevantattributes; they support people to forecast how they might feel about short, intermediate and long-term outcomes which have relevant consequences, in ways which help the process of constructing preferences and eventual decision making, appropriate to their individual situation. Although quality standards have been published for these interventions, we are also cautious about premature closure and consider that the need for short versions for use inside clinical encounters and long versions for external use requires further research. More work is also needed on the use of narrative formats and the translation of theory into practical designs. The interest in decision support interventions for patients heralds a transformation in clinical practice although many important areas remain unresolved.

  14. Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Westeneng, Judith; Spaan, Ernst; Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Baltussen, Rob

    2016-07-22

    Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health insurance on household out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), catastrophic expenditure (CE) and poverty. We conducted two repeated household surveys in two regions of Ghana in 2009 and 2011. We first analyzed the effect of OOPE on poverty by estimating poverty headcount before and after OOPE were incurred. We also employed probit models and use of instrumental variables to analyze the effect of health insurance on OOPE, CE and poverty. Our findings showed that between 7-18 % of insured households incurred CE as a result of OOPE whereas this was between 29-36 % for uninsured households. In addition, between 3-5 % of both insured and uninsured households fell into poverty due to OOPE. Our regression analyses revealed that health insurance enrolment reduced OOPE by 86 % and protected households against CE and poverty by 3.0 % and 7.5 % respectively. This study provides evidence that high OOPE leads to CE and poverty in Ghana but enrolment into the NHIS reduces OOPE, provides financial protection against CE and reduces poverty. These findings support the pro-poor policy objective of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme and holds relevance to other low and middle income countries implementing or aiming to implement insurance schemes.

  15. A Seamless Handoff Scheme with Access Point Load Balance for Real-Time Services Support in 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodham, Thavisak; Loyola, Luis; Miki, Tetsuya

    IEEE 802.11 wirelesses LANs (WLANs) have been rapidly deployed in enterprises, public areas, and households. Voice-over-IP (VoIP) and similar applications are now commonly used in mobile devices over wireless networks. Recent works have improved the quality of service (QoS) offering higher data rates to support various kinds of real-time applications. However, besides the need for higher data rates, seamless handoff and load balancing among APs are key issues that must be addressed in order to continue supporting real-time services across wireless LANs and providing fair services to all users. In this paper, we introduce a novel access point (AP) with two transceivers that improves network efficiency by supporting seamless handoff and traffic load balancing in a wireless network. In our proposed scheme, the novel AP uses the second transceiver to scan and find neighboring STAs in the transmission range and then sends the results to neighboring APs, which compare and analyze whether or not the STA should perform a handoff. The initial results from our simulations show that the novel AP module is more effective than the conventional scheme and a related work in terms of providing a handoff process with low latency and sharing traffic load with neighbor APs.

  16. In the beginning: role of autonomy support on the motivation, mental health and intentions of participants entering an exercise referral scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Peter C; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L; Jolly, Kate; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2011-06-01

    Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum Publishing) highlights the impact autonomy supportive environments can have on exercise motivation and positive health outcomes. Yet little is known about whether differential effects occur as a function of which significant other is providing this support. Further, no research has examined the relationship between motivation and the social environment with participants' mental health and intentions to be physically active before entering an exercise intervention. Study participants were 347 British adults who were about to start an exercise referral scheme. Regression analyses revealed that the effects of autonomy support on mental health and physical activity intentions differed as a function of who provided the support (offspring, partner or physician), with the offspring having the weakest effects. A structural model was supported, indicating that autonomy support and more autonomous regulations led to more positive mental health outcomes and stronger intentions to be physically active. Knowledge of the social environmental and personal motivation of those about to commence an exercise programme can provide important insights for professionals supporting such efforts. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  17. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  18. A decision support tool for the analysis of pricing, investment and regulatory processes in a decentralized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaoglu Kilanc, Guzay; Or, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    After the liberalization of the electricity generation industry, capacity expansion decisions are made by multiple self-oriented power companies. Unlike the centralized environment, decision-making of market participants is now guided by price signal feedbacks and by an imperfect foresight of the future market conditions (and competitor actions) that they will face. In such an environment, decision makers need to better understand long-term dynamics of the supply and demand sides of the power market. In this study, a system dynamics model is developed, to better understand and analyze the decentralized and competitive electricity market dynamics in the long run. The developed simulation model oversees a 20-year planning horizon; it includes a demand module, a capacity expansion module, a power generation module, an accounting and finance module, various competitors, a regulatory body and a bidding mechanism. Many features, singularities and tools of decentralized markets, such as; capacity withholding, enforced divestment, long-term contracts, price-elastic demands, incentives/disincentives, are also incorporated into the model. Public regulators and power companies are potential users of the model, for learning and decision support in policy design and strategic planning. Results of scenario analysis are presented to illustrate potential use of the model

  19. Developing a visual moraine classification scheme to support investigations into the Holocene glacier chronology of the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufung, Eva; Winkler, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    investigation on basis of a specifically developed visual classification scheme for specific regional moraine types. Our classification also takes the recently controversial discussion on the influence of major mass movement events (like rock avalanches) on glacier behavior into account by highlighting those moraines that may be influences/created by such events and require special attention. When completed, this study eventually may be a useful tool for an improved selection of future study sites by including such purpose-oriented geomorphological criteria.

  20. Seasonality influences cuticle melanization and immune defense in a cricket: support for a temperature-dependent immune investment hypothesis in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorka, K. M. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Copeland, E. K. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Winterhalter, W. E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-07-18

    To improve thermoregulation in colder environments, insects are expected to darken their cuticles with melanin via the phenoloxidase cascade, a phenomenon predicted by the thermal melanin hypothesis. However, the phenoloxidase cascade also plays a significant role in insect immunity, leading to the additional hypothesis that the thermal environment indirectly shapes immune function via direct selection on cuticle color. Support for the latter hypothesis comes from the cricket Allonemobius socius, where cuticle darkness and immune-related phenoloxidase activity increase with latitude. However, thermal environments vary seasonally as well as geographically, suggesting that seasonal plasticity in immunity may also exist. Although seasonal fluctuations in vertebrate immune function are common (because of flux in breeding or resource abundance), seasonality in invertebrate immunity has not been widely explored. We addressed this possibility by rearing crickets in simulated summer and fall environments and assayed their cuticle color and immune function. Prior to estimating immunity, crickets were placed in a common environment to minimize metabolic rate differences. Individuals reared under fall-like conditions exhibited darker cuticles, greater phenoloxidase activity and greater resistance to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. These data support the hypothesis that changes in the thermal environment modify cuticle color, which indirectly shapes immune investment through pleiotropy. This hypothesis may represent a widespread mechanism governing immunity in numerous systems, considering that most insects operate in seasonally and geographically variable thermal environments.

  1. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  2. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  3. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  4. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  5. A Support Vector Learning-Based Particle Filter Scheme for Target Localization in Communication-Constrained Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinbin; Zhang, Chenglin; Yan, Lei; Han, Song; Guan, Xinping

    2017-12-21

    Target localization, which aims to estimate the location of an unknown target, is one of the key issues in applications of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). However, the constrained property of an underwater environment, such as restricted communication capacity of sensor nodes and sensing noises, makes target localization a challenging problem. This paper relies on fractional sensor nodes to formulate a support vector learning-based particle filter algorithm for the localization problem in communication-constrained underwater acoustic sensor networks. A node-selection strategy is exploited to pick fractional sensor nodes with short-distance pattern to participate in the sensing process at each time frame. Subsequently, we propose a least-square support vector regression (LSSVR)-based observation function, through which an iterative regression strategy is used to deal with the distorted data caused by sensing noises, to improve the observation accuracy. At the same time, we integrate the observation to formulate the likelihood function, which effectively update the weights of particles. Thus, the particle effectiveness is enhanced to avoid "particle degeneracy" problem and improve localization accuracy. In order to validate the performance of the proposed localization algorithm, two different noise scenarios are investigated. The simulation results show that the proposed localization algorithm can efficiently improve the localization accuracy. In addition, the node-selection strategy can effectively select the subset of sensor nodes to improve the communication efficiency of the sensor network.

  6. Investment incentives in the Korean electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Yeon; Ahn, Nam-Sung; Yoon, Yong-Beum; Koh, Kyung-Ho; Bunn, Derek W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a model-based analysis of the effects of various capacity incentive systems on new investment in the Korean electricity market. The restructuring process in Korea allocated power generation to six firms, competing within a wholesale market, albeit strictly on a cost basis. Because of this cost-based pool, capacity payments were also introduced to encourage new investment. However, it is an open question whether the current fixed capacity payment scheme is enough to secure resource adequacy, and consideration is being given to alternative mechanisms such as the use of LOLP. Using a detailed market simulation model, based on system dynamics, we compare these approaches in terms of how they may influence the investors' decisions and thereby determine the system reserve margin. The simulation results suggest that there may be serious problems in staying with the current fixed capacity payments in order to achieve resource adequacy. In contrast, an LOLP-based capacity mechanism may, in the longer term, increase the reserve margin compared with a fixed capacity payment. More generally, this paper indicates how crucial the effective modeling of the investment behavior of the independent power producers is for adequate policy support, even if they only constitute a fringe in a substantially centrally influenced market

  7. The benefit of regional diversification of cogeneration investments in Europe. A mean-variance portfolio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westner, Guenther; Madlener, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The EU Directive 2004/8/EC, concerning the promotion of cogeneration, established principles on how EU member states can support combined heat and power generation (CHP). Up to now, the implementation of these principles into national law has not been uniform, and has led to the adoption of different promotion schemes for CHP across the EU member states. In this paper, we first give an overview of the promotion schemes for CHP in various European countries. In a next step, we take two standard CHP technologies, combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT-CHP) and engine-CHP, and apply exemplarily four selected support mechanisms used in the four largest European energy markets: feed-in tariffs in Germany; energy efficiency certificates in Italy; benefits through tax reduction in the UK; and purchase obligations for power from CHP generation in France. For contracting companies, it could be of interest to diversify their investment in new CHP facilities regionally over several countries in order to reduce country and regulatory risk. By applying the Mean-Variance Portfolio (MVP) theory, we derive characteristic return-risk profiles of the selected CHP technologies in different countries. The results show that the returns on CHP investments differ significantly depending on the country, the support scheme, and the selected technology studied. While a regional diversification of investments in CCGT-CHP does not contribute to reducing portfolio risks, a diversification of investments in engine-CHP can decrease the risk exposure. (author)

  8. The benefit of regional diversification of cogeneration investments in Europe. A mean-variance portfolio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westner, Guenther; Madlener, Reinhard [E.ON Energy Projects GmbH, Arnulfstrasse 56, 80335 Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The EU Directive 2004/8/EC, concerning the promotion of cogeneration, established principles on how EU member states can support combined heat and power generation (CHP). Up to now, the implementation of these principles into national law has not been uniform, and has led to the adoption of different promotion schemes for CHP across the EU member states. In this paper, we first give an overview of the promotion schemes for CHP in various European countries. In a next step, we take two standard CHP technologies, combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT-CHP) and engine-CHP, and apply exemplarily four selected support mechanisms used in the four largest European energy markets: feed-in tariffs in Germany; energy efficiency certificates in Italy; benefits through tax reduction in the UK; and purchase obligations for power from CHP generation in France. For contracting companies, it could be of interest to diversify their investment in new CHP facilities regionally over several countries in order to reduce country and regulatory risk. By applying the Mean-Variance Portfolio (MVP) theory, we derive characteristic return-risk profiles of the selected CHP technologies in different countries. The results show that the returns on CHP investments differ significantly depending on the country, the support scheme, and the selected technology studied. While a regional diversification of investments in CCGT-CHP does not contribute to reducing portfolio risks, a diversification of investments in engine-CHP can decrease the risk exposure. (author)

  9. Cooperative Investment in Incomplete Markets under Financial Fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pazdera, J.; Schumacher, J.M.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Groups of agents, such as participants in a collective pension fund, can decide to undertake a joint investment and to define, ex ante, a rule for the division of proceeds. The collective investment decision and the allocation rule together form a risk sharing scheme. Such a scheme defines a

  10. Cooperative investment in incomplete markets under financial fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pazdera, Jaroslav; Schumacher, Hans; Werker, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Groups of agents, such as participants in a collective pension fund, can decide to undertake a joint investment and to define, ex ante, a rule for the division of proceeds. The collective investment decision and the allocation rule together form a risk sharing scheme. Such a scheme defines a

  11. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  12. A novel transient rotor current control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator equipped with superconducting magnetic energy storage for voltage and frequency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang-Wu; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Daniel, Kirschen; Wang, Yi-Shen; Hu, Yuan-Chao

    2015-07-01

    A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51307124) and the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51190105).

  13. Information Technology Management: Reporting of DoD Capital Investments for Information Technology in Support of the FY 2006 Budget Submission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truex, Kathryn M; Shaffer, Robert L; Leighton, George A; Johnson, Robert R; Brunetti, Tina N; Courtade, Rebecca S; Woodruff, Courtney E; Buscaigio, James J; Gavura, Cindy L

    2005-01-01

    Who Should Read This Report and Why? DoD managers preparing and certifying capital investment justifications for information technology should read this report to improve the quality of data being submitted by the Department of Defense...

  14. The benefit of regional diversification of cogeneration investments in Europe: A mean-variance portfolio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westner, Guenther, E-mail: guenther.westner@eon-energie.co [E.ON Energy Projects GmbH, Arnulfstrasse 56, 80335 Munich (Germany); Madlener, Reinhard, E-mail: rmadlener@eonerc.rwth-aachen.d [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The EU Directive 2004/8/EC, concerning the promotion of cogeneration, established principles on how EU member states can support combined heat and power generation (CHP). Up to now, the implementation of these principles into national law has not been uniform, and has led to the adoption of different promotion schemes for CHP across the EU member states. In this paper, we first give an overview of the promotion schemes for CHP in various European countries. In a next step, we take two standard CHP technologies, combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT-CHP) and engine-CHP, and apply exemplarily four selected support mechanisms used in the four largest European energy markets: feed-in tariffs in Germany; energy efficiency certificates in Italy; benefits through tax reduction in the UK; and purchase obligations for power from CHP generation in France. For contracting companies, it could be of interest to diversify their investment in new CHP facilities regionally over several countries in order to reduce country and regulatory risk. By applying the Mean-Variance Portfolio (MVP) theory, we derive characteristic return-risk profiles of the selected CHP technologies in different countries. The results show that the returns on CHP investments differ significantly depending on the country, the support scheme, and the selected technology studied. While a regional diversification of investments in CCGT-CHP does not contribute to reducing portfolio risks, a diversification of investments in engine-CHP can decrease the risk exposure. - Research highlights: {yields}Preconditions for CHP investments differ significantly between the EU member states. {yields}Regional diversification of CHP investments can reduce the total portfolio risk. {yields}Risk reduction depends on the chosen CHP technology.

  15. Optimisation of Investment Resources at Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Iryna B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of the process of optimisation of the structure of investment resources, development of criteria and stages of optimisation of volumes of investment resources for small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article characterises the process of transformation of investment resources into assets and liabilities of the balances of small enterprises and conducts calculation of the structure of sources of formation of investment resources in Ukraine at small enterprises by types of economic activity in 2011. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the structure of investment resources of small enterprises the article forms main groups of criteria of optimisation in the context of individual small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article offers an algorithm and step-by-step scheme of optimisation of investment resources at small enterprises in the form of a multi-stage process of management of investment resources in the context of increase of their mobility and rate of transformation of existing resources into investments. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of a structural and logic scheme of optimisation of volumes of investment resources at small enterprises.

  16. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  17. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  18. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  19. Do Nutrient-Based Front-of-Pack Labelling Schemes Support or Undermine Food-Based Dietary Guideline Recommendations? Lessons from the Australian Health Star Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mark A; Dickie, Sarah; Woods, Julie L

    2018-01-05

    Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) promote healthy dietary patterns. Nutrient-based Front-of-Pack Labelling (NBFOPL) schemes rate the 'healthiness' of individual foods. This study aimed to investigate whether the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system aligns with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). The Mintel Global New Products Database was searched for every new food product displaying a HSR entering the Australian marketplace from 27 June 2014 (HSR system endorsement) until 30 June 2017. Foods were categorised as either a five food group (FFG) food or 'discretionary' food in accordance with ADG recommendations. Ten percent (1269/12,108) of new food products displayed a HSR, of which 57% were FFG foods. The median number of 'health' stars displayed on discretionary foods (2.5; range: 0.5-5) was significantly lower ( p stars across the two food categories was observed, with 56.7% of discretionary foods displaying ≥2.5 stars. The HSR system is undermining the ADG recommendations through facilitating the marketing of discretionary foods. Adjusting the HSR's algorithm might correct certain technical flaws. However, supporting the ADGs requires reform of the HSR's design to demarcate the food source (FFG versus discretionary food) of a nutrient.

  20. Future perspectives toward the early definition of a multivariate decision-support scheme employed in clinical decision making for senior citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzidis, Christos A; Gilou, Sotiria; Billis, Antonis; Karagianni, Maria; Bratsas, Charalampos D; Bamidis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Recent neuroscientific studies focused on the identification of pathological neurophysiological patterns (emotions, geriatric depression, memory impairment and sleep disturbances) through computerised clinical decision-support systems. Almost all these research attempts employed either resting-state condition (e.g. eyes-closed) or event-related potentials extracted during a cognitive task known to be affected by the disease under consideration. This Letter reviews existing data mining techniques and aims to enhance their robustness by proposing a holistic decision framework dealing with comorbidities and early symptoms' identification, while it could be applied in realistic occasions. Multivariate features are elicited and fused in order to be compared with average activities characteristic of each neuropathology group. A proposed model of the specific cognitive function which may be based on previous findings (a priori information) and/or validated by current experimental data should be then formed. So, the proposed scheme facilitates the early identification and prevention of neurodegenerative phenomena. Neurophysiological semantic annotation is hypothesised to enhance the importance of the proposed framework in facilitating the personalised healthcare of the information society and medical informatics research community.

  1. Trends in Business Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Lydon, Reamonn; Scally, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines trends in business investment in Ireland. Consistent with the international evidence on investment cycles, we show that business investment in Ireland exhibits large cyclical movements around a long-run trend relative to GDP. Changes in business investment broadly coincide with the overall business cycle, although swings in investment tend to be far greater, with extended periods of both over- and under-investment relative to GDP. The sharp fall in business investment si...

  2. Investment incentives, corporate taxation, and efficiency in the allocation of capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boadway, R

    1978-09-01

    The author shows that, within the strict confines of the neoclassical theory of investment, investment allowances and tax credits on gross investment over and above regular depreciation are efficient investment incentives in the sense that they do not distort the allocation of capital over investments of differing durabilities. Initial allowances, tax credits on net investments, tax credits on gross investment which are set against depreciation, and interest subsidies all distort investment decisions in favor of longer-lived investments. Accelerated depreciation schemes are generally distortionary as well, with the nature of the distortion depending upon how the tax depreciation rate is defined.

  3. Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Husby, Arild; Kotrschal, Alexander; Hayward, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zidar, Josefina; Løvlie, Hanne; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and (1) investment into other costly tissues, (2) overall metabolic rate, and (3) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing data are inconclusive. However, there are good reasons to believe that energetic limitations might play a role in large-scale patterns of brain size evolution also in ectothermic vertebrates. Here, we test these hypotheses in a group of ectothermic vertebrates, the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and confounding ecological variables, we find a negative association between brain size and gut size. Furthermore, we find that the evolution of a larger brain is accompanied by increased reproductive investment into egg size and parental care. Our results indicate that the energetic costs of encephalization may be an important general factor involved in the evolution of brain size also in ectothermic vertebrates. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Investment Decision Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Kekytė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of financial markets resulted new challenges for both investors and investment issues. This increased demand for innovative, modern investment and portfolio management decisions adequate for market conditions. Financial market receives special attention, creating new models, includes financial risk management and investment decision support systems.Researchers recognize the need to deal with financial problems using models consistent with the reality and based on sophisticated quantitative analysis technique. Thus, role mathematical modeling in finance becomes important. This article deals with various investments decision-making models, which include forecasting, optimization, stochatic processes, artificial intelligence, etc., and become useful tools for investment decisions.

  6. Supporting public involvement in research design and grant development: a case study of a public involvement award scheme managed by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Twiddy, Maureen; Baird, Wendy; Birks, Yvonne; Clarke, Clare; Beever, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing health research. Resources should be available for researchers to fund the involvement of the public in the development of their grants. To describe a funding award scheme to support public involvement in grant development, managed by an NIHR Research Design Service (RDS). Case examples of how the award contributed to successful grant applications and findings from a recent evaluation of the scheme are presented. A case study of resource provision to support public involvement activities in one region of England. University and NHS-based researchers, and members of the public. Between 2009 and 2012, the RDS approved 45 public involvement funding awards (totalling nearly £19,000). These awards contributed to 27 submitted applications at the time of writing, of which 11 were successful (totalling over £7.5 million). The evaluation revealed difficulties encountered by some researchers when involving the public in grant development, which led to suggestions about how the scheme could be improved. This award scheme represents an efficient method of providing researchers with resources to involve the public in grant development and would appear to represent good value for money. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aryeetey, G.C.; Westeneng, J.; Spaan, E.J.; Jehu-Appiah, C.; Agyepong, I.A.; Baltussen, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health

  8. Can adding web-based support to UK primary care exercise referral schemes improve patients’ physical activity levels? Findings from an internal pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Taylor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Promoting physical activity (PA via primary care exercise referral schemes (ERS is common but there is no rigorous evidence for long term changes in PA (Pavey et al, 2011 among those with chronic conditions. From July 2015, for 15 months, the e-coachER trial began to recruit 1400 patients (in SW England, Birmingham and Glasgow with one or more chronic conditions including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, osteoarthritis, or depression, who are eligible and about to attend an ERS. The two-arm parallel RCT is powered to determine if the addition of a web-based, interactive, theory-driven and evidence-based support system called e-coachER (hosted on the ‘LifeGuide’ platform will result in at least 10% more patients who do 150 mins or more per week of accelerometer assessed moderate or vigorous physical activity (MVPA at 12 months. Recruitment into the trial is within primary care, using both mail-merged patient invitations and opportunistic GP invitations (and exercise referrals. Within the trial, after participants are screened, provide consent and complete baseline assessments, they are randomised to receive usual ERS at each site or usual ERS plus a mailed Welcome Pack with registration details to access e-coachER on-line. Inclusion criteria for entering the trial are: (1 Aged 16-74 years; (2 with one or more of the following: obesity (BMI 30-35, hypertension (SBP 140-179 or DBP 90-109, type 2 diabetes, lower limb osteoarthritis, recent history of treatment for depression; (3 Participants who are in the two lowest (of four groups using the GP Physical Activity Questionnaire; (4 have an e-mail address and access to the internet; (5 Eligible for an ERS. The intervention rationale, design and content are reported in another presentation. Aims: This presentation will provide initial findings from a 3 month internal pilot phase with a focus on trial recruitment and initial intervention engagement. We will present data on the

  9. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  10. Benchmarking and energy management schemes in SMEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenges Wajer, Boudewijn [SenterNovem (Netherlands); Helgerud, Hans Even [New Energy Performance AS (Norway); Lackner, Petra [Austrian Energy Agency (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Many companies are reluctant to focus on energy management or to invest in energy efficiency measures. Nevertheless, there are many good examples proving that the right approach to implementing energy efficiency can very well be combined with the business-priorities of most companies. SMEs in particular can benefit from a facilitated European approach because they normally have a lack of resources and time to invest in energy efficiency. In the EU supported pilot project BESS, 60 SMEs from 11 European countries of the food and drink industries successfully tested a package of interactive instruments which offers such a facilitated approach. A number of pilot companies show a profit increase of 3 up to 10 %. The package includes a user-friendly and web based E-learning scheme for implementing energy management as well as a benchmarking module for company specific comparison of energy performance indicators. Moreover, it has several practical and tested tools to support the cycle of continuous improvement of energy efficiency in the company such as checklists, sector specific measure lists, templates for auditing and energy conservation plans. An important feature and also a key trigger for companies is the possibility for SMEs to benchmark anonymously their energy situation against others of the same sector. SMEs can participate in a unique web based benchmarking system to interactively benchmark in a way which fully guarantees confidentiality and safety of company data. Furthermore, the available data can contribute to a bottom-up approach to support the objectives of (national) monitoring and targeting and thereby also contributing to the EU Energy Efficiency and Energy Services Directive. A follow up project to expand the number of participating SMEs of various sectors is currently being developed.

  11. Biomass Power Generation Investment in China: A Real Options Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real options model for evaluating the biomass power generation investment in China. The uncertainties in the market price of electricity, CO2 price and straw price are considered. Meanwhile the dynamic relationship between installed capacity and fuel cost, as well as the long-term reduction of subsidy are described. Two scenarios, i.e., with the carbon emission trading scheme existent and non-existent, respectively, is built to empirically analyze the investment of a 25-MW straw-based power generation project. The results show that investors should undertake the investment in 2030 under two scenarios. Investment values are 14,869,254.8 and 37,608,727 Chinese Yuan (RMB, respectively. The implementation of the carbon emission trading scheme theoretically helps improve investment value and advance the most likely optimal investment time. However, the current CO2 price is not sufficient to advance the most likely optimal investment time. The impacts of several factors, including subsidy policy, CO2 price, straw price, installed capacity, correlation structure and the validity period of investment, on the optimal investment strategy are also examined. It is suggested that governments take some measures, including increasing subsidy, setting the growth pattern of subsidy and establishing and perfecting a nationwide carbon trading market, to improve the investment environment and attract more investments.

  12. Asignación óptima de capital en base al perfil de riesgo de las instituciones de inversión colectiva: una aplicación de las medidas de riesgo distorsionadas || Optimal Capital Allocation Based on the Risk Profile of Collective Investment Schemes: An Application of Distortion Risk Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belles-Sampera, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    the liquidity coefficients of Collective Investment Schemes (IIC belonging to a Management Company of Collective Investment Schemes. In this new context, the risk undertaken by each IIC is assessed with alternative distortion risk measures. We develop a fictitious case where results suggest that the risk profile of institutions should be a key factor to determine liquidity coefficients in order to not penalize conservative strategies.

  13. FINANCIAL STUDY OF AN INVESTMENT PROJECT IN ALGERIA: CREATION OF A COMPANY WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE NATIONAL FUNDSUPPORT FOR YOUTH EMPLOYMENT (FNSEJ)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Lyes OUABDESSELAM

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a financial study of a project to create a commercial enterprise through the scheme proposed by the National Agency for Youth Employment Support (ANSEJ). The company is a testing and analysis laboratory. In this study we have prepared a complete financial package and we have budgeted this project over the entire amortization period of the investment credit in accordance with the timetable set by the support system for young entrepreneurs to set up a business in Algeria. ...

  14. (LBA-and-WRM)-based DBA scheme for multi-wavelength upstream transmission supporting 10 Gbps and 1 Gbps in MAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Gan, Chaoqin; Gou, Kaiyu; Xu, Anni; Ma, Jiamin

    2018-01-01

    DBA scheme based on Load balance algorithm (LBA) and wavelength recycle mechanism (WRM) for multi-wavelength upstream transmission is proposed in this paper. According to 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps line rates, ONUs are grouped into different VPONs. To facilitate wavelength management, resource pool is proposed to record wavelength state. To realize quantitative analysis, a mathematical model describing metro-access network (MAN) environment is presented. To 10G-EPON upstream, load balance algorithm is designed to ensure load distribution fairness for 10G-OLTs. To 1G-EPON upstream, wavelength recycle mechanism is designed to share remained wavelengths. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation and analysis.

  15. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  16. Investment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental problems of investment in rural education in the present developing countries are analyzed. Needs of rural education are outlined and financial considerations related to investment in the improvement of rural educational programs are discussed. (SM)

  17. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  18. The Investment Environment for Renewable Energy Development in Lithuania: The Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milčiuvienė Saulė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the investment environment in renewable electricity generation capacities, evaluating the credibility of long term renewable energy targets, the stability of promotion schemes and the impartiality of national administrative procedure. The article explores two main questions: (i are the EU and Lithuanian energy policy targets and promotion schemes credible enough to convince private investors to put their money in renewable energy development; (ii does national administrative procedure put a disproportional burden on renewable energy investors or on certain group of investors? The assessment of the investment environment includes a large number of criteria, but we analyze three of them: the stability of long term strategy; the attractiveness of promotionmeasures; and the simplicity and transparency of administrative procedure. Two further criteria are investigated: the stability of targets in renewable energy and the stability of promotional measures. The greatest uncertainty for investors occurs because of constantly changing support schemes of renewable energy sources-schemes that are not harmonized among the member States. At the national level the main driver in the development of small generators is the feed-in tariff. However, the high feed-in tariff does not always guarantee the smooth development of small scale generators of renewable energy.

  19. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  20. Investment in capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...

  1. Pension Fund Investment Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...

  2. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for lung nodule detection in chest radiographs by means of two-stage nodule enhancement with support vector classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji; MacMahon, Heber

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) scheme for nodules in chest radiographs (CXRs) with a high sensitivity and a low false-positive (FP) rate. Methods: The authors developed a CADe scheme consisting of five major steps, which were developed for improving the overall performance of CADe schemes. First, to segment the lung fields accurately, the authors developed a multisegment active shape model. Then, a two-stage nodule-enhancement technique was developed for improving the conspicuity of nodules. Initial nodule candidates were detected and segmented by using the clustering watershed algorithm. Thirty-one shape-, gray-level-, surface-, and gradient-based features were extracted from each segmented candidate for determining the feature space, including one of the new features based on the Canny edge detector to eliminate a major FP source caused by rib crossings. Finally, a nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) with a Gaussian kernel was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. Results: To evaluate and compare the scheme to other published CADe schemes, the authors used a publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs. The CADe scheme based on the SVM classifier achieved sensitivities of 78.6% (110/140) and 71.4% (100/140) with averages of 5.0 (1165/233) FPs/image and 2.0 (466/233) FPs/image, respectively, in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the CADe scheme based on a linear discriminant analysis classifier had a sensitivity of 60.7% (85/140) at an FP rate of 5.0 FPs/image. For nodules classified as ''very subtle'' and ''extremely subtle,'' a sensitivity of 57.1% (24/42) was achieved at an FP rate of 5.0 FPs/image. When the authors used a database developed at the University of Chicago, the sensitivities was 83.3% (40/48) and 77.1% (37/48) at an FP rate of 5.0 (240/48) FPs/image and 2.0 (96/48) FPs /image, respectively. Conclusions: These results compare favorably to those described for

  3. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  4. Socially responsible investments

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In addition to well-established working principles based on conservative and capital preservation oriented investments that ensure it a sustainable future, the CERN Pension Fund recently introduced a new criterion for selecting the numerous opportunities that the market offers: philanthropy. Its first initiative, which also involves the Staff Association’s Long-Term Collection, will help support two orphanages in China.   The two charities are located near Beijing. Beijing’s “China Children Charity and Foundation” is an orphanage that cares for up to 80 babies who need surgery to correct birth defects. The other, “Hope Healing Home”, is an organization that deals with 300 babies and cares for sick and physically disabled babies who have been abandoned. All these babies are awaiting treatment and a medical solution. The CERN Pension Fund has over 6700 members. To ensure the greatest efficiency and profitability, the Fund’s por...

  5. Foreign direct investment vs domestic investment across the European Union. Case study: Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor IONESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea that investment process is important not only for the economic growth, but for the global integration. There is a powerful connection between FDI and domestic investments. As a result, the analysis is focused on FDI flows in EU28 and Euro area. The comparative analysis is followed by regression, in order to point out the disparities between Member States and their trend. The average value of inward and outward FDI flows is analysed using FDI intensity. A distinct part of the paper is focused on domestic investment process and analyses total investment, investment in construction and investment in equipment. The analysis is supported by the latest official statistical data, pertinent diagrams and tables. The main conclusion of the paper is that the economic crisis in Europe led to a decrease in FDI and domestic investment flows.

  6. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...

  7. Water2Invest: Global facility for calculating investments needed to bridge the climate-induced water gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jairus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Meijer, Karen; van Aalst, Maaike; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers responsible for climate change adaptation investments are confronted with large uncertainties regarding future water availability and water demand, as well as the investment cost required to reduce the water gap. Moreover, scientists have worked hard to increase fundamental knowledge on climate change and its impacts (climate services), while practical use of this knowledge is limited due to a lack of tools for decision support under uncertain long term future scenarios (decision services). The Water2Invest project aims are to (i) assess the joint impact of climate change and socioeconomic change on water scarcity, (ii) integrate impact and potential adaptation in one flow, (iii) prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. Global water availability is computed between 2006 and 2100 using the PCR-GLOBWB water resources model at a 6 minute spatial resolution. Climate change scenarios are based on the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that defines four CO2 emission scenarios as representative concentration pathways. Water demand is computed for agriculture, industry, domestic, and environmental requirements based on socio-economic scenarios of increase in population and gross domestic product. Using a linear programming algorithm, water is allocated on a monthly basis over the four sectors. Based on these assessments, the user can evaluate various technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socioeconomic effects of these investments are evaluated, such as environmental flows or downstream effects. A scheme is developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty

  8. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...

  9. Decentralization Policies for Supply Chain Investments under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per Joakim; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Supply chains need specific investments for improved performance in terms of lead-time, cost, and quality. We study the contractual choice of a coordinator to either centralize or delegate the investment decision in a three-stage chain. The analysis derives closed-form results for the economic...... performance of three decentralized contracting schemes under asymmetric information on investment cost, as well as the optimal full revelation results. The results show that the observed practice of tier-1 delegated investments leads to relatively poor performance because of underinvestment. We illustrate...

  10. Management of investment processes on Finnish farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural change in agriculture means a continuous need for investing in farm production. It is essential for the sustainable operations and the economy of the farm that such investments are successful. In this research, different stages of the investment process of farms were studied as well as the use of information and the success perceived during the investment process. The study was carried out with mail surveys and telephone interviews on the Finnish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN farms. The most challenging investments were in animal husbandry buildings and, as to these investments, the comparison of alternatives was the most challenging stage. For most investments, the planning phase was considered more challenging than the implementation. Before making the decision, farmers acquired information from many sources, of which the opinion of the main customer and the experiences of fellow farmers were the most valued. Some of the products considered were so new on the market that it was not easy to get adequate information and, furthermore, the information given by suppliers was not always accurate. Decision-making was supported by calculations, but qualitative factors had a dominating role. Large basic decisions were made relatively quickly, while details needed a longer time to process. In general, farm managers were satisfied with their investments. Improvements in work quality and quantity were especially mentioned and generally qualitative factors were the ones first in mind when evaluating the successfulness of the investment.;

  11. Investing in the Early Childhood Mental Health Workforce Development: Enhancing Professionals' Competencies to Support Emotion and Behavior Regulation in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritblatt, Shulamit N; Hokoda, Audrey; Van Liew, Charles

    2017-09-19

    This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0-5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children to regulate themselves. This leads to an expulsion rate in early childhood (3-4 times higher than K-12 expulsion rate) and future mental health issues. The Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavior Regulation Intervention Specialist (EC-SEBRIS) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups. Evaluation data provide evidence that early care and education professionals increased in their perception of self-efficacy and in their sensitivity of care and skills to support behavioral health in young children. Results indicated that the children in their care showed less challenging behaviors and increased social competencies. This manuscript highlights the importance of prevention and the dire need to provide young children with high-quality, appropriate care to support their mental health.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program national indexing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Stoker, Jason M.; Eldridge, Diane F.

    2017-11-02

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquires high-resolution elevation data for the Nation. This program has been operating under an opportunity-oriented approach, acquiring light detection and ranging (lidar) projects of varying sizes scattered across the United States. As a result, the national 3DEP elevation layer is subject to data gaps or unnecessary overlap between adjacent collections. To mitigate this problem, 3DEP is adopting a strategic, systematic approach to national data acquisition that will create efficiencies in efforts to achieve nationwide elevation data coverage and help capture additional Federal and non-Federal investments resulting from advance awareness of proposed acquisitions and partnership opportunities. The 3DEP Working Group, an interagency group managed by the USGS, has agreed that all future 3DEP collections within the lower 48 States should be coordinated by using a 1-kilometer by 1-kilometer tiling scheme for the conterminous United States. Fiscal Year 2018 is being considered a transition year, and in Fiscal Year 2019 the national indexing scheme will be fully implemented, so that all 3DEP-supported projects will be acquired and delivered in the national indexing scheme and projected into the Albers Equal Area projection. 

  13. Instruments to foster renewable energy investments in Europe. A survey under the financial point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langniss, O.

    1996-01-01

    Since capital needs are high when investing in Renewable Energy Technologies (RET), well adapted financial schemes are essential, including well fitted financial support. Supporting the dissemination of RET means supporting people, not technologies. Though support mechanism have to be adapted to people not to technologies. A recent study for the European Parliament compares support mechanisms for RET in several European countries by describing case studies. Six different investor types can be identified, each one standing for a specific amalgam of motivation, energy needs, financial possibilities and risk-averse. Each of these types has its specific importance for different RET and different stages of RET's market penetration. Also the size of the market for RET, represented by each investor type, is different. (Author)

  14. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  15. Determinants of Discretionary Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have focused on discretionary investments such as research and development (R&D and advertisement as value-creating activities. This empirical research article examines the determinants of the discretionary investment policy of food sector firms in India. The study aims to analyze the impact of financial policies and firm characteristics on the discretionary investment strategy of the food industry firms. The article uses the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM to understand the drivers of discretionary investment policy of food sector firms. The study finds that investment policy of firms is a major determinant of profitability of food sector firms. Higher investments in capital expenditures and working capital result in higher profitability. Management efficiency significantly influences firm profitability. The results suggest that riskier firms in food sector might focus on R&D investments as a strategy to generate more cash flows. Size of firm is negatively related to R&D intensity. Smaller firms in food sector tend to invest more in R&D. The study does not provide evidence to suggest that profitable firms invest more in R&D activities.

  16. Investment and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2006-01-01

    A severe collapse of fixed capital formation distinguished the onset of the Great Depression from other investment downturns between the world wars. Using a model estimated for the years 1890-2000, we show that the expected profitability of capital measured by Tobin's q, and the uncertainty...... surrounding expected profits indicated by share price volatility, were the chief influences on investment levels, and that heightened share price volatility played the dominant role in the crucial investment collapse in 1930. Investment did not simply follow the downward course of income at the onset...

  17. Defining Investment Additionality for CDM projects - practical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, Sandra; Michaelowa, Axel

    2003-01-01

    The environmental integrity of the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol depends on the possibility to avoid giving emission credits to projects that would have happened anyway. Whether and how 'Investment Additionality' of CDM projects has to be determined is currently a part of climate negotiations. We discuss the rationale of companies to invest in projects and analyse possible criteria to determine Investment Additionality from a theoretical point of view. Differences in the type of investment call for the application of different criteria. Although some criteria are better than others, no single criterion can outweigh the others in all respects. We therefore suggest a scheme for additionality testing that aims at matching types of investment and criteria in a sensible way. Criteria are evaluated on the grounds of robustness to manipulation, degree of coverage and appropriateness for testing the investment decision under consideration

  18. Emissions trading and green investments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, A.; Tangen, K.; Berdin, V.; Pluzhnikov, O.

    2003-01-01

    In simple terms a Green Investment Scheme entails connecting revenues from emissions trading to investments in environmental activities in Russia. This article presents insights derived from an international project on the GIS, focusing on issues that must be addressed if the concept is to become operational, on the background of the domestic, as well as international interests connected to a GIS. GIS is a worthwhile concept with the potential to bring real environmental benefits and meet profound concerns from several of the key actors in the Kyoto regime. However, establishing a well-functioning GIS means removing many of the current barriers that hold back investments in Russia. At the time of writing, Russia has still not decided whether it will ratify Kyoto Protocol. GIS illustrates that there will be substantial benefits for Russia from ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, which is a prerequisite for its entering into force. (Author)

  19. Barriers to investment in emerging power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsworth, Jr, J J [Hunton and Williams, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Investing in private power projects in developing countries is a very different issue from investment in the US or the UK. There are many investment barriers not present in developed nations. Firstly investment barriers need to be identified. Trouble may be encountered with legal authorization; the regulatory framework; government guarantees; fuel supply security; lender protection; labour laws and local commercial restrictions such as profits repatriation, currency convertibility, and taxes. Political barriers may also be encountered in the form of: government commitments and support; funding sources; political unrest; religion; and relationships with other countries. Investment barriers may be minimised by persuading the government to remove any legal barriers; the contract has then to be agreed. Factors in a successful contract include: power purchase agreements; fuel agreements; and implementation agreements. It is vital to have a source of information on local rules and customs, by working with local companies and employing local attorneys.

  20. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril

    2013-05-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.

  1. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  2. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T.

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  3. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  4. Indicators of responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert

    Responsible investment has witnessed significant changes in the past decade. It is estimated that about one fifth of assets under management in the US and about half of all assets under management in the EU are done on the basis of one of the seven responsible investment strategies. This paper

  5. Missouri airport investment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The studys purpose is to provide MoDOT with insight to the potential ROI for airport : investments in terms of economic development. To do so, this study addresses two central : objectives: first, an approach to evaluate airport investments; and s...

  6. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  7. Investment for food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, D.

    1961-01-01

    Groenveld attempted to show the magnitude of investments in agriculture, which were necessary to meet the increasing world demand for food. The formula S = K/Y (ΔN +ΔH) was assumed as a description that for a community the proportion of national income saved and invested must equal the product of

  8. Considerations in Duplex Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Arthur; Goen, Tom

    Problems of duplex investment are noted in the introduction to this booklet designed to provide a technique by which the investment decision can be approached, develop estimates of typical costs and returns under differing conditions, and encourage investors to analyze objectives and conditions before the decision to buy or build is made. A…

  9. The Investment Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Successful investing for long-term funds requires a strategic plan. This is true despite--indeed, because of--the fact that the future is unknowable. The plan must be specific, embodying in concrete terms the best thinking of the board of trustees about the investment pool, its goals and purposes; but it also needs to be sufficiently flexible to…

  10. A comparison of modern investment-linked pension savings products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneman, Per; Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    price changes in the financial market. Our results show that not only investment profiles define the stability of annuity benefits over time. In addition, more fundamental elements of the product design are important. The perspective on product design and development is Danish, but two of the compared......This paper is a continuation of and a supplement to the paper by Jørgensen & Linnemann. Both papers deal with TimePension – a (formula-based) smoothed investment-linked annuity pension scheme. Both papers compare TimePension with other pension savings products using stochastic financial simulation....... TimePension as well as the financial model and simulation concept being used in both papers were introduced in the paper op cit. Jørgensen & Linnemann compare TimePension with a traditional with-profits scheme involving bonus entitlement and an investment-linked Unit Link scheme with a fixed proportion...

  11. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  12. The Investment Capacities of the Ukrainian Economy the EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with selected aspects of investment in the context of the enhanced competition at investment markets and the need to increase the investment performance. A review of literary sources shows that investment capacities essentially refer to the economy’s capability to fund processes or phases related with generation of innovation, formation and modernization of fixed assets or intangible assets; development of education, research and information sectors; reproduction, support and creation of national wealth. It is emphasized that formation and realization of investment capacities in the economy can be attributed to processes that have significant effects for economic performance in the long run, especially when the capacities are innovative. The author’s definition of investment capacities of the economy is given, as the capacity to support financially the upward investment trend through accumulating fixed capital and increasing the profit rate from its generation in current and medium-term periods. The existing methodology for assessment of investment capacities at country level is analyzed; recommendations to improve the system of aggregated investment statistics, taking into account the Eurostat methodology, are given. Statistical indicators measuring the investment capacities in EU countries and Ukraine are analyzed. The analysis shows that the investment rate in Ukrainian industrial enterprises was 21.8% in 2014 and 19.6% in 2015, giving an indication of downward investment trend and the shrinking investment capacities of the national economy. Growth in the share of profit in the value added in 2015 by 6.7 percentage points (to 47.3% compared with 2014 is evidence that instead of investing internal resources, enterprises use them to cover financial loses or tend to take them off the national boundaries. Upward investment trend can be recovered by the increased supply of investment projects with low level of investment risk

  13. Sustainable and economic feasibility of castor bean oil production: a methodology to support investments decision taking; Viabilidade economica e sustentabilidade da producao de oleo de mamona: uma metodologia de suporte a decisao de investimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Glawther Lima [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Mestrado em Logistica e Pesquisa Operacional; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean agribusiness is supported by a complex supply chain that involves several inputs, main products and other derived products. So, the control of production costs is a basic and extremely important activity for the optimization of management processes. Using literature research, case study and assessment of scenarios, the present work was developed with the objective of conceiving a methodology, based on theoretical and economical aspects, the formation of costs and the revenue forecasting, which is applied with the aid of a computational program for supporting decision taking in the castor bean small producers agribusiness. The results obtained in the case study show, for example, that about 40% of the projects are considered accepted under the criterion of recovering the invested capital in less than 2 years. Also, it reveals that 75% of the projects contribute for the increase of the producer income and about 63% of the projects provide enough profit to add value to the producer's properties. Finally, it is clear that the proposed methodology makes easier a better agricultural planning, allowing a better utilization of the raw material and it facilitates the analysis of diversifying other derived products and revenue sources in the castor bean chain. (author)

  14. Sustainable and economic feasibility of castor bean oil production: a methodology to support investments decision taking; Viabilidade economica e sustentabilidade da producao de oleo de mamona: uma metodologia de suporte a decisao de investimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Glawther Lima [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Mestrado em Logistica e Pesquisa Operacional; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean agribusiness is supported by a complex supply chain that involves several inputs, main products and other derived products. So, the control of production costs is a basic and extremely important activity for the optimization of management processes. Using literature research, case study and assessment of scenarios, the present work was developed with the objective of conceiving a methodology, based on theoretical and economical aspects, the formation of costs and the revenue forecasting, which is applied with the aid of a computational program for supporting decision taking in the castor bean small producers agribusiness. The results obtained in the case study show, for example, that about 40% of the projects are considered accepted under the criterion of recovering the invested capital in less than 2 years. Also, it reveals that 75% of the projects contribute for the increase of the producer income and about 63% of the projects provide enough profit to add value to the producer's properties. Finally, it is clear that the proposed methodology makes easier a better agricultural planning, allowing a better utilization of the raw material and it facilitates the analysis of diversifying other derived products and revenue sources in the castor bean chain. (author)

  15. Can adding web-based support to UK primary care exercise referral schemes improve patients’ physical activity levels? Intervention development for the e-coachER study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Taylor

    2015-10-01

    Aims: This presentation will provide details on the intervention development and data to be captured to inform a process evaluation. Methods: An initial version of e-coachER was produced, building on experiences from obesity and diabetes self-management interventions using the Lifeguide platform, and beta tested over 7 months. Co-applicants and researchers then provided feedback on a time-truncated version, and ERS patients on a real-time version, for 5 months before it was locked for the RCT. Within the trial, after participants are screened, provide consent and complete baseline assessments, they are randomised to receive usual ERS at each site or usual ERS plus a mailed Welcome Pack (including a user friendly guide to register for e-coachER access in-line, a free pedometer and a fridge magnet with daily recording strips for step counts or minutes of MVPA. Contact details for an e-coachER facilitator are provided for additional technical support. Results: At the core of the intervention are ‘7 Steps to Health’ aimed to last 5-10 mins each, to encourage patients to think about the benefits of PA, seek support from an ERS practitioner (and friends/family, and the web, to self-monitor PA with a pedometer and upload steps or minutes of MVPA, set progressive goals, build confidence, autonomy and relatedness (from Self-Determination Theory, find ways to increase sustainable PA more broadly, and deal with setbacks. An avatar (to avoid having to represent a range of individual characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity and brief narratives are used throughout to normalise and support behaviour change and encourage e-coachER use. Automatic or patient chosen e-mails from the Lifeguide system promote on-going use of functions such as recording weekly PA and goal setting. For each site, participants are able to access links to reputable generic websites for further information about chronic conditions and lifestyle, links to other sites and apps for self

  16. The St. Niklausen drinking-water powered, small hydro scheme in Bad Ragaz; Gemeinde Bad Ragaz - Trinkwasserkraftwerk St. Niklausen - Vorstudie Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueesch, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results a preliminary study on the installation of a drinking-water powered small hydro scheme in Bad Ragaz, Switzerland. The installation of new pressure pipes and a new balancing reservoir are proposed. Three variants are proposed and discussed, two of which are considered as being economically viable. The various new installations and components proposed are described and discussed. Investment considerations, energy production and costs are looked at as well as support from the Swiss scheme for the cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources. The report is augmented with photos and plans.

  17. GLOBALIZATION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chirilă – Donciu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobilizing financial resources to cover investment needs is a concern of all countries, developed or developing ones, of consolidated market economies or emerging ones. A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The purpose of this research is to analyse global FDI inflows in Europe and in Romania. The results of the research support the idea that the balance of economic power is changing in the world economy and the countries that own a stable and solid industrial base are at an advantage. The new trends determined by the economic crisis in the field of FDI refer to the growing percentage of developing and emerging countries in the global flows of FDI.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENTS IN EARLY EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRESCU Alexandra; CONSTANTINESCU Adrian; TACHE Ileana

    2012-01-01

    The early education is analyzed as being the most profitable investment in education (R. Cuhna). early education supports later learning opportunities. The economic dimension of early education takes into account the fact that the necessary investment for a child to benefit from early education services is rather low when looking at the cost (both economic and social) generated by a child who misses this education level, not necessarily because of the late education start but because of the l...

  19. A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States’ National Basketball Association’s Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA) to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) as an example of such an emerging form of global social support. PMID:26673331

  20. A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States' National Basketball Association's Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2015-07-09

    If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA) to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) as an example of such an emerging form of global social support. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  1. A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States’ National Basketball Association’s Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorik Ooms

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund as an example of such an emerging form of global social support.

  2. 高地应力软岩隧道合理支护方案研究%STUDY OF REASONABLE SUPPORT SCHEME FOR SOFT ROCK TUNNEL IN HIGH GEOSTRESS ZONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洪铭; 陈卫忠; 谭贤君; 王辉; 田田

    2011-01-01

    Based on the evident rheology characteristic of soft rock tunnel in high geostress zone, a new support scheme which adds U-steels compressible stent and foam concretes filling layer to the spray anchor network support is proposed. The long-term stability of Xiakou soft rock tunnel with high geostress in Yichang-Badong expressway is studied by using the new U-steel connector mechanical model and contact model between U-steel and surrounding rock in two support schemes. The results show that: (1) The relationship between the compression and friction resistance for U-steel support is well reflected by the built model consisting of U-steel connector mechanical model and contact model between U-steel and surrounding rock. (2) The combined support of U-steels compressible stent and foam concretes filling layer can absorb rheological deformation of surrounding rocks, which reduces the deformation pressure of the secondary lining; and also, it can provide stable supporting force, which is helpful to keep long-term stability for soft rock tunnel with high geostress.%基于高地应力软岩隧道明显流变效应的特点,提出在喷锚网支护的基础上增设U型钢可压缩支架和泡沫混凝土填充层的支护方案.利用建立的U型钢连接件力学模型和围岩与支架接触模型,分析2种支护方案下,宜昌-巴东(宜巴)高速公路峡口高地应力软岩隧道的长期稳定性.研究表明:(1) 建立的U型钢可压缩支架的连接件力学模型和围岩与支架之间的接触模型可以很好地反映支架缩动性与摩阻力之间的关系;(2) U型钢可压缩支架和泡沫混凝土填充层的联合支护既可以吸收围岩的流变变形,减小二次衬砌上的形变压力,又可以提供稳定的支护力,有利于高地应力软岩隧道的长期稳定.

  3. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  4. INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Davydenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “investment attractiveness of enterprises” were analyzed. On the example of "Agrofirm Brusilov" depth analysis of the agricultural enterprises to evaluate of profitability, liquidity, solvency, financial stability, the timing of the return of invested funds and minimizing investment risks was conducted. To study methods of rating and system analysis were used. To justify the conditions of  increasing investment attractiveness farms method of scoring was used. It was established as a result of the use of integrated evaluation of the financial position one can see problem aspects of financial position of the company and develop measures to enhance liquidity, solvency, identify potential for raising the efficiency of company and prevention of financial crisis. The analysis of financial position showed that the management of the enterprise doesn’t  think  about  financial stability and solvency, does not understand the benefit of borrowed capital. Using research results in practice of agricultural enterprises allows us to give a real evaluation of investment attractiveness and justify ways to improve it. Key words: investments, investment attractiveness, potential business, financial position.

  5. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  6. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...

  7. State Support for Promotion of Electrical Energy Produced in High Efficiency Cogeneration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushatescu V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania accumulated a useful experience in supporting high efficient cogeneration through a bonus type scheme. Spreading this experience to other countries that can choose a similar support scheme could lead to important savings and better results in developing this efficient tool. This state aid is operational, targeted to new investments stimulation for cogeneration technologies and replacement or existing plants rehabilitation. Present paper focuses on the results of support scheme after five years of its application: increase of number of producers who benefit of this aid, raising of general efficiency of high efficient cogeneration, important savings of primary energy and CO2 emissions avoided. On the other hand, use of this scheme showed a number of problems (to which this paper proposes adequate solutions on institutional/administrative, investition, technical, economical-financial and social frameworks that influences beneficiaries and/or financiers of state aid.

  8. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  9. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  10. Socially responsible investment engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessling, T.; Buijter, Bas; Freeman, R.E.; Kujala, J.; Sachs, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores engagement in socially responsible investment (SRI) processes. More specifically, it researches the impact of shareholder salience on the success of engagement activities. The research question asks: What is the relationship between shareholder salience and engagement effort

  11. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  12. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged......Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results: This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated...

  13. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...

  14. El Salvador - Investment Support & Financial Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Research Questions. Through an analysis of business plans, borrower files, repayment data, applicant questionnaires, as well as information from interviews with...

  15. Supporting economic development with highway investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Federal transportation regulations and law direct State and local transportation agencies to account for economic development plans in transportation planning processes. While Federal law is not prescriptive about how State and local agencies account...

  16. Investment incentives: regulation of the Finnish electricity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, Kaisa

    2006-01-01

    Investments into the electricity distribution network are needed to support competition and to guarantee the security of supply as well as a good quality of electricity. The aim of this paper is to study the ex post regulatory system in Finland in context of investment incentives. The second objective is to study how the investments in the sector have developed after the liberalisation and what seem to be the most important factors influencing investments in light of empirical information and how regulation affects them. The investment volumes vary much between years but on average, no drastic developments have taken place

  17. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  18. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline. PMID:24499745

  19. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  20. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  1. Expert opinion on risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Camilla; Kenway, Steven; Hassall, Maureen; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2017-09-01

    The water sector needs to make efficient and prudent investment decisions by carefully considering the long-term viability of water infrastructure projects. To support the assessment and planning of residential recycled water schemes in Australia, we have sought to clarify scheme objectives and to further define the array of critical risks that can impact the long-term viability of schemes. Building on historical information, we conducted a national survey which elicited responses from 88 Australian expert practitioners, of which 64% have over 10 years of industry experience and 42% have experience with more than five residential recycled water schemes. On the basis of expert opinion, residential recycled water schemes are considered to be highly relevant for diversifying and improving water supply security, reducing wastewater effluent discharge and pollutant load to waterways and contributing to sustainable urban development. At present however, the inability to demonstrate an incontestable business case is posing a significant risk to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes. Political, regulatory, organisational and financial factors were also rated as critical risks, in addition to community risk perception and fall in demand. The survey results shed further light on the regulatory environment of residential recycled water schemes, with regulatory participants rating the level and impact of risk factors higher than other survey participants in most cases. The research outcomes provide a comprehensive understanding of the critical risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes, thereby enabling the specification of targeted risk management measures at the assessment and planning stage of a scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  3. Essays in Investment Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobtcheff, C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis analyzes different aspects of the investment decision. In the first chapter, we consider an economy in which different energy sources may produce electricity. The model focuses first on the optimal use of a hydroelectric dam from which water can be extracted and which is supplied with a random water flow. The presence of constraints on a minimal and on a maximal storage capacity makes electricity consumption smoothing possible only when the quantity of water available to the agent lies in a certain range that we determine. In a second stage, we introduce a second energy source with unlimited supply at some exogenous cost. The marginal propensity to produce hydroelectricity is an increasing function of the second technology cost. The availability at a low cost of the alternative source improves thus time diversification. Finally, the optimal electric park is composed of a number of dams that is increasing with the cost of the second technology. Chapter 2 studies the decision of an investor who wants to undertake an irreversible investment when he has the choice between two mutually exclusive projects that present input price and/or output price uncertainty. We prove that the investor decides not to invest in any project when each investment generates the same payoff independently of its size. Therefore, some inaction region appears in which the investor prefers not to invest whereas an immediate investment would have been optimal if no choice had been available: a 'choice value' is thus created. A key feature of this bidimensional degree of uncertainty is thus that the payoff generated by each project is not a sufficient statistic to make a rational investment. In this context, our analysis provides a new motive for waiting to invest: the benefits associated with the dominance of one project over the other. In chapter 3, we study the investment decision problem of a duo-poly with price competition on a market of finite size driven by stochastic taste

  4. Foreign Direct Investment versus Portfolio Investment : A Global Games Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin Ahmad; Pietro Cova; Rodrigo Harrison

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of investment under uncertainty about fundamentals, using a global games approach. Goldstein & Razin (2003) show that there is an information based trade-off between foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment (PI) which rationalizes some well known stylised facts in the literature - the relative volatility and reversibility of foreign direct investment versus portfolio investment. We extend their result and show that uncertainty about fundamentals does not imp...

  5. Investment shocks and the relative price of investment

    OpenAIRE

    Justiniano, Alejandro; Primiceri, Giorgio E.; Tambalotti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a New-Neoclassical Synthesis model of the business cycle with two investment shocks. The first, an investment-specific technology shock, affects the transformation of consumption into investment goods and is identified with the relative price of investment. The second shock affects the production of installed capital from investment goods or, more broadly, the transformation of savings into future capital input. We find that this shock is the most important driver of U.S. business...

  6. Are Foreign Investments Replacing Domestic Investments? - Evidence from Finnish Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Olli-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between firms’ foreign and domestic investments using a panel dataset containing 218 Finnish manufacturing firms during the years 1998-2002. The study examines whether foreign investments increase or decrease domestic investments and whether the effect varies between investments directed to developed markets or emerging markets. Financial constraints’ effect on the relationship is also investigated. The empirical part estimates an empirical investment equa...

  7. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  8. Optimal Regulation of Lumpy Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, G.; Broer, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    When a monopolist has discretion over the timing of infrastructure investments, regulation of post-investment prices interferes with incentivizing socially optimal investment timing. In a model of regulated lumpy investment under uncertainty, we study regulation when the regulator can condition

  9. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...... literature, the state variables, namely the physical capital and the biological resource, enter the objective function. Due to the nonlinearities in this model some of the results are in sharp contrast to previous literature....

  10. Finans/Invest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.

    2014-01-01

    Som det vil være velkendt for de fleste læsere, så er der skiftedag på Finans/Invest. Således var Finans/Invest 8/13 det sidste nummer med Anders Grosen som redaktør, og nærværende nummer er det første med professor Ken L. Bechmann som redaktør. I denne første leder beskriver den nye redaktør lidt...... om hans syn på Finans/Invest og tidsskriftets store betydning for formidling af faglig viden inden for finansiering. Yderligere beskrives nogle af de mindre redaktionelle ændringer, som den nye redaktør har planlagt. Endelig indeholder lederen traditionen tro redaktørens refleksioner over og...

  11. Stock prices and business investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2007-01-01

    Is there a link between the stock market and business investment? Empirical evidence indicates that there is. A firm tends to invest more when its stock price increases, and it tends to invest less when the price falls. In “Stock Prices and Business Investment,” Yaron Leitner discusses existing research that explains this relationship. One question under consideration is whether the stock market actually improves investment decisions.

  12. Firm Decisions: Determinants of Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The investment decision is part of a companies’ investment strategy. Defined as a logical set of technical and economic information, the investment strategy determines the main objectives of the firm regarding its investments, based on studies, analysis and simulations. It also establishes the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the objectives, methods of achieving them, sources of funding and resource allocation methods. Still, all these are influenced by several factors. The invest...

  13. Financial Development and Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwon Suh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using firm-level data from thirty-five countries around the world, this paper empirically examines whether investment-cash flow sensitivity reflects financial constraints. Recent US studies have raised questions on the prediction that investment-cash flow sensitivity is a measure of financial constraints. Looking at thirty-five countries with varying degrees of financial development, this study tests whether investment-cash flow sensitivity is in fact related to financial constraints. In most countries, the evidence supporting the argument that firms likely facing financially constraints display high investment-cash flow sensitivity is weak. Moreover, the evidence that firms in the absence of developed financial markets display high investment-cash flow sensitivity is also weak. Overall, the results from this international investigation do not support the prediction that investment-cash flow sensitivity reflects financial constraints.

  14. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  15. The Mechanism of Financial Stimulation of Investment Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Valeryevich Tarakanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of the Russian economy and creation of conditions for its economic growth demand activization of investment activity that is possible by means of its financial stimulation. Financial stimulation of investment activity defines the need of changes of the contents, the directions and ways of implementation of the financial relations between subjects of investment activity. Financial stimulation of investment activity is carried out via the mechanism in the context of which these financial relations are settled. For defining the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity the authors consider the very concept of financial mechanism. The conclusion is drawn that all elements of the financial mechanism are the integrated unity, they are interdependent and interconnected, and the combination of types, forms, methods of the organization of the financial relations forms “a design of the financial mechanism”. The article specifies the maintenance of the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity, and reveals its essence. The structure of the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity is presented by the following elements: subjects of financial stimulation of investment activity, the purpose of attraction of investments by them, set of financial methods and tools, sources of means of achievement of goals, standard - legal and information support of financial stimulation of investment activity. It is proved that in the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity the leading role is played by the state by means of forms of direct and indirect participation in attraction of investments, each of which is realized by means of specific methods and the corresponding tools. The widespread instrument of financial stimulation of investment activity is the investments which are carried out by the state institutes of development participating in the organization of the process of financial

  16. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  17. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  18. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, Frauke; Weischer, Lutz; Thomae, Jakob; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  19. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  20. A SHAR AH COMPLIANCE REVIEW ON INVESTMENT LINKED TAK FUL IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    MOHD NOOR, AZMAN

    2009-01-01

    The growth in Islamic funds has brought new challenges and opportunities for the financial industry. In recent years, the trend has been towards unit-linked products with an emphasis on the investment link which definitely includes the takaful industry. Takaful operators are offering investment products apart from their core business in providing protection through General and Family Takaful. This paper aims to review some Shariah issues in investment-linked takaful schemes.

  1. Emotional Intelligence and risk taking in investment decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Rubaltelli; Sergio Agnoli; Michela Rancan; Tiziana Pozzoli

    2015-01-01

    Previous work on investment decision-making suggested that emotions prevent investors from taking risks and from investing in a rational way, whereas other work found that there is great variability in people’s ability to manage and use emotional feedbacks. We hypothesized that people with high trait emotional intelligence should be more willing, than people with low trait emotional intelligence, to accept risks when making an investment. Data supported a model in which trait emotional intell...

  2. Optimal investment horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.

    2002-06-01

    In stochastic finance, one traditionally considers the return as a competitive measure of an asset, i.e., the profit generated by that asset after some fixed time span Δt, say one week or one year. This measures how well (or how bad) the asset performs over that given period of time. It has been established that the distribution of returns exhibits ``fat tails'' indicating that large returns occur more frequently than what is expected from standard Gaussian stochastic processes [1-3]. Instead of estimating this ``fat tail'' distribution of returns, we propose here an alternative approach, which is outlined by addressing the following question: What is the smallest time interval needed for an asset to cross a fixed return level of say 10%? For a particular asset, we refer to this time as the investment horizon and the corresponding distribution as the investment horizon distribution. This latter distribution complements that of returns and provides new and possibly crucial information for portfolio design and risk-management, as well as for pricing of more exotic options. By considering historical financial data, exemplified by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, we obtain a novel set of probability distributions for the investment horizons which can be used to estimate the optimal investment horizon for a stock or a future contract.

  3. Beyond the Investment Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…

  4. Sudan Investment Climate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report on Sudan's Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) provides a baseline assessment of challenges to productivity, diversification and inclusion. Chapter 1 describes some of the questions underlying the three issues of competitiveness, diversification and broad-based growth. Chapter 2 analyzes firm performance and competitiveness. Chapter 3 discusses markets and trust. Chapter 4 des...

  5. Investments secure supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  6. Energy Investment: Beyond Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Donald T.; Amarant, John

    2005-01-01

    People vary considerably in their work performance as well as their overall approach to work. At one extreme are the outstanding performers, who approach work with enthusiasm and energy, and, at the other extreme, are those who seem to do only what is necessary to get by. Organizatins often invest a good deal of energy in trying to improve the…

  7. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  8. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  9. Assystem valorizes the investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Assystem is a group of 60 contractor societies which ensures conception and dismantling of plants as well as a more complete valorization of industrial investment as controlling the production and information systems of the industries. Different examples of prestations proposed by Assystem are given. (O.L.). 3 figs

  10. Investments into education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2006-01-01

    groups with differing human capital and welfare levels. Depending on the parameters of the model, a temporary or permanent public investment into human capital formation is needed to overcome steady states with low human capital and welfare levels. Furthermore, even the best steady state is suboptimal...

  11. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  12. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...

  13. Support mechanisms and risk: Implications on the Nordic electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Ravn, Hans

    2013-01-01

    a stochastic analysis for the Nordic electricity system by conducting simulations with the energy system model Balmorel and by applying the mean-standard deviation approach of modern portfolio theory to quantify risk implications of policy instruments for an exemplary offshore wind park. The analysis reveals......Investments in renewable energy projects, such as offshore wind parks, are very much dependent on financial support. The type of policy instrument chosen for such support determines investors' exposure to market risk, and thus influences which rate of return they expect to achieve. We make...... that the two support policy schemes Feed-in Tariffs and Feed-in Premiums provide different risk-return relationships. In the investigated case, a Feed-in Premium scheme would require a 13% higher support level, because of a 6% higher exposure of investors to market risk. Our findings can help when designing...

  14. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  15. Analyses of models for promotion schemes and ownership arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie

    2011-01-01

    countries should opt to support stationary fuel cells, we find that in Denmark it would be promising to apply the net metering based support scheme for households with an electricity consumption exceeding the electricity production from the fuel cell. In France and Portugal the most promising support scheme...

  16. Raising private investment funds for museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Tsjalle; Dolfsma, W.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose the notion of an "arts fund", a publicly traded investment fund for the purpose of acquiring increasingly costly art works to be displayed in museums. Public as well as private museums stand to benefit greatly from such an approach to financially supporting the arts. A

  17. In Defense of International Investment Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.; Bungenberg, M.; Herrmann, C.; Krajewski, M.; Terhechte, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The present article responds to the critical perspective Kate Miles offers on international investment law in her article “Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Conflict, Convergence, and Future Directions”, published in this Yearbook. While sharing several concerns Miles identifies, and supporting

  18. Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farese, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gelman, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

  19. INCREASE THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE REGION: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE VORONEZH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Podmolodina

    2014-01-01

    financial mechanisms to attract investment; support to market innovative products and services; creation of favorable tariff conditions for investment; staffing of the investment process.

  20. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  1. Social Impact Investment: Increasing Private Sector Investment to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The social impact investment market is now global in scope and it is rapidly expanding in some ... of social impact investing to address environmental, social, and economic challenges. ... New project to improve water management in the Sahel.

  2. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers...

  3. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  4. Lobatto-Milstein Numerical Method in Application of Uncertainty Investment of Solar Power Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Eissa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES. The RES investment is characterized by uncertainty, which is long-term, costly and depends on feed-in tariff and support schemes. In this paper, we address the real option valuation (ROV of a solar power plant investment. The real option framework is investigated. This framework considers the renewable certificate price and, further, the cost of delay between establishing and operating the solar power plant. The optimal time of launching the project and assessing the value of the deferred option are discussed. The new three-stage numerical methods are constructed, the Lobatto3C-Milstein (L3CM methods. The numerical methods are integrated with the concept of Black–Scholes option pricing theory and applied in option valuation for solar energy investment with uncertainty. The numerical results of the L3CM, finite difference and Monte Carlo methods are compared to show the efficiency of our methods. Our dataset refers to the Arab Republic of Egypt.

  5. ESG Integration and the Investment Management Process : Fundamental Investing Reinvented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duuren, Emiel; Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how conventional asset managers account for environmental, social and governance factors (ESG) in their investment process. We do so on the basis of an international survey among fund managers. We find that many conventional managers integrate responsible investing in their investment

  6. Bicycle and Car Share Schemes as Inclusive Modes of Travel? A Socio-Spatial Analysis in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Clark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle and car sharing schemes have proliferated in recent years and are increasingly part of the urban transport landscape. Shared transport options have the potential to support social inclusion by improving accessibility: these initiatives could remove some of the barriers to car ownership or bicycle usage such as upfront costs, maintenance and storage. However, the existing evidence base indicates that, in reality, users are most likely to be white, male and middle class. This paper argues that there is a need to consider the social inclusivity of sharing schemes and to develop appropriate evaluation frameworks accordingly. We therefore open by considering ways in which shared transport schemes might be inclusive or not, using a framework developed from accessibility planning. In the second part of the paper, we use the case study of Glasgow in Scotland to undertake a spatial equity analysis of such schemes. We examine how well they serve different population groups across the city, using the locations of bicycle stations and car club parking spaces in Glasgow, comparing and contrasting bike and car. An apparent failure to deliver benefits across the demographic spectrum raises important questions about the socially inclusive nature of public investment in similar schemes.

  7. Initial investment to 3D printing technologies in a construction company

    OpenAIRE

    Cernohorsky, Zdenek; Matejka, Petr

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with an initial investment to 3D printing technologies in a construction company. The investment refers to the use of building information models and their integration with 3D printing technology within a construction company. In the first part, there will be discussed an introduction of 3D printing scheme in a construction company from a lifecycle perspective in general. As a part of this scheme, the ideal variant of an initial investment will be considered a.k.a a pilot p...

  8. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management's (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area's (IIA) two program elements: RDDT ampersand E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation

  9. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  10. Business Systems Modernization: DOD Needs to Fully Define Policies and Procedures for Institutionally Managing Investments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hite, Randolph C; Doherty, Neil; Fraser, Nalani; Glover, Nancy; Holland, Michael; Lakhmani, Neelaxi; Mai, Jacqueline; Paul, Sabine; Tandon, Niti; Stavros-Turner, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    ... (IT) business system investment management. To support GAO's legislative mandate to review DoD's efforts, GAO assessed whether the department's corporate investment management approach comports with relevant federal guidance...

  11. Landscape of Global Health Relevant Investment With a Focus on East Africa and India

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Global Health Investment Landsacping project database consists of information about impact-oriented and global health-supporting investment funds or capital...

  12. Account Managers Creation of Social Capital: Communal and Instrumental Investments and Performance Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem); F.D. Belschak (Frank); S.H.K. Wuyts (Stefan); R.P. Bagozzi (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAccount managers invest in two distinct, compensatory social ties to achieve social capital, namely peripheral knowledge ties and implementation support ties. The first ties require communal investments, which consist of organizational citizenship behaviors and peripheral information

  13. Socially Responsible Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Stang, Andreas

    This paper analyzes the Scandinavian market for Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) mutual funds in order to determine the returns from discriminatory investment decision compared to the return from conventional portfolios. The analysis is conducted on 642 Scandinavian equity mutual funds...... counterparts. In the case of Norway no statistical difference in return is found when conducting the three factor regression. The Scandinavian market is considered particularly relevant for the interest of the investors in SRI mutual funds. However, to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present....... The methodology adopts the Sharpe ratio to establish the risk return relationship. Moreover, the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Fama and French Three Factor model are used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate the underperformance of Swedish and Danish SRI funds relative to their conventional...

  14. Financial Investing Made for Women: The Economic and Psychological Reasons Why Women Invest Differently Than Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Reece

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial Investing is becoming not only a way to plan for a future source of retirement, but also a method to control a personal financial situation without having to rely on government aid or family member support to survive during the elderly years. Today, individuals cannot depend on social security being available in the future for financial support. It is especially vital for women to become more interested in making long-term investments that will provide a secure and effective approach to money management and financial planning. However, as various studies have concluded, women are less interested than men in managing their finances due to various economic and psychological reasons related to risk aversion, sociopolitical and biological factors, and income. This study reviews previous research findings related to the relationship between women and investments, as well as several economic and psychological reasons behind the gender gap on financial investing are presented. Surveys were used to identify the main reasons for women’s tendency to rely less on financial investments. It was found that women who had some source of financial investment showed confidence in the stock market, as well as in their financial decisions. These results contradict some of the findings shown in previous research.

  15. Companies investments on Private Equity/Venture Capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Drewniak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the investors on Private Equity/Venture Capital market are corporations. The share of companies in total funds raised by PE/VC funds is still on the very low level. Beside indirect investments, companies invest directly, creating special entities in one corporate structure. Capital gains are one of the advantages of these investments for companies. However, the companies have also other purposes like the acquirement and the development of new technologies, as well as the transfer of knowledge. The participation of PE/VC fund in the investment process results in the support for company expansion and the creation of company value.

  16. BANKING ETHICS IN THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Capital account liberalization created premises and allow Romania for final exit from the financial crisis. Promoting direct investment in Romania can lead to sustainable economic growth, create new jobs and thus, by selling labor set up new forms of saving, which will support investments. Banking ethics elements behind the development of direct investments in Romania are legislation, regulation and behavior of participants. Amid an emerging economy rocked by the global financial crisis, capital account liberalization has allowed entry direct investment, but allowed and the capital flight. Respect for ethics in the business financial banking groups provide, at least, economic development and upgrading the infrastructure of Romania

  17. Effects of changes in Italian bioenergy promotion schemes for agricultural biogas projects: Insights from a regional optimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese, D.; Patrizio, P.; Nardin, G.

    2014-01-01

    Italy has witnessed an extraordinary growth in biogas generation from livestock effluents and agricultural activities in the last few years as well as a severe isomorphic process, leading to a market dominance of 999 kW power plants owned by “entrepreneurial farms”. Under the pressure of the economic crisis in the country, the Italian government has restructured renewable energy support schemes, introducing a new program in 2013. In this paper, the effects of the previous and current support schemes on the optimal plant size, feedstock mix and profitability were investigated by introducing a spatially explicit biogas supply chain optimization model, which accounts for different incentive structures. By applying the model to a regional case study, homogenization observed to date is recognized as a result of former incentive structures. Considerable reductions in local economic potentials for agricultural biogas power plants without external heat use, are estimated. New plants are likely to be manure-based and due to the lower energy density of such feedstock, wider supply chains are expected although optimal plant size will be smaller. The new support scheme will therefore most likely eliminate past distortions but also slow down investments in agricultural biogas plants. - Highlights: • We review the evolution of agricultural biogas support schemes in Italy over last 20 years. • A biogas supply chain optimization model which accounts for feed-in-tariffs is introduced. • The model is applied to a regional case study under the two most recent support schemes. • Incentives in force until 2013 caused homogenization towards maize based 999 kW el plants. • Wider, manure based supply chains feeding smaller plants are expected with future incentives

  18. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai Vacancies from Chinajob.com China Pacific Insurance (Group) Co. Ltd. Senior Investment Manager and Senior Accounting Analyst are needed, full time; annual salary: $50,000-100,000. China Europe International Business School wants professors or people with doctoral degrees to teach Accounting, Finance, Human Resources and Management, Strategic and General Management, Carving out Management, Production and Transportation Management, and Information Management Systems, full time. Salary starts at $1...

  19. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit......Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design....../methodology/approach – Following a deductive-inductive approach the authors develop a model to compare and analyse CSR schemes based on existing studies and on coding qualitative data on 216 CSR schemes. Findings – The authors confirm that CSR standards and guidelines have entered agribusiness and identify a complex landscape...

  20. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  1. BUSINESS ANGELS AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have synthesized a part of legislative and conceptual elements linked to a new model of investors which is increasingly publicized in Romania, business angels. In the first part of the paper we have presented theoretical notions related to the concept of investments and to the importance of the investment decision at managerial level. Modern investments regarding, in particular, the launch of some products and services as well as the start-up of companies are dependent on the source of funding that can take many forms, one of them being that of business angels. Thus, the legislative framework in Romania represents an opportunity not only for those looking for sources of financing but also for investors seeking more flexible and more advantageous ways to place capital. Thus, at the end of the paper we have tried to reveal the main fiscal facilities from EU member countries in order to be studied by any business angel and the most important organizations offering information on the business angels’ portfolio.

  2. New Financing Schemes of Public Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Riva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public works procurements and concessions are traditional legal techniques used to shape the financing of public infrastructure. Fiscal constraints faced by public administrations at the end of the 20th century, and the subsequent increase of private participation in the provision of public goods and services, encouraged the development of new legal schemes allowing a higher degree of private investment in public infrastructure; such as Public Private Partnerships, project finance, securitizations, the shadow toll, turn-key agreements, public leasing and public trusts.

  3. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Grützun, Verena; Quaas, Johannes; Morcrette , Cyril J.; Ament, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based re...

  4. Gamma spectrometry; level schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Bocquet, J.P.; Monnand, E.; Schussler, F.

    1977-01-01

    The research presented dealt with: a new beta emitter, isomer of 131 Sn; the 136 I levels fed through the radioactive decay of 136 Te (20.9s); the A=145 chain (β decay of Ba, La and Ce, and level schemes for 145 La, 145 Ce, 145 Pr); the A=47 chain (La and Ce, β decay, and the level schemes of 147 Ce and 147 Pr) [fr

  5. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  6. RISKS IN INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Tatiana A. Ykovleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of investment risks and their causes, as well as provides a detailed classification of investment risks. The authors reveal the essence and content of the investment process, risk management, providing material for presentation in the form of a diagram. In conclusion, the article explains the use of the system of specialized institutions as a way to exclude the basic, or primary investment risk.

  7. A basic guide to investing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C

    2006-03-01

    Today's investors have many choices. From seemingly simple investments, such as stocks, bonds and cash, to more complicated option strategies, there is a dizzying array of investment vehicles that can leave even the most seasoned investor a bit confused. In discussions with our clients, one common thread is the desire to learn more about the various types of investments available. Following is a basic guide to the most common investments and the risks inherent in those choices.

  8. Investment Process in Romania and Institutional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Marius VOICILAŞ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts set out and the macroeconomic policies implemented during the past twenty years have been different and controversial. They have aimed at creating an economic environment conducive to the infusion of foreign capital and development of sectors considered as a priority at that time, which can ensure a sound macro-economic stability, taking into account the fact that there is not enough domestic capital to participate in achieving these objectives. In this paper we will focus on foreign direct investment (FDI policies designed to promote them, their effects on national economy in general terms and features of investment in rural and agricultural sector, which we consider key elements of success in economic growth. Also, the institutional framework in which the investment process took place is thoroughly addressed given that most times the general investment climate of a certain market is influenced both by legislation and the institutions involved in economic life. The experience of transition and the experiences of other countries have shown how important are institutions created to coordinate, support and control of investment activity. We included in this analysis institutions and organizations in Romania with responsibilities in the investment field. Based on this analysis, and on the contributions of institutions to create the proper economic development, but also by investors' direct contribution to the creation of this framework by policy makers recommendations, it is obtained a profile of the business environment in Romania, including what is best but what is missing and it needs to be implemented. We consider that this approach is an important step in addressing the institutional investment process and it creates prerequisites of disseminating essential information and remedial implications to stakeholders.

  9. Research on the robust optimization of the enterprise's decision on the investment to the collaborative innovation: Under the risk constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qing; Fang, Gang; Wang, Dong-peng; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstracts: The robust optimization model is applied to analyze the enterprise's decision of the investment portfolio for the collaborative innovation under the risk constraints. Through the mathematical model deduction and the simulation analysis, the research result shows that the enterprise's investment to the collaborative innovation has relatively obvious robust effect. As for the collaborative innovation, the return from the investment coexists with the risk of it. Under the risk constraints, the robust optimization method could solve the minimum risk as well as the proportion of each investment scheme in the portfolio on the condition of different target returns from the investment. On the basis of the result, the enterprise could balance between the investment return and risk and make optimal decision on the investment scheme.

  10. The Investment Climate of Ukraine and Ways for its Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oryshchyn Tatyana M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the factors that determine the positive investment climate in Ukraine. These include the potentially inclusive market, the availability of abundant natural resources, the sufficient scientific and technological potential, the significant agricultural potential (advantageous geographical location, favorable climate, fertile soils, the developed infrastructure, the skilled labor resources, and a developed legislative framework for the issues of foreign investment. The current status of the investment climate in Ukraine, which is characterized by a high level of risk, has been analyzed. Relevance of such necessary measures to improve the investment climate in Ukraine has been substantiated: countering the corruption, reform of the judicial branch and the law enforcement bodies, development of a favorable investment image, facilitation to the investment infrastructure and the stock market, and support for small entrepreneurship.

  11. From green investments to ecotax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, B.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1991 several fiscal regulations are in effect for businesses, energy companies and civilians to invest in environmental and renewable projects. Although those so-called 'green investment' options are a great success, there is another, less positive, side to that success. Characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of several fiscal tools to invest in renewable energy are briefly discussed

  12. Chinese investments in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, H.A.; Zhang, J.

    2010-01-01

    China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional

  13. Crisis will impact investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the content of Capgemini's 10. European Energy Markets Observatory (EEMO) report. The EEMO is an annual report that tracks the progress in establishing an open and competitive electricity and gas market in the 27 European countries, including Norway and Switzerland. This tenth edition is based on 2007 and winter 2007-2008 data sets. A 1 trillion euros infrastructure investment is required to build the plants, electrical lines and gas pipelines needed in Europe over the next 25 years. Although today's credit crunch could severely hurt the investment cycle, analysts also anticipate a difficult period for the European energy markets once the recession is over. The report said that Europe has yet to solve the related issues of responding to its energy demand, while curbing its carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. In 2007, even at a slower pace than previous years, analysts said European electricity consumption still increased by 0.9% and CO 2 emissions stabilized, instead of decreasing. Despite the mild weather, the electricity security of supply deteriorated, analysts said. The Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) real margin - which takes into account non-usable and unavailable generation capacities - dropped from 7.6% in 2006 to 5.3% in 2007. Analysts said without a significant and vigorous investment program in electricity and gas infrastructures, Europe's energy supply security will be threatened. Since the low point in 2005, utilities started to invest again, but have made energy mix choices that are not moving toward a reduction in CO 2 emissions as the majority (58%) of the planned generation capacities will be fossil-fueled. In 2007, investments in renewable capacities grew fast, wind being the industry's preference, with an addition of 8.3 gigawatt (GW) renewables in Europe. However, analysts said this type of 'non-scheduable' source is not always available during peak hours. This partially explains the security

  14. Nuclear investment: performance and opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, B.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power plant ownership in the United States has continued its steady trend toward ownership consolidation and removal of assets from rate regulated environments that began in 1998. This is paralleled by changes in companies providing nuclear services and growing talk of building new units. World wide, new nuclear plant construction and related supplier investment is proceeding around the world. The nuclear fuel supply part of the business is seeing interest and excitement that would have been almost inconceivable a decade ago. Nuclear is now increasingly being recognized for its energy, economic and environmental benefits. For investors, this is a time of opportunity. And the opportunity is strongly supported by excellent performance trends and fundamental change sin the US electricity business. But in order to benefit from these changes, investors must remain cautious and be committed to comprehensively and thoroughly understanding the individual and interrelated technical, regulatory and political issues that surround this useful and powerful technology. (orig.)

  15. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    -Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...... Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing...... on investments in the mining industry....

  16. Certificateless Key-Insulated Generalized Signcryption Scheme without Bilinear Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixue Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized signcryption (GSC can be applied as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme, or a signcryption scheme with only one algorithm and one key pair. A key-insulated mechanism can resolve the private key exposure problem. To ensure the security of cloud storage, we introduce the key-insulated mechanism into GSC and propose a concrete scheme without bilinear pairings in the certificateless cryptosystem setting. We provide a formal definition and a security model of certificateless key-insulated GSC. Then, we prove that our scheme is confidential under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH assumption and unforgeable under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm (EC-DL assumption. Our scheme also supports both random-access key update and secure key update. Finally, we evaluate the efficiency of our scheme and demonstrate that it is highly efficient. Thus, our scheme is more suitable for users who communicate with the cloud using mobile devices.

  17. [Several problems concerning population investment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z

    1982-07-29

    Population investment is a major topic in the studies of population and economic relations. In this particular area, numerous theoretical and practical problems are still in need of solution. Concerning the problem of population concept, there are three different approaches: (1) to determine the definition of population investment from the relationship between the population growth and the capital from national income used for investment, including investment in the newly increased population and investment in the entire population; (2) to explain population investment from the economic viewpoint that people are producers; and (3) to explain population investment from the expense needed to change a simple labor force to a skillful labor force. The expenses include educational costs, maintanance spending, wages needed to compensate workers in labor, costs for workers to master and learn modern scientific techniques to be used for production, and the costs of keeping a young labor force in the next generation.

  18. Investment for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprigarde, G.

    1994-01-01

    In view of the increasing requirements concerning availability and safety of power plants, their economical operation and the environmental protection and safeguarding of resources, the new process control system ''Teleperm XP'' for power plants has been developed. A modern and purposeful system architecture, together with the use of the most innovative standards of hardware and software, makes it possible to maintain the short innovation cycles in microelectronics, and thus to secure investments for the future during the entire lifetime of a power station. (orig.) [de

  19. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  20. VALUATION AND INVESTMENT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment professionals, particularly financial analysts or security analysts evaluate securities and try to determine characteristics of securities and to identify mispriced securities. For that purpose they use different models to estimate the intrinsic value of the common stocks. Traditional valuation models based on the present value of future cash flows are affected by estimated growth rate of the variable used and by the investor’s required rate of return. These models can be used for valuing fixed income securities, such as bonds and preferred stocks. However, in valuing companies with significant growth opportunities they have to expand traditional analysis with option valuation.

  1. Supply Inventory Management: Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Investment Strategy Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the DLA investment strategy to improve supply support to aviation weapon systems by increasing the stockage levels of consumable repair parts...

  2. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... results were obtained from the methods the following critical assumptions were ... system design, irrigation water management and the use of alternative ... to provide decision support regarding pipeline investments. SWIP-E ...

  3. Remittances in Rural Zimbabwe: From Consumption to Investment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ncube (Gracsious); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ When remittances become widespread and stable in a rural village, they adopt a critical role in supporting local development. They contribute via the promotion of businesses and employment. Productive consumption creates opportunities for investment in growth

  4. Performance comparison of renewable incentive schemes using optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak, Neeraj; Lawson, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Many governments worldwide have instituted incentive schemes for renewable electricity producers in order to meet carbon emissions targets. These schemes aim to boost investment and hence growth in renewable energy industries. This paper examines four such schemes: premium feed-in tariffs, fixed feed-in tariffs, feed-in tariffs with contract for difference and the renewable obligations scheme. A generalised mathematical model of industry growth is presented and fitted with data from the UK onshore wind industry. The model responds to subsidy from each of the four incentive schemes. A utility or ‘fitness’ function that maximises installed capacity at some fixed time in the future while minimising total cost of subsidy is postulated. Using this function, the optimal strategy for provision and timing of subsidy for each scheme is calculated. Finally, a comparison of the performance of each scheme, given that they use their optimal control strategy, is presented. This model indicates that the premium feed-in tariff and renewable obligation scheme produce the joint best results. - Highlights: • Stochastic differential equation model of renewable energy industry growth and prices, using UK onshore wind data 1992–2010. • Cost of production reduces as cumulative installed capacity of wind energy increases, consistent with the theory of learning. • Studies the effect of subsidy using feed-in tariff schemes, and the ‘renewable obligations’ scheme. • We determine the optimal timing and quantity of subsidy required to maximise industry growth and minimise costs. • The premium feed-in tariff scheme and the renewable obligations scheme produce the best results under optimal control

  5. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  6. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  7. The Good Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John E; Fresne, Julie A; Youngclaus, James A

    2017-07-01

    The authors reflect on the article in this issue entitled "Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education" by Marcu and colleagues, which makes a compelling case that a medical school education is a good investment, no matter what financing option students use, from federal service programs to federal loans. The lead author of this Commentary shares lessons learned from his own medical school education, which was funded by an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship, and from his current position interacting with medical students across the United States.Regardless of the financing path they choose, all students should understand basic financial concepts and the details of the various pathways that are available to pay for their medical school education, as well as how each could potentially impact their own future and that of their families. One underappreciated aspect of financing a medical school education is that federal repayment scenarios can link loan payments to income, rather than debt levels, which means that all physicians are able to afford their loan payments no matter what specialty they practice, what they are paid, or where they live.Medical education, while expensive, remains the good investment. An MD degree can lead to a lifetime of personal fulfillment and societal contributions. Everyone, with rare exceptions, accepted to a U.S. medical school will be able to finance their medical education via a path that aligns with their personal values and priorities.

  8. Offshore Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  9. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  10. New analytic unitarization schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudell, J.-R.; Predazzi, E.; Selyugin, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider two well-known classes of unitarization of Born amplitudes of hadron elastic scattering. The standard class, which saturates at the black-disk limit includes the standard eikonal representation, while the other class, which goes beyond the black-disk limit to reach the full unitarity circle, includes the U matrix. It is shown that the basic properties of these schemes are independent of the functional form used for the unitarization, and that U matrix and eikonal schemes can be extended to have similar properties. A common form of unitarization is proposed interpolating between both classes. The correspondence with different nonlinear equations are also briefly examined.

  11. GREEN INVESTMENT: A STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development has become an important area of concern due to climatic change with its long term effects. Climatic change has posed several challenges for economic sustainability of economies. Now major development projects have to comply with international environmental norms. Failure to do so may result in the delay of a project, fines including penalties for environmental damage or charges for remedial action, that affect the viability of a project or the value of any security taken. This paper investigates with help of secondary date using descriptive statistical technique opportunities and challenges of green investment. Here it is developed into suitable model for developing economies for successfully adopting green investment without much cost to their economies. The paper concludes that green investment involving direct investment and portfolio investment in firms adopting and following environmental protection norms will lead to sustainable growth and investment for economy.

  12. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  13. Ranking independent timber investments by alternative investment criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratio—the last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percent—to determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...

  14. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  15. International capital flows and investment volatility in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Brafu-Insaidoo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the impact of foreign capital flows on investment volatility in emerging and frontier market economies in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the study attempts to answer the question of whether different components of foreign capital inflows explain investment volatility. Theory suggests that increased cross-border capital mobility increases investment volatility due to the possibility of substituting foreign for domestic investments. Empirical literature does not, however, provide any clear evidence in support of this theory. By using the dynamic panel data analysis, this study tests the hypothesis that increased capital flows increases investment volatility and the study established that international capital flows reduce investment volatility.

  16. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  17. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  18. Alternative reprocessing schemes evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper reviews the parameters which determine the inaccessibility of the plutonium in reprocessing plants. Among the various parameters, the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials, the various processing schemes and the confinement are considered. The emphasis is placed on that latter parameter, and the advantages of an increased confinement in the socalled PIPEX reprocessing plant type are presented

  19. Introduction to association schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper gives an introduction to the theory of association schemes, following Bose-Mesner (1959), Biggs (1974), Delsarte (1973), Bannai-Ito (1984) and Brouwer-Cohen-Neumaier (1989). Apart from definitions and many examples, also several proofs and some problems are included. The paragraphs

  20. Reaction schemes of immunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaage, M.; Barbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors apply a general theory for multiple equilibria to the reaction schemes of immunoanalysis, competition and sandwich. This approach allows the manufacturer to optimize the system and provide the user with interpolation functions for the standard curve and its first derivative as well, thus giving access to variance [fr

  1. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  2. HOUSEHOLD SAVINGS AS A SOURCE OF INVESTMENT RESOURCES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The approaches of scientists in definition of the household savings, the motives of their creation and the role they perform are identified; the role of household savings in the economy is described; the importance of household saving transformation from unorganized to organized forms is analyzed; the size of saving in financial and nonfinancial forms, its dynamics and structure are characterized; comparison between household savings and main macroeconomic indicators is conducted; ways of investment of households savings are discussed; the dynamics of deposits in banks and credit unions, the participation of households in collective investment schemes (private and corporate investment funds is characterized; the dynamics of household deposits in national and foreign currencies is shown; the dynamics of nominal value of investment fund’s securities, that have been placed among resident individuals are characterized; the dynamics of deposit accounts and the number of credit unions members are described; the comparative characteristics of different ways to invest money is given; the reasons of unorganized savings existence are marked; barriers to convert savings into investments and the ways of overcoming them are identified.

  3. Design of investment management optimization system for power grid companies under new electricity reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhui; Su, Zhixiong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Qi, Yongwei

    2017-03-01

    The new normalization of the economic situation and the implementation of a new round of electric power system reform put forward higher requirements to the daily operation of power grid companies. As an important day-to-day operation of power grid companies, investment management is directly related to the promotion of the company's operating efficiency and management level. In this context, the establishment of power grid company investment management optimization system will help to improve the level of investment management and control the company, which is of great significance for power gird companies to adapt to market environment changing as soon as possible and meet the policy environment requirements. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to construct the investment management optimization system of power grid companies, which includes investment management system, investment process control system, investment structure optimization system, and investment project evaluation system and investment management information platform support system.

  4. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for investments... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement for investments. Each Bank shall hold retained earnings plus general allowance for losses as support for the...

  5. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  6. Investments in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The power consumption in the common Nordic power market continues to grow. All potential production technologies entail more or less reduction in quality of the environment. This gives each of the Nordic countries incentives to limit the development of capacity and base themselves increasingly on import, which means that other countries take the political burden with the environmental issues (''free rider problem''). The uncertainty about the climate problem may make it rational to postpone investments which are expensive to reverse, like gas power. If the decisions are delayed too long, however, considerable socio-economic costs may accumulate because the price of electricity becomes too high. The present regulations of the environmental concerns in connection with the granting of concession are expensive and unpredictable and put society unnecessarily to expense

  7. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  8. Keynes, investment, unemployment and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ron P.; Zoega, Gylfi

    2009-01-01

    In Keynes' General Theory, investment determines effective demand, which determines unemployment and the labour market plays a negligible role. In New Keynesian models, labour market institutions determine the natural rate of unemployment and the speed at which unemployment adjusts to it. Investment is mostly ignored as a key variable behind the problem of high unemployment, despite a strong empirical association between investment and unemployment. We discuss the evolution of the 'Keynesian'...

  9. Financing for Infrastructure Investment in G-20 Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Ramprasad; Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Gupta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    This study looks into various sources of financing infrastructure and the demands for infrastructure investments and highlights the mismatch between demand and supply of funds for infrastructure financing in India. In order to address this mismatch, and given the constraints of traditional sources of infrastructure finance in India, this paper suggests credit enhancement scheme (CES) as an alternative framework for mobilizing long-term infrastructure finance. It suggests for scaling up CES as...

  10. FEASIBILITY OF INVESTMENT IN BUSINESS ANALYTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Varga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in data processing for decision support show that business users need business analytics, i.e. analytical applications which incorporate a variety of business oriented data analysis techniques and task-specific knowledge. The paper discusses the feasibility of investment in two models of implementing business analytics: custom development and packed analytical applications. The consequences of both models are shown on two models of business analytics implementation in Croatia.

  11. The Attracting of Foreign Investment in the Russian Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Girko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The attracting of foreign investment is a strategic goal of the Russian economy’s development. Direct investment plays a special role in this process providing an access to financial resources, modern technologies, management skills, innovative goods and services as well as contributing to increase of economic competitiveness, sustained growth and improvements in living standards. In this connection, creation of an enabling environment for foreign investors is a priority sector of public investment policy. Based on the analysis of federal and regional forms of supporting investment activities, it can be concluded that the forms associated with budget injections into the economy are dominant. Co-financing of investment projects, government programs to support exports, create infrastructure (technology parks, SEZ infrastructure, TAD, create support centers for entrepreneurs, all this can be called financial stimulation of economic activity and, in particular, investment activity. The study suggest that the state has to go to these costs in connection with the reduction of the investment potential of the private sector, as a result of the economic crisis and international sanctions.

  12. LevelScheme: A level scheme drawing and scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    LevelScheme is a scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica. The main emphasis is upon the construction of level schemes, or level energy diagrams, as used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, and hadronic physics. LevelScheme also provides a general infrastructure for the preparation of publication-quality figures, including support for multipanel and inset plotting, customizable tick mark generation, and various drawing and labeling tasks. Coupled with Mathematica's plotting functions and powerful programming language, LevelScheme provides a flexible system for the creation of figures combining diagrams, mathematical plots, and data plots. Program summaryTitle of program:LevelScheme Catalogue identifier:ADVZ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVZ Operating systems:Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Macintosh OS X, and Linux Programming language used:Mathematica 4 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test and documentation:3 051 807 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem:Creation of level scheme diagrams. Creation of publication-quality multipart figures incorporating diagrams and plots. Method of solution:A set of Mathematica packages has been developed, providing a library of level scheme drawing objects, tools for figure construction and labeling, and control code for producing the graphics.

  13. Policy approaches to renewable energy investment in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, A.; Komendantova, N.; Battaglini, A.; Lilliestam, J.; Williges, K.

    2009-04-01

    suited to achieving such growth quickly and smoothly? What bottlenecks—in terms of supply chains, human capital, finance, and transmission capacity—need to be anticipated and addressed if the rate of capacity growth is to be sustained over several decades? What model of governance would create a safe investment climate in consistence with new EU legislation (i.e. EU Renewable Energy Directive) as well as expected post-Kyoto targets and mechanisms? The material that we present here is based on a series of workshops held between November 2008 and January 2009, in which a wide range of stakeholders expressed their views about the fundamental needs for policy intervention. Supplementing the results from these workshops have been additional expert interviews, and basic financial modeling. One of the interesting results from this research is the need for a multi-pronged approach. First, there is a need for a support scheme, potentially compatible with in all cases supplementing the EU REN Directive, that would create a stable market for North African electricity in Europe. Second, there is a need for policies that facilitate the formation of public private partnerships in North Africa, as the specific investment vehicle, as a way to manage some of the uncertainties associated with large-scale investments in the region. Third, attention has to be paid to the development of supply chains within the Mediterranean region, as a way of ensuring the compatibility of such investments with sustainable development.

  14. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

    1996-03-01

    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  15. Investment Process in Territorial Government Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the quality of the public administration act represents one of the major targets for the local authorities. From this point of view, the identification and implementation in the current practice of some methods, techniques and advanced working tools might have a significant impact.The investments’ programme as a tool accessible to local public authorities gains an increased legitimacy on the grounds of its civic consent; therefore, the external investors and other potential investors can take advantage of the community’s support in those projects they finance within region.The current framework of the investment activity in the local public sector is characterized by constraints within action, sometimes without continuity or precise targets. The declared urgency of a certain investment objective mostly turns out to be the selection and implementation criterion. In this present work there will be presented a few methods and ways in which town halls can realize public investments in the near future. The adoption of a specific proposal might lead to procedural and organizational modifications for the attainment of the maximum efficiency within the investment process.

  16. Guidelines for integrating socially responsible investment in the investment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, F.J.; Slager, A.

    2009-01-01

    Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) is of growing importance for institutional investors. Our analysis shows that SRI strategies can be grouped in ethically-based, investment-driven and value-ensuring objectives. We demonstrate that this categorization strengthens decisionmaking in SRI. Based on

  17. Life insurance investment and stock market participation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavapozzi, Danilo; Trevisan, Elisabetta; Weber, Guglielmo

    2013-03-01

    In most European countries life insurance has played a key role in household portfolios, to the extent that it has often been the first asset ever purchased. In this paper we use life history data from a host of European countries to investigate the role of life insurance investment in shaping individuals' attitudes towards participation in stocks and mutual funds. We show that individuals who purchased a life insurance policy are more likely to invest in stocks and mutual funds later. On the one hand, these findings support the notion that life insurance policies play an educational role in financial investment. On the other hand, they are also consistent with behavioural models where economic agents are first concerned with avoiding unacceptable adverse scenarios by purchasing low risk investments, such as life insurance policies, and then invest in riskier assets, such as stocks and mutual funds, to obtain higher economic returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DISPUTE RESOLUTION OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiska Silvia Raden Roro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption activity in this modern era keeps hurting the implementation of foreign investment in Indonesia, especially for the dispute settlement aspect. Unfortunately, today, Indonesia is one of the interesting place for foreign investment destination, especially for consumer goods manufacturers. This situation happened because of Indonesia’s great resources which is totally supportive to business development activity. This article was intended to spur the development of Indonesia’s legal system, especially about foreign investment, and also to explain how the dispute resolution on foreign investment in Chinese Regime perspective, including considerations of how Chinese culture and settlement in foreign investment, methods of negotiation, mediation, arbitration. It will also be discussed how the practice of the settlement of disputes through litigation also the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards and the enforcement of a foreign court related to Chinese Regime.

  19. CONTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOR THE REGION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARÍNA ČULKOVÁ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments contribute to the important solving of the economical growth and regionaldevelopment and it presents part of the state’s effort to increase living level of the state. Slovakia government ismotivated to support any foreign investment and it competes for such investments with other transforming countries.Goal of the contribution is to provide idea about main factors that influence inflow of the foreign investments to theindividual regions of Slovakia and to evaluate their contribution through characteristics and main determinants of theforeign investments. Only through careful choice can Slovakia obtain successfully investors that would come to thecountry with production, research and development since in modern economy we cannot be competitive without suchactivities, neither in regional, nor in the international level.

  20. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  1. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  3. Ten-year scheme of network development - 2013 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. With the support of the government authorities, RTE prepares a ten-year scheme of network development in France; This document presents the main electricity transport infrastructures to foresee within the ten coming years and lists the network development investments which must be realised and implemented within 3 years. The document is updated each year and comes to complement at the national level the European ten year network development plan (TYNDP) and the European regional plans as provided for in the 2009/72/CE European directive

  4. 2012 Ten-year scheme of network development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. With the support of the government authorities, RTE prepares a ten-year scheme of network development in France; This document presents the main electricity transport infrastructures to foresee within the ten coming years and lists the network development investments which must be realised and implemented within 3 years. The document is updated each year and comes to complement at the national level the European ten year network development plan (TYNDP) and the European regional plans as provided for in the 2009/72/CE European directive

  5. Ten-year scheme of network development - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. With the support of the government authorities, RTE prepares a ten-year scheme of network development in France; This document presents the main electricity transport infrastructures to foresee within the ten coming years and lists the network development investments which must be realised and implemented within 3 years. The document is updated each year and comes to complement at the national level the European ten year network development plan (TYNDP) and the European regional plans as provided for in the 2009/72/CE European directive

  6. Influence of the Risk-Contributing Factors on the Financing of the Investment Project for Building of Intelligent Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Voytolovskiy Nikolay; Trebukhin Anatoliy; Shoshinov Vitaly

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the generic classification of risks of the investment projects for the construction of intelligent buildings which differ by the detachment of the subjective perception of risk by the investor. Risk and uncertainty were justified as system characteristics of the investment projects for the construction of intelligent buildings. Characteristics of the development was given in the context of project management. Methodical schemes of the development of the investment projec...

  7. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  8. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  9. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  10. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  11. Private investments in new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, B.; Poort, J.P.; Teulings, C.N.; de Nooij, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Lisbon Strategy demands large investments in transport projects, broadband networks and energy infrastructure. Despite the widely-acknowledged need for investments in new infrastructures, European and national public funds are scarce in the current economic climate. Moreover, both policy-makers

  12. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  13. Investment opportunities with YPFB capitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Investment opportunities with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (LPFB) in La Paz, Bolivia, were discussed, especially as they may be affected by the new Hydrocarbon Law No. 1689, whose main objective is to encourage investments in Bolivia and to increase production capacity through investors' incorporation. Some of the areas of potential importance examined included reserve development, transportation, upstream consulting, and hydrocarbon development

  14. Overseas Investment, Encouraging Long Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Tang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the context of the financial crisis,international capital flows,cross-border investment,as well as the mergers and acquisitions generally continues shrinking at a large range in 2009,while China's foreign investment and overseas cooperation still maintains a good momentum of development.

  15. Offshore wind investments – Realism about cost developments is necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Wierling, August

    2016-01-01

    Data available from the recent boom in European offshore wind investments contradict widely held expectations about a decline in costs per kW. Our review shows that scenario projections for investment costs are systematically flawed by over-optimistic assumptions. Contrasting offshore wind technology with onshore wind and nuclear power, we argue that offshore wind could be a candidate for negative learning since a trend towards more complex OWP (offshore wind parks) exists and uncertainty remains high. We estimate technical uncertainty and input cost uncertainty to calculate whether investments in offshore wind technology are profitable today. Applying a real option model to two reference plants using empirically derived parameter values, we allow for sunk cost and the possibility to abandon the investment. We find that for a large parameter range, investments are not profitable, even with substantial support such as feed-in tariffs under the German Energy Act. Therefore, policy incentives for building larger and more complex offshore wind parks bear a high risk to fail in their aim of bringing down investment costs. Policies that instead incentivize the optimization of offshore wind technology – in particular by increasing the load factor and material efficiency and bringing down decommissioning costs – are more sustainable. - Highlights: • We review offshore wind power investments. • Contrary to expectations costs increase. • It is unlikely to see a turn in the near future as complexity is growing. • We deploy an empirically based real option model. • Investments are not profitable across a large parameter range.

  16. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.L. [International Transmission Co., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The International Transmission Company (ITC) is an independent power transmission company that owns, operates and maintains the high voltage transmission system in southeastern Michigan. The company's current focus is on investing in the transmission infrastructure to improve reliability, relieve congestion, improve access to generation and reduce energy costs for consumers. There is a need for investment in power transmission. Trends indicate that power transactions are on the rise while transmission investment is lagging because pricing protocols are inadequate and there is no regional tariff mechanism to allocate the benefits of new investment. The presentation reviewed the applicability of FTRs to transmission owners and the pitfalls of participant funding pricing. It also outlined the regional benefit allocation mechanism (RBAM) with an illustrative example. It was concluded that existing pricing policies must be improved to address the growing need for transmission investment. RBAM is needed to help investors recover costs from project beneficiaries. figs.

  17. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  18. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  19. Initial investment to 3D printing technologies in a construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernohorsky, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an initial investment to 3D printing technologies in a construction company. The investment refers to the use of building information models and their integration with 3D printing technology within a construction company. In the first part, there will be discussed an introduction of 3D printing scheme in a construction company from a lifecycle perspective in general. As a part of this scheme, the ideal variant of an initial investment will be considered a.k.a a pilot project. In the second part, there will be a more detailed discussion of the pilot project, more about each activities which should be its parts and which should analyze cost categories. These categories will be about particular lifecycle stages of the pilot project. In the third part, a summary is done. This article could be a handout for a construction company in a term of an initial investment to 3D printing.

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY INVESTMENTS DURING 2004-2015 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndușa COVACI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents important considerations on the renewable energy investments from world and European level. The paper points out Europe's position in the current world context. Research is an exploratory one, being supported by statistical interpretations made by the author based on analysis of the "Global Trends in the renewable energy sector" report (2016, United Nations Environment Programme in collaboration with Bloomberg under the auspices of the School of Finance and Management in Frankfurt. Conceptually, the paper presents the most important points of the oscillation investments in the renewable energy sector worldwide. The level of investment in the renewable energy sector offers an accurate picture of the extent of decarbonisation.

  1. Farms and funds: investment funds in the global land rush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxton, Abbi; Campanale, Mark; Cotula, Lorenzo

    2012-01-15

    Investment funds show a growing interest in farmland and agriculture. They are buying up land and agribusinesses in developing countries with the expectation of high long-term returns linked to rising land prices, growing populations and increasing demand for food. While the media has reported extensively on the involvement of these funds in the global land rush, the mechanics remain little understood by the broader public. What is the interest and what is driving it? Who are the players and what processes do their investment decisions go through? What are the impacts in recipient countries? And what action can be taken to promote investments that genuinely support local people?.

  2. An Integrated Approach for the Improvement of Flood Control and Drainage Schemes in the Coastal Belt of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, L.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decades huge investments have been made in flood protection, drainage and irrigation schemes to reclaim and develop many polder areas in Bangladesh. In these areas a careful water management is required to get optimal results from the investments in the physical infrastructure and

  3. The Clean-Development Mechanism, stochastic permit prices and energy investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieronymi, Philipp; Schüller, David

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the impact on energy investments stemming from different emission permit classes, by considering permits that are allocated inside the European Emission Trading Scheme and secondary Certified Emission Reduction (sCER) permits originating from the Clean Development Mechanism. One price taking firm which is subject to emission regulation has the choice to invest in gas or wind power plant. The firm faces uncertainty regarding stochastically evolving permit prices, while it receives a premium on the electricity price for wind energy. As a first step, we determine the value of the option to invest into a gas power plant over time. Then, we calculate the investment probability of a gas power investment in a range of policy scenarios. We find that allowing the usage of sCER permits in the present policy framework has a positive impact on gas power investment. Decoupling the price processes has a similar effect. If the quota of sCER permits is doubled, the decrease in the investment probability for wind power is large. We carry out sensitivity tests for different parameter values, and find that investment behavior changes significantly with differing interest rates, the wind energy premium and volatility. - Highlights: • We model the impact of two CO 2 permit classes on energy investments. • We present a real-options framework accounting for uncertainty. • Clean Development Mechanism permits have a negative influence on investment into renewable energy. • Interest rate and volatility values have a strong impact on the results

  4. Considering barriers to investment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KB Afful

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.

  5. Delaying investments in sensor technology: The rationality of dairy farmers' investment decisions illustrated within the framework of real options theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, C J; Steeneveld, W; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Hogeveen, H

    2018-05-02

    The adoption rate of sensors on dairy farms varies widely. Whereas some sensors are hardly adopted, others are adopted by many farmers. A potential rational explanation for the difference in adoption may be the expected future technological progress in the sensor technology and expected future improved decision support possibilities. For some sensors not much progress can be expected because the technology has already made enormous progress in recent years, whereas for sensors that have only recently been introduced on the market, much progress can be expected. The adoption of sensors may thus be partly explained by uncertainty about the investment decision, in which uncertainty lays in the future performance of the sensors and uncertainty about whether improved informed decision support will become available. The overall aim was to offer a plausible example of why a sensor may not be adopted now. To explain this, the role of uncertainty about technological progress in the investment decision was illustrated for highly adopted sensors (automated estrus detection) and hardly adopted sensors (automated body condition score). This theoretical illustration uses the real options theory, which accounts for the role of uncertainty in the timing of investment decisions. A discrete event model, simulating a farm of 100 dairy cows, was developed to estimate the net present value (NPV) of investing now and investing in 5 yr in both sensor systems. The results show that investing now in automated estrus detection resulted in a higher NPV than investing 5 yr from now, whereas for the automated body condition score postponing the investment resulted in a higher NPV compared with investing now. These results are in line with the observation that farmers postpone investments in sensors. Also, the current high adoption of automated estrus detection sensors can be explained because the NPV of investing now is higher than the NPV of investing in 5 yr. The results confirm that

  6. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention...... in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...

  7. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  8. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible investments. 615.5140 Section 615.5140... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5140 Eligible investments. (a) You may hold only the following types of investments listed in the Investment Eligibility Criteria...

  10. The Relative Performance of Debt-restricted Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs): Does Faith Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kabir Hassan; Yasser Alhenawi; Hesham Merdad

    2011-01-01

    Ibrahim & Ong (2008) use operational restrictions of Islamic Investment Guidelines and conduct a thought experiment on Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) under restricted and non-restricted schemes. We use financial restriction and reach somewhat different results. Compliant REITs underperform non-compliant REITs in equally-weighted portfolios. However, the results are inversed in value-weighted portfolios. In the latter case, compliant REITs outperform non-compliant REITs and provide a le...

  11. In praise of tax havens: international tax planning and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Qing; Smart, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The multinationalization of corporate investment in recent years has given rise to a number of international tax avoidance schemes that may be eroding tax revenues in industrialized countries, but which may also reduce tax burdens on mobile capital and so facilitate investment. Both the welfare effects of and the optimal response to international tax planning are therefore ambiguous. Evaluating these factors in a simple general equilibrium model, we find that citizens of high-tax countries be...

  12. MONITORING MECHANISM FOR INVESTMENT DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS’ INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Leshuk

    2017-09-01

    of indicators should reflect the change in the level of investment potential as a result of the implementation of measures and implementation of investment projects for the development of regions’ infrastructure; assessing the level of effectiveness of regional infrastructure functioning, using comparative analysis procedures – the concept of benchmarking, which will allow reducing costs of improvement processes accordingly, as the best experience of management of other territories is studied and evaluated in order to use the acquired knowledge in the activities of the authorities. Conclusions. The researched theoretical and methodological principles of the monitoring mechanism of the investment development of the regions’ infrastructure enable to substantiate the necessity of implementation of complex and system monitoring of the functioning of the infrastructure complex and the investment potential of regions. The researched tendencies of investment development of the Ukrainian regions’ infrastructure allowed establishing significant spatial asymmetries, which negatively affects the implementation of both national development strategies and regional programs and concepts. Thus, the main directions of the monitoring mechanism of the investment development of the region’s infrastructure in the composition should be based on analytical observation not only of the regional authorities but also potential investors and the territorial community. Practical meaning. On the basis of official static monitoring data of investment support and the level of development of the infrastructure complex of Ukrainian regions, trends of investment development of the regions infrastructure are investigated in the article, which allows noting about significant territorial imbalances as a level of investment support, as well as the efficiency of the functioning of the regions infrastructure complex, and this determines the need for the development of comprehensive regional

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  14. Motivational drives of employees at an investment bank

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what the motivational drives are for employees working in an investment bank and whether money plays a roll in motivating employees working for an investment bank. The target group for this study was all the employees who have been in the employment of the target organisation for one year and longer. This group was divided into subgroups of specialist transactors and specialist support personnel. The profile of these two subgroups included a variety ...

  15. Foreign Investment and International Plant Configuration: Whither the Product Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos,René; Sleuwaegen,Leo

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of the decision to invest abroad in particular configurations of overseas plants for 120 Japanese firms active in 36 well-defined electronic product markets. We find support for a structured internationalization decision model in which the decision to produce abroad and the choice for a specific international plant configuration are treated as nested strategic options. Drivers at the industry and firm level push firms to consider overseas investment, and locational...

  16. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  17. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  18. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  19. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  20. The resource adequacy scheme in the Korean electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the incentive scheme for generators to add new power generation is based on the system marginal price (SMP) and the capacity payment (CP). The infra-marginal generators receive an extra margin due to the high SMP level and the new infra-marginal generators need to be built to achieve the optimal fuel mix. However, the Metropolitan zone needs more marginal generators due to the transmission congestion and environmental regulations, but the marginal generator in the Metropolitan zone does not have adequate profits for the new investment under the current CP. This paper suggests the appropriate investment incentive scheme for different zones. The introduction of forward capacity markets for different regions creates higher capacity market prices in the Metropolitan zone than those in the Southern zone. The introduction of forward capacity market also induces a new LNG generator investment in the Metropolitan zone while only new infra-marginal generators need to be added in the Southern zone. - Highlights: ► We suggest the introduction of a capacity market for resource adequacy in Korea. ► The current capacity payment does not induce the optimal fuel mix. ► The Southern zone needs more infra-marginal generators. ► The Metropolitan zone needs marginal generators due to transmission congestion. ► Zonal capacity markets induce the efficient generation investment across zones.

  1. Debt Covenant Renegotiation and Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiation outside corporate distress on firms. We study a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment reduces the agency cost of debt because...... it induces a firm value maximizing investment financing policy and mitigates the overinvestment problem. Incorporating renegotiation outside corporate distress is crucial to explain empirical occurrence patterns of debt renegotiation, the impact of debt renegotiation on corporate securities, and the relation...

  2. Whose crazy investment in sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlis, Lane R

    2011-01-01

    By probing the processes of exclusion of transsexuals from the political sphere, this article offers contributions to social and political theory through an examination of the processes of exclusion from the category "human." This article considers how the erasure of investment in their own embodied sex constructs a platform from which to blame others for sex/gender variance, as well as to justify that blaming. Bringing together Giorgio Agamben, Georges Bataille, Judith Butler, and Nikolas Rose with transphobia, medicalization in psychiatry, law, and ethopolitics, this article questions whose investment in sexed embodiment counts and why that investment might be seen as "crazy."

  3. Capital Investment Procedures for FEMYSO

    OpenAIRE

    Oluduro, Francis Oladele; Duru, Longinus; Al Jaafar, Mofid

    2008-01-01

    Date: 2008-06-05 Level: Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration EF0703, 15 ECTS Credits. Authors: Longinus Duru (Stockholm), Francis O.Oluduro (Västerås) and Mofid Al Jaafar (Västerås) Title: Capital Investment Procedures for FEMYSO Problem Area: Undertaking an investment by FEMYSO involves weighing up the risk against the returns but still capital investment decision are still one of the most undertaken decisions by organization managers because it involves commitment of huge amount of mo...

  4. Investing in the Long Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valerie; Sartor

    2007-01-01

    Janice Dai is a senior executive at Harvest Fund Management Co.Ltd.,one of China’s top fund management compa- nies,managing fixed income market investments across the country.She also leads her company’s overall institutional investments.Recently she agreed to talk about her company as well as comment on China’s booming financial indus- try,in the wake of overseas invest- ment bankers predicting tremen- dous returns on the Chinese main- land over the next few years.

  5. Critical analysis of realibility of the model of investment credit approval in agriculture and food processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investments are funds which are invested in certain manufacturing goods, revenue on investments, the process of investment, subject in which it is invested, and which is obtained as a result of the assessment of investment. Every rational investor entering into an investment expects some benefits. Entry decision into a particular investment project carries a business risk, both for investors and for the bank as co-financier of the project. Accordingly, the subject of this paper-research is a critical analysis of the reliability of the model of investment credit approval in agriculture and food processing industry (MICA used by local banks when considering whether to financially support investment needs of large corporate customers in the segment of secondary agriculture production and food processing industry. Applying the model of the correlation analysis, the degree of interconnectedness of indicators of the quality of assets and business performances of Serbian banking sector are quantified.

  6. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdan, Slobodan; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: → The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. → Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. → The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. → Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. → A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  7. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  8. A full quantum network scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hai-Qiang; Wei Ke-Jin; Yang Jian-Hui; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu

    2014-01-01

    We present a full quantum network scheme using a modified BB84 protocol. Unlike other quantum network schemes, it allows quantum keys to be distributed between two arbitrary users with the help of an intermediary detecting user. Moreover, it has good expansibility and prevents all potential attacks using loopholes in a detector, so it is more practical to apply. Because the fiber birefringence effects are automatically compensated, the scheme is distinctly stable in principle and in experiment. The simple components for every user make our scheme easier for many applications. The experimental results demonstrate the stability and feasibility of this scheme. (general)

  9. Investment patterns in Dutch glasshouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharova, N.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: investment, uncertainty, investment spikes, entry, exit, duration model, GMM dynamic panel data estimator, Negative Binomial model, Heckman selection model, moving window ARIMA, Principal Component analysis, horticulture

    This thesis focuses on the analysis of investment

  10. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system...... of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth...... of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal...

  11. Mudaravila kinnistu arendajaks Alvarelli Invest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Pärnu mudaravila kinnistu 50-aastasest hoonestusõigusest oli huvitatud Andres Tiigi firma Alvarelli Invest. Firma peab 2009. a. suveks vana mudaravila restaureerima ja rajama sellele mere poole juurdeehitise

  12. Quality of investments in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue problem of paper is that base on researches connected with analysis of investments in logistics based on the review of 100 pooled manuscripts from different sources (scientific journals and online magazines from 1996 to 2012 it was showed that there don't exist quality as well as leadership has no a good overview of the investment in logistics. It was claimed that the quality point of view should be demanding part of investments in logistics. Val Log was proposed as an answer to the issues of managing quality of investments in logistics at the tactical level in organizations. By Val Log it is possible to overcome the myth that logistics projects cost money while business projects bring money. Val Log also provides detailed instructions for goals and metrics for each process. By doing changes the quality should be the obvious pillar of our affords doing it.

  13. Foreign direct investment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredero, Q.S.

    2007-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  14. (MFN) CLAUSE IN INVESTMENT TREATIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    favoured-nation' treatment (MFN) clause which seeks to grant to an investor from ... designed to take account of the special characteristics of international investment disputes ... it regularly publishes information about its activities and cases.

  15. Investing: reducing risks to enhance returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J; Glickman, S; Seidner, A G

    1996-09-01

    The financial assets of a healthcare organization can present many opportunities for investment. In order to develop a profitable investment program that avoids risky speculation, however, healthcare financial managers must fully understand the nature and risks of their organizations' investments. They must define and monitor their investment objectives, limitations, levels of acceptable risk and policies and conditions through a statement of investment policy and comprehensive investment guidelines.

  16. Research of relationship between uncertainty and investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Li; WANG Ding-wei

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on revealing the relationship between uncertainty and investment probability through real option model involving investment critical trigger and project earning. Use of Matlab software on the experimental results showing that project earning volatility influences investment probability, led the authors to conclude that this notion is not always correct, as increasing uncertainty should have an inhibiting effect on investment, and that in certain situation, increasing uncertainty actually increases the investment probability and so, should have positive impact on investment.

  17. Adaptive Image Transmission Scheme over Wavelet-Based OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOXinying; YUANDongfeng; ZHANGHaixia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive image transmission scheme is proposed over Wavelet-based OFDM (WOFDM) system with Unequal error protection (UEP) by the design of non-uniform signal constellation in MLC. Two different data division schemes: byte-based and bitbased, are analyzed and compared. Different bits are protected unequally according to their different contribution to the image quality in bit-based data division scheme, which causes UEP combined with this scheme more powerful than that with byte-based scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that image transmission by UEP with bit-based data division scheme presents much higher PSNR values and surprisingly better image quality. Furthermore, by considering the tradeoff of complexity and BER performance, Haar wavelet with the shortest compactly supported filter length is the most suitable one among orthogonal Daubechies wavelet series in our proposed system.

  18. Corruption, public investment and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi, Vito; 中村, まづる

    1998-01-01

    Corruption, particularly political or “grand” corruption, distorts the entire decision-making process connected with public investment projects. The degree of distortions is higher with weaker auditing institutions. The evidence presented shows that higher corruption is associated with (i) higher public investment; (ii) lower government revenues; (iii) lower expenditures on operations and maintenance; and (iv) lower quality of public infrastructure. The evidence also shows that corruption inc...

  19. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.

  20. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  1. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  2. Law and Investment in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A., Asongu

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to mainstream consensus on the dominance of English common law countries in investment prospects, this paper sets a new tone in the legal origins debate by providing empirical validity on the dominance of French civil-law countries in private investment. The assessment is based on 38 African countries for the period 1996-2007. The law mechanisms of regulation quality and rule of law are used to investigate how legal origins (French, English, French sub-Saharan, Portuguese and North A...

  3. Permanent and transitory oil volatility and aggregate investment in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mansor H.; Ahmed, Huson Joher Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between aggregate investment and oil volatility and its permanent and transitory components for a developing country, Malaysia. In the paper, the components generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (CGARCH) model is utilized to decompose conditional oil volatility into permanent oil volatility and transitory oil volatility. Respectively reflecting fundamental-driven and random shifts in oil volatility, they are expected to exert differential effects on aggregate investment. Adopting a vector autoregression (VAR) framework to allow feedback effects between aggregate investment and its determinants, the paper documents evidence supporting the adverse effects of conditional oil volatility, permanent oil volatility and transitory oil volatility on aggregate investment and real output. Interestingly, contrary to the findings for the developed markets (US and OECD), the real effects of permanent oil volatility tend to be stronger. These findings are reasonably robust to variable specification and measurements in the VAR system. Hence, there is an indication that heightened oil volatility accounts for the slumps in Malaysia's aggregate investment after the Asian financial crisis. - Highlights: • Examines the role of oil volatility in Malaysia's aggregate investment. • Makes distinction between permanent and temporary volatility using CGARCH. • Both volatility components depress investment. • Permanent volatility has larger adverse effects. • Results are robust to alternative model specifications

  4. China's Investment Leade Dr, Alyce Su

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ I. Professional Background Dr. Alyce Su specializes in investment managemeng, managing portfolios consisted of investment opportunities originated from China's growth and internationalization, both'outbound and inbound.

  5. Investments in liberalised power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.; Meibom, P.

    2005-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty in the Nordic electricity system with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started with a situation of a large capacity margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime, it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The purpose of the present study is to analyze if and when investors choose to invest in new electricity production capacity depending on their existing portfolio of power producing units. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the Nordic power market, such as new transmission lines between neighbouring countries, more installed wind power, and changes in CO 2 emission trading costs, are used to investigate the consequences for investments in a natural gas fired, combined cycle power plant. The main result of the analysis is that new investments are highly sensitive to investors existing power production portfolio, as new production units affect the merit order in the power market, i.e. compete with the existing power plants. (au)

  6. [Susceptibility to strategy of the drug component of the IPHCC+RxGroups classification system in a risk-adjusted morbidity compensation scheme--a conceptional and data-supported analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, C; Felder, S; Busse, R

    2007-01-01

    A report commissioned by the German Ministry of Health recommends to the existing scheme for calculating risk-adjusted transfers to sickness funds supplement with the IPHCC+RxGroups method. The method is based on inpatient diagnoses and prescribed drugs as health status measures deduced from prior use. The present study investigates the sickness fund's expected net return from gaming based on the drug component of the risk adjuster. The study explores three possible strategies using the RxGroups method. For the stimulations, insurees are assigned to additional indications or to higher valued RxGroups within the same indication. Then, costs and financial benefits attributable to the altered drug use are estimated and compared with the status quo. The study uses 2000 and 2001 sample data of more than 370,000 insurees of Germany's company-based sickness funds system (BKK). While upgrading increases overall costs, it can be beneficial for the individual sickness funds. Their net return crucially depends on the number of sickness funds gaming the system: the more participating in the game, the smaller is the average net return. Moreover, not participating often is even worse, which in turn points to a prisoner's dilemma. When extending the risk adjustment scheme in social health insurance, the German legislator should take into account the perverse incentives of risk adjusters such as the described prescription drug model.

  7. The local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poussard, E.; Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Twele, J.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings present some European testimonies about the advantage of local investment, illustrated with concrete cases taken in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. They demonstrate that local investment in renewable energy sources is a reality and that this practice has indisputably contributed to their significant development in some countries of the European Union. The sustain of foreign banks to the financing of renewable energy sources is at the evidence an example to follow up in countries like France, Greece or Spain. Important efforts have to be made to simplify and encourage the implementation of projects, in particular from the administrative point of view. Beyond the financial aspects, the colloquium has shown that these practices of citizenship involvement represent an important factor of social adaptation and acceptation. The projects, gathering local actors but also the overall citizens through common investment funds, ensure a better territorial anchoring and a sustain to local and sustainable development. This document has been published with the support of the European Commission and ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management). (J.S.)

  8. Searle on External Realism and "Privileged Conceptual Scheme"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, Supp.2 (2012), s. 31-39 ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : John Searle * external realism * constructivism * conceptual relativity * Privilege Conceptual Scheme Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Present and future nuclear power financing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, R.

    1977-01-01

    The financial requirement for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period up until 1985 was estimated to run up to some DM 100 billion already in the Nuclear Energy Study published by the Dresdner Bank in 1974. This figure is not changed in any way by the reduction the nuclear power program has suffered in the meantime, because the lower requirement for investment capital is more than offset by the price increases that have occurred meanwhile. A capital requirement in the order of DM 100 billion raises major problems for the power producing industry and the banks which, however, are not going to hamper the further expansion of nuclear power, because new financing schemes have been specially developed for the nuclear field. They include financing by leasing, the use of funds from real estate credit institutions for long term financing, borrowing of long term funds in the Euro market, and financing through subsidiaries of the utilities. The new financing schemes also apply to the large financial requirement associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management in particular. In this sector the utilities agree to bear the economic risk of the companies implementing the respective projects. Accordingly, financing will not entail any major difficulties. Another area of great importance is export financing. The German-Brazilian nuclear agreement is a model of this instrument. (orig.) [de

  10. The Role Of Foreign Investment In Economic And Social Development In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Khalifa Thawadi El. Hamoudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Investment is whether in local or foreign organization is the action Plan split by various investment activities The Libyan economy is among those economies that require this kind of foreign investment to achieve the desired economic goals which are correlated with the objectives of the Libyan economic system for subsequent stages. Therefore it is important to study the trends and determinants of FDI in developing in general and in Libya in particular. This paper describes the role that could be played by investment foreign investment in economic and social development in Libya pointing out the positive and negative aspects and how to deal with each of them in proportion to the facts of the Libyan Economy needs. And in the light of the new economic orientation in line with the political and economic developments in the international arena and foreign investment and thus contributing to the expansion of the ownership base and create job opportunities for citizen in this study will follow the descriptive approach through the way ahead obtained from digital data from various sources using the forms as required and discussed this paper to the definition of foreign investment evolved of investment determinants of FDI motivated encourage foreign investment history prospects for foreign direct investment in Libya Barriers to foreign direct investment in Libya Policies strategies to support foreign direct investment in Libya conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  12. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  13. The Emergent Universe scheme and tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labraña, Pedro [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C, Concepción, Chile and Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat (Spain)

    2014-07-23

    We present an alternative scheme for an Emergent Universe scenario, developed previously in Phys. Rev. D 86, 083524 (2012), where the universe is initially in a static state supported by a scalar field located in a false vacuum. The universe begins to evolve when, by quantum tunneling, the scalar field decays into a state of true vacuum. The Emergent Universe models are interesting since they provide specific examples of non-singular inflationary universes.

  14. Strategic Spatial Planning's Role in Legitimizing Investments in Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper discusses to what extent spatial visions might play an important role in not only supporting, but also legitimizing the need for investments in transport infrastructures. Drawing on discussion of an ‘infrastructure turn’ in strategic spatial planning (Dodson 2009), this paper explores...... how the recently proposed vision of a Loop City for the Danish/Swedish Øresund Region has played an important role in legitimizing and building political support for a light railway connecting the outer suburbs of Copenhagen. It is not unusual for large investments in new transport infrastructures...

  15. Security Investment in Contagious Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Alireza; Tork Ladani, Behrouz

    2018-01-16

    Security of the systems is normally interdependent in such a way that security risks of one part affect other parts and threats spread through the vulnerable links in the network. So, the risks of the systems can be mitigated through investments in the security of interconnecting links. This article takes an innovative look at the problem of security investment of nodes on their vulnerable links in a given contagious network as a game-theoretic model that can be applied to a variety of applications including information systems. In the proposed game model, each node computes its corresponding risk based on the value of its assets, vulnerabilities, and threats to determine the optimum level of security investments on its external links respecting its limited budget. Furthermore, direct and indirect nonlinear influences of a node's security investment on the risks of other nodes are considered. The existence and uniqueness of the game's Nash equilibrium in the proposed game are also proved. Further analysis of the model in a practical case revealed that taking advantage of the investment effects of other players, perfectly rational players (i.e., those who use the utility function of the proposed game model) make more cost-effective decisions than selfish nonrational or semirational players. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. AWARENESS OF MUTUAL FUND INVESTMENT AMONG THE INVESTORS – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. B. Ravi Kumar; R. Padma Malini

    2017-01-01

    Capital market has been strengthened due to because of increase in investment in mutual funds by small and medium investors. Most of the investors are having awareness about mutual funds and its benefits like tax benefits, less risk, cost etc. The mutual fund industry in India has undergone a most successful phase in the last 15 years. The growth in number of schemes offered by Indian mutual funds from 403 schemes in 2002-03 to 1294 schemes in 2011-12 has shown the inclination of investors to...

  17. The Gender and Equity Implications of Land-Related Investments on Labour and Income-Generating Opportunities. A Case Study of Agricultural Investments in Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Daley (Elizabeth); M Osorio (Martha); C.M.Y. Park (Clara)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Concerns about the potential gender and equity implications of land-related investments on labour and income-generating opportunities and access, use and control of land come in the context of the current global policy interest in supporting agricultural investment

  18. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... management information systems that are appropriate for the level and complexity of your investment...

  19. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537....311 New investment. (a) The term new investment means any of the following activities if such activity... located in Burma, without regard to the form of the participation. (b) The term new investment shall not...

  20. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund. (3...