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Sample records for investigating neuromagnetic brain

  1. Neuromagnetic correlates of audiovisual word processing in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinga, Samantha; Wu, Di; Huang, Shuyang; Wu, Caiyun; Wang, Xiaoshan; Shi, Jingping; Hu, Yue; Liang, Chun; Zhang, Fawen; Lu, Meng; Leiken, Kimberly; Xiang, Jing

    2018-06-01

    The brain undergoes enormous changes during childhood. Little is known about how the brain develops to serve word processing. The objective of the present study was to investigate the maturational changes of word processing in children and adolescents using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Responses to a word processing task were investigated in sixty healthy participants. Each participant was presented with simultaneous visual and auditory word pairs in "match" and "mismatch" conditions. The patterns of neuromagnetic activation from MEG recordings were analyzed at both sensor and source levels. Topography and source imaging revealed that word processing transitioned from bilateral connections to unilateral connections as age increased from 6 to 17 years old. Correlation analyses of language networks revealed that the path length of word processing networks negatively correlated with age (r = -0.833, p processing networks were positively correlated with age. In addition, males had more visual connections, whereas females had more auditory connections. The correlations between gender and path length, gender and connection strength, and gender and clustering coefficient demonstrated a developmental trend without reaching statistical significance. The results indicate that the developmental trajectory of word processing is gender specific. Since the neuromagnetic signatures of these gender-specific paths to adult word processing were determined using non-invasive, objective, and quantitative methods, the results may play a key role in understanding language impairments in pediatric patients in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The brain in time: insights from neuromagnetic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Nangini, Cathy

    2010-03-01

    The millisecond time resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) is instrumental for investigating the brain basis of sensory processing, motor planning, cognition, and social interaction. We review the basic principles, recent progress, and future potential of MEG in noninvasive tracking of human brain activity. Cortical activation sequences from tens to hundreds of milliseconds can be followed during, e.g., perception, motor action, imitation, and language processing by recording both spontaneous and evoked brain signals. Moreover, tagging of sensory input can be used to reveal neuronal mechanisms of binaural interaction and perception of ambiguous images. The results support the emerging ideas of multiple, hierarchically organized temporal scales in human brain function. Instrumentation and data analysis methods are rapidly progressing, enabling attempts to decode the four-dimensional spatiotemporal signal patterns to reveal correlates of behavior and mental contents.

  3. Aberrant neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex in children with acute migraine: a magnetoencephalography study.

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    Xinyao Guo

    Full Text Available Migraine attacks have been shown to interfere with normal function in the brain such as motor or sensory function. However, to date, there has been no clinical neurophysiology study focusing on the motor function in children with migraine during headache attacks. To investigate the motor function in children with migraine, twenty-six children with acute migraine, meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria and age- and gender-matched healthy children were studied using a 275-channel magnetoencephalography system. A finger-tapping paradigm was designed to elicit neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex. Children with migraine showed significantly prolonged latency of movement-evoked magnetic fields (MEF during finger movement compared with the controls. The correlation coefficient of MEF latency and age in children with migraine was significantly different from that in healthy controls. The spectral power of high gamma (65-150 Hz oscillations during finger movement in the primary motor cortex is also significantly higher in children with migraine than in controls. The alteration of responding latency and aberrant high gamma oscillations suggest that the developmental trajectory of motor function in children with migraine is impaired during migraine attacks and/or developmentally delayed. This finding indicates that childhood migraine may affect the development of brain function and result in long-term problems.

  4. Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence

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    Matthew D Sacchet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.

  5. [Investigating Quisling's brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalpe, Ingar O

    2004-12-16

    The trial against Vidkun Quisling (1887-1945) started on 20 August 1945. The question of whether he might suffer from a brain disease came up in court, and on Saturday 25 August he was examined by pneumoencephalography and cerebral angiography on the right side. Nothing pathological was found. Later on it has been claimed that these examinations were "experiments which today would be regarded as life-threatening". This is not correct; they were standard procedures at the time. What is criticizable is that Quisling was brought back to court in a relatively short time after the examinations. This paper gives a brief historic account of the development of the two methods, emphasising the contributions of Norwegian physicians such as Arne Engeset (1906-73) and Leif Emblem (1907-91). It has been claimed that the pneumoencephalography of Quisling has been used as an example of a normal finding from encephalography in the internationally renowned textbook "Clinical examination of the nervous system".

  6. Noninvasive studies of human visual cortex using neuromagnetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.; George, J.S.; Supek, S.; Maclin, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The major goals of noninvasive studies of the human visual cortex are: to increase knowledge of the functional organization of cortical visual pathways; and to develop noninvasive clinical tests for the assessment of cortical function. Noninvasive techniques suitable for studies of the structure and function of human visual cortex include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), scalp recorded event-related potentials (ERPs), and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). The primary challenge faced by noninvasive functional measures is to optimize the spatial and temporal resolution of the measurement and analytic techniques in order to effectively characterize the spatial and temporal variations in patterns of neuronal activity. In this paper we review the use of neuromagnetic techniques for this purpose. 8 refs., 3 figs

  7. Neuromagnetic beta and gamma oscillations in the somatosensory cortex after music training in healthy older adults and a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Shahab; Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Extensive rehabilitation training can lead to functional improvement even years after a stroke. Although neuronal plasticity is considered as a main origin of such ameliorations, specific subtending mechanisms need further investigation. Our aim was to obtain objective neuromagnetic measures sensitive to brain reorganizations induced by a music-supported training. We applied 20-Hz vibrotactile stimuli to the index finger and the ring finger, recorded somatosensory steady-state responses with magnetoencephalography, and analyzed the cortical sources displaying oscillations synchronized with the external stimuli in two groups of healthy older adults before and after musical training or without training. In addition, we applied the same analysis for an anecdotic report of a single chronic stroke patient with hemiparetic arm and hand problems, who received music-supported therapy (MST). Healthy older adults showed significant finger separation within the primary somatotopic map. Beta dipole sources were more anterior located compared to gamma sources. An anterior shift of sources and increases in synchrony between the stimuli and beta and gamma oscillations were observed selectively after music training. In the stroke patient a normalization of somatotopic organization was observed after MST, with digit separation recovered after training and stimulus induced gamma synchrony increased. The proposed stimulation paradigm captures the integrity of primary somatosensory hand representation. Source position and synchronization between the stimuli and gamma activity are indices, sensitive to music-supported training. Responsiveness was also observed in a chronic stroke patient, encouraging for the music-supported therapy. Notably, changes in somatosensory responses were observed, even though the therapy did not involve specific sensory discrimination training. The proposed protocol can be used for monitoring changes in neuronal organization during training and will improve

  8. Effects of aging on neuromagnetic mismatch responses to pitch changes.

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    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Baillet, Sylvain; Hsiao, Fu-Jung; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2013-06-07

    Although aging-related alterations in the auditory sensory memory and involuntary change discrimination have been widely studied, it remains controversial whether the mismatch negativity (MMN) or its magnetic counterpart (MMNm) is modulated by physiological aging. This study aimed to examine the effects of aging on mismatch activity to pitch deviants by using a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) together with distributed source modeling analysis. The neuromagnetic responses to oddball paradigms consisting of standards (1000 Hz, p=0.85) and deviants (1100 Hz, p=0.15) were recorded in healthy young (n=20) and aged (n=18) male adults. We used minimum norm estimate of source reconstruction to characterize the spatiotemporal neural dynamics of MMNm responses. Distributed activations to MMNm were identified in the bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal areas. Compared to younger participants, the elderly exhibited a significant reduction of cortical activation in bilateral superior temporal guri, superior temporal sulci, inferior fontal gyri, orbitofrontal cortices and right inferior parietal lobules. In conclusion, our results suggest an aging-related decline in auditory sensory memory and automatic change detection as indexed by MMNm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the ''social brain'' through Williams syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Masanori; Mimura, Masaru; Reiss, A.L.; Hoeft, F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in social cognitive neuroscience have led to the concept of the ''social brain''. The social brain includes neural processes specialized for processing social information necessary for the recognition of self and others, and interpersonal relationships. Because of its unique behavioral phenotypic features which includes 'hypersociability', Williams syndrome has gained popularity among social cognitive neuroscientists. Individuals with Williams syndrome share the same genetic risk factor for cognitive-behavioral dysfunction utilizing brain imaging to elucidate endophenotype provides us with an unprecendented opportunity to study gene, brain and behavior relationships especially those related to social cognition. In this review, we provide an overview of neuroimaging studies on social cognition in Williams syndrome and discuss the neural basis of the social brain. (author)

  10. High Neuromagnetic Activation in the Left Prefrontal and Frontal Cortices Correlates with Better Memory Performance for Abstract Words

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    Chen, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the spatiotemporal characteristics of memory processing for abstract and concrete words. Neuromagnetic responses to memory encoding and recognition tasks of abstract and concrete nouns were obtained in 18 healthy adults using a whole-head neuromagnetometer. During memory encoding, abstract words elicited larger…

  11. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D.; Pastuovic, Zeljko

    2013-01-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma

  13. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Rainer, E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D. [Life Sciences, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Pastuovic, Zeljko [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma.

  14. Investigating the Intersession Reliability of Dynamic Brain-State Properties.

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    Smith, Derek M; Zhao, Yrian; Keilholz, Shella D; Schumacher, Eric H

    2018-06-01

    Dynamic functional connectivity metrics have much to offer to the neuroscience of individual differences of cognition. Yet, despite the recent expansion in dynamic connectivity research, limited resources have been devoted to the study of the reliability of these connectivity measures. To address this, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 100 Human Connectome Project subjects were compared across 2 scan days. Brain states (i.e., patterns of coactivity across regions) were identified by classifying each time frame using k means clustering. This was done with and without global signal regression (GSR). Multiple gauges of reliability indicated consistency in the brain-state properties across days and GSR attenuated the reliability of the brain states. Changes in the brain-state properties across the course of the scan were investigated as well. The results demonstrate that summary metrics describing the clustering of individual time frames have adequate test/retest reliability, and thus, these patterns of brain activation may hold promise for individual-difference research.

  15. Functional brain imaging to investigate the higher brain dysfunction induced by diffuse brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Tadashi; Inaji, Motoki; Ohno, Kikuo; Hiura, Mikio; Ishii, Kenji; Hosoda, Chihiro

    2011-01-01

    Higher brain dysfunction is the major problem of patients who recover from neurotrauma the prevents them from returning to their previous social life. Many such patients do not have focal brain damage detected with morphological imaging. We focused on studying the focal brain dysfunction that can be detected only with functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to the score of various cognition batteries. Patients who complain of higher brain dysfunction without apparent morphological cortical damage were recruited for this study. Thirteen patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) or cerebral concussion was included. They underwent a PET study to image glucose metabolism by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and central benodiazepine receptor (cBZD-R) (marker of neuronal body) by 11 C-flumazenil, together with cognition measurement by WAIS-R, WMS-R, and WCST etc. PET data were compared with age matched normal controls using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)2. DAI patients had a significant decrease in glucose matabolism and cBZD-R distribution in the cingulated cortex than normal controls. Patients diagnosed with concussion because of shorter consciousness disturbance also had abnormal FDG uptake and cBZD-R distribution. Cognition test scores were variable among patients. Degree of decreased glucose metabolism and cBZD-R distribution in the dominant hemishphere corresponded well to the severity of cognitive disturbance. PET molecular imaging was useful to depict focal cortical dysfunction of neurotrauma patients even when morphological change was not apparent. This method may be promising to clarify the pathophysiology of higher brain dysfunction of patients with diffuse axonal injury or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (author)

  16. Neuromagnetic vistas into typical and atypical development of frontal lobe functions

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    Margot J Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The frontal lobes are involved in many higher-order cognitive functions such as social cognition executive functions and language and speech. These functions are complex and follow a prolonged developmental course from childhood through to early adulthood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG is ideal for the study of development of these functions, due to its combination of temporal and spatial resolution which allows the determination of age-related changes in both neural timing and location. There are several challenges for MEG developmental studies: to design tasks appropriate to capture the neurodevelopmental trajectory of these cognitive functions, and to develop appropriate analysis strategies to capture various aspects of neuromagnetic frontal lobe activity. Here, we review our MEG research on social and executive functions, and speech in typically developing children and in two clinical groups – children with ASD and children born very preterm. The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production and resting-state networks. We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development. We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.

  17. Which radiopharmaceuticals for to-morrow. Heart and brain investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the various radiopharmaceuticals which have been or are presently designed for functional imaging of brain or heart using positron (PET) or single photon emission tomography. Currently used radiopharmaceuticals have been classified into two broad categories: 'passive' radiotracers intended to visualize the perfusion of the organ and 'active' or 'specific' radiotracers used to investigate metabolism or neurotransmission processes. Moreover, the potential interest of radioactive peptides or oligonucleotides which would be biologically stable in vivo and which could target proteins involved in inter or intra-cellular communications will be reviewed. (authors). 47 refs

  18. Investigation of G72 (DAOA expression in the human brain

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    Hirsch Steven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms at the G72/G30 locus on chromosome 13q have been associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in more than ten independent studies. Even though the genetic findings are very robust, the physiological role of the predicted G72 protein has thus far not been resolved. Initial reports suggested G72 as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO, supporting the glutamate dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, these findings have subsequently not been reproduced and reports of endogenous human G72 mRNA and protein expression are extremely limited. In order to better understand the function of this putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene, we attempted to demonstrate G72 mRNA and protein expression in relevant human brain regions. Methods The expression of G72 mRNA was studied by northern blotting and semi-quantitative SYBR-Green and Taqman RT-PCR. Protein expression in human tissue lysates was investigated by western blotting using two custom-made specific anti-G72 peptide antibodies. An in-depth in silico analysis of the G72/G30 locus was performed in order to try and identify motifs or regulatory elements that provide insight to G72 mRNA expression and transcript stability. Results Despite using highly sensitive techniques, we failed to identify significant levels of G72 mRNA in a variety of human tissues (e.g. adult brain, amygdala, caudate nucleus, fetal brain, spinal cord and testis human cell lines or schizophrenia/control post mortem BA10 samples. Furthermore, using western blotting in combination with sensitive detection methods, we were also unable to detect G72 protein in a number of human brain regions (including cerebellum and amygdala, spinal cord or testis. A detailed in silico analysis provides several lines of evidence that support the apparent low or absent expression of G72. Conclusion Our results suggest that native G72 protein is not normally present in the tissues that we analysed

  19. Analysis of large brain MRI databases for investigating the relationships between brain, cognitive, and genetic polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for the years to come is the understanding of the brain-behaviour relationships, and in particular the investigation and quantification of the impact of genetic polymorphism on these relationships. In this framework, a promising experimental approach, which we will refer to as neuro-epidemiologic imaging, consists in acquiring multimodal (brain images, psychometric an d sociological data, genotypes) data in large (several hundreds or thousands ) cohorts of subjects. Processing of such large databases requires on first place the conception and implementation of automated 'pipelines', including image registration, spatial normalisation tissue segmentation, and multivariate statistical analysis. Given the number of images and data to be processed, such pipelines must be both fully automated and robust enough to be able to handle multi-center MRI data, e.g. having inhomogeneous characteristics in terms of resolution and contrast. This approach will be illustrated using two databases collected in aged healthy subjects, searching for the impact of genetic and environmental on two markers of brain aging, namely white matter hyper-signals, and grey matter atrophy. (author)

  20. Functional community analysis of brain: a new approach for EEG-based investigation of the brain pathology.

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    Ahmadlou, Mehran; Adeli, Hojjat

    2011-09-15

    Analysis of structure of the brain functional connectivity (SBFC) is a fundamental issue for understanding of the brain cognition as well as the pathology of brain disorders. Analysis of communities among sub-parts of a system is increasingly used for social, ecological, and other networks. This paper presents a new methodology for investigation of the SBFC and understanding of the brain based on graph theory and community pattern analysis of functional connectivity graph of the brain obtained from encephalograms (EEGs). The methodology consists of three main parts: fuzzy synchronization likelihood (FSL), community partitioning, and decisions based on partitions. As an example application, the methodology is applied to analysis of brain of patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the problem of discrimination of ADHD EEGs from healthy (non-ADHD) EEGs. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Radioisotopic investigations of zinc uptake into brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of zinc in the vicinity of the hippocampal mossy fibers has been repeatedly demonstrated, and several lines of evidence suggest that the mossy-fiber zinc is concentrated within the terminals of mossy fibers. In search of insight into the metabolism and function of mossy-fiber zinc, the present study investigated the transport of zinc into tissue slices and the response of the zinc transport to depolarization. Kinetic analysis of zinc accumulation by mouse brain slices in vitro revealed the presence of a high affinity uptake component with an apparent Km of 17.7 μM for hippocampus, 16.6 μM< for cortex and 25 μM for striatum and a V/sub max/ of 9.2 ng/mg/hr for the hippocampus, 10.1 ng/mg/hr for cortex and 9.6 ng/mg/hr for striatum. Cytoarchitectonic differences in zinc transport between the different hippocampal subregions were found with those regions containing granule cells or mossy fiber axons accumulating greater amounts of zinc than the CA 1 region. The present finding that mossy-fiber neuropil selectivity accumulates zinc suggests the presence of a zinc-binding substance unique to mossy-fiber tissue

  2. Morphology investigation of the mink’s brain (Mustela vison

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    Milanović Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mink is a strict carnivore and a seasonal breeder, which may be used as an experimental model for other carnivores. Using anatomical methods, 32 brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that the olfactory recess was present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection was present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, the ins and outs of the mink’s anatomical structure have begun to absorb the attention of anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that fury animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated. For this reason and because of easy access to the material, the purpose of brain dissection is to familiarize with the three dimensional structure of the brain and teach one of the great methods of studying the brain: looking at its structure.

  3. Computer tomography investigation of epilepsy the brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneva, N.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of brain atrophy in patients with epilepsy is often discussed in literature. The aim of the study is to present the results of computer tomography measurements of ventricular size and sulci of brain of 90 patients with various electro-clinical forms of epilepsy, including males and females at the age of 15 to 70 years. Computer tomography measurements were performed having in mind 6 parameters (frontal horn index, FHI; Huckman's number, HZ; cella media index,CMI; width of the third and the fourth ventricles; sulci). The results were compared to the CT measurements of a control group of 40 healthy males and females in the same age range.The obtained data indicate high percentage of subcortical atrophy among patients with epilepsy. Ventricular dilatation was found to be in light extent occurring most early in the frontal brain regions (frontal horns and lateral ventricles)., furthermore observed in the young age. (author)

  4. Investigations of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury

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    Sawyer, T. W.; Josey, T.; Wang, Y.; Villanueva, M.; Ritzel, D. V.; Nelson, P.; Lee, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    The development of an advanced blast simulator (ABS) has enabled the reproducible generation of single-pulse shock waves that simulate free-field blast with high fidelity. Studies with rodents in the ABS demonstrated the necessity of head restraint during head-only exposures. When the head was not restrained, violent global head motion was induced by pressures that would not produce similar movement of a target the size and mass of a human head. This scaling artefact produced changes in brain function that were reminiscent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to impact-acceleration effects. Restraint of the rodent head eliminated these, but still produced subtle changes in brain biochemistry, showing that blast-induced pressure waves do cause brain deficits. Further experiments were carried out with rat brain cell aggregate cultures that enabled the conduct of studies without the gross movement encountered when using rodents. The suspension nature of this model was also exploited to minimize the boundary effects that complicate the interpretation of primary blast studies using surface cultures. Using this system, brain tissue was found not only to be sensitive to pressure changes, but also able to discriminate between the highly defined single-pulse shock waves produced by underwater blast and the complex pressure history exposures experienced by aggregates encased within a sphere and subjected to simulated air blast. The nature of blast-induced primary TBI requires a multidisciplinary research approach that addresses the fidelity of the blast insult, its accurate measurement and characterization, as well as the limitations of the biological models used.

  5. Clinicoelectrophysiologic and magnetoresonance and tomographic investigation of hereditary and congenital diseases of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, I.I.; Pikuza, O.I.; Idrisova, L.G.; Uryvskij, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The combined investigation of hereditary and congenital diseases of the brain using magnetoresonance tomography is performed. The hereditary and congenital diseases of the brain accompanied by disorders of liquoroconductive tracts with medullary substance lesion are revealed. The investigation results provide timely development of the treatment tactics and rehabilitation of sick children. Refs. 3

  6. Investigating nystagmus in patients with traumatic brain injury: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a health and socioeconomic concern worldwide. In patients with TBI, post-traumatic balance problems are often the result of damage to the vestibular system. Nystagmus is common in these patients, and can provide insight into the damage that has resulted from the trauma.

  7. Investigating Children's Conceptions of the Brain: First Steps

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    Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Bartoszeck, Flavio Kulevicz

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data, part of a cross-sectional study about the use of pupil's drawings as a means of probing the development of 195 Brazilian pre-school children (4 to 6 year-olds) and 681 primary school pupils 1st Grade through 4th Grade (7 to 10 years of age) conceptions of the human brain. The aims of the present study is to analyze how the…

  8. Physical Feature Encoding and Word Recognition Abilities Are Altered in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Preliminary Neuromagnetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardos, Maria; Korostenskaja, Milena; Xiang, Jing; Fujiwara, Hisako; Lee, Ki H.; Horn, Paul S.; Byars, Anna; Vannest, Jennifer; Wang, Yingying; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of language function is critical for children with intractable epilepsy under consideration for epilepsy surgery. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy by using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten children with intractable epilepsy (M/F 6/4, mean ± SD 13.4 ± 2.2 years) were matched on age and sex to healthy controls. Common nouns were presented simultaneously from visual and auditory sensory inputs in “match” and “mismatch” conditions. Neuromagnetic responses M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 with latencies of ~100 ms, ~150 ms, ~250 ms, ~350 ms, and ~450 ms, respectively, elicited during the “match” condition were identified. Compared to healthy children, epilepsy patients had both significantly delayed latency of the M1 and reduced amplitudes of M3 and M5 responses. These results provide neurophysiologic evidence of altered word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy. PMID:26146459

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Improved coil design for deep brain investigation

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    Crowther, L. J.; Marketos, P.; Williams, P. I.; Melikhov, Y.; Jiles, D. C.; Starzewski, J. H.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports on a design for a coil for transcranial magnetic stimulation. The design shows potential for improving the penetration depth of the magnetic field, allowing stimulation of subcortical structures within the brain. The magnetic and induced electric fields in the human head have been calculated with finite element electromagnetic modeling software and compared with empirical measurements. Results show that the coil design used gives improved penetration depth, but also indicates the likelihood of stimulation of additional tissue resulting from the spatial distribution of the magnetic field.

  10. A qualitative investigation of masculine identity after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Ruth; Fisher, Paul; Williams, Deirdre

    2018-04-30

    Men are twice as likely as women to experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that aspects of masculine identity contribute to how people acquire their brain injuries. Research also suggests that masculine identity impacts on how people manage their health experiences. The current study aimed to explore the experience of masculine identity following TBI. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 men aged 21-67 years who had experienced a TBI. All were living in the community. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to consider lived experiences and to explore the meaning of the TBI experience in relation to masculine identity. Three superordinate themes emerged from the analysis: doing life and relationships differently, self-perceptions and the perceived view of others, and managing the impact of TBI as a man. These themes are considered in relation to how participants' experiences interacted with dominant social ideals of masculine identity. The findings highlighted how masculine identity may be a valuable aspect of self in considering threats to and reconstruction of self-identity after TBI. Aspects of gender identity should be considered in order to promote engagement, support adjustment and achieve meaningful outcomes in rehabilitation.

  11. Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Koyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that occurs after brain injuries such as stroke and head trauma. In the edematous brain, excess accumulation of extracellular fluid results in elevation of intracranial pressure, leading to impaired nerve function. Despite the seriousness of brain edema, only symptomatic treatments to remove edema fluid are currently available. Thus, the development of novel anti-edema drugs is required. The pathogenesis of brain edema is classified as vasogenic or cytotoxic edema. Vasogenic edema is defined as extracellular accumulation of fluid resulting from disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and extravasations of serum proteins, while cytotoxic edema is characterized by cell swelling caused by intracellular accumulation of fluid. Various experimental animal models are often used to investigate mechanisms underlying brain edema. Many soluble factors and functional molecules have been confirmed to induce BBB disruption or cell swelling and drugs targeted to these factors are expected to have anti-edema effects. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and involvement of factors that induce brain edema formation, and the possibility of anti-edema drugs targeting them. PMID:25941935

  12. Investigation of dental alginate and agar impression materials as a brain simulant for ballistic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falland-Cheung, Lisa; Piccione, Neil; Zhao, Tianqi; Lazarjan, Milad Soltanipour; Hanlin, Suzanne; Jermy, Mark; Waddell, J Neil

    2016-06-01

    Routine forensic research into in vitro skin/skull/brain ballistic blood backspatter behavior has traditionally used gelatin at a 1:10 Water:Powder (W:P) ratio by volume as a brain simulant. A limitation of gelatin is its high elasticity compared to brain tissue. Therefore this study investigated the use of dental alginate and agar impression materials as a brain simulant for ballistic testing. Fresh deer brain, alginate (W:P ratio 91.5:8.5) and agar (W:P ratio 81:19) specimens (n=10) (11×22×33mm) were placed in transparent Perspex boxes of the same internal dimensions prior to shooting with a 0.22inch caliber high velocity air gun. Quantitative analysis to establish kinetic energy loss, vertical displacement elastic behavior and qualitative analysis to establish elasticity behavior was done via high-speed camera footage (SA5, Photron, Japan) using Photron Fastcam Viewer software (Version 3.5.1, Photron, Japan) and visual observation. Damage mechanisms and behavior were qualitatively established by observation of the materials during and after shooting. The qualitative analysis found that of the two simulant materials tested, agar behaved more like brain in terms of damage and showed similar mechanical response to brain during the passage of the projectile, in terms of energy absorption and vertical velocity displacement. In conclusion agar showed a mechanical and subsequent damage response that was similar to brain compared to alginate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Michinaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that occurs after brain injuries such as stroke and head trauma. In the edematous brain, excess accumulation of extracellular fluid results in elevation of intracranial pressure, leading to impaired nerve function. Despite the seriousness of brain edema, only symptomatic treatments to remove edema fluid are currently available. Thus, the development of novel anti-edema drugs is required. The pathogenesis of brain edema is classified as vasogenic or cytotoxic edema. Vasogenic edema is defined as extracellular accumulation of fluid resulting from disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and extravasations of serum proteins, while cytotoxic edema is characterized by cell swelling caused by intracellular accumulation of fluid. Various experimental animal models are often used to investigate mechanisms underlying brain edema. Many soluble factors and functional molecules have been confirmed to induce BBB disruption or cell swelling and drugs targeted to these factors are expected to have anti-edema effects. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and involvement of factors that induce brain edema formation, and the possibility of anti-edema drugs targeting them.

  14. Chronic microelectrode investigations of normal human brain physiology using a hybrid depth electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M A; Volkov, I O; Noh, M D; Granner, M A; Mirsky, R; Garell, P C

    1997-01-01

    Neurosurgeons have unique access to in vivo human brain tissue, and in the course of clinical treatment important scientific advances have been made that further our understanding of normal brain physiology. In the modern era, microelectrode recordings have been used to systematically investigate the cellular properties of lateral temporal cerebral cortex. The current report describes a hybrid depth electrode (HDE) recording technique that was developed to enable neurosurgeons to simultaneously investigate normal cellular physiology during chronic intracranial EEG recordings. The HDE combines microelectrode and EEG recordings sites on a single shaft. Multiple microelectrode recordings are obtained from MRI defined brain sites and single-unit activity is discriminated from these data. To date, over 60 HDEs have been placed in 20 epilepsy surgery patients. Unique physiologic data have been gathered from neurons in numerous brain regions, including amygdala, hippocampus, frontal lobe, insula and Heschl's gyrus. Functional activation studies were carried out without risking patient safety or comfort.

  15. Frontal Brain Asymmetry in Depression with Comorbid Anxiety: A Neuropsychological Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Brady D.; Sarapas, Casey; Robison-Andrew, E. Jenna; Altman, Sarah E.; Campbell, Miranda L.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2012-01-01

    The approach-withdrawal model posits that depression and anxiety are associated with a relative right asymmetry in frontal brain activity. Most studies have tested this model using measures of cortical brain activity such as electroencephalography. However, neuropsychological tasks that differentially employ left vs. right frontal cortical regions can also be used to test hypotheses from the model. In two independent samples (Study 1 and 2), the present study investigated the performance of c...

  16. Investigating brain functional evolution and plasticity using microelectrode array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate long and short-term plasticity responsible for memory formation in dissociated neuronal networks. In order to address this issue, a set of experiments was designed and implemented in which the microelectrode array electrode grid was divided into four quadrants, two of which were chronically stimulated, every two days for one hour with a stimulation paradigm that varied over time. Overall network and quadrant responses were then analyzed to quantify what level of plasticity took place in the network and how this was due to the stimulation interruption. The results demonstrate that there were no spatial differences in the stimulus-evoked activity within quadrants. Furthermore, the implemented stimulation protocol induced depression effects in the neuronal networks as demonstrated by the consistently lower network activity following stimulation sessions. Finally, the analysis demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of the stimulation decreased over time, thus suggesting a habituation phenomenon. These findings are sufficient to conclude that electrical stimulation is an important tool to interact with dissociated neuronal cultures, but localized stimuli are not enough to drive spatial synaptic potentiation or depression. On the contrary, the ability to modulate synaptic temporal plasticity was a feasible task to achieve by chronic network stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  18. A Systematic Review of Investigations into Functional Brain Connectivity Following Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkinoos Athanasiou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complete or incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI results in varying degree of motor, sensory and autonomic impairment. Long-lasting, often irreversible disability results from disconnection of efferent and afferent pathways. How does this disconnection affect brain function is not so clear. Changes in brain organization and structure have been associated with SCI and have been extensively studied and reviewed. Yet, our knowledge regarding brain connectivity changes following SCI is overall lacking.Methods: In this study we conduct a systematic review of articles regarding investigations of functional brain networks following SCI, searching on PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect according to PRISMA-P 2015 statement standards.Results: Changes in brain connectivity have been shown even during the early stages of the chronic condition and correlate with the degree of neurological impairment. Connectivity changes appear as dynamic post-injury procedures. Sensorimotor networks of patients and healthy individuals share similar patterns but new functional interactions have been identified as unique to SCI networks.Conclusions: Large-scale, multi-modal, longitudinal studies on SCI patients are needed to understand how brain network reorganization is established and progresses through the course of the condition. The expected insight holds clinical relevance in preventing maladaptive plasticity after SCI through individualized neurorehabilitation, as well as the design of connectivity-based brain-computer interfaces and assistive technologies for SCI patients.

  19. The SAMP8 mouse for investigating memory and the role of insulin in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Elizabeth M; Banks, William A

    2017-08-01

    SAMP8 mice exhibit changes that commonly occur with normal aging late in life, but do so at a much earlier age. These changes include impairments in learning and memory as early as 8months of age and so the SAMP8 is a useful model to investigate those age-related brain changes that may affect cognition. As brain insulin signaling and memory decline with aging, the SAMP8 model is useful for investigating these changes and interventions that might prevent the decline. This review will summarize the SAMP8 mouse model, highlight changes in brain insulin signaling and its role in memory, and discuss intranasal insulin delivery in investigating effects on insulin metabolism and memory in the SAMP8 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it.

  1. Investigation of the Effects of Brain Teasers on Attention Spans of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Meryem; Hazar, Muhsin; Hazar, Zekihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of brain teasers on attention spans of preschool children of age six. The study was conducted using an experimental design with a control group and pre-test/post-test. The sample of the study is children of age six selected via random appointment among ones who were enrolled in the Merkez…

  2. Neuromagnetic index of hemispheric asymmetry prognosticating the outcome of sudden hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieber Po-Hung Li

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationship between central plastic changes and clinical presentations of peripheral hearing impairment remains unknown. Previously, we reported a unique plastic pattern of "healthy-side dominance" in acute unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL. This study aimed to explore whether such hemispheric asymmetry bears any prognostic relevance to ISSNHL along the disease course. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, inter-hemispheric differences in peak dipole amplitude and latency of N100m to monaural tones were evaluated in 21 controls and 21 ISSNHL patients at two stages: initial and fixed stage (1 month later. Dynamics/Prognostication of hemispheric asymmetry were assessed by the interplay between hearing level/hearing gain and ipsilateral/contralateral ratio (I/C of N100m latency and amplitude. Healthy-side dominance of N100m amplitude was observed in ISSNHL initially. The pattern changed with disease process. There is a strong correlation between the hearing level at the fixed stage and initial I/C(amplitude on affected-ear stimulation in ISSNHL. The optimal cut-off value with the best prognostication effect for the hearing improvement at the fixed stage was an initial I/C(latency on affected-ear stimulation of 1.34 (between subgroups of complete and partial recovery and an initial I/C(latency on healthy-ear stimulation of 0.76 (between subgroups of partial and no recovery, respectively. This study suggested that a dynamic process of central auditory plasticity can be induced by peripheral lesions. The hemispheric asymmetry at the initial stage bears an excellent prognostic potential for the treatment outcomes and hearing level at the fixed stage in ISSNHL. Our study demonstrated that such brain signature of central auditory plasticity in terms of both N100m latency and amplitude at defined time can serve as a prognostication predictor for ISSNHL. Further studies are needed to explore the long

  3. Investigating the effects of streamline-based fiber tractography on matrix scaling in brain connective network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Hengtai; Chao, Yi-Ping; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Kuo, Li-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the brain connective network using the modern graph theory has been widely applied in cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of streamline-based fiber tractography on the change of network properties and established a systematic framework to understand how an adequate network matrix scaling can be determined. The network properties, including degree, efficiency and betweenness centrality, show similar tendency in both left and right hemispheres. By employing the curve-fitting process with exponential law and measuring the residuals, the association between changes of network properties and threshold of track numbers is found and an adequate range of investigating the lateralization of brain network is suggested. The proposed approach can be further applied in clinical applications to improve the diagnostic sensitivity using network analysis with graph theory.

  4. Neuromagnetic detection of the laryngeal area: Sensory-evoked fields to air-puff stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Hideaki; Hironaga, Naruhito; Umezaki, Toshiro; Hagiwara, Koichi; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Sawatsubashi, Motohiro; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Komune, Shizuo

    2014-03-01

    The sensory projections from the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx are crucial in assuring safe deglutition, coughing, breathing, and voice production/speaking. Although several studies using neuroimaging techniques have demonstrated cortical activation related to pharyngeal and laryngeal functions, little is known regarding sensory projections from the laryngeal area to the somatosensory cortex. The purpose of this study was to establish the cortical activity evoked by somatic air-puff stimulation at the laryngeal mucosa using magnetoencephalography. Twelve healthy volunteers were trained to inhibit swallowing in response to air stimuli delivered to the larynx. Minimum norm estimates was performed on the laryngeal somatosensory evoked fields (LSEFs) to best differentiate the target activations from non-task-related activations. Evoked magnetic fields were recorded with acceptable reproducibility in the left hemisphere, with a peak latency of approximately 100ms in 10 subjects. Peak activation was estimated at the caudolateral region of the primary somatosensory area (S1). These results establish the ability to detect LSEFs with an acceptable reproducibility within a single subject and among subjects. These results also suggest the existence of laryngeal somatic afferent input to the caudolateral region of S1 in human. Our findings indicate that further investigation in this area is needed, and should focus on laryngeal lateralization, swallowing, and speech processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reading in a deep orthography: neuromagnetic evidence for dual-mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tony W; Leuthold, Arthur C; Moran, John E; Pardo, Patricia J; Lewis, Scott M; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2007-06-01

    Despite substantial efforts to connect cognitive-linguistic models with appropriate anatomical correlates, the question of which cognitive model best accounts for the neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging evidence remains open. The two most popular models are grounded in conceptually different bases and thus make quasi-distinct predictions in regard to the patterns of activation that should be observed in imaging investigations of linguistic processing. Dual-mechanism models propose that high-frequency regular and irregular words are processed through a lexicon-based word code, which facilitates their processing and pronunciation latencies relative to pseudowords. In contrast, single-mechanism models suggest the same behavioral effects can be explained through semantic mediation without the existence of a lexicon. In most previous studies, words and pronounceable pseudowords were presented in lexical-decision or word reading paradigms, and hemodynamic techniques were utilized to distinguish involved anatomical areas. The results typically indicated that both word classes activated largely congruent tissues, with a magnitude advantage for pseudowords in most or all activated regions. However, since the dual-mechanism model predicts both word types utilize the entire linguistic network, but that certain operations are merely obligatorily involved, these results do not sharply refute nor clearly support the model's main tenets. In the current study, we approach the dual- versus single-mechanism question differently by focusing on the temporal dynamics of MEG imaged neuronal activity, during performance of an oddball version of continuous lexical-decision, to determine whether the onset latency of any cortical language region shows effects of word class that are indicative of preferential versus obligatory processing pathways. The most remarkable aspect of our results indicated that both words and pseudowords initially activate the left posterior fusiform

  6. Deep brain stimulation results in local glutamate and adenosine release: investigation into the role of astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Vivianne L; Chang, Su-Youne; Hitti, Frederick L; Roberts, David W; Leiter, James C; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Lee, Kendall H

    2010-08-01

    Several neurological disorders are treated with deep brain stimulation; however, the mechanism underlying its ability to abolish oscillatory phenomena associated with diseases as diverse as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy remain largely unknown. To investigate the role of specific neurotransmitters in deep brain stimulation and determine the role of non-neuronal cells in its mechanism of action. We used the ferret thalamic slice preparation in vitro, which exhibits spontaneous spindle oscillations, to determine the effect of high-frequency stimulation on neurotransmitter release. We then performed experiments using an in vitro astrocyte culture to investigate the role of glial transmitter release in high-frequency stimulation-mediated abolishment of spindle oscillations. In this series of experiments, we demonstrated that glutamate and adenosine release in ferret slices was able to abolish spontaneous spindle oscillations. The glutamate release was still evoked in the presence of the Na channel blocker tetrodotoxin, but was eliminated with the vesicular H-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the calcium chelator 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of purified primary astrocytic cultures was able to evoke intracellular calcium transients and glutamate release, and bath application of 2-bis (2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester inhibited glutamate release in this setting. Vesicular astrocytic neurotransmitter release may be an important mechanism by which deep brain stimulation is able to achieve clinical benefits.

  7. Every Newton Hertz: a macro to micro approach to investigating brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of concussion in contact sports provides a unique opportunity to collect data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. This paper outlines a macro to micro approach in which the organ level response of the head is analyzed through head acceleration data from human volunteers and the tissue level response is analyzed through finite element analysis of these data. The helmets of Virginia Tech football players are instrumented with multi-accelerometer measurement devices to record linear and rotational head accelerations for every impact during a game or practice. These impacts are then modeled using the Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) finite element head model. Cumulative strain damage measure was investigated for the impacts resulting in the high linear and rotational accelerations. The effect of head impacts on functional performance in football players is also investigated to identify any cognitive effects from repetitive sub-concussive impacts. A better understanding of the effects of head impacts and the mechanisms of brain injury will likely result in insight to future head injury prevention methods and cellular research on brain injury.

  8. Investigating the acute and long-term effects of traumatic brain injury on the immune and fibrinolytic system

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA DAGLAS

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a serious condition that results in long-term disability in most patients. This thesis investigated the early and long-term effects of the immune and fibrinolytic response (blood clot breakdown), and the link between these two systems after brain injury in mice. A unique discovery was that the chronic immune response, over a period of 8 months, directly contributes to a worse outcome after brain injury. We also found gender-specific differences occurring at the early...

  9. A Whole-Brain Investigation of White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagari Sarkar

    Full Text Available The biological basis of severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents is poorly understood. We recently reported that adolescents with conduct disorder (CD have significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA of the uncinate fasciculus (a white matter (WM tract that connects the amygdala to the frontal lobe compared to their non-CD peers. However, the extent of WM abnormality in other brain regions is currently unclear.We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate whole brain WM microstructural organisation in 27 adolescent males with CD, and 21 non-CD controls. We also examined relationships between FA and behavioural measures. Groups did not differ significantly in age, ethnicity, or substance use history.The CD group, compared to controls, had clusters of significantly greater FA in 7 brain regions corresponding to: 1 the bilateral inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles, corticopontocerebellar tract, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tract; 2 right superior longitudinal fasciculus; and 3 left cerebellar WM. Severity of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional symptoms were significantly correlated with FA in several of these regions across the total sample, but not in the CD or control groups alone.Adolescents with CD have significantly greater FA than controls in WM regions corresponding predominantly to the fronto-cerebellar circuit. There is preliminary evidence that variation in WM microstructure may be dimensionally related to behaviour problems in youngsters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behaviour in some young people is associated with abnormalities in WM 'connectivity'.

  10. A Whole-Brain Investigation of White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sagari; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Blackwood, Nigel; Scott, Stephen; Craig, Michael C; Deeley, Quinton; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-01-01

    The biological basis of severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents is poorly understood. We recently reported that adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) have significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (a white matter (WM) tract that connects the amygdala to the frontal lobe) compared to their non-CD peers. However, the extent of WM abnormality in other brain regions is currently unclear. We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate whole brain WM microstructural organisation in 27 adolescent males with CD, and 21 non-CD controls. We also examined relationships between FA and behavioural measures. Groups did not differ significantly in age, ethnicity, or substance use history. The CD group, compared to controls, had clusters of significantly greater FA in 7 brain regions corresponding to: 1) the bilateral inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles, corticopontocerebellar tract, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tract; 2) right superior longitudinal fasciculus; and 3) left cerebellar WM. Severity of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional symptoms were significantly correlated with FA in several of these regions across the total sample, but not in the CD or control groups alone. Adolescents with CD have significantly greater FA than controls in WM regions corresponding predominantly to the fronto-cerebellar circuit. There is preliminary evidence that variation in WM microstructure may be dimensionally related to behaviour problems in youngsters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behaviour in some young people is associated with abnormalities in WM 'connectivity'.

  11. Synthesis and investigation of novel shelf-stable, brain-specific chemical delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Obaid, Abdulrahman M.; Farag, Hassan A.; Khalil, Ashraf A.; Hamide, Sami G. Abdel; Ahmed, Hassan S.; Al-Affifi, Ahmed M.; Gadkariem Elrasheed, A.; El-Subbagh, Hussein I.; Al-Shabanah, Othman A.; El-Kashef, Hassan A.

    2006-01-01

    A 1, 4-dihydropyridine pyridinium salt type redox system is described as a general and flexible method for site-specific and sustained delivery of drugs into the brain. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were used as a model example to be delivered into the brain. Chemical and biological oxidations of these compounds were investigated. The prepared 1, 4-dihydropyridines were subjected to various chemical and biological oxidations to evaluate their ability to cross blood brain barrier (BBB), and to be oxidized biologically into their corresponding quaternary compounds. 1-(Ethioxy-carbonylmethyl)-3, 5-bis[N-(2-fluoro-benzylideneamino)carbamoyl]-1, 4-dyhydropyridine (31) proved to cross BBB in adequate rate and converted by the oxidizing enzymes into the corresponding quaternary salt N-(ethoxycarbolynmethyl)-3, 5-bis[N-(2-fluorobenylideneamino)carbamoyl]pyridimium bromide(20). Stability studies of the synthesized chemical delivery systems (CDSs) at various pH values and temperatures showed the shelf life time of a solution containing compound 31 is 20.53 days at 5C, which recommended a lower storage temperature for such solutions. The prepared CDSs proved to be fairly stable for powder form storage. The stability of the prepared compounds is attributed to the conjugation of the two carboxylic functions at C3 and C5 of the pyridine ring with their adjacent double bonds. These results are in consistency with the original rationale design. (author)

  12. The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: an FMRI investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im Quah-Smith

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As laser acupuncture is being increasingly used to treat mental disorders, we sought to determine whether it has a biologically plausible effect by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the cerebral activation patterns from laser stimulation of relevant acupoints.Ten healthy subjects were randomly stimulated with a fibreoptic infrared laser on 4 acupoints (LR14, CV14, LR8 and HT7 used for depression following the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, and 1 control non-acupoint (sham point in a blocked design (alternating verum laser and placebo laser/rest blocks, while the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI response was recorded from the whole brain on a 3T scanner. Many of the acupoint laser stimulation conditions resulted in different patterns of neural activity. Regions with significantly increased activation included the limbic cortex (cingulate and the frontal lobe (middle and superior frontal gyrus. Laser acupuncture tended to be associated with ipsilateral brain activation and contralateral deactivation that therefore cannot be simply attributed to somatosensory stimulation.We found that laser stimulation of acupoints lead to activation of frontal-limbic-striatal brain regions, with the pattern of neural activity somewhat different for each acupuncture point. This is the first study to investigate laser acupuncture on a group of acupoints useful in the management of depression. Differing activity patterns depending on the acupoint site were demonstrated, suggesting that neurological effects vary with the site of stimulation. The mechanisms of activation and deactivation and their effects on depression warrant further investigation.

  13. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  14. Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Shotaro Michinaga; Yutaka Koyama

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that occurs after brain injuries such as stroke and head trauma. In the edematous brain, excess accumulation of extracellular fluid results in elevation of intracranial pressure, leading to impaired nerve function. Despite the seriousness of brain edema, only symptomatic treatments to remove edema fluid are currently available. Thus, the development of novel anti-edema drugs is required. The pathogenesis of brain edema is classified as vas...

  15. A Systematic Investigation into Aging Related Genes in Brain and Their Relationship with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guofeng; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Mei, Hongkang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, as a complex biological process, is accompanied by the accumulation of functional loses at different levels, which makes age to be the biggest risk factor to many neurological diseases. Even following decades of investigation, the process of aging is still far from being fully understood, especially at a systematic level. In this study, we identified aging related genes in brain by collecting the ones with sustained and consistent gene expression or DNA methylation changes in the aging process. Functional analysis with Gene Ontology to these genes suggested transcriptional regulators to be the most affected genes in the aging process. Transcription regulation analysis found some transcription factors, especially Specificity Protein 1 (SP1), to play important roles in regulating aging related gene expression. Module-based functional analysis indicated these genes to be associated with many well-known aging related pathways, supporting the validity of our approach to select aging related genes. Finally, we investigated the roles of aging related genes on Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that aging and AD related genes both involved some common pathways, which provided a possible explanation why aging made the brain more vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

  16. Investigating Irregularly Patterned Deep Brain Stimulation Signal Design Using Biophysical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Rose Summerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder which follows from cell loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc, a nucleus in the basal ganglia (BG. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an electrical therapy that modulates the pathological activity to treat the motor symptoms of PD. Although this therapy is currently used in clinical practice, the sufficient conditions for therapeutic efficacy are unknown. In this work we develop a model of critical motor circuit structures in the brain using biophysical cell models as the base components and then evaluate performance of different DBS signals in this model to perform comparative studies of their efficacy. Biological models are an important tool for gaining insights into neural function and, in this case, serve as effective tools for investigating innovative new DBS paradigms. Experiments were performed using the hemi-parkinsonian rodent model to test the same set of signals, verifying the obedience of the model to physiological trends. We show that antidromic spiking from DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN has a significant impact on cortical neural activity, which is frequency dependent and additionally modulated by the regularity of the stimulus pulse train used. Irregular spacing between stimulus pulses, where the amount of variability added is bounded, is shown to increase diversification of response of basal ganglia neurons and reduce entropic noise in cortical neurons, which may be fundamentally important to restoration of information flow in the motor circuit.

  17. Investigating hyperoxic effects in the rat brain using quantitative susceptibility mapping based on MRI phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Li-Wei; Huang, Yun-An; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2017-02-01

    To test whether susceptibility imaging can detect microvenous oxygen saturation changes, induced by hyperoxia, in the rat brain. A three-dimensional gradient-echo with a flow compensation sequence was used to acquire T2*-weighted images of rat brains during hyperoxia and normoxia. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and QSM-based microvenous oxygenation venography were computed from gradient-echo (GRE) phase images and compared between the two conditions. Pulse oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in the cortex was examined and compared with venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) estimated by QSM. Oxygen saturation change calculated by a conventional Δ R2* map was also compared with the ΔSvO 2 estimated by QSM. Susceptibilities of five venous and tissue regions were quantified separately by QSM. Venous susceptibility was reduced by nearly 10%, with an SvO 2 shift of 10% during hyperoxia. A hyperoxic effect, confirmed by SpO 2 measurement, resulted in an SvO 2 increase in the cortex. The ΔSvO 2 between hyperoxia and normoxia was consistent with what was estimated by the Δ R2* map in five regions. These findings suggest that a quantitative susceptibility map is a promising technique for SvO 2 measurement. This method may be useful for quantitatively investigating oxygenation-dependent functional MRI studies. Magn Reson Med 77:592-602, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Ultrasound effects on brain-targeting mannosylated liposomes: in vitro and blood-brain barrier transport investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Delivering drugs to intracerebral regions can be accomplished by improving the capacity of transport through blood-brain barrier. Using sertraline as model drug for brain targeting, the current study aimed at modifying its liposomal vesicles with mannopyranoside. Box-Behnken design was employed to statistically optimize the ultrasound parameters, namely ultrasound amplitude, time, and temperature, for maximum mannosylation capacity, sertraline entrapment, and surface charge while minimizing vesicular size. Moreover, in vitro blood-brain barrier transport model was established to assess the transendothelial capacity of the optimized mannosylated vesicles. Results showed a dependence of vesicular size, mannosylation capacity, and sertraline entrapment on cavitation and bubble implosion events that were related to ultrasound power amplitude, temperature. However, short ultrasound duration was required to achieve >90% mannosylation with nanosized vesicles (ultrasound parameters of 65°C, 27%, and 59 seconds for ultrasound temperature, amplitude, and time were elucidated to produce 81.1%, 46.6 nm, and 77.6% sertraline entrapment, vesicular size, and mannosylation capacity, respectively. Moreover, the transendothelial ability was significantly increased by 2.5-fold by mannosylation through binding with glucose transporters. Hence, mannosylated liposomes processed by ultrasound could be a promising approach for manufacturing and scale-up of brain-targeting liposomes.

  19. Investigating Contingency Risk Factors of Brain Tumor in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nazemi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: According to research results, several preventable and predictable factors are linked to pediatric brain tumors. Therefore, children prone to brain tumors are recommended to be examined and screened for these risk factors.

  20. Working memory and proverb comprehension in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Catherine A; Nippold, Marilyn A; Gillon, Gail T

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between working memory and comprehension of low-familiarity proverbs in adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten adolescents, aged 12-21 years who had suffered a TBI prior to the age of 10 years and 10 individually age-matched peers with typical development participated in the study. The participants listened to short paragraphs containing a proverb and interpreted the meaning of the proverb using a forced-choice task. In addition, participants engaged in a task that evaluated working memory ability. Analysis revealed that individuals with TBI differed from their non-injured peers in their understanding of proverbs. In addition, working memory capacity influenced performance for all participants. The importance of considering working memory when evaluating figurative language comprehension in adolescents with TBI is highlighted. Implications for future research, particularly with regard to varying working memory and task demands, are considered.

  1. Functional MRI in the Investigation of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graner, John; Oakes, Terrence R.; French, Louis M.; Riedy, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to the investigation of blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI). Relatively little is known about the exact mechanisms of neurophysiological injury and pathological and functional sequelae of bTBI. Furthermore, in mild bTBI, standard anatomical imaging techniques (MRI and computed tomography) generally fail to show focal lesions and most of the symptoms present as subjective clinical functional deficits. Therefore, an objective test of brain functionality has great potential to aid in patient diagnosis and provide a sensitive measurement to monitor disease progression and treatment. The goal of this review is to highlight the relevant body of blast-related TBI literature and present suggestions and considerations in the development of fMRI studies for the investigation of bTBI. The review begins with a summary of recent bTBI publications followed by discussions of various elements of blast-related injury. Brief reviews of some fMRI techniques that focus on mental processes commonly disrupted by bTBI, including working memory, selective attention, and emotional processing, are presented in addition to a short review of resting state fMRI. Potential strengths and weaknesses of these approaches as regards bTBI are discussed. Finally, this review presents considerations that must be made when designing fMRI studies for bTBI populations, given the heterogeneous nature of bTBI and its high rate of comorbidity with other physical and psychological injuries. PMID:23460082

  2. Ultrasound effects on brain-targeting mannosylated liposomes: in vitro and blood–brain barrier transport investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidan AS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed S Zidan,1,2 Hibah Aldawsari1 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt Abstract: Delivering drugs to intracerebral regions can be accomplished by improving the capacity of transport through blood–brain barrier. Using sertraline as model drug for brain targeting, the current study aimed at modifying its liposomal vesicles with mannopyranoside. Box-Behnken design was employed to statistically optimize the ultrasound parameters, namely ultrasound amplitude, time, and temperature, for maximum mannosylation capacity, sertraline entrapment, and surface charge while minimizing vesicular size. Moreover, in vitro blood–brain barrier transport model was established to assess the transendothelial capacity of the optimized mannosylated vesicles. Results showed a dependence of vesicular size, mannosylation capacity, and sertraline entrapment on cavitation and bubble implosion events that were related to ultrasound power amplitude, temperature. However, short ultrasound duration was required to achieve >90% mannosylation with nanosized vesicles (<200 nm of narrow size distribution. Optimized ultrasound parameters of 65°C, 27%, and 59 seconds for ultrasound temperature, amplitude, and time were elucidated to produce 81.1%, 46.6 nm, and 77.6% sertraline entrapment, vesicular size, and mannosylation capacity, respectively. Moreover, the transendothelial ability was significantly increased by 2.5-fold by mannosylation through binding with glucose transporters. Hence, mannosylated liposomes processed by ultrasound could be a promising approach for manufacturing and scale-up of brain-targeting liposomes. Keywords: CNS delivery, sizing, lipid based formulations, quality by design, sertraline hydrochloride

  3. Effects of brain lesions on moral agency: ethical dilemmas in investigating moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Markus; Müller, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the "brain produces behavior" is a guiding idea in neuroscience. It is thus of no surprise that establishing an interrelation between brain pathology and antisocial behavior has a long history in brain research. However, interrelating the brain with moral agency--the ability to act in reference to right and wrong--is tricky with respect to therapy and rehabilitation of patients affected by brain lesions. In this contribution, we outline the complexity of the relationship between the brain and moral behavior, and we discuss ethical issues of the neuroscience of ethics and of its clinical consequences. First, we introduce a theory of moral agency and apply it to the issue of behavioral changes caused by brain lesions. Second, we present a typology of brain lesions both with respect to their cause, their temporal development, and the potential for neural plasticity allowing for rehabilitation. We exemplify this scheme with case studies and outline major knowledge gaps that are relevant for clinical practice. Third, we analyze ethical pitfalls when trying to understand the brain-morality relation. In this way, our contribution addresses both researchers in neuroscience of ethics and clinicians who treat patients affected by brain lesions to better understand the complex ethical questions, which are raised by research and therapy of brain lesion patients.

  4. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  5. Investigating therapists’ intention to use serious games for acquired brain injury cognitive rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Elaklouk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury is one cause of long-term disability. Serious games can assist in cognitive rehabilitation. However, therapists’ perception and feedback will determine game adoption. The objective of this study is to investigate therapists’ intention to use serious games for cognitive rehabilitation and identify underlying factors that may affect their acceptance. The respondents are 41 therapists who evaluated a “Ship Game” prototype. Data were collected using survey questionnaire and interview. A seven-point Likert scale was used for items in the questionnaire ranging from (1 “strongly disagree” to (7 “strongly agree”. Results indicate that the game is easy to use (Mean = 5.83, useful (Mean = 5.62, and enjoyable (Mean = 5.90. However intention to use is slightly low (Mean = 4.60. Significant factors that can affect therapists’ intention to use the game were gathered from interviews. Game-based intervention should reflect therapists’ needs in order to achieve various rehabilitation goals, providing suitable and meaningful training. Hence, facilities to tailor the game to the patient’s ability, needs and constraints are important factors that can increase therapists’ intention to use and help to deliver game experience that can motivate patients to undergo the practices needed. Moreover, therapists’ supervision, database functionality and quantitative measures regarding a patient’s progress also represent crucial factors.

  6. Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension, haemodynamic changes and brain metabolites in hypertensive ISIAH rats: MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel, A L; Akulov, A E

    2017-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension is considered to be controlled by changes in central and peripheral sympathetic regulating mechanisms, which eventually result in haemodynamic alterations and blood pressure elevation. Therefore, study of the early stages of development of hypertension is of particular interest, because it helps in understanding the aetiology of the disease. What is the main finding and its importance? Non-invasive in vivo investigation in ISIAH rats demonstrated that establishment of sustainable stress-sensitive hypertension is accompanied by a decrease in prefrontal cortex activity and mobilization of hypothalamic processes, with considerable correlations between haemodynamic parameters and individual metabolite ratios. The study of early development of arterial hypertension in association with emotional stress is of great importance for better understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of the hypertensive disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to evaluate the changes in haemodynamics and brain metabolites in 1- and 3-month-old inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH) rats (10 male rats) with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension and in control normotensive Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) rats (eight male rats). In the 3-month-old ISIAH rats, the age-dependent increase in blood pressure was associated with increased blood flow through the renal arteries and decreased blood flow in the lower part of the abdominal aorta. The renal vascular resistance in the ISIAH rats decreased during ageing, although at both ages it remained higher than the renal vascular resistance in WAG rats. An integral metabolome portrait demonstrated that development of hypertension in the ISIAH rats was associated with an attenuation of the excitatory and energetic activity in the prefrontal cortex, whereas in the WAG rats the opposite age-dependent changes were observed. In contrast, in the

  7. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Strandberg, Karin; Malm, Jan

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as nov...

  8. MRIVIEW: An interactive computational tool for investigation of brain structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, D.; George, J.

    1993-01-01

    MRIVIEW is a software system which uses image processing and visualization to provide neuroscience researchers with an integrated environment for combining functional and anatomical information. Key features of the software include semi-automated segmentation of volumetric head data and an interactive coordinate reconciliation method which utilizes surface visualization. The current system is a precursor to a computational brain atlas. We describe features this atlas will incorporate, including methods under development for visualizing brain functional data obtained from several different research modalities

  9. Brain damage and addictive behavior: a neuropsychological and electroencephalogram investigation with pathologic gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regard, Marianne; Knoch, Daria; Gütling, Eva; Landis, Theodor

    2003-03-01

    Gambling is a form of nonsubstance addiction classified as an impulse control disorder. Pathologic gamblers are considered healthy with respect to their cognitive status. Lesions of the frontolimbic systems, mostly of the right hemisphere, are associated with addictive behavior. Because gamblers are not regarded as "brain-lesioned" and gambling is nontoxic, gambling is a model to test whether addicted "healthy" people are relatively impaired in frontolimbic neuropsychological functions. Twenty-one nonsubstance dependent gamblers and nineteen healthy subjects underwent a behavioral neurologic interview centered on incidence, origin, and symptoms of possible brain damage, a neuropsychological examination, and an electroencephalogram. Seventeen gamblers (81%) had a positive medical history for brain damage (mainly traumatic head injury, pre- or perinatal complications). The gamblers, compared with the controls, were significantly more impaired in concentration, memory, and executive functions, and evidenced a higher prevalence of non-right-handedness (43%) and, non-left-hemisphere language dominance (52%). Electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed dysfunctional activity in 65% of the gamblers, compared with 26% of controls. This study shows that the "healthy" gamblers are indeed brain-damaged. Compared with a matched control population, pathologic gamblers evidenced more brain injuries, more fronto-temporo-limbic neuropsychological dysfunctions and more EEG abnormalities. The authors thus conjecture that addictive gambling may be a consequence of brain damage, especially of the frontolimbic systems, a finding that may well have medicolegal consequences.

  10. A genome-wide investigation of copy number variation in patients with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrine Bendjilali

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM are clusters of abnormal blood vessels, with shunting of blood from the arterial to venous circulation and a high risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage. Most BAVMs are sporadic, but also occur in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a Mendelian disorder caused by mutations in genes in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling pathway.To investigate whether copy number variations (CNVs contribute to risk of sporadic BAVM, we performed a genome-wide association study in 371 sporadic BAVM cases and 563 healthy controls, all Caucasian. Cases and controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. CNVs were called using the PennCNV and Birdsuite algorithms and analyzed via segment-based and gene-based approaches. Common and rare CNVs were evaluated for association with BAVM.A CNV region on 1p36.13, containing the neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 1 gene (NBPF1, was significantly enriched with duplications in BAVM cases compared to controls (P = 2.2×10(-9; NBPF1 was also significantly associated with BAVM in gene-based analysis using both PennCNV and Birdsuite. We experimentally validated the 1p36.13 duplication; however, the association did not replicate in an independent cohort of 184 sporadic BAVM cases and 182 controls (OR = 0.81, P = 0.8. Rare CNV analysis did not identify genes significantly associated with BAVM.We did not identify common CNVs associated with sporadic BAVM that replicated in an independent cohort. Replication in larger cohorts is required to elucidate the possible role of common or rare CNVs in BAVM pathogenesis.

  11. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia : analysis of brain perfusion SPECTs using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function with Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia. The study populations were 8 subjects matched healthy volunteers and 16 subjects matched patients with anosmia. We obtaibed baseline and post-stimulation (3% butanol) brain perfusion SPECTs in the silent dark room. We analyzed the all SPECTs using SPM. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPECTs were compared with t-test. The voxels with p-value of less than 0.01 were considered to be significantly different. We demonstrated increased perfusion in the both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on post-stimulation brain SPECT in normal volunteers, and demonstrated decreased perfusion in the both cingulate gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right rectal gyrus and both superior and inferior frontal gyri in the 10 patients with anosmia. No significant hypoperfusion area was observed in the other 6 patients with anosmia. The baseline and post-stimulation brain perfusion SPECTs can helpful in the evaluation of olfactory function and be useful in the diagnosis of anosmia

  12. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia : analysis of brain perfusion SPECTs using statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function with Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia. The study populations were 8 subjects matched healthy volunteers and 16 subjects matched patients with anosmia. We obtaibed baseline and post-stimulation (3% butanol) brain perfusion SPECTs in the silent dark room. We analyzed the all SPECTs using SPM. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPECTs were compared with t-test. The voxels with p-value of less than 0.01 were considered to be significantly different. We demonstrated increased perfusion in the both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on post-stimulation brain SPECT in normal volunteers, and demonstrated decreased perfusion in the both cingulate gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right rectal gyrus and both superior and inferior frontal gyri in the 10 patients with anosmia. No significant hypoperfusion area was observed in the other 6 patients with anosmia. The baseline and post-stimulation brain perfusion SPECTs can helpful in the evaluation of olfactory function and be useful in the diagnosis of anosmia.

  13. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers by Tc-99m ECD Brain SPECT: Analysis using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.A.; Kim, S.H.; Park, Y.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Sohn, H.S.; Chung, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function according to Tc-99m ECD uptake pattern in brain perfusion SPET of normal volunteer by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The study population was 8 healthy volunteer subjects (M:F = 6:2, age range: 22-54 years, mean 34 years). We performed baseline brain perfusion SPET using 555 MBq of Tc-99m ECD in a silent dark room. Two hours later, we obtained brain perfusion SPET using 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD after 3% butanol solution under the same condition. All SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the baseline and odor-identification SPET images were statistically analyzed using SPM-99 software. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPET was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected p values less than 0.01. SPM analysis revealed significant hyper-perfusion in both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on odor-identification SPET. This study shows that brain perfusion SPET can securely support other diagnostic techniques in the evaluation of olfactory function

  14. The development and investigation of a prototype three-dimensional compensator for whole brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, Paul; Arief, Isti; Shamas, Sofia; Weiss, Elisabeth; Castle, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the standard treatment for patients with brain metastases, and is often used in conjunction with stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with a limited number of brain metastases, as well as prophylactic cranial irradiation. The use of open fields (conventionally used for WBRT) leads to higher doses to the brain periphery if dose is prescribed to the brain center at the largest lateral radius. These dose variations potentially compromise treatment efficacy and translate to increased side effects. The goal of this research was to design and construct a 3D 'brain wedge' to compensate dose heterogeneities in WBRT. Radiation transport theory was invoked to calculate the desired shape of a wedge to achieve a uniform dose distribution at the sagittal plane for an ellipsoid irradiated medium. The calculations yielded a smooth 3D wedge design to account for the missing tissue at the peripheral areas of the brain. A wedge was machined based on the calculation results. Three ellipsoid phantoms, spanning the mean and ± two standard deviations from the mean cranial dimensions were constructed, representing 95% of the adult population. Film was placed at the sagittal plane for each of the three phantoms and irradiated with 6 MV photons, with the wedge in place. Sagittal plane isodose plots for the three phantoms demonstrated the feasibility of this wedge to create a homogeneous distribution with similar results observed for the three phantom sizes, indicating that a single wedge may be sufficient to cover 95% of the adult population. The sagittal dose is a reasonable estimate of the off-axis dose for whole brain radiation therapy. Comparing the dose with and without the wedge the average minimum dose was higher (90% versus 86%), the maximum dose was lower (107% versus 113%) and the dose variation was lower (one standard deviation 2.7% versus 4.6%). In summary, a simple and effective 3D wedge for whole brain radiotherapy has been developed

  15. Moral judgement by the disconnected left and right cerebral hemispheres: a split-brain investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Conor M; Hamlin, J Kiley; Miller, Michael B; King, Danielle; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-07-01

    Owing to the hemispheric isolation resulting from a severed corpus callosum, research on split-brain patients can help elucidate the brain regions necessary and sufficient for moral judgement. Notably, typically developing adults heavily weight the intentions underlying others' moral actions, placing greater importance on valenced intentions versus outcomes when assigning praise and blame. Prioritization of intent in moral judgements may depend on neural activity in the right hemisphere's temporoparietal junction, an area implicated in reasoning about mental states. To date, split-brain research has found that the right hemisphere is necessary for intent-based moral judgement. When testing the left hemisphere using linguistically based moral vignettes, split-brain patients evaluate actions based on outcomes, not intentions. Because the right hemisphere has limited language ability relative to the left, and morality paradigms to date have involved significant linguistic demands, it is currently unknown whether the right hemisphere alone generates intent-based judgements. Here we use nonlinguistic morality plays with split-brain patient J.W. to examine the moral judgements of the disconnected right hemisphere, demonstrating a clear focus on intent. This finding indicates that the right hemisphere is not only necessary but also sufficient for intent-based moral judgement, advancing research into the neural systems supporting the moral sense.

  16. Transtemporal Investigation of Brain Parenchyma Elasticity Using 2-D Shear Wave Elastography: Definition of Age-Matched Normal Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Michael; Raasch, Nele; Hammel, Gertrud; Harter, Katharina; Lang, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    The goal of our research was to assess the possibility of reliable investigation of brain tissue stiffness using ultrasonographic brain parenchyma elastography with an intact temporal bone. We enrolled 108 patients after exclusion of intracranial pathology or healthy volunteers. All patients were subdivided by age into groups: 20-40, 40-60 and >60 y. For statistical analysis, the χ 2 test and t-test were used. The mean values, regardless of age and other parameters, were 3.34 kPa (SD = 0.59) on the left side and 3.33 kPa (SD = 0.58) on the right side. We found no correlation between the values, body mass index (r = 0.07, p = 0.48) and sex (t = -0.11, p = 0.91), but we observed a highly significant correlation between the values and age (r = 0.43, p <0.0001). We found ultrasonographic brain parenchyma elastography to be a valid, reproducible and investigator-independent method that reliably determines brain parenchyma stiffness. Normal values should serve as a reference for studies on various intracranial lesions. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. BrainCrafter: An investigation into human-based neural network engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, J.; Greve, P.; Togelius, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the online application Brain-Crafter, in which users can manually build artificial neural networks (ANNs) to control a robot in a maze environment. Users can either start to construct networks from scratch or elaborate on networks created by other users. In particular, Brain......Crafter was designed to study how good we as humans are at building ANNs for control problems and if collaborating with other users can facilitate this process. The results in this paper show that (1) some users were in fact able to successfully construct ANNs that solve the navigation tasks, (2) collaboration between...

  18. Brain Events Underlying Episodic Memory Changes in Aging: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Sneve, Markus H; Storsve, Andreas B; Grydeland, Håkon; Yendiki, Anastasia; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-03-01

    Episodic memories are established and maintained by close interplay between hippocampus and other cortical regions, but degradation of a fronto-striatal network has been suggested to be a driving force of memory decline in aging. We wanted to directly address how changes in hippocampal-cortical versus striatal-cortical networks over time impact episodic memory with age. We followed 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) for 3.5 years with repeated tests of episodic verbal memory and magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of functional and structural connectivity and regional brain atrophy. While hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity predicted memory change in young, changes in cortico-striatal functional connectivity were related to change in recall in older adults. Within each age group, effects of functional and structural connectivity were anatomically closely aligned. Interestingly, the relationship between functional connectivity and memory was strongest in the age ranges where the rate of reduction of the relevant brain structure was lowest, implying selective impacts of the different brain events on memory. Together, these findings suggest a partly sequential and partly simultaneous model of brain events underlying cognitive changes in aging, where different functional and structural events are more or less important in various time windows, dismissing a simple uni-factorial view on neurocognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. An Investigation of the Linguistic Construction of Identity in Individuals after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Louise C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the importance of a positive identity in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and although identity is constructed and negotiated socially, through the use of language, there is little research available on the linguistic tools used by this population in constructing their identities.…

  20. Investigating effects of steroid hormones on lateralization of brain and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, Tess; Geuze, Reint; Groothuis, Ton; Rogers, Lesley; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    Steroid hormones have been proposed to influence the development of lateralisation of brain and behaviour. We briefly describe the available hypotheses explaining this influence. These are all based on human data. However, experimental testing is almost exclusively limited to other animal models. As

  1. MRI or not to MRI! Should brain MRI be a routine investigation in children with autistic spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M; Al-Ogab, Marwa F; Al-Shaftery, Thouraya

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the routine usage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and estimate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in children presenting to the Neurodevelopment Clinic of Al-Khadra Hospital (NDC-KH), Tripoli, Libya with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The records of all children with ASD presented to NDC-KH over 4-year period (from January 2009 to December 2012) were reviewed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Philips (3-D T1, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or no significant abnormalities by a consultant neuroradiologist. One thousand and seventy-five children were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-two children (72.7 %) had an MRI brain of whom 555 (71 %) were boys. 26 children (24 males and 2 females) (3.3 %) demonstrated MRI abnormalities (8 leukodystrophic changes, 4 periventricular leukomalacia, 3 brain atrophy, 2 tuberous sclerosis, 2 vascular changes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 cerebellar angioma, 1 cerebellar hypoplasia, 3 agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 neuro-epithelial cyst). An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in children with autism. These results could contribute to further research into the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorder.

  2. Use of antimatter for the in vivo investigation of the brain: positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrota, A. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-07-01

    This series of slides presents 3 imaging methods used in medicine: - the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the positron emission tomography (PET), and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). The presentation begins with a brief historical description that highlights the narrow link between progress in imaging techniques and the technological development in radiation detection and computer sciences. Another aspect is the parallel and necessary development of isotopic tracers along with imaging techniques. The clinical applications of PET and FMRI concerning either normal brain functions such as calculus or consciousness or diseases affecting the central nervous system such as Parkinson's disease or schizophrenia (trough the study of the pathways of dopamine in the brain) are presented.

  3. Investigating the Effects of Brain Respiration on Children’s Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K. Leigh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Building on the increasing number of programs designed to enhance brain development, a program developed in Korea, Brain Respiration, was adapted to a school in Nevada. Classes were offered twice weekly to a class of fourth and fifth grade students with control group classes assessed in the same school. Self-report surveys, teacher observations, and standardized reading and math scores were used to determine effects of the program on the students. Some differences were found in the pretest for the survey and the observation, with control groups scoring higher. There were differences in some post-test scores, with treatment group children scoring higher when differences did occur. There also were differences in the reading and math scores, with control groups scoring higher than the overall treatment group, but not higher when compared to those actively participating in the program. Such differences are discussed as well as other issues possibly influencing the effects.

  4. Research review: Functional brain connectivity and child psychopathology--overview and methodological considerations for investigators new to the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Fair, Damien A

    2015-04-01

    Functional connectivity MRI is an emerging technique that can be used to investigate typical and atypical brain function in developing and aging populations. Despite some of the current confounds in the field of functional connectivity MRI, the translational potential of the technique available to investigators may eventually be used to improve diagnosis, early disease detection, and therapy monitoring. Based on a comprehensive survey of the literature, this review offers an introduction of resting-state functional connectivity for new investigators to the field of resting-state functional connectivity. We discuss a brief history of the technique, various methods of analysis, the relationship of functional networks to behavior, as well as the translational potential of functional connectivity MRI to investigate neuropsychiatric disorders. We also address some considerations and limitations with data analysis and interpretation. The information provided in this review should serve as a foundation for investigators new to the field of resting-state functional connectivity. The discussion provides a means to better understand functional connectivity and its application to typical and atypical brain function. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Variations of the Functional Brain Network Efficiency in a Young Clinical Sample within the Autism Spectrum: A fNIRS Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2018-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with dimensional behavioral symptoms and various damages in the structural and functional brain. Previous neuroimaging studies focused on exploring the differences of brain development between individuals with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, few of them have attempted to investigate the individual differences of the brain features among subjects within the Autism spectrum. Our main goal was to explore the individual differences of ...

  6. [Self-esteem Saves Brain and Health: Evidence from a Follow-up Investigation after the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Self-esteem plays a crucial role in mental health status. Past studies have revealed higher self-esteem as one of the most important traits of resilience in the context of stressful life events. In fact, our recent studies demonstrated that high self-esteem is a predicting factor for the recovery from brain volume reduction due to the post-earthquake distress. In this article, we introduce structural brain magnetic resonance imaging research with respect to self-esteem as well as past investigations about psychological and physiological backgrounds of tolerance to psycho-social stressors in individuals with high self-esteem. Finally, we discuss effective methods for improving self-esteem to manage unusual events like natural disaster.

  7. Do more intelligent brains retain heightened plasticity for longer in development? A computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C

    2016-06-01

    Twin studies indicate that the heritability of general cognitive ability - the genetic contribution to individual differences - increases with age. Brant et al. (2013) reported that this increase in heritability occurs earlier in development for low ability children than high ability children. Allied with structural brain imaging results that indicate faster thickening and thinning of cortex for high ability children (Shaw et al., 2006), Brant and colleagues argued higher cognitive ability represents an extended sensitive period for brain development. However, they admitted no coherent mechanistic account can currently reconcile the key empirical data. Here, computational methods are employed to demonstrate the empirical data can be reconciled without recourse to variations in sensitive periods. These methods utilized population-based artificial neural network models of cognitive development. In the model, ability-related variations stemmed from the timing of the increases in the non-linearity of computational processes, causing dizygotic twins to diverge in their behavior. These occurred in a population where: (a) ability was determined by the combined small contributions of many neurocomputational factors, and (b) individual differences in ability were largely genetically constrained. The model's explanation of developmental increases in heritability contrasts with proposals that these increases represent emerging gene-environment correlations (Haworth et al., 2010). The article advocates simulating inherited individual differences within an explicitly developmental framework. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal brain function in neuromyelitis optica: A fMRI investigation of mPASAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Yaou; Li, Jianjun; Sondag, Matthew; Law, Meng; Zee, Chi-Shing; Dong, Huiqing; Li, Kuncheng

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment with the Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) patients is debated. The present study is to study patterns of brain activation in NMO patients during a pair of task-related fMRI. We studied 20 patients with NMO and 20 control subjects matched for age, gender, education and handedness. All patients with NMO met the 2006 Wingerchuk diagnostic criteria. The fMRI paradigm included an auditory attention monitoring task and a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (mPASAT). Both tasks were temporally and spatially balanced, with the exception of task difficulty. In mPASAT, Activation regions in control subjects included bilateral superior temporal gyri (BA22), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA45), bilateral inferior parietal lobule (BA7), left cingulate gyrus (BA32), left insula (BA13), and cerebellum. Activation regions in NMO patients included bilateral superior temporal gyri (BA22), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA9), right cingulate gyrus (BA32), right inferior parietal gyrus (BA40), left insula (BA13) and cerebellum. Some dispersed cognition related regions are greater in the patients. The present study showed altered cerebral activation during mPASAT in patients with NMO relative to healthy controls. These results are speculated to provide further evidence for brain plasticity in patients with NMO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence of Big-Five personality changes following acquired brain injury from a prospective longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anne; Schmukle, Stefan C; Exner, Cornelia

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using different assessment methods have reported personality changes after acquired brain injury (ABI). However, to our knowledge, no prospective study has yet been conducted to examine whether previous cross-sectional and retrospective results can be replicated in a longitudinal prospective design. Further, because clinical control groups were only rarely used, it remains debatable if the personality changes found are unique to patients with ABI or if they also affect patients with other disabilities. This study examined personality change in 114 participants with different kinds of ABI, 1321 matched controls (general control, GC), and 746 matched participants with restrictive impairments other than brain injury (clinical control, CC) in a prospective longitudinal design using data from the panel survey Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA). Participants with ABI showed significantly larger declines in Extraversion and Conscientiousness compared with the GC group. When the ABI participants were compared with the CC group, only the difference in Conscientiousness remained significant. Our prospective data corroborate evidence from previous cross-sectional studies that patients with ABI experience larger declines in Extraversion and Conscientiousness than the general population. Whereas the effect on Conscientiousness was unique to patients with ABI, the decline in Extraversion was also observed in participants with other impairments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In silico investigation of blast-induced intracranial fluid cavitation as it potentially leads to traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, S.; Taylor, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    We conducted computational macroscale simulations predicting blast-induced intracranial fluid cavitation possibly leading to brain injury. To further understanding of this problem, we developed microscale models investigating the effects of blast-induced cavitation bubble collapse within white matter axonal fiber bundles of the brain. We model fiber tracks of myelinated axons whose diameters are statistically representative of white matter. Nodes of Ranvier are modeled as unmyelinated sections of axon. Extracellular matrix envelops the axon fiber bundle, and gray matter is placed adjacent to the bundle. Cavitation bubbles are initially placed assuming an intracranial wave has already produced them. Pressure pulses, of varied strengths, are applied to the upper boundary of the gray matter and propagate through the model, inducing bubble collapse. Simulations, conducted using the shock wave physics code CTH, predict an increase in pressure and von Mises stress in axons downstream of the bubbles after collapse. This appears to be the result of hydrodynamic jetting produced during bubble collapse. Interestingly, results predict axon cores suffer significantly lower shear stresses from proximal bubble collapse than does their myelin sheathing. Simulations also predict damage to myelin sheathing, which, if true, degrades axonal electrical transmissibility and general health of the white matter structures in the brain.

  11. An investigation on the mechanism of sublimed DHB matrix on molecular ion yields in SIMS imaging of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We have characterized the use of sublimation to deposit matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) matrices in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis, i.e. matrix-enhanced SIMS (ME-SIMS), a common surface modification method to enhance sensitivity for larger molecules and to increase the production of intact molecular ions. We use sublimation to apply a thin layer of a conventional MALDI matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), onto rat brain cerebellum tissue to show how this technique can be used to enhance molecular yields in SIMS while still retaining a lateral resolution around 2 μm and also to investigate the mechanism of this enhancement. The results here illustrate that cholesterol, which is a dominant lipid species in the brain, is decreased on the tissue surface after deposition of matrix, particularly in white matter. The decrease of cholesterol is followed by an increased ion yield of several other lipid species. Depth profiling of the sublimed rat brain reveals that the lipid species are de facto extracted by the DHB matrix and concentrated in the top most layers of the sublimed matrix. This extraction/concentration of lipids directly leads to an increase of higher mass lipid ion yield. It is also possible that the decrease of cholesterol decreases the potential suppression of ion yield caused by cholesterol migration to the tissue surface. This result provides us with significant insights into the possible mechanisms involved when using sublimation to deposit this matrix in ME-SIMS.

  12. Investigation on 3H-labelled bilirubin for study of blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Rongzhen; Dong Mo; Zhang Yulong; Zhou Ruiju

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of 3 H-labelled bilirubin is described. 3 H-bilirubin is prepared by the reduction of biliverdin using sodium boro-[ 3 H]-hydride in methanol solvent. But biliverdin is synthesized through dehydrogenation of bilirubin with 2,3- dichloro-5, 6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) in dimethyl sulphoxide and sodium boro-[ 3 H]-hydride is produced by exchange of sodium boro-hydride with tritium gas using nickel catalyst at high temperature. The specific activity of obtained 3 H-bilirubin is 306 GBq/mmol, while the radiochemical purity is over 95% by HPLC and paper chromatography. The permeated profile of 3 H-labelled bilirubin in rat brain has been obtained in animal experiments

  13. Frequency, clinical correlates and rating of behavioural changes in primary brain tumour patients: A preliminary investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame K Simpson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PurposeFew studies have addressed the specific behavioural changes associated with primary brain tumour (PBT. This paper will report on the frequency and demographic/clinical correlates of such behaviours, and the reliability of rating such behaviours amongst people with PBT, family informants and clinicians. The association of behavioural changes and patient functional status will also be discussed.MethodsA total of 57 patients with 37 family informants were recruited from two large Australian metropolitan hospitals. Each completed three neuro-behavioural self-report measures. Patients also completed a depression symptom measure. Functional status was defined by clinician-rated Karnofsky Performance Status.ResultsPatients were on average 52 years old, a median of four months (range 1-82 post-diagnosis, with high grade (39%, low grade (22% or benign tumours (39%. Patients reported frequency rates of 7-40% across various behavioural domains including anger, inappropriate behaviour, apathy, inertia and executive impairment. The presence of epileptic seizures was associated with significantly higher levels of behavioural changes. Notably, behaviour did not correlate with tumour grade or treatment modality. There was moderate agreement between patients and relatives on the presence or absence of behavioural changes, and substantial agreement between relative and clinician ratings. Depressed patients did not generally report more changes than non-depressed patients. Increases in the relative and clinician-rated behaviour scores were significantly correlated with decreasing functional status in the patient.ConclusionsBehavioural changes were a common sequela of both benign and malignant PBT. Larger scale studies are required to confirm these results. The results suggest the importance of including behaviour in brain cancer psychosocial assessments and the need to develop interventions to treat these patients and reduce the burden of care on families.

  14. Investigation of different classifiers and channel configurations of a mobile P300-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Simone A; Kong, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Innovative methods and new technologies have significantly improved the quality of our daily life. However, disabled people, for example those that cannot use their arms and legs anymore, often cannot benefit from these developments, since they cannot use their hands to interact with traditional interaction methods (such as mouse or keyboard) to communicate with a computer system. A brain-computer interface (BCI) system allows such a disabled person to control an external device via brain waves. Past research mostly dealt with static interfaces, which limit users to a stationary location. However, since we are living in a world that is highly mobile, this paper evaluates a speller interface on a mobile phone used in a moving condition. The spelling experiments were conducted with 14 able-bodied subjects using visual flashes as the stimulus to spell 47 alphanumeric characters (38 letters and 9 numbers). This data was then used for the classification experiments. In par- ticular, two research directions are pursued. The first investigates the impact of different classification algorithms, and the second direction looks at the channel configuration, i.e., which channels are most beneficial in terms of achieving the highest classification accuracy. The evaluation results indicate that the Bayesian Linear Discriminant Analysis algorithm achieves the best accuracy. Also, the findings of the investigation on the channel configuration, which can potentially reduce the amount of data processing on a mobile device with limited computing capacity, is especially useful in mobile BCIs.

  15. Adaptive Focusing For Ultrasonic Transcranial Brain Therapy: First In Vivo Investigation On 22 Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, Mathieu; Aubry, Jean-François; Tanter, Mickael; Boch, Anne Laure; Kujas, Michelle; Fink, Mathias

    2005-03-01

    A high power prototype dedicated to trans-skull therapy has been tested in vivo on 22 sheep. The array is made of 300 high power transducers working at 1MHz central frequency and is able to achieve 400 bars at focus in water during five seconds with a 50% percent duty cycle. In the first series of experiments, 10 sheep were treated and sacrificed immediately after treatment. A complete craniotomy was performed on half of the treated animal models in order to get a reference model. On the other half, minimally invasive surgery has been performed: a hydrophone was inserted at a given target location inside the brain through a craniotomy of a few mm2. A time reversal experiment was then conducted through the skull bone with the therapeutic array to treat the targeted point. Thanks to the high power technology of the prototype, trans-skull adaptive treatment could be achieved. In a second series of experiments, 12 animals were divided into three groups and sacrificed respectively one, two or three weeks after treatment. Finally, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and histological examination were performed to confirm tissue damage.

  16. Cerebral scintigraphy in dogs using gallium 67. Value in the investigation of experimental brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffre, J.-F.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of inducing experimental brain tumors in dogs by intracerebral inoculation of Rous sarcoma virus led to the development of an early diagnosis procedure without any danger for the carrier animal. Already widely used in humans, cerebral gammagraphy, used in dogs in the conditions developed, perfectly satisfy the requirements of harmlessness, precision and reliability. Scintiscans are taken 48 hours after injection of two mCi of carrier-free Ga 67 citrate. Profile and front patterns are obtained by means of a gamma camera connected to an on-line data processing system. Thirteen examinations were carried out under general anesthesia. Three dogs exhibiting positive scintiscan patterns revealed at the autopsy tumors ranging in size from a hazelnut to a walnut. The remaining animals gave negative or dubious patterns, and none of them revealed a tumor larger in size than a pea. The results obtained in this study are encouraging, and it is felt that this method can enable valid diagnosis of the presence of cerebral neoplasias in dogs, provided they are sufficiently large [fr

  17. Convergent thinking and traumatic brain injury: an investigation of performance on the remote associate test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Arianna; Reber, Justin; Patel, Nirav N; Duff, Melissa C

    2018-06-08

    While deficits in several cognitive domains following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been well documented, little is known about the impact of TBI on creativity. In the current study, our goal is to determine whether convergent problem solving, which contributes to creative thinking, is impaired following TBI. We administered a test of convergent problem solving, the Remote Associate Task (RAT), as well as a battery of neuropsychological tests, to 29 individuals with TBI and 20 healthy comparisons. A mixed-effect regression analysis revealed that individuals with TBI were significantly less likely to produce a correct response, although on average they attempted to respond to the same number of items. Moreover, we found that the TBI (but not the comparison) group's performance on the RAT was significantly and positively associated with verbal learning and memory, providing further evidence supporting the association between declarative memory and creative convergent thinking. In summary, our findings reveal that convergent thinking can be compromised by moderate-to-severe TBI, furthering our understanding of the higher-level cognitive sequelae of TBI.

  18. A Study for Visual Realism of Designed Pictures on Computer Screens by Investigation and Brain-Wave Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-Ting; Lee, Kun-Chou

    2016-08-01

    In this article, the visual realism of designed pictures on computer screens is studied by investigation and brain-wave analyses. The practical electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement is always time-varying and fluctuating so that conventional statistical techniques are not adequate for analyses. This study proposes a new scheme based on "fingerprinting" to analyze the EEG. Fingerprinting is a technique of probabilistic pattern recognition used in electrical engineering, very like the identification of human fingerprinting in a criminal investigation. The goal of this study was to assess whether subjective preference for pictures could be manifested physiologically by EEG fingerprinting analyses. The most important advantage of the fingerprinting technique is that it does not require accurate measurement. Instead, it uses probabilistic classification. Participants' preference for pictures can be assessed using fingerprinting analyses of physiological EEG measurements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The impact of anxiety-inducing distraction on cognitive performance: a combined brain imaging and personality investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Denkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous investigations revealed that the impact of task-irrelevant emotional distraction on ongoing goal-oriented cognitive processing is linked to opposite patterns of activation in emotional and perceptual vs. cognitive control/executive brain regions. However, little is known about the role of individual variations in these responses. The present study investigated the effect of trait anxiety on the neural responses mediating the impact of transient anxiety-inducing task-irrelevant distraction on cognitive performance, and on the neural correlates of coping with such distraction. We investigated whether activity in the brain regions sensitive to emotional distraction would show dissociable patterns of co-variation with measures indexing individual variations in trait anxiety and cognitive performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Event-related fMRI data, recorded while healthy female participants performed a delayed-response working memory (WM task with distraction, were investigated in conjunction with behavioural measures that assessed individual variations in both trait anxiety and WM performance. Consistent with increased sensitivity to emotional cues in high anxiety, specific perceptual areas (fusiform gyrus--FG exhibited increased activity that was positively correlated with trait anxiety and negatively correlated with WM performance, whereas specific executive regions (right lateral prefrontal cortex--PFC exhibited decreased activity that was negatively correlated with trait anxiety. The study also identified a role of the medial and left lateral PFC in coping with distraction, as opposed to reflecting a detrimental impact of emotional distraction. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide initial evidence concerning the neural mechanisms sensitive to individual variations in trait anxiety and WM performance, which dissociate the detrimental impact of emotion distraction and the engagement of mechanisms to cope with

  20. X-ray micro-tomography for investigations of brain tissues on cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Bikis, Christos; Hipp, Alexander; Hieber, Simone E.; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    X-ray imaging in absorption contrast mode is well established for hard tissue visualization. However, performance for lower density materials is limited due to a reduced contrast. Our aim is three-dimensional (3D) characterization of micro-morphology of human brain tissues down to (sub-)cellular resolution within a laboratory environment. Using the laboratory-based microtomography (μCT) system nanotom m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany) and synchrotron radiation at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK), we have acquired 3D data with a resolution down to 0.45 μm for visualization of a human cerebellum specimen down to cellular level. We have shown that all selected modalities, namely laboratory-based absorption contrast micro-tomography (LBμCT), synchrotron radiation based in-line single distance phase contrast tomography (SDPR) and synchrotron radiation based single-grating interferometry (GI), can reach cellular resolution for tissue samples with a size in the mm-range. The results are discussed qualitatively in comparison to optical microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. As phase contrast yields to a better data quality for soft tissues and in order to overcome restrictions of limited beamline access for phase contrast measurements, we have equipped the μCT system nanotom m with a double-grating phase contrast set-up. Preliminary experimental results of a knee sample consisting of a bony part and a cartilage demonstrate that phase contrast data exhibits better quality compared to absorption contrast. Currently, the set-up is under adjustment. It is expected that cellular resolution would also be achieved. The questions arise (1) what would be the quality gain of laboratory-based phase contrast in comparison to laboratory-based absorption contrast tomography and (2) could laboratory-based phase contrast data provide comparable results to synchrotron radiation based

  1. Assessment of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in hair to study stress responses: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, H; González-de-la-Vara, M; Thalheimer, L; Klein, U; Renz, H; Rose, M; Kruse, J; Potaczek, D P; Peters, E M J

    2017-12-01

    To study pathogenic stress-effects in health and disease, it is paramount to define easy access parameters for non-invasive analysis of biological change in response to stress. Hair samples successfully provide this access for the study of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) changes. In this study, we assess the hair expression and corresponding epigenetic changes of a neurotrophin essential for autonomic nervous system function and mental health: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In three independent studies in healthy academic volunteers (study I: German students, N=36; study II, German academic population sample, N=28; study III: Mexican students, N=115), BDNF protein expression or BDNF gene (BDNF) histone acetylation was determined. Simultaneously, mental distress and distress-associated somatic complaints were assessed by self-report. In study I, we found a negative correlation between hair-BDNF protein level and hair-cortisol as well as between hair-BDNF and somatic complaints, while hair-cortisol correlated positively with mental distress. In study II, we found a negative correlation between H4 histone acetylation at the BDNF gene P4-promoter and somatic complaints. Regression analysis confirmed confounder stability of associations in both studies. In study III, we confirmed study I and found lower hair-BDNF protein level in volunteers with high somatic complaints, who also reported higher mental distress during the end of term exams. The results indicate that BDNF protein levels can be detected in clipped hair and are associated with somatic complaints and stress in life. In addition, we concluded that plucked hair can provide material for the study of epigenetic changes in stress-affected tissues. These tools can prove valuable for future studies on distress, both under experimental and field conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Investigating the impact of blood pressure increase to the brain using high resolution serial histology and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, F.; Castonguay, A.; Tardif, P. L.; Lefebvre, J.; Li, B.

    2015-09-01

    A combined serial OCT/confocal scanner was designed to image large sections of biological tissues at microscopic resolution. Serial imaging of organs embedded in agarose blocks is performed by cutting through tissue using a vibratome which sequentially cuts slices in order to reveal new tissue to image, overcoming limited light penetration encountered in microscopy. Two linear stages allow moving the tissue with respect to the microscope objective, acquiring a 2D grid of volumes (1x1x0.3 mm) with OCT and a 2D grid of images (1x1mm) with the confocal arm. This process is repeated automatically, until the entire sample is imaged. Raw data is then post-processed to re-stitch each individual acquisition and obtain a reconstructed volume of the imaged tissue. This design is being used to investigate correlations between white matter and microvasculature changes with aging and with increase in pulse pressure following transaortic constriction in mice. The dual imaging capability of the system allowed to reveal different contrast information: OCT imaging reveals changes in refractive indices giving contrast between white and grey matter in the mouse brain, while transcardial perfusion of FITC or pre-sacrifice injection of Evans Blue shows microsvasculature properties in the brain with confocal imaging.

  3. Altered structural connectivity of pain-related brain network in burning mouth syndrome-investigation by graph analysis of probabilistic tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akihiko; Shizukuishi, Takashi; Kikuta, Junko; Yamada, Haruyasu; Watanabe, Yusuke; Imamura, Yoshiki; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Dezawa, Ko; Haradome, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic intraoral pain syndrome featuring idiopathic oral pain and burning discomfort despite clinically normal oral mucosa. The etiology of chronic pain syndrome is unclear, but preliminary neuroimaging research has suggested the alteration of volume, metabolism, blood flow, and diffusion at multiple brain regions. According to the neuromatrix theory of Melzack, pain sense is generated in the brain by the network of multiple pain-related brain regions. Therefore, the alteration of pain-related network is also assumed as an etiology of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the brain network of BMS brain by using probabilistic tractography and graph analysis. Fourteen BMS patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls underwent 1.5T MRI. Structural connectivity was calculated in 83 anatomically defined regions with probabilistic tractography of 60-axis diffusion tensor imaging and 3D T1-weighted imaging. Graph theory network analysis was used to evaluate the brain network at local and global connectivity. In BMS brain, a significant difference of local brain connectivity was recognized at the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left pars orbitalis which belong to the medial pain system; however, no significant difference was recognized at the lateral system including the somatic sensory cortex. A strengthened connection of the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex with the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem was revealed. Structural brain network analysis revealed the alteration of the medial system of the pain-related brain network in chronic pain syndrome.

  4. Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Schwartz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8–15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Of the 15 enrolled, 10 completed the protocol. This perspective describes the challenges and lessons learned during this clinical trial and discusses the critical elements that are essential for investigating treatment with a KD. We also reviewed and compared various types of KDs. We believe that the diet selected should be standardized within individual clinical trials, and more importantly, the patients’ blood should be monitored for glucose and ketones twice daily so that the supervising dietitian can work with the patient and their caregivers to make appropriate changes in the diet. Compliance with the diet is best in highly motivated patients who have excellent home support from a family member or a friend who can help to overcome administrative, physical, and cognition deficiencies associated with the disease. Treatment of GBM using a KD represents a reasonable investigative approach. This perspective summarizes the challenges and lessons learned implementing and continuing KD therapy while the patients are concurrently being treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

  5. Kinetic Analysis of 2-[11C]Thymidine PET Imaging Studies of Malignant Brain Tumors: Compartmental Model Investigation and Mathematical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Wells

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available 2-[11C]Thymidine (TdR, a PET tracer for cellular proliferation, may be advantageous for monitoring brain tumor progression and response to therapy. We previously described and validated a five-compartment model for thymidine incorporation into DNA in somatic tissues, but the effect of the blood–brain barrier on the transport of TdR and its metabolites necessitated further validation before it could be applied to brain tumors. Methods: We investigated the behavior of the model under conditions experienced in the normal brain and brain tumors, performed sensitivity and identifiability analysis to determine the ability of the model to estimate the model parameters, and conducted simulations to determine whether it can distinguish between thymidine transport and retention. Results: Sensitivity and identifiability analysis suggested that the non-CO2 metabolite parameters could be fixed without significantly affecting thymidine parameter estimation. Simulations showed that K1t and KTdR could be estimated accurately (r = .97 and .98 for estimated vs. true parameters with standard errors < 15%. The model was able to separate increased transport from increased retention associated with tumor proliferation. Conclusion: Our model adequately describes normal brain and brain tumor kinetics for thymidine and its metabolites, and it can provide an estimate of the rate of cellular proliferation in brain tumors.

  6. A neonatal piglet model for investigating brain and cognitive development in small for gestational age human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Radlowski

    Full Text Available The piglet was investigated as a potential model for studying brain and cognitive deficits associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA. Naturally farrowed SGA (0.7-1.0 kg BW and average for gestational age (AGA, 1.3-1.6 kg BW piglets were obtained on postnatal day (PD 2, placed in individual cages, and provided a nutritionally adequate milk replacer diet (285 ml/kg/d. Beginning at PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, piglets were anesthetized for magnetic resonance (MR imaging to assess brain structure (voxel-based morphometry, connectivity (diffusion-tensor imaging and metabolites in the hippocampus and corpus callosum (proton MR spectroscopy. Piglets born SGA showed compensatory growth such that BW of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P>0.05, by PD15. Birth weight affected maze performance, with SGA piglets taking longer to reach criterion than AGA piglets (p<0.01. Total brain volume of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P<0.05, but overall, SGA piglets had less gray matter than AGA piglets (p<0.01 and tended to have a smaller internal capsule (p = 0.07. Group comparisons between SGA and AGA piglets defined 9 areas (≥ 20 clusters where SGA piglets had less white matter (p<0.01; 2 areas where SGA piglets had more white matter (p<0.01; and 3 areas where SGA piglets had more gray matter (p<0.01. The impact of being born SGA on white matter was supported by a lower (p<0.04 fractional anisotropy value for SGA piglets, suggesting reduced white matter development and connectivity. None of the metabolites measured were different between groups. Collectively, the results show that SGA piglets have spatial learning deficits and abnormal development of white matter. As learning deficits and abnormalities in white matter are common in SGA human infants, the piglet is a tractable translational model that can be used to investigate SGA-associated cognitive deficits and potential interventions.

  7. Implantation of glioblastoma spheroids into organotypic brain slice cultures as a model for investigating effects of irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petterson, Stine Asferg; Jakobsen, Ida Pind; Jensen, Stine Skov

    2016-01-01

    , models for studying the effects of radiotherapy in combination with novel strategies are lacking but important since radiotherapy is the most successful non-surgical treatment of brain tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a glioblastoma spheroid-organotypic rat brain slice culture model...... comprising both tumors, tumor-brain interface and brain tissue to provide a proof of concept that this model is useful for studying effects of radiotherapy. Organotypic brain slice cultures cultured for 1-2 days or 11-16 days corresponding to immature brain and mature brain respectively were irradiated...... with doses between 10 and 50 Gy. There was a high uptake of the cell death marker propidium iodide in the immature cultures. In addition, MAP2 expression decreased whereas GFAP expression increased in these cultures suggesting neuronal death and astrogliosis. We therefore proceeded with the mature cultures...

  8. The neural processing of musical instrument size information in the brain investigated by magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Andre; van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    The specific cortical representation of size was investigated by recording auditory evoked fields (AEFs) elicited by changes of instrument size and pitch. In Experiment 1, a French horn and one scaled to double the size played a three note melody around F3 or its octave, F4. Many copies of these four melodies were played in random order and the AEF was measured continuously. A similar procedure was applied to saxophone sounds in a separate run. In Experiment 2, the size and type of instrument (French horn and saxophone) were varied without changing the octave. AEFs were recorded in five subjects using magnetoencephalography and evaluated by spatio-temporal source analysis with one equivalent dipole in each hemisphere. The morphology of the source waveforms revealed that each note within the melody elicits a well-defined P1-N1-P2 AEF-complex with adaptation for the 2nd and 3rd note. At the transition of size, pitch, or both, a larger AEF-complex was evoked. However, size changes elicited a stronger N1 than pitch changes. Furthermore, this size-related N1 enhancement was larger for French horn than saxophone. The results indicate that the N1 plays an important role in the specific representation of instrument size.

  9. The effect of conditional probability of chord progression on brain response: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have explored how and where musical syntax in Western music is processed in the human brain. An inappropriate chord progression elicits an event-related potential (ERP component called an early right anterior negativity (ERAN or simply an early anterior negativity (EAN in an early stage of processing the musical syntax. Though the possible underlying mechanism of the EAN is assumed to be probabilistic learning, the effect of the probability of chord progressions on the EAN response has not been previously explored explicitly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the empirical conditional probabilities in a Western music corpus were employed as an approximation of the frequencies in previous exposure of participants. Three types of chord progression were presented to musicians and non-musicians in order to examine the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the neuromagnetic response using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Chord progressions were found to elicit early responses in a negatively correlating fashion with the conditional probability. Observed EANm (as a magnetic counterpart of the EAN component responses were consistent with the previously reported EAN responses in terms of latency and location. The effect of conditional probability interacted with the effect of musical training. In addition, the neural response also correlated with the behavioral measures in the non-musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to reveal the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the corresponding neuromagnetic response. The current results suggest that the physiological response is a reflection of the probabilistic representations of the musical syntax. Moreover, the results indicate that the probabilistic representation is related to the musical training as well as the sensitivity of an individual.

  10. Investigation of infant brain with or without hydrocephalous in our environment using anterior transfontanelle ultrasound scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobechukwu T Marchie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study aimed to suggest easy and simple reproducible ventricular site that will be basic measurement plane and normal dimension determined, correlated to sizes of infants for comparative evaluation of hydrocephalous infants and should be reproducible in follow-up. Materials and Methods: A prospective study done in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. This study used 50 consecutive infants with Ultrasound scan (US diagnosis of hydrocephalus and a control group of 50 US normal from 1 st January 2007 to 30 th June 2008. The infants were scan through the mid-patent anterior fontanelle in sagittal, and transverse planes with minor angulations to properly outline the ventricles and the position of measurement determined at the foramen of Monro of lateral ventricles and the diameter measured. The infants′ weight, crown-heel length, and head circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI calculated and correlated to lateral ventricular measurement. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc, USA, Version 11.0. Results: There was no statistically sex and age-related difference. There is statistically comparative high mean weight and height and lower BMI in hydrocephalic infants as against the control group (P < 0.001. The mean head circumference for hydrocephalus was 45.6 (± 10.5 standard deviation [SD], whereas the control group was 35.9 (± 2.7 SD with P < 0.001. The mean diameter of the anterior horn of left and right lateral ventricles at the level of foramen of Monro in hydrocephalic subjects is 18.4 mm ± 14.3 mm and 20.1 mm ± 16.8 mm with median diameter of 14.1 mm and 15.2 mm, respectively, whereas control group is 2.5 mm ± 0.6 mm and 2.5 mm ± 0.7 mm with median diameter of 2.5 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Transfontanelle US was found highly useful in investigation of hydrocephalous in infant.

  11. Generation of a High Resistance in vitro Blood-Brain-Barrier Model and Investigations of Brain-to-Blood Glutamate Efflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans Christian

    Blod-hjernebarrieren (blood-brain barrier, BBB) opretholder den generelle homeostase i hjernens væsker. BBB kan også spille en rolle i homeostasen for den eksitatoriske aminosyre, L-glutamat. In vitro modeller kan være effektive værktøjer til at få mekanistiske informationer om transcellulær...

  12. Introducing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and its property of causal inference in investigating brain-function relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van; Panksepp, J.

    2004-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method capable of transiently modulating neural excitability. Depending on the stimulation parameters information processing in the brain can be either enhanced or disrupted. This way the contribution of different brain areas involved in mental processes

  13. The relationship of resting cerebral blood flow and brain activation during a social cognition task in adolescents with chronic moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Mary R; Scheibel, Randall S; Chu, Zili; Hunter, Jill V; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Lu, Hanzhang; Wang, Zhiyue J; Lin, Xiaodi; Steinberg, Joel L; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori; Levin, Harvey S

    2012-05-01

    Alterations in cerebrovascular function are evident acutely in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), although less is known about their chronic effects. Adolescent and adult patients with moderate to severe TBI have been reported to demonstrate diffuse activation throughout the brain during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because fMRI is a measure related to blood flow, it is possible that any deficits in blood flow may alter activation. An arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion sequence was performed on seven adolescents with chronic moderate to severe TBI and seven typically developing (TD) adolescents during the same session in which they had performed a social cognition task during fMRI. In the TD group, prefrontal CBF was positively related to prefrontal activation and negatively related to non-prefrontal, posterior, brain activation. This relationship was not seen in the TBI group, who demonstrated a greater positive relationship between prefrontal CBF and non-prefrontal activation than the TD group. An analysis of CBF data independent of fMRI showed reduced CBF in the right non-prefrontal region (pflow throughout the right hemisphere in healthy brains. However, the TBI group demonstrated a positive association with activation constrained to the right non-prefrontal region. These data suggest a relationship between impaired non-prefrontal CBF and the presence of non-prefrontal extra-activation, where the region with more limited blood flow is associated with activation limited to that region. In a secondary analysis, pathology associated with hyperintensities on T2-weighted FLAIR imaging over the whole brain was related to whole brain activation, revealing a negative relationship between lesion volume and frontal activation, and a positive relationship between lesion volume and posterior activation. These preliminary data, albeit collected with small sample sizes, suggest that reduced non-prefrontal CBF, and possibly pathological

  14. Investigating Synchronous Oscillation and Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment in A Model of Cortico-Basal Ganglia Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meili; Wei, Xile; Loparo, Kenneth A

    2017-11-01

    Altered firing properties and increased pathological oscillations in the basal ganglia have been proven to be hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synchronous oscillations and suppression in the cortex may also play a critical role in the pathogenic process and treatment of PD. In this paper, a new closed-loop network including the cortex and basal ganglia using the Izhikevich models is proposed to investigate the synchrony and pathological oscillations in motor circuits and their modulation by deep brain stimulation (DBS). Results show that more coherent dynamics in the cortex may cause stronger effects on the synchrony and pathological oscillations of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The pathological beta oscillations of the STN can both be efficiently suppressed with DBS applied directly to the STN or to cortical neurons, respectively, but the underlying mechanisms by which DBS suppresses the beta oscillations are different. This research helps to understand the dynamics of pathological oscillations in PD-related motor regions and supports the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons.

  15. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

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    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotional Incongruence of Facial Expression and Voice Tone Investigated with Event-Related Brain Potentials of Infants

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    Kota Arai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human emotions are perceived from multi-modal information including facial expression and voice tone. We aimed to investigate development of neural mechanism for cross-modal perception of emotions. We presented congruent and incongruent combinations of facial expression (happy and voice tone (happy or angry, and measured EEG to analyze event-related brain potentials for 8-10 month-old infants and adults. Ten repetitions of 10 trials were presented in random order for each participant. Half of them performed 20% congruent (happy face with happy voice and 80% incongruent (happy face with angry voice trials, and the others performed 80% congruent and 20% incongruent trials. We employed the oddball paradigm, but did not instruct participants to count a target. The odd-ball (infrequent stimulus increased the amplitude of P2 and delayed its latency for infants in comparison with the frequent stimulus. When the odd-ball stimulus was also emotionally incongruent, P2 amplitude was more increased and its latency was more delayed than for the odd-ball and emotionally congruent stimulus. However, we did not find difference of P2 amplitude or latency for adults between conditions. These results suggested that the 8–10 month-old infants already have a neural basis for detecting emotional incongruence of facial expression and voice tone.

  17. Effects of maternal chlorpyrifos diet on social investigation and brain neuroendocrine markers in the offspring - a mouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, Aldina; Tait, Sabrina; Stecca, Laura; Chiarotti, Flavia; De Felice, Alessia; Cometa, Maria Francesca; Volpe, Maria Teresa; Calamandrei, Gemma; Ricceri, Laura

    2015-04-02

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphate pesticides worldwide. Epidemiological studies on pregnant women and their children suggest a link between in utero CPF exposure and delay in psychomotor and cognitive maturation. A large number of studies in animal models have shown adverse effects of CPF on developing brain and more recently on endocrine targets. Our aim was to determine if developmental exposure to CPF affects social responsiveness and associated molecular neuroendocrine markers at adulthood. Pregnant CD1 outbred mice were fed from gestational day 15 to lactation day 14 with either a CPF-added (equivalent to 6 mg/kg/bw/day during pregnancy) or a standard diet. We then assessed in the offspring the long-term effects of CPF exposure on locomotion, social recognition performances and gene expression levels of selected neurondocrine markers in amygdala and hypothalamus. No sign of CPF systemic toxicity was detected. CPF induced behavioral alterations in adult offspring of both sexes: CPF-exposed males displayed enhanced investigative response to unfamiliar social stimuli, whereas CPF-exposed females showed a delayed onset of social investigation and lack of reaction to social novelty. In parallel, molecular effects of CPF were sex dimorphic: in males CPF increased expression of estrogen receptor beta in hypothalamus and decreased oxytocin expression in amygdala; CPF increased vasopressin 1a receptor expression in amygdala in both sexes. These data indicate that developmental CPF affects mouse social behavior and interferes with development of sex-dimorphic neuroendocrine pathways with potential disruptive effects on neuroendocrine axes homeostasis. The route of exposure selected in our study corresponds to relevant human exposure scenarios, our data thus supports the view that neuroendocrine effects, especially in susceptible time windows, should deserve more attention in risk assessment of OP insecticides.

  18. Initial investigation of glucose metabolism in mouse brain using enriched 17 O-glucose and dynamic 17 O-MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Robert; Reichardt, Wilfried; Kurzhunov, Dmitry; Schuch, Christian; Leupold, Jochen; Krafft, Axel Joachim; Reisert, Marco; Lange, Thomas; Fischer, Elmar; Bock, Michael

    2017-08-01

    In this initial work, the in vivo degradation of 17 O-labeled glucose was studied during cellular glycolysis. To monitor cellular glucose metabolism, direct 17 O-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used in the mouse brain at 9.4 T. Non-localized spectra were acquired with a custom-built transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) two-turn surface coil and a free induction decay (FID) sequence with a short TR of 5.4 ms. The dynamics of labeled oxygen in the anomeric 1-OH and 6-CH 2 OH groups was detected using a Hankel-Lanczos singular value decomposition (HLSVD) algorithm for water suppression. Time-resolved 17 O-MRS (temporal resolution, 42/10.5 s) was performed in 10 anesthetized (1.25% isoflurane) mice after injection of a 2.2 M solution containing 2.5 mg/g body weight of differently labeled 17 O-glucose dissolved in 0.9% physiological saline. From a pharmacokinetic model fit of the H 2 17 O concentration-time course, a mean apparent cerebral metabolic rate of 17 O-labeled glucose in mouse brain of CMR Glc  = 0.07 ± 0.02 μmol/g/min was extracted, which is of the same order of magnitude as a literature value of 0.26 ± 0.06 μmol/g/min reported by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, we studied the chemical exchange kinetics of aqueous solutions of 17 O-labeled glucose at the C1 and C6 positions with dynamic 17 O-MRS. In conclusion, the results of the exchange and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the C6- 17 OH label in the 6-CH 2 OH group is transformed only glycolytically by the enzyme enolase into the metabolic end-product H 2 17 O, whereas C1- 17 OH ends up in water via direct hydrolysis as well as glycolysis. Therefore, dynamic 17 O-MRS of highly labeled 17 O-glucose could provide a valuable non-radioactive alternative to FDG PET in order to investigate glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Investigations of oxidative stress effects and their mechanisms in rat brain after systemic administration of ceria engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardas, Sarita S.

    Advancing applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in various fields create the opportunity for intended (e.g. drug and gene delivery) or unintended (e.g. occupational and environmental) exposure to ENM. However, the knowledge of ENM-toxicity is lagging behind their application development. Understanding the ENM hazard can help us to avoid potential human health problems associated with ENM applications as well as to increase their public acceptance. Ceria (cerium [Ce] oxide) ENM have many current and potential commercial applications. Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of ceria ENM applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel fuel additives and for therapeutic intervention as a putative antioxidant. However, the biological effects of ceria ENM exposure have yet to be fully defined. Both pro-and anti-oxidative effects of ceria ENM exposure are repeatedly reported in literature. EPA, NIEHS and OECD organizations have nominated ceria for its toxicological evaluation. All these together gave us the impetus to examine the oxidative stress effects of ceria ENM after systemic administration. Induction of oxidative stress is one of the primary mechanisms of ENM toxicity. Oxidative stress plays an important role in maintaining the redox homeostasis in the biological system. Increased oxidative stress, due to depletion of antioxidant enzymes or molecules and / or due to increased production of reactive oxygen (ROS) or nitrogen (RNS) species may lead to protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and/or DNA damage. Increased protein oxidation or lipid peroxidation together with antioxidant protein levels and activity can serve as markers of oxidative stress. To investigate the oxidative stress effects and the mechanisms of ceria-ENM toxicity, fully characterized ceria ENM of different sizes (˜ 5nm, 15nm, 30nm, 55nm and nanorods) were systematically injected into rats intravenously in separate experiments. Three brain regions

  20. Investigating the tradeoffs between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling for brain mapping with diffusion tractography: time well spent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Coe, Christopher L; Lubach, Gabriele R; Styner, Martin A; Johnson, G Allan

    2014-11-01

    Interest in mapping white matter pathways in the brain has peaked with the recognition that altered brain connectivity may contribute to a variety of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Diffusion tractography has emerged as a popular method for postmortem brain mapping initiatives, including the ex-vivo component of the human connectome project, yet it remains unclear to what extent computer-generated tracks fully reflect the actual underlying anatomy. Of particular concern is the fact that diffusion tractography results vary widely depending on the choice of acquisition protocol. The two major acquisition variables that consume scan time, spatial resolution, and diffusion sampling, can each have profound effects on the resulting tractography. In this analysis, we determined the effects of the temporal tradeoff between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling on tractography in the ex-vivo rhesus macaque brain, a close primate model for the human brain. We used the wealth of autoradiography-based connectivity data available for the rhesus macaque brain to assess the anatomic accuracy of six time-matched diffusion acquisition protocols with varying balance between spatial and diffusion sampling. We show that tractography results vary greatly, even when the subject and the total acquisition time are held constant. Further, we found that focusing on either spatial resolution or diffusion sampling at the expense of the other is counterproductive. A balanced consideration of both sampling domains produces the most anatomically accurate and consistent results. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Maternal hypertension during pregnancy modifies the response of the immature brain to hypoxia-ischemia: Sequential MRI and behavioral investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneur, Annelise; Roussel, Simon; Divoux, Didier; Toutain, Jerome; Bernaudin, Myriam; Touzani, Omar; Freret, Thomas; Boulouard, Michel; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Bouet, Valentine

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury occurring during the perinatal period is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We assessed the impact of maternal hypertension, the most common medical disorder of pregnancy, on the anatomical and functional consequences of HI insult in the immature brain. Rat pups from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive (Wistar Kyoto - WKY) dams were subjected to HI brain damage at postnatal day 7 (P7). Brain lesion and functional deficits were analyzed from 10 min to 35 days after HI, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), sensorimotor and cognitive tests. MRI data revealed that SHR pups displayed less brain damage than WKY, attested by an initial smaller lesion followed by a reduced tissue loss at chronic stage (57.1±21.6 and 31.1±27% ipsilateral hemisphere atrophy in WKY and SHR, respectively). Behavioral analyses showed less HI-induced behavioral deficits in motor coordination (rotarod test) and spatial learning (Morris watermaze test) in pups from hypertensive dams compared to those from normotensive ones. The data suggest that maternal hypertension causes prenatal stress that may render the immature brain more resistant to subsequent hypoxia-ischemia, related to a preconditioning phenomenon. (authors)

  2. Bridging from Brain to Tumor Imaging: (S-(−- and (R-(+-[18F]Fluspidine for Investigation of Sigma-1 Receptors in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kranz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sigma-1 receptors (Sig1R are highly expressed in various human cancer cells and hence imaging of this target with positron emission tomography (PET can contribute to a better understanding of tumor pathophysiology and support the development of antineoplastic drugs. Two Sig1R-specific radiolabeled enantiomers (S-(−- and (R-(+-[18F]fluspidine were investigated in several tumor cell lines including melanoma, squamous cell/epidermoid carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and glioblastoma. Dynamic PET scans were performed in mice to investigate the suitability of both radiotracers for tumor imaging. The Sig1R expression in the respective tumors was confirmed by Western blot. Rather low radiotracer uptake was found in heterotopically (subcutaneously implanted tumors. Therefore, a brain tumor model (U87-MG with orthotopic implantation was chosen to investigate the suitability of the two Sig1R radiotracers for brain tumor imaging. High tumor uptake as well as a favorable tumor-to-background ratio was found. These results suggest that Sig1R PET imaging of brain tumors with [18F]fluspidine could be possible. Further studies with this tumor model will be performed to confirm specific binding and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB.

  3. Unlearning chronic pain: A randomized controlled trial to investigate changes in intrinsic brain connectivity following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Shpaner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a complex physiological and psychological phenomenon. Implicit learning mechanisms contribute to the development of chronic pain and to persistent changes in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that these central abnormalities can be remedied with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT. Specifically, since regions of the anterior Default Mode Network (DMN are centrally involved in emotional regulation via connections with limbic regions, such as the amygdala, remediation of maladaptive behavioral and cognitive patterns as a result of CBT for chronic pain would manifest itself as a change in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC between these prefrontal and limbic regions. Resting-state functional neuroimaging was performed in patients with chronic pain before and after 11-week CBT (n = 19, as well as a matched (ages 19–59, both sexes active control group of patients who received educational materials (n = 19. Participants were randomized prior to the intervention. To investigate the differential impact of treatment on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC, we compared pre–post differences in iFC between groups. In addition, we performed exploratory whole brain analyses of changes in fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF. The course of CBT led to significant improvements in clinical measures of pain and self-efficacy for coping with chronic pain. Significant group differences in pre–post changes in both iFC and fALFF were correlated with clinical outcomes. Compared to control patients, iFC between the anterior DMN and the amygdala/periaqueductal gray decreased following CBT, whereas iFC between the basal ganglia network and the right secondary somatosensory cortex increased following CBT. CBT patients also had increased post-therapy fALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate and the cerebellum. By delineating neuroplasticity associated with CBT-related improvements, these results add to

  4. Histopathological investigation of radiation necrosis. Coagulation necrosis in the irradiated and non-irradiated brain tumors and in the normal brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.

    1977-01-01

    Eighty four irradiated tumors (including 59 gliomas) and the surrounding brain tissue were analyzed. In 'normal' brain tissue, typical coagulation necrosis attributable to irradiation was observed in the cerebral white matter, presenting a whitish-yellow color but no remarkable changes in volume. Histologically there was complete desintegration of myelin and axon. Vascular changes included hyalinous thickening, concentric cleavage, fibrinoid degeneration, adventitial fibrosis and edema of small arteries, fibrin thrombi or occlusion of arterioles and capillaries, and telangiectasia of small veins and venules. While other tumors showed hyalinous or fibrous scar tissue and decrease in volume, the gliomas maintained their original volume without residual tumor cells. Massive coagulation necrosis was occasionally found even in full volume, non-irradiated gliomas (controls), although the changes were fewer and not so varied as in typical radiation necrosis. With small dosages, it was difficult to judge whether the necrosis was caused by irradiation or occurred spontaneously. Coagulation necrosis in tumor tissue was found in 25 of 59 cases (42%) of irradiated gliomas, but in only 2 of 49 cases (4%) of the nonirradiated gliomas. In 49 cases no coagulation necrosis of the surrounding tissue was found. Although histopathological judgement is difficult, it is suggested that there is a significant correlation between coagulation necrosis and irradiation. Discussion of the relationship between coagulation necrosis and NSD (nominal standard dose) led to the conclusion that coagulation necrosis will not be caused by irradiation of less than 1400 rets in NSD.

  5. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmund, Jens M.; Kjer, Hans M.; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Andersen, Jon AL; Andreasen, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, so-called MRI-only RT, would remove the systematic registration error between MR and computed tomography (CT), and provide co-registered MRI for assessment of treatment response and adaptive RT. Electron densities, however, need to be assigned to the MRI images for dose calculation and patient setup based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Here, we investigate the geometric and dosimetric performance for a number of popular voxel-based methods to generate a so-called pseudo CT (pCT). Five patients receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation and (3) statistical regression. Each approach contained two methods. Approach 1 used bulk density assignment of MRI voxels into air, soft tissue and bone based on logical masks and the transverse relaxation time T2 of the bone. Approach 2 used similar bulk density assignments with Bayesian statistics including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT agreement with the pCT of each method was quantified and compared with the other methods geometrically and dosimetrically using both a number of reported metrics and introducing some novel metrics. The best geometrical agreement with CT was obtained with the statistical regression methods which performed significantly better than the threshold and Bayesian segmentation methods (excluding spatial information). All methods agreed significantly better with CT than a reference water MRI

  6. GRIN2B Gene and Associated Brain Cortical White Matter Changes in Bipolar Disorder: A Preliminary Combined Platform Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa Nadia Kuswanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in glutamate signaling and glutamate toxicity are thought to be important in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD. Whilst previous studies have found brain white matter changes in BD, there is paucity of data about how glutamatergic genes affect brain white matter integrity in BD. Based on extant neuroimaging data, we hypothesized that GRIN2B risk allele is associated with reductions of brain white matter integrity in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital regions and cingulate gyrus in BD. Fourteen patients with BD and 22 healthy controls matched in terms of age, gender and handedness were genotyped using blood samples and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Compared to G allele, brain FA values were significantly lower in BD patients with risk T allele in left frontal region (P=0.001, right frontal region (P=0.002, left parietal region (P=0.001, left occipital region (P=0.001, right occipital region (P<0.001, and left cingulate gyrus (P=0.001. Further elucidation of the interactions between different glutamate genes and their relationships with such structural, functional brain substrates will enhance our understanding of the link between dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuroimaging endophenotypes in BD.

  7. Investigation of Resonance Effect Caused by Local Exposure of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on Brain Signals: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasul Zadeh Tabataba’ei K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Some studies have investigated the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs on brain signals, but only few of them have reported that humans exposed to magnetic fields exhibit changes in brain signals at the frequency of stimulation, i.e. resonance effect. In most investigations, researchers usually take advantage of a uniform field which encompasses the head. The aim of present study was to expose different parts of the brain to ELF-MFs locally and to investigate variation of brain signal and resonance effect.Methods: The subjects consisting of 19 male-students with the mean age of 25.6±1.6 years participated in this study. Local ELF-MFs with 3, 5, 10, 17 and 45Hz frequencies and 240 μT intensity was applied on five points (T3, T4, Cz, F3 and F4 of participants scalp Separately in 10-20 system. In the end, relative power over this points in common frequency bands and at the frequency of magnetic fields was evaluated by paired t-test.Results: Exposure of Central area by local magnetic field caused significant change (p<0.05 in the forehead alpha band. Reduction in the alpha band over central area was observed when temporal area was exposed to ELF MF.Conclusion: The results showed that resonance effect in the brain signals caused by local magnetic field exposure was not observed and change in every part of the relative power spectrum might occur. The changes in the EEG bands were not limited necessarily to the exposure point.

  8. Large scale serial two-photon microscopy to investigate local vascular changes in whole rodent brain models of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafontaine-Martel, P.; Lefebvre, J.; Damseh, R.; Castonguay, A.; Tardif, P.; Lesage, F.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an automated serial two-photon microscope was used to image a fluorescent gelatin filled rodent's brain in 3D. A method to compute vascular density using automatic segmentation was combined with coregistration techniques to build group-level vasculature metrics. By studying the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampal formation of 3 age groups (2, 4.5 and 8 months old), we compared vascular density for both WT and an Alzheimer model transgenic brain (APP/PS1). We observe a loss of vascular density caused by the ageing process and we propose further analysis to confirm our results.

  9. Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien D'Hondt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG data and skin conductance response (SCR, a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs revealed greater activity at 180 ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the skin conductance response, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links.

  10. Investigating structure and function in the healthy human brain: validity of acute versus chronic lesion-symptom mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Rennig, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Modern voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses techniques provide powerful tools to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain. However, there is still uncertainty on the type of and the appropriate time point of imaging and of behavioral testing for such analyses. Here we tested the validity of the three most common combinations of structural imaging data and behavioral scores used in VLSM analyses. Given the established knowledge about the neural substrate of the primary motor system in humans, we asked the mundane question of where the motor system is represented in the normal human brain, analyzing individual arm motor function of 60 unselected stroke patients. Only the combination of acute behavioral scores and acute structural imaging precisely identified the principal brain area for the emergence of hemiparesis after stroke, i.e., the corticospinal tract (CST). In contrast, VLSM analyses based on chronic behavior-in combination with either chronic or acute imaging-required the exclusion of patients who had recovered from an initial paresis to reveal valid anatomical results. Thus, if the primary research aim of a VLSM lesion analysis is to uncover the neural substrates of a certain function in the healthy human brain and if no longitudinal designs with repeated evaluations are planned, the combination of acute imaging and behavior represents the ideal dataset.

  11. Study Design for a Case Control Investigation of Cellular Telephones and Other Risk Factors for Brain Tumors in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskip, P.D.; Hatch, E.E.; Stewart, P.A.; Heineman, E.F.; Ziegler, R.G.; Dosemeci, M.; Parry, D.; Rothman, N.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wilcosky, T.C.; Watson, D.J.; Shapiro, W.R.; Selker, R.G.; Fine, H.A.; Black, P. McL.; Loeffler, J.S.; Linet, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of brain tumours is poorly understood. Due, in part, to public concern about a postulated relationship between the use of cellular telephones or other increasingly prevalent environmental exposures and the incidence of brain cancer in adults, the National Cancer Institute is collaborating with three US hospitals in a comprehensive case control study of malignant and benign brain tumours. Factors under consideration include use of cellular phones and other wireless communication devices, workplace exposures to chemical agents and electromagnetic fields, dietary factors, family history of tumours, genetic determinants of susceptibility, home appliance use, reproductive history and hormonal exposures, viruses, medical and dental exposure to ionising radiation, and other aspects of medical history. Approximately 800 newly diagnosed brain tumour cases and 800 controls were enrolled at hospitals in Boston, Phoenix and Pittsburgh from 1994 to 1998. Cases include all adults (age ≥ 18 y) newly diagnosed with a histologically confirmed intracranial glioma, histologically confirmed intracranial meningioma or acoustic neuroma. Controls are patients admitted to the same hospitals as the cases, and treated for any of a variety of non-malignant conditions. Key features of the study include its large size, the emphasis on rapid ascertainment of incident cases and interview of study subjects rather than surrogate respondents, the use of detailed, job-specific questions developed by industrial hygienists to ascertain occupational exposures, and the storage of blood samples for future evaluation of inherited susceptibility, biomarkers of exposure and gene environment interactions. (author)

  12. Blood Flow and Brain Function: Investigations of neurovascular coupling using BOLD fMRI at 7 tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, J.C.W.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of ultra high field (7 tesla) MRI systems has opened the possibility to probe biological processes of the human body in great detail. Especially for studying brain function using BOLD fMRI there is a large benefit from the increased magnetic field strength. BOLD fMRI is the working horse

  13. Variations of the Functional Brain Network Efficiency in a Young Clinical Sample within the Autism Spectrum: A fNIRS Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with dimensional behavioral symptoms and various damages in the structural and functional brain. Previous neuroimaging studies focused on exploring the differences of brain development between individuals with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, few of them have attempted to investigate the individual differences of the brain features among subjects within the Autism spectrum. Our main goal was to explore the individual differences of neurodevelopment in young children with Autism by testing for the association between the functional network efficiency and levels of autistic behaviors, as well as the association between the functional network efficiency and age. Forty-six children with Autism (ages 2.0–8.9 years old participated in the current study, with levels of autistic behaviors evaluated by their parents. The network efficiency (global and local network efficiency were obtained from the functional networks based on the oxy-, deoxy-, and total-Hemoglobin series, respectively. Results indicated that the network efficiency decreased with age in young children with Autism in the deoxy- and total-Hemoglobin-based-networks, and children with a relatively higher level of autistic behaviors showed decreased network efficiency in the oxy-hemoglobin-based network. Results suggest individual differences of brain development in young children within the Autism spectrum, providing new insights into the psychopathology of ASD.

  14. An investigation of head movement with a view to minimising motion artefact during SPECT and PET imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.; Clarke, G.H.; Guy, R.; McKay, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Motion artefact has long been recognised as a major cause of image degradation. Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the brain are playing an important role in the diagnosis and management of several neurological disorders. If these imaging modalities are to contribute fully to medical imaging it is essential that the improved spatial resolution of these systems is not compromised by patient movement. Thirty volunteer subjects have been examined using a simple video technique and the video images were used to classify and measure head movements which may occur during brain imaging. All subjects demonstrated angular movement within the transverse plane or rotation of the head. Angular movement within the sagittal plane or flexion/extension of the neck occurred in 69% of subjects and 72% of subjects exhibited translational movement of the sagittal plane. There was no movement of the coronal plane; nor was there any translational movement of the sagittal plane. These results suggest that when positioning the patient's head for brain imaging a system of head restraint which minimises rotation of the head should be used if image quality is to be maintained

  15. Investigating changes in brain network properties in HIV-associated neurocognitive disease (HAND) using mutual connectivity analysis (MCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Anas Zainul; D'Souza, Adora M.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    About 50% of subjects infected with HIV present deficits in cognitive domains, which are known collectively as HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The underlying synaptodendritic damage can be captured using resting state functional MRI, as has been demonstrated by a few earlier studies. Such damage may induce topological changes of brain connectivity networks. We test this hypothesis by capturing the functional interdependence of 90 brain network nodes using a Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) framework with non-linear time series modeling based on Generalized Radial Basis function (GRBF) neural networks. The network nodes are selected based on the regions defined in the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas. Each node is represented by the average time series of the voxels of that region. The resulting networks are then characterized using graph-theoretic measures that quantify various network topology properties at a global as well as at a local level. We tested for differences in these properties in network graphs obtained for 10 subjects (6 male and 4 female, 5 HIV+ and 5 HIV-). Global network properties captured some differences between these subject cohorts, though significant differences were seen only with the clustering coefficient measure. Local network properties, such as local efficiency and the degree of connections, captured significant differences in regions of the frontal lobe, precentral and cingulate cortex amongst a few others. These results suggest that our method can be used to effectively capture differences occurring in brain network connectivity properties revealed by resting-state functional MRI in neurological disease states, such as HAND.

  16. Brain noise is task dependent and region specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić, Bratislav; Mills, Travis; Taylor, Margot J; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2010-11-01

    The emerging organization of anatomical and functional connections during human brain development is thought to facilitate global integration of information. Recent empirical and computational studies have shown that this enhanced capacity for information processing enables a diversified dynamic repertoire that manifests in neural activity as irregularity and noise. However, transient functional networks unfold over multiple time, scales and the embedding of a particular region depends not only on development, but also on the manner in which sensory and cognitive systems are engaged. Here we show that noise is a facet of neural activity that is also sensitive to the task context and is highly region specific. Children (6-16 yr) and adults (20-41 yr) performed a one-back face recognition task with inverted and upright faces. Neuromagnetic activity was estimated at several hundred sources in the brain by applying a beamforming technique to the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). During development, neural activity became more variable across the whole brain, with most robust increases in medial parietal regions, such as the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. For young children and adults, activity evoked by upright faces was more variable and noisy compared with inverted faces, and this effect was reliable only in the right fusiform gyrus. These results are consistent with the notion that upright faces engender a variety of integrative neural computations, such as the relations among facial features and their holistic constitution. This study shows that transient changes in functional integration modulated by task demand are evident in the variability of regional neural activity.

  17. Neuroradiology of the normal and pathological anatomy of the rat brain. Pt. 2. Microangiographic investigations of the vascularisation of transplanted malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, M; Weisser, G; Voigt, K; Mennel, H D

    1980-11-01

    70 BD-IX rats, in which chemically induced mixed gliomas have been transplanted intracerebrally, were investigated by microangiography. The pattern and the degree of tumor vascularisation of all animals was correlated with the histological findings. Dependent on the type of the tumor different localisations of tumor growth could be found: G XII-gliomas preferred the juxta-ventricular region and subarachnoid space whereas GL 2.2-gliomas mainly grew as solid intracerebral space occupying lesions. Microangiograms of all tumor stages from the 14th to 42nd day after transplantation revealed a typical vascular pattern consisting of lacunar glomerulose and netlike vessels. Further, necrosis, bleedings into the tumor, and irregularities of the capillary network could be demonstrated. The volume, age and vascularisation of the tumors are correlated and the results are discussed with regard to the principles of tumor growth and malignancy.

  18. A Numerical Investigation of the Time Reversal Mirror Technique for Trans-skull Brain Cancer Ultrasound Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zahedmanesh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The medical applications of ultrasound on human brain are highly limited by the phase and amplitude aberrations induced by the heterogeneities of the skull. However, it has been shown that time reversing coupled with amplitude compensation can overcome these aberrations. In this work, a model for 2D simulation of the time reversal mirror technique is proposed to study the possibility of targeting any point within the brain without the need for craniotomy and to calculate the acoustic pressure field and the resulting temperature distribution within the skull and brain during a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU transcranial therapy. Materials and Methods: To overcome the sensitivity of the wave pattern to the heterogeneous geometry of the skull, a real MRI derived 2D model is constructed. The model should include the real geometry of brain and skull. The model should also include the couplant medium which has the responsibility of coupling the transducer to the skull for the penetration of ultrasound. The clinical substance used as the couplant is water. The acoustic and thermal parameters are derived from the references. Next, the wave propagation through the skull is computed based on the Helmholtz equation, with a 2D finite element analysis. The acoustic simulation is combined with a 2D thermal diffusion analysis based on Pennes Bioheat equation and the temperature elevation inside the skull and brain is computed. The numerical simulations were performed using the FEMLAB 3.2 software on a PC having 8 GB RAM and a 2.4 MHz dual CPU. Results: It is seen that the ultrasonic waves are exactly focalized at the location where the hydrophone has been previously implanted. There is no penetration into the sinuses and the waves are reflected from their surface because of the high discrepancy between the speed of sound in bone and air.  Under the focal pressure of 2.5 MPa and after 4 seconds of sonication the temperature at the focus

  19. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  20. Sound-Making Actions Lead to Immediate Plastic Changes of Neuromagnetic Evoked Responses and Induced β-Band Oscillations during Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Bernhard; Barat, Masihullah; Fujioka, Takako

    2017-06-14

    Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as talking and singing or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at β-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening. Nineteen healthy young adults (7 female, 12 male) participated in three magnetoencephalographic recordings while first passively listening to recorded sounds of a bell ringing, then actively striking the bell with a mallet, and then again listening to recorded sounds. Auditory cortex activity showed characteristic P1-N1-P2 waves. The N1 was attenuated during sound making, while P2 responses were unchanged. In contrast, P2 became larger when listening after sound making compared with the initial naive listening. The P2 increase occurred immediately, while in previous learning-by-listening studies P2 increases occurred on a later day. Also, reactivity of β-band oscillations, as well as θ coherence between auditory and sensorimotor cortices, was stronger in the second listening block. These changes were significantly larger than those observed in control participants (eight female, five male), who triggered recorded sounds by a key press. We propose that P2 characterizes familiarity with sound objects, whereas β-band oscillation signifies involvement of the action-perception cycle, and both measures objectively indicate functional neuroplasticity in auditory perceptual learning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT While suppression of auditory responses to self-generated sounds is well known, it is not clear whether the learned action-sound association

  1. The investigation of brain-computer interface for motor imagery and execution using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Jiao, Xuejun; Xu, Fengang; Jiang, Jin; Yang, Hanjun; Cao, Yong; Fu, Jiahao

    2017-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can measure cortex hemoglobin activity, has been widely adopted in brain-computer interface (BCI). To explore the feasibility of recognizing motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) in the same motion. We measured changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (HBO) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (HBR) on PFC and Motor Cortex (MC) when 15 subjects performing hand extension and finger tapping tasks. The mean, slope, quadratic coefficient and approximate entropy features were extracted from HBO as the input of support vector machine (SVM). For the four-class fNIRS-BCI classifiers, we realized 87.65% and 87.58% classification accuracy corresponding to hand extension and finger tapping tasks. In conclusion, it is effective for fNIRS-BCI to recognize MI and ME in the same motion.

  2. Treating dysarthria following traumatic brain injury: investigating the benefits of commencing treatment during post-traumatic amnesia in two participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Hannah; Cornwell, Petrea; Addis, Paula; Jarman, Carly

    2006-11-01

    The aims of this preliminary study were to explore the suitability for and benefits of commencing dysarthria treatment for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) while in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). It was hypothesized that behaviours in PTA don't preclude participation and dysarthria characteristics would improve post-treatment. A series of comprehensive case analyses. Two participants with severe TBI received dysarthria treatment focused on motor speech deficits until emergence from PTA. A checklist of neurobehavioural sequelae of TBI was rated during therapy and perceptual and motor speech assessments were administered before and after therapy. Results revealed that certain behaviours affected the quality of therapy but didn't preclude the provision of therapy. Treatment resulted in physiological improvements in some speech sub-systems for both participants, with varying functional speech outcomes. These findings suggest that dysarthria treatment can begin and provide short-term benefits to speech production during the late stages of PTA post-TBI.

  3. Q-ball imaging models: comparison between high and low angular resolution diffusion-weighted MRI protocols for investigation of brain white matter integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Trojsi, Francesca; Cirillo, Mario; Tedeschi, Gioacchino [MRI Research Center SUN-FISM-Neurological Institute for Diagnosis and Care ' ' Hermitage Capodimonte' ' , Naples (Italy); Second University of Naples, Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Aging Sciences, Naples (Italy); Esposito, Fabrizio [University of Salerno, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Baronissi (Salerno) (Italy); Maastricht University, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Q-ball imaging (QBI) is one of the typical data models for quantifying white matter (WM) anisotropy in diffusion-weighted MRI (DwMRI) studies. Brain and spinal investigation by high angular resolution DwMRI (high angular resolution imaging (HARDI)) protocols exhibits higher angular resolution in diffusion imaging compared to low angular resolution models, although with longer acquisition times. We aimed to assess the difference between QBI-derived anisotropy values from high and low angular resolution DwMRI protocols and their potential advantages or shortcomings in neuroradiology. Brain DwMRI data sets were acquired in seven healthy volunteers using both HARDI (b = 3000 s/mm{sup 2}, 54 gradient directions) and low angular resolution (b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, 32 gradient directions) acquisition schemes. For both sequences, tract of interest tractography and generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) measures were extracted by using QBI model and were compared between the two data sets. QBI tractography and voxel-wise analyses showed that some WM tracts, such as corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal, and uncinate fasciculi, were reconstructed as one-dominant-direction fiber bundles with both acquisition schemes. In these WM tracts, mean percent different difference in GFA between the two data sets was less than 5 %. Contrariwise, multidirectional fiber bundles, such as corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus, were more accurately depicted by HARDI acquisition scheme. Our results suggest that the design of optimal DwMRI acquisition protocols for clinical investigation of WM anisotropy by QBI models should consider the specific brain target regions to be explored, inducing researchers to a trade-off choice between angular resolution and acquisition time. (orig.)

  4. Methodical investigations regarding the influence of narcosis on the distribution of L-3H-fucose in the brain of rats after intracerebral application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutoehrle, P.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of 3 H-fucose in the rat brain after intraventricular injection was investigated in wake and pentobarbital-anaesthetized test animals, using a method for autoradiography of water-soluble substances. By a specially developed procedure a director cannula was stereotactically implanted into a calotte through which, a few days later, an injection needle could be introduced into the lateral ventricle without narcosis. The autoradiogrammes were prepared from cryostat cuts of the cerebrum. The investigation proved the distribution of 3 H-fucose in the different sections of the brain to be very inhomogeneous and revealed that the tracer had mainly labelled the areas near the ventricle. With the aid of a micro-videomat, the blackened areas were measured in a certain frontal plane. The areas reached by the tracer, which were determined as parameters, were shown to increase as a function of the experimental time and to be always more extended in anaesthetized animals than in wake rats. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Experimental models of brain ischemia: a review of techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and investigational cell-based therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eCanazza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke continues to be a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the past decades in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, enormous challenges remain in the way of translating new therapeutic approaches from bench to bedside. Thrombolysis, while routinely used for ischemic stroke, is only a viable option within a narrow time window. Recently, progress in stem cell biology has opened up avenues to therapeutic strategies aimed at supporting and replacing neural cells in infarcted areas. Realistic experimental animal models are crucial to understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival following ischemic brain injury and to develop therapeutic interventions. Current studies on experimental stroke therapies evaluate the efficiency of neuroprotective agents and cell-based approaches using primarily rodent models of permanent or transient focal cerebral ischemia. In parallel, advancements in imaging techniques permit better mapping of the spatial-temporal evolution of the lesioned cortex and its functional responses. This review provides a condensed conceptual review of the state of the art of this field, from models and magnetic resonance imaging techniques through to stem cell therapies.

  6. Investigation of Higher Brain Functions in Music Composition Using Models of the Cortex Based on Physical System Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiaodan

    The trion model was developed using the Mountcastle organizational principle for the column as the basic neuronal network in the cortex and the physical system analogy of Fisher's ANNNI spin model. An essential feature is that it is highly structured in time and in spatial connections. Simulations of a network of trions have shown that large numbers of quasi-stable, periodic spatial-temporal firing patterns can be excited. Characteristics of these patterns include the quality of being readily enhanced by only a small change in connection strengths, and that the patterns evolve in certain natural sequences from one to another. With only somewhat different parameters than used for studying memory and pattern recognition, much more flowing and intriguing patterns emerged from the simulations. The results were striking when these probabilistic evolutions were mapped onto pitches and instruments to produce music: For example different simple mappings of the same evolution give music having the "flavor" of a minuet, a waltz, folk music, or styles of specific periods. A theme can be learned so that evolutions have this theme and its variations reoccurring more often. That the trion model is a viable model for the coding of musical structure in human composition and perception is suggested. It is further proposed that model is relevant for examining creativity in the higher cognitive functions of mathematics and chess, which are similar to music. An even higher level of cortical organization was modeled by coupling together several trion networks. Further, one of the crucial features of higher brain function, especially in music composition or appreciation, is the role of emotion and mood as controlled by the many neuromodulators or neuropeptides. The MILA model whose underlying basis is zero-level representation of Kac-Moody algebra is used to modulate periodically the firing threshold of each network. Our preliminary results show that the introduction of "neuromodulation

  7. Investigation of the Safety of Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening in a Natural Canine Model of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Meaghan Anne; Jones, Ryan Matthew; Barrett, Edward; Schwab, Anthony; Head, Elizabeth; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Ultrasound-mediated opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier(BBB) has shown exciting potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Studies in transgenic mouse models have shown that this approach can reduce plaque pathology and improve spatial memory. Before clinical translation can occur the safety of the method needs to be tested in a larger brain that allows lower frequencies be used to treat larger tissue volumes, simulating clinical situations. Here we investigate the safety of opening the BBB in half of the brain in a large aged animal model with naturally occurring amyloid deposits. Methods: Aged dogs naturally accumulate plaques and show associated cognitive declines. Low-frequency ultrasound was used to open the BBB unilaterally in aged beagles (9-11yrs, n=10) in accordance with institutionally approved protocols. Animals received either a single treatment or four weekly treatments. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) was used to guide the treatments and assess the tissue effects. The animals underwent neurological testing during treatment follow-up, and a follow-up MRI exam 1 week following the final treatment. Results: The permeability of the BBB was successfully increased in all animals (mean enhancement: 19±11% relative to untreated hemisphere). There was a single adverse event in the chronic treatment group that resolved within 24 hrs. Follow-up MRI showed the BBB to be intact with no evidence of tissue damage in all animals. Histological analysis showed comparable levels of microhemorrhage between the treated and control hemispheres in the prefrontal cortex (single/repeat treatment: 1.0±1.4 vs 0.4±0.5/5.2±1.8 vs. 4.0±2.0). No significant differences were observed in beta-amyloid load (single/repeat: p=0.31/p=0.98) although 3/5 animals in each group showed lower Aβ loads in the treated hemisphere. Conclusion: Whole-hemisphere opening of the BBB was well tolerated in the aged large animal brain. The treatment volumes and frequencies

  8. The Neuromagnetic Dynamics of Time Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Frederick W.; Elvevåg, Brita; Altamura, Mario; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Coppola, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Examining real-time cortical dynamics is crucial for understanding time perception. Using magnetoencephalography we studied auditory duration discrimination of short (.5 s) versus a pitch control. Time-frequency analysis of event-related fields showed widespread beta-band (13-30 Hz) desynchronization during all tone presentations. Synthetic aperture magnetometry indicated automatic primarily sensorimotor responses in short and pitch conditions, with activation specific to timing in bilateral ...

  9. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zgoda-Pols, Joanna R.; Chowdhury, Swapan; Wirth, Mark; Milburn, Michael V.; Alexander, Danny C.; Alton, Kevin B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research highlights: → Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. → MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. → 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than

  10. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  11. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Kjer, Hans Martin; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT...... receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation...... significantly better than the threshold and Bayesian segmentation methods (excluding spatial information). All methods agreed significantly better with CT than a reference water MRI comparison. The mean dosimetric deviation for photons and protons compared to the CT was about 2% and highest in the gradient dose...

  12. Brain imaging and schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, J.L.; Dao-Castellana, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain structures and brain function have been investigated by the new brain imaging techniques for more than ten years. In Psychiatry, these techniques could afford a new understanding of mental diseases. In schizophrenic patients, CAT scanner and RMI pointed out statistically significant ventricular enlargments which are presently considered as evidence for abnormalities in brain maturation. Functional imaging techniques reported metabolic dysfunctions in the cortical associative areas which are probably linked to the cognitive features of schizophrenics [fr

  13. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  15. Merge processing in the human brain: a sub-region based functional investigation in the left pars opercularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eZaccarella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Language is thought to represent one of the most complex cognitive functions in humans. Here we break down complexity of language to its most basic syntactic computation which hierarchically binds single words together to form larger phrases and sentences. So far, the neural implementation of this basic operation has only been inferred indirectly from studies investigating more complex linguistic phenomena. In the present sub-region based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we directly assessed the neuroanatomical nature of this process. Our results showed that syntactic phrases—compared to word-list sequences—corresponded to increased neural activity in the ventral-anterior portion of the left pars opercularis (Brodmann Area (BA 44, whereas the adjacently located deep frontal operculum/anterior insula (FOP/aINS, a phylogenetically older and less specialized region, was found to be equally active for both conditions. Crucially, the functional activity of syntactic binding was confined to one out of five clusters proposed by a recent fine-grained sub-anatomical parcellation for BA 44, with consistency across individuals. Neuroanatomically, the present results call for a redefinition of BA 44 as a region with internal functional specializations. Neurocomputationally, they support the idea of invariance within BA 44 in the location of activation across participants for basic syntactic building processing.

  16. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming

  17. An investigation of the neuroprotective effects of Curcumin in a model of Homocysteine - induced oxidative stress in the rat’s brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ataie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of them. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages and modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. In this study, the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of the natural polyphenolic antioxidant compound, curcumin against homocysteine (Hcy neurotoxicity was investigated. "nMethods: Curcumin (5, 15, 45 mg/kg was injected intraperitonealy (i.p. once daily for a period of 10 days beginning 5 days prior to Hcy (0.2 μmol/μl intracerebroventricular (i.c.v injection in rats. Biochemical and behavioral studies, including passive avoidance learning and locomotor activity tests were studied 24 hrs after the last curcumin or its vehicle injection. The cell density of hippocampus layers and apoptosis in rats' hippocampi by immunohistochical methods were also studied. Results and major conclusion:Results indicated that Hcy could induce lipid peroxidation and increase Malondialdehyde (MDA and Super Oxide Anion (SOA levels in rat's brain.Additionally, Hcy impaired memory retention in passive avoidance learning test. However, curcumin decreased MDA and SOA levels significantly and improved learning and memory in rats. On the other hand Hcy could induce cell death and apoptosis in rats' hippocampi which was inhibited by curcumin. These results suggest that Hcy may induce lipid peroxidation in rat's brain. and polyphenol treatment (curcumin improves learning and memory deficits by protecting the nervous system against Oxidative stress.

  18. Investigation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression in hypothalamus of obese rats: Modulation by omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maksoud, Sahar M; Hassanein, Sally I; Gohar, Neveen A; Attia, Saad M M; Gad, Mohamed Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was investigating the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression, using in vivo and in vitro models, to unravel the potential mechanisms of polyunsaturated fatty acids use in obesity. Twenty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; lean controls fed normal chow diet for 14 weeks, obese controls fed 60% of their diet as saturated fats for 14 weeks, and ω-3 FAs-treated rats fed 60% saturated fat diet for 14 weeks with concomitant oral administration of 400 mg/kg/day ω-3 FAs, mainly docosahexaenoic acid and EPA, from week 12 to week 14. For the in vitro experiment, hypothalamic cells from six obese rats were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of ω-3 FAs to determine its direct effect on BDNF expression. In vivo results showed that obesity has negative effect on BDNF gene expression in rat hypothalamus that was reversed by administration of ω-3 FAs. Obese rats showed hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, normoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperleptinemia. Treatment with ω-3 FAs showed significant decrease in serum total cholesterol and TAG. Also serum glucose level and HOMA index were decreased significantly. In vitro results demonstrated the increase in BDNF expression by ω-3 FAs in a dose-dependent manner. Obesity causes down-regulation of BDNF gene expression that can be reversed by ω-3 FAs treatment, making them an interesting treatment approach for obesity and metabolic disease.

  19. A preliminary investigation on the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification following traumatic brain injury. Part II: Effects on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, J E; Biros, E; Sacher, Y; Kibrik, O; Milanese, S; Gordon, S; Galea, M P

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) occurs as a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Management of clinically significant NHO remains variable. Complications of mature NHO include limitation of mobility. The effect of the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on range of motion at hip and knee, and function in patients with TBI with chronic NHO was investigated. A series of single-case studies applying ESWT to chronic NHO at the hip or knee of 11 patients with TBI were undertaken at a rehabilitation hospital. Participants received four applications of high-energy EWST delivered to the affected hip or knee over a period of 8 weeks. Two-weekly follow- up assessments were carried out; final assessments were made 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Range of motion (ROM) and Functional Reach (FR) or Modified Functional Reach (MFR) were measured. Application of high-energy ESWT was associated with significant improvement in ROM (flexion) of the NHO-affected knee (Tau = 0.833, 95% CI 0.391-1.276, p = 0.002) and significant improvement of FR (Overall Tau 0.486, 95% CI 0.141-0.832, p = 0.006); no significant improvement in hip ROM or MFR. ESWT may improve mobility and balance of patients with TBI who have chronic NHO.

  20. Investigating the use of support vector machine classification on structural brain images of preterm-born teenagers as a biological marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton Chu

    Full Text Available Preterm birth has been shown to induce an altered developmental trajectory of brain structure and function. With the aid support vector machine (SVM classification methods we aimed to investigate whether MRI data, collected in adolescence, could be used to predict whether an individual had been born preterm or at term. To this end we collected T1-weighted anatomical MRI data from 143 individuals (69 controls, mean age 14.6y. The inclusion criteria for those born preterm were birth weight ≤ 1500g and gestational age < 37w. A linear SVM was trained on the grey matter segment of MR images in two different ways. First, all the individuals were used for training and classification was performed by the leave-one-out method, yielding 93% correct classification (sensitivity = 0.905, specificity = 0.942. Separately, a random half of the available data were used for training twice and each time the other, unseen, half of the data was classified, resulting 86% and 91% accurate classifications. Both gestational age (R = -0.24, p<0.04 and birth weight (R = -0.51, p < 0.001 correlated with the distance to decision boundary within the group of individuals born preterm. Statistically significant correlations were also found between IQ (R = -0.30, p < 0.001 and the distance to decision boundary. Those born small for gestational age did not form a separate subgroup in these analyses. The high rate of correct classification by the SVM motivates further investigation. The long-term goal is to automatically and non-invasively predict the outcome of preterm-born individuals on an individual basis using as early a scan as possible.

  1. Investigation into the mechanisms of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Anna; Chisholm, Jennifer A.; Patterson, James; Wyper, David [Department of Clinical Physics, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF (United Kingdom); Duncan, Roderick [Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Lindsay, Kenneth [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has gained recognition as a treatment for refractory epilepsies where surgical treatment is not possible. While it appears that this treatment is effective in some patients, the mechanism of action is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify findings of other positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) investigations by measuring the acute effect of VNS on patients who have normal cerebral anatomy on magnetic resonance imaging and who have not previously been exposed to VNS. We investigated six subjects (two males and four females, mean age 29.5 years, range 21-39 years) with intractable epilepsy. One patient had primary generalised epilepsy causing generalised tonic-clonic seizures; the remaining five patients had localisation-related epilepsy causing complex partial seizures. SPET imaging was performed using 250 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and a four-scan paradigm - two with and two without stimulation. The stimulation began at VNS current levels of 0.25 mA and was increased according to the limit of patients' tolerance, usually defined by coughing or discomfort. The stimulating waveform was of continuous square wave pulses of 500 {mu}s duration at 30 Hz. Image analysis was by SPM99. Reduced perfusion during stimulation was observed in the ipsilateral brain stem, cingulate, amygdala and hippocampus and contralateral thalamus and cingulate. The study provides further evidence of the involvement of the limbic system in the action of vagal nerve stimulation. (orig.)

  2. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Takeda, Shumpei; Hatazawa, Jun

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT and following results were obtained. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34 -- 35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multiinfarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extents of brain atrophy (20 -- 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Some aged subjects had little or no atrophy of their brains, as seen in young subjects, and others had markedly shrunken brains associated with senility. From these results there must be pathological factors promoting brain atrophy with a great individual difference. We have studied the relation of intelligence to brain volume, and have ascertained that progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was decrease in the cerebral blood flow. MNR-CT can easily detected small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy, while X-CT can not. Therefore NMR-CT is very useful for detection of subtle changes in the brain. (J.P.N.)

  3. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  4. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  5. Two-photon microscopy imaging of thy1GFP-M transgenic mice: a novel animal model to investigate brain dendritic cell subsets in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Laperchia

    Full Text Available Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins in specific cell populations are widely used for in vivo brain studies with two-photon fluorescence (TPF microscopy. Mice of the thy1GFP-M line have been engineered for selective expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP in neuronal populations. Here, we report that TPF microscopy reveals, at the brain surface of these mice, also motile non-neuronal GFP+ cells. We have analyzed the behavior of these cells in vivo and characterized in brain sections their immunophenotype.With TPF imaging, motile GFP+ cells were found in the meninges, subarachnoid space and upper cortical layers. The striking feature of these cells was their ability to move across the brain parenchyma, exhibiting evident shape changes during their scanning-like motion. In brain sections, GFP+ cells were immunonegative to antigens recognizing motile cells such as migratory neuroblasts, neuronal and glial precursors, mast cells, and fibroblasts. GFP+ non-neuronal cells exhibited instead the characteristic features and immunophenotype (CD11c and major histocompatibility complex molecule class II immunopositivity of dendritic cells (DCs, and were immunonegative to the microglial marker Iba-1. GFP+ cells were also identified in lymph nodes and blood of thy1GFP-M mice, supporting their identity as DCs. Thus, TPF microscopy has here allowed the visualization for the first time of the motile behavior of brain DCs in situ. The results indicate that the thy1GFP-M mouse line provides a novel animal model for the study of subsets of these professional antigen-presenting cells in the brain. Information on brain DCs is still very limited and imaging in thy1GFP-M mice has a great potential for analyses of DC-neuron interaction in normal and pathological conditions.

  6. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  7. How Are ‘Barack Obama’ and ‘President Elect’ Differentially Stored in the Brain? An ERP Investigation on the Processing of Proper and Common Noun Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. Methodology/Principal Findings 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related (“Woody Allen” or “social security”), while the others were not (“Sigmund Parodi” or “judicial cream”). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. Conclusions/Significance When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes. PMID:19774070

  8. How are 'Barack Obama' and 'President Elect' differentially stored in the brain? An ERP investigation on the processing of proper and common noun pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2009-09-23

    One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related ("Woody Allen" or "social security"), while the others were not ("Sigmund Parodi" or "judicial cream"). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes.

  9. A five year prospective investigation of anterior pituitary function after traumatic brain injury: is hypopituitarism long-term after head trauma associated with autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; De Bellis, Annamaria; Ulutabanca, Halil; Bizzarro, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio A; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Amoresano Paglionico, Vanda; Dalla Mora, Liliana; Selcuklu, Ahmed; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2013-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been recently recognized as a common cause of pituitary dysfunction. However, there are not sufficient numbers of prospective studies to understand the natural history of TBI induced hypopituitarism. The aim was to report the results of five years' prospective follow-up of anterior pituitary function in patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI. Moreover, we have prospectively investigated the associations between TBI induced hypopituitarism and presence of anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) and anti-pituitary antibodies (APA). Twenty five patients (20 men, five women) were included who were prospectively evaluated 12 months and five years after TBI, and 17 of them also had a third-year evaluation. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is the most common pituitary hormone deficit at one, three, and five years after TBI. Although most of the pituitary hormone deficiencies improve over time, there were substantial percentages of pituitary hormone deficiencies at the fifth year (28% GH, 4% adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], and 4% gonadotropin deficiencies). Pituitary dysfunction was significantly higher in strongly AHA- and APA-positive (titers ≥1/16) patients at the fifth year. In patients with mild and moderate TBI, ACTH and GH deficiencies may improve over time in a considerable number of patients but, although rarely, may also worsen over the five-year period. However in severe TBI, ACTH and GH status of the patients at the first year evaluation persisted at the fifth year. Therefore, screening pituitary function after TBI for five years is important, especially in patients with mild TBI. Moreover, close strong associations between the presence of high titers of APA and/or AHA and hypopituitarism at the fifth year were shown for the first time.

  10. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  11. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  12. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  13. Comparative neuroimaging in children with cerebral palsy using fMRI and a novel EEG-based brain mapping during a motor task--a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ryul; Shin, Yoon Kyum; Lee, Nam Gi; Han, Bong S; You, Sung Joshua Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare topographical maps using a novel EEG-based brain mapping system with fMRI in normal and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during a grasping motor task. A normal child (mean ± SD = 13 ± 0 yrs) and four children with CP (mean ± SD = 10.25 ± 2.86 yrs) were recruited from a local community school and medical center. A novel EEG-based brain mapping system with 30 scalp sites (an extension of the 10-20 system) and a 3T MR scanner were used to observe cortical activation patterns during a grasping motor task. Descriptive analysis. In the EEG brain mapping data, the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC) were activated in all of the children. The children with CP showed additional activation areas in the premotor cortex (PMC), superior parietal cortex (SPC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the fMRI brain mapping data, SMC activation was observed in all of the children, and the children with CP showed additional activation areas in the PMC and primary somatosensory cortex (PSC). The EEG-based topographical maps were equivalent to the maps obtained from fMRI during the grasping motor task. The results indicate that our novel EEG-based brain mapping system is useful for probing cortical activation patterns in normal children and children with CP.

  14. One brain, two selves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, AATS; Nijenhuis, ERS; Paans, AMJ; Korf, J; Willemsen, ATM; den Boer, JA

    2003-01-01

    Having a sense of self is an explicit and high-level functional specialization of the human brain. The anatomical localization of self-awareness and the brain mechanisms involved in consciousness were investigated by functional neuroimaging different emotional mental states of core consciousness in

  15. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Brain Imaging Investigation of Phonological Awareness and Passage Comprehension Abilities in Adult Recipients of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Silvia; Shulkin, Masha; Hu, Xiaosu; Basura, Gregory J.; Kileny, Paul R.; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine how the brains of individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) respond to spoken language tasks that underlie successful language acquisition and processing. Method: During functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging, CI recipients with hearing impairment (n = 10, mean age: 52.7 ± 17.3 years) and…

  16. Investigation of enzyme-sensitive lipid nanoparticles for delivery of siRNA to blood–brain barrier and glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jonas; Larsen, Trine Bjørnbo; Jølck, Rasmus Irming

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of siRNA for treating disorders in the central nervous system require development of systemic stable, safe, and effective delivery vehicles that are able to cross the impermeable blood–brain barrier (BBB). Engineering nanocarriers with low cellular interaction during systemi...

  17. Recruitment of Language-, Emotion- and Speech-Timing Associated Brain Regions for Expressing Emotional Prosody: Investigation of Functional Neuroanatomy with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Jazdzyk, Agnieszka; Stets, Manuela; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to progress understanding of prosodic emotion expression by establishing brain regions active when expressing specific emotions, those activated irrespective of the target emotion, and those whose activation intensity varied depending on individual performance. BOLD contrast data were acquired whilst participants spoke non-sense words in happy, angry or neutral tones, or performed jaw-movements. Emotion-specific analyses demonstrated that when expressing angry prosody, activated brain regions included the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the insula, and the basal ganglia. When expressing happy prosody, the activated brain regions also included the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia, with additional activation in the anterior cingulate. Conjunction analysis confirmed that the superior temporal gyrus and basal ganglia were activated regardless of the specific emotion concerned. Nevertheless, disjunctive comparisons between the expression of angry and happy prosody established that anterior cingulate activity was significantly higher for angry prosody than for happy prosody production. Degree of inferior frontal gyrus activity correlated with the ability to express the target emotion through prosody. We conclude that expressing prosodic emotions (vs. neutral intonation) requires generic brain regions involved in comprehending numerous aspects of language, emotion-related processes such as experiencing emotions, and in the time-critical integration of speech information.

  18. Recruitment of language-, emotion- and speech timing associated brain regions for expressing emotional prosody: Investigation of functional neuroanatomy with fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. C. Mitchell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to progress understanding of prosodic emotion expression by establishing brain regions active when expressing specific emotions, those activated irrespective of the target emotion, and those whose activation intensity varied depending on individual performance. BOLD contrast data were acquired whilst participants spoke nonsense words in happy, angry or neutral tones, or performed jaw-movements. Emotion-specific analyses demonstrated that when expressing angry prosody, activated brain regions included the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the insula, and the basal ganglia. When expressing happy prosody, the activated brain regions also included the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia, with additional activation in the anterior cingulate. Conjunction analysis confirmed that the superior temporal gyrus and basal ganglia were activated regardless of the specific emotion concerned. Nevertheless, disjunctive comparisons between the expression of angry and happy prosody established that anterior cingulate activity was significantly higher for angry prosody than for happy prosody production. Degree of inferior frontal gyrus activity correlated with the ability to express the target emotion through prosody. We conclude that expressing prosodic emotions (vs neutral intonation requires generic brain regions involved in comprehending numerous aspects of language, emotion-related processes such as experiencing emotions, and in the time-critical integration of speech information.

  19. Investigation and characterization of receptors for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in human brain by radioligand binding and chemical cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Smith, D.M.; Ghatei, M.A.; Murphy, J.K.; Bloom, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a novel peptide of hypothalamic origin which increases adenylate cyclase activity in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures. The 38-amino acid peptide shows a close sequence homology to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Binding sites for PACAP in membranes from postmortem human brain tissue were studied using [ 125 I]PACAP27 as the radioligand. High specific binding sites (amount of specific binding measured at 0.25 nM [ 125 I]PACAP27 in femtomoles per mg protein +/- SEM; n = 4) were present in hypothalamus (344.5 +/- 13.0), brain stem (343.0 +/- 29.3), cerebellum (292.0 +/- 21.1), cortex (259.6 +/- 19.8), and basal ganglia (259.2 +/- 50.3). Specific binding sites in pituitary, although present, were less abundant (35.0 +/- 8.9). Binding of [ 125 I]PACAP27 was reversible and time, pH, and temperature dependent. Despite the homology with VIP, VIP was a poor inhibitor of [ 125 I]PACAP27 binding (IC50, greater than 1 microM) compared with PACAP27 (IC50, 0.5-1.3 nM) and PACAP38 (IC50, 0.2-1.3 nM). Scatchard plots of [ 125 I]PACAP27 binding showed the presence of both high and lower affinity sites. Chemical cross-linking of PACAP-binding sites revealed that [ 125 I]PACAP27 was bound to polypeptide chains of 67,000 and 48,000 mol wt. Thus, we have demonstrated the presence of PACAP-specific receptors in human brain which are not VIP receptors. This opens the possibility of PACAP functioning as a novel neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in human brain

  20. Melatonin reduces hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) induced autophagy and apoptosis: An in vivo and in vitro investigation in experimental models of neonatal HI brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingying; Wang, Zhouguang; Liu, Yanlong; Pan, Shulin; Zhang, Hao; Fang, Mingchu; Jiang, Huai; Yin, Jiayu; Zou, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhenmao; Zhang, Hongyu; Lin, Zhenlang; Xiao, Jian

    2017-07-13

    Melatonin has neuroprotective effects in many diseases, including neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of melatonin both in vivo and in vitro and associated molecular mechanisms behind these effects. Postnatal day 7 male and female rat pups were subjected to unilateral HI, melatonin was injected intraperitoneally 1h before HI and an additional six doses were administered at 24h intervals. The pups were sacrificed at 24h and 7 d after HI. Pre-treatment with melatonin significantly reduced brain damage at 7 d after HI, with 15mg/kg melatonin achieving over 30% recovery in tissue loss compared to vehicle-treated animals. Autophagy and apoptotic cell death as indicated by autophagy associated proteins, cleaved caspase 3 and Tunel staining, was significantly inhibited after melatonin treatment in vivo as well as in PC12 cells. Melatonin treatment also significantly increased the GAP43 in the cortex. In conclusion, melatonin treatment reduced neonatal rat brain injury after HI, and this appeared to be related to inhibiting autophagy as well as reducing apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Migraine, the heart and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, H.

    2018-01-01

    The association between migraine and silent ischemic brain lesions was investigated. Also the occurence of right-to-left shunts in different migraine groups and controls. The functional consequences of silent ischemic brain lesions were investigated.

  2. Experimental investigation of the accuracy for absolute quantification of brain creatine concentration using long time echo point resolved spectroscopy sequence with an external standard and linear combination of model spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yan; Shen Zhiwei; Xiao Yeyu; Zheng Wenbin; Wu Renhua; Li Hui; Xiao Zhuanwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy for absolute quantification of brain creatine (Cr) concentration using long time echo (TE) point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence performed with an extemal standard and postprocessed with the linear combination of model spectra ( LCModel). Methods: Ten swine (3.1 ± 0.6 kg) and an external standard phantom containing detectable compounds of known concentration were investigated in this study by using 1.5 T GE Signa scanner and a standard head coil. The single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) data were acquired from the two ROIs (2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm) placed in swine brain and external standard solution using PRESS sequence with TE 135 ms, TR 1500 ms, and 128 scan averages. The in vivo quantification of Cr was accomplished by LCModel. After 1 H-MRS examination, each animal was sacrificed immediately. In vitro Cr concentration was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: In the 1 H-MRS group, the Cr concentration was (9.37±0.14)mmol/kg. In the HPLC group, the Cr concentration was (8.91± 0.13)mmol/kg. Good agreement was obtained between these two methods (t=9.038, P=0.491). Conclusion: The long echo time PRESS sequence performed with an external standard and processed with LCModel is proven to be an accurate technique to detect the in vivo brain Cr concentration. (authors)

  3. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  4. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  5. Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a Member Home Early Development & Well-Being Brain Development A child’s brain undergoes an amazing period of development from birth ... neural connections each second. The development of the brain is influenced by many factors, including a child’s ...

  6. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  7. Right and left cardiac function in HIV-infected patients investigated using radionuclide ventriculography and brain natriuretic peptide: a 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, U.S.; Lebech, A.M.; Gerstoft, J.

    2008-01-01

    ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as measurement of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Between July 2005 and January 2007, 63 patients (69%) agreed to participate in a follow-up study with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. RESULTS: All patients had normal......, it seems that the improvement in immunocompetency and viral load has removed the problem of HIV-related cardiomyopathy. Although HAART has been suggested as a possible new cause of cardiomyopathy, we did not find any evidence of this Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  8. Early stress is associated with alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex: a tensor-based morphometry investigation of brain structure and behavioral risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L; Chung, Moo K; Avants, Brian B; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Gee, James C; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2010-06-02

    Individuals who experience early adversity, such as child maltreatment, are at heightened risk for a broad array of social and health difficulties. However, little is known about how this behavioral risk is instantiated in the brain. Here we examine a neurobiological contribution to individual differences in human behavior using methodology appropriate for use with pediatric populations paired with an in-depth measure of social behavior. We show that alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex among individuals who experienced physical abuse are related to social difficulties. These data suggest a biological mechanism linking early social learning to later behavioral outcomes.

  9. Simultaneous two-voxel localized 1H-observed 13C-edited spectroscopy for in vivo MRS on rat brain at 9.4 T: Application to the investigation of excitotoxic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Bich-Thuy; Autret, Gwennhael; Mispelter, Joël; Méric, Philippe; Même, William; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Corrèze, Jean-Loup; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Gillet, Brigitte; Beloeil, Jean-Claude

    2009-05-01

    13C spectroscopy combined with the injection of 13C-labeled substrates is a powerful method for the study of brain metabolism in vivo. Since highly localized measurements are required in a heterogeneous organ such as the brain, it is of interest to augment the sensitivity of 13C spectroscopy by proton acquisition. Furthermore, as focal cerebral lesions are often encountered in animal models of disorders in which the two brain hemispheres are compared, we wished to develop a bi-voxel localized sequence for the simultaneous bilateral investigation of rat brain metabolism, with no need for external additional references. Two sequences were developed at 9.4 T: a bi-voxel 1H-( 13C) STEAM-POCE (Proton Observed Carbon Edited) sequence and a bi-voxel 1H-( 13C) PRESS-POCE adiabatically decoupled sequence with Hadamard encoding. Hadamard encoding allows both voxels to be recorded simultaneously, with the same acquisition time as that required for a single voxel. The method was validated in a biological investigation into the neuronal damage and the effect on the Tri Carboxylic Acid cycle in localized excitotoxic lesions. Following an excitotoxic quinolinate-induced localized lesion in the rat cortex and the infusion of U- 13C glucose, two 1H-( 13C) spectra of distinct (4 × 4 × 4 mm 3) voxels, one centred on the injured hemisphere and the other on the contralateral hemisphere, were recorded simultaneously. Two 1H bi-voxel spectra were also recorded and showed a significant decrease in N-acetyl aspartate, and an accumulation of lactate in the ipsilateral hemisphere. The 1H-( 13C) spectra could be recorded dynamically as a function of time, and showed a fall in the glutamate/glutamine ratio and the presence of a stable glutamine pool, with a permanent increase of lactate in the ipsilateral hemisphere. This bi-voxel 1H-( 13C) method can be used to investigate simultaneously both brain hemispheres, and to perform dynamic studies. We report here the neuronal damage and the

  10. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however, the brain is beginning to relinquish its secrets. Scientists have learned more about the brain in ... through the activity of these lobes. At the top of each temporal lobe is an area responsible ...

  11. Baby brain atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Chang, Linda; Huang, Hao

    2018-04-03

    The baby brain is constantly changing due to its active neurodevelopment, and research into the baby brain is one of the frontiers in neuroscience. To help guide neuroscientists and clinicians in their investigation of this frontier, maps of the baby brain, which contain a priori knowledge about neurodevelopment and anatomy, are essential. "Brain atlas" in this review refers to a 3D-brain image with a set of reference labels, such as a parcellation map, as the anatomical reference that guides the mapping of the brain. Recent advancements in scanners, sequences, and motion control methodologies enable the creation of various types of high-resolution baby brain atlases. What is becoming clear is that one atlas is not sufficient to characterize the existing knowledge about the anatomical variations, disease-related anatomical alterations, and the variations in time-dependent changes. In this review, the types and roles of the human baby brain MRI atlases that are currently available are described and discussed, and future directions in the field of developmental neuroscience and its clinical applications are proposed. The potential use of disease-based atlases to characterize clinically relevant information, such as clinical labels, in addition to conventional anatomical labels, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of brain activation during cognitive aging: A systematic review of an emerging area of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbangla, Nounagnon F; Audiffren, Michel; Albinet, Cédric T

    2017-09-01

    The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field. The aim of the present review paper, after briefly presenting the NIRS technique, is to review and to summarize the recent results of neuroimaging studies using this technique in the field of cognitive aging. The reviewed literature shows that, despite low spatial resolution and cerebral depth penetration, this technique provides consistent findings on the reduced hemodynamic activity as a function of chronological age, mainly in the prefrontal cortex. Important moderators of brain hemodynamics, such as cognitive load, subjects' characteristics and experimental conditions, for which the NIRS technique is sensitive, are discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of functional NIRS in the field of cognitive aging are presented and finally, novel perspectives of research are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A transfer of technology from engineering: use of ROC curves from signal detection theory to investigate information processing in the brain during sensory difference testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews a beneficial effect of technology transfer from Electrical Engineering to Food Sensory Science. Specifically, it reviews the recent adoption in Food Sensory Science of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a tool that is incorporated in the theory of signal detection. Its use allows the information processing that takes place in the brain during sensory difference testing to be studied and understood. The review deals with how Signal Detection Theory, also called Thurstonian modeling, led to the adoption of a more sophisticated way of analyzing the data from sensory difference tests, by introducing the signal-to-noise ratio, d', as a fundamental measure of perceived small sensory differences. Generally, the method of computation of d' is a simple matter for some of the better known difference tests like the triangle, duo-trio and 2-AFC. However, there are occasions when these tests are not appropriate and other tests like the same-different and the A Not-A test are more suitable. Yet, for these, it is necessary to understand how the brain processes information during the test before d' can be computed. It is for this task that the ROC curve has a particular use. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Quantitative NMR proton spectroscopy in vivo at 1,5 Tesla and possible applications to investigations of brain metabolism of depressive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, D.

    1997-12-01

    Using a clinical magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy system 22 patients suffering from bipolar disorders and 22 healthy volunteers were examined by localized in vivo proton spectroscopy. The measurements were performed on a 1.5 Tesla whole body scanner of Siemens AG, Magnetom SP 4000, using the standard head coil (CP). For localization a STEAM sequence was used with an echo times TE of 55 ms. A recovery time of 3500 ms was chosen. The number of acquisitions was 256. The spectra were acquired from voxel volumes of 20 x 30 x 20 mm 3 . Three Gaussian presaturation pulses (CHESS) with subsequent dephasing gradients were used for water suppression. After correction for eddy-current effects and Fast-Fourier transformation the intensities of myo-inositol, choline compounds, creatine together with phospho-creatine, and N-acetylaspartate were evaluated from the spectra. The spectra from the frontal brain of depressed patients and controls revealed mInos/Cr ratios of about 0,4 - 0,5. This lies within the range, which is presumed to be the mInos concentration in 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy studies in human brain in vivo. Concerning the total sample (N = 2 x 22) there were no intergroup differences in the present study. Concluding a subsample of subjects younger than 40 years (N = 2 x 10), depressives showed lower mInos levels than controls in the right frontal lobe. The patients showed a significant positive correlation between age and mInos/Cr in the right frontal lobe, while in the left frontal lobe this could be seen only as a trend. In contrast, NAA/Cr decreased with increasing age. There were neither significant differences between sex nor between hemispheres. (author)

  15. Simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG): assessing the impact of tDCS on slow cortical magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cossio, Eliana; Witkowski, Matthias; Robinson, Stephen E; Cohen, Leonardo G; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence cognitive, affective or motor brain functions. Whereas previous imaging studies demonstrated widespread tDCS effects on brain metabolism, direct impact of tDCS on electric or magnetic source activity in task-related brain areas could not be confirmed due to the difficulty to record such activity simultaneously during tDCS. The aim of this proof-of-principal study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-head source localization and reconstruction of neuromagnetic brain activity during tDCS and to confirm the direct effect of tDCS on ongoing neuromagnetic activity in task-related brain areas. Here we show for the first time that tDCS has an immediate impact on slow cortical magnetic fields (SCF, 0-4Hz) of task-related areas that are identical with brain regions previously described in metabolic neuroimaging studies. 14 healthy volunteers performed a choice reaction time (RT) task while whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. Task-related source-activity of SCFs was calculated using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) in absence of stimulation and while anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS was delivered over the right primary motor cortex (M1). Source reconstruction revealed task-related SCF modulations in brain regions that precisely matched prior metabolic neuroimaging studies. Anodal and cathodal tDCS had a polarity-dependent impact on RT and SCF in primary sensorimotor and medial centro-parietal cortices. Combining tDCS and whole-head MEG is a powerful approach to investigate the direct effects of transcranial electric currents on ongoing neuromagnetic source activity, brain function and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  17. Investigation of enzyme-sensitive lipid nanoparticles for delivery of siRNA to blood–brain barrier and glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruun J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Bruun,1 Trine B Larsen,1 Rasmus I Jølck,1 Rasmus Eliasen,1 René Holm,2 Torben Gjetting,1 Thomas L Andresen11Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Lyngby, Denmark; 2H Lundbeck A/S, Biologics and Pharmaceutical Science, Valby, DenmarkAbstract: Clinical applications of siRNA for treating disorders in the central nervous system require development of systemic stable, safe, and effective delivery vehicles that are able to cross the impermeable blood–brain barrier (BBB. Engineering nanocarriers with low cellular interaction during systemic circulation, but with high uptake in targeted cells, is a great challenge and is further complicated by the BBB. As a first step in obtaining such a delivery system, this study aims at designing a lipid nanoparticle (LNP able to efficiently encapsulate siRNA by a combination of titratable cationic lipids. The targeted delivery is obtained through the design of a two-stage system where the first step is conjugation of angiopep to the surface of the LNP for targeting the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 expressed on the BBB. Second, the positively charged LNPs are masked with a negatively charged PEGylated (poly(ethylene glycol cleavable lipopeptide, which contains a recognition sequence for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a class of enzymes often expressed in the tumor microenvironment and inflammatory BBB conditions. Proteolytic cleavage induces PEG release, including the release of four glutamic acid residues, providing a charge switch that triggers a shift of the LNP charge from weakly negative to positive, thus favoring cellular endocytosis and release of siRNA for high silencing efficiency. This work describes the development of this two-stage nanocarrier-system and evaluates the performance in brain endothelial and glioblastoma cells with respect to uptake and gene silencing efficiency. The

  18. Lutein and Brain Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Erdman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities.

  19. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony; Sharrard, Mark; Mordekar, Santosh R.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  20. Investigating the Interactive Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushla R. McCarthny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/− on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/− mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17β-estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment. Dorsal (DHP and ventral hippocampus (VHP were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis. Significant genotype × OVX interactions were found for GluN1 and GluN2 expression within the DHP of female mice, suggesting modulation of select NMDA-R levels by female sex hormones is mediated by BDNF. Furthermore, within the DHP BDNF+/− mice show a hypersensitive response to hormone treatment on GluN2 expression which may result from upstream alterations in TrkB phosphorylation. In contrast to the DHP, the VHP showed no effects of hormone manipulation but significant effects of genotype on NMDA-R expression. Castration had no effect on NMDA-R expression; however, androgen treatment had selective effects on GluN2B. These data show case distinct, interactive roles for sex steroid hormones and BDNF in the regulation of NMDA-R expression that are dependent on dorsal versus ventral hippocampal region.

  1. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  2. Facing changes and changing faces in adolescence: a new model for investigating adolescent-specific interactions between pubertal, brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Dahl, Ronald E

    2012-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes as well as a time for the development of many social-emotional problems. These characteristics raise compelling questions about accompanying neural changes that are unique to this period of development. Here, we propose that studying adolescent-specific changes in face processing and its underlying neural circuitry provides an ideal model for addressing these questions. We also use this model to formulate new hypotheses. Specifically, pubertal hormones are likely to increase motivation to master new peer-oriented developmental tasks, which will in turn, instigate the emergence of new social/affective components of face processing. We also predict that pubertal hormones have a fundamental impact on the re-organization of neural circuitry supporting face processing and propose, in particular, that, the functional connectivity, or temporal synchrony, between regions of the face-processing network will change with the emergence of these new components of face processing in adolescence. Finally, we show how this approach will help reveal why adolescence may be a period of vulnerability in brain development and suggest how it could lead to prevention and intervention strategies that facilitate more adaptive functional interactions between regions within the broader social information processing network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Facing changes and changing faces in adolescence: A new model for investigating adolescent-specific interactions between pubertal, brain and behavioral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes as well as a time for the development of many social-emotional problems. These characteristics raise compelling questions about accompanying neural changes that are unique to this period of development. Here, we propose that studying adolescent-specific changes in face processing and its underlying neural circuitry provides an ideal model for addressing these questions. We also use this model to formulate new hypotheses. Specifically, pubertal hormones are likely to increase motivation to master new peer-oriented developmental tasks, which will in turn, instigate the emergence of new social/affective components of face processing. We also predict that pubertal hormones have a fundamental impact on the reorganization of neural circuitry supporting face processing and propose, in particular, that, the functional connectivity, or temporal synchrony, between regions of the face-processing network will change with the emergence of these new components of face processing in adolescence. Finally, we show how this approach will help reveal why adolescence may be a period of vulnerability in brain development and suggest how it could lead to prevention and intervention strategies that facilitate more adaptive functional interactions between regions within the broader social information processing network. PMID:22483070

  4. Histochemical and ultrastructural investigations on the antioedematous and radioprotective effect of 0-(β-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in the brain of rats after single dose irradiation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, H.J.; Sauer, R.; Lierse, W.; Lehmann, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    The disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of acid phosphatases with and without protection by 0-(β-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside (HR) were studied in irradiated rat brains by means of the light microscope. The histochemically demonstrable deposition of glycogen and acid mucopolysaccarides serves as a criterion for a reversible lesion of the irradiated cerebral tissue. The extent of local activation of repair processes following to irradiation can be determined by the quantity of acid phosphatases in the lysosomes. For the dose range of 1 to 5 Gy, HR seems to exert a protective effect on the cellular metasbolism of the irradiated cerebral tissue shown by ba slight decrease of glycogen and mucopolysaccharide deposits compared to the untreated animals. However, when exceeding a threshold dose of 10 Gy, the deposition of carbohydrates in the HR group is strongly increased. A slightly increased activity of acid phosphatases induced by HR can be supposed at best for the dose range of 5 to 7.5 Gy. If the dose is even more increased, the reverse effect found in the carbohydrate metabolism, too, and an increased activation of acid phosphatases in the control group will be observed. This unexpected reversion of the protective effect could be related to the assumed inhibitory effect of HR on the ATPases and thus on the anaerobic part of glycolysis or to a breakdown of the cell interaction system of endothelial cells, glia cells, and neurons. (orig.) [de

  5. Structural Graphical Lasso for Learning Mouse Brain Connectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Sen; Sun, Qian; Ji, Shuiwang; Wonka, Peter; Davidson, Ian; Ye, Jieping

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into brain connectivity aim to recover networks of brain regions connected by anatomical tracts or by functional associations. The inference of brain networks has recently attracted much interest due to the increasing availability

  6. Osmotherapy in brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grände, Per-Olof; Romner, Bertil

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been used since the 1960s in diseases associated with brain edema and has been investigated in >150 publications on head injury, very little has been published on the outcome of osmotherapy. We can only speculate whether osmotherapy improves outcome, has no effect......, osmotherapy can be negative for outcome, which may explain why we lack scientific support for its use. These drawbacks, and the fact that the most recent Cochrane meta-analyses of osmotherapy in brain edema and stroke could not find any beneficial effects on outcome, make routine use of osmotherapy in brain...... edema doubtful. Nevertheless, the use of osmotherapy as a temporary measure may be justified to acutely prevent brain stem compression until other measures, such as evacuation of space-occupying lesions or decompressive craniotomy, can be performed. This article is the Con part in a Pro-Con debate...

  7. Characterizing brain oscillations in cognition and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that neuronal oscillations play a fundamental role for shaping the functional architecture of the working brain. This thesis investigates brain oscillations in rat, human healthy population and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. A novel measurement termed

  8. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  9. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Subcortical surgical anatomy of the lateral frontal region: human white matter dissection and correlations with functional insights provided by intraoperative direct brain stimulation: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging and surgical results support the crucial role of white matter in mediating motor and higher-level processing within the frontal lobe, while suggesting the limited compensatory capacity after damage to subcortical structures. Consequently, an accurate knowledge of the anatomofunctional organization of the pathways running within this region is mandatory for planning safe and effective surgical approaches to different diseases. The aim of this dissection study was to improve the neurosurgeon's awareness of the subcortical anatomofunctional architecture for a lateral approach to the frontal region, to optimize both resection and postoperative outcome. Ten human hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected according to the Klingler technique. Proceeding lateromedially, the main association and projection tracts as well as the deeper basal structures were identified. The authors describe the anatomy and the relationships among the exposed structures in both a systematic and topographical surgical perspective. Structural results were also correlated to the functional responses obtained during resections of infiltrative frontal tumors guided by direct cortico-subcortical electrostimulation with patients in the awake condition. The eloquent boundaries crucial for a safe frontal lobectomy or an extensive lesionectomy are as follows: 1) the motor cortex; 2) the pyramidal tract and premotor fibers in the posterior and posteromedial part of the surgical field; 3) the inferior frontooccipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle posterolaterally; and 4) underneath the inferior frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, and the tip of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in the depth. Optimization of results following brain surgery, especially within the frontal lobe, requires a perfect knowledge of functional anatomy, not only at the cortical level but also with regard to subcortical white matter connectivity.

  11. Playing with your Brain : Brain-Computer Interfaces and Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Tan, Desney; Bernhaupt, Regina; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    In this workshop we investigate a possible role of brain-computer interaction in computer games and entertainment computing. The assumption is that brain activity, whether it is consciously controlled and directed by the user or just recorded in order to obtain information about the user’s affective

  12. Playing with your Brain: Brain-Computer Interfaces and Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Tan, Desney; Bernhaupt, R.; Tscheligi, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this workshop we investigate a possible role of brain-computer interaction in computer games and entertainment computing. The assumption is that brain activity, whether it is consciously controlled and directed by the user or just recorded in order to obtain information about the user’s affective

  13. Origin of hyperbolicity in brain-to-brain coordination networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Andjelković, Miroslav; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2018-02-01

    Hyperbolicity or negative curvature of complex networks is the intrinsic geometric proximity of nodes in the graph metric space, which implies an improved network function. Here, we investigate hidden combinatorial geometries in brain-to-brain coordination networks arising through social communications. The networks originate from correlations among EEG signals previously recorded during spoken communications comprising of 14 individuals with 24 speaker-listener pairs. We find that the corresponding networks are delta-hyperbolic with delta_max=1 and the graph diameter D=3 in each brain. While the emergent hyperbolicity in the two-brain networks satisfies delta_max/D/2 neuronal correlation patterns ranging from weak coordination to super-brain structure. These topology features are in qualitative agreement with the listener’s self-reported ratings of own experience and quality of the speaker, suggesting that studies of the cross-brain connector networks can reveal new insight into the neural mechanisms underlying human social behavior.

  14. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  15. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  16. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  17. Brain abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found. However, the most common source is a lung infection. Less often, a heart infection is the cause. The following raise your chance of developing a brain abscess: A weakened immune system (such as in people ...

  18. Linking brain, mind and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeig, Scott; Gramann, Klaus; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard

    2009-08-01

    Cortical brain areas and dynamics evolved to organize motor behavior in our three-dimensional environment also support more general human cognitive processes. Yet traditional brain imaging paradigms typically allow and record only minimal participant behavior, then reduce the recorded data to single map features of averaged responses. To more fully investigate the complex links between distributed brain dynamics and motivated natural behavior, we propose the development of wearable mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) systems that continuously capture the wearer's high-density electrical brain and muscle signals, three-dimensional body movements, audiovisual scene and point of regard, plus new data-driven analysis methods to model their interrelationships. The new imaging modality should allow new insights into how spatially distributed brain dynamics support natural human cognition and agency.

  19. Effect of AVP on brain edema following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; HUANG Wei-dong; LU Yuan-qiang; XU Qiu-ping; CHEN Zhao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level in patients with traumatic brain injury and investigate the role of AVP in the process of brain edema. Methods: A total of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury were involved in our study. They were divided into two groups by Glasgow Coma Scale: severe traumatic brain injury group (STBI, GCS≤ 8) and moderate traumatic brain injury group (MTBI, GCS>8).Samples of venous blood were collected in the morning at rest from 15 healthy volunteers (control group)and within 24 h after traumatic brain injury from these patients for AVP determinations by radioimmunoassay. The severity and duration of the brain edema were estimated by head CT scan.Results: plasma AVP levels (ng/L) were (mean±SD): control, 3.06±1.49; MTBI, 38.12±7.25; and STBI, 66.61±17.10.The plasma level of AVP was significantly increased within 24 h after traumatic brain injury and followed by the reduction of GCS, suggesting the deterioration of cerebral injury (P<0.01). And the AVP level was correlated with the severity (STBI r=0.919, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.724, P<0.01) and the duration of brain edema (STBI r=0.790, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.712, P<0.01). Conclusions: The plasma AVP level is closely associated with the severity of traumatic brain injury. AVP may play an important role in pathogenesis of brain edema after traumatic brain injury.

  20. Brain Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relationship with your doctor(s): • Always report changes in cognition/memory and mood (depression, anxiety). • Make sure your physician ... joint pain. • Exercise regularly. Adequate physical exercise enhances cognition/memory. • Train the Brain! “If you don’t use ...

  1. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of

  2. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  3. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  4. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  5. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain and ... healthy, and remove waste products. All About the Brain The brain is made up of three main ...

  6. The Creative Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Ned

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)

  7. Metabolic Profiles of Brain Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone F. Bathen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the brain is a feared complication of systemic cancer, associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor metabolism might help us meet the challenges in controlling brain metastases. The study aims to characterize the metabolic profile of brain metastases of different origin using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to correlate the metabolic profiles to clinical and pathological information. Biopsy samples of human brain metastases (n = 49 were investigated. A significant correlation between lipid signals and necrosis in brain metastases was observed (p < 0.01, irrespective of their primary origin. The principal component analysis (PCA showed that brain metastases from malignant melanomas cluster together, while lung carcinomas were metabolically heterogeneous and overlap with other subtypes. Metastatic melanomas have higher amounts of glycerophosphocholine than other brain metastases. A significant correlation between microscopically visible lipid droplets estimated by Nile Red staining and MR visible lipid signals was observed in metastatic lung carcinomas (p = 0.01, indicating that the proton MR visible lipid signals arise from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. MRS-based metabolomic profiling is a useful tool for exploring the metabolic profiles of metastatic brain tumors.

  8. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, L.D.; Bennett, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Imaging with radionuclides should be used in a complementary fashion with other neuroradiologic techniques. It is useful in the early detection and evaluation of intracranial neoplasm, cerebrovascular accident and abscess, and in postsurgical follow-up. Cisternography yields useful information about the functional status of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Computerized axial tomography is a new technique of great promise that produced a cross-sectional image of the brain

  9. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions

  10. How age of bilingual exposure can change the neural systems for language in the developing brain: a functional near infrared spectroscopy investigation of syntactic processing in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, K K; Petitto, L A

    2013-10-01

    Is the developing bilingual brain fundamentally similar to the monolingual brain (e.g., neural resources supporting language and cognition)? Or, does early-life bilingual language experience change the brain? If so, how does age of first bilingual exposure impact neural activation for language? We compared how typically-developing bilingual and monolingual children (ages 7-10) and adults recruit brain areas during sentence processing using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging. Bilingual participants included early-exposed (bilingual exposure from birth) and later-exposed individuals (bilingual exposure between ages 4-6). Both bilingual children and adults showed greater neural activation in left-hemisphere classic language areas, and additionally, right-hemisphere homologues (Right Superior Temporal Gyrus, Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus). However, important differences were observed between early-exposed and later-exposed bilinguals in their earliest-exposed language. Early bilingual exposure imparts fundamental changes to classic language areas instead of alterations to brain regions governing higher cognitive executive functions. However, age of first bilingual exposure does matter. Later-exposed bilinguals showed greater recruitment of the prefrontal cortex relative to early-exposed bilinguals and monolinguals. The findings provide fascinating insight into the neural resources that facilitate bilingual language use and are discussed in terms of how early-life language experiences can modify the neural systems underlying human language processing. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabe, Soichiro; Matsuda, Seiji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental st...

  12. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness and brain infarction : the Etude du Profil Génétique de l'Infarctus Cérébral (GENIC) case-control study. The GENIC Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, P J; Elbaz, A; Koller, C; Lucas, C; Adraï, V; Chédru, F; Amarenco, P

    2000-07-18

    BACKGROUND-The use of intima-media thickness (IMT) as an outcome measure in observational studies and intervention trials relies on the view that it reflects early stages of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. There is little knowledge concerning the relation between IMT and brain infarction (BI). METHODS AND RESULTS-We investigated the relation of IMT with BI and its subtypes in 470 cases and 463 controls. Cases with BI proven by MRI were consecutively recruited and classified into subtypes by cause of BI. Controls were recruited among individuals hospitalized at the same institutions and matched for age, sex, and center. IMT was measured at the far wall of both common carotid arteries (CCA) using an automatic detection system. Adventitia-to-adventitia diameters and CCA-IMT were measured on transverse views; lumen diameter was computed using these measures. Mean (+/-SEM) CCA-IMT was higher in cases (0.797+/-0.006 mm) than in controls (0.735+/-0.006 mm; P<0. 0001). This difference remained after adjustment for lumen diameter and when analyses were restricted to subjects free of previous cardiovascular or cerebrovascular history. The difference in CCA-IMT between cases and controls was significant in the main subtypes. The risk of BI increased continuously with increasing CCA-IMT. The odds ratio per SD increase (0.150 mm) was 1.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.54 to 2.15); adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors slightly attenuated this relation (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 2.07). CONCLUSIONS-An increased CCA-IMT was associated with BI, both overall and in the main subtypes. An increased IMT may help select patients at high risk for BI.

  13. Brain aging, Alzheimer's disease, and mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is contentious. One view holds AD results when brain aging surpasses a threshold. The other view postulates AD is not a consequence of brain aging. This review discusses this conundrum from the perspective of different investigative lines that have tried to address it, as well as from the perspective of the mitochondrion, an organelle that appears to play a role in both AD and brain aging. Specific issues addressed include the question of whether AD and brain aging should be conceptually lumped or split, the extent to which AD and brain aging potentially share common molecular mechanisms, whether beta amyloid should be primarily considered a marker of AD or simply brain aging, and the definition of AD itself. PMID:21920438

  14. Differential diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging on brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoya; Yin Jie; Wang Kunpeng; Zhang Jiandang; Liang Biling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)on brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumors. Methods: 27 cases with brain abscesses and 33 cases with necrotic or cystic brain tumors (gliomas or metastases) were performed conventional MRI and DWI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of region of interest (ROI) was measured and statistically tested. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared with conventional MR and DWI. Results: Hyperintensity signal was seen on most brain abscesses. All necrotic or cystic brain tumors showed hypointensity signal on DWI. There was statistical significance on ADC of them. The sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI was lower than that of DWI. Conclusion: DWI and ADC were useful in distinguishing brain abscessed from necrotic or cystic brain tumors, which was important in addition to conventional MRI. (authors)

  15. Involvement of brain gangliosides in temperature adaptation of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breer, H.; Rahmann, H.

    1976-10-01

    The ganglioside pattern of goldfish brain was investigated after adaptation (acclimatization, acclimation) to different temperatures. Adaptation at lower ambient temperature causes a higher proportion of polysialogangliosides to be formed in fish brain.

  16. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...

  17. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  18. That's Using Your Brain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Dana R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses new adult learning theories, including those of Roger Sperry (left brain/right brain), Paul McLean (triune brain), and Howard Gardner (multiple intelligences). Relates adult learning theory to training. (JOW)

  19. Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0166 TITLE: Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ravi Allada CONTRACTING...1. REPORT DATE June 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1June2016 - 31May2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain ...proposal will test the hypothesis that correcting sleep disorders can have a therapeutic effect onTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) The majority of TBI

  20. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Ohashi, H; Nagai, H; Kakimi, S; Ogawa, Y; Iwata, Y; Ishii, K

    1993-12-31

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer`s disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer`s disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author).

  1. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  2. Brain banking for immunocytochemistry and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymin, C.; Jordan, D.; Saint-Pierre, G.; Kopp, N.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of a human brain bank is to establish groups of matched brains (normal control versus pathological groups) for studying human diseases of the nervous system. This bank is obtained by means of autopsy performed with a very short post-mortem delay and from clinically and neuropathologically well-documented patients. According to research protocols, two types of brain tissue storage are performed: fixed tissue or frozen tissue. Brain dissection procedures are performed according to precise anatomical boundaries of each brain region. This paper will center on the questions raised by brain banking in relation to histological and immunocytochemical studies and to biochemistry and autoradiography of binding sites. The lack of neuroanatomical data of the human brain leads us to compare anatomical results obtained in animals to that of the human. Moreover, it is clear that human brains present numerous interindividual differences (Kopp et al., 1977; Jack et al., 1989). Therefore, investigations of the human brain should be made on a large series of brains indicating the necessity of a well-documented brain bank of tissue from normal controls and patients. (authors)

  3. Prognostic factors for outcomes after whole-brain irradiation of brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors: a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyners, T.; Heisterkamp, C.; Kueter, J.D.; Veninga, T.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Schild, S.E.; Rades, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study investigated potential prognostic factors in patients treated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone for brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. Additionally, a potential benefit from

  4. Prognostic factors for outcomes after whole-brain irradiation of brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors: a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyners, Thekla; Heisterkamp, Christine; Kueter, Jan-Dirk; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Schild, Steven E.; Rades, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated potential prognostic factors in patients treated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone for brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. Additionally, a potential benefit from escalating the

  5. Brain SPECT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)

  6. Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao

    2014-10-01

    Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain.

  7. Stem cells to regenerate the newborn brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velthoven, C.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a frequent cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality with limited therapeutic options. In this thesis we investigate whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) regenerate the neonatal brain after HI injury. We show that transplantation of MSC after neonatal brain injury

  8. D-BRAIN : Anatomically accurate simulated diffusion MRI brain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT

  9. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  10. Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI: establishing functional links between two brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Schik Yoo

    Full Text Available Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI. In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat, thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI. The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications.

  11. Brain and heart disease studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Sargent, T.W. III; Yen, C.K.; Friedland, R.F.; Moyer, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    Highlights of important studies completed during the past year using the Donner 280-crystal positron ring tomograph are summarized in this article. Using rubidium-82, images of a brain tumor and an arteriovenous malformation are described. An image demonstrating methionine uptake in a patient with schizophrenia and an image reflecting sugar metabolism in the brain of a man with Alzheimer's disease are also included. Uptake of rubidium-82 in subjects before and after exercise is being investigated. The synthesis of new radiopharmaceuticals and the development of a new synthesis for C-taurine for use in the study of metabolism in the human heart are also being studied

  12. Brain Science of Ethics: Present Status and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Funane, Tsukasa; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in technologies for neuroscientific research enable us to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the human ethical sense. This article introduces several findings in "the brain science of ethics" obtained through "brain-observation" and "brain-manipulation" approaches. Studies over the past decade have revealed that several…

  13. Headache and Vascular Events with Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, performed a retrospective study of 265 children with brain tumors who received cranial irradiation and developed severe recurrent headache.

  14. Subcortical Brain Morphology in Schizophrenia : Descriptive analysis based on MRI findings of subcortical brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gunleiksrud, Sindre

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic resonance images (MR) from patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects for difference in brain morphology with focus on subcortical brain volumes. Method: The study compared fourteen subcortical brain structure volumes of 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=81) or schizoaffective disorder (n=15) with 106 healthy control subjects. Volume measures were obtained using voxel-based morphometry (FreeSurfer software suite) of ...

  15. Brain Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain cancer refers to growths of malignant cells in tissues of the brain. Tumors that start in the brain are called primary brain tumors. Tumors that spread to the brain are called metastatic brain tumors. Start here to find information on brain cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  16. Neuroscience, brains, and computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorno Maria Innocenti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of the neurosciences in establishing what the brain is and how states of the brain relate to states of the mind. The brain is viewed as a computational deviceperforming operations on symbols. However, the brain is a special purpose computational devicedesigned by evolution and development for survival and reproduction, in close interaction with theenvironment. The hardware of the brain (its structure is very different from that of man-made computers.The computational style of the brain is also very different from traditional computers: the computationalalgorithms, instead of being sets of external instructions, are embedded in brain structure. Concerningthe relationships between brain and mind a number of questions lie ahead. One of them is why andhow, only the human brain grasped the notion of God, probably only at the evolutionary stage attainedby Homo sapiens.

  17. Peripersonal space in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Research in neuroscience reveals that the brain constructs multiple representation of space. Here, we primarily focus on peripersonal space (PPS) representation, the region of space immediately surrounding our bodies and in which objects can be grasped and manipulated. We review convergent results from several generations of studies, including neurophysiological studies in animals, neuropsychological investigations in monkeys and brain-damaged patients with spatial cognition disorders, as well as recent neuroimaging experiments in neurologically normal individuals. Collectively, these studies show that the primate brain constructs multiple, rapidly modifiable representations of space, centered on different body parts (i.e., hand-centered, head-centered, and trunk-centered), which arise through extensive multisensory interactions within a set of interconnected parietal and frontal regions. PPS representations are pivotal in the sensory guidance of motor behavior, allowing us to interact with objects and, as demonstrated by recent studies, with other people in the space around us. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  19. Shapley ratings in brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kötter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent applications of network theory to brain networks as well as the expanding empirical databases of brain architecture spawn an interest in novel techniques for analyzing connectivity patterns in the brain. Treating individual brain structures as nodes in a directed graph model permits the application of graph theoretical concepts to the analysis of these structures within their large-scale connectivity networks. In this paper, we explore the application of concepts from graph and game theory toward this end. Specifically, we utilize the Shapley value principle, which assigns a rank to players in a coalition based upon their individual contributions to the collective profit of that coalition, to assess the contributions of individual brain structures to the graph derived from the global connectivity network. We report Shapley values for variations of a prefrontal network, as well as for a visual cortical network, which had both been extensively investigated previously. This analysis highlights particular nodes as strong or weak contributors to global connectivity. To understand the nature of their contribution, we compare the Shapley values obtained from these networks and appropriate controls to other previously described nodal measures of structural connectivity. We find a strong correlation between Shapley values and both betweenness centrality and connection density. Moreover, a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicates that approximately 79% of the variance in Shapley values obtained from random networks can be explained by betweenness centrality alone. Finally, we investigate the effects of local lesions on the Shapley ratings, showing that the present networks have an immense structural resistance to degradation. We discuss our results highlighting the use of such measures for characterizing the organization and functional role of brain networks.

  20. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  1. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Soichiro; Matsuda, Seiji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI) was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  2. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  3. Brain docosahexaenoic acid uptake and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, R J Scott; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Bazinet, Richard P

    2018-02-08

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain with DHA, recent evidence suggests non-esterified-DHA and lysophosphatidylcholine-DHA are the primary sources. The uptake of DHA into the brain appears to be regulated by a number of complementary pathways associated with the activation and metabolism of DHA, and may provide mechanisms for enrichment of DHA within the brain. Following entry into the brain, DHA is esterified into and recycled amongst membrane phospholipids contributing the distribution of DHA in brain phospholipids. During neurotransmission and following brain injury, DHA is released from membrane phospholipids and converted to bioactive mediators which regulate signaling pathways important to synaptogenesis, cell survival, and neuroinflammation, and may be relevant to treating neurological diseases. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive overview of brain DHA metabolism, encompassing many of the pathways and key enzymatic regulators governing brain DHA uptake and metabolism. In addition, we focus on the release of non-esterified DHA and subsequent production of bioactive mediators and the evidence of their proposed activity within the brain. We also provide a brief review of the evidence from post-mortem brain analyses investigating DHA levels in the context of neurological disease and mood disorder, highlighting the current disparities within the field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Keeping brains young with making music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Kernbach, Julius; Schlaug, Gottfried; Gaser, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Music-making is a widespread leisure and professional activity that has garnered interest over the years due to its effect on brain and cognitive development and its potential as a rehabilitative and restorative therapy of brain dysfunctions. We investigated whether music-making has a potential age-protecting effect on the brain. For this, we studied anatomical magnetic resonance images obtained from three matched groups of subjects who differed in their lifetime dose of music-making activities (i.e., professional musicians, amateur musicians, and non-musicians). For each subject, we calculated a so-called BrainAGE score which corresponds to the discrepancy (in years) between chronological age and the "age of the brain", with negative values reflecting an age-decelerating brain and positive values an age-accelerating brain, respectively. The index of "brain age" was estimated using a machine-learning algorithm that was trained in a large independent sample to identify anatomical correlates of brain-aging. Compared to non-musicians, musicians overall had lower BrainAGE scores, with amateur musicians having the lowest scores suggesting that music-making has an age-decelerating effect on the brain. Unlike the amateur musicians, the professional musicians showed a positive correlation between their BrainAGE scores and years of music-making, possibly indicating that engaging more intensely in just one otherwise enriching activity might not be as beneficial than if the activity is one of several that an amateur musician engages in. Intense music-making activities at a professional level could also lead to stress-related interferences and a less enriched environment than that of amateur musicians, possibly somewhat diminishing the otherwise positive effect of music-making.

  5. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Estrogen on Penetrating Brain Arterioles and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J.; Godfrey, Julie A.; Wiegman, Marchien J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effect of estrogen replacement on the structure and function of penetrating brain arterioles (PA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Materials and Methods: Female ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were replaced with estradiol (E-2) and estriol (E-3) (OVX + E;

  6. Macroscopic networks in the human brain: mapping connectivity in healthy and damaged brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain contains a network of interconnected neurons. Recent advances in functional and structural in-vivo magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) techniques have provided opportunities to model the networks of the human brain on a macroscopic scale. This dissertation investigates the

  7. Perturbation of whole-brain dynamics in silico reveals mechanistic differences between brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deco, Gustavo; Cabral, Joana; Saenger, Victor M; Boly, Melanie; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Van Someren, Eus; Jobst, Beatrice; Stevner, Angus; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2017-01-01

    Human neuroimaging research has revealed that wakefulness and sleep involve very different activity patterns. Yet, it is not clear why brain states differ in their dynamical complexity, e.g. in the level of integration and segregation across brain networks over time. Here, we investigate the

  8. Perturbation of whole-brain dynamics in silico reveals mechanistic differences between brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deco, Gustavo; Cabral, Joana; Saenger, Victor M; Boly, Melanie; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Van Someren, Eus; Jobst, Beatrice M; Stevner, Angus B A; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2018-01-01

    Human neuroimaging research has revealed that wakefulness and sleep involve very different activity patterns. Yet, it is not clear why brain states differ in their dynamical complexity, e.g. in the level of integration and segregation across brain networks over time. Here, we investigate the

  9. Dance and the brain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Falisha J; Giacosa, Chiara; Foster, Nicholas E V; Penhune, Virginia B; Hyde, Krista L

    2015-03-01

    Dance is a universal form of human expression that offers a rich source for scientific study. Dance provides a unique opportunity to investigate brain plasticity and its interaction with behavior. Several studies have investigated the behavioral correlates of dance, but less is known about the brain basis of dance. Studies on dance observation suggest that long- and short-term dance training affect brain activity in the action observation and simulation networks. Despite methodological challenges, the feasibility of conducting neuroimaging while dancing has been demonstrated, and several brain regions have been implicated in dance execution. Preliminary work from our laboratory suggests that long-term dance training changes both gray and white matter structure. This article provides a critical summary of work investigating the neural correlates of dance. It covers functional neuroimaging studies of dance observation and performance as well as structural neuroimaging studies of expert dancers. To stimulate ongoing dialogue between dance and science, future directions in dance and brain research as well as implications are discussed. Research on the neuroscience of dance will lead to a better understanding of brain-behavior relationships and brain plasticity in experts and nonexperts and can be applied to the development of dance-based therapy programs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Corballis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  11. Biomechanics of the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from scientists at major institutions, this book presents an introduction to brain anatomy for engineers and scientists. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive resource in the field of brain biomechanics.

  12. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  13. Aneurysm in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/001414.htm Aneurysm in the brain To use the sharing features on this page, ... aneurysm occurs in a blood vessel of the brain, it is called a cerebral, or intracranial, aneurysm. ...

  14. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  15. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  16. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  17. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  18. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  19. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  20. Numbers and brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-12-01

    The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.

  1. Protect Your Brain

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    At least three and a half million people in the U.S. sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), either with or without other injuries. This podcast discusses the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries.

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain injury Some traumatic brain injuries have lasting effects, and some do not. You may be left with disabilities. These can be physical, behavioral, communicative, and/or mental. Customized treatment helps you to have as full ...

  3. Right Brain Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Adryce C.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes activities of a weekly enrichment class providing right-brain tasks to gifted elementary students. Activities, which centered on artistic creativity, were taken from "Drawing On the Right Side of the Brain" by B. Edwards. (CL)

  4. Insulin and the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosu Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain represents an important site for the action of insulin. Besides the traditionally known importance in glucoregulation, insulin has significant neurotrophic properties and influences the brain activity: insulin influences eating behavior, regulates the storage of energy and several aspects concerning memory and knowledge. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism could be associated with brain aging, vascular and metabolic pathologies. Elucidating the pathways and metabolism of brain insulin could have a major impact on future targeted therapies.

  5. Brain cancer spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue).......The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue)....

  6. Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Terence

    2014-07-01

    The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling......Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  8. Brain MR imaging in dietarily treated phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breysem, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Smet, M.H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Johannik, K. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Hecke, P. van [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Francois, B. [L. Willems Inst., Diepenbeek (Belgium); Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, G. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Jaeken, J. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demaerel, P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1994-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the most efficient imaging modality to evaluate brain gray and white matter of patients with metabolic diseases. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the relation between brain MRI abnormalities and the phenylalanine (phe) and tyrosine (tyr) blood levels in 38 phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. Increased periventricular white matter intensity on T2-weighted brain images was the only pathologic finding in 24 patients. Brain MRI abnormalities were scored (4) and correlated with the individual mean phe and phe/tyr levels during 1 year preceding MR examination and with phe tolerance. The residual activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase was defined for each patient by an oral phe tolerance. The appearance of MRI abnormalities on brain T2-weighted images correlates with a threshold mean phe level (averaged over the year preceding the examination). (orig.)

  9. Brain MR imaging in dietarily treated phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysem, L.; Smet, M.H.; Johannik, K.; Hecke, P. van; Francois, B.; Wilms, G.; Bosmans, H.; Marchal, G.; Jaeken, J.; Demaerel, P.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the most efficient imaging modality to evaluate brain gray and white matter of patients with metabolic diseases. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the relation between brain MRI abnormalities and the phenylalanine (phe) and tyrosine (tyr) blood levels in 38 phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. Increased periventricular white matter intensity on T2-weighted brain images was the only pathologic finding in 24 patients. Brain MRI abnormalities were scored (4) and correlated with the individual mean phe and phe/tyr levels during 1 year preceding MR examination and with phe tolerance. The residual activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase was defined for each patient by an oral phe tolerance. The appearance of MRI abnormalities on brain T2-weighted images correlates with a threshold mean phe level (averaged over the year preceding the examination). (orig.)

  10. Brain Migration Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals for brain - SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Perfusion tracers for brain SPECT imaging suitable for regional cerebral blood flow measurement and regional cerebral blood volume determination, with respect to their ability to pass the blood-brain-barrier, are described. Problems related t the use of specific radiotracers to map receptors distribution in the brain are also discussed in this lecture. 9 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Brain Research and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, Mary

    Current research on brain activity has many implications for educators. The triune brain concept and the left and right hemisphere concepts are among the many complex theories evolving from experimentation and observation. The triune brain concept suggests that the human forebrain has expanded while retaining three structurally unique formations…

  13. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  14. Clinic-like animal model for causal-pathogenetical investigations of hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. Combined application of the radioactive labelled microsphere method and Positron Emission Tomography. Kliniknahes Tiermodell fuer kausal-pathogenetische Untersuchungen hypoxisch-ischaemischer Hirnschaedigung. Kombinierter Einsatz von Mikrosphaeren-Methode und Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, R.; Zwiener, U.; Bergmann, R. (Univ. Jena, Inst. fuer Pathologische Physiologie (Germany)); Manfrass, P.; Enghardt, W.; Fromm, W.D. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Bereich Festkoeper- und Kernphysik, Rossendorf (Germany)); Hoyer, D.; Guenther, K. (Leipzig Univ., Radiologische Klinik (Germany)); Schubert, H. (Univ. Jena, Tierexperimentelles Zentrum (Germany)); Beyer, R.; Beyer, G.J.; Steinbach, J.; Kretzschmer, M. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Bereich Radioaktive Isotope, Rossendorf (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    The complex nature of the pathogenesis in hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries equires the combined determination of the dynamics of main factors in these disturbing processes. The application of suitable methods for registration of such pathogenetic processes is shown in an adequate animal model for simulating the early hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. That the radioactive labelled microsphere technique is suitable to comprehend quantitively the dynamics of the intracerebral redistribution of the circulating blood due to hypoxia/hypercapnia by simultaneous-multiple measuring of the regional cerebral blood flow. Therefore, at the first time an inadequate hypoxic-induced blood flow increase was shown in large parts of the forebrain in intrauterine growth retarded newborn piglets. For estimation of the regional cerebral glucose utilization in newborn piglets, the {sup 18}F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography is introduced. The measurements were carried out on a stationary high-density avalanche chamber (HIDAC) camera and yielded the fundamental application of this camera model for PET investigations also in the newborn brain due to the very good spatial resolution. (orig.).

  15. Brain connectivity in normally developing children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Lewis, John D; Zhao, Lu; Chouinard-Decorte, François; Evans, Alan C

    2016-07-01

    The developing human brain undergoes an astonishing sequence of events that continuously shape the structural and functional brain connectivity. Distinct regional variations in the timelines of maturational events (synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning) occurring at the synaptic level are reflected in brain measures at macroscopic resolution (cortical thickness and gray matter density). Interestingly, the observed brain changes coincide with cognitive milestones suggesting that the changing scaffold of brain circuits may subserve cognitive development. Recent advances in connectivity analysis propelled by graph theory have allowed, on one hand, the investigation of maturational changes in global organization of structural and functional brain networks; and on the other hand, the exploration of specific networks within the context of global brain networks. An emerging picture from several connectivity studies is a system-level rewiring that constantly refines the connectivity of the developing brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. D-BRAIN : Anatomically accurate simulated diffusion MRI brain data

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT algorithms have been developed. However, it is not clear how accurately these methods reproduce the WM bundle characteristics in real-world conditions, such as in the presence of noise, partial volume...

  17. [Gambling brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Kosuke; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic mental disorder, and patients cannot stop gambling despite severe negative consequences, such as huge debts, job loss, family break-up, and so on. It is said that PG is more prevalent in Japan than in Western countries. However, PG has not received much attention and has even been thought of as a lack of will to stop gambling rather than a mental disorder. PG has been classified under "Impulse-Control Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified," along with compulsive stealing (kleptomania), starting fires (pyromania) and hair-pulling (trichotillomania), but accumulative evidence suggests that PG has many similarities with substance use disorders. Therefore, PG is being proposed to be classified under "Addiction and Related Disorders" in the DSM-5 draft. In this article, we review neuroimaging studies on PG on the basis of 4 dimensions - sensitivity to monetary reward and loss, craving and cue reactivity, impulsivity, and decision-making. In general, PG patients show reduced sensitivity to both monetary reward and loss, increased gamble-related cue reactivity, and increased impulsivity. In contrast, decision-making contains many elements, and hence, future neuroimaging studies on PG should focus on these individual elements. Some efforts have been made to combine molecular neuroimaging (positron emission tomography) with neuroeconomics to investigate the roles of neurotransmitters in altered decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the molecular mechanism of extreme or impaired decision-making could contribute to the assessment and prevention of drug and gambling addictions and to the development of novel pharmacological therapies for these addictions.

  18. Instant BrainShark

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. ""Instant BrainShark"" is a step-by-step guide to creating online presentations using BrainShark. The book covers digital marketing best practices alongside tips for sales conversions. The book is written in an easy-to-read style for anybody to easily pick up and get started with BrainShark.Instant BrainShark is for anyone who wants to use BrainShark to create presentations online and share them around the community. The book is also useful for developers who are looking to explore

  19. David Ferrier: brain drawings and brain maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter has two emphases, one is about the men who influenced the visual representations that David Ferrier (1843-1928) used to illustrate his work on localization of brain functions during the years 1873-1875, namely, Alexander Ecker, John C. Galton, and Ernest Waterlow, and the other is about the nature of medical representations and of Ferrier's illustrations in particular. Medical illustrations are characterized either as pictures, line drawings, or brain maps. Ferrier's illustrations will be shown to be increasingly sophisticated brain maps that contrast with early nineteenth-century standards of medical illustrations, as exemplified by John Bell (1763-1829). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Virtual Brain: a simulator of primate brain network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eSanz Leon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present TheVirtualBrain (TVB, a neuroinformatics platform for full brainnetwork simulations using biologically realistic connectivity. This simulationenvironment enables the model-based inference of neurophysiological mechanismsacross different brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopicneuroimaging signals including functional MRI (fMRI, EEG and MEG. Researchersfrom different backgrounds can benefit from an integrative software platformincluding a supporting framework for data management (generation,organization, storage, integration and sharing and a simulation core writtenin Python. TVB allows the reproduction and evaluation of personalizedconfigurations of the brain by using individual subject data. Thispersonalization facilitates an exploration of the consequences of pathologicalchanges in the system, permitting to investigate potential ways to counteractsuch unfavorable processes. The architecture of TVB supports interaction withMATLAB packages, for example, the well known Brain Connectivity Toolbox. TVBcan be used in a client-server configuration, such that it can be remotelyaccessed through the Internet thanks to its web-basedHTML5, JS and WebGL graphical user interface. TVB is alsoaccessible as a standalone cross-platform Python library and application, andusers can interact with the scientific core through the scripting interfaceIDLE, enabling easy modeling, development and debugging of the scientifickernel. This second interface makes TVB extensible by combining it with otherlibraries and modules developed by the Python scientific community. In this article, we describe the theoretical background and foundations that led to thedevelopment of TVB, the architecture and features of its major softwarecomponents as well as potential neuroscience applications.

  1. Endothelial cell marker PAL-E reactivity in brain tumor, developing brain, and brain disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, S.; Troost, D.; Das, P. K.; Claessen, N.; Becker, A. E.; Bosch, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The endothelial cell marker PAL-E is not reactive to vessels in the normal brain. The present study concerns the PAL-E reactivity in brain tumors in contrast to normal brain and nonneoplastic brain disease. A total of 122 specimens were examined: brain tumors (n = 94), nonneoplastic brain disease (n

  2. Mapping brain function to brain anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, D.J.; Huang, H.K.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    In Imaging the human brain, MRI is commonly used to reveal anatomical structure, while PET is used to reveal tissue function. This paper presents a protocol for correlating data between these two imaging modalities; this correlation can provide in vivo regional measurements of brain function which are essential to our understanding of the human brain. The authors propose a general protocol to standardize the acquisition and analysis of functional image data. First, MR and PET images are collected to form three-dimensional volumes of structural and functional image data. Second, these volumes of image data are corrected for distortions inherent in each imaging modality. Third, the image volumes are correlated to provide correctly aligned structural and functional images. The functional images are then mapped onto the structural images in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations. Finally, morphometric techniques can be used to provide statistical measures of the structure and function of the human brain

  3. Brain imaging during seizure: ictal brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottamasu, Sambasiva Rao

    1997-01-01

    The role of single photon computed tomography (SPECT) in presurgical localization of medically intractable complex partial epilepsy (CPE) in children is reviewed. 99m Technetium neurolite, a newer lipophylic agent with a high first pass brain extraction and little or no redistribution is injected during a seizure, while the child is monitored with a video recording and continuous EEG and SPECT imaging is performed in the next 1-3 hours with the images representing regional cerebral profusion at the time of injection. On SPECT studies performed with radiopharmaceutical injected during a seizure, ictal focus is generally hypervascular. Other findings on ictal brain SPECT include hypoperfusion of adjacent cerebral cortex and white matter, hyperperfusion of contralateral motor cortex, hyperperfusion of ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus, brain stem and contralateral cerebellum. Ictal brain SPECT is non-invasive, cost effective and highly sensitive for localization of epileptic focus in patients with intractable CPE. (author)

  4. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  5. Brain drain of China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Under the background of globalization, brain drain is a common phenomenon in many countries. Talents flow from developing countries to developed countries, and this phenomenon unavoidably exerts various and profound influences to both the source countries and the receiving countries. This thesis deals with the phenomenon of brain drain with the aim to investigate the phenomenon further and carry out two case studies of China and India. The research method is main...

  6. Problems in accurately diagnosing and follow-up for a higher brain dysfunction after traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Ikoma, Katsunori; Oshiro, Akiko; Hoshino, Hirokatsu; Gando, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the occurrence of a higher brain dysfunction after brain injury has been socially noticed and epidemiological investigations have thus been performed. However, most of these previous investigations tended to be based on populations in a chronic stage after brain trauma. We hypothesized that some patients with a higher brain dysfunction were socially in extreme distress after being discharged from our hospital due to a lack of any follow-up treatment. We investigated this problem to identify possible problems in diagnosing and follow-up for a higher brain dysfunction after blunt traumatic brain injury at a tertiary emergency center. A questionnaire survey was performed for 204 blunt trauma patients who had been admitted during the period from January 2000 thorough December 2003. Clinical examinations were performed for patients suspected of having a higher brain dysfunction based on this questionnaire survey. Three patients had been already diagnosed to have a higher brain dysfunction while other 3 patients were newly diagnosed in this investigation. The newly diagnosed patients discharged from departments other than the neurosurgery department. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 82% patients (65 patients) to diagnose major brain injury or bone fracture. No magnetic resonance image was performed to detect any minor brain injury in alert patients. Overlooking the occurrence of a higher brain dysfunction may result from an insufficient recognition of higher brain dysfunction and an insufficient sensitivity of the present diagnostic methods available for minor brain injury. An increased awareness regarding the potential of a higher brain dysfunction existing in such patients is therefore needed by the entire medical staff and the general public. (author)

  7. Surgical Resection Followed by Whole Brain Radiotherapy Versus Whole Brain Radiotherapy Alone for Single Brain Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Kieckebusch, Susanne; Haatanen, Tiina; Lohynska, Radka; Dunst, Juergen; Schild, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcome of surgical resection followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with WBRT alone in patients treated for single brain metastasis. Methods and Materials: The data from 195 patients with single brain metastases were retrospectively evaluated. Of the 195 patients, 99 underwent resection of the metastasis followed by WBRT and 96 underwent WBRT alone. Seven additional potential prognostic factors were investigated: age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score, tumor type, interval between initial tumor diagnosis and WBRT, extracranial metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis class. Both treatment groups were well balanced for these factors. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved survival was associated with resection (relative risk [RR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.31; p < 0.001), lower recursive partitioning analysis class (RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22-2.06; p < 0.001), age ≤61 years (RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61; p = 0.002), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0-1 (RR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.70-3.59; p < 0.001), and the absence of extracranial metastases (RR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.79; p < 0.001). Improved local control was associated with resection (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.41; p < 0.001) and age ≤61 years (RR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.09-2.88; p = 0.020). Improved brain control distant from the original site was associated with lower recursive partitioning analysis class (RR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.03-2.69; p < 0.035), age ≤61 years (RR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.12-2.96; p = 0.016), and the absence of extracranial metastases (RR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.52-3.88; p < 0.001). Improved control within the entire brain was associated with surgery (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.12-1.38; p < 0.001) and age ≤61 years (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.21-2.77; p = 0.004). Conclusion: In patients with a single brain metastasis, the addition of resection to WBRT improved survival, local control at the original metastatic site, and control

  8. A SPECT study of language and brain reorganization three years after pediatric brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu Wong, Stephanie B; Chapman, Sandra B; Cook, Lois G; Anand, Raksha; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Devous, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), we investigated brain plasticity in children 3 years after sustaining a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). First, we assessed brain perfusion patterns (i.e., the extent of brain blood flow to regions of the brain) at rest in eight children who suffered severe TBI as compared to perfusion patterns in eight normally developing children. Second, we examined differences in perfusion between children with severe TBI who showed good versus poor recovery in complex discourse skills. Specifically, the children were asked to produce and abstract core meaning for two stories in the form of a lesson. Inconsistent with our predictions, children with severe TBI showed areas of increased perfusion as compared to normally developing controls. Adult studies have shown the reverse pattern with TBI associated with reduced perfusion. With regard to the second aim and consistent with previously identified brain-discourse relations, we found a strong positive association between perfusion in right frontal regions and discourse abstraction abilities, with higher perfusion linked to better discourse outcomes and lower perfusion linked to poorer discourse outcomes. Furthermore, brain-discourse patterns of increased perfusion in left frontal regions were associated with lower discourse abstraction ability. The results are discussed in terms of how brain changes may represent adaptive and maladaptive plasticity. The findings offer direction for future studies of brain plasticity in response to neurocognitive treatments.

  9. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  10. The Virtual Brain: a simulator of primate brain network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Leon, Paula; Knock, Stuart A; Woodman, M Marmaduke; Domide, Lia; Mersmann, Jochen; McIntosh, Anthony R; Jirsa, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    We present The Virtual Brain (TVB), a neuroinformatics platform for full brain network simulations using biologically realistic connectivity. This simulation environment enables the model-based inference of neurophysiological mechanisms across different brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopic neuroimaging signals including functional MRI (fMRI), EEG and MEG. Researchers from different backgrounds can benefit from an integrative software platform including a supporting framework for data management (generation, organization, storage, integration and sharing) and a simulation core written in Python. TVB allows the reproduction and evaluation of personalized configurations of the brain by using individual subject data. This personalization facilitates an exploration of the consequences of pathological changes in the system, permitting to investigate potential ways to counteract such unfavorable processes. The architecture of TVB supports interaction with MATLAB packages, for example, the well known Brain Connectivity Toolbox. TVB can be used in a client-server configuration, such that it can be remotely accessed through the Internet thanks to its web-based HTML5, JS, and WebGL graphical user interface. TVB is also accessible as a standalone cross-platform Python library and application, and users can interact with the scientific core through the scripting interface IDLE, enabling easy modeling, development and debugging of the scientific kernel. This second interface makes TVB extensible by combining it with other libraries and modules developed by the Python scientific community. In this article, we describe the theoretical background and foundations that led to the development of TVB, the architecture and features of its major software components as well as potential neuroscience applications.

  11. The Virtual Brain: a simulator of primate brain network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Leon, Paula; Knock, Stuart A.; Woodman, M. Marmaduke; Domide, Lia; Mersmann, Jochen; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Jirsa, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    We present The Virtual Brain (TVB), a neuroinformatics platform for full brain network simulations using biologically realistic connectivity. This simulation environment enables the model-based inference of neurophysiological mechanisms across different brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopic neuroimaging signals including functional MRI (fMRI), EEG and MEG. Researchers from different backgrounds can benefit from an integrative software platform including a supporting framework for data management (generation, organization, storage, integration and sharing) and a simulation core written in Python. TVB allows the reproduction and evaluation of personalized configurations of the brain by using individual subject data. This personalization facilitates an exploration of the consequences of pathological changes in the system, permitting to investigate potential ways to counteract such unfavorable processes. The architecture of TVB supports interaction with MATLAB packages, for example, the well known Brain Connectivity Toolbox. TVB can be used in a client-server configuration, such that it can be remotely accessed through the Internet thanks to its web-based HTML5, JS, and WebGL graphical user interface. TVB is also accessible as a standalone cross-platform Python library and application, and users can interact with the scientific core through the scripting interface IDLE, enabling easy modeling, development and debugging of the scientific kernel. This second interface makes TVB extensible by combining it with other libraries and modules developed by the Python scientific community. In this article, we describe the theoretical background and foundations that led to the development of TVB, the architecture and features of its major software components as well as potential neuroscience applications. PMID:23781198

  12. Handbook of Brain Connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jirsa, Viktor K

    2007-01-01

    Our contemporary understanding of brain function is deeply rooted in the ideas of the nonlinear dynamics of distributed networks. Cognition and motor coordination seem to arise from the interactions of local neuronal networks, which themselves are connected in large scales across the entire brain. The spatial architectures between various scales inevitably influence the dynamics of the brain and thereby its function. But how can we integrate brain connectivity amongst these structural and functional domains? Our Handbook provides an account of the current knowledge on the measurement, analysis and theory of the anatomical and functional connectivity of the brain. All contributors are leading experts in various fields concerning structural and functional brain connectivity. In the first part of the Handbook, the chapters focus on an introduction and discussion of the principles underlying connected neural systems. The second part introduces the currently available non-invasive technologies for measuring struct...

  13. Quantitative imaging of brain chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    We can now measure how chemicals affect different regions of the human brain. One area involves the study of drugs - in-vivo neuro-pharmacology; another involves the study of toxic chemical effects - in vivo neurotoxicology. The authors approach is to label drugs with positron-emitting radioactive tracers - chiefly carbon-11 with a half-life of 20 minutes and fluorine-18 with a half-life of 110 minutes. The labeled drugs are injected intravenously and a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is used to map out the distribution of the radioactivity within the brain from the moment of injection until about 90 minutes later. Mathematical models are used to calculate receptor concentrations and the affinity of the receptors for the injected radioactive tracer. By means of PET scanning, they look at cross sections or visual slices throughout the human brain, obtaining computer-generated images in any plane. The authors are investigating the functions of specific drugs or specific receptors, as well as looking at the metabolic activity in different parts of the brain as revealed in glucose metabolism. For example, the authors are studying opiate receptors in patients with a variety of conditions: those who suffer from chronic pain, those who are congenitally insensitive to pain and drug addicts. They are studying patients with schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depressed patients and sex-offenders. They are relating the state of the neurotransmitter/neuroreceptor systems to behavior. In essence, they believe that they can now examine in living human beings what relates the structure of the brain to the function of the mind that is chemistry

  14. Whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost for brain metastases in patients with malignant melanoma–a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauswald, Henrik; Habl, Gregor; Krug, David; Kehle, Denise; Combs, Stephanie E; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Debus, Jürgen; Sterzing, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Patients with malignant melanoma may develop brain metastases during the course of the disease, requiring radiotherapeutic treatment. In patients with 1–3 brain metastases, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option besides surgery. For patients with 4 or more brain metastases, whole brain radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment. In certain patients with brain metastases, radiation treatment using whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost and hippocampal-sparing may improve prognosis of these patients. The present prospective, randomized two-armed trial aims to exploratory investigate the treatment response to conventional whole brain radiotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions versus whole brain helical Tomotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions with an integrated boost of 50 Gy to the brain metastases as well as hippocampal-sparing in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. The main inclusion criteria include magnetic resonance imaging confirmed brain metastases from a histopathologically confirmed malignant melanoma in patients with a minimum age of 18 years. The main exclusion criteria include a previous radiotherapy of the brain and not having recovered from acute high-grade toxicities of prior therapies. The primary endpoint is treatment-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints include imaging response, local and loco-regional progression-free survival, overall survival and quality of life

  15. Mapping the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, S.; Wright, L.; Church, V.; Hager, M.

    1992-01-01

    With powerful new technologies such as positron tomography and superconducting quantum interference device that peer through the skull and see the brain at work, neuroscientists seek the wellsprings of thoughts and emotions, the genesis of intelligence and language. A functional map of the brain is thus obtained and its challenge is to move beyond brain structure to create a detailed diagram of which part do what. For that the brain's cartographers rely on a variety of technologies such as positron tomography and superconducting quantum interference devices. Their performances and uses are briefly reviewed. ills

  16. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  17. Brain spect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.G.L.; Hill, T.C.; Holman, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how the rapid development of single-photon radiopharmaceuticals has given new life to tomographic brain imaging in nuclear medicine. Further developments in radiopharmaceuticals and refinements in neuro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) instrumentation should help to reinstate brain scintigraphy as an important part of neurologic diagnosis. SPECT of the brain evolved from experimentation using prototype instrumentation during the early 1960s. Although tomographic studies provided superior diagnostic accuracy when compared to planar techniques, the arrival of X-ray CT of the head resulted in the rapid demise of technetium brain imaging

  18. Phenotypic integration of neurocranium and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Joan T; Aldridge, Kristina; DeLeon, Valerie B; Panchal, Jayesh; Kane, Alex A; Marsh, Jeffrey L; Yan, Peng; Cole, Theodore M

    2006-07-15

    Evolutionary history of Mammalia provides strong evidence that the morphology of skull and brain change jointly in evolution. Formation and development of brain and skull co-occur and are dependent upon a series of morphogenetic and patterning processes driven by genes and their regulatory programs. Our current concept of skull and brain as separate tissues results in distinct analyses of these tissues by most researchers. In this study, we use 3D computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of pediatric individuals diagnosed with premature closure of cranial sutures (craniosynostosis) to investigate phenotypic relationships between the brain and skull. It has been demonstrated previously that the skull and brain acquire characteristic dysmorphologies in isolated craniosynostosis, but relatively little is known of the developmental interactions that produce these anomalies. Our comparative analysis of phenotypic integration of brain and skull in premature closure of the sagittal and the right coronal sutures demonstrates that brain and skull are strongly integrated and that the significant differences in patterns of association do not occur local to the prematurely closed suture. We posit that the current focus on the suture as the basis for this condition may identify a proximate, but not the ultimate cause for these conditions. Given that premature suture closure reduces the number of cranial bones, and that a persistent loss of skull bones is demonstrated over the approximately 150 million years of synapsid evolution, craniosynostosis may serve as an informative model for evolution of the mammalian skull. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei, E-mail: feiwang1973@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan Yunyun, E-mail: duanyun2003@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  20. Gut-Brain Axis and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clair R; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-01-01

    In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication. Observed dysbiotic states in depression, chronic stress, and autism may reflect altered brain signaling to the gut, while altered gut microbial signaling to the brain may play a role in reinforcing brain alterations. On the other hand, primary dysbiotic states due to Western diets may signal to the brain, altering ingestive behavior. While studies performed in patients with depression and rodent models generated by fecal microbial transfer from such patients suggest causation, evidence for an influence of acute gut microbial alterations on human behavioral and clinical parameters is lacking. Only recently has an open-label microbial transfer therapy in children with autism tentatively validated the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target. The translational potential of preclinical findings remains unclear without further clinical investigation. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Liu Yaou; Duan Yunyun; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  2. Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Amy; de Simoni, Sara; Bourke, Niall; Patel, Maneesh C; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the

  3. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function......, or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...... to that in any other voxel. Under these circumstances, strictly speaking, the presence of significant activation serves as a legitimate basis only for inferences about the brain as a unit. In their discussion of results, investigators rarely are content to confirm the brain's role, and instead generally prefer...

  4. Mathematical modelling of blood-brain barrier failure and edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sarah; Lang, Georgina; Vella, Dominic; Goriely, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Injuries such as traumatic brain injury and stroke can result in increased blood-brain barrier permeability. This increase may lead to water accumulation in the brain tissue resulting in vasogenic edema. Although the initial injury may be localised, the resulting edema causes mechanical damage and compression of the vasculature beyond the original injury site. We employ a biphasic mixture model to investigate the consequences of blood-brain barrier permeability changes within a region of brain tissue and the onset of vasogenic edema. We find that such localised changes can indeed result in brain tissue swelling and that the type of damage that results (stress damage or strain damage) depends on the ability of the brain to clear edema fluid.

  5. A brain worth keeping? Waste, value and time in contemporary brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erslev, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    If a temporal rather than spatial concept of waste is adopted, novel categories emerge which are useful for identifying and understanding logics of temporality at play in determining what is kept in contemporary brain banks, and reveal that brain banks are constituted by more than stored materials. First, I apply the categories analytically on a recent UK brain banking discussion among professionals. This analysis highlights the importance of data in brain banks, as well as the centrality of ideas about pasts and futures in the discussions. Secondly, I investigate the case of a seven decades old, Danish brain bank which had been reduced to its physically stored material for 24 years, before being reinstituted in 2006. This case demonstrates the importance of material and conceptual infrastructures that co-constitute a collection, as they make up an experimental system that is crucial to maintaining the collection's continued relevance and usefulness as a scientific institution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain bank of the Brazilian aging brain study group - a milestone reached and more than 1,600 collected brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Ferretti, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Farfel, José Marcelo; Leite, Renata; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Nitrini, Ricardo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Filho, Wilson Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Brain banking remains a necessity for the study of aging brain processes and related neurodegenerative diseases. In the present paper, we report the methods applied at and the first results of the Brain Bank of the Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group (BBBABSG) which has two main aims: (1) To collect a large number of brains of elderly comprising non-demented subjects and a large spectrum of pathologies related to aging brain processes, (2) To provide quality material to a multidisciplinar research network unraveling multiple aspects of aging brain processes and related neurodegenerative diseases. The subjects are selected from the Sao Paulo Autopsy Service. Brain parts are frozen and fixated. CSF, carotids, kidney, heart and blood are also collected and DNA is extracted. The neuropathological examinations are carried out based on accepted criteria, using immunohistochemistry. Functional status are assessed through a collateral source based on a clinical protocol. Protocols are approved by the local ethics committee and a written informed consent form is obtained. During the first 21 months, 1,602 samples were collected and were classified by Clinical Dementia Rating as CDR0: 65.7%; CDR0.5:12.6%, CDR1:8.2%, CDR2:5.4%, and CDR3:8.1%. On average, the cost for the processing each case stood at 400 US dollars. To date, 14 laboratories have been benefited by the BBBABSG. The high percentage of non- demented subjects and the ethnic diversity of this series may be significantly contributive toward aging brain processes and related neurodegenerative diseases understanding since BBBABSG outcomes may provide investigators the answers to some additional questions.

  7. Brain dysfunction in psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warkentin, S.

    1991-01-01

    The present investigation focused on the questions whether previously reported functional brain abnormalities in schizophrenia could be related to the clinical state of the patient (i.e. the degree of psychosis) at time of study, and whether similar findings in patients with schizophrenia, could be made in patients with cycloid psychosis. To this effect, patients were investigated with regional cerebral blood flow measurements and clinical rating on repeated occasions during their most extreme fluctuations during a psychotic episode, i.e. while they were in an exacerbated state and during clinical remission. A subgroup of schizophrenic patients were investigated before and after neuroleptic treatment and during mental activation with a word fluency test. The schizophrenic group has a normal mean hemispheric blood flow irrespective of clinical state and treatment. During exacerbation a highly significant positive correlation was seen between the frontal-occipital (F/O) ratio and the degree of psychosis, suggesting that the more psychotic the patients was, the higher was the ratio. During remission, the F/O ratio decreased. Schizophrenic patients did not activate their prefrontal cortex during exacerbation, but showed a normal frontal response to the word fluency test during remission. The regional cerebral blood flow of the cycloid patients differed clearly from that of the schizophrenic patients. During exacerbation they had elevated mean hemispheric flow levels, and a decreased F/O ration, while rCBF was normal during remission. The findings suggest that variability in the degree of psychosis can be an important factor underlying the heterogeneity of rCBF findings in schizophrenia. (au)

  8. The State of the NIH BRAIN Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroshetz, Walter; Gordon, Joshua; Adams, Amy; Beckel-Mitchener, Andrea; Churchill, James; Farber, Gregory; Freund, Michelle; Gnadt, Jim; Hsu, Nina; Langhals, Nicholas; Lisanby, Sarah; Liu, Guoying; Peng, Grace; Ramos, Khara; Steinmetz, Michael; Talley, Edmund; White, Samantha

    2018-06-19

    The BRAIN Initiative® arose from a grand challenge to "accelerate the development and application of new technologies that will enable researchers to produce dynamic pictures of the brain that show how individual brain cells and complex neural circuits interact at the speed of thought." The BRAIN Initiative is a public-private effort focused on the development and use of powerful tools for acquiring fundamental insights about how information processing occurs in the central nervous system. As the Initiative enters its fifth year, NIH has supported over 500 principal investigators, who have answered the Initiative's challenge via hundreds of publications describing novel tools, methods, and discoveries that address the Initiative's seven scientific priorities. We describe scientific advances produced by individual labs, multi-investigator teams, and entire consortia that, over the coming decades, will produce more comprehensive and dynamic maps of the brain, deepen our understanding of how circuit activity can produce a rich tapestry of behaviors, and lay the foundation for understanding how its circuitry is disrupted in brain disorders. Much more work remains to bring this vision to fruition, and NIH continues to look to the diverse scientific community, from mathematics, to physics, chemistry, engineering, neuroethics, and neuroscience, to ensure that the greatest scientific benefit arises from this unique research Initiative. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  9. MRI of 'brain death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shigeki; Itoh, Takahiko; Tuchida, Shohei; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Asari, Shoji; Nishimoto, Akira; Sanou, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken for two patients who suffered from severe cerebrovascular diseases and were clinically brain dead. The MRI system we used was Resona (Yokogawa Medical Systems, superconductive system 0.5 T) and the CT apparatus was Toshiba TCT-300. Initial CT and MRI were undertaken as soon as possible after admission, and repeated sequentially. After diagnosis of brain death, we performed angiography to determine cerebral circulatory arrest, and MRI obtained at the same time was compared with the angiogram and CT. Case 1 was a 77-year-old man who was admitted in an unconscious state. CT and MRI on the second day after hospitalization revealed cerebellar infarction. He was diagnosed as brain dead on day 4. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man. When he was transferred to our hospital, he was in cardiorespiratory arrested. Cardiac resuscitation was successful but no spontaneous respiration appeared. CT and MRI on admission revealed right intracerebral hemorrhage. Angiography revealed cessation of contrast medium in intracranial vessels in both of the patients. We found no 'flow signal void sign' in the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries on MRI images in both cases after brain death. MRI, showing us the anatomical changes of the brain, clearly revealed brain herniations, even though only nuclear findings of 'brain tamponade' were seen on CT. But in Case 1, we could not see the infarct lesions in the cerebellum on MR images obtained after brain death. This phenomenon was caused by the whole brain ischemia masking the initial ischemic lesions. We concluded that MRI was useful not only the anatomical display of lesions and brain herniation with high contrast resolution but for obtaining information on cerebral circulation of brain death. (author)

  10. Comparison of SPET brain perfusion and 18F-FDG brain metabolism in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Judeh, H H; Levine, S; Kumar, M; el-Zeftawy, H; Naddaf, S; Lou, J Q; Abdel-Dayem, H M

    1998-11-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is a clinically defined condition of uncertain aetiology. We compared 99Tcm-HMPAO single photon emission tomography (SPET) brain perfusion with dual-head 18F-FDG brain metabolism in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Eighteen patients (14 females, 4 males), who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the Centers for Disease Control for chronic fatigue syndrome, were investigated. Thirteen patients had abnormal SPET brain perfusion scans and five had normal scans. Fifteen patients had normal glucose brain metabolism scans and three had abnormal scans. We conclude that, in chronic fatigue syndrome patients, there is discordance between SPET brain perfusion and 18F-FDG brain uptake. It is possible to have brain perfusion abnormalities without corresponding changes in glucose uptake.

  11. Effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.

  12. Effects of Cannabis on the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories. PMID:23829363

  13. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CHILDREN: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denismar Borges de Miranda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the scientific literature on head injury in children. Method: this study is an integrative review of published articles in the database SciELO the period 2000-2010. Results: 10 articles were analyzed, from which emerged four categories: causes of traumatic brain child infant prognosis of traumatic brain child, treating children victims of child head injury and complications of therapy used for child victims of traumatic brain injury in children. Conclusions: there is consensus among the authors investigated the factors associated with better prognosis of traumatic brain child, remain vague and uncertain. They add that the success of this customer service related to the control of complications arising from cerebral trauma and mostly are treatable and / or preventable.

  14. Brain SPECT in severs traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, F.; Eder, V.; Pottier, J.M.; Baulieu, J.L.; Fournier, P.; Legros, B.; Chiaroni, P.; Dalonneau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of the early brain scintigraphy in traumatic brain injury to the long term neuropsychological behavior. Twenty four patients had an ECD-Tc99m SPECT, within one month after the trauma; scintigraphic abnormalities were evaluated according to a semi-quantitative analysis. The neuropsychological clinical investigation was interpreted by a synthetic approach to evaluate abnormalities related to residual motor deficit, frontal behavior, memory and language disorders. Fourteen patients (58%) had sequela symptoms. SPECT revealed 80 abnormalities and CT scan only 31. Statistical analysis of uptake values showed significantly lower uptake in left basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with sequela memory disorders. We conclude that the brain perfusion scintigraphy is able to detect more lesions than CT and that it could really help to predict the neuropsychological behavior after severe head injury. Traumatology could become in the future a widely accepted indication of perfusion SPECT. (authors)

  15. Lack of evidence for dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease: an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemuller, J. M.; Eikelenboom, P.; Kamphorst, W.; Stam, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    With immunohistoperoxidase techniques the presence of plasma (serum) proteins was investigated in senile plaques, congophilic angiopathy, neurons and glial cells in brains of patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Other investigators have found plasma proteins in brain parenchyma and suggested that

  16. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Successfully Treated HIV Infection: Associations With Disease and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Rosan A.; Underwood, Jonathan; de Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A.; Cole, James H.; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Portegies, Peter; Winston, Alan; Sharp, David J.; Gisslén, Magnus; Reiss, Peter; Winston, A.; Prins, M.; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.; Schouten, J.; Schmand, B.; Geurtsen, G. J.; Sharp, D. J.; Villaudy, J.; Berkhout, B.; Gisslén, M.; Pasternak, A.; Sabin, C. A.; Guaraldi, G.; Bürkle, A.; Libert, C.; Franceschi, C.; Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, E.; Hoeijmakers, J.; Pothof, J.; van der Valk, M.; Bisschop, P. H.; Zaheri, S.; Burger, D.; Cole, J. H.; Zikkenheiner, W.; Janssen, F. R.; Underwood, J.; Kooij, K. W.; Doyle, N.; Verbraak, F.; Demirkaya, N.; Weijer, K.; Boeser-Nunnink, B.

    2018-01-01

    Background. Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) who are receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear. Methods. We investigated factors associated with brain

  17. Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia - A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, Heleen B. M.; Aleman, Andre; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    Context: Smaller brain volumes have consistently been found in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in gray matter and medial temporal lobe structures. Although several studies have investigated brain volumes in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia, results have been

  18. Cells in human postmortem brain tissue slices remain alive for several weeks in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Hermens, Wim T. J. M. C.; Dijkhuizen, PaulaA; ter Brake, Olivier; Baker, Robert E.; Salehi, Ahmad; Sluiter, Arja A.; Kok, Marloes J. M.; Muller, Linda J.; Verhaagen, Joost; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for human neurological and psychiatric diseases only partially mimic the underlying pathogenic processes. Therefore, we investigated the potential use of cultured postmortem brain tissue from adult neurological patients and controls. The present study shows that human brain tissue

  19. Estimation Methods for Infinite-Dimensional Systems Applied to the Hemodynamic Response in the Brain

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2018-01-01

    available measurements is essential. The human brain is an example of IDSs with severe constraints on information collection from controlled experiments and invasive sensors. Investigating the intriguing modeling potential of the brain is, in fact, the main

  20. Imaging of Brain Connectivity in Dementia: Clinical Implications for Diagnosis of its Underlying Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Meijboom (Rozanna)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis we investigated the use of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in identifying subtle brain abnormalities, associating brain abnormalities with disease symptomatology, and improving early (differential) diagnosis in several diseases underlying dementia.

  1. The multilingual brain

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The multilingual brain. Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? The given lecture will focus on the "cognitive advantages" of multilingualism and illustrate the impact that being multilingual has on the cognitive organisation of the brain. Practical questions regarding multilingual education will also be discussed.

  2. The Resilient Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

  3. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  4. What a Brain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Kim

    1997-01-01

    Outlines basic concepts about how the brain develops and considers how Head Start teachers and parents can take full advantage of the brain's multisensory learning approach to develop more effective ways to interact with children. Focuses on the critical developmental period for stimulating neurons and developing neural connections. Suggests…

  5. Migraine and brain changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, I.H.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis describes the longitudinal population-based CAMERA-study on the association between migraine and brain changes (e.g. white matter hyperintensities, infarct-like and other lesions) and possible causes and consequences of those brain changes. Women with migraine showed higher incidence of

  6. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry

  7. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  8. Coping changes the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Nechvatal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.

  9. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  10. Brain-computer interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treder, Matthias S.; Miklody, Daniel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    quality measure'. We were able to show that for stimuli close to the perceptual threshold, there was sometimes a discrepancy between overt responses and brain responses, shedding light on subjects using different response criteria (e.g., more liberal or more conservative). To conclude, brain-computer...... of perceptual and cognitive biases. Furthermore, subjects can only report on stimuli if they have a clear percept of them. On the other hand, the electroencephalogram (EEG), the electrical brain activity measured with electrodes on the scalp, is a more direct measure. It allows us to tap into the ongoing neural...... auditory processing stream. In particular, it can tap brain processes that are pre-conscious or even unconscious, such as the earliest brain responses to sounds stimuli in primary auditory cortex. In a series of studies, we used a machine learning approach to show that the EEG can accurately reflect...

  11. Inside the Diabetic Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomova M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CNS complications resulting from diabetes mellitus (DM are a problem gaining more acceptance and attention in the recent years. Both types 1 and 2 DM represent an significant risk factor for decreased cognitive functions, memory and learning deficits as well as development of Alzheimer’s disease. Chronic hyperglycemia through protein glycation and increased oxidative stress contributes to brain dysfunction, however increasing evidences suggest that the pathology of DM in the brain involves a progressive and coordinated disruption of insulin signaling, with profound consequences for brain function and plasticity. Since many of the CNS changes observed in diabetic patients and animal models of DM are reminiscent of the changes seen in aging, the theory of advanced brain aging in DM has been proposed. This review summarizes the findings of the literature regarding the effects of DM on the brain in the terms of diabetes-related metabolic derangements and intracellular signaling.

  12. Modeling Structural Brain Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø

    The human brain consists of a gigantic complex network of interconnected neurons. Together all these connections determine who we are, how we react and how we interpret the world. Knowledge about how the brain is connected can further our understanding of the brain’s structural organization, help...... improve diagnosis, and potentially allow better treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool to estimate this “structural connectivity” of the brain non-invasively and in vivo. During the last decade, brain connectivity...... has increasingly been analyzed using graph theoretic measures adopted from network science and this characterization of the brain’s structural connectivity has been shown to be useful for the classification of populations, such as healthy and diseased subjects. The structural connectivity of the brain...

  13. Exploring the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, G.; Vernier, P.; Le Bihan, D.; Comtat, C.; Van Wassenhove, V.; Texier, I.; Planat-Chretien, A.; Poher, V.; Dinten, J.M.; Pannetier-lecoeur, M.; Trebossen, R.; Lethimonnier, F.; Eger, E.; Thirion, B.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Piazza, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Marti, S.; Klein, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Paillere, M.L.; Artiges, E.; Lemaitre, H.; Karila, L.; Houenou, J.; Sarrazin, S.; Hantraye, P.; Aron Badin, R.; Mergui, S.; Palfi, S.; Bemelmans, A.; Berger, F.; Frouin, V.; Pinel, J.F.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2014-01-01

    CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) has been involved in brain research for over 50 years and this 62. issue of 'Clefs CEA' is the best occasion to come back on the latest advances in this wide field. The purpose is to show how neuroimaging combined with neuro sciences and computational sciences has shed light on various aspects of the brain life and experience such as for instance learning (with highlights on dyslexia and dyscalculia), vision, the feeling of time, consciousness, addictions, ageing, and neuro-degenerative diseases. This document is divided into 6 parts: 1) non-invasive exploration of the brain, 2) development, learning and plasticity of the brain, 3) cognitive architecture and the brain, 4) mental health and vulnerability, 5) neuro-degenerative diseases, and 6) identifying bio-markers for cerebral disorders. (A.C.)

  14. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in ... Understanding the Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm ...

  15. Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0369 TITLE: Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Betty Diamond...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1...to approximately 5% of cases of ASD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fetal brain; Autism spectrum disorder ; antibody; B cells; Caspr2 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  16. Organisation and functional role of the brain angiotensin system

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Llorens-Cortes; Frederic AO Mendelsohn

    2002-01-01

    The discovery that all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are present in the brain led investigators to postulate the existence of a local brain RAS. Supporting this, angiotensin immunoreactive neurones have been visualised in the brain. Two major pathways were described: a forebrain pathway which connects circumventricular organs to the median preoptic nucleus, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, and a second pathway connecting the hypothalamus to the medulla oblongata. Bloo...

  17. Mechanistic Links Between PARP, NAD, and Brain Inflammation After TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0091 TITLE: Mechanistic Links Between PARP, NAD , and Brain Inflammation After TBI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...COVERED 25 Sep 2014 - 24 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Mechanistic Links Between PARP, NAD , and Brain Inflammation After TBI 5b. GRANT...efficacy of veliparib and NAD as agents for suppressing inflammation and improving outcomes after traumatic brain injury. The animal models include

  18. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regul...

  19. The negative brain scintiscan in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalke, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of 53 histologically verified and two histologically unidentified brain tumours, the author examined the reasons for these wrongly negative scintiscans. EEGs and angiographies carried out at about the same time were taken into account and compared with the scintigraphic findings. (orig.) [de

  20. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  1. Quantification of Brain Access of Exendin-4 in the C57BL Mouse Model by SPIM Fluorescence Imaging and the Allen Mouse Brain Reference Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Secher, Anna; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    -4, into the brain with the aim of developing medication for obesity. To investigate mode of action of the medication it is important to identify the specific anatomical brain nuclei that are targeted by the compound. Such segmentations can be obtained using an annotated digital brain atlas. We...

  2. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper B.; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which excludes most molecules from freely diffusing into the brain, and tightly regulates the active transport mechanisms that ensure sufficient delivery of nutrients to the brain parenchyma. Harnessing the possibi...... cargo uptake in the brain endothelium and subsequent cargo transport into the brain. These findings suggest that transferrin receptor-targeting is a relevant strategy of increasing drug exposure to the brain....... investigate the possibility of delivering immunoliposomes and their encapsulated cargo to the brain via targeting of the transferrin receptor. We find that transferrin receptor-targeting increases the association between the immunoliposomes and primary endothelial cells in vitro, but that this does...... not correlate with increased cargo transcytosis. Furthermore, we show that the transferrin receptor-targeted immunoliposomes accumulate along the microvessels of the brains of rats, but find no evidence for transcytosis of the immunoliposome. Conversely, the increased accumulation correlated both with increased...

  3. Insulin and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Fatemeh; Toth, Cory

    2013-03-01

    Mainly known for its role in peripheral glucose homeostasis, insulin has also significant impact within the brain, functioning as a key neuromodulator in behavioral, cellular, biochemical and molecular studies. The brain is now regarded as an insulin-sensitive organ with widespread, yet selective, expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, amygdala and cerebral cortex. Insulin receptor signaling in the brain is important for neuronal development, glucoregulation, feeding behavior, body weight, and cognitive processes such as with attention, executive functioning, learning and memory. Emerging evidence has demonstrated insulin receptor signaling to be impaired in several neurological disorders. Moreover, insulin receptor signaling is recognized as important for dendritic outgrowth, neuronal survival, circuit development, synaptic plasticity and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor trafficking. We review the multiple roles of insulin in the brain, as well as its endogenous trafficking to the brain or its exogenous intervention. Although insulin can be directly targeted to the brain via intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intraparenchymal delivery, these invasive techniques are with significant risk, necessitating repeated surgical intervention and providing potential for systemic hypoglycemia. Another method, intranasal delivery, is a non-invasive, safe, and alternative approach which rapidly targets delivery of molecules to the brain while minimizing systemic exposure. Over the last decades, the delivery of intranasal insulin in animal models and human patients has evolved and expanded, permitting new hope for associated neurodegenerative and neurovascular disorders.

  4. Cannabinoids on the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Irving

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has a long history of consumption both for recreational and medicinal uses. Recently there have been significant advances in our understanding of how cannabis and related compounds (cannabinoids affect the brain and this review addresses the current state of knowledge of these effects. Cannabinoids act primarily via two types of receptor, CB1 and CB2, with CB1 receptors mediating most of the central actions of cannabinoids. The presence of a new type of brain cannabinoid receptor is also indicated. Important advances have been made in our understanding of cannabinoid receptor signaling pathways, their modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity, the cellular targets of cannabinoids in different central nervous system (CNS regions and, in particular, the role of the endogenous brain cannabinoid (endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids have widespread actions in the brain: in the hippocampus they influence learning and memory; in the basal ganglia they modulate locomotor activity and reward pathways; in the hypothalamus they have a role in the control of appetite. Cannabinoids may also be protective against neurodegeneration and brain damage and exhibit anticonvulsant activity. Some of the analgesic effects of cannabinoids also appear to involve sites within the brain. These advances in our understanding of the actions of cannabinoids and the brain endocannabinoid system have led to important new insights into neuronal function which are likely to result in the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of a number of key CNS disorders.

  5. Human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Just as there have been dramatic advances in the molecular biology of the human brain in recent years, there also have been remarkable advances in brain imaging. This paper reports on the development and broad application of microscopic imaging techniques which include the autoradiographic localization of receptors and the measurement of glucose utilization by autoradiography. These approaches provide great sensitivity and excellent anatomical resolution in exploring brain organization and function. The first noninvasive external imaging of receptor distributions in the living human brain was achieved by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Developments, techniques and applications continue to progress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also becoming important. Its initial clinical applications were in examining the structure and anatomy of the brain. However, more recent uses, such as MRI spectroscopy, indicate the feasibility of exploring biochemical pathways in the brain, the metabolism of drugs in the brain, and also of examining some of these procedures at an anatomical resolution which is substantially greater than that obtainable by PET scanning. The issues will be discussed in greater detail

  6. Agmatine Attenuates Brain Edema and Apoptotic Cell Death after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Jae Hwan; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor neurological outcome, including necrosis and brain edema. In this study, we investigated whether agmatine treatment reduces edema and apoptotic cell death after TBI. TBI was produced by cold injury to the cerebral primary motor cortex of rats. Agmatine was administered 30 min after injury and once daily until the end of the experiment. Animals were sacrificed for analysis at 1, 2, or 7 days after the injury. Various neurological analyses were performed to investigate disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurological dysfunction after TBI. To examine the extent of brain edema after TBI, the expression of aquaporins (AQPs), phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were investigated. Our findings demonstrated that agmatine treatment significantly reduces brain edema after TBI by suppressing the expression of AQP1, 4, and 9. In addition, agmatine treatment significantly reduced apoptotic cell death by suppressing the phosphorylation of MAPKs and by increasing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB after TBI. These results suggest that agmatine treatment may have therapeutic potential for brain edema and neural cell death in various central nervous system diseases.

  7. Serotonergic mechanisms in the migraine brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Deen; Christensen, Casper Emil; Hougaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    role of brain serotonergic mechanisms remains a matter of controversy. Methods We systematically searched PubMed for studies investigating the serotonergic system in the migraine brain by either molecular neuroimaging or electrophysiological methods. Results The literature search resulted in 59 papers......, of which 13 were eligible for review. The reviewed papers collectively support the notion that migraine patients have alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission. Most likely, migraine patients have a low cerebral serotonin level between attacks, which elevates during a migraine attack. Conclusion...... This review suggests that novel methods of investigating the serotonergic system in the migraine brain are warranted. Uncovering the serotonergic mechanisms in migraine pathophysiology could prove useful for the development of future migraine drugs....

  8. Usefulness of brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.; Rancurel, G.; Kieffer, E.; Ricard, S.; Askienazy, S.; Moretti, J.L.; Bourdoiseau, M.; Rapin, J.; Soussaline, F.

    1983-01-01

    Brain SPECT was not effectively exploited until I-123 isopropyl amphetamine (IAMP), indicator able to penetrate the blood brain barrier, became available. Although the experience of research teams working with IAMP is quite restricted due to the high cost of the indicator, some applications now appear to be worth the cost and in some cases provide data which cannot be obtained with routine techniques, especially in cerebrovascular patients, in epilepsy and some cases of tumor. Brain SPECT appears as an atraumatic test which is useful to establish a functional evaluation of the cerebral parenchyma, and which is a complement to arteriography, X-ray scan and regional cerebral blood flow measurement

  9. Using brain-computer interfaces and brain-state dependent stimulation as tools in cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole eJensen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Large efforts are currently being made to develop and improve online analysis of brain activity which can be used e.g. for brain-computer interfacing (BCI. A BCI allows a subject to control a device by willfully changing his/her own brain activity. BCI therefore holds the promise as a tool for aiding the disabled and for augmenting human performance. While technical developments obviously are important, we will here argue that new insight gained from cognitive neuroscience can be used to identify signatures of neural activation which reliably can be modulated by the subject at will. This review will focus mainly on oscillatory activity in the alpha band which is strongly modulated by changes in covert attention. Besides developing BCIs for their traditional purpose, they might also be used as a research tool for cognitive neuroscience. There is currently a strong interest in how brain state fluctuations impact cognition. These state fluctuations are partly reflected by ongoing oscillatory activity. The functional role of the brain state can be investigated by introducing stimuli in real time to subjects depending on the actual state of the brain. This principle of brain-state dependent stimulation may also be used as a practical tool for augmenting human behavior. In conclusion, new approaches based on online analysis of ongoing brain activity are currently in rapid development. These approaches are amongst others informed by new insight gained from EEG/MEG studies in cognitive neuroscience and hold the promise of providing new ways for investigating the brain at work.

  10. The relationship between brain volumes and intelligence in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P.M.; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Kahn, René S.; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder type-I (BD-I) patients show a lower Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and smaller brain volumes as compared with healthy controls. Considering that in healthy individuals lower IQ is related to smaller total brain volume, it is of interest to investigate whether IQ deficits in

  11. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, D.P.; Stein, J.L.; Renteria, M.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Desrivières, S.; Jahanshad, N.; Toro, R.; Wittfeld, K.; Abramovic, L.; Andersson, M.; Aribisala, B.S.; Armstrong, N.J.; Bernard, M.; Bohlken, M.M.; Biks, M.P.; Bralten, J.; Brown, A.A.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Chen, Q.; Ching, C.R.K.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; den Braber, A.; Giddaluru, S.; Goldman, A.L.; Grimm, O.; Guadalupe, T.; Hass, J.; Woldehawariat, G.; Holmes, A.J.; Hoogman, M.; Janowitz, D.; Jia, T.; Kim, S.; Klein, M.; Kraemer, B.; Lee, P.H.; Olde Loohuis, L.M.; Luciano, M.; Macare, C.; Mather, K.A.; Mattheisen, M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Nho, K.; Papmeyer, M.; Ramasamy, A.; Risacher, S.L.; Roiz-Santiañez, R.; Rose, E.J.; Salami, A.; Sämann, P.G.; Schmaal, L.; Schork, A.J.; Shin, J.; Strike, L.T.; Teumer, A.; Donkelaar, M.M.J.; van Eijk, K.R.; Walters, R.K.; Westlye, L.T.; Welan, C.D.; Winkler, A.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Alhusaini, S.; Athanasiu, L.; Ehrlich, S.; Hakobjan, M.M.H.; Hartberg, C.B.; Haukvik, U.K.; Heister, A.J.G.A.M.; Hoehn, D.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Liewald, D.C.M.; Lopez, L.M.; Makkinje, R.R.; Matarin, M.; Naber, M.A.M.; Reese McKay, D.; Needham, M.; Nugent, A.C.; Pütz, B.; Royle, N.A.; Shen, L.; Sprooten, E.; Trabzuni, D.; van der Marel, S.S.L.; van Hulzen, K.J.E.; Walton, E.; Wolf, C.; Almasy, L.; Ames, D.; Arepalli, S.; Assareh, A.A.; Bastin, M.E.; Brodaty, H.; Bulayeva, K.B.; Carless, M.A.; Cichon, S.; Corvin, A.; Curran, J.E.; Czisch, M.; de Zubicaray, G.I.; Dillman, A.; Duggirala, R.; Dyer, T.D.; Erk, S.; Fedko, I.O.; Ferrucci, L.; Foroud, T.M.; Fox, P.T.; Fukunaga, M.; Gibbs, J.R.; Göring, H.H.H.; Green, R.C.; Guelfi, S.; Hansell, N.K.; Hartman, C.A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Heinz, A.; Hernandez, D.G.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Holsboer, F.; Homuth, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Ikeda, M.; Jack, C.R., Jr.; Jenkinson, M.; Johnson, R.; Kanai, R.; Keil, M.; Kent, J.W. Jr.; Kochunov, P.; Kwok, J.B.; Lawrie, S.M.; Liu, X.; Longo, D.L.; McMahon, K.L.; Meisenzahl, E.; Melle, I.; Mohnke, S.; Montgomery, G.W.; Mostert, J.C.; Mühleisen, T.W.; Nalls, M.A.; Nichols, T.E.; Nilsson, L.G.; Nöthen, M.M.; Ohi, K.; Olvera, R.L.; Perez-Iglesias, R.; Pike, G.B.; Potkin, S.G.; Reinvang, I.; Reppermund, S.; Rietschel, M.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, N.; Rosen, G.D.; Rujescu, D.; Schnell, K.; Schofield, P.R.; Smith, C.; Steen, V.M.; Sussmann, J.E.; Thalamuthu, A.; Toga, A.W.; Traynor, B.J.; Troncoso, J.; Turner, J.A.; Valdés Hernández, M.C.; van t Ent, D.; van der Brug, M.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; van Tol, M.J.; Veltman, D.J.; Wassink, T.H.; Westmann, E.; Zielke, R.H.; Zonderman, A.B.; Ashbrook, D.G.; Hager, R.; Lu, L.; McMahon, F.J.; Morris, D.W.; Williams, R.W.; Brunner, H.G.; Buckner, R.L.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cahn, W.; Calhoun, V.D.; Cavalleri, G.L.; Crespo-Facorro, B.; Dale, A.M.; Davies, G.E.; Delanty, N.; Depondt, C.; Djurovic, S.; Drevets, W.C.; Espeseth, T.; Gollub, R.L.; Ho, B.C.; Hoffmann, W.; Hosten, N.; Kahn, R.S.; Le Hellard, S.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Nauck, M.; Nyberg, L.; Pandolfo, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Roffman, J.L.; Sisodiya, SM; Smoller, J.W.; van Bokhoven, H.; van Haren, N.E.M.; Völzke, H.; Walter, H.; Weiner, M.W.; Wen, W.; White, T.; Agartz, I.; Andreassen, O.A.; Blangero, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Brouwer, R.M.; Cannon, D.M.; Cookson, M.R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Deary, I.J.; Donohoe, G.; Fernandez, G.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.; Glahn, D.C.; Grabe, H.J.; Gruber, O.; Hardy, J.; Hashimoto, R.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Jönsson, E.G.; Kloszewska, I.; Lovestone, S.; Mattay, V.S.; Mecocci, P.; McDonald, C.; McIntosh, A.M.; Ophoff, R.A.; Paus, T.; Pausova, Z.; Ryten, M.; Sachdev, P.S.; Saykin, A.J.; Simmons, A.; Singleton, A.; Soininen, H.; Wardlaw, J.M.; Weale, M.E.; Weinberger, D.R.; Adams, H.H.H.; Launer, L.J.; Seiler, S.; Schmidt, R.; Chauhan, G.; Satizabal, C.L.; Becker, J.T.; Yanek, L.; van der Lee, S.J.; Ebling, M.; Fischl, B.; Longstreth, Jr. W.T.; Greve, D.; Schmidt, H.; Nyquist, P.; Vinke, L.N.; van Duijn, C.M.; Xue, L.; Mazoyer, B.; Bis, J.C.; Gudnason, V.; Seshadri, S.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Martin, N.G.; Wright, M.J.; Schumann, G.; Franke, B.; Thompson, P.M.; Medland, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common

  12. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); L.T. Strike (Lachlan); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn (René); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  13. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, X.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aarts, R.M.; Haakma, R.; Fonseca, P.; Rolink, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by

  14. High brain serotonin levels in migraine between attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, Marie; Hansen, Hanne D; Hougaard, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Migraine has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of chronic low serotonin (5-HT) levels, but investigations of brain 5-HT levels have given equivocal results. Here, we used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the 5-HT4receptor as a proxy for brain 5-HT levels. Given that the 5-HT4receptor...

  15. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  16. A Right Brain/Left Brain Model of Acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlen, Clark

    Using current right brain/left brain research, this paper develops a model that explains acting's underlying quality--the actor is both himself and the character. Part 1 presents (1) the background of the right brain/left brain theory, (2) studies showing that propositional communication is a left hemisphere function while affective communication…

  17. The endocannabinoid system in brain reward processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, M; Goldberg, S R; Piomelli, D

    2008-05-01

    Food, drugs and brain stimulation can serve as strong rewarding stimuli and are all believed to activate common brain circuits that evolved in mammals to favour fitness and survival. For decades, endogenous dopaminergic and opioid systems have been considered the most important systems in mediating brain reward processes. Recent evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system also has an important role in signalling of rewarding events. First, CB(1) receptors are found in brain areas involved in reward processes, such as the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. Second, activation of CB(1) receptors by plant-derived, synthetic or endogenous CB(1) receptor agonists stimulates dopaminergic neurotransmission, produces rewarding effects and increases rewarding effects of abused drugs and food. Third, pharmacological or genetic blockade of CB(1) receptors prevents activation of dopaminergic neurotransmission by several addictive drugs and reduces rewarding effects of food and these drugs. Fourth, brain levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are altered by activation of reward processes. However, the intrinsic activity of the endocannabinoid system does not appear to play a facilitatory role in brain stimulation reward and some evidence suggests it may even oppose it. The influence of the endocannabinoid system on brain reward processes may depend on the degree of activation of the different brain areas involved and might represent a mechanism for fine-tuning dopaminergic activity. Although involvement of the various components of the endocannabinoid system may differ depending on the type of rewarding event investigated, this system appears to play a major role in modulating reward processes.

  18. A Microfabricated Transduction Coil for Inductive Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie (Jayne WU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available "Inductively Coupled Deep Brain Stimulator" describes a chip/system design to inductively couple arbitrary waveforms to electrodes embedded in the brain for deep brain stimulation or other neurostimulation. This approach moves the conventionally implanted signal generator outside the body and provides flexibility in adjusting waveforms to investigate optimum stimulation waveforms. An "inlaid electroplating" process with through-wafer plating is used to reduce microcoil resistance and integrate microstructures and electronics. Utilizing inductive link resonance specific to microcoils, waveforms are selectively transmitted to microcoils, which further produces biphasic waveforms that are suitable for deep brain stimulation.

  19. Management of Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Suriya A.; Batchelor, Tracy

    2004-07-01

    Advances in neurosurgery and the development of stereotactic radiosurgery have expanded treatment options available for patients with brain metastases. However, despite several randomized clinical trials and multiple uncontrolled studies, there is not a uniform consensus on the best treatment strategy for all patients with brain metastases. The heterogeneity of this patient population in terms of functional status, types of underlying cancers, status of systemic disease control, and number and location of brain metastases make such consensus difficult. Nevertheless, in certain situations, there is Class I evidence that supports one approach or another. The primary objectives in the management of this patient population include improved duration and quality of survival. Very few patients achieve long-term survival after the diagnosis of a brain metastasis.

  20. of brain tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outline of the important clinical issues related to brain tumours and psychiatry. ... Left-sided, frontal tumours also seem to be associated with higher rates of depression, while those in the frontal lobe of the right .... Oxford: Blackwell Science,.

  1. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  2. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NINDS) are committed to reducing that burden through biomedical research. What is a Stroke? A stroke, or "brain ... Testimony Legislative Updates Impact NINDS Contributions to Approved Therapies ... Director, Division of Intramural Research

  3. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reward” circuit, which is part of the limbic system. Normally, the reward circuit responds to feelings of pleasure by releasing ... infographic, discover how drug use affects the brain's reward system. This publication is available for your use and ...

  4. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TBI Online Concussion Training Press Room Guide to Writing about TBI in News and Social Media Living with TBI HEADS UP to Brain Injury Awareness Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this topic, ...

  5. The neonatal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodmark, O.

    1987-01-01

    The clinical examination of the CNS in the neonate is often difficult in cases of complex pathology. Diagnostic imaging of the neonatal brain has become extremely useful and in the last decade has developed in two main directions: CT and US. MR imaging has been used recently with varying success in the diagnosis of pathology in the neonatal brain. Despite technical difficulties, this imaging method is likely to become increasingly important in the neonate. The paper examines the normal neonatal brain anatomy as seen with the different modalities, followed by pathologic conditions. Attention is directed to the common pathology, in asphyxiated newborns, the patholphysiology of intraventicular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia in the preterm neonate, and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the term neonate. Pitfalls, artifacts, and problems in image interpretation are illustrated. Finally, the subsequent appearance of neonatal pathology later in infancy and childhood is discussed

  6. Postnatal brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Stiles, Joan

    2011-01-01

    After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain's fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact...... in children and adolescents, as well as studies that link these changes to behavioral differences. Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain-behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions...... constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing into early adulthood. Reviewed here are studies using structural imaging techniques, with a special focus on diffusion weighted imaging, describing age-related brain maturational changes...

  7. Postnatal brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Stiles, Joan

    2011-01-01

    After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain's fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact...... constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing into early adulthood. Reviewed here are studies using structural imaging techniques, with a special focus on diffusion weighted imaging, describing age-related brain maturational changes...... in children and adolescents, as well as studies that link these changes to behavioral differences. Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain-behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions...

  8. Brains on video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2011-11-18

    The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.

  9. Epigenetics and brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keverne, Eric B

    2011-04-01

    Fundamental aspects of mammalian brain evolution occurred in the context of viviparity and placentation brought about by the epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes. Since the fetal placenta hormonally primes the maternal brain, two genomes in one individual are transgenerationally co-adapted to ensure maternal care and nurturing. Advanced aspects of neocortical brain evolution has shown very few genetic changes between monkeys and humans. Although these lineages diverged at approximately the same time as the rat and mouse (20 million years ago), synonymous sequence divergence between the rat and mouse is double that when comparing monkey with human sequences. Paradoxically, encephalization of rat and mouse are remarkably similar, while comparison of the human and monkey shows the human cortex to be three times the size of the monkey. This suggests an element of genetic stability between the brains of monkey and man with a greater emphasis on epigenetics providing adaptable variability.

  10. Genetics and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in physiological and pathological brain processes. Physiol Rev , 2011 Apr; 91(2): ... term potentiation and spine size enlargement. J. Neuroscience , March 18, 2009. 29(11):3395–3403 [xviii] Tapper, ...

  11. Brain Training for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it or lose it” commonly refers to the importance of exercising your body and staying fit. Exercising ... physical exercise can make a difference. Just like physical activity, the earlier you start brain-training activity, the ...

  12. Analysis of Brain Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frilot, Clifton; Kim, Paul Y.; Carrubba, Simona; McCarty, David E.; Chesson, Andrew L.; Marino, Andrew A.

    Analysis of Brain Recurrence (ABR) is a method for extracting physiologically significant information from the electroencephalogram (EEG), a non-stationary electrical output of the brain, the ultimate complex dynamical system. ABR permits quantification of temporal patterns in the EEG produced by the non-autonomous differential laws that govern brain metabolism. In the context of appropriate experimental and statistical designs, ABR is ideally suited to the task of interpreting the EEG. Present applications of ABR include discovery of a human magnetic sense, increased mechanistic understanding of neuronal membrane processes, diagnosis of degenerative neurological disease, detection of changes in brain metabolism caused by weak environmental electromagnetic fields, objective characterization of the quality of human sleep, and evaluation of sleep disorders. ABR has important beneficial implications for the development of clinical and experimental neuroscience.

  13. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  14. Light-sensitive brain pathways and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, V; Dumont, M; Massé, É; Vandewalle, G; Carrier, J

    2016-03-15

    Notwithstanding its effects on the classical visual system allowing image formation, light acts upon several non-image-forming (NIF) functions including body temperature, hormonal secretions, sleep-wake cycle, alertness, and cognitive performance. Studies have shown that NIF functions are maximally sensitive to blue wavelengths (460-480 nm), in comparison to longer light wavelengths. Higher blue light sensitivity has been reported for melatonin suppression, pupillary constriction, vigilance, and performance improvement but also for modulation of cognitive brain functions. Studies investigating acute stimulating effects of light on brain activity during the execution of cognitive tasks have suggested that brain activations progress from subcortical regions involved in alertness, such as the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem, before reaching cortical regions associated with the ongoing task. In the course of aging, lower blue light sensitivity of some NIF functions has been reported. Here, we first describe neural pathways underlying effects of light on NIF functions and we discuss eye and cerebral mechanisms associated with aging which may affect NIF light sensitivity. Thereafter, we report results of investigations on pupillary constriction and cognitive brain sensitivity to light in the course of aging. Whereas the impact of light on cognitive brain responses appears to decrease substantially, pupillary constriction seems to remain more intact over the lifespan. Altogether, these results demonstrate that aging research should take into account the diversity of the pathways underlying the effects of light on specific NIF functions which may explain their differences in light sensitivity.

  15. Functional brain imaging of gastrointestinal sensation in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lukas Van Oudenhove; Steven J Coen; Qasim Aziz

    2007-01-01

    It has since long been known, from everyday experience as well as from animal and human studies, that psychological processes-both affective and cognitiveexert an influence on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function. More specifically, a link between psychological factors and visceral hypersensitivity has been suggested,mainly based on research in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. However, until recently, the exact nature of this putative relationship remained unclear,mainly due to a lack of non-invasive methods to study the (neurobiological) mechanisms underlying this relationship in non-sleeping humans. As functional brain imaging, introduced in visceral sensory neuroscience some 10 years ago, does provide a method for in vivo study of brain-gut interactions, insight into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral sensation in general and the influence of psychological factors more particularly,has rapidly grown. In this article, an overview of brain imaging evidence on gastrointestinal sensation will be given, with special emphasis on the brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between affective & cognitive processes and visceral sensation. First, the reciprocal neural pathways between the brain and the gut (braingut axis) will be briefly outlined, including brain imaging evidence in healthy volunteers. Second, functional brain imaging studies assessing the influence of psychological factors on brain processing of visceral sensation in healthy humans will be discussed in more detail.Finally, brain imaging work investigating differences in brain responses to visceral distension between healthy volunteers and functional gastrointestinal disorder patients will be highlighted.

  16. Negative brain scintigrams in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalke, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    With 53 histologically verified and 2 histologically not identified brain tumors, that showed a negative scintigram, it was tried to find reasons for the wrong and negative dropout of these scintigrams. The electroencephalograms and angiograms, that were made simultaneously were taken into consideration with respect to their propositional capability and were compared with the scintigram findings. For the formation of the negative brain scintigrams there could be found no unique cause or causal constellation. The scintigraphic tumor representation is likely based on a complex process. Therefore the reasons for the negativity of the brain scintigrams can be a manifold of causes. An important role plays the vascularisation of the tumor, but not in a sole way. As well the tumor localisation gains some importance; especially in the temporal lobe or in the deeper structures situated tumors can be negative in the scintigram. To hold down the rate of wrong-negative quote in the case of intracranial tumor search, one is advised to continue with an further exposure after 2 to 4 hours besides the usual exposures, unless a sequential scintigraphy was made from the beginning. (orig./MG) [de

  17. The multilingual brain

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The multilingual brain. Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? The given lecture will focus on the "cognitive advantages" of multilingualism and illustrate the impact that being multilingual has on the cognitive organisation of the brain. Practical questions regarding multilingual education will also be discussed. Ass et gutt e Kand méisproocheg ze erzéien? Wat sinn déi optimal Konditio...

  18. Insulin and brain aging

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Bik, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The world’s population is living much longer than in the past. It is crucial to find as many pathological factors that deteriorate the health condition and well-being of elderly people as possible. Loss of activity and functions over time is typical for elderly people. Aging affects brain function, metabolism and structure in different ways, and these effects have multiple etiologies. Cognitive impairment, impaired neurotransmitter activity and reduction of brain volume are observed in th...

  19. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  20. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  1. Neuroethics and Brain Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology.......An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology....

  2. Protect Your Brain

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Recent high-profile cases among professional athletes have called attention to the serious problem of traumatic brain injuries, or TBI, but the problem isn’t limited to playing fields. In 2009, at least three and a half million people in the U.S. sustained a TBI, either with or without other injuries. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa McGuire discusses the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries.

  3. Dyslexia singular brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habis, M.; Robichon, F.; Demonet, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Of late ten years, neurologists are studying the brain of the dyslectics. The cerebral imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography) has allowed to confirm the anatomical particularities discovered by some of them: asymmetry default of cerebral hemispheres, size abnormally large of the white substance mass which connect the two hemispheres. The functional imagery, when visualizing this singular brain at work, allows to understand why it labors to reading. (O.M.)

  4. Iron uptake and transport at the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Moos, Torben

    The mechanism by which iron is transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains controversial, and in this study we aimed to further clarify mechanisms by which iron is transported into the brain. We analyzed and compared the mRNA and protein expression of a variety of proteins involved...... in the transport of iron (transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter I (DMT1), steap 2, steap 3, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and ferroportin) in both primary rat brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC) and immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cell line (RBE4) grown in co-culture with defined polarity....... The mRNA expression of the iron-related molecules was also investigated in isolated brain capillaries from iron deficiency, iron reversible and normal rats. We also performed iron transport studies to analyze the routes by which iron is transported through the brain capillary endothelial cells: i) We...

  5. The blood-brain barrier in vitro using primary culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    The brain is protected from the entry of unwanted substances by means of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the brain microvasculature. This BBB is composed of non-fenestrated brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) with their intermingling tight junctions. The presence of the BBB is a huge...... obstacle for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, as many potentially CNS active drugs are unable to reach their site of action within the brain. In vitro BBB models are, therefore, being developed to investigate the BBB permeability of a drug early in its development. The first part...... of the thesis involves the establishment and characterization of an in vitro BBB models based on primary cells isolated from the rat brain. Co-culture and triple culture models with astrocytes and pericytes were found to be the superior to mono cultured BCECs with respect to many important BBB characteristics...

  6. Your Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Brain & Nervous ... The coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum! Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing — and More Another brain ...

  7. Renal ischemia reperfusion causes brain hippocampus oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The acute kidney injury (AKI) may do damage to remote organs. Objective of the study is to investigate effect of seaweed extract (SE) on brain oxidative damage in kidney ischemia/reperfusion rats. Material and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into five groups. SE pre-fed to rats. Results: Kidney I/R ...

  8. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  9. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  10. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  11. Topodynamics of metastable brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Marijuán, Pedro C.

    2017-07-01

    The brain displays both the anatomical features of a vast amount of interconnected topological mappings as well as the functional features of a nonlinear, metastable system at the edge of chaos, equipped with a phase space where mental random walks tend towards lower energetic basins. Nevertheless, with the exception of some advanced neuro-anatomic descriptions and present-day connectomic research, very few studies have been addressing the topological path of a brain embedded or embodied in its external and internal environment. Herein, by using new formal tools derived from algebraic topology, we provide an account of the metastable brain, based on the neuro-scientific model of Operational Architectonics of brain-mind functioning. We introduce a ;topodynamic; description that shows how the relationships among the countless intertwined spatio-temporal levels of brain functioning can be assessed in terms of projections and mappings that take place on abstract structures, equipped with different dimensions, curvatures and energetic constraints. Such a topodynamical approach, apart from providing a biologically plausible model of brain function that can be operationalized, is also able to tackle the issue of a long-standing dichotomy: it throws indeed a bridge between the subjective, immediate datum of the naïve complex of sensations and mentations and the objective, quantitative, data extracted from experimental neuro-scientific procedures. Importantly, it opens the door to a series of new predictions and future directions of advancement for neuroscientific research.

  12. mammalian brain system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kania

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relaxin-3, a member of the relaxin peptide family, was discovered in 2001 as a homologue of relaxin – a well-known reproductive hormone. However, it is the brain which turned out to be a major expression site of this newly discovered peptide. Both its molecular structure and expression pattern were shown to be very conserved among vertebrates. Extensive research carried out since the discovery of relaxin-3 contributed to the significant progress in our knowledge regarding this neuropeptide. The endogenous relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3 was identified and the anatomy of the yet uncharacterized mammalian brain system was described, with nucleus incertus as the main center of relaxin-3 expression. Not only its diffusive projections throughout the whole brain, which reach various brain structures such as the hippocampus, septum, intergeniculate leaflet or amygdala, but also functional studies of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling system, allowed this brain network to be classified as one of the ascending nonspecific brain systems. Thus far, research depicts the connection of relaxin-3 with phenomena such as feeding behavior, spatial memory, sleep/wake cycle or modulation of pituitary gland hormone secretion. Responsiveness of relaxin-3 neurons to stress factors and the strong orexigenic effect exerted by this peptide suggest its participation in modulation of feeding by stress, in particular of the chronic type. The discovery of relaxin-3 opened a new research field which will contribute to our better understanding of the neurobiological basis of feeding disorders.

  13. Relationship between changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity and brain edema after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity and brain edema after injury in rats.   Methods: The brain injury models were made by using a free-falling body. The treatment model was induced by means of injecting AP5 into lateral ventricle before brain injury; water contents in brain cortex were measured with dry-wet method; and NMDA receptor activity was detected with a radio ligand binding assay.   Results: The water contents began to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 6 hours after brain injury. The maximal binding (Bmax) of NMDA receptor increased significantly at 15 minutes and reached the peak at 30 minutes, then decreased gradually and had the lowest value 6 hours after brain injury. Followed the treatment with AP5, NMDA receptor activity in the injured brain showed a normal value; and the water contents were lower than that of AP5-free injury group 24 hours after brain injury.   Conclusions: It suggests that excessive activation of NMDA receptor may be one of the most important factors to induce the secondary cerebral impairments, and AP5 may protect the brain from edema after brain injury.

  14. The relationship between brain volumes and intelligence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P M; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder type-I (BD-I) patients show a lower Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and smaller brain volumes as compared with healthy controls. Considering that in healthy individuals lower IQ is related to smaller total brain volume, it is of interest to investigate whether IQ deficits in BD-I patients are related to smaller brain volumes and to what extent smaller brain volumes can explain differences between premorbid IQ estimates and IQ after a diagnosis of BD-I. Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, IQ and premorbid IQ scores were obtained from 195 BDI patients and 160 controls. We studied the relationship of (global, cortical and subcortical) brain volumes with IQ and IQ change. Additionally, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma, lithium- and antipsychotic use and IQ. Total brain volume and IQ were positively correlated in the entire sample. This correlation did not differ between patients and controls. Although brain volumes mediated the relationship between BD-I and IQ in part, the direct relationship between the diagnosis and IQ remained significant. Childhood trauma and use of lithium and antipsychotic medication did not affect the relationship between brain volumes and IQ. However, current lithium use was related to lower IQ in patients. Our data suggest a similar relationship between brain volume and IQ in BD-I patients and controls. Smaller brain volumes only partially explain IQ deficits in patients. Therefore, our findings indicate that in addition to brain volumes and lithium use other disease factors play a role in IQ deficits in BD-I patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epilepsy and radiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomberg, T.

    2005-01-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogenous group of disorders with multiple causes. Clinical management of epilepsy patients requires knowledge of seizure syndromes, causes, and imaging features. The aim of radiological investigations is to recognize the underlying cause of epilepsy. The main indications for neuroimaging studies are partial and secondarily generalized seizures, patients with neurological signs and intractable seizures, and patients with focal signs on EEG. Partial seizures of any type are more likely to be associated with a focus that may be identified on neuroimaging. MRI is the method of choice for evaluating structural abnormalities of the brain. High resolution MRI and dedicated imaging technique are needed for detection of subtle pathological changes as cortical dysplasias and temporal medial sclerosis. Other lesions that may be detected include neoplasms, vascular malformations, destructive lesions following brain injury, stroke, infection, etc. CT continues to be the technique for the investigation of patients with seizures under certain conditions. New techniques such as functional MRI, MR spectroscopy, SPECT, receptor PET and magnetic source imaging are becoming clinical tools for improving diagnosis [et

  16. Short-term mechanisms influencing volumetric brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Dieleman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and brain analysis tools, it has become possible to measure brain volume changes up to around 0.5%. Besides long-term brain changes caused by atrophy in aging or neurodegenerative disease, short-term mechanisms that influence brain volume may exist. When we focus on short-term changes of the brain, changes may be either physiological or pathological. As such determining the cause of volumetric dynamics of the brain is essential. Additionally for an accurate interpretation of longitudinal brain volume measures by means of neurodegeneration, knowledge about the short-term changes is needed. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms influencing brain volumes on a short-term basis and set-out a framework of MRI techniques to be used for volumetric changes as well as the used analysis tools. 3D T1-weighted images are the images of choice when it comes to MRI of brain volume. These images are excellent to determine brain volume and can be used together with an analysis tool to determine the degree of volume change. Mechanisms that decrease global brain volume are: fluid restriction, evening MRI measurements, corticosteroids, antipsychotics and short-term effects of pathological processes like Alzheimer's disease, hypertension and Diabetes mellitus type II. Mechanisms increasing the brain volume include fluid intake, morning MRI measurements, surgical revascularization and probably medications like anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-hypertensive medication. Exercise was found to have no effect on brain volume on a short-term basis, which may imply that dehydration caused by exercise differs from dehydration by fluid restriction. In the upcoming years, attention should be directed towards studies investigating physiological short-term changes within the light of long-term pathological changes. Ultimately this may lead to a better understanding of the physiological short-term effects of

  17. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism and Sedation in Brain-injured Patients: A Microdialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, Daniel N; Santos, Edgar; Hagenston, Anna M; Jungk, Christine; Haux, Daniel; Unterberg, Andreas W; Sakowitz, Oliver W

    2015-07-01

    Disturbed brain metabolism is a signature of primary damage and/or precipitates secondary injury processes after severe brain injury. Sedatives and analgesics target electrophysiological functioning and are as such well-known modulators of brain energy metabolism. Still unclear, however, is how sedatives impact glucose metabolism and whether they differentially influence brain metabolism in normally active, healthy brain and critically impaired, injured brain. We therefore examined and compared the effects of anesthetic drugs under both critical (1 mmol/L) extracellular brain glucose levels. We performed an explorative, retrospective analysis of anesthetic drug administration and brain glucose concentrations, obtained by bedside microdialysis, in 19 brain-injured patients. Our investigations revealed an inverse linear correlation between brain glucose and both the concentration of extracellular glutamate (Pearson r=-0.58, P=0.01) and the lactate/glucose ratio (Pearson r=-0.55, P=0.01). For noncritical brain glucose levels, we observed a positive linear correlation between midazolam dose and brain glucose (Pbrain glucose levels, extracellular brain glucose was unaffected by any type of sedative. These findings suggest that the use of anesthetic drugs may be of limited value in attempts to influence brain glucose metabolism in injured brain tissue.

  18. Acute and chronic changes in brain activity with deep brain stimulation for refractory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, Silke; Matthews, Julian C; Patel, Nikunj K; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Talbot, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation-response was defined as reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score from baseline of ≥50%, and remission as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score ≤8. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were assessed using [ 15 O]water positron emission tomography. Remitters had higher relative regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex at baseline and all subsequent time-points compared to non-remitters and non-responders, with prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow generally increasing with chronic deep brain stimulation. These effects were consistent regardless of stimulation-site. Overall, no significant regional cerebral blood flow changes were apparent when deep brain stimulation was acutely interrupted. Deep brain stimulation improved treatment-refractory depression severity in the majority of patients, with consistent changes in local and distant brain regions regardless of target stimulation. Remission of depression was reached in patients with higher baseline prefrontal regional cerebral blood flow. Because of the small sample size these results are preliminary and further evaluation is necessary to determine whether prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow could be a predictive biomarker of treatment response.

  19. Neuropsychiatric aspects of severe brain injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Zaitsev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art of Russian neuropsychiatry and priority developments in different psychopathological syndromes in severe brain injuries are assessed. Many cognitive and emotional impairments are explained in terms of the idea on the organization of psychic activity over time. It is emphasized that to achieve the premorbid levels of an interhemispheric interaction and functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres affords psychic activity recovery. The experience in investigating, classifying, and treating various mental disorders occurring after severe brain injuries is generalized. The basic principles of psychopharmacotherapy and rehabilitation of victims are stated.

  20. Functional brain imaging - baric and clinical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, T.; Moeller, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The advancing biological knowledge of disease processes plays a central part in the progress of modern psychiatry. An essential contribution comes from the functional and structural brain imaging techniques (CT, MRI, SPECT, PET). Their application is important for biological oriented research in psychiatry and there is also a growing relevance in clinical aspects. This development is taken into account by recent diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry. The capabilities and limitations of functional brain imaging in the context of research and clinic will be presented and discussed by examples and own investigations. (orig.) [de

  1. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  2. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas.

  3. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Haijma, Sander V.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    IMPORTANCE Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time.

  4. Whole-brain atrophy rate and cognitive decline: longitudinal MR study of memory clinic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, J.D.; van der Flier, W.M.; Karas, G.B.; Fox, N.C.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Vrenken, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whole-brain atrophy rate in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) and its association with cognitive decline, and investigate the risk of progression to dementia in initially non-demented patients given baseline brain volume and whole-brain

  5. "Celebration of the Neurons": The Application of Brain Based Learning in Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Bilal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate approaches and techniques related to how brain based learning used in classroom atmosphere. This general purpose were answered following the questions: (1) What is the aim of brain based learning? (2) What are general approaches and techniques that brain based learning used? and (3) How should be used…

  6. Miniature Brain Decision Making in Complex Visual Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyer, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    .... In particular, the grantee investigated the problem of face invariance to understand the role that experience with stimuli can play in permitting a brain to learn how to reliably recognize target...

  7. The two-brain approach: how can mutually interacting brains teach us something about social interaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eKonvalinka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Measuring brain activity simultaneously from two people interacting is intuitively appealing if one is interested in putative neural markers of social interaction. However, given the complex nature of two-person interactions, it has proven difficult to carry out two-person brain imaging experiments in a methodologically feasible and conceptually relevant way. Only a small number of recent studies have put this into practice, using fMRI, EEG, or NIRS. Here, we review two main two-brain methodological approaches, each with two conceptual strategies. The first group has employed simultaneous fMRI recordings, studying a turn-based interactions on the order of seconds, or b pseudo-interactive scenarios, where only one person is scanned at a time, investigating the flow of information between brains. The second group of studies has recorded dual EEG/NIRS from two people interacting, in a face-to-face turn-based interactions, investigating functional connectivity between theory-of-mind regions of interacting partners, or in b continuous mutual interactions on millisecond timescales, to measure coupling between the activity in one person’s brain and the activity in the other’s brain. We discuss the questions these approaches have addressed, and consider scenarios when simultaneous two-brain recordings are needed. Furthermore, we suggest that a quantification of inter-personal neural effects via measures of emergence, and b multivariate decoding models that generalize source-specific features of interaction, may provide novel tools to study brains in interaction. This may allow for a better understanding of social cognition as both representation and participation.

  8. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    et al., 2017 has summarized that overall brain stimulation by some techniques including TMS and tDCS seem to speed up motor learning, and motor skills in sport activities. Considering that performance enhancement can be seen (Colzato et al., 2017, one would ask how and by which mechanism. Davis proposed that there would be two ways that brain stimulation could possibly improve sport performance (Davis, 2013. One way is to benefit from brain stimulation before performance to, for instance, reduce stress level or muscle tension or to enhance focus for a quicker action. The other way would be potential use during training for athletic performance that can eventually help athletes to learn motor skills better. Presented research results are mainly based on the experimental set up; therefore, it is important to identify whether physical and mental performance gains under experimental conditions would also be meaningful in a real world competition. To study actual gain by brain stimulation, future investigations must properly be designed, include placebo and control arms, remain blinded until after data analysis, and include objective assessments in addition to subjective outcomes. Time-course of beneficial effect in certain sport competition is not clear. It has been shown that repetitive applications of tDCS can increase the effects of stimulation (Nitsche and Paulus, 2011; but, it is not clear if this is the case for athletic performance. There is no evidence on side effects especially for long term use of these techniques. Overall, these techniques are considered non-invasive and safe (Rossi et al., 2009. Under medical application, it has been notified that some individuals are highly responders while others do not respond well. This might be the case for athletes. Additive or synergistic effects of these techniques together with other techniques or methods of performance enhancement have not yet been investigated either. Therefore, further studies are required to

  9. N-alkylamides: from plant to brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieselotte Veryser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant N-alkylamides (NAAs are bio-active compounds with a broad functional spectrum. In order to reach their pharmacodynamic targets, they have to overcome several barriers of the body in the absorption phase. The permeability kinetics of spilanthol (a diene NAA and pellitorine (a triene NAA across these barriers (i.e. skin, oral/gut mucosa, bloodbrain barrier were investigated. Methods: The skin and oral mucosa permeability were investigated using human skin and pig mucosa in an ex vivo in vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up. The gut absorption characteristics were examined using the in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer test system. The initial blood-brain barrier transport kinetics were investigated in an in vivo mice model using multiple time regression and efflux experiments. Quantification of both NAAs was conducted using HPLC-UV and bioanalytical UPLC-MS methods. Results: We demonstrated that spilanthol and pellitorine are able to penetrate the skin after topical administration. It is likely that spilanthol and pellitorine can pass the endothelial gut as they easily pass the Caco-2 cells in the monolayer model. It has been shown that spilanthol also crosses the oral mucosa as well as the blood-brain barrier. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that NAAs pass various physiological barriers i.e. the skin, oral and gut mucosa, and after having reached the systemic circulation, also the blood-brain barrier. As such, NAAs are cosmenutriceuticals which can be active in the brain

  10. Functional brain imaging; Funktionelle Hirnbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method that has become one of the major tools for understanding human brain function and in recent years has also been developed for clinical applications. Changes in hemodynamic signals correspond to changes in neuronal activity with good spatial and temporal resolution in fMRI. Using high-field MR systems and increasingly dedicated statistics and postprocessing, activated brain areas can be detected and superimposed on anatomical images. Currently, fMRI data are often combined in multimodal imaging, e. g. with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. This method is helping to further understand the physiology of cognitive brain processes and is also being used in a number of clinical applications. In addition to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, this article deals with the construction of fMRI investigations, selection of paradigms and evaluation in the clinical routine. Clinically, this method is mainly used in the planning of brain surgery, analyzing the location of brain tumors in relation to eloquent brain areas and the lateralization of language processing. As the BOLD signal is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field as well as other limitations, an overview of recent developments is given. Increases of magnetic field strength (7 T), available head coils and advances in MRI analytical methods have led to constant improvement in fMRI signals and experimental design. Especially the depiction of eloquent brain regions can be done easily and quickly and has become an essential part of presurgical planning. (orig.) [German] Mittlerweile ist die funktionelle MRT (fMRT) eine Methode, die nicht mehr nur in der neurowissenschaftlichen Routine verwendet wird. Die fMRT ermoeglicht die nichtinvasive Darstellung der Hirnaktivitaet in guter raeumlicher und zeitlicher Aufloesung unter Ausnutzung der Durchblutungsaenderung aufgrund der erhoehten Nervenzellaktivitaet. Unter

  11. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  12. Immunopathogenesis of brain abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielian Tammy

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain abscess represents a significant medical problem despite recent advances made in detection and therapy. Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains and the ubiquitous nature of bacteria, the occurrence of brain abscess is likely to persist. Our laboratory has developed a mouse experimental brain abscess model allowing for the identification of key mediators in the CNS anti-bacterial immune response through the use of cytokine and chemokine knockout mice. Studies of primary microglia and astrocytes from neonatal mice have revealed that S. aureus, one of the main etiologic agents of brain abscess in humans, is a potent stimulus for proinflammatory mediator production. Recent evidence from our laboratory indicates that Toll-like receptor 2 plays a pivotal role in the recognition of S. aureus and its cell wall product peptidoglycan by glia, although other receptors also participate in the recognition event. This review will summarize the consequences of S. aureus on CNS glial activation and the resultant neuroinflammatory response in the experimental brain abscess model.

  13. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain hypoxia imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The measurement of pathologically low levels of tissue pO{sub 2} is an important diagnostic goal for determining the prognosis of many clinically important diseases including cardiovascular insufficiency, stroke and cancer. The target tissues nowadays have mostly been tumors or the myocardium, with less attention centered on the brain. Radiolabelled nitroimidazole or derivatives may be useful in identifying the hypoxic cells in cerebrovascular disease or traumatic brain injury, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In acute stroke, the target of therapy is the severely hypoxic but salvageable tissue. {sup 18}F-MISO PET and {sup 99m}Tc-EC-metronidazole SPECT in patients with acute ischemic stroke identified hypoxic tissues and ischemic penumbra, and predicted its outcome. A study using {sup 123}I-IAZA in patient with closed head injury detected the hypoxic tissues after head injury. Up till now these radiopharmaceuticals have drawbacks due to its relatively low concentration with hypoxic tissues associated with/without low blood-brain barrier permeability and the necessity to wait a long time to achieve acceptable target to background ratios for imaging in acute ischemic stroke. It is needed to develop new hypoxic marker exhibiting more rapid localization in the hypoxic region in the brain. And then, the hypoxic brain imaging with imidazoles or non-imidazoles may be very useful in detecting the hypoxic tissues, determining therapeutic strategies and developing therapeutic drugs in several neurological disease, especially, in acute ischemic stroke.

  15. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRobbins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (> 6 months to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses > 30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses > 60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain

  16. Effects of Psychostimulant Drugs on Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Durukan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychostimulants have been used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for approximately 70 years, little is known about the long term effects of these drugs on developing brain. The observable effects of psychostimulants are influenced by the timing of exposure, the age of examination after drug exposure and sex. Preclinical studies point out that chronic psychostimulant exposure before adolescence cause reverse sensitization or tolerance and this leads to reduction in stimulant effectiveness in adolesecence and adulthood. Preclinical studies show the potential long term effects of psychostimulants. But it is necessary to investigate the relationship between preclinical effects and clinical practice. A developmental approach is needed to understand the impact of pediatric medications on the brain that includes assessment at multiple ages to completely characterize the long term effects of these medications. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of psychostimulants on developing brain.

  17. Nanoparticle transport across the blood brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabrucker, Andreas M; Ruozi, Barbara; Belletti, Daniela; Pederzoli, Francesca; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Tosi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    While the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is increasingly recognized in the (development of treatments targeting neurodegenerative disorders, to date, few strategies exist that enable drug delivery of non-BBB crossing molecules directly to their site of action, the brain. However, the recent advent of Nanomedicines may provide a potent tool to implement CNS targeted delivery of active compounds. Approaches for BBB crossing are deeply investigated in relation to the pathology: among the main important diseases of the CNS, this review focuses on the application of nanomedicines to neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington's Disease) and to other brain pathologies as epilepsy, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis, lysosomal storage disorders, strokes.

  18. Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson C; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study.

  19. Potential brain imaging using near field radiomety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, A; Karanasiou, I S; Uzunoglu, N K

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades there has been a tremendous increase throughout the scientific community for developing methods of understanding human brain functionality, as diagnosis and treatment of diseases and malfunctions could be effectively developed through understanding of how the brain works. In parallel, research effort is driven on minimizing drawbacks of existing imaging techniques including potential risks from radiation and invasive attributes of the imaging methodologies. Towards that direction, we are proposing a near filed radiometry imaging system for intracranial applications. The methodology is based on the fact that human tissues emit chaotic thermal type radiation at temperatures above the absolute zero. Using a phase shifted antenna array system, resolution, detection depth and sensitivity are increased. Several different setups are theoretically investigated and compared, so as to make the proposed system useful for clinical applications. Combining previous research as well as new findings, the possibility of using the proposed system as a complementary method for brain imaging is discussed in the present paper.

  20. Scintigraphic evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    A law recognizing brain death is a life saving legal measure in patients suffering from badly diseased organs such as kidney, liver, heart, and lung. Such law is being discussed for legalization at the Korean National Assembly. There are various criteria used for brain death in western world and brain scintiscan is one of them. However, the scintiscan is not considered in establishing brain death in the draft of the law. The purpose of this report is to spread this technique in nuclear medicine society as well as in other medical societies. We evaluated 7 patients with clinical suspicion of brain death by various causes. The patient's age ranged from 5 to 39 years. We used 5-20mCi 99m Tc-HMPAO (d.1-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) or ECD (Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer), lipophilic agents that cross BBB (blood brain barrier). A dynamic study followed by static or SPECT (single photon emission tomography) was performed. Interpretive criteria used for brain death were 1) no intracranial circulation 2) no brain uptake. The second criteria is heavily used. Five of 7 patients were scintigraphically brain dead and the remaining 2 had some brain uptake excluding the diagnosis of scintigraphic brain death. In conclusion, cerebral perfusion study using a lipophilic brain tracer offers a noninvasive, rapid, easy, accurate and reliable mean in the diagnosis of brain death. We believe that this modality should be included in the criteria of brain death in the draft of the proposed Korean law

  1. Common genetic variations in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways associated with pediatric brain tumor susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahmideh, Maral Adel; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schüz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) is limited. Therefore, we investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified by candidate gene-association studies on adult brain tumors, and PBT risk. The study is...... cycle and DNA repair pathways variations associated with susceptibility to adult brain tumors also seem to be associated with PBT risk, suggesting pediatric and adult brain tumors might share similar etiological pathways....

  2. The use of gammophos to prevent the delayed radiation injury to brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikova, V.V.; Levitman, M.Kh.; Plotnikova, E.D.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of a radioprotector, gammaphos, on the development of delayed vascular changes and necrosis in rat brain following local brain irradiation with 25 Gy was investigated. The radioprotective effect was manifested by both the morphometric parameters of vessels and the survival rate and relative number of animals with gross vascular abnormalities and brain necrosis. There was a causative relationship between the development of gross vascular abnormalities and the occurrence of brain necrosis after exposure to moderate radiation doses

  3. Functional neuroimaging of normal aging: Declining brain, adapting brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    Early functional neuroimaging research on normal aging brain has been dominated by the interest in cognitive decline. In this framework the age-related compensatory recruitment of prefrontal cortex, in terms of executive system or reduced lateralization, has been established. Further details on these compensatory mechanisms and the findings reflecting cognitive decline, however, remain the matter of intensive investigations. Studies in another framework where age-related neural alteration is considered adaptation to the environmental change are recently burgeoning and appear largely categorized into three domains. The age-related increase in activation of the sensorimotor network may reflect the alteration of the peripheral sensorimotor systems. The increased susceptibility of the network for the mental-state inference to the socioemotional significance may be explained by the age-related motivational shift due to the altered social perception. The age-related change in activation of the self-referential network may be relevant to the focused positive self-concept of elderly driven by a similar motivational shift. Across the domains, the concept of the self and internal model may provide the theoretical bases of this adaptation framework. These two frameworks complement each other to provide a comprehensive view of the normal aging brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  5. Tumours of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the last in a series of publications containing the edited texts of the clinical oncology symposia patronaged by the Royal College of Radiologists. The topics included essentially cover the pathology, imaging, diagnosis, and treatment of common and uncommon tumors of the brain. Only malignant tumors are discussed in any detail. A short introductory chapter summarized the pathology of brain tumors and the still-prevailing confusion of classification of gliomas. Two interesting chapters deal with immunologic techniques: one for characterizing tumors with immunocytochemical methods; the other, for localization and imaging by means of radiolabeled antibodies. Conventional radiologic methods of imaging, with emphasis on computed tomography, are covered in a comprehensive chapter summarizing what is known today of the accuracy of these methods in the detection, characterization, and grading of tumors of the brain. Two chapters are devoted to more recent developments in imaging, namely, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography

  6. Brain Network Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther

    Three main topics are presented in this thesis. The first and largest topic concerns network modelling of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI). In particular nonparametric Bayesian methods are used to model brain networks derived from resting state f...... for their ability to reproduce node clustering and predict unseen data. Comparing the models on whole brain networks, BCD and IRM showed better reproducibility and predictability than IDM, suggesting that resting state networks exhibit community structure. This also points to the importance of using models, which...... allow for complex interactions between all pairs of clusters. In addition, it is demonstrated how the IRM can be used for segmenting brain structures into functionally coherent clusters. A new nonparametric Bayesian network model is presented. The model builds upon the IRM and can be used to infer...

  7. Initial brain aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten; Yokota, Takashi; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Brain aging is accompanied by declining mitochondrial respiration. We hypothesized that mitochondrial morphology and dynamics would reflect this decline. Using hippocampus and frontal cortex of a segmental progeroid mouse model lacking Cockayne syndrome protein B (CSB(m/m)) and C57Bl/6 (WT......) controls and comparing young (2-5 months) to middle-aged mice (13-14 months), we found that complex I-linked state 3 respiration (CI) was reduced at middle age in CSB(m/m) hippocampus, but not in CSB(m/m) cortex or WT brain. In hippocampus of both genotypes, mitochondrial size heterogeneity increased....... Mitochondrial DNA content was lower, and hypoxia-induced factor 1α mRNA was greater at both ages in CSB(m/m) compared to WT brain. Our findings show that decreased CI and increased mitochondrial size heterogeneity are highly associated and point to declining mitochondrial quality control as an initial event...

  8. Artificial Intelligence and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapshak, Paul

    2018-01-01

    From the start, Kurt Godel observed that computer and brain paradigms were considered on a par by researchers and that researchers had misunderstood his theorems. He hailed with displeasure that the brain transcends computers. In this brief article, we point out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) comprises multitudes of human-made methodologies, systems, and languages, and implemented with computer technology. These advances enhance development in the electron and quantum realms. In the biological realm, animal neurons function, also utilizing electron flow, and are products of evolution. Mirror neurons are an important paradigm in neuroscience research. Moreover, the paradigm shift proposed here - 'hall of mirror neurons' - is a potentially further productive research tactic. These concepts further expand AI and brain research.

  9. Central nervous system: brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    Present radiopharmaceuticals and detector systems have provided nuclear medicine physicians with tools capable of detecting a variety of brain abnormalities with little radiation exposure to pediatric patients. It is essential that the referring physician as well as the physician performing the procedure recognize both the limitations and virtues of these techniques. Appropriate selection of brain imaging procedures in each specific case must be the rule. Brain scintigraphy reliably solves certain problems, such as detecting or excluding intracranial tumors and identifying early cerebral inflammatory disease, cerebral ischemic disease, and a variety of congenital anomalies. Other situations, such as seizures without a focal neurologic deficit, acute meningitis, and hydrocephalus, are less often benefited by these studies. The role of these procedures in acute trauma and its sequelae is at the present time limited in pediatric practice. (auth)

  10. Brains, Genes and Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  11. Brain volume reductions in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-07-01

    Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. SPECT of the brain: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, F.; Lenzi, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In both PET and SPECT, most of the studies and the models have been addressed to two organs: brain and heart. So far, brain has certainly been investigated more. The several comparisons between planar scintigraphy and SPECT, between X-ray TCT and SPECT, and also between PET and SPECT, have tended to consider SPECT a cheap but scarcely useful tool for a nuclear medicine section. Again the authors feel that this is due to the fact that SPECT is really a ''physiological tomography'', with little known about its physiology or how it is measured. Thus the present state of the art of SPECT of the brain is characterized by a collection of data and reports on brain imaging and by a slowly growing basic understanding of the utilized modes. The introduction of a new brain-imaging radiopharmaceutical is immediately signaled by its ''first clinical application'' without parallel studies on the kinetics, the metabolic degradation, and the real suitability of the molecule as a tracer for measurement of regional CBF. Only a few attempts seek to narrow this discussion between clinic and biology, and the authors like to emphasize the need for nuclear medicine people to dedicate more time and effort

  13. [Why do we call the brain 'brain'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Molina, A; Ensenat, A

    2017-01-16

    Every day millions of professionals use a countless number of technical words to refer to the different structures inside the skull. But few of them would know how to explain their origin. In this study we take an in-depth look into the etymological origins of some of these neuroanatomical terms. The study takes an etymological tour of the central nervous system. It is in no way meant to be an exhaustive, detailed review of the terms currently in use, but instead a means to familiarise the reader with the linguistic past of words like brain, hippocampus, thalamus, claustrum, fornix, corpus callosum or limbic system. All of them come from either Greek or Latin, which were used for centuries as the lingua francas of science. The study also analyses the evolution of the word meninges, originally of Greco-Latin origin, although its current usages derive from Arabic. The neuroanatomical terms that are in use today do not come from words that associate a particular brain structure with its function, but instead from words that reflect the formal or conceptual similarity between a structure and a familiar or everyday entity (for example, an object or a part of the human body). In other cases, these words indicate the spatial location of the neuroanatomical structure with respect to a third, or they may be terms derived from characters in Greco-Latin mythology.

  14. Spectral properties of the temporal evolution of brain network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yong; Lin, Pan; Wu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution properties of the brain network are crucial for complex brain processes. In this paper, we investigate the differences in the dynamic brain network during resting and visual stimulation states in a task-positive subnetwork, task-negative subnetwork, and whole-brain network. The dynamic brain network is first constructed from human functional magnetic resonance imaging data based on the sliding window method, and then the eigenvalues corresponding to the network are calculated. We use eigenvalue analysis to analyze the global properties of eigenvalues and the random matrix theory (RMT) method to measure the local properties. For global properties, the shifting of the eigenvalue distribution and the decrease in the largest eigenvalue are linked to visual stimulation in all networks. For local properties, the short-range correlation in eigenvalues as measured by the nearest neighbor spacing distribution is not always sensitive to visual stimulation. However, the long-range correlation in eigenvalues as evaluated by spectral rigidity and number variance not only predicts the universal behavior of the dynamic brain network but also suggests non-consistent changes in different networks. These results demonstrate that the dynamic brain network is more random for the task-positive subnetwork and whole-brain network under visual stimulation but is more regular for the task-negative subnetwork. Our findings provide deeper insight into the importance of spectral properties in the functional brain network, especially the incomparable role of RMT in revealing the intrinsic properties of complex systems.

  15. Are there fetal stem cells in the maternal brain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Demirhan; Necmi (C)ekin; Deniz Ta(s)temir; Erdal Tun(c); Ali irfan Güzel; Demet Meral; Bülent Demirbek

    2013-01-01

    Fetal cells can enter maternal blood during pregnancy but whether they can also cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain remains poorly understood. Previous results suggest that fetal cells are summoned to repair damage to the mother's brain. If this is confirmed, it would open up new and safer avenues of treatment for brain damage caused by strokes and neural diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a baby's stem cells can enter the maternal brain during pregnancy. Deceased patients who had at least one male offspring and no history of abortion and blood transfusion were included in this study. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of deceased women using standard phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation methods. Genomic DNA was screened by quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction amplification together with short tandem repeat markers specific to the Y chromosome, and 13, 18, 21 and X. Any foreign DNA residues that could be used to interpret the presence of fetal stem cells in the maternal brain were monitored. Results indicated that fetal stem cells can not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain.

  16. Neuropsychological testing and biomarkers in the management of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baschnagel, Andrew; Wolters, Pamela L; Camphausen, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Prognosis for patients with brain metastasis remains poor. Whole brain radiation therapy is the conventional treatment option; it can improve neurological symptoms, prevent and improve tumor associated neurocognitive decline, and prevents death from neurologic causes. In addition to whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, neurosurgery and chemotherapy also are used in the management of brain metastases. Radiosensitizers are now currently being investigated as potential treatment options. All of these treatment modalities carry a risk of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity that can lead to neurocognitive impairment in long term survivors. Neuropsychological testing and biomarkers are potential ways of measuring and better understanding CNS toxicity. These tools may help optimize current therapies and develop new treatments for these patients. This article will review the current management of brain metastases, summarize the data on the CNS effects associated with brain metastases and whole brain radiation therapy in these patients, discuss the use of neuropsychological tests as outcome measures in clinical trials evaluating treatments for brain metastases, and give an overview of the potential of biomarker development in brain metastases research

  17. Changes in brain size during the menstrual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Hagemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for hormone-dependent modification of function and behavior during the menstrual cycle, but little is known about associated short-term structural alterations of the brain. Preliminary studies suggest that a hormone-dependent decline in brain volume occurs in postmenopausal, or women receiving antiestrogens, long term. Advances in serial MR-volumetry have allowed for the accurate detection of small volume changes of the brain. Recently, activity-induced short-term structural plasticity of the brain was demonstrated, challenging the view that the brain is as rigid as formerly believed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used MR-volumetry to investigate short-term brain volume changes across the menstrual cycle in women or a parallel 4 week period in men, respectively. We found a significant grey matter volume peak and CSF loss at the time of ovulation in females. This volume peak did not correlate with estradiol or progesterone hormone levels. Men did not show any significant brain volume alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data give evidence of short-term hormone-dependent structural brain changes during the menstrual cycle, which need to be correlated with functional states and have to be considered in structure-associated functional brain research.

  18. Brain injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of

  19. [Patterns of brain ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Viadero, Carlos; Verduga Vélez, Rosario; Crespo Santiago, Dámaso

    2017-06-01

    Neuroplasticity lends the brain a strong ability to adapt to changes in the environment that occur during ageing. Animal models have shown alterations in neurotransmission and imbalances in the expression of neural growth factor. Changes at the morphometric level are not constant. Volume loss is related to alterations in neuroplasticity and involvement of the cerebral neuropil. Although there are no conclusive data, physical exercise improves the molecular, biological, functional and behavioural-cognitive changes associated with brain ageing. The aged human brain has been described as showing weight and volume loss and increased ventricular size. However, neuroimaging shows significant variation and many healthy elderly individuals show no significant macroscopic changes. In most brain regions, the number of neurons remains stable throughout life. Neuroplasticity does not disappear with ageing, and changes in dendritic arborization and the density of spines and synapses are more closely related to brain activity than to age. At the molecular level, although the presence of altered Tau and β-amyloid proteins is used as a biomarker of neurodegenerative disease, postmortem studies show that these abnormal proteins are common in the brains of elderly people without dementia. Finally, due to the relationship between neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic alterations, this article analyses the influence of insulin-like growth factor and ageing, both in animal models and in humans, and the possible neuroprotective effect of insulin. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Serotonin metabolism in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of serotonin in rat brain was studied by measuring specific activities of tryptophan in plasma and of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in the brain after intravenous injection of tritiated tryptophan. For a detailed analysis of the specific activities, a computer simulation technique was used. It was found that only a minor part of serotonin in rat brain is synthesized from tryptophan rapidly transported from the blood. It is suggested that the brain tryptophan originates from brain proteins. It was also found that the serotonin in rat brain is divided into more than one metabolic compartment

  1. Brain stem cavernous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcarpio-O'Donovan, R.; Melanson, D.; Tampieri, D.; Ethier, R.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of cavernous angioma of the brain stem were definitely diagnosed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In many cases, the diagnosis had remained elusive for several years. Clinically, some cases behaved like multiple sclerosis or brain stem tumor. Others, usually associated with bleeding, caused increased intracranial pressure or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The diagnostic limitations of computed tomography in the posterior fossa are well known. Angiography fails to reveal abnormalities, since this malformation has neither a feeding artery nor a draining vein. Diagnosticians' familiarity with the MR appearance of this lesion may save patients from invasive diagnostic studies and potentially risky treatment

  2. Brain, body and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches out a biocultural theory of religion which is based on an expanded view of cognition that is anchored in brain and body (embrained and embodied), deeply dependent on culture (enculturated) and extended and distributed beyond the borders of individual brains. Such an approach...... uniquely accommodates contemporary cultural and neurobiological sciences. Since the challenge that the study of religion faces, in my opinion, is at the interstices of these sciences, I have tried to develop a theory of religion which acknowledges the fact. My hope is that the theory can be of use...

  3. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  4. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  5. Hypofractionation Regimens for Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Large Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiankui; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon; Grecula, John C.; Ammirati, Mario; Montebello, Joseph F.; Zhang Hualin; Gupta, Nilendu; Yuh, William T.C.; Mayr, Nina A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate equivalent regimens for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain tumor treatment and to provide dose-escalation guidance to maximize the tumor control within the normal brain tolerance. Methods and Materials: The linear-quadratic model, including the effect of nonuniform dose distributions, was used to evaluate the HSRT regimens. The α/β ratio was estimated using the Gammaknife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy experience for large brain tumors. The HSRT regimens were derived using two methods: (1) an equivalent tumor control approach, which matches the whole-brain radiotherapy experience for many fractions and merges it with the GKSRS data for few fractions; and (2) a normal-tissue tolerance approach, which takes advantages of the dose conformity and fractionation of HSRT to approach the maximal dose tolerance of the normal brain. Results: A plausible α/β ratio of 12 Gy for brain tumor and a volume parameter n of 0.23 for normal brain were derived from the GKSRS and whole-brain radiotherapy data. The HSRT prescription regimens for the isoeffect of tumor irradiation were calculated. The normal-brain equivalent uniform dose decreased as the number of fractions increased, because of the advantage of fractionation. The regimens for potential dose escalation of HSRT within the limits of normal-brain tolerance were derived. Conclusions: The designed hypofractionated regimens could be used as a preliminary guide for HSRT dose prescription for large brain tumors to mimic the GKSRS experience and for dose escalation trials. Clinical studies are necessary to further tune the model parameters and validate these regimens

  6. An investigation of cerebrograph imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lianxiang; Zhang Qingling; Wang Xinhui; Luo Qikun

    1994-01-01

    A cerebrograph imaging system was investigated for the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. This system can quantitatively analyse and map the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and also the electroencephalography (EEG). The mapping of cerebellum-brain stem area was also realized. This system is the first one to combine the technology of nuclear medicine with electrophysiology, and thereby provide a combined information about the rCBF and the function of brain with coloured rCBF mapping, topographical EEG mapping and quantitative data at the same time. It has important value for the early diagnosis of brain diseases, especially for the cerebral vascular accident

  7. Investigating paranormal phenomena: Functional brain imaging of telepathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N; Nagendra, Hongasandra R; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Deeptha, R; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2008-07-01

    "Telepathy" is defined as "the communication of impressions of any kind from one mind to another, independently of the recognized channels of sense". Meta-analyses of "ganzfield" studies as well as "card-guessing task" studies provide compelling evidence for the existence of telepathic phenomena. The aim of this study was to elucidate the neural basis of telepathy by examining an individual with this special ability. Using functional MRI, we examined a famous "mentalist" while he was performing a telepathic task in a 1.5 T scanner. A matched control subject without this special ability was also examined under similar conditions. The mentalist demonstrated significant activation of the right parahippocampal gyrus after successful performance of a telepathic task. The comparison subject, who did not show any telepathic ability, demonstrated significant activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus. The findings of this study are suggestive of a limbic basis for telepathy and warrant further systematic research.

  8. Investigating paranormal phenomena: Functional brain imaging of telepathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian Ganesan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: "Telepathy" is defined as "the communication of impressions of any kind from one mind to another, independently of the recognized channels of sense". Meta-analyses of "ganzfield" studies as well as "card-guessing task" studies provide compelling evidence for the existence of telepathic phenomena. The aim of this study was to elucidate the neural basis of telepathy by examining an individual with this special ability. Materials and Methods: Using functional MRI, we examined a famous "mentalist" while he was performing a telepathic task in a 1.5 T scanner. A matched control subject without this special ability was also examined under similar conditions. Results: The mentalist demonstrated significant activation of the right parahippocampal gyrus after successful performance of a telepathic task. The comparison subject, who did not show any telepathic ability, demonstrated significant activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Conclusions: The findings of this study are suggestive of a limbic basis for telepathy and warrant further systematic research.

  9. Investigating nystagmus in patients with traumatic brain injury: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and make automatic postural adjustments to maintain posture and stability in ... read or watch television, drive a car and read road signs), a sense of falling over .... and low-technology types of assessments) were included and are important for ...

  10. Cognition in the Brain: Investigations Using Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-16

    0029 DDIRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE Of FUNDING NOS. _____________ .dg. 410 PROGRAM PROJECT TASKC WORK .,%r illing Air Force Base, DC...Bethesda, MD 20892 20. Daniel Bubb, M.D. Department of Neurolinguistics Montreal Neurological Institute 15. Sung-cheng tHuang, Ph.D. 3801 University...Chief of Pediatric Neu- rology Service Director, Center for Morphomet- 24. Terry Allard, Ph.D. ric Analysis Cognitive Science Programs Kennedy 9 Office

  11. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perides, George; Zhuge, Yuzheng; Lin, Tina; Stins, Monique F; Bronson, Roderick T; Wu, Julian K

    2006-01-01

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg -/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg -/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  12. Changes in brain glucose metabolism in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonté, M A; Garibotto, V; Spagnolo, F; Panzacchi, A; Picozzi, P; Franzin, A; Giovannini, E; Leocani, L; Cursi, M; Comi, G; Perani, D

    2012-07-01

    Despite its large clinical application, our understanding about the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is still limited. Aim of the present study was to explore cortical and subcortical metabolic modulations measured by Positron Emission Tomography associated with improved motor manifestations after deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease, comparing the ON and OFF conditions. Investigations were performed in the stimulator off- and on-conditions in 14 parkinsonian patients and results were compared with a group of matched healthy controls. The results were also used to correlate metabolic changes with the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. The comparisons using Statistical parametric mapping revealed a brain metabolic pattern typical of advanced Parkinson disease. The direct comparison in ON vs OFF condition showed mainly an increased metabolism in subthalamic regions, corresponding to the deep brain stimulation site. A positive correlation exists between neurostimulation clinical effectiveness and metabolic differences in ON and OFF state, including the primary sensorimotor, premotor and parietal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex. Deep brain stimulation seems to operate modulating the neuronal network rather than merely exciting or inhibiting basal ganglia nuclei. Correlations with Parkinson Disease cardinal features suggest that the improvement of specific motor signs associated with deep brain stimulation might be explained by the functional modulation, not only in the target region, but also in surrounding and remote connecting areas, resulting in clinically beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-15

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns.

  14. [Brain protection against cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Previous clinical trials failed to show the benefit of several potentially protective drugs in acute ischemic stroke. However, there would be three main approaches for brain protection against stroke. The first is to develop a novel thrombolytic agent which is more efficient and safer than alteplase. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are in progress as a new thrombolytic drug. The second strategy is to augment collateral circulation through leptomeningeal anastomosis. Administration of G-CSF could enhance arteriogenesis, but it takes several days to develop functional collateral. For this purpose, partial aortic balloon clumping or stimulation of pterygopalatine ganglion may be promising. The third one is to protect neurovascular unit against reperfusion injury. Brain hypothermia is the most effective strategy in experimental ischemia, and the clinical trial for hypothermia combined with thrombolysis therapy is in progress. Activation of endogenous protective response, as presented by ischemic tolerance, has focused on remote ischemic conditioning. Although the precise mechanisms of remote preconditioning remain unclear, intermittent limb ischemia is a safe approach. Remote ischemic conditioning is now investigated in acute patients with thrombolysis therapy.

  15. Whole Brain Irradiation With Hippocampal Sparing and Dose Escalation on Multiple Brain Metastases: A Planning Study on Treatment Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, Vesna; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Fels, Franziska; Schmucker, Marianne; Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new treatment planning strategy in patients with multiple brain metastases. The goal was to perform whole brain irradiation (WBI) with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Two treatment concepts were investigated: simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) and WBI followed by stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy sequential concept (SC). Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for both concepts were calculated for 10 patients with 2-8 brain metastases using volumetric modulated arc therapy. In the SIB concept, the prescribed dose was 30 Gy in 12 fractions to the whole brain and 51 Gy in 12 fractions to individual brain metastases. In the SC concept, the prescription was 30 Gy in 12 fractions to the whole brain followed by 18 Gy in 2 fractions to brain metastases. All plans were optimized for dose coverage of whole brain and lesions, simultaneously minimizing dose to the hippocampus. The treatment plans were evaluated on target coverage, homogeneity, and minimal dose to the hippocampus and organs at risk. Results: The SIB concept enabled more successful sparing of the hippocampus; the mean dose to the hippocampus was 7.55 ± 0.62 Gy and 6.29 ± 0.62 Gy, respectively, when 5-mm and 10-mm avoidance regions around the hippocampus were used, normalized to 2-Gy fractions. In the SC concept, the mean dose to hippocampus was 9.8 ± 1.75 Gy. The mean dose to the whole brain (excluding metastases) was 33.2 ± 0.7 Gy and 32.7 ± 0.96 Gy, respectively, in the SIB concept, for 5-mm and 10-mm hippocampus avoidance regions, and 37.23 ± 1.42 Gy in SC. Conclusions: Both concepts, SIB and SC, were able to achieve adequate whole brain coverage and radiosurgery-equivalent dose distributions to individual brain metastases. The SIB technique achieved better sparing of the hippocampus, especially when a10-mm hippocampal avoidance region was used.

  16. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

    2011-11-15

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (- 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (- 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  17. Teaching Creativity for Right Brain and Left Brain Thinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Joel

    Right brain and left brain dominant people process information differently and need different techniques to learn how to become more creative. Various exercises can help students take advantage of both sides of their brains. Students must feel comfortable and unthreatened to reach maximal creativity, and a positive personal relationship with…

  18. Left Brain/Right Brain Learning for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Contrasts and compares the theory and practice of adult education as it relates to the issue of right brain/left brain learning. The author stresses the need for a whole-brain approach to teaching and suggests that adult educators, given their philosophical directions, are the perfect potential users of this integrated system. (Editor/CT)

  19. Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Jolly, Amy; de Simoni, Sara; Bourke, Niall; Patel, Maneesh C; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-04

    Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the follow

  20. Two hands, one brain, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Celine; Gooijers, Jolien; Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2017-04-01

    Many activities of daily living require moving both hands in an organized manner in space and time. Therefore, understanding the impact of aging on bimanual coordination is essential for prolonging functional independence and well-being in older adults. Here we investigated the behavioral and neural determinants of bimanual coordination in aging. The studies surveyed in this review reveal that aging is associated with cortical hyper-activity (but also subcortical hypo-activity) during performance of bimanual tasks. In addition to changes in activation in local areas, the interaction between distributed brain areas also exhibits age-related effects, i.e., functional connectivity is increased in the resting brain as well as during task performance. The mechanisms and triggers underlying these functional activation and connectivity changes remain to be investigated. This requires further research investment into the detailed study of interactions between brain structure, function and connectivity. This will also provide the foundation for interventional research programs towards preservation of brain health and behavioral performance by maximizing neuroplasticity potential in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain Dominance And Speaking Strategy Use of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Mireskandari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of brain dominance on the use of Language learning speaking strategies. One hundred forty two undergraduate students of Shiraz University, Iran, participated in this study. The Hemispheric Dominance Test (HDT was employed to categorize participants as right-, left- and whole-brain dominant, and a Speaking Strategy Questionnaire was administered to evaluate their use of speaking strategies. The results were analyzed using a one-way between groups analysis of variance (ANOVA to investigate whether there were any significant differences between the three brain dominant groups in their overall use of speaking strategies. A MANOVA was also run to investigate whether the groups had preferences regarding the use of any particular strategy type. Results indicated a statistically significant difference between the whole brain dominant participants and both left brain and right brain dominant learners for using compensation speaking strategies. To teach and learn more effectively, instructors and learners need to better understand and appreciate individual differences and how they can affect the learning process. They could find ways to combine activities that accommodate both left and right brain learners, employing not only the usual linear, verbal model, but also the active, image-rich, visuo-spatial models so that learners would be able to use both hemispheres.

  2. Evaluating Changes to Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Brain Metastasis over Time and after Radiation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Murrell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The incidence of brain metastasis due to breast cancer is increasing, and prognosis is poor. Treatment is challenging because the blood-brain barrier (BBB limits efficacy of systemic therapies. In this work, we develop a clinically relevant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT plan to investigate the impact of radiation on brain metastasis development and BBB permeability in a murine model. We hypothesize that radiotherapy will decrease tumor burden and increase tumor permeability, which could offer a mechanism to increase drug uptake in brain metastases. METHODS: Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and high-resolution anatomical MRI were used to evaluate BBB integrity associated with brain metastases due to breast cancer in the MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 model during their natural development. Novel image-guided microirradiation technology was employed to develop WBRT treatment plans and to investigate if this altered brain metastatic growth or permeability. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed on whole brain slices corresponding with MRI to validate and further investigate radiological findings. RESULTS: Herein, we show successful implementation of microirradiation technology that can deliver WBRT to small animals. We further report that WBRT following diagnosis of brain metastasis can mitigate, but not eliminate, tumor growth in the MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 model. Moreover, radiotherapy did not impact BBB permeability associated with metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant WBRT is not curative when delivered after MRI-detectable tumors have developed in this model. A dose of 20 Gy in 2 fractions was not sufficient to increase tumor permeability such that it could be used as a method to increase systemic drug uptake in brain metastasis.

  3. The Brain on Music

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects of music training on auditory .... dala but is distributed over a network of regions that also in- clude the ... In addition to the emotional impact of music on the brain, these ... social cognition, contact, copathy, and social cohesion in a group.

  4. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  5. The Duchenne brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, N.

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness caused by DMD gene mutations leading to absence of the full-length dystrophin protein in muscle. Multiple dystrophin isoforms are expressed in brain, but little is known about their function. DMD is associated with

  6. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  7. Brain abscess in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract The presentation, treatment and outcome of 98 children with brain abscesses at Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, is reviewed. Middle ear disease and trauma were the commonest sources ofinfection in 60% ofpatients. The usual presentation was that of meningitis and it is recommended ...

  8. Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inoperable aneurysms. Decisions regarding management of an unruptured brain aneurysm are based on the careful comparison of the short- and ... so Tired? How Do I Deal With Depression? Learning Principles to Aid Recovery The Memory Book ... Aneurysm Foundation Support Community Research & Grants BAF Research ...

  9. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilbovicius, M.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  10. Brain Aneurysm: Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people, but they are growing larger as medical technology continues to grow and early detection and treatment becomes more prevalent. Read More “I’ve met many people through The Brain Aneurysm Foundation. Each one with their own unique story. Of survival, of appreciation for what we still ...

  11. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  12. Hemorrhagic brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Motoichiro; Takekawa, S.D.; Suzuki, Kenzo

    1986-01-01

    Tumor hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT) was found in 14 patients with brain metastases (7 % of two hundred patients with brain metastases), from April 1979 to July 1983. Primary foci of these lesions were the lung (6 patients), breast (2), kidney (2), uterus (2), colon (1) and adrenal gland (1). ''Stroke'' syndrome was the initial presenting symptom in 3 patients; neurological focal sign or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure in the remaining patients. CT demonstrated peritumoral hemorrhage in all patients with solid mass, intratumoral hemorrhage in a few patients and also cerebral or ventricular hemorrhage, which was fatal complication, in 2 patients (colon and breast cancers). A cystic mass with fluid-blood level was noted in a patient with breast cancer. Several predisposing factors including chemotherapy, thrombocytopenia, radiotherapy or combination of these were recognized in 8 patients. Of these, chemotherapy was the most causative factor of tumor hemorrhage. Brain irradiation for hemorrhagic brain metastases was effective for prolongation of mean survival time of these patients as follows; 10 months in irradiated group, whereas 1.5 months in non-irradiated group. (author)

  13. The polyphonic brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Irene; Treder, Matthias S.; Dähne, Sven

    Rapid changes in the stimulus envelope (indicating tone onsets) elicit an N1-P2 ERP response, as has been shown for clicks and sine waves, musical tones and for speech. Canonical Correlation Analysis with temporal embedding (tkCCA), a multivariate correlation-based method, allows to extract brain...

  14. Ben's Plastic Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares a story of Ben who as a result of his premature birth, suffered a brain hemorrhage resulting in cerebral palsy, which affected his left side (left hemiparesis) and caused learning disabilities. Despite these challenges, he graduated from college and currently works doing information management for a local biotech start-up…

  15. Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis can occur as an isolated clinical syndrome or, more often, may be part of a more widespread encephalitis. Different antineuronal autoantibodies, such as anti-Hu, anti-Ri, and anti-Ma2 can be associated with the syndrome, and the most frequent tumors are lung and testicular cancer. Anti-Hu-associated brain stem encephalitis does not normally respond to immunotherapy; the syndrome may stabilize under tumor treatment. Brain stem encephalitis with anti-Ma2 often improves after immunotherapy and/or tumor therapy, whereas only a minority of anti-Ri positive patients respond to immunosuppressants or tumor treatment. The Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in children, almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, shows a good response to steroids, ACTH, and rituximab, some patients do respond to intravenous immunoglobulins or cyclophosphamide. In adults, OMS is mainly associated with small cell lung cancer or gynecological tumors and only a small part of the patients show improvement after immunotherapy. Earlier diagnosis and treatment seem to be one major problem to improve the prognosis of both, paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis, and OMS.

  16. Brain Games for Babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Jackie

    2001-01-01

    Presents games for caregivers to use with infants to enhance brain development. Includes games that develop trust and security, language skills, and fine motor skills, as well as games that are fun or stimulate vision. Includes videotape references for parents and caregivers. (KB)

  17. NEUROSPIN, sensing brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganier, Aude

    2007-01-01

    Research center, the NeuroSpin platform is to be equipped with unrivalled means of exploring the nervous system and cognitive process. Located at Saclay, it will soon gather together the world's best experts in neuro-sciences, for example in imaging and physics. An exceptional complex that does not just have the brain in mind. (authors)

  18. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  19. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  20. Montessori and Brain Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranitz, John R.

    Researchers in medicine, education, and related fields continue to make new discoveries about how the brain functions or malfunctions. The implications of studies of how young children learn compare favorably with those of educators such as Maria Montessori, Jerome Bruner, and Jean Piaget. These researchers saw growth and development as a series…