Sample records for investigating liquid co2

  1. Investigating Liquid CO2 as a Coolant for a MTSA Heat Exchanger Design (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Iacomini, Christie


    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO 2) control for a future Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. CO 2 removal and rejection is accomplished by driving a sorbent through a temperature swing of approximately 210 K to 280 K . The sorbent is cooled to these sub-freezing temperatures by a Sublimating Heat Exchanger (SHX) with liquid coolant expanded to sublimation temperatures. Water is the baseline coolant available on the moon, and if used, provides a competitive solution to the current baseline PLSS schematic. Liquid CO2 (LCO2) is another non-cryogenic coolant readily available from Martian resources which can be produced and stored using relatively low power and minimal infrastructure. LCO 2 expands from high pressure liquid (5800 kPa) to Mars ambient (0.8 kPa) to produce a gas / solid mixture at temperatures as low as 156 K. Analysis and experimental work are presented to investigate factors that drive the design of a heat exchanger to effectively use this sink. Emphasis is given to enabling efficient use of the CO 2 cooling potential and mitigation of heat exchanger clogging due to solid formation. Minimizing mass and size as well as coolant delivery are also considered. The analysis and experimental work is specifically performed in an MTSA-like application to enable higher fidelity modeling for future optimization of a SHX design. In doing so, the work also demonstrates principles and concepts so that the design can be further optimized later in integrated applications (including Lunar application where water might be a choice of coolant).

  2. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune


    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO 2 capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO2 and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO2 loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO2 capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO2 could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO2 more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO2 absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO2 capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO2 capture. © the Owner Societies 2011.

  3. Investigation of H2S and CO2 Removal from Gas Streams Using Hollow Fiber Membrane Gas–liquid Contactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mirfendereski


    Full Text Available Chemical absorption of H2S and CO2 from CH4 was carried out in a polypropylene porous asymmetric hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC. A 0.5 mol L–1 aqueous solution of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA was used as chemical absorbent solution. Effects of gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, H2S concentration and CO2 concentration on the H2S outlet concentrations and CO2 removal percentage were investigated. The results showed that the removal of H2S with aqueous solution of MDEA was very high and indicated almost total removal of H2S. Experimental results also indicated that the membrane contactor was very efficient in the removal of trace H2S at high gas/ liquid flow ratio. The removal of H2S was almost complete with a recovery of more than 96 %. Using feed gas mixtures containing 5000 ppm H2S with CO2 concentrations in the range of 4–12 vol.%, the outlet H2S concentration of less than 1.0 ppm was attained with less than 4.0 vol.% of CO2 permeated and absorbed.

  4. Modeling CO2-facilitated transport across a diethanolamine liquid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lihong Bao; Michael C. Trachtenberg [Carbozyme Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)


    We compared experimental and model data for the facilitated transport of CO2 from a CO2-air mixture across an aqueous solution of diethanolamine (DEA) via a hollow fiber, contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) permeator. A two-step carbamate formation model was devised to analyze the data instead of the one-step mechanism used by previous investigators. The effects of DEA concentration, liquid membrane thickness and feed CO2 concentration were also studied. With a 20% (wt) DEA liquid membrane and feed of 15% CO2 in CO2-air mixture at atmosphere pressure, the permeance reached 1.51E-8 mol/m{sup 2} s Pa with a CO2/N2 selectivity of 115. Model predictions compared well with the experimental results at CO2 concentrations of industrial importance. Short-term stability of the HFCLM permeator performance was examined. The system was stable during 5-days of testing.

  5. A liquid CO2-compatible hydrocarbon surfactant: experiment and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    Surfactants soluble in liquid CO2 are rare and knowledge on interfacial and self-assembly behaviour is fragmented. We found that polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether is interfacially active at the water–liquid CO2 interface. Water–liquid CO2 interfacial tension was measured at various surfactant

  6. Carryover of liquid CO2 during filling of reactor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Formation of ice was noticed on the surface of Reactor 1 Gas Bypass Circuit Filter. At the time the Reactor was being pressurized to design density after a statutory outage. Investigations showed that approximately 22Te of liquid CO2 was inadvertently transferred from the CO2 Storage Plant to the ring main on the previous day. The liquid had been depressurized to nominally atmospheric pressure at an office plate local to the Reactor filling valves. The depressurization of the liquid CO2 resulted in solid and vapour being formed at -79 deg C. The majority of the solid vapour mix entered the Reactor via the CO2 penetration. The remainder passed into the Gas Bypass Circuit and into the Reactor via the Man Access penetration. Solid CO2 was retained within the Bypass Filter. Severe ''chilling'' of the Penetrations and the Bypass Filter resulted. Despite a number of abnormalities during the relevant 30 minute filling operation and the recording of certain facts, the event was undetected until the formation of ice some two days later at the bypass circuit. 1 fig

  7. Simultaneous measurement of CO2 sorption and swelling of phosphate-based ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Wang


    Full Text Available The development of alternative CO2 capture solvents such as ionic liquids (ILs and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs have provided interesting options for CO2 capture. In this study, CO2 interactions with 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([MMIM]DMP, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DMP and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP that contain inorganic ester groups based on phosphate, were investigated using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. CO2-induced swelling, CO2 diffusivity and CO2 capture capacity were simultaneously measured to identify CO2 capture mechanisms, kinetics and diffusion behaviors as a function of the alkyl chain length of the cation. Henry's law constants of CO2 were found to be in the range of 4–11 MPa, which is in agreement with those reported in other studies. Keywords: CO2 capture, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, Ionic liquids, Mechanism, Diffusivity

  8. Extraction of lipids from microalgae using CO2-expanded methanol and liquid CO2. (United States)

    Paudel, Ashok; Jessop, Michael J; Stubbins, Spencer H; Champagne, Pascale; Jessop, Philip G


    The use of CO2-expanded methanol (cxMeOH) and liquid carbon dioxide (lCO2) is proposed to extract lipids from Botryococcus braunii. When compressed CO2 dissolves in methanol, the solvent expands in volume, decreases in polarity and so increases in its selectivity for biodiesel desirable lipids. Solid phase extraction of the algal extract showed that the cxMeOH extracted 21 mg of biodiesel desirable lipids per mL of organic solvent compared to 3mg/mL using either neat methanol or chloroform/methanol mixture. The non-polar lCO2 showed a high affinity for non-polar lipids. Using lCO2, it is possible to extract up to 10% neutral lipids relative to the mass of dry algae. Unlike extractions using conventional solvents, these new methods require little to no volatile, flammable, or chlorinated organic solvents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phase behavior of liquid crystals with CO2. (United States)

    de Groen, Mariëtte; Vlugt, Thijs J H; de Loos, Theo W


    Liquid crystals are being considered as novel process solvents for CO(2) capture. The solubility of CO(2) is higher in the isotropic phase than in the structured (e.g., nematic) phase. CO(2) can be captured in the isotropic phase, and regeneration of the solvent is achieved by cooling down the mixture a few degrees until a phase transition to the structured phase occurs. This CO(2) capture process has the potential to consume less energy than the conventional amine-based processes. To address the potential of liquid crystals to efficiently capture CO(2), experimentally obtained P,T-phase diagrams of five liquid crystals with 5 mass % CO(2) are reported. The liquid crystals used in this study are 4'-(pentyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile, 4'-pentyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile, 4-ethyl-4'-propyl-bicyclohexyl, 4-propyl-4'-butyl-bicyclohexyl, and 4'-(octyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile. It is found that a weakly polar liquid crystal had a higher CO(2) solubility than apolar and more polar liquid crystals.

  10. Polymeric nanoporous materials fabricated with supercritical CO2 and CO2-expanded liquids. (United States)

    Zhang, Aijuan; Zhang, Qingkun; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei; Li, Jun


    Both academia and industries have put great efforts into developing non-destructive technologies for the fabrication of polymeric nanoporous materials. Such non-destructive technologies developed with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs) have been attracting more and more attention because they have been demonstrated to be green and effective media for porous polymer preparation and processing. In this tutorial review, we present several such new technologies with scCO2 and CXLs, which have the capacity to prepare polymeric nanoporous materials with unique morphologies. The fabricated nanoporous polymers have significantly improved the performance of polymeric monoliths and films, and have found wide applications as templates, antireflection coatings, low-k materials, tissue engineering scaffolds and filtration membranes. This tutorial review also introduces the associated characterization methods, including the imaging, scattering and physisorption techniques.

  11. Energy consumption analysis for CO2 separation using imidazolium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yujiao; Zhang, Yingying; Lu, Xiaohua; Ji, Xiaoyan


    Highlights: • CO 2 solubility in imidazolium-based ionic liquids was surveyed and evaluated. • CO 2 absorption enthalpy was calculated based on thermodynamic model. • The effects of cation and anion on CO 2 absorption enthalpy were discussed. • Energy consumption for a CO 2 separation process was investigated. - Abstract: CO 2 solubility in ionic liquids has been measured extensively in order to develop ionic liquid-based technology for CO 2 separation. However, the energy consumption analysis has not been investigated well for such technology. In order to carry out the energy consumption analysis for CO 2 separation using ionic liquids based on available experimental data, in this work, the experimental data of the CO 2 solubility in imidazolium-based ionic liquids at pressures below 10 MPa was surveyed and evaluated by a semi-empirical thermodynamic model firstly. Based on the reliable experimental solubility data, the enthalpy of CO 2 absorption was further calculated by the thermodynamic model. The results show that the CO 2 absorption enthalpy in the studied ionic liquids is dominated by the enthalpy of CO 2 dissolution and the contribution of excess enthalpy increases with increasing CO 2 solubility in ionic liquids. The magnitude of the CO 2 absorption enthalpy decreases with increasing chain length in cation and strongly depends on the anion of ionic liquids. Furthermore, the energy consumption for a CO 2 separation process by pressure swing and/or temperature swing was investigated. For the pressure swing process, the Henry’s constant of CO 2 in ionic liquids is an important factor for energy consumption analysis; If CO 2 is absorbed at 298 K and 1 MPa and ionic liquid is regenerated by decreasing the pressure to 0.1 MPa at the same temperature, among the studied ionic liquids, [emim][EtSO 4 ] is the solvent with the lowest energy consumption of 9.840 kJ/mol CO 2 . For the temperature swing process, the heat capacity of ionic liquids plays a more

  12. Practical and simple magnetic ionic liquids for CO2 transformation (United States)

    Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohsen; Amiri, Mehrasa


    In this paper, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with KCC-1 through a simple method to obtain a novel ionic liquid magnetic catalyst (Fe3O4/KCC-1/IL) that has the specifications of simplicity, high performance and easy separation and firstly used as nanocatalysts for CO2 transformation. The inorganic, solid base catalyst was characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the transformation of CO2 used from the Fe3O4/KCC-1/IL MNPs as a catalyst that showed excellent catalytic activities under green conditions.

  13. Decontamination techniques using liquid/supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. H.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, H. W.; Ko, M. S.; Yoon, C. H.


    A major problem of nuclear energy is the production of radioactive wastes. Need for more environmentally favorable method to decontaminate radioactive contaminants make the use of liquid/supercritical CO 2 as a solvent medium. In removing radioactive metallic contaminants under CO 2 solvent, two methods - use of chelating ligands and that of water in CO 2 emulsion- are possible. In the chelating ligand method, a combination of ligands that can make synergistic effects seems important. We discuss about the properties of microemulsion formed by F-AOT and that by non-ionic surfactant. By adding acid in water core, decontamination of metallic parts, soils were possible. The rate of metal surface dissolution to the microemulsion solution was measured by QCM. The possibility of recovering the surfactants after use is also mentioned

  14. Production of nanostructured molecular liquids by supercritical CO2 processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Stable molecular clusters of ibuprofen and naproxen were prepared in dry ice, by supersonic jet expansion of their supercritical CO2 drug formulations into a liquid nitrogen cooled collection vessel, with up to 80% yield. Mixing the “dry ice” in water, resulted in the solubilization of the clusters and in the case of ibuprofen, we were able to create solutions, with concentrations of up to 6 mg/ml, a 300-fold increase over previously reported values. Drop casting and ambient drying of these solutions on silicon substrate resulted in a stable, viscous liquid film, referred to as nanostructured molecular liquids. These liquids exhibited a highly aligned, fine (self-assembled super lattice features. In vitro cancer cell viability studies of these formulations exhibited similar cytotoxicity to that of the original raw materials, thus retaining their original potency. Besides its scientific importance, this invention is expected to open up new drug delivery platforms.

  15. Composites of ionic liquid and amine-modified SAPO 34 improve CO2 separation of CO2-selective polymer membranes (United States)

    Hu, Leiqing; Cheng, Jun; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa


    Mixed matrix membranes with ionic liquids and molecular sieve particles had high CO2 permeabilities, but CO2 separation from small gas molecules such as H2 was dissatisfied because of bad interfacial interaction between ionic liquid and molecular sieve particles. To solve that, amine groups were introduced to modify surface of molecular sieve particles before loading with ionic liquid. SAPO 34 was adopted as the original filler, and four mixed matrix membranes with different fillers were prepared on the outer surface of ceramic hollow fibers. Both surface voids and hard agglomerations disappeared, and the surface became smooth after SAPO 34 was modified by amine groups and ionic liquid [P66614][2-Op]. Mixed matrix membranes with composites of amine-modified SAPO 34 and ionic liquid exhibited excellent CO2 permeability (408.9 Barrers) and CO2/H2 selectivity (22.1).

  16. Gas-liquid membrane contactors for CO2 removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons-Fischbein, K.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Wessling, Matthias


    In the present work we use a membrane contactor for the separation of CO2 from CH4 and we systematically investigate the influence of both the type of membrane and the different process parameters on the overall process performance (permeability and selectivity). This work is important because it

  17. CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids : Experiments and Molecular Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdin, M.


    In this thesis, we investigated the potential of physical ILs for CO2 capture at pre-combustion and natural gas sweetening conditions. The performance of ILs with respect to conventional solvents is assessed in terms of gas solubilities and selectivities. The work discussed in this thesis consists

  18. CO2 Capture with Liquid-Liquid Phase Change Solvents: A Thermodynamic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas


    Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic framework was implemented in this work to model the aqueous blend of N, N-Diethylethanolamine (DEEA) and N-Methyl-1,3-diaminopropane (MAPA) for CO2 capture. The model parameters were estimated first for the two ternary systems, H2O-DEEA-CO2 and H2O-MAPA-CO2, followed...... by the quaternary H2O-DEEAMAPA-CO2 system which gives liquid-liquid phase split when reacted with carbon dioxide. A total of 94 model parameters and 6 thermodynamic properties were fitted to approximately 1500 equilibrium and thermal experimental data consisting of pureamine vapor pressure (Pvap), vapor...

  19. Investigation of CO2precursors in roasted coffee. (United States)

    Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak


    Two CO 2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO 2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO 2 . However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO 2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO 2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO 2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO 2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO 2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO 2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental Investigations into CO2 Interactions with Injection Well Infrastructure for CO2 Storage (United States)

    Syed, Amer; Shi, Ji-Quan; Durucan, Sevket; Nash, Graham; Korre, Anna


    Wellbore integrity is an essential requirement to ensure the success of a CO2 Storage project as leakage of CO2 from the injection or any other abandoned well in the storage complex, could not only severely impede the efficiency of CO2 injection and storage but also may result in potential adverse impact on the surrounding environment. Early research has revealed that in case of improper well completions and/or significant changes in operating bottomhole pressure and temperature could lead to the creation of microannulus at cement-casing interface which may constitute a preferential pathway for potential CO2 leakage during and post injection period. As a part of a European Commission funded CO2CARE project, the current research investigates the sealing behaviour of such microannulus at the cement-casing interface under simulated subsurface reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and uses the findings to develop a methodology to assess the overall integrity of CO2 storage. A full scale wellbore experimental test set up was constructed for use under elevated pressure and temperature conditions as encountered in typical CO2 storage sites. The wellbore cell consists of an assembly of concentric elements of full scale casing (Diameter= 0.1524m), cement sheath and an outer casing. The stainless steel outer ring is intended to simulate the stiffness offered by the reservoir rock to the displacement applied at the wellbore. The Central Loading Mechanism (CLM) consists of four case hardened shoes that can impart radial load onto the well casing. The radial movement of the shoes is powered through the synchronised movement of four precision jacks controlled hydraulically which could impart radial pressures up to 15 MPa. The cell body is a gas tight enclosure that houses the wellbore and the central loading mechanism. The setup is enclosed in a laboratory oven which acts both as temperature and safety enclosure. Prior to a test, cement mix is set between the casing and

  1. Liquid-vapor equilibrium of the systems butylmethylimidazolium nitrate-CO2 and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium nitrate-CO2 at high pressure: influence of water on the phase behavior. (United States)

    Bermejo, M Dolores; Montero, Marta; Saez, Elisa; Florusse, Louw J; Kotlewska, Aleksandra J; Cocero, M José; van Rantwijk, Fred; Peters, Cor J


    Ionic liquids (IL) are receiving increasing attention due to their potential as "green" solvents, especially when used in combination with SC-CO2. In this work liquid-vapor equilibria of binary mixtures of CO2 with two imidazolium-based ionic liquids (IL) with a nitrate anion have been experimentally determined: butylmethylimidazolium nitrate (BMImNO3) and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium nitrate (HOPMImNO3), using a Cailletet apparatus that operates according to the synthetic method. CO2 concentrations from 5 up to 30 mol % were investigated. It was found that CO2 is substantially less soluble in HOPMImNO3 than in BMImNO3. Since these ILs are very hygroscopic, water easily can be a major contaminant, causing changes in the phase behavior. In case these Ils are to be used in practical applications, for instance, together with CO2 as a medium in supercritical enzymatic reactions, it is very important to have quantitative information on how the water content will affect the phase behavior. This work presents the first systematic study on the influence of water on the solubility of carbon dioxide in hygroscopic ILs. It was observed that the presence of water reduces the absolute solubility of CO2. However, at fixed ratios of CO2/IL, the bubble point pressure remains almost unchanged with increasing water content. In order to explain the experimental results, the densities of aqueous mixtures of both ILs were determined experimentally and the excess molar volumes calculated.

  2. Heat-integrated liquid-desorption exchanger (HILDE) for CO2 desorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, L.V. van der; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.


    A novel type of separating heat exchanger, called a heat-integrated liquid-desorption exchanger (HILDE), applied to a typical CO2 desorption process, has been investigated both numerically and experimentally. Process simulations, hydrodynamic and mass transfer experiments, and a preliminary cost

  3. Evaluating cubic equations of state for calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium of CO2 and CO2-mixtures for CO2 capture and storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Yan, J.


    Proper solution of vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) is essential to the design and operation of CO 2 capture and storage system (CCS). According to the requirements of engineering applications, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to predict VLE properties. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of five cubic EOSs, including PR, PT, RK, SRK and 3P1T for predicting VLE of CO 2 and binary CO 2 -mixtures containing CH 4 , H 2 S, SO 2 , Ar, N 2 or O 2 , based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that SRK is superior in the calculations about the saturated pressure of pure CO 2 ; while for the VLE properties of binary CO 2 -mixtures, PR, PT and SRK are generally superior to RK and 3P1T. The impacts of binary interaction parameter k ij were also analyzed. k ij has very clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the property calculations of CO 2 -mixtures. In order to improve the calculation accuracy, the binary interaction parameter was calibrated for all of the studied EOSs regarding every binary CO 2 -mixture. (author)

  4. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew


    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Alignment control of columnar liquid crystals with wavelength tunable CO2 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Hirosato; Awazu, Kunio; Shimizu, Yo


    Infrared-induced alignment change with wavelength tunable CO 2 laser irradiation for columnar liquid crystal domains was investigated for a liquid crystalline triphenylene derivative. A uniformly aligned alignment change of domains was observed when a chopped linearly polarized infrared laser light corresponding to the wavelength of the aromatic C-O-C stretching vibration band (9.65 μm) was irradiated. The results strongly imply that the infrared irradiation is a possible technique for device fabrication by use of columnar mesophase as a liquid crystalline semiconductor

  6. Dissolution from a liquid CO2 lake disposed in the deep ocean


    Fer, Ilker; Haugan, Peter Mosby


    The dissolution from a liquid CO2 lake source located at a flat ocean bottom at 3,000 m depth is investigated. Using the unsteady, two-dimensional advection–diffusion equation, temporal and spatial distribution of CO2 dissolved from the source of 500 m length and of unit span is sought in a domain of 20 km horizontal and 200 m vertical extent. Different cases were run with uniform longitudinal speed and constant horizontal and vertical diffusion coefficients and with vertical prof...

  7. Selective Reversible Absorption of the Industrial Off-Gas Components CO2 and NOx by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas-Larsen, Peter Kjartan; Thomassen, P.; Schill, Leonhard


    carriers in the form of so-called Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) materials. The potential of selected ionic liquids for absorption of CO2 and NOx are demonstrated and the possible interference of other gases influencing the stability and absorption capacity of the ionic liquids are investigated......Ionic liquids are promising new materials for climate and pollution control by selective absorption of CO2 and NOx in industrial off-gases. In addition practical cleaning of industrial off gases seems to be attractive by use of ionic liquids distributed on the surface of porous, high surface area...

  8. Reversible CO2 Capture by Conjugated Ionic Liquids through Dynamic Covalent Carbon-Oxygen Bonds. (United States)

    Pan, Mingguang; Cao, Ningning; Lin, Wenjun; Luo, Xiaoyan; Chen, Kaihong; Che, Siying; Li, Haoran; Wang, Congmin


    The strong chemisorption of CO2 is always accompanied by a high absorption enthalpy, and traditional methods to reduce the absorption enthalpy lead to decreased CO2 capacities. Through the introduction of a large π-conjugated structure into the anion, a dual-tuning approach for the improvement of CO2 capture by anion-functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in a high capacity of up to 0.96 molCO2  mol-1IL and excellent reversibility. The increased capacity and improved desorption were supported by quantum chemical calculations, spectroscopic investigations, and thermogravimetric analysis. The increased capacity may be a result of the strengthened dynamic covalent bonds in these π-electron-conjugated structures through anion aggregation upon the uptake of CO2 , and the improved desorption originates from the charge dispersion of interaction sites through the large π-electron delocalization. These results provide important insights into effective strategies for CO2 capture. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ionic Liquid Confined in Mesoporous Polymer Membrane with Improved Stability for CO2/N2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tan


    Full Text Available Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs have a promising prospect of application in flue gas separation, owing to its high permeability and selectivity of CO2. However, existing SILMs have the disadvantage of poor stability due to the loss of ionic liquid from the large pores of the macroporous support. In this study, a novel SILM with high stability was developed by confining ionic liquid in a mesoporous polymer membrane. First, a mesoporous polymer membrane derived from a soluble, low-molecular-weight phenolic resin precursor was deposited on a porous Al2O3 support, and then 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4] was immobilized inside mesopores of phenolic resin, forming the SILM under vacuum. Effects of trans-membrane pressure difference on the SILM separation performance were investigated by measuring the permeances of CO2 and N2. The SILM exhibits a high ideal CO2/N2 selectivity of 40, and an actual selectivity of approximately 25 in a mixed gas (50% CO2 and 50% N2 at a trans-membrane pressure difference of 2.5 bar. Compared to [emim][BF4] supported by polyethersulfone membrane with a pore size of around 0.45 μm, the [emim][BF4] confined in a mesoporous polymer membrane exhibits an improved stability, and its separation performance remained stable for 40 h under a trans-membrane pressure difference of 1.5 bar in a mixed gas before the measurement was intentionally stopped.

  10. Investigation of scleral buckling by CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maswadi, S.


    This thesis investigates the effect of using the infrared wavelength CO 2 laser (10.6μm) as a localised heat source for inducing scleral buckling on eyes. Retinal detachment disease is a major cause of blindness and the scleral buckling is an important technique used in treatment. A radio-frequency excited 10.6λm laser source is used to heat collagen in the sclera above its shrinkage temperature so as to produce a localised indentation and deformation in the human eye (in vitro). Basic measurements of the onset shrinkage temperatures of porcine and human sclera are taken. Optical properties of sclera tissue at 10.6μm are also determined to provide information about the interaction of the CO 2 laser with the sclera. It is found that CO 2 laser radiation is highly absorbed by the scleral water. Optical diffraction technique is investigated to quantify in-plane deformation in the sclera tissue as result of heating by producing grating on porcine and human sclera using the ArF laser (193nm). Photothermal deflection technique is also used to investigate scleral ablation by using the TEA and Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. This technique provides a useful guide to the regime where ablation rather than heat shrinkage of collagen in the sclera will dominate using the Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. A quantitative assessment of buckling using the technique of projection moire interferometry is described which allows a non-contact measurement to be made of the out-of-plane displacement by laser radiation. In-plane surface strain (shrinkage) has also been demonstrated using in-situ optical microscopy of the laser treated eye. The moire method is suitable to obtain information on buckling in real time and to obtain a three-dimensional view of the eye surface as laser treatment proceeds. A theoretical heat flow model is described for predicting the temperature profile produced in the sclera using the Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. For appropriate exposure parameters the CO 2 laser is found to be an

  11. Formation of nanoscale networks: selectively swelling amphiphilic block copolymers with CO2-expanded liquids. (United States)

    Gong, Jianliang; Zhang, Aijuan; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Qingkun; Du, Can; Li, Lei; Hong, Yanzhen; Li, Jun


    Polymeric films with nanoscale networks were prepared by selectively swelling an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP), with the CO(2)-expanded liquid (CXL), CO(2)-methanol. The phase behavior of the CO(2)-methanol system was investigated by both theoretical calculation and experiments, revealing that methanol can be expanded by CO(2), forming homogeneous CXL under the experimental conditions. When treated with the CO(2)-methanol system, the spin cast compact PS-b-P4VP film was transformed into a network with interconnected pores, in a pressure range of 12-20 MPa and a temperature range of 45-60 °C. The formation mechanism of the network, involving plasticization of PS and selective swelling of P4VP, was proposed. Because the diblock copolymer diffusion process is controlled by the activated hopping of individual block copolymer chains with the thermodynamic barrier for moving PVP segments from one to another, the formation of the network structures is achieved in a short time scale and shows "thermodynamically restricted" character. Furthermore, the resulting polymer networks were employed as templates, for the preparation of polypyrrole networks, by an electrochemical polymerization process. The prepared porous polypyrrole film was used to fabricate a chemoresistor-type gas sensor which showed high sensitivity towards ammonia.

  12. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth (United States)

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  13. Microfluidic devices as gas – Ionic liquid membrane contactors for CO2 removal from anaesthesia gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malankowska, Magdalena; Martins, C. F.; Rho, H. S.; Neves, L. A.; Tiggelaar, R. M.; Crespo, João G.; Pina, M.P.; Mallada, R.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Coelhoso, I. M.


    This work proposes a microfluidic gas – ionic liquid contactor for CO2 removal from anaesthesia gas, containing Xe. The working principle involves the transport of CO2 through a polymer flat membrane followed by its capture and enzymatic bioconversion in the ionic liquid solvent. Microfluidic

  14. Colloidal interactions in liquid CO2 - A dry-cleaning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Sutanto, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Roosmalen, van M.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.


    Liquid CO2 is a viable alternative for the toxic and environmentally harmful solvents traditionally used in dry-cleaning industry. Although liquid CO2 dry-cleaning is being applied already at a commercial scale, it is still a relatively young technique which poses many challenges. The focus of this

  15. Efficient CO2 capture by tertiary amine-functionalized ionic liquids through Li+-stabilized zwitterionic adduct formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhen Yang


    Full Text Available Highly efficient CO2 absorption was realized through formation of zwitterionic adducts, combining synthetic strategies to ionic liquids (ILs and coordination. The essence of our strategy is to make use of multidentate cation coordination between Li+ and an organic base. Also PEG-functionalized organic bases were employed to enhance the CO2-philicity. The ILs were reacted with CO2 to form the zwitterionic adduct. Coordination effects between various lithium salts and neutral ligands, as well as the CO2 capacity of the chelated ILs obtained were investigated. For example, the CO2 capacity of PEG150MeBu2N increased steadily from 0.10 to 0.66 (mol CO2 absorbed per mol of base through the formation of zwitterionic adducts being stabilized by Li+.

  16. Absorption Enhanced Liquid Ablation with TEA CO2 Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterling, Enrique


    ... that strongly absorbs radiation in the 8-11 m wavelength interval. A TEA CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 m), 300 ns pulse width and 8 J pulse energy, was used for ablation of water diluted NaBF4 contained in a conical aluminum nozzle...

  17. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders


    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead...... of aqueous amine solutions overcomes the major thermodynamic issues. By applying SILP technology further advances, in terms of ease of handling and sorption dynamics, are obtained. Initial experimental studies showed that ionic liquids such as tetrahexylammonium prolinate, [N6666][Pro], provide a good...... candidate for CO2 absorption using SILP technology. Thus a solid SILP absorber comprised of 40 wt% [N6666][Pro] loaded on precalcined silica quantitatively takes up about 1.2 mole CO2 per mole of ionic liquid in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles in a flow-experiment performed with 0.09 bar of CO2 (9...

  18. Design of oxide electrocatalysts for efficient conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya

    Electrochemical conversion of CO2 into high energy density liquid fuels utilizing renewable electricity can usher in a carbon neutral society without limiting the energy consumption. Lack of active and efficient electrocatalysts for this reaction remains a challenge. Research efforts towards...... of atomic scale reaction thermodynamic needed to engineer efficient and active oxide electrocatalysts. Rutile oxides are explored for CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) through density functional theory based simulation of reaction thermodynamics. Oxygen atom coordinated intermediates constitute the reaction...

  19. New absorption liquids for the removal of CO2 from dilute gas streams using membrane contactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.S.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Feron, P.H.M.; Versteeg, G.F.


    A new absorption liquid based on amino acid salts has been studied for CO2 removal in membrane gas–liquid contactors. Unlike conventional gas treating solvents like aqueous alkanolamines solutions, the new absorption liquid does not wet polyolefin microporous membranes. The wetting characteristics

  20. New absorption liquids for the removal of CO2 from dilute gas streams using membrane contactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.S.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Feron, P.H.M.; Versteeg, G.F.


    A new absorption liquid based on amino acid salts has been studied for CO2 removal in membrane gas-liquid contractors. Unlike conventional gas treating solvents like aqueous alkanolamines solutions, the new absorption liquid does not wet polyolefin microporous membranes. The wetting characteristics

  1. New absorption liquids for the removal of CO2 from dilute gas streams using mebrane contractors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar Paramasivam Senthil, P.S.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Feron, P.H.M.; Versteeg, Geert


    A new absorption liquid based on amino acid salts has been studied for CO2 removal in membrane gas–liquid contactors. Unlike conventional gas treating solvents like aqueous alkanolamines solutions, the new absorption liquid does not wet polyolefin microporous membranes. The wetting characteristics

  2. Probing the Interaction of Ionic Liquids with CO2: A Raman Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eucker, IV, William


    ...) with selected ionic liquids (ILs). Raman spectroscopy and first principle quantum mechanical calculations were performed on selected IL solvents in contact with CO2 in the effort to discover how the solvents interact with the gas. ILs are salts...

  3. Ablation of Liquids for Laser Propulsion with TEA CO2 Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sinko, John; Kodgis, Lisa; Porter, Simon; Sterling, Enrique; Lin, Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V; Larson, C. W; Mead, Jr, Franklin B


    .... A Transversely Excited at Atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser operated at 10.6 micro-m, 300 ns pulse width, and 9 J pulse energy was used to ablate liquids contained in various aluminum and glass vessels...

  4. Ablation of Liquids for Laser Propulsion With TEA CO2 Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sinko, John; Kodgis, Lisa; Porter, Simon; Sterling, Enrique; Lin, Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V; Larson, C. W; Mead, Jr., Franklin B


    .... A Transversely Excited at Atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser operated at 10.6 um, 300 ns pulse width, and 9 J pulse energy was used to ablate liquids contained in various aluminum and glass vessels...

  5. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alcohol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Bejarano, Arturo; Fuente, Juan C. de la


    An apparatus based on a static-analytic method assembled in this work was utilized to perform high pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements with uncertainties estimated at 2 + 1-propanol), (CO 2 + 2-methyl-1-propanol), (CO 2 + 3-methyl-1-butanol), and (CO 2 + 1-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 12) MPa. For all the (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored to insure that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapour + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values with deviations for the mol fractions <0.12 and <0.05 for the liquid and vapour phase, respectively.

  6. Janus Reactors with Highly Efficient Enzymatic CO2Nanocascade at Air-Liquid Interface. (United States)

    Gao, Song; Mohammad, Munirah; Yang, Hao-Cheng; Xu, Jia; Liang, Kang; Hou, Jingwei; Chen, Vicki


    Though enzymatic cascade reactors have been the subject of intense research over the past few years, their application is still limited by the complicated fabrication protocols, unsatisfactory stability and lack of effective reactor designs. In addition, the spatial positioning of the cascade reactor has so far not been investigated, which is of significant importance for biphase catalytic reaction systems. Inspired by the Janus properties of the lipid cellular membrane, here we show a highly efficient Janus gas-liquid reactor for CO 2 hydration and conversion. Within the Janus reactor, nanocascades containing the nanoscale compartmentalized carbonic anhydrase and formic dehydrogenase were positioned at a well-defined gas-liquid interface, with a high substrate concentration gradient. The Janus reactor exhibited 2.5 times higher CO 2 hydration efficiency compared with the conventional gas-liquid contactor with pristine membranes, and the formic acid conversion rate can reach approximately 90%. Through this work, we provide evidence that the spatial arrangement of the nanocascade is also crucial to efficient reactions, and the Janus reactor can be a promising candidate for the biphase catalytic reactions in environmental, biological and energy aspects.

  7. Phase behavior of CO2 in room-temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-ethylimidazolium acetate. (United States)

    Shiflett, Mark B; Elliott, Beth A; Lustig, Steve R; Sabesan, Subramaniam; Kelkar, Manish S; Yokozeki, A


    Carbon dioxide solubility (vapor-liquid equilibria: VLE) in an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-ethylimidazolium acetate ([eeim][Ac]) was measured using a gravimetric microbalance at four isotherms (about 283, 298, 323, and 348 K) up to about 2 MPa. An equation-of-state (EOS) model was used to analyze the VLE data and has predicted vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria (VLLE: or liquid-liquid separations) in CO(2)-rich solutions. The VLLE prediction was confirmed experimentally using a volumetric method and likely the liquid-liquid equilibria will intersect with the solid-liquid equilibria such that no lower critical solution temperature can exist and the binary system may be classified as Type III phase behavior. Carbon dioxide solubility in the ionic-liquid-rich solution show extremely unusual behavior. CO(2) dissolves in the ionic liquid at large concentrations (up to about 20 mole % of CO(2)) with almost no vapor pressure above the mixtures. This result is similar to our previous findings with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][Ac]). In all three cases the CO(2) forms a molecular complex (or chemical reaction) with the ionic liquid. (13)C NMR spectroscopy has identified the structure for CO(2) absorbed in [eeim][Ac] to be [eeim]-2-carboxylate. Addition of water to the carboxylate leads to the dissolution of CO(2). The thermodynamic excess properties (enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy) for all three systems have been calculated using the EOS and support the complex formation of the type AB(2) (where A is CO(2) and B is ionic liquid). Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry has verified the heat of reaction calculations and found for CO(2) absorbing in [emim][Ac], [eeim][Ac] and [bmim][Ac] to be about -38 kJ mol(-1). Additional experiments have examined the effect of water on the density, viscosity and CO(2) solubility in [eeim][Ac] and the CO(2) solubility in mixtures of [eeim][Ac] with other acetate salts

  8. Poly(ionic liquid)/Ionic Liquid Ion-Gels with High "Free" Ionic Liquid Content: Platform Membrane Materials for CO2/Light Gas Separations. (United States)

    Cowan, Matthew G; Gin, Douglas L; Noble, Richard D


    -films (ca. 100-nm-thick active layer). Traditional polymeric membrane materials are limited by a trade-off between permeability and selectivity empirically described by the "Robeson upper bound"-placing the desired membrane properties beyond reach. Therefore, the investigation of advanced and composite materials that can overcome the limitations of traditional polymeric materials is the focus of significant academic and industrial research. In particular, there has been substantial work on ionic-liquid (IL)-based materials due to their gas transport properties. This review provides an overview of our collaborative work on developing poly(ionic liquid)/ionic liquid (PIL/IL) ion-gel membrane technology. We detail developmental work on the preparation of PIL/IL composites and describe how this chemical technology was adapted to allow the roll-to-roll processing and preparation of membranes with defect-free active layers ca. 100 nm thick, CO2 permeances of over 6000 GPU, and CO2/N2 selectivity of ≥20-properties with the potential to reduce the cost of CO2 removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas to ca. $15 per ton of CO2 captured. Additionally, we examine the materials developments that have produced advanced PIL/IL composite membranes. These advancements include cross-linked PIL/IL blends, step-growth PIL/IL networks with facilitated transport groups, and PIL/IL composites with microporous additives for CO2/CH4 separations.

  9. Liquid Hydrocarbon Production from CO2 : Recent Development in Metal-Based Electrocatalysis. (United States)

    Daiyan, Rahman; Lu, Xunyu; Ng, Yun Hau; Amal, Rose


    Rising levels of CO 2 accumulation in the atmosphere have attracted considerable interest in technologies capable of CO 2 capture, storage and conversion. The electrochemical reduction of CO 2 into high-value liquid organic products could be of vital importance to mitigate this issue. The conversion of CO 2 into liquid fuels by using photovoltaic cells, which can readily be integrated in the current infrastructure, will help realize the creation of a sustainable cycle of carbon-based fuel that will promote zero net CO 2 emissions. Despite promising findings, significant challenges still persist that must be circumvented to make the technology profitable for large-scale utilization. With such possibilities, this Minireview presents the current high-performing catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 to liquid hydrocarbons, address the limitations and unify the current understanding of the different reaction mechanisms. The Minireview also explores current research directions to improve process efficiencies and production rate and discusses the scope of using photo-assisted electrochemical reduction systems to find stable, highly efficient catalysts that can harvest solar energy directly to convert CO 2 into liquid hydrocarbons. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. CO2 Solubilities in Amide-based Brφnsted Acidic Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palgunadi, Jelliarko; Im, Jin Kyu; Kang, Je Eun; Kim, Hoon Sik; Cheong, Min Serk


    A distinguished class of hydrophobic ionic liquids bearing a Brφnsted acidic character derived from amide-like compounds were prepared by a neutralization reaction of N,N-diethylformamide, N,N-dibutylformamide, 1-formylpiperidine, and ε-caprolactam with trifluoroacetic acid and physical absorptions of CO 2 in these ionic liquids were demonstrated and evaluated. CO 2 solubilities in these ionic liquids were influenced by the molecular structure of the cation and were apparently increased with the molar volume. Comparison based on a volume unit reveals that CO 2 solubilities in these liquids are relatively higher than those in imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Henry's coefficients calculated from low-pressure solubility tests at 313 to 333 K were used to derive the thermodynamics quantities. Enthalpy and entropy of solvation may share equal contributions in solubility

  11. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alkanol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Araus, Karina A.; Fuente, Juan C. de la


    Research highlights: → (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO 2 + C 5 alcohol) binary systems were measured. → Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. → No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. → Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. → Correlation results showed relative deviations ≤8 % (liquid) and ≤2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO 2 + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO 2 + 2-pentanol), and (CO 2 + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  12. Attitude toward the biological investigation for decreasing atmospheric CO2. Taiki CO2 wo sakugensuru seibutsuteki kenkyu taido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Explanation is made of the bioprocess which aims at treating the atmospheric CO2. As a result of investigation by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), it was judged that the direct CO2 removal from the flue gas of power station is costwise disadvantageous and that the biological method by CO2 fixation is economical. The following are projects supported by the EPRI: The seaweed fossilization of CO2 is a medium depth sea mechanism of having seaweeds absorb carbon and making it remain residually in the deepsea even after the plants die. Study is being made of oceanic seaweed cultivation field development, non-calcareous seaweed cultivation and spore collection. The cost is advantageously low. The cultivation of seaweeds and halophilous plants utilizes their photosynthesis to collect CO2. There are examples of studying the possibility of cultivating those plants through comparison with the land trees. The growth ratio of halophilous plants is being also studied together with the possibility that the carbon remains as a residue. The whiting is a phenomenon in which biodecomposed subsea matter becomes CaCO3. Covered with CaCO3, the ssaweeds are deposited. Investigation is being made on the seaweed morphology and condition for the occurrence of whiting. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Determination of carbon-14 environmental samples by mixing 14CO2 with a liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Sanz, M.R.; Gomez, V.; Heras, M.C.; Beltran, M.A.


    A method for the determination of Carbon-14 ( 14 CO 2 ) in environmental samples has been developed. The method use the direct absorption of the carbon dioxide into Carbosorb, followed with incorporation of the mixture (Carbosorb-CO 2 ) to the liquid scintillator. The results obtained to apply this method and the benzene synthesis, usual in our laboratory, are discused and compared. The method of collection of atmospheric samples is also described. (Author)

  14. Determination of Carbon-14 in environmental samples by mixing 14CO2 with a liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M. R.; Gomez, V.; Heras, M. C.; Beltran, M. A.


    A method for the determination of Carbon-14 (14CO2) in environmental samples has been developed. The method use the direct absorption of the carbon dioxide into Carbosorb, followed with incorporation of the mixture (Carbosorb-CO2) to the liquid scintillator. The results obtained to apply this method and the benzene synthesis, usual in our laboratory, are discussed and compared. The method of collection of atmospheric samples is also described. (Author) 10 refs

  15. Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) in H2O-Amine-CO2 system


    Ahmad, Rafiq


    New experimental data for vapor-liquid equilibrium of CO2 in aqueous solutions of 3M/26.84% wt, 1M/9% wt and 0.1M/0.89% wt AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol) and 1.5M PZ are reported from 313 to 393K. Low pressure/temperature equilibrium apparatus was used to measure the CO2 partial pressure over loaded AMP solutions while total pressure was measured with high pressure/temperature equilibrium apparatus. The experiments cover the temperature range of (313K?353K) and CO2 partial pressure rang...

  16. CO2 Capture in Ionic Liquids: A Review of Solubilities and Experimental Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Torralba-Calleja


    Full Text Available The growing concern of climate change and global warming has in turn given rise to a thriving research field dedicated to finding solutions. One particular area which has received considerable attention is the lowering of carbon dioxide emissions from large-scale sources, that is, fossil fuel power. This paper focuses on ionic liquids being used as novel media for CO2 capture. In particular, solubility data and experimental techniques are used at a laboratory scale. Cited CO2 absorption data for imidazolium-, pyrrolidinium-, pyridinium-, quaternary-ammonium-, and tetra-alkyl-phosphonium-based ionic liquids is reviewed, expressed as mole fractions (X of CO2 to ionic liquid. The following experimental techniques are featured: gravimetric analysis, the pressure drop method, and the view-cell method.

  17. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications (United States)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda


    Developing a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has worked well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Consequently, the unit would have to be larger and heavier to extend EVA times. Therefore, new CO2 control technologies must be developed to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Although recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that selectively vents CO2 to space. A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a micro porous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a current Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems has developed a new reactive liquid, which has effectively zero vapor pressure making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. The SLM function has been demonstrated with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O). In addition to being effective for CO2 control, the SLM also vents moisture to space. Therefore, this project has demonstrated the feasibility of using an SLM to control CO2 in an EVA application.

  18. Investigating CO2 Reservoirs at Gale Crater and Evidence for a Dense Early Atmosphere (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Archer, P. D.; Heil, E.; Eigenbrode, J.; McAdam, A.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Ming, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; hide


    One of the most compelling features of the Gale landing site is its age. Based on crater counts, the formation of Gale crater is dated to be near the beginning of the Hesperian near the pivotal Hesperian/Noachian transition. This is a time period on Mars that is linked to increased fluvial activity through valley network formation and also marks a transition from higher erosion rates/clay mineral formation to lower erosion rates with mineralogies dominated by sulfate minerals. Results from the Curiosity mission have shown extensive evidence for fluvial activity within the crater suggesting that sediments on the floor of the crater and even sediments making up Mt. Sharp itself were the result of longstanding activity of liquid water. Warm/wet conditions on early Mars are likely due to a thicker atmosphere and increased abundance of greenhouse gases including the main component of the atmosphere, CO2. Carbon dioxide is minor component of the Earth's atmosphere yet plays a major role in surface water chemistry, weathering, and formation of secondary minerals. An ancient martian atmosphere was likely dominated by CO2 and any waters in equilibrium with this atmosphere would have different chemical characteristics. Studies have noted that high partial pressures of CO2 would result in increased carbonic acid formation and lowering of the pH so that carbonate minerals are not stable. However, if there were a dense CO2 atmosphere present at the Hesperian/Noachian transition, it would have to be stored in a carbon reservoir on the surface or lost to space. The Mt. Sharp sediments are potentially one of the best places on Mars to investigate these CO2 reservoirs as they are proposed to have formed in the early Hesperian, from an alkaline lake, and record the transition to an aeolian dominated regime near the top of the sequence. The total amount of CO2 in the Gale crater soils and sediments is significant but lower than expected if a thick atmosphere was present at the

  19. The effect of liquid biofuel production on Finnish CO2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gust, S.


    Production of liquid biofuels utilizing wood from either forestry residues or in the future, from energy farms, and converted into methanol or pyrolysis oil have the potential to reduce Finland's net CO 2 emissions by 5-10 % from existing levels for wood volumes from 3.5-7.0 Mt/a. The reduction of national CO 2 emissions by ethanol produced from barley or rapeseed oil methyl esters from rapeseed will be limited to under 1.0 %. This is due to: Greater CO 2 emissions from biomass production of barley and rapeseed than from wood; greater CO 2 emissions from conversion of barley into ethanol and biomass volume limitations due to either lack of suitable land and/or domestic market limits of animal feed co-products

  20. Enhanced CO2 capture in binary mixtures of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ionic liquids with water. (United States)

    Romanos, George E; Zubeir, Lawien F; Likodimos, Vlassis; Falaras, Polycarpos; Kroon, Maaike C; Iliev, Boyan; Adamova, Gabriela; Schubert, Thomas J S


    Absorption of carbon dioxide and water in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliun tricyanomethanide ([C4C1im][TCM]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([C8C1im][TCM]) ionic liquids (ILs) was systematically investigated for the first time as a function of the H2O content by means of a gravimetric system together with in-situ Raman spectroscopy, excess molar volume (V(E)), and viscosity deviation measurements. Although CO2 absorption was marginally affected by water at low H2O molar fractions for both ILs, an increase of the H2O content resulted in a marked enhancement of both the CO2 solubility (ca. 4-fold) and diffusivity (ca. 10-fold) in the binary [C(n)C1im][TCM]/H2O systems, in contrast to the weak and/or detrimental influence of water in most physically and chemically CO2-absorbing ILs. In-situ Raman spectroscopy on the IL/CO2 systems verified that CO2 is physically absorbed in the dry ILs with no significant effect on their structural organization. A pronounced variation of distinct tricyanomethanide Raman modes was disclosed in the [C(n)C1im][TCM]/H2O mixtures, attesting to the gradual disruption of the anion-cation coupling by the hydrogen-bonded water molecules to the [TCM](-) anions, in accordance with the positive excess molar volumes and negative viscosity deviations for the binary systems. Most importantly, CO2 absorption in the ILs/H2O mixtures at high water concentrations revealed that the [TCM](-) Raman modes tend to restore their original state for the heavily hydrated ILs, in qualitative agreement with the intriguing nonmonotonous transients of CO2 absorption kinetics unveiled by the gravimetric measurements for the hybrid solvents. A molecular exchange mechanism between CO2 in the gas phase and H2O in the liquid phase was thereby proposed to explain the enhanced CO2 absorption in the hybrid [C(n)C1im][TCM]//H2O solvents based on the subtle competition between the TCM-H2O and TCM-CO2 interactions, which renders these ILs very promising for CO2

  1. The measurement of ultrasonic cleaning efficiency in liquid/supercritical CO2 using QCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, M. S.; Park, K. H.


    Qualtz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is used for the measurement of ultrasonic wave effects on CO 2 cleaning. QCM used in the experiment has the frequency of 5 MHZ, and the relation between mass and frequency change is as follows. Δm/A (ng/cm 2 )= -17.739·Δf(Hz). A horn was designed and installed into the high pressure reactor, and a QCM was installed inside the reactor using an electrical connector. Frequency generator for QCM was made and its validity was proved by mock-up tests. Grease adsorbed specimen shows that effect of ultrasonic wave. As the density increases, the efficiency becomes higher in liquid CO 2 . Liquid is more reactive with ultrasonic wave in grease cleaning than Superciritical CO 2

  2. Solvents for CO2 capture. Structure-activity relationships combined with vapour-liquid-equilibrium measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergler, Y.L.; Rumley-Van Gurp, R.; Brasser, P.; Koning, M.C. de; Goetheer, E.L.V.


    In this study a systematic approach was chosen to test and characterize amine systems for CO2 capture. Vapour-liquid-equilibrium measurements were performed on a homologue series of amines, with ethylene amine as base structure. Various functional groups were used that ranged in chemical and

  3. How do polymerized room-temperature ionic liquid membranes plasticize during high pressure CO2 permeation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons-Fischbein, K.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Bara, J.B.; Noble, R.D.; Wessling, Matthias


    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a class of organic solvents that have been explored as novel media for CO2 separations. Polymerized RTILs (poly(RTILs)) can be synthesized from RTIL monomers to form dense, solid gas selective membranes. It is of interest to understand the permeation

  4. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Canopy Configurations in Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials of Various Grafting Densities during CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille


    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) made of polyetheramine chains tethered onto functionalized silica nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized before and after exposure to CO 2 using NMR, Raman, and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies in order to investigate the effect of the grafting densities on the NOHM canopy structure. Considering the promising tunable properties for CO 2 capture of NOHMs, this study was conducted to provide important structural information to better design NOHMs for CO 2 capture. In order to minimize the CO 2 absorption via enthalpic effect and provide a more accurate assessment of the structural effects, the NOHMs were synthesized without task-specific groups. A greater chain ordering and decreased intermolecular interactions were observed in NOHMs compared to the unbound polymer. This was attributed to the specific structural arrangement of the frustrated canopy. The distinct configuration of grafted polymer chains caused different CO 2 packing and CO 2-induced swelling behaviors between the NOHMs and the unbound polymer. The grafting density influenced the ordering and coupling of the polymer chains and CO 2-induced swelling. Its effect on the CO 2 packing behavior was less pronounced. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Effect of addition of Proline, ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] on CO2 separation properties of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer / poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid membranes (United States)

    Duan, S. H.; Kai, T.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Taniguchi, I.; Kazama, S.


    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDMA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, proline, choline and ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] compounds were selected as rate promoters that were used to prepare PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes. The effect of addition of proline, choline, IL [Choline][Pro] on separation performance of PAMAM/PEGDMA) hybrid membranes for CO2/H2 separation was investigated. Amino acid proline, choline, and IL [Choline][Pro] were used to promote CO2 and amine reaction. With the addition of [Choline][Pro] into PAMAM/PEG membrane, CO2 permeance of PAMAM/PEG hybrid membranes are increased up to 46% without any change of selectivity of membrane for CO2.

  6. Development of sustainable coal to liquid processes: Minimising process CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kauchali


    Full Text Available Traditional coal-to-liquid (CTL plants are synonymous with the production of carbon dioxide. Coal may be gasified in the presence of steam and oxygen to produce gas comprising carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, methane (CH4, hydrogen (H2 and steam (H2O. The gases can be reacted to a myriad of chemicals and fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT reaction. However, excess carbon dioxide is generated via the Water-Gas-Shift reaction during preparation of CO:H2 ratios for FT. Here, a process development is represented on a CHO phase diagram, where unique regions are identified for autothermal operations for coal conversion. Considerations are given to develop idealised processes for the production of liquid chemicals from coal which emit minimal process CO2, require minimal energy input and do not require steam. This is achieved by co-feeding coal with methane and identifying endothermic-exothermic process pairs for methane-coal dry reforming. Furthermore, it is shown that a preferred method to produce liquid fuels from coal is by first creating dimethyl ether (DME as an intermediate, followed by the dehydration of DME to liquid fuels (gasoline range. For this route, via DME, the CO2 emission was found to be four times less than idealised CTL processes. Keywords: Gasification, Reforming, Coal to liquid, Carbon dioxide, Autothermal, Fischer tropsch

  7. highly selective amino acid salt solutions as absorption liquid for CO(2) capture in gas-liquid membrane contactors. (United States)

    Simons, Katja; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Mengers, Harro; Brilman, Wim; Wessling, Matthias


    The strong anthropogenic increase in the emission of CO(2) and the related environmental impact force the developments towards sustainability and carbon capture and storage (CCS). In the present work, we combine the high product yields and selectivities of CO(2) absorption processes with the advantages of membrane technology in a membrane contactor for the separation of CO(2) from CH(4) using amino acid salt solutions as competitive absorption liquid to alkanol amine solutions. Amino acids, such as sarcosine, have the same functionality as alkanol amines (e.g., monoethanolamine=MEA), but in contrast, they exhibit a better oxidative stability and resistance to degradation. In addition, they can be made nonvolatile by adding a salt functionality, which significantly reduces the liquid loss due to evaporation at elevated temperatures in the desorber. Membrane contactor experiments using CO(2)/CH(4) feed mixtures to evaluate the overall process performance, including a full absorption/desorption cycle show that even without a temperature difference between absorber and desorber, a CO(2)/CH(4) selectivity of over 70 can be easily achieved with the sarcosine salt solution as absorption liquid. This selectivity reaches values of 120 at a temperature difference between absorber and desorber of 35 degrees C, compared to a value of only 60 for MEA under the same conditions. Although CO(2) permeance values are somewhat lower than the values obtained for MEA, the results clearly show the potential of amino acid salt solutions as competitive absorption liquids for the energy efficient removal of CO(2). In addition, due to the low absorption of CH(4) in sarcosine compared to MEA, the loss of CH(4) is reduced and significantly higher CH(4) product yields can be obtained.

  8. Microfluidic study for investigating migration and residual phenomena of supercritical CO2 in porous media (United States)

    Park, Gyuryeong; Wang, Sookyun; Lee, Minhee; Um, Jeong-Gi; Kim, Seon-Ok


    The storage of CO2 in underground geological formation such as deep saline aquifers or depleted oil and gas reservoirs is one of the most promising technologies for reducing the atmospheric CO2 release. The processes in geological CO2 storage involves injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) into porous formations saturated with brine and initiates CO2 flooding with immiscible displacement. The CO2 migration and porewater displacement within geological formations, and , consequentially, the storage efficiency are governed by the interaction of fluid and rock properties and are affected by the interfacial tension, capillarity, and wettability in supercritical CO2-brine-mineral systems. This study aims to observe the displacement pattern and estimate storage efficiency by using micromodels. This study aims to conduct scCO2 injection experiments for visualization of distribution of injected scCO2 and residual porewater in transparent pore networks on microfluidic chips under high pressure and high temperature conditions. In order to quantitatively analyze the porewater displacement by scCO2 injection under geological CO2 storage conditions, the images of invasion patterns and distribution of CO2 in the pore network are acquired through a imaging system with a microscope. The results from image analysis were applied in quantitatively investigating the effects of major environmental factors and scCO2 injection methods on porewater displacement process by scCO2 and storage efficiency. The experimental observation results could provide important fundamental information on capillary characteristics of reservoirs and improve our understanding of CO2 sequestration progress.

  9. Investigation of CO2 dissolution via mass transfer inside a porous medium (United States)

    Patmonoaji, Anindityo; Suekane, Tetsuya


    The dissolution of trapped carbon dioxide (CO2) gas under various water flow rate inside a porous medium was experimentally studied using X-ray microtomography. Image processing techniques were used to determine the morphologies, CO2 fractions, and interfacial areas of the trapped bubbles. Based on fractal dimension analysis, the bubble morphology was classified into single-pore bubbles and multi-pore bubbles. Different dissolution phenomena with liquid-liquid systems were observed. First, the calculated mass transfer coefficient was lower than one order of magnitude. Second, two consecutive dissolution fronts appeared. These two fronts were not triggered by a difference in solute concentration because they occurred at CO2 concentrations far from saturated conditions. However, velocity-dependent mass transfer indicated a power function with a power value similar with liquid-liquid system dissolution experiment.

  10. Simulation and experiment for oxygen-enriched combustion engine using liquid oxygen to solidify CO2 (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Jia, Xiaoshe; Pei, Pucheng; Lu, Yong; Yi, Li; Shi, Yan


    For capturing and recycling of CO2 in the internal combustion engine, Rankle cycle engine can reduce the exhaust pollutants effectively under the condition of ensuring the engine thermal efficiency by using the techniques of spraying water in the cylinder and optimizing the ignition advance angle. However, due to the water spray nozzle need to be installed on the cylinder, which increases the cylinder head design difficulty and makes the combustion conditions become more complicated. In this paper, a new method is presented to carry out the closing inlet and exhaust system for internal combustion engines. The proposed new method uses liquid oxygen to solidify part of cooled CO2 from exhaust system into dry ice and the liquid oxygen turns into gas oxygen which is sent to inlet system. The other part of CO2 is sent to inlet system and mixed with oxygen, which can reduce the oxygen-enriched combustion detonation tendency and make combustion stable. Computing grid of the IP52FMI single-cylinder four-stroke gasoline-engine is established according to the actual shape of the combustion chamber using KIVA-3V program. The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate are analyzed on the temperatures, the pressures and the instantaneous heat release rates when the EGR rate is more than 8%. The possibility of enclosing intake and exhaust system for engine is verified. The carbon dioxide trapping device is designed and the IP52FMI engine is transformed and the CO2 capture experiment is carried out. The experimental results show that when the EGR rate is 36% for the optimum EGR rate. When the liquid oxygen of 35.80-437.40 g is imported into the device and last 1-20 min, respectively, 21.50-701.30 g dry ice is obtained. This research proposes a new design method which can capture CO2 for vehicular internal combustion engine.

  11. Sustainable Poly(Ionic Liquids) for CO2 Capture Based on Deep Eutectic Monomers

    KAUST Repository

    Isik, Mehmet


    The design of high performance solid sorbent materials for CO2 capture is a technology which has been employed to mitigate global warming. However, the covalent incorporation of functionalities into polymeric supports usually involves multistep energy-intensive chemical processes. This fact makes the net CO2 balance of the materials negative even though they possess good properties as CO2 sorbents. Here we show a new family of polymers which are based on amines, amidoximes, and natural carboxylic acids and can be obtained using sustainable low energy processes. Thus, deep eutectic monomers based on natural carboxylic acids, amidoximes, and amines have been prepared by just mixing with cholinium type methacrylic ammonium monomer. The formation of deep eutectic monomers was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry measurements. In all cases, the monomers displayed glass transition temperatures well below room temperature. Computational studies revealed that the formation of eutectic complexes lengthens the distance between the cation and the anion causing charge delocalization. The liquid nature of the resulting deep eutectic monomers (DEMs) made it possible to conduct a fast photopolymerization process to obtain the corresponding poly(ionic liquids). Materials were characterized by means of nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction to evaluate the properties of the polymers. The polymers were then used as solid sorbents for CO2 capture. It has been shown that the polymers prepared with citric acid displayed better performance both experimentally and computationally. The current endeavor showed that sustainable poly(ionic liquids) based on deep eutectic monomers can be easily prepared to produce low-energy-cost alternatives to the materials currently being researched for CO2 capture. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  12. Flexible Li-CO2 batteries with liquid-free electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Chen, Jun


    Developing flexible Li-CO 2 batteries is a promising approach to reuse CO 2 and simultaneously supply energy to wearable electronics. However, all reported Li-CO 2 batteries use liquid electrolyte and lack robust electrolyte/electrodes structure, not providing the safety and flexibility required. Herein we demonstrate flexible liquid-free Li-CO 2 batteries based on poly(methacrylate)/poly(ethylene glycol)-LiClO 4 -3 wt %SiO 2 composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) cathodes. The CPE (7.14 x 10 -2 mS cm -1 ) incorporates with porous CNTs cathodes, displaying stable structure and small interface resistance. The batteries run for 100 cycles with controlled capacity of 1000 mAh g -1 . Moreover, pouch-type flexible batteries exhibit large reversible capacity of 993.3 mAh, high energy density of 521 Wh kg -1 , and long operation time of 220 h at different degrees of bending (0-360 ) at 55 C. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The precise measurement of the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium properties for (CO2 + isobutane) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Y.; Mizutani, K.; Miyamoto, H.


    Recently, it has been suggested that natural working fluids, such as CO 2 , hydrocarbons, and their mixtures, could provide a long-term alternative to fluorocarbon refrigerants. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for these fluids are essential for the development of equations of state, and for industrial process such as separation and refinement. However, there are large inconsistencies among the available literature data for (CO 2 + isobutane) binary mixtures, and therefore provision of reliable and new measurements with expanded uncertainties is required. In this study, we determined precise VLE data using a new re-circulating type apparatus, which was mainly designed by Akico Co., Japan. An equilibrium cell with an inner volume of about 380 cm 3 and two optical windows was used to observe the phase behaviour. The cell had re-circulating loops and expansion loops that were immersed in a thermostatted liquid bath and air bath, respectively. After establishment of a steady state in these loops, the compositions of the samples were measured by a gas chromatograph (GL Science, GC-3200). The VLE data were measured for CO 2 /propane and CO 2 /isobutane binary mixtures within the temperature range from 300 K to 330 K and at pressures up to 7 MPa. These data were compared with the available literature data and with values predicted by thermodynamic property models.

  14. Study on Introduction of CO2 Free Energy to Japan with Liquid Hydrogen (United States)

    Kamiya, Shoji; Nishimura, Motohiko; Harada, Eichi

    In Japan, both CO2(Carbon dioxide) emission reduction and energy security are the very important social issues after Fukushima Daiichi accident. On the other hand, FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle)using hydrogen will be on the market in 2015. Introducing large mass hydrogen energy is being expected as expanding hydrogen applications, or solution to energy issues of Japan.And then,the Japanese government announced the road map for introducing hydrogen energy supply chain in this June,2014. Under these circumstances, imported CO2 free hydrogen will be one of the solutions for energy security and CO2 reduction, if the hydrogen price is affordable. To achieve this, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) performed a feasibility studyon CO2-free hydrogen energy supply chainfrom Australian brown coal linked with CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) to Japan. In the study, hydrogen production systems utilizing brown coal gasificationandLH2 (liquid hydrogen)systems as storing and transporting hydrogen are examined.This paper shows the possibilityof realizingthe CO2 free hydrogen supply chain, the cost breakdown of imported hydrogen cost, its cost competitiveness with conventionalfossil, andLH2systems as key technologies of the hydrogen energy chain.

  15. High Performance Fe Porphyrin/Ionic Liquid Co-catalyst for Electrochemical CO2 Reduction. (United States)

    Choi, Jaecheol; Benedetti, Tania M; Jalili, Rouhollah; Walker, Ashley; Wallace, Gordon G; Officer, David L


    The efficient and selective catalytic reduction of CO2 is a highly promising process for both of the storage of renewable energy as well as the production of valuable chemical feedstocks. In this work, we show that the addition of an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, in an aprotic electrolyte containing a proton source and FeTPP, promotes the in situ formation of the [Fe(0) TPP](2-) homogeneous catalyst at a less negative potential, resulting in lower overpotentials for the CO2 reduction (670 mV) and increased kinetics of electron transfer. This co-catalysis exhibits high Faradaic efficiency for CO production (93 %) and turnover number (2 740 000 after 4 hour electrolysis), with a four-fold increase in turnover frequency (TOF) when compared with the standard system without the ionic liquid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Efficient Reduction of CO2 into Formic Acid on a Lead or Tin Electrode using an Ionic Liquid Catholyte Mixture. (United States)

    Zhu, Qinggong; Ma, Jun; Kang, Xinchen; Sun, Xiaofu; Liu, Huizhen; Hu, Jiayin; Liu, Zhimin; Han, Buxing


    Highly efficient electrochemical reduction of CO2 into value-added chemicals using cheap and easily prepared electrodes is environmentally and economically compelling. The first work on the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 in ternary electrolytes containing ionic liquid, organic solvent, and H2 O is described. Addition of a small amount of H2 O to an ionic liquid/acetonitrile electrolyte mixture significantly enhanced the efficiency of the electrochemical reduction of CO2 into formic acid (HCOOH) on a Pb or Sn electrode, and the efficiency was extremely high using an ionic liquid/acetonitrile/H2 O ternary mixture. The partial current density for HCOOH reached 37.6 mA cm(-2) at a Faradaic efficiency of 91.6 %, which is much higher than all values reported to date for this reaction, including those using homogeneous and noble metal electrocatalysts. The reasons for such high efficiency were investigated using controlled experiments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Membraneless laminar flow cell for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction with liquid product separation (United States)

    Monroe, Morgan M.; Lobaccaro, Peter; Lum, Yanwei; Ager, Joel W.


    The production of liquid fuel products via electrochemical reduction of CO2 is a potential path to produce sustainable fuels. However, to be practical, a separation strategy is required to isolate the fuel-containing electrolyte produced at the cathode from the anode and also prevent the oxidation products (i.e. O2) from reaching the cathode. Ion-conducting membranes have been applied in CO2 reduction reactors to achieve this separation, but they represent an efficiency loss and can be permeable to some product species. An alternative membraneless approach is developed here to maintain product separation through the use of a laminar flow cell. Computational modelling shows that near-unity separation efficiencies are possible at current densities achievable now with metal cathodes via optimization of the spacing between the electrodes and the electrolyte flow rate. Laminar flow reactor prototypes were fabricated with a range of channel widths by 3D printing. CO2 reduction to formic acid on Sn electrodes was used as the liquid product forming reaction, and the separation efficiency for the dissolved product was evaluated with high performance liquid chromatography. Trends in product separation efficiency with channel width and flow rate were in qualitative agreement with the model, but the separation efficiency was lower, with a maximum value of 90% achieved.

  18. Liquid vs. Gas Phase CO2 Photoreduction Process: Which Is the Effect of the Reaction Medium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Olivo


    Full Text Available The use of carbon dioxide, the most concerning environmental issue of the 21st century, as a feedstock for fuels productions still represents an innovative, yet challenging, task for the scientific community. CO2 photoreduction processes have the potential to transform this hazardous pollutant into important products for the energy industry (e.g., methane and methanol employing a photocatalyst and light as the only energy input. In order to design an effective process, the high sustainability of this reaction should be matched with the perfect reaction conditions to allow the reactant, photocatalyst, and light source to come together: therefore, the choice of reaction conditions, and in particular its medium, is a crucial issue that needs to be investigated. Throughout this paper, a careful study of carbon dioxide photoreduction in liquid and vapour phases are reported, focusing on their effect on catalyst performances in terms of light harvesting, productivity, and selectivity. Different from most papers in the literature, catalytic tests were performed under extremely low light irradiance, in order to minimise the primary energy input, highlighting that this experimental variable has a great effect on the reaction pathway and, thus, product distribution.

  19. Computational investigation of thermal gas separation for CO2 capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bryan, Charles R.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Torczynski, John Robert; Brooks, Carlton, F.


    This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 09-1351, 'Computational Investigation of Thermal Gas Separation for CO{sub 2} Capture'. Thermal gas separation for a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen is investigated using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of molecular gas dynamics. Molecular models for nitrogen and carbon dioxide are developed, implemented, compared to theoretical results, and compared to several experimental thermophysical properties. The molecular models include three translational modes, two fully excited rotational modes, and vibrational modes, whose degree of excitation depends on the temperature. Nitrogen has one vibrational mode, and carbon dioxide has four vibrational modes (two of which are degenerate). These models are used to perform a parameter study for mixtures of carbon dioxide and nitrogen confined between parallel walls over realistic ranges of gas temperatures and nominal concentrations of carbon dioxide. The degree of thermal separation predicted by DSMC is slightly higher than experimental values and is sensitive to the details of the molecular models.

  20. Separation of N2O and CO2 using room-temperature ionic liquid [bmim][BF4]. (United States)

    Shiflett, Mark B; Niehaus, Anne Marie S; Yokozeki, A


    We have developed a ternary equation of state (EOS) model for the N(2)O/CO(2)/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF(4)]) system in order to understand separation of these gases using room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The present model is based on a generic RK (Redlich-Kwong) EOS, with empirical interaction parameters for each binary system. The interaction parameters have been determined using our measured VLE (vapor-liquid equilibrium) data for N(2)O/[bmim][BF(4)] and CO(2)/[bmim][BF(4)] and literature data for N(2)O/CO(2). The binary EOS models for the N(2)O/[bmim][BF(4)] and CO(2)/[bmim][BF(4)] systems correctly predicted the liquid-liquid phase separation found in VLLE experiments. The validity of the ternary EOS model has been checked by conducting VLE experiments for the N(2)O/CO(2)/[bmim][BF(4)] system over a range in temperature from 296 to 315 K. With this EOS model, solubility (VLE) behavior has been calculated for various (T, P, and feed compositions) conditions. For both large and small N(2)O/CO(2) feed ratios, the N(2)O/CO(2) gas selectivity [α(N(2)O/CO(2)) = (y(N(2)O)/x(N(2)O))/(y(CO(2))/x(CO(2)))] is α = 1.4-1.5, compared with (α = 0.96-0.98) in the absence of ionic liquid. While the concentration of the ionic liquid does not affect the selectivity, the addition of an ionic liquid provides the only practical means of separating CO(2) and N(2)O.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of polyethers and a quaternary ammonium ionic liquid as CO2 absorbers (United States)

    Cardoso, Piercarlo Fortunato; Fernandez, Juan S. L. C.; Lepre, Luiz Fernando; Ando, Rômulo Augusto; Costa Gomes, Margarida F.; Siqueira, Leonardo J. A.


    The properties of mixtures of butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [N4111][NTf2], with poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethyl ether, PEO, were described as a function of PEO chain size by molecular dynamics simulations. Both PEO chain size and mixture composition revealed to play a significant role in determining the structure and the dynamics of the fluids. The remarkably higher viscosity observed for mixtures composed by 0.25 mole fraction of PEO was attributed to the increase in the gauche population of OCCO dihedral of the polyether of longer chains. The negative solvation enthalpy (ΔsolH the neat and mixture systems. The CO2 absorption was higher in neat PEO, particularly considering longer chains. The gas solubility in the mixtures presented intermediate values in comparison to the neat PEO and neat ionic liquid. The CO2 solutions had their structures discussed in the light of the calculated radial and spatial distribution functions.

  2. Effects of Bonding Types and Functional Groups on CO 2 Capture using Novel Multiphase Systems of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew


    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO 2 capture capacities were investigated. NOHMs can be classified based on the synthesis methods involving different bonding types, the existence of linkers, and the addition of task-specific functional groups including amines for CO 2 capture. As a canopy of polymeric chains was grafted onto the nanoparticle cores, the thermal stability of the resulting NOHMs was improved. In order to isolate the entropy effect during CO 2 capture, NOHMs were first prepared using polymers that do not contain functional groups with strong chemical affinity toward CO 2. However, it was found that even ether groups on the polymeric canopy contributed to CO 2 capture in NOHMs via Lewis acid-base interactions, although this effect was insignificant compared to the effect of task-specific functional groups such as amine. In all cases, a higher partial pressure of CO 2 was more favorable for CO 2 capture, while a higher temperature caused an adverse effect. Multicyclic CO 2 capture tests confirmed superior recyclability of NOHMs and NOHMs also showed a higher selectivity toward CO 2 over N 2O, O 2 and N 2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Amine-Functionalized Amino Acid-based Ionic Liquids as Efficient and High-Capacity Absorbents for CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprised of ammonium cations and anions of naturally occurring amino acids containing an additional amine group (e.g., lysine, histidine, asparagine, and glutamine) were examined as high-capacity absorbents for CO2. An absorption capacity of 2.1 mol CO2 per mol of IL (3.5 mol...

  4. Investigating Mars South Residual CO2 Cap with a Global Climate Model (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Dequaire, J.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.


    The CO2 cycle is one of the three controlling climate cycles on Mars. One aspect of the CO2 cycle that is not yet fully understood is the existence of a residual CO2 ice cap that is offset from the south pole. Previous investigations suggest that the atmosphere may control the placement of the south residual cap (e.g., Colaprete et al., 2005). These investigations show that topographically forced stationary eddies in the south during southern hemisphere winter produce colder atmospheric temperatures and increased CO2 snowfall over the hemisphere where the residual cap resides. Since precipitated CO2 ice produces higher surface albedos than directly deposited CO2 ice, it is plausible that CO2 snowfall resulting from the zonally asymmetric atmospheric circulation produces surface ice albedos high enough to maintain a residual cap only in one hemisphere. The goal of the current work is to further evaluate Colaprete et al.'s hypothesis by investigating model-predicted seasonally varying snowfall patterns in the southern polar region and the atmospheric circulation components that control them.

  5. Experimental Investigation on CO2 Methanation Process for Solar Energy Storage Compared to CO2-Based Methanol Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellani, Beatrice; Gambelli, Alberto Maria; Morini, Elena; Nastasi, B.; Presciutti, Andrea; Filipponi, Mirko; Nicolini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico


    The utilization of the captured CO2 as a carbon source for the production of energy storage media offers a technological solution for overcoming crucial issues in current energy systems. Solar energy production generally does not match with energy demand because of its intermittent and

  6. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Lyu


    Full Text Available The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS tests together with an acoustic emission (AE system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation.

  7. Physical Properties and CO2 Reaction Pathway of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ionic Liquids with Aprotic Heterocyclic Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, S; DeSilva, MA; Brennecke, JF


    Ionic liquids (ILs) with aprotic heterocyclic anions (AHA) are attractive candidates for CO2 capture technologies. In this study, a series of AHA ILs with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([emim](+)) cations were synthesized, and their physical properties (density, viscosity, and ionic conductivity) were measured. In addition, CO2 solubility in each IL was determined at room temperature using a volumetric method at pressures between 0 and 1 bar. The AHAs are basic anions that are capable of reacting stoichiometrically with CO2 to form carbamate species. An interesting CO2 uptake isotherm behavior was observed, and this may be attributed to a parallel, equilibrium proton exchange process between the imidazolium cation and the basic AHA in the presence of CO2, followed by the formation of "transient" carbene species that react rapidly with CO2. The presence of the imidazolium-carboxylate species and carbamate anion species was verified using H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. While the reaction between CO2 and the proposed transient carbene resulted in cation-CO2 binding that is stronger than the anion-CO2 reaction, the reactions of the imidazolium AHA ILs were fully reversible upon regeneration at 80 degrees C with nitrogen purging. The presence of water decreased the CO2 uptake due to the inhibiting effect of the neutral species (protonated form of AHA) that is formed.

  8. Triphenylene discotic liquid crystal trimers synthesized by Co2(CO8-catalyzed terminal alkyne [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han


    Full Text Available The synthesis of star-shaped discotic liquid crystal trimers using Co2(CO8-catalyzed terminal alkyne [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction is reported. The trimers consist of three triphenylene discotic units linked to a central 1,2,4-trisubstituted benzene ring via flexible spacers. The trimers were synthesized in the yields up to 70% by mixing the monomers with 10 mol % of Co2(CO8 as the catalyst in refluxing 1,4-dioxane. The liquid crystalline properties were investigated by using polarizing optical microscopy (POM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Trimer 4 with an ester connecting group and a longer spacer exhibited a rectangular columnar mesophase, while 5b and 5c possessing an ether linkage and a shorter spacer display a hexagonal columnar mesophase. The connecting functional group and the length of the flexible spacer between the central benzene ring and the triphenylene units have pivotal influence on the mesomorphism.

  9. Experimental studies on the krypton absorption in liquid CO2 (KALC) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.W.; Beaujean, H.W.R.; Fowler, V.L.; Gilliam, T.M.; Inman, D.J.; Levins, D.M.


    Results are presented for a series of experiments to quantify krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm respectively. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium mass transfer experiments for the CO 2 --O 2 --Kr system are described. Data analysis indicates values of HTU for krypton on the order of 0.5 ft for decontamination factors from 100 to 10,000. Recent flooding information for the packed columns is combined with previous data and is shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

  10. Laboratory investigations of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratio data enhance monitoring of CO2 underground (United States)

    Barth, Johannes A. C.; Myrttinen, Anssi; Becker, Veith; Nowak, Martin; Mayer, Bernhard


    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope data play an important role in monitoring CO2 in the subsurface, for instance during carbon capture and storage (CCS). This includes monitoring of supercritical and gaseous CO2 movement and reactions under reservoir conditions and detection of potential CO2 leakage scenarios. However, in many cases isotope data from field campaigns are either limited due to complex sample retrieval or require verification under controlled boundary conditions. Moreover, experimentally verified isotope fractionation factors are also accurately known only for temperatures and pressures lower than commonly found in CO2 reservoirs (Myrttinen et al., 2012). For this reason, several experimental series were conducted in order to investigate effects of elevated pressures, temperatures and salinities on stable carbon and oxygen isotope changes of CO2 and water. These tests were conducted with a heateable pressure device and with glass or metal gas containers in which CO2 reacted with fluids for time periods of hours to several weeks. The obtained results revealed systematic differences in 13C/12C-distributions between CO2 and the most important dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) species under reservoir conditions (CO2(aq), H2CO3 and HCO3-). Since direct measurements of the pH, even immediately after sampling, were unreliable due to rapid CO2 de-gassing, one of the key results of this work is that carbon isotope fractionation data between DIC and CO2 may serve to reconstruct in situ pH values. pH values reconstructed with this approach ranged between 5.5 and 7.4 for experiments with 60 bars and up to 120 °C and were on average 1.4 pH units lower than those measured with standard pH electrodes directly after sampling. In addition, pressure and temperature experiments with H2O and CO2 revealed that differences between the oxygen isotope ratios of both phases depended on temperature, water-gas ratios as well as salt contents of the solutions involved. Such

  11. High-Permeance Room-Temperature Ionic-Liquid-Based Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, JS; Mok, MM; Cowan, MG; McDanel, WM; Carlisle, TK; Gin, DL; Noble, RD


    We have developed and fabricated thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with an active layer consisting of a room-temperature ionic liquid/polymerized (room-temperature ionic liquid) [i.e., (RTIL)/poly(RTIL)] composite material. The resulting membrane has a CO2 permeance of 6100 +/- 400 GPU (where 1 GPU = 10(-6) cm(3)/(cm(2) s cmHg)) and an ideal CO2/N-2 selectivity of 22 +/- 2. This represents a new membrane with state-of-the-art CO2 permeance and good CO2/N-2 selectivity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a TFC gas separation membrane composed of an RTIL-containing active layer.

  12. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoback, Mark D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kovscek, Anthony R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wilcox, Jennifer [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  13. Modeling of solubility of CO2 in 1-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid using UNIFAC (United States)

    Yunus, Normawati M.; Abdul Mutalib, M. I.; Murugesan, T.


    The solubility of CO2 in 1-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C4py][Tf2N] ionic liquid has been determined using Magnetic Suspension Balance instrument at 298.15 K and in the pressures up to about 27 bar. A group contribution method, namely UNIFAC has been used to fit the experimental data. The interaction parameters of the model were estimated. The predicted CO2 solubility data by the model shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Experimental measurements of vapor-liquid equilibria of the H2O + CO2 + CH4 ternary system (United States)

    Qin, J.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Duan, Zhenhao


    Reported are the experimental measurements on vapor-liquid equilibria in the H2O + CO2 + CH4 ternary system at temperatures from (324 to 375) K and pressures from (10 to 50) MPa. The results indicate that the CH4 solubility in the ternary mixture is about 10 % to 40 % more than that calculated by interpolation from the Henry's law constants of the binary system, H2O + CH4, and the solubility of CO2 is 6 % to 20 % more than what is calculated by the interpolation from the Henry's law constants of the binary mixture, H 2O + CO2. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  15. Hydrodynamic shrinkage of liquid CO2 Taylor drops in a straight microchannel. (United States)

    Qin, Ning; Wen, John; Ren, Carolyn L


    Hydrodynamic shrinkage of liquid CO2 drops in water under a Taylor flow regime is studied using a straight microchannel (length/width ~ 100). A general form of a mathematical model of the solvent-side mass transfer coefficient (ks) is developed first. Based on formulations of the surface area (A) and the volume (V) of a general Taylor drop in a rectangular microchannel, a specific form of ks is derived. Drop length and speed are experimentally measured at three specified positions of the straight channel, namely, immediately after drop generation (position 1), the midpoint of the channel (position 2) and the end of the channel (position 3). The reductions of drop length (Lx, x = 1, 2, 3) from position 1 to 2 and down to 3 are used to quantify the drop shrinkage. Using the specific model, ks is calculated mainly based on Lx and drop flowing time (t). Results show that smaller CO2 drops produced by lower flow rate ratios (QLCO2/QH2O) are generally characterized by higher (nearly three times) ks and Sherwood numbers than those produced by higher QLCO2/QH2O, which is essentially attributed to the larger effective portion of the smaller drop contributing in the mass transfer under same levels of the flowing time and the surface-to-volume ratio (~ 104 m-1) of all drops. Based on calculated pressure drops of the segmented flow in microchannel, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and initial pressures of drops at the T-junction in experiments, overall pressure drop (ΔPt) in the straight channel as well as the resulted drop volume change are quantified. ΔPt from position 1 to 3 is by average 3.175 kPa with a ~1.6% standard error, which only leads to relative drop volume changes of 0.3‰ to 0.52‰. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle (United States)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad


    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  17. Mofettes - Investigation of Natural CO2 Springs - Insights and Methods applied (United States)

    Lübben, A.; Leven, C.


    The quantification of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes leaking from the subsurface into the atmosphere is highly relevant in several research fields such as climate change, CCS, volcanic activity, or earthquake monitoring. Many of the areas with elevated carbon dioxide degassing pose the problem that under the given situation a systematic investigation of the relevant processes is only possible to a limited extent (e.g. in terms of spatial extent, accessibility, hazardous conditions). The upper Neckar valley in Southwest Germany is a region of enhanced natural subsurface CO2 concentrations and mass fluxes of Tertiary volcanic origin. At the beginning of the twentieth century several companies started industrial mining of CO2. The decreasing productivity of the CO2 springs led to the complete shutdown of the industry in 1995 and the existing boreholes were sealed. However, there are evidences that the reservoir, located in the deposits of the Lower Triassic, started to refill during the last 20 years. The CO2 springs replenished and a variety of different phenomena (e.g. mofettes and perished flora and fauna) indicate the active process of large scale CO2 exhalation. This easy-to-access site serves as a perfect example for a natural analog to a leaky CCS site, including abandoned boreholes and a suitable porous rock reservoir in the subsurface. During extensive field campaigns we applied several monitoring techniques like measurements of soil gas concentrations, mass fluxes, electrical resistivity, as well as soil and atmospheric parameters. The aim was to investigate and quantify mass fluxes and the effect of variations in e.g. temperature, soil moisture on the mass flux intensity. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the vicinity to a mofette on soil parameters like electrical conductivity and soil CO2 concentrations. In times of a changing climate due to greenhouse gases, regions featuring natural CO2 springs demand to be intensively investigated

  18. Development of the Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO2 (KALC) process: mass transfer efficiencies of packed columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.


    Experiments to determine the mass transfer efficiencies of the packed columns making up the Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO 2 (KALC) process were performed at a nominal pressure of 2 MPa over a wide range of flow rates and flow ratios for the CO 2 --O 2 --Kr system. The height of the transfer unit values, which were relatively independent of gas or liquid flow rates, were 0.13 m for krypton in the absorber, 0.16 m for O 2 in the fractionator, and 0.21 m for krypton in the stripper

  19. Investigation of damage to metals by pulsed CO2 laser radiation (United States)

    Vedenov, A. A.; Gladush, G. G.; Drobyazko, S. V.; Senatorov, Yu M.


    A study was made of the physical mechanism involved in piercing holes in metallic plates, using CO2 laser radiation. It was established experimentally that the energy consumed in removing a unit volume of a metal has a minimum, depending on the duration and energy of the laser pulse. An explanation is proposed for the laws governing this behavior, based on ideas of the ejection of liquid from a crater by the vapor pressure of the material. The effect on the interaction efficiency of the absorption of laser radiation in the plasma jet is taken into account.

  20. Identifying the Presence of AMD-Derived Soil CO2 in Field Investigations Using Isotope Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Awuah-Offei


    Full Text Available Recent incidents of hazardous accumulations of CO2 in homes on or adjacent to reclaimed mine land have been shown to be linked to neutralization reactions between acidic mine drainage and carbonate material. An efficient and economic method is necessary to identify the presence of acid mine drainage- (AMD- derived CO2 on reclaimed mine land, prior to construction. One approach to identify the presence of AMD-derived CO2 is to characterize stable carbon isotope ratios of soil CO2. To do so, a viable method is necessary to acquire soil gas samples for isotope ratio analysis. This paper presents preliminary investigations of the effectiveness of two methods of acquiring gas samples (sampling during soil flux measurements and using slam bar for isotope analysis. The results indicate that direct soil gas sampling is cheaper and provides better results. Neither method is adequate without accounting for temporal effects due to changing gas transport mechanisms. These results have significant implications for safe post-mining land uses and future investigations of leakages from geologic carbon sequestration sites.

  1. Numerical Investigation into the Impact of CO2-Water-Rock Interactions on CO2 Injectivity at the Shenhua CCS Demonstration Project, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yang


    Full Text Available A 100,000 t/year demonstration project for carbon dioxide (CO2 capture and storage in the deep saline formations of the Ordos Basin, China, has been successfully completed. Field observations suggested that the injectivity increased nearly tenfold after CO2 injection commenced without substantial pressure build-up. In order to evaluate whether this unique phenomenon could be attributed to geochemical changes, reactive transport modeling was conducted to investigate CO2-water-rock interactions and changes in porosity and permeability induced by CO2 injection. The results indicated that using porosity-permeability relationships that include tortuosity, grain size, and percolation porosity, other than typical Kozeny-Carman porosity-permeability relationship, it is possible to explain the considerable injectivity increase as a consequence of mineral dissolution. These models might be justified in terms of selective dissolution along flow paths and by dissolution or migration of plugging fines. In terms of geochemical changes, dolomite dissolution is the largest source of porosity increase. Formation physical properties such as temperature, pressure, and brine salinity were found to have modest effects on mineral dissolution and precipitation. Results from this study could have practical implications for a successful CO2 injection and enhanced oil/gas/geothermal production in low-permeability formations, potentially providing a new basis for screening of storage sites and reservoirs.

  2. Corrosion of Pipeline and Wellbore Steel by Liquid CO2 Containing Trace Amounts of Water and SO2 (United States)

    McGrail, P.; Schaef, H. T.; Owen, A. T.


    Carbon dioxide capture and storage in deep saline formations is currently considered the most attractive option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with continued use of fossil fuels for energy production. Transporting captured CO2 and injection into suitable formations for storage will necessarily involve pipeline systems and wellbores constructed of carbon steels. Industry standards currently require nearly complete dehydration of liquid CO2 to reduce corrosion in the pipeline transport system. However, it may be possible to establish a corrosion threshold based on H2O content in the CO2 that could allow for minor amounts of H2O to remain in the liquid CO2 and thereby eliminate a costly dehydration step. Similarly, trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds common in flue gas streams are currently removed through expensive desulfurization and catalytic reduction processes. Provided these contaminants could be safely and permanently transported and stored in the geologic reservoir, retrofits of existing fossil-fuel plants could address comprehensive emissions reductions, including CO2 at perhaps nearly the same capital and operating cost. Because CO2-SO2 mixtures have never been commercially transported or injected, both experimental and theoretical work is needed to understand corrosion mechanisms of various steels in these gas mixtures containing varying amounts of water. Experiments were conducted with common tool steel (AISI-01) and pipeline steel (X65) immersed in liquid CO2 at room temperature containing ~1% SO2 and varying amounts of H2O (0 to 2500 ppmw). A threshold concentration of H2O in the liquid CO2-SO2 mixture was established based on the absence of visible surface corrosion. For example, experiments exposing steel to liquid CO2-SO2 containing ~300 ppmw H2O showed a delay in onset of visible corrosion products and minimal surface corrosion was visible after five days of testing. However increasing the water content to 760 ppmw produced extensive

  3. Hydrodynamic shrinkage of liquid CO2 Taylor drops in a straight microchannel (United States)

    Qin, Ning; Wen, John Z.; Ren, Carolyn L.


    Hydrodynamic shrinkage of liquid CO2 drops in water under a Taylor flow regime is studied using a straight microchannel (length/width ~100). A general form of a mathematical model of the solvent-side mass transfer coefficient (k s) is developed first. Based on formulations of the surface area (A) and the volume (V) of a general Taylor drop in a rectangular microchannel, a specific form of k s is derived. Drop length and speed are experimentally measured at three specified positions of the straight channel, namely, immediately after drop generation (position 1), the midpoint of the channel (position 2) and the end of the channel (position 3). The reductions of drop length (L x , x  =  1, 2, 3) from position 1 to 2 and down to 3 are used to quantify the drop shrinkage. Using the specific model, k s is calculated mainly based on L x and drop flowing time (t). Results show that smaller CO2 drops produced by lower flow rate ratios ({{Q}LC{{O2}}}/{{Q}{{H2}O}} ) are generally characterized by higher (nearly three times) k s and Sherwood numbers than those produced by higher {{Q}LC{{O2}}}/{{Q}{{H2}O}} , which is essentially attributed to the larger effective portion of the smaller drop contributing in the mass transfer under same levels of the flowing time and the surface-to-volume ratio (~104 m-1) of all drops. Based on calculated pressure drops of the segmented flow in microchannel, the Peng-Robinson equation of state and initial pressures of drops at the T-junction in experiments, overall pressure drop (ΔP t) in the straight channel as well as the resulted drop volume change are quantified. ΔP t from position 1-3 is by average 3.175 kPa with a ~1.6% standard error, which only leads to relative drop volume changes of 0.3‰ to 0.52‰.

  4. The determination of 14CO2 in breath by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozker, K.; East, B.W.; Boddy, K.


    A sensitive method of sampling and measuring the specific activity of 14 CO 2 in expired breath in order to evaluate the metabolic pathways of 14 C-labelled compounds has been devised. 14 CO 2 is blown through a short plastic tube, attached to a drier, into a scintillation vial containing hyamine hydroxide and ethanol. 14 CO 2 was generated to the end-point of neutralization of hyamine hydroxide, indicated by the decolourisation of phenolphthalein. 14 CO 2 was counted after mixing the hyamine hydroxide and ethanol with 15ml toluene scintillation solution. The specific activity of 14 CO 2 from the samples was compared with that of solutions of known activity. The method is sensitive for clinical applications and can be performed at a patient's bedside. (U.K.)

  5. Scalable fractionation of iron oxide nanoparticles using a CO2 gas-expanded liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengsarkar, Pranav S.; Xu, Rui; Roberts, Christopher B.


    Iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit highly size-dependent physicochemical properties that are important in applications such as catalysis and environmental remediation. In order for these size-dependent properties to be effectively harnessed for industrial applications scalable and cost-effective techniques for size-controlled synthesis or size separation must be developed. The synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles can be a prohibitively expensive process on a large scale. An alternative involves the use of inexpensive synthesis procedures followed by a size-selective processing technique. While there are many techniques available to fractionate nanoparticles, many of the techniques are unable to efficiently fractionate iron oxide nanoparticles in a scalable and inexpensive manner. A scalable apparatus capable of fractionating large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles into distinct fractions of different sizes and size distributions has been developed. Polydisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (2–20 nm) coated with oleic acid used in this study were synthesized using a simple and inexpensive version of the popular coprecipitation technique. This apparatus uses hexane as a CO 2 gas-expanded liquid to controllably precipitate nanoparticles inside a 1L high-pressure reactor. This paper demonstrates the operation of this new apparatus and for the first time shows the successful fractionation results on a system of metal oxide nanoparticles, with initial nanoparticle concentrations in the gram-scale. The analysis of the obtained fractions was performed using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The use of this simple apparatus provides a pathway to separate large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles based upon their size for use in various industrial applications.

  6. Surface decontamination using microemulsion of F-AOT in liquid/supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, C. H.; Gho, M. S.; Park, G. H.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, H. W.


    Conventional chemical decontamination method for surface decontamination cause not only the 2nd radioactive wastes, but also corrosion and defect on the surface of equipment. If CO 2 is used as a solvent for decontamination of radioactive contaminants, the waste can be effectively reduced by recycling of CO 2 where only contaminants are left as wastes during evaporation of CO 2 . Polar material can be dissolved by microemulsion using F-AOT and HNO 3 (1M). We use these two technique for surface decontamination. Cu and Ni specimens made by electroplating Conventional chemical decontamination method for surface decontamination cause not only the 2nd radioactive wastes, but also corrosion and defect on the surface of equipment. If CO 2 is used as a solvent for decontamination of radioactive contaminants, the waste can be effectively reduced by recycling of CO 2 where only contaminants are left as wastes during evaporation of CO 2 . Polar material can be dissolved by microemulsion using F-AOT and HNO 3 (1M). We use these two technique for surface decontamination. Cu and Ni specimens made by electroplating on the QCM surface. The QCM was used for the quantitative analysis. In the case of Cu, The 0.054μg/sec and 0.024μg/sec of decontamination efficiency were obtained in LCO 2 /ScCO 2 microemulsion respectively. The 0.066μg/sec of decontamination efficiency was obtained in the case of Ni

  7. Vapor-Liquid equilibrium in DEEA/H2O/CO2 system; Experiments and modeling


    Zaidy, Syed Amjad Hussain


    Experiment data for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of CO2 were conducted for DEEA 5M and 2M.The study was performed in two VLE apparatuses from 40 to 120 °C with atmospheric VLE apparatus and high pressure VLE apparatus. The extended UNIQUAC model framework was applied and the model parameters were fitted with experimental data with partial pressure of CO2 for atmospheric VLE and total pressure with high pressure VLE apparatus. Modfit was applied for further optimization. The model prediction...

  8. Novel Liquid Membranes for CO2 and H20 Control in EVA Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of new, robust, lightweight systems for CO2 removal during EVA is a crucial need for NASA. With current activity focused on the development of Lunar...

  9. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in EVA Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of new, robust, lightweight systems for CO2 removal during EVA is a crucial need for NASA. With current and anticipated space activities, mission...

  10. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in EVA Applications, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of new, robust, lightweight systems for CO2 removal during EVA is a crucial need for NASA. Current activity is focused on extending mission times...

  11. Experimental Investigation and Simplistic Geochemical Modeling of CO2 Mineral Carbonation Using the Mount Tawai Peridotite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omeid Rahmani


    Full Text Available In this work, the potential of CO2 mineral carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH2 derived from the Mount Tawai peridotite (forsterite based (Mg2SiO4 to produce thermodynamically stable magnesium carbonate (MgCO3 was evaluated. The effect of three main factors (reaction temperature, particle size, and water vapor were investigated in a sequence of experiments consisting of aqueous acid leaching, evaporation to dryness of the slurry mass, and then gas-solid carbonation under pressurized CO2. The maximum amount of Mg converted to MgCO3 is ~99%, which occurred at temperatures between 150 and 175 °C. It was also found that the reduction of particle size range from >200 to <75 µm enhanced the leaching rate significantly. In addition, the results showed the essential role of water vapor in promoting effective carbonation. By increasing water vapor concentration from 5 to 10 vol %, the mineral carbonation rate increased by 30%. This work has also numerically modeled the process by which CO2 gas may be sequestered, by reaction with forsterite in the presence of moisture. In both experimental analysis and geochemical modeling, the results showed that the reaction is favored and of high yield; going almost to completion (within about one year with the bulk of the carbon partitioning into magnesite and that very little remains in solution.

  12. Investigating the constraint imposed by column averaged PBL CO2 data within an atmospheric inversion framework (United States)

    Schuh, A. E.; Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Baker, D. F.; Ramanathan, A. K.


    It was initially hoped that the proposed Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) NASA mission could rectify diurnal fluxes through it's ability to measure during both days and nights. However, initial simulation results (Kawa et al 2010) showed limited skill at identifying diurnal differences in fluxes. We investigate the possibility of (1) supplementing ASCENDS with well chosen in-situ surface sites and/or (2) adding distinct column measurements for the PBL and free troposphere into the inversion framework to determine the impact on recovering net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as well as distinct gross primary production (GPP) and respiration fluxes. In particular, we run forward simulations and inversions with distinct respiration and GPP fluxes calculated from the SiB model (Baker et al 2008) and test the ability of an EnKF based inversion framework to recover a hypothetical tropical CO2 fertilization effect resulting in enhanced GPP. Baker, I. T.; Prihodko, L.; Denning, A. S.; Goulden, M.; Miller, S. & da Rocha, H. R. (2008), 'Seasonal drought stress in the Amazon: Reconciling 3 models and observations', Journal of Geophysical Research 113. Kawa, S. R.; MAO, J.; ABSHIRE, J. B.; J., C. G.; SUN, X. & WEAVER, C. J. (2010), 'Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission.', Tellus B 62, 759-769.

  13. First-principles investigation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy oscillations in Co2FeAl /Ta heterostructures (United States)

    Qiao, Junfeng; Peng, Shouzhong; Zhang, Youguang; Yang, Hongxin; Zhao, Weisheng


    We report first-principles investigations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MCAE) oscillations as a function of capping layer thickness in Heusler alloy Co2FeAl /Ta heterostructures. A substantial oscillation is observed in the FeAl-interface structure. According to k -space and band-decomposed charge-density analyses, this oscillation is mainly attributed to the Fermi-energy-vicinal quantum well states (QWSs) which are confined between the Co2FeAl /Ta interface and Ta/vacuum surface. The smaller oscillation magnitude in the Co-interface structure can be explained by the smooth potential transition at the interface. These findings clarify that MCAE in Co2FeAl /Ta is not a local property of the interface and that the quantum well effect plays a dominant role in MCAE oscillations of the heterostructures. This work presents the possibility of tuning MCAE by QWSs in capping layers and paves the way for artificially controlling magnetic anisotropy energy in magnetic tunnel junctions.

  14. CO2 Energy Reactor - Integrated Mineral Carbonation: Perspectives on Lab-Scale Investigation and Products Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M Santos


    Full Text Available To overcome the challenges of mineral CO2 sequestration, Innovation Concepts B.V. is developing a unique proprietary Gravity Pressure Vessel (GPV reactor technology, and has focussed on generating reaction products of high economic value. The GPV provides intense process conditions through hydrostatic pressurization and heat exchange integration that harvests exothermic reaction energy, thereby reducing energy demand of conventional reactor designs, in addition to offering other benefits. In this paper, a perspective on the status of this technology and outlook for the future is provided. To date, laboratory-scale tests of the envisioned process have been performed in a tubular rocking autoclave reactor. The mineral of choice has been olivine (~Mg1.6Fe2+0.4(SiO4 + ppm Ni/Cr, although asbestos, steel slags and oil shale residues are also under investigation. The effect of several process parameters on reaction extent and product properties have been tested: CO2 pressure, temperature, residence time, additives (buffers, lixiviants, chelators, oxidizers, solids loading, and mixing rate. The products (carbonates, amorphous silica and chromite have been physically separated (based on size, density and magnetic properties, characterized (for chemistry, mineralogy and morphology and tested in intended applications (as pozzolanic carbon-negative building material. Economically, it is found that product value is the main driver for mineral carbonation, rather than, or in addition to, the sequestered CO2. The approach of using a GPV and focusing on valuable reaction products could thus make CO2 mineralization a feasible and sustainable industrial process.

  15. Study of the Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid - ag Electrified Interface on the CO_{2} Electroreduction by Sum Frequency Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Garcia Rey, Natalia; Dlott, Dana


    Imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been used as a promising system to improve the CO_{2} electroreduction at lower overpotential than other organic or aqueous electrolytes^{1}. Although the detailed mechanism of the CO_{2} electroreduction on Ag has not been elucidated yet, we have developed a methodology to study the electrified interface during the CO_{2} electroreduction using sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy in combination with cyclic voltammetry^{2}. In this work, we tuned the composition of imidazolium-based ILs by exchanging the anion or the functional groups of the imidazolium. We use the nonresonant SFG (NR-SFG) to study the IL-Ag interface and resonant SFG (RES-SFG) to identify the CO adsorbed on the electrode and monitor the Stark shift as a function of cell potential. In previous studies on CO_{2} electroreduction in the IL: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluorborate (EMIM-BF_{4}) on Ag, we showed three events occurred at the same potential (-1.33 V vs. Ag/AgCl): the current associated with CO_{2} electroreduction increased, the Stark shift of the adsorbed atop CO doubled in magnitude and the EMIM-BF_{4} underwent a structural transition^{3}. In addition, we also observed how the structural transition of the EMIM-BF_{4} electrolyte shift to lower potentials when the IL is mixed with water. It is known that water enhances the CO_{2} electroreduction producing more CO^{4}. Moreover, the CO is adsorbed in multi-bonded and in atop sites when more water is present in the electrolyte. ^{1}Lau, G. P. S.; Schreier, M.; Vasilyev, D.; Scopelliti, R.; Grätzel, M.; Dyson, P. J., New Insights into the Role of Imidazolium-Based Promoters for the Electroreduction of CO_{2} on a Silver Electrode. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 7820-7823. ^{2}Garcia Rey, N.; Dlott, D. D., Studies of Electrochemical Interfaces by Broadband Sum Frequency Generation. J. Electroanal. Chem. 2016. DOI:10.1016/j.jelechem.2016.12.023. ^{3}Garcia Rey, N.; Dlott, D. D

  16. Performance of Hollow Fiber Membrane Gas-Liquid Contactors to Absorb CO2 Using Diethanolamine (Dea as a Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrasno Kartohardjono


    Full Text Available This study uses DEA solution to absorb CO2 from the gas flow through the hollow fiber membrane contactors. This study aims to evaluate the performance of hollow fiber membrane contactors to absorb CO2 gas using DEA solution as solvent through mass transfer and hydrodynamics studies. The use of DEA solution is to reduce the mass transfer resistance in the liquid phase, and on the other side, the large contact area of the membrane surface can cover the disadvantage of membrane contactors; additional mass transfer resistance in the membrane phase. During experiments, CO2 feed flows through the fiber lumens, while the 0.01 M DEA solution flows in the shell side of membrane contactors. Experimental results show that the mass transfer coefficients and fluxes of CO2 increase with an increase in both water and DEA solution flow rates. Increasing the amount of fibers in the contactors will decrease the mass transfer and fluxes at the same DEA solution flow rate. Mass transfer coefficients and CO2 fluxes using DEA solution can achieve 28,000 and 7.6 million times greater than using water as solvent, respectively. Hydrodynamics studies show that the liquid pressure drops in the contactors increase with increasing liquid flow rate and number of fibers in the contactors. The friction between water and the fibers in the contactor was more pronounced at lower velocities, and therefore, the value of the friction factor is also higher at lower velocities.

  17. CO2 Capture and Separation Properties in the Ionic Liquid 1-n-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Nonafluorobutylsulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Zhou


    Full Text Available Recently, the use of ionic liquids (ILs for carbon capture and separation processes has gained great interest by many researchers due to the high solubility of CO2 in ILs. In the present work, solubility measurements of CO2 in the novel IL 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluorobutylsulfonate [C4mim][CF3CF2CF2CF2SO3] were performed with a high-pressure view-cell technique in the temperature range from 293.15 to 343.15 K and pressures up to about 4.2 MPa. For comparison, solubilities of H2, N2, and O2 in the IL were also measured at 323.15 K via the same procedure. The Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation was employed to correlate the measured solubility data. Henry’s law constants, enthalpies, and entropies of absorption for CO2 in the IL were also determined and presented. The CO2 solubility in this IL was compared with other ILs sharing the same cation. It was shown that the solubility of CO2 in these ILs follows the sequence: [C4mim][CF3CF2CF2CF2SO3] ≈ [C4mim][Tf2N] > [C4mim][CF3CF2CF2COO] > [C4mim][BF4], and the solubility selectivity of CO2 relative to O2, N2, and H2 in [C4mim][CF3CF2CF2CF2SO3] was 8, 16, and 22, respectively. Furthermore, this IL is regenerable and exhibits good stability. Therefore, the IL reported here would be a promising sorbent for CO2.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological samples (sambaqui) using CO(2) absorption and liquid scintillation spectrometry of low background radiation. (United States)

    Mendonça, Maria Lúcia T G; Godoy, José M; da Cruz, Rosana P; Perez, Rhoneds A R


    Sambaqui means, in the Tupi language, a hill of shells. The sambaquis are archaeological sites with remains of pre-historical Brazilian occupation. Since the sambaqui sites in the Rio de Janeiro state region are older than 10,000 years, the applicability of CO(2) absorption on Carbo-sorb and (14)C determination by counting on a low background liquid scintillation counter was tested. In the present work, sambaqui shells were treated with H(3)PO(4) in a closed vessel in order to generate CO(2). The produced CO(2) was absorbed on Carbo-sorb. On saturation about 0.6g of carbon, as CO(2), was mixed with commercial liquid scintillation cocktail (Permafluor), and the (14)C activity determined by counting on a low background counter, Packard Tricarb 3170 TR/SL, for a period of 1000 mins to enable detection of a radiocarbon age of 22,400 BP. But only samples with ages up to 3500 BP were submitted to the method because the samples had been collected in the municipality of Guapimirim, in archaeological sambaqui-type sites belonging to this age range. The same samples were sent to the (14)C Laboratory of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP) where similar results were obtained.

  19. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological samples (sambaqui) using CO2 absorption and liquid scintillation spectrometry of low background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Maria Lucia T.G.; Godoy, Jose M.; Cruz, Rosana P. da; Perez, Rhoneds A.R.


    Sambaqui means, in the Tupi language, a hill of shells. The sambaquis are archaeological sites with remains of pre-historical Brazilian occupation. Since the sambaqui sites in the Rio de Janeiro state region are older than 10,000 years, the applicability of CO 2 absorption on Carbo-sorb[reg] and 14 C determination by counting on a low background liquid scintillation counter was tested. In the present work, sambaqui shells were treated with H 3 PO 4 in a closed vessel in order to generate CO 2 . The produced CO 2 was absorbed on Carbo-sorb[reg]. On saturation about 0.6 g of carbon, as CO 2 , was mixed with commercial liquid scintillation cocktail (Permafluor[reg]), and the 14 C activity determined by counting on a low background counter, Packard Tricarb 3170 TR/SL, for a period of 1000 mins to enable detection of a radiocarbon age of 22,400 BP. But only samples with ages up to 3500 BP were submitted to the method because the samples had been collected in the municipality of Guapimirim, in archaeological sambaqui-type sites belonging to this age range. The same samples were sent to the 14 C Laboratory of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP) where similar results were obtained

  20. An investigation of CO2 extraction of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Essential oil content (0.05 % of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. was determined using the official steam distillation procedure. High-pressure CO2 extraction of plant material under supercritial (100, 200 and 300 bar and 40 °C and subcritical (60, 90 and 120 bar and 15 °C conditions for 3 h was investigated. It was found that the increase in the pressure promoted an increase in the yield. The essential oil contents obtained from the investigated CO2 extracts by steam distillation were significantly higher (1.52–2.70 times and increased with pressure.Major constituents of the oil, identified using GC-MS and GC-FID, were a-cadinol (26.54 %, T-cadinol and T-muurolol (9.80 %, g-cadinene (2.99 %, hexadecanoic acid (2.95 %, and ledane (2.45 %. In addition, the essential oils of the CO2 extracts contained d-cadinene (6.50–19.87 % under supercritical and 16.09–19.41 % under subcritical conditions, which was not found in the essential oil obtained from the plant by steam distillation. The extraction kinetics was investigated at 200 bar and 40 °C. The total extract obtained after 10 h of extraction was 6.54 % and essential oil content in it, refering to plant material, was 0.209 %, which is 4.16 times more than the one determined by the standard steam distillation procedure.

  1. A theoretical investigation of gaseous absorption by water droplets from SO2-HNO3-NH3-CO2-HCl mixtures (United States)

    Adewuyi, Y. G.; Carmichael, G. R.


    A physical-chemical model is developed and used to investigate gaseous absorption by water droplets from trace gas mixtures. The model is an extension of that of Carmichael and Peters (1979) and includes the simultaneous absorption of SO2, NH3, HNO3, CO2, and HCl. Gas phase depletion is also considered. Presented results demonstrate that the absorption behavior of raindrops is strongly dependent on drop size, fall distance, trace gas concentrations, and the chemical and physical properties of the constituents of the mixture. In addition, when gas phase depletion is considered, the absorption rates and equilibrium values are also dependent on the precipitation rate itself. Also, the trace constituents liquid phase concentrations may be a factor of six or more lower when gas depletion is considered then when the depletion is ignored. However, the hydrogen ion concentration may be insensitive to the gas phase depletion.

  2. Direct conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels with high selectivity over a bifunctional catalyst (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Shenggang; Bu, Xianni; Dang, Shanshan; Liu, Ziyu; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Liangshu; Qiu, Minghuang; Yang, Chengguang; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan


    Although considerable progress has been made in carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation to various C1 chemicals, it is still a great challenge to synthesize value-added products with two or more carbons, such as gasoline, directly from CO2 because of the extreme inertness of CO2 and a high C-C coupling barrier. Here we present a bifunctional catalyst composed of reducible indium oxides (In2O3) and zeolites that yields a high selectivity to gasoline-range hydrocarbons (78.6%) with a very low methane selectivity (1%). The oxygen vacancies on the In2O3 surfaces activate CO2 and hydrogen to form methanol, and C-C coupling subsequently occurs inside zeolite pores to produce gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a high octane number. The proximity of these two components plays a crucial role in suppressing the undesired reverse water gas shift reaction and giving a high selectivity for gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Moreover, the pellet catalyst exhibits a much better performance during an industry-relevant test, which suggests promising prospects for industrial applications.

  3. Pulsed photothermal radiometry in investigation of tissue destruction caused by CO2 laser action (United States)

    Chebotareva, Galina P.; Zubov, Boris V.; Nikitin, Alexander P.; Rakcheev, Anatolii P.; Alexeeva, Larisa R.


    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) of tissue based on the analysis of thermal radiation kinetics measured from tissue at laser heating is an effective method of laser-tissue interaction investigation. The processes of destruction under laser radiation action (coagulation, fusion and welding), which are characterized by definite dynamics of temperature in the region of laser heating, have been studied. The amplitude and kinetics of the thermal signal registered by PPTR technique depend on space and temporal temperature changes in the zone of heating, which is conditioned by the regime of laser action and internal processes in tissue. In the present study the investigation of thermal tissue destruction under action of high-power pulsed CO2 and YAG:Er-laser radiation has been carried out using PPTR. Soft and hard tissues have been examined. The nonlinear dependencies of thermal emission kinetics, the thermal signal amplitude, and the integral absorption on laser energy density are presented and discussed. We represent PPTR as a technique which can be used for the definition of the destruction threshold and for the regulation of laser action on tissue. PPTR method has been applied in clinics with the aim of more accurate definition of CO2 pulsed medical laser radiation dose for treatment of patients with different dermatological diseases.

  4. Micro-PIV measurements of multiphase flow of water and liquid CO2 in 2-D heterogeneous porous micromodels (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth T.


    We present an experimental study of pore-scale flow dynamics of liquid CO2 and water in a two-dimensional heterogeneous porous micromodel, inspired by the structure of a reservoir rock, at reservoir-relevant conditions (80 bar, 21°C). The entire process of CO2 infiltration into a water-saturated micromodel was captured using fluorescence microscopy and the micro-PIV method, which together reveal complex fluid displacement patterns and abrupt changes in velocity. The CO2 front migrated through the resident water in an intermittent manner, forming dendritic structures, termed fingers, in directions along, normal to, and even opposing the bulk pressure gradient. Such characteristics indicate the dominance of capillary fingering through the micromodel. Velocity burst events, termed Haines jumps, were also captured in the heterogeneous micromodel, during which the local Reynolds number was estimated to be ˜21 in the CO2 phase, exceeding the range of validity of Darcy's law. Furthermore, these drainage events were observed to be cooperative (i.e., across multiple pores simultaneously), with the zone of influence of such events extending beyond tens of pores, confirming, in a quantitative manner, that Haines jumps are nonlocal phenomena. After CO2 completely breaks through the porous section, shear-induced circulations caused by flowing CO2 were also observed, in agreement with previous studies using a homogeneous porous micromodel. To our knowledge, this study is the first quantitative measurement that incorporates both reservoir-relevant conditions and rock-inspired heterogeneity, and thus will be useful for pore-scale model development and validation.

  5. Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design (United States)

    Chapuis, Flavie; Bauer, Hugues; Grataloup, Sandrine; Leynet, Aurélien; Bourgine, Bernard; Castagnac, Claire; Fillacier, Simon; Lecomte, Antony; Le Gallo, Yann; Bonijoly, Didier


    Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design Chapuis F.1, Bauer H.1, Grataloup S.1, Leynet A.1, Bourgine B.1, Castagnac C.1, Fillacier, S.2, Lecomte A.2, Le Gallo Y.2, Bonijoly D.1. 1 BRGM, 3 av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex, France,, 2 Geogreen, 7, rue E. et A. Peugeot, 92563 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France, The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the techno-economical potential of storing 200 000 tCO2 per year produced by a sugar beat distillery. To reach this goal, an accurate hydro-geological characterisation of a CO2 injection site is of primary importance because it will strongly influence the site selection, the storage design and the risk management. Geological investigation for CO2 storage is usually set in the center or deepest part of sedimentary basins. However, CO2 producers do not always match with the geological settings, and so other geological configurations have to be studied. This is the aim of this project, which is located near the South-West border of the Paris Basin, in the Orléans region. Special geometries such as onlaps and pinch out of formation against the basement are likely to be observed and so have to be taken into account. Two deep saline aquifers are potentially good candidates for CO2 storage. The Triassic continental deposits capped by the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic continental shales and the Dogger carbonate deposits capped by the Callovian and Oxfordian shales. First, a data review was undertaken, to provide the palaeogeographical settings and ideas about the facies, thicknesses and depth of the targeted formations. It was followed by a seismic interpretation. Three hundred kilometres of seismic lines were reprocessed and interpreted to characterize the geometry of the studied area. The main structure identified is the Étampes fault that affects all the formations. Apart from the vicinity of the fault where drag

  6. Modeling solubility of CO2/hydrocarbon gas in ionic liquid ([emim][FAP]) using Aspen Plus simulations. (United States)

    Bagchi, Bishwadeep; Sati, Sushmita; Shilapuram, Vidyasagar


    The Peng-Robinson equation of state with quadratic van der Waals (vdW) mixing rule model was chosen to perform the thermodynamic calculations in Flash3 column of Aspen Plus to predict the solubility of CO 2 or any one of the hydrocarbons (HCs) among methane, ethane, propane, and butane in an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([emim][FAP]). Bubble point pressure, solubility, bubble point temperature, fugacity, and partial molar volume at infinite dilution were obtained from the simulations, and enthalpy of absorption, Gibbs free energy of solvation, and entropy change of absorption were estimated by thermodynamic relations. Results show that carbon chain length has a significant effect on the bubble point pressure. Methane has the highest bubble point pressure among all the considered HCs and CO 2 . The bubble point pressure and fugacity variation with temperature is different for CO 2 as compared to HCs for mole fractions above 0.2. Two different profiles are noticed for enthalpy of absorption when plotted as a function of mole fraction of gas soluble in IL. Partial molar volume of CO 2 decreases with increase in temperature in [emim][FAP], while it is increased for HCs. Bubble point temperature decreases with increase in the mole fraction of the solute. Entropy of solvation increases with temperature till a particular value followed by a decrease with further increase in temperature. Gibbs free energy change of solvation showed that the process of solubility was spontaneous.

  7. Phase Behavior at High Pressure of the Ternary System: CO2, Ionic Liquid and Disperse Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Mazzer


    Full Text Available High pressure phase behavior experimental data have been measured for the systems carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] and carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] + 1-amino-2-phenoxy-4-hydroxyanthraquinone (C.I. Disperse Red 60. Measurements were performed in the pressure up to 18 MPa and at the temperature (323 to 353 K. As reported in the literature, at higher concentrations of carbon dioxide the phase transition pressure increased very steeply. The experimental data for the binary and ternary systems were correlated with good agreement using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The amount of water in phase behavior of the systems was evaluated.

  8. Membrane-solvent selection for CO2 removal using membrane gas-liquid contactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Geuzebroek, F.H.; Versteeg, Geert


    Membrane gas–liquid contactors can provide very high interfacial area per unit volume, independent regulation of gas and liquid flows and are insensitive to module orientation, which make them very attractive in comparison with conventional equipments for offshore application. However, the membrane

  9. Membrane–solvent selection for CO2 removal using membrane gas–liquid contactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Geuzebroek, F.H.; Versteeg, G.F.


    Membrane gas–liquid contactors can provide very high interfacial area per unit volume, independent regulation of gas and liquid flows and are insensitive to module orientation, which make them very attractive in comparison with conventional equipments for offshore application. However, the membrane

  10. Investigation of the potential of coal combustion fly ash for mineral sequestration of CO2 by accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukwattage, N.L.; Ranjith, P.G.; Wang, S.H.


    Mineral carbonation of alkaline waste materials is being studied extensively for its potential as a way of reducing the increased level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Carbonation converts CO 2 into minerals which are stable over geological time scales. This process occurs naturally but slowly, and needs to be accelerated to offset the present rate of emissions from power plants and other emission sources. The present study attempts to identify the potential of coal fly ash as a source for carbon storage (sequestration) through ex-situ accelerated mineral carbonation. In the study, two operational parameters that could affect the reaction process were tested to investigate their effect on mineralization. Coal fly ash was mixed with water to different water-to-solid ratios and samples were carbonated in a pressure vessel at different initial CO 2 pressures. Temperature was kept constant at 40 °C. According to the results, one ton of Hazelwood fly ash could sequester 7.66 kg of CO 2 . The pressure of CO 2 inside the vessel has an effect on the rate of CO 2 uptake and the water-to-solid ratio affects the weight gain after the carbonation of fly ash. The results confirm the possibility of the manipulation of process parameters in enhancing the carbonation reaction. - Highlights: ► Mineral sequestration CO 2 by of coal fly ash is a slow process under ambient conditions. ► It can be accelerated by manipulating the process parameters inside a reactor. ► Initial CO 2 pressure and water to solid mixing ratio inside the reactor are two of those operational parameters. ► According to the test results higher CO 2 initial pressure gives higher on rates of CO 2 sequestration. ► Water to fly ash mixing ratio effect on amount of CO 2 sequestered into fly ash

  11. Numerical investigation of CO2 storage in hydrocarbon field using a geomechanical-fluid coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li


    Full Text Available Increasing pore pressure due to CO2 injection can lead to stress and strain changes of the reservoir. One of the safely standards for long term CO2 storage is whether stress and strain changes caused by CO2 injection will lead to irreversible mechanical damages of the reservoir and impact the integrity of caprock which could lead to CO2 leakage through previously sealing structures. Leakage from storage will compromise both the storage capacity and the perceived security of the project, therefore, a successful CO2 storage project requires large volumes of CO2 to be injected into storage site in a reliable and secure manner. Yougou hydrocarbon field located in Orods basin was chosen as storage site based on it's stable geological structure and low leakage risks. In this paper, we present a fluid pressure and stress-strain variations analysis for CO2 geological storage based on a geomechanical-fluid coupling model. Using nonlinear elasticity theory to describe the geomechanical part of the model, while using the Darcy's law to describe the fluid flow. Two parts are coupled together using the poroelasticity theory. The objectives of our work were: 1 evaluation of the geomechanical response of the reservoir to different CO2 injection scenarios. 2 assessment of the potential leakage risk of the reservoir caused by CO2 injection.

  12. Probing the Interaction of Ionic Liquids with CO2: A Raman Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eucker, IV, William


    ... (mixtures of cations and anions) that are liquid at room-temperature. Recent work has shown that gas solubilities in ILs vary dramatically depending on the cation and anion that comprise the IL...

  13. Graphene oxide doped ionic liquid ultrathin composite membranes for efficient CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan


    Advanced membrane systems with high flux and sufficient selectivity are required for industrial gas separation processes. In order to achieve high flux and high selectivity, the membrane material should be as thin as possible and it should have selective sieving channels and long term stability. This could be achieved by designing a three component material consisting of a blend of an ionic liquid and graphene oxide covered by a highly permeable low selective polymeric coating. By using a simple dip coating technique, we prepared high flux and CO selective ultrathin graphene oxide (GO)/ionic liquid membranes on a porous ultrafiltration support. The ultrathin composite membranes derived from GO/ionic liquid complex displays remarkable combinations of permeability (CO flux: 37 GPU) and selectivity (CO/N selectivity: 130) that surpass the upper bound of ionic liquid membranes for CO/N separation. Moreover, the membranes were stable when tested for 120 hours.

  14. Designing Ionic Liquids for CO2 CaptureWhat’s the role for computation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F. [University of Texas, Austin, TX


    Presentation on the computational aspects of ionic liquid selection for carbon dioxide capture to the conference attendees at the New Vistas in Molecular Thermodynamics: Experimentation, Molecular Modeling, and Inverse Design, Berkeley, CA, January 7 through 9, 2018

  15. Investigations of the photochemical isotope equilibrium between O2, CO2 and O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shaheen


    Full Text Available Contrary to tropospheric CO2 whose oxygen isotopic composition follows a standard mass dependent relationship, i.e. δ17O~0.5δ18O, stratospheric CO2 is preferentially enriched in 17O, leading to a strikingly different relation: δ17O~1.7δ18O. It has been shown repeatedly that the isotope anomaly is inherited from O3 via photolytically produced O(1D that undergoes isotope exchange with CO2 and the anomaly may well serve as a tracer of stratospheric chemistry if details of the exchange mechanism are understood. We have studied the photochemical isotope equilibrium in UV-irradiated O2-CO2 and O3-CO2 mixtures to quantify the transfer of the anomaly from O3 to CO2 at room temperature. By following the time evolution of the oxygen isotopic compositions of CO2 and O2 under varying initial isotopic compositions of both, O2/O3 and CO2, the isotope equilibria between the two reservoirs were determined. A very strong dependence of the isotope equilibrium on the O2/CO2-ratio was established. Equilibrium enrichments of 17O and 18O in CO2 relative to O2 diminish with increasing CO2 content, and this reduction in the equilibrium enrichments does not follow a standard mass dependent relation. When molecular oxygen exceeds the amount of CO2 by a factor of about 20, 17O and 18O in equilibrated CO2 are enriched by (142±4‰ and (146±4‰, respectively, at room temperature and at a pressure of 225 hPa, independent of the initial isotopic compositions of CO2 and O2 or O3. From these findings we derive a simple and general relation between the starting isotopic compositions and amounts of O2 and CO2 and the observed slope in a three oxygen isotope diagram. Predictions from this relation are compared with published laboratory and atmospheric data.

  16. Artificial Weathering as a Function of CO2 Injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: Investigation of Dissolution Rate in Surficial Condition (United States)

    Jalilavi, Madjid; Zoveidavianpoor, Mansoor; Attarhamed, Farshid; Junin, Radzuan; Mohsin, Rahmat


    Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca2+ to 17.42% for Mg2+, with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection.

  17. Effect of canopy structures and their steric interactions on CO2 sorption behavior of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune


    Liquid-like NOHMs with different grafting densities of polymeric canopy were synthesized to evaluate their solvating properties as CO2 solvents. The in situ ATR FT-IR study of NOHMs with linear and branched canopies revealed distinct CO2 capture and corresponding swelling behaviors. These observations suggested that the entropic contribution for CO2 sorption in NOHMs can be tuned via the canopy design. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigations of subsurface transport of gaseous CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Rune Nørbæk

    heterogeneous aquifers caused by a potential leakage from a CO2 storage site. To help enlighten the dominant processes and mechanisms controlling CO2 migration in the shallow subsurface, a combination of laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The results from these experiments were compared...

  19. Investigations of the Photochemical Isotope Equilibrium between O2, CO2 and O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaheen, R.; Janssen, C.; Röckmann, T.


    Contrary to tropospheric CO2 whose oxygen isotopic composition follows a standard mass dependent relationship, i.e. 17O 0.5 18O, stratospheric CO2 is preferentially enriched in 17O, leading to a strikingly different relation with 17O 1.7 18O. The isotope anomaly is likely inherited from O3 via

  20. Investigations of the Photochemical Isotope Equilibrium between O2, CO2 and O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaheen, R.; Janssen, C.; Röckmann, T.


    Contrary to tropospheric CO2 whose oxygen isotopic composition follows a standard mass dependent relationship, i.e. 17O 0.5 18O, stratospheric CO2 is preferentially enriched in 17O, leading to a strikingly different relation: 17O 1.7 18O. It has been shown repeatedly that the isotope anomaly is

  1. Remarkable crystallization morphologies of poly(4-vinylpyridine on single-walled carbon nanotubes in CO2-expanded liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Wei


    Full Text Available Poly(4-vinylpyridine (P4VP is a widely studied polymer for applications in catalysis, humidity sensitive and antimicrobial materials due to its pyridine group exhibiting coordinative reactivity with transition metals. In this work, the non-covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with P4VP in CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs is reported. It is found that P4VP stabilized SWCNTs show good dispersion in both organic solvent and aqueous solution (pH = 2. The ability to manipulate the dispersion state of CNTs in water with P4VP will likely benefit many biological applications, such as drug delivery and optical sensors. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of P4VP/SWCNTs composite are examined, with the focus on molecular weight of P4VP (MW-P4VP, the pressure of CXLs and the concentration of P4VP. It is amazing that the P4VP15470 wrapping patterns undergo a notable morphological evolution from dotlike crystals to bottle brush-like, then to compact kebab-like, and then to widely-spaced dotted kebab patterns by facile pressure tuning in the higher polymer concentration series. In other words, the CXLs method enables superior control of the P4VP crystallization patterns on SWCNTs. Meanwhile, the CXL-assisted P4VP crystal growth mechanism on SWCNT is investigated, and the dominating growth mechanism is attributed to ‘size dependent soft epitaxy’ in P4VP15470/SWCNTs composites. We believe these studies would r

  2. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for CO2-orange peel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Stuart


    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in fractionating orange peel oil by the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2. However, progress in this area has been hindered by the lack of more comprehensive work concerning the phase equilibrium behavior of the SCCO2-orange peel oil system. In this context, the aim of this work is to provide new phase equilibrium data for this system over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, permitting the construction of coexistence PT-xy curves as well as the P-T diagram. The experiments were performed in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 50-70ºC from 70 to 135 atm and in the CO2 mass fraction composition range of 0.35-0.98. Based on the experimental phase equilibrium results, appropriate operating conditions can be set for high-pressure fractionation purposes.

  3. The method to calculate concentration of CO2 and H2S in the liquid phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUDIN Pavel Evgenievich


    Full Text Available The article proposes the method to calculate the necessary concentration of dissolved gases in the liquid phase. It also deals with development of the computer program that could consider all the main parameters of the tests. The numerous mathematical calculations resulted in formulation of the method to calculate concentration of dissolved gases in the liquid phase. The implementation of the developed model in the form of the software product «Autoclave 2.1» is presented. The developed methodology for calculating the concentration of dissolved gases in the liquid phase is designed to perform accelerated tests that concern resistance of internal anticorrosive coatings of pipelines to aggressive media and explosive decompression, to intensify corrosion processes and to identify the main mechanisms and patterns of changes in the physical, mechanical and operational properties of coatings from hydrothermal influences of fishing environments.

  4. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina


    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  5. Solute partitioning between 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid and supercritical CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal


    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2012), s. 1064-1071 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * supercritical carbon dioxide * solute partitioning Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2012

  6. Functionalized MIL-101 with imidazolium-based ionic liquids for the cycloaddition of CO2 and epoxides under mild condition (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Gang; Liu, Haiou


    A kind of multi-functional sites metal-organic framework (MOF) composite (MIL-101-IMBr) was successfully prepared by post-synthesis modification of MIL-101 with imidazolium-based ionic liquids. The ionic liquids not only functionalize as basic sites but also provide halide anions, which serve as a nucleophile in cycloaddition reaction. The prepared functional MOF materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption and CO2 temperature programmed desorption. The results of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy show that the MIL-101-IMBr composite was successfully synthesized. The N2 adsorption-desorption results clearly demonstrated that the modified composites still preserve high BET surface area and total pore volume. The composite exhibits high catalytic activity for the cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides under mild and co-catalyst free conditions. The conversion of propylene oxide was 95.8% and the selectivity of cyclic carbonate was 97.6% under 0.8 MPa at 80 °C for 4 h. Moreover, the catalyst can be used for at least five times.

  7. The Concept and Experimental Investigation of CO2 and Steam Co-electrolysis for Resource Utilization in Space Exploration (United States)

    Stoots, Carl; Mulloth, Lila M.; Luna, Bernadette; Varghese, Mini M.


    CO2 acquisition and utilization technologies will have a vital role in determining sustained and affordable life support and in-situ fuel production architectures for human and robotic exploration of Moon and Mars. For long-term human exploration to be practical, reliable technologies have to be implemented to capture and chemically reduce the metabolic CO2 from the cabin air to restitute oxygen consumption. Technologies that facilitate the in-situ capture and conversion of atmospheric CO2 to fuel are essential for a viable human mission to Mars and their demonstration on the moon is critical as well. This paper describes the concept and experimental investigation of a CO2 capture and reduction system that comprises an adsorption compressor and a CO2 and steam co-electrolysis unit. The process products include oxygen for life support and Syngas (CO and H2) for synthetic fuel production. Electrochemical performance in terms of CO2 conversion, oxygen production, and power consumption of a system with a capacity to process 1kg CO2 per day (1-person equivalent) will be discussed.

  8. Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Charles; Liotta, Charles


    We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

  9. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers (United States)

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.; Palandri, J.L.


    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO2, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO2 with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO2 with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO2-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO2-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO2, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO2 co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO2. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO2 is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 ??C and 6% at 120 ??C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO2 is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 ??C and 300 bar. The storage of CO 2 in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO2 and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO2 in carbonate mineral phases. Brine desiccation was observed in all experiments containing a discrete CO2 phase

  10. Investigation of flexible perforation of thin materials using a continuous-wave CO2 laser (United States)

    Xia, Linglin; Chen, Peifeng; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xi; Chao, Chuang


    Thin material laser perforation improves the flexibility and quality of materials such as tipping paper, medicated sticking plaster and breathable plastic film for storage. Perforation processing requires reliable, high speed, robust and adaptable optoelectronic systems to provide controllable permeability and flexibility in thin materials. This article provides descriptions on the design and performance of a new laser perforation system developed to meet such stringent requirements. This system is applicable for on-line thin material perforation. The optoelectronics include a continuous wave CO2 laser whose beam can be modulated into sequences of pulsed laser beams by a mechanical chopper. The focusing characteristics of a real laser beam in the perforation system have been investigated. This allowed laser beams to be focused on the moving thin material to be perforated and adaptable software control to provide the desired pattern distribution of the circular holes perforated on this material. A galvanometer scanner system allows sequential scanning of pulsed laser beams. This unique optoelectronic, mechanical and dedicated embedded control system has been designed and implemented to synchronize the actions of mechanical choppers, galvanometer scanners and the movement characteristics of the thin material. A practical implementation of the sticking plaster and tipping paper laser perforation system has been completed and successfully tested. Results show for example that circular holes with two geometrical distribution patterns are achievable, and unique patterns of perforation can be designed to discourage counterfeiting.

  11. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria (VLE) of CO2 in aqueous solutions of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol: New data and modelling using eNRTL-equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Sukanta Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath; Bandyopadhyay, Syamalendu S.


    Highlights: → (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of CO 2 in aqueous AMP are measured in an equilibrium cell. → Electrolyte-NRTL equation with RKS EoS is used to model VLE of CO 2 in (AMP + H 2 O). → The model is validated against experimental data of this work and literature data. → The current model also predicts heat of absorption, pH and amine volatility. → Aqueous AMP can be a good solvent for CO 2 capture from coal power plant flue gas. - Abstract: This work presents new experimental results for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) solubility in aqueous 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) over the temperature range of (298 to 328) K and CO 2 partial pressure of about (0.4 to 1500) kPa. The concentrations of the aqueous AMP lie within the range of (2.2 to 4.9) mol . dm -3 . A thermodynamic model based on electrolyte non-random two-liquid (eNRTL) theory has been developed to correlate and predict the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) of CO 2 in aqueous AMP. The model predictions have been in good agreement with the experimental data of CO 2 solubility in aqueous blends of this work as well as those reported in the literature. The current model can also predict speciation, heat of absorption, enthalpy of CO 2 loaded aqueous AMP, pH of the loaded solution, and AMP volatility.

  12. Dynamics of pulsed laser ablation plasmas in high-density CO2 near the critical point investigated by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging (United States)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Kato, Toru; Himeno, Shohei; Kato, Satoshi; Stauss, Sven; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo


    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) plasmas generated in high-density gases and liquids are promising for the synthesis of nanomaterials. However, the characteristics of such plasmas are still not well understood. In order to improve the understandings of PLA plasmas in high-density fluids including gases, liquids, and supercritical fluids (SCFs), we have investigated the dynamics of PLA plasmas in high-density carbon dioxide (CO2) . We report on experimental results of time-resolved shadowgraph imaging, from the generation of plasma plume to the extinction of cavitation bubbles. Shadowgraph images revealed that the PLA plasma dynamics showed two distinct behaviors. These are divided by gas-liquid coexistence curve and the so-called Widom line, which separates gas-like and liquid-like SCF domains. Furthermore, cavitation bubble observed in liquid CO2 near the critical point showed peculiar characteristics, the formation of an inner bubble and an outer shell structure, which so far has never been reported. The experiments indicate that thermophysical properties of PLA plasmas can be tuned by controlling solvent temperature and pressure around the critical point, which may be useful for materials processing. This work was supported financially in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (No. 21110002) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  13. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at simulated in-situ conditions (United States)

    Słomski, Piotr; Lutyński, Marcin; Mastalerz, Maria; Szczepański, Jacek; Derkowski, Arkadiusz; Topór, Tomasz


    Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep formations (e.g. saline aquifers, oil and gas reservoirs and coalbeds) is one of the most promising options for reducing concentration of this anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. CO2 injected into the rock formations can be trapped by several mechanisms including structural and stratigraphic trapping, capillary CO2 trapping, dissolution trapping and mineral trapping. During dissolution trapping, CO2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks in the reservoir as the CO2-enriched brine has an increased density. In comparison, in mineral trapping, CO2 is bound by precipitating new carbonate minerals. The latter two mechanisms depend on the temperature, pressure, and the mineralogy of the reservoir rock and the chemical composition of the brine. This study discusses laboratory scale alterations of Ordovician and Silurian shale rocks from potential CO2 sequestration site B1 in the Baltic Basin. In the reported experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO2 pressure of 30-35 MPa for 30-45 days at temperature of 80 oC. Shale samples were analyzed in terms of mineral composition and mesopore surface area and volume, before and after experiments, by means of X-ray diffraction and N2 low-pressure adsorption, respectively, for possible CO2 induced changes. Comparison of mineral composition before and after experiments demonstrated subtle mineral changes. The most conspicuous was a release of Fe in the form of Fe-oxyhydroxides, most probably related to the decomposition of Fe-bearing minerals like pyrite, chlorite and, less frequently, ankerite. With regard to porosity, interestingly, the most significant increase in mesopore surface area and mesopore volume was observed in samples with the largest drop of chlorite amount. The less significant mineral changes were associated with formation of kaolinite related to breakdown of feldspars and dissolution of carbonate

  14. Detection of co-ion extraction in liquid/supercritical CO2 using QCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, C. H.; Ko, M. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, H. W.


    The behaviors of Quartz Crystal Microbalance(QCM) were analyzed in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide. 5 MHz-QCM was purchased and inserted into the high pressure cell with a feed-through that connects QCM and frequency measurement devices. The frequency of QCM turned out to be a function of pressure, properties of ambient fluid, and mass on the surfaces of QCM. After calibration of these effects, we applied QCM to the measurement of co-ion dissolution into carbon dioxide. Cyanex was a additive that dissolve co ions. The solubility of co ions was obtained

  15. Membrane Technologies for CO2 Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons-Fischbein, K.


    This thesis investigates the potential of membrane technology for the effective CO2/CH4 separation. The work focuses on two different membrane processes to accomplish the separation: 1) The use of a gas-liquid membrane contactor for the selective absorption of CO2 from CH4 2) The use of thin, dense

  16. Phase equilibrium for surfactant Ls-54 in liquid CO(2) with water and solubility estimation using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. (United States)

    Tarafa, Pedro J; Matthews, Michael A


    It is known that the commercial surfactant Dehypon® Ls-54 is soluble in supercritical CO(2) and that it enables formation of water-in-CO(2) microemulsions. In this work we observed phase equilibrium for the Ls-54/CO(2) and Ls-54/water/CO(2) systems in the liquid CO(2) region, from 278.15 - 298.15 K. In addition, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PREOS) was used to model the phase behavior of Ls-54/CO(2) binary system as well as to estimate water solubilities in CO(2). Ls-54 in CO(2) can have solubilities as high as 0.086 M at 278.15 K and 15.2 MPa. The stability of the microemulsion decreases with increasing concentration of water, and lower temperatures favor increased solubility of water into the one-phase microemulsion. The PREOS model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data for both Ls-54/CO(2) and water/CO(2) systems.

  17. An Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Considering Anisotropy and Using Freshwater and Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He


    Full Text Available The process of hydraulic fracturing makes use of a liquid to fracture reservoir rocks for the exploitation of unconventional resources. Hence, it is vital to understand the processes that produce the fracture networks that occur during hydraulic fracturing. A shale reservoir is one of the largest unconventional resources and it displays obvious anisotropic characteristics due to its inherent sedimentary structures. The viscosity and flow ability of the fracturing fluid plays an important role in this process. We conducted a series of hydraulic fracturing tests on shale cores (from the southern Sichuan Basin using freshwater and supercritical CO2 (SCO2 as fracturing fluids to investigate the different modes of fracture propagation. The pump pressure curves that we obtained during the fracturing experiment show how the shale responded to each of the fracturing fluids. We examined the influence of the anisotropic characteristics on the propagation of hydraulic fractures by conducting a series of hydraulic fracturing experiments on the shale cores using different bedding orientations. The bedding orientation of the shale had a profound influence on the fracture propagation when using either freshwater or a SCO2 fluid. The breakdown pressure of the shale core was affected not only by the bedding orientation but also by the fracturing fluid. A macroscopic observation of the fractures revealed different fracture geometries and propagation patterns. The results demonstrated that the anisotropic structures and the fracturing fluids could influence the path of the hydraulic fracture.

  18. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs (United States)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene and β-pinene for rosemary and α-pinene, linalool and β-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 μg Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 μg C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 μmol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 μg C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  19. Element specific investigation of ultrathin Co2MnGa/GaAs heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claydon, Jill S.; Hassan, Sameh; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad


    We have used x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to study the element specific magnetic properties of ultrathin films of the Heusler alloy Co2MnGa at room temperature. Nine films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates and engineered to vary in stoichiometry as Co1.86Mn0.99Ga1, Co1...

  20. Investigation of Conversion CO2 to Fuel by TiN nanotube-Cu nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahdavian


    Full Text Available The CO and CO2 effects are global warming, acid rain, limit visibility, decreases UV radiation; yellow/black color over cities and so on. In this study, convention of CO2 and H2O to CH4 and O2 near TiN- nanotube with Cu-nanoparticle calculated by Density Functional Theory (DFT methods. We have studied the structural, total energy, thermodynamic properties of these systems at room temperature. All the geometry optimization structures were carried out using GAMESS program package under Linux. DFT optimized their intermediates and transient states. The results have shown a sensitivity enhancement in resistance and capacitance when CO2 and H2O are converted to CH4 and O2. TiN-nanotube used photo-catalytic reactivity for the reduction of CO2 with H2O to form CH4 and O2 at 298K. The calculations are done in state them between of three TiN-nanotubes near Cu-nanoparticle.The calculation shown which heat reaction formation (∆H is endothermic for this reaction. This reaction needs to sun, photo active or other energy in the presence of visible light for doing.

  1. Investigation of a long time series of CO2 from a tall tower using WRF-SPA (United States)

    Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew; Moncrieff, John B.


    Atmospheric observations from tall towers are an important source of information about CO2 exchange at the regional scale. Here, we have used a forward running model, WRF-SPA, to generate a time series of CO2 at a tall tower for comparison with observations from Scotland over multiple years (2006-2008). We use this comparison to infer strength and distribution of sources and sinks of carbon and ecosystem process information at the seasonal scale. The specific aim of this research is to combine a high resolution (6 km) forward running meteorological model (WRF) with a modified version of a mechanistic ecosystem model (SPA). SPA provides surface fluxes calculated from coupled energy, hydrological and carbon cycles. This closely coupled representation of the biosphere provides realistic surface exchanges to drive mixing within the planetary boundary layer. The combined model is used to investigate the sources and sinks of CO2 and to explore which land surfaces contribute to a time series of hourly observations of atmospheric CO2 at a tall tower, Angus, Scotland. In addition to comparing the modelled CO2 time series to observations, modelled ecosystem specific (i.e. forest, cropland, grassland) CO2 tracers (e.g., assimilation and respiration) have been compared to the modelled land surface assimilation to investigate how representative tall tower observations are of land surface processes. WRF-SPA modelled CO2 time series compares well to observations (R2 = 0.67, rmse = 3.4 ppm, bias = 0.58 ppm). Through comparison of model-observation residuals, we have found evidence that non-cropped components of agricultural land (e.g., hedgerows and forest patches) likely contribute a significant and observable impact on regional carbon balance.

  2. Surface engineering of a chromium metal-organic framework with bifunctional ionic liquids for selective CO2 adsorption: Synergistic effect between multiple active sites. (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Feng, Nengjie; Guo, Qirui; Li, Zhong; Li, Xue; Ding, Jing; Wang, Lei; Wan, Hui; Guan, Guofeng


    Targeting CO 2 capture application, a new strategy for building multiple adsorption sites in metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) was constructed through the incorporation of diethylenetriamine-based ionic liquid (DETA-Ac) via a post-synthetic modification approach. The DETA-Ac, with multi-amine-tethered cation and acetate anion, could not only provide additional binding sites, but also enhance the affinity of framework surfaces toward CO 2 . Simultaneously, the high surface area and large cage size of MIL-101(Cr) ensured the better dispersion of IL, thus exposing more active sites for CO 2 adsorption. In addition, enough free space was still retained after functionalization, which facilitated CO 2 transport and allowed the Cr(III) sites deep within the pores to be accessed. The multiple adsorption sites originating from IL and MOF were found to synergistically affect the CO 2 capture performance of the composite. The adsorption capacity and selectivity of DETA-Ac@MIL-101(Cr) for CO 2 were significantly improved. The higher isosteric heats of adsorption (Q st ) evidenced the stronger interaction between the composite and CO 2 molecules. Moreover, a possible two-step mechanism was proposed to reveal the manner in which CO 2 bound to the IL-incorporated frameworks. Despite the relatively high initial Q st value, the DETA-Ac@MIL-101(Cr) could be easily regenerated with almost no drop in CO 2 uptake during six cycles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Facilitated Transport of Zn2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ by Liquid Membrane Using a Tertio Amine as Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaine-Sadi F.


    Full Text Available The environmental impact of the emissions of heavy metals (Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+ present in the industrial effluents become extensive more and more. The discharge of toxic metals into environment is a serious problem facing numerous industries. So the search for extraction techniques to remove those heavy metals are increasing interest. Liquid membranes have shown great potentiel in this way especially in cases where metal concentrations are relatively low and other techniques cannot be applied efficiently.The fundamental parameters influencing the transport of the zinc (II, nickel (II and cobalt (II through the liquid membrane have been examined (the acidity, the time of transport. The coupling that makes itself thanks to the membrane (extractant + diluent permits to define the different phases of transfer and to determine the mechanisms of transportation membranaires. In thi study of th facilitated transport of zinc, nickel, cobalt ions by liquid membranes containing Tri-n-octyl amine as carrier. The chemical variable exam permitted to determine the parameters giving the extraction efficiency and reextraction optimum. Some performances have been gotten so much to the level of the extraction that of the reextraction. A chemical modelization has allowed to identify the extraction mechanism and transport. The coupling required a real optimization of the set of the parameters. The symmetrical behavior of the two compartments showed that the extraction – reextraction association permits to achieve a transportation, one counter - transportation and a positive coupling. This lets predict an applications as well in the field of metalliferous processing liquid waste not very in charge as in that of the industrial wastes. This also allows an effective protection of the environment while being profitable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The feasibility of deterpenating orange peel oil with supercritical CO2 depends on relevant vapor-liquid equilibrium data because the selectivity of this solvent for limonene and linalool (the two key components of the oil is of crucial importance. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the CO2-limonene binary system was measured at 50, 60 and 70oC and pressures up to 10 MPa, and of the CO2-linalool binary system at 50oC and pressures up to 85 bar. These results were compared with published data when available in the literature. The unpublished ternary phase equilibrium of CO2-limonene-linalool was studied at 50oC and up to 9 MPa. Selectivities obtained using these ternary data were compared with those calculated using binary data and indicate that a selective separation of limonene and linalool can be achieved.

  5. Molecular level investigation of CH4 and CO2 adsorption in hydrated Ca-Montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mal Soon; McGrail, Bernard P.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra


    We have studied the mechanism of intercalation and methane adsorption from a H2O/CH4/CO2 mixture on a prototypical shale component, Ca-montmorillonite. We employed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at 323 K and 90 bar to obtain molecular level information of adsorption energetics, speciation, and structural and thermodynamic properties. Interaction of CH4 with surface Lewis acidic sites (Ca2+, surface OH) results in large induced dipoles (~1 D) that lead to relatively strong adsorption energies that level off once a full CH4 layer is formed. Intercalated CH4, also exhibits induced dipoles at low hydration levels, when the interaction with Ca2+ cations are less hindered. CO2 displaces CH4 in the coordination sphere of the cations (in the interlayer) or in the surface, thereby driving CH4 extraction. Our simulations indicate that there is a Goldilocks pressure range (~60-100 bar) where scCO2 –facilitated CH4 extraction will be maximized.

  6. A multiscale and multidisciplinary investigation of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange over the rocky mountains of colorado (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Oncley, S.P.; Burns, Sean P.; Stephens, B.B.; Lenschow, D.H.; Campos, T.; Monson, Russell K.; Schimel, D.S.; Sacks, W.J.; De Wekker, S. F. J.; Lai, C.-T.; Lamb, B.; Ojima, D.; Ellsworth, P.Z.; Sternberg, L.S.L.; Zhong, S.; Clements, C.; Moore, D.J.P.; Anderson, D.E.; Watt, A.S.; Hu, Jiawen; Tschudi, M.; Aulenbach, S.; Allwine, E.; Coons, T.


    A field study combined with modeling investigation demonstrated that the organization of CO2 transport by mountain terrain strongly affects the regional CO2 budget. Atmospheric dynamics can lead to complicated flows generated by inhomogeneous landscapes, topography or synoptic weather systems. The field campaign conducted of a ground deployment, the Carbon in the Mountain Experiment (CME04), and an aircraft deployment of the national Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130, the Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (ACME04) over the period of spring to fall of 2004 to cover the seasonal variation of ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange. The role of the mountain circulation in CO2 transport can be played over seemingly flat terrain by mesoscale flows generated by various physical processes. The three dimensional observation strategy considered can also be applied over flat terrain.

  7. Experimental investigation of the Heletz shale caprocks sealing capacity: implication for CO2 geological storage integrity (United States)

    Abdoulghafour, Halidi; Gouze, Philippe; Luquot, Linda; Arif, Mohamed; Iglauer, Stefan


    Using a combination of core flooding experiments and wettability measurements, we evaluate the sealing efficiency of Heletz caprock under CO2 sequestration conditions. The flow through experiments consisted of flowing CO2 enriched fluid into two micro-fractured cylindrical cores (15 mm length - 9 mm diameter, with hydraulic aperture: 2.7 µm for the sample named H18A and 13 µm for sample named H18B) and monitoring the permeability changes, the evolution of the chemistry from the inlet and outlet fluid. The changes in microstructures and mineralogy were also studied using an environmental scanning electrons microscope (ESEM) and X-ray micro-tomography (XRMT) images. The fracture permeability was found to decrease significantly in the two experiments from 14.1×10-12 m2 to 5.0×10-12 m2 for experiment H18B and from 6.5×10-13 m2 to 2.8×10-13 m2 for experiment H18A. Calcite dissolution and reconversion of k-feldspar to illite and kaolinite were the main reaction on sample H18B while "calcite precipitation" in batch condition was the dominant reaction on sample H18A. Accordingly, the decrease in permeability was induced by the dispersion of dissolution products and the re-organization of clay particles within the fracture for sample H18B as shown by micro-tomography and ESEM images. The fracture healing due to the calcite and clay mineral precipitation along the fracture was attested by ESEM image for sample H18A. The results of capillary pressure breakthrough calculated by applying the Washburn equation and the reservoir scaling method from intrusion of mercury are approximately 380 kPa and 310 kPa for H18B and H18A respectively. Although, these values are sensibly different but close to each other and in good agreement to indicate the weak storage capacity of the heletz caprock. Subsequently less than 90 m of CO2 column height can be efficiently stored in the Heletz reservoir. Thus the self-mitigation of the CO2 leakage is expected only when few quantity of CO2

  8. Investigation of Redox Metal Oxides for Carbonaceous Fuel Conversion and CO2 Capture (United States)

    Galinsky, Nathan Lee

    The chemical looping combustion (CLC) process uses metal oxides, also referred to as oxygen carriers, in a redox scheme for conversion of carbonaceous fuels into a concentrated stream of CO2 and steam while also producing heat and electricity. The unique redox scheme of CLC allows CO2 capture with minimal energy penalty. The CLC process performance greatly depends on the oxygen carrier that is chosen. To date, more than 1000 oxygen carriers have been developed for chemical-looping processes using metal oxides containing first-row transition metals. Oxygen carriers are typically mixed with an inert ceramic support to improve their overall mechanical stability and recyclability. This study focuses on design of (i) iron oxide oxygen carriers for conversion of gaseous carbonaceous fuels and (ii) development of perovskite CaMnO 3-d with improved stability and redox properties for conversion of solid fuels. Iron oxide is cheap and environmentally benign. However, it suffers from low activity with carbonaceous fuels due partially to the low ionic conductivity of iron oxides. In order to address the low activity of iron-oxide-based oxygen carriers, support addition has been shown to lower the energy barrier of oxygen anion transport within the oxygen carrier. This work adds a mixed-ionic-and-electronic-conductor (MIEC) support to iron oxide to help facilitate O2- transport inside the lattice of iron oxide. The MIEC-supported iron oxide is compared to commonly used supports including TiO2 and Al2O 3 and the pure ionic conductor support yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) for conversion of different carbonaceous fuels and hydrogen. Results show that the MIEC-supported iron oxide exhibits up to 70 times higher activity than non-MIEC-supported iron oxides for methane conversion. The MIEC supported iron oxide also shows good recyclability with only minor agglomeration and carbon formation observed. The effect of support-iron oxide synergies is further investigated to understand

  9. Evaluation and Modeling of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium and CO2 Absorption Enthalpies of Aqueous Designer Diamines for Post Combustion Capture Processes. (United States)

    Luo, Weiliang; Yang, Qi; Conway, William; Puxty, Graeme; Feron, Paul; Chen, Jian


    Novel absorbents with improved characteristics are required to reduce the existing cost and environmental barriers to deployment of large scale CO 2 capture. Recently, bespoke absorbent molecules have been specifically designed for CO 2 capture applications, and their fundamental properties and suitability for CO 2 capture processes evaluated. From the study, two unique diamine molecules, 4-(2-hydroxyethylamino)piperidine (A4) and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-aminopiperidine (C4), were selected for further evaluation including thermodynamic characterization. The solubilities of CO 2 in two diamine solutions with a mass fraction of 15% and 30% were measured at different temperatures (313.15-393.15 K) and CO 2 partial pressures (up to 400 kPa) by thermostatic vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) stirred cell. The absorption enthalpies of reactions between diamines and CO 2 were evaluated at different temperatures (313.15 and 333.15 K) using a CPA201 reaction calorimeter. The amine protonation constants and associated protonation enthalpies were determined by potentiometric titration. The interaction of CO 2 with the diamine solutions was summarized and a simple mathematical model established that could make a preliminary but good prediction of the VLE and thermodynamic properties. Based on the analyses in this work, the two designer diamines A4 and C4 showed superior performance compared to amines typically used for CO 2 capture and further research will be completed at larger scale.

  10. One‐Step Reforming of CO2 and CH4 into High‐Value Liquid Chemicals and Fuels at Room Temperature by Plasma‐Driven Catalysis


    Wang, Li; Yi, Yanhui; Wu, Chunfei; Guo, Hongchen; Tu, Xin


    Abstract The conversion of CO2 with CH4 into liquid fuels and chemicals in a single‐step catalytic process that bypasses the production of syngas remains a challenge. In this study, liquid fuels and chemicals (e.g., acetic acid, methanol, ethanol, and formaldehyde) were synthesized in a one‐step process from CO2 and CH4 at room temperature (30 °C) and atmospheric pressure for the first time by using a novel plasma reactor with a water electrode. The total selectivity to oxygenates was approxi...

  11. High resolution numerical investigation on the effect of convective instability on long term CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C; Lichtner, P C


    CO 2 sequestration (capture, separation, and long term storage) in various geologic media including depleted oil reservoirs, saline aquifers, and oceanic sediments is being considered as a possible solution to reduce green house gas emissions. Dissolution of supercritical CO 2 in formation brines is considered an important storage mechanism to prevent possible leakage. Accurate prediction of the plume dissolution rate and migration is essential. Analytical analysis and numerical experiments have demonstrated that convective instability (Rayleigh instability) has a crucial effect on the dissolution behavior and subsequent mineralization reactions. Global stability analysis indicates that a certain grid resolution is needed to capture the features of density-driven fingering phenomena. For 3-D field scale simulations, high resolution leads to large numbers of grid nodes, unfeasible for a single workstation. In this study, we investigate the effects of convective instability on geologic sequestration of CO 2 by taking advantage of parallel computing using the code PFLOTRAN, a massively parallel 3-D reservoir simulator for modeling subsurface multiphase, multicomponent reactive flow and transport based on continuum scale mass and energy conservation equations. The onset, development and long-term fate of a supercritical CO 2 plume will be resolved with high resolution numerical simulations to investigate the rate of plume dissolution caused by fingering phenomena

  12. Experimental Investigation of Axial and Beam-Riding Propulsive Physics with TEA CO2 laser (United States)

    Kenoyer, D. A.; Salvador, I.; Myrabo, L. N.; Notaro, S. N.; Bragulla, P. W.


    A twin Lumonics K922M pulsed TEA CO2 laser system (pulse duration of approximately 100 ns FWHM spike, with optional 1 μs tail, depending upon laser gas mix) was employed to experimentally measure both axial thrust and beam-riding behavior of Type ♯200 lightcraft engines, using a ballistic pendulum and Angular Impulse Measurement Device (AIMD, respectively. Beam-riding forces and moments were examined along with engine thrust-vectoring behavior, as a function of: a) laser beam lateral offset from the vehicle axis of symmetry; b) laser pulse energy (˜12 to 40 joules); c) pulse duration (100 ns, and 1 μs); and d) engine size (97.7 mm to 161.2 mm). Maximum lateral momentum coupling coefficients (CM) of 75 N-s/MJ were achieved with the K922M laser whereas previous PLVTS laser (420 J, 18 μs duration) results reached only 15 N-s/MJ—an improvement of 5x. Maximum axial CM performance with the K922M reached 225 N-s/MJ, or about ˜3x larger than the lateral CM values. These axial CM results are sharply higher than the 120 N/MW previously reported for long pulse (e.g., 10-18 μs) CO2 electric discharge lasers.

  13. Willingness to engage in energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction: An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eluwa, S E; Siong, H C


    Africa's response to climate change has largely been focused on adaptation rather than mitigation. The reason for this is based on the fact that the continent contributes very little to global CO 2 emission. Again, mitigation policies like carbon tax as being practised in developed countries may be costly and difficult to implement in a continent where most economies are fragile. Using behavioural change as an adaptation approach, we examined the opinion of Ibadan city residents towards energy conservation and CO 2 emissions reduction. A total of 822 respondents were sampled across the three residential neighbourhoods of the city. Results from the study showed that female and male respondents differed in their opinion towards energy conservation. However, the female respondents tended to record higher mean scores on majority of the items used to capture energy conservation behaviour than their male counterparts. Also, those with higher level of education seemed to be more conscious of the environmental consequences arising from energy use at home than those with lower educational background. However, very slight variations were recorded in the mean value score across the different age groups, those respondents above 50 years scored a bit higher than other age groups

  14. Adsorption of CO2 on Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons: Investigation of transport properties (United States)

    Othman, W.; Fahed, M.; Hatim, S.; Sherazi, A.; Berdiyorov, G.; Tit, N.


    Density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism is used to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs) to CO2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on GNR’s surface (aFe-graphene) or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene). Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurity site. Moreover, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. These behaviours are not only consolidated but rather confirmed by calculating the IV characteristics from which both surface resistance and its sensitivity to the gas are estimated. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing efficient graphene-based solid-state gas sensors.

  15. Adsorption of CO2 on Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons: Investigation of transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, W; Fahed, M; Tit, N; Hatim, S; Sherazi, A; Berdiyorov, G


    Density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism is used to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs) to CO 2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on GNR’s surface (aFe-graphene) or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene). Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurity site. Moreover, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO 2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. These behaviours are not only consolidated but rather confirmed by calculating the IV characteristics from which both surface resistance and its sensitivity to the gas are estimated. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing efficient graphene-based solid-state gas sensors. (paper)

  16. Fuel consumption and CO2 emission investigation of range extender with diesel and gasoline engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono


    Full Text Available Range extender engine is one of the main components of the range-extended electric vehicle (REEV and together with a generator to extend the mileage of the electric vehicle. The main component of REEV is an electric motor, battery, and generator set that consist of generator and engine. In this study, we compared two models of REEV performance with two different types of the engine by simulation. Single cylinder 499 cc gasoline engine and single cylinder 667 cc diesel engine are chosen as the object of this research especially relating to the utilization of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions when fitted to an electric vehicle. The simulation was conducted by using AVL Cruise software and performed by entering the data, both experiment and simulation data, on all the main components of REEV. This simulation was performed in Japan 08 driving cycle. Based on the simulation, fuel consumption is reduced up to 35.59% for REEV with single cylinder diesel engine 667 cc compared to REEV with single cylinder gasoline engine 499 cc. The reduction of CO2 emissions from REEV with single cylinder 499 cc gasoline engine compared to REEV with single cylinder 667 cc diesel engine up to 30.47%.

  17. Discrete Element Modeling of Micro-scratch Tests: Investigation of Mechanisms of CO2 Alteration in Reservoir Rocks (United States)

    Sun, Zhuang; Espinoza, D. Nicolas; Balhoff, Matthew T.; Dewers, Thomas A.


    The injection of CO2 into geological formations leads to geochemical re-equilibrium between the pore fluid and rock minerals. Mineral-brine-CO2 reactions can induce alteration of mechanical properties and affect the structural integrity of the storage formation. The location of alterable mineral phases within the rock skeleton is important to assess the potential effects of mineral dissolution on bulk geomechanical properties. Hence, although often disregarded, the understanding of particle-scale mechanisms responsible for alterations is necessary to predict the extent of geomechanical alteration as a function of dissolved mineral amounts. This study investigates the CO2-related rock chemo-mechanical alteration through numerical modeling and matching of naturally altered rocks probed with micro-scratch tests. We use a model that couples the discrete element method (DEM) and the bonded particle model (BPM) to perform simulations of micro-scratch tests on synthetic rocks that mimic Entrada sandstone. Experimental results serve to calibrate numerical scratch tests with DEM-BPM parameters. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the cement size and bond shear strength are the most sensitive microscopic parameters that govern the CO2-induced alteration in Entrada sandstone. Reductions in cement size lead to decrease in scratch toughness and an increase in ductility in the rock samples. This work demonstrates how small variations of microscopic bond properties in cemented sandstone can lead to significant changes in macroscopic large-strain mechanical properties.

  18. Confinement of Ionic Liquids in Nanocages: Tailoring the Molecular Sieving Properties of ZIF-8 for Membrane-Based CO2 Capture. (United States)

    Ban, Yujie; Li, Zhengjie; Li, Yanshuo; Peng, Yuan; Jin, Hua; Jiao, Wenmei; Guo, Ang; Wang, Po; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhong, Chongli; Yang, Weishen


    Fine-tuning of effective pore size of microporous materials is necessary to achieve precise molecular sieving properties. Herein, we demonstrate that room temperature ionic liquids can be used as cavity occupants for modification of the microenvironment of MOF nanocages. Targeting CO2 capture applications, we tailored the effective cage size of ZIF-8 to be between CO2 and N2 by confining an imidazolium-based ionic liquid [bmim][Tf2 N] into ZIF-8's SOD cages by in-situ ionothermal synthesis. Mixed matrix membranes derived from ionic liquid-modified ZIF-8 exhibited remarkable combinations of permeability and selectivity that transcend the upper bound of polymer membranes for CO2 /N2 and CO2 /CH4 separation. We observed an unusual response of the membranes to varying pressure, that is, an increase in the CO2 /CH4 separation factor with pressure, which is highly desirable for practical applications in natural gas upgrading. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A lipophilic ionic liquid based on formamidinium cations and TFSI: the electric response and the effect of CO2on the conductivity mechanism. (United States)

    Bertasi, Federico; Giffin, Guinevere A; Vezzù, Keti; Pace, Giuseppe; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser; Armand, Michel; Di Noto, Vito


    This work describes the preparation of the new lipophilic ionic liquid tetraoctyl-formamidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (TOFATFSI), which is miscible with lower alkanes. In particular, this work focuses on the electric behaviour of TOFATFSI in the particularly challenging highly apolar environment of supercritical CO 2 . The conductivity and relaxation phenomena are revealed through the analysis of the broadband electric spectra with a particular emphasis on the effect of temperature and CO 2 uptake on the IL conductivity. It is found that temperature boosts the conductivity via an increase in the charge carrier mobility. Also, CO 2 absorption affects both the conductivity and the permittivity of the material due to the presence of CO 2 -IL interactions that modulate the nanostructure and the size of the TOFATFSI aggregates, which increases both the mobility and the density of the charge carriers.

  20. Electrochemical investigation of nickel pattern electrodes in H2/H2O and CO/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, A.; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Graczyk, M.


    In this study, nickel pattern electrodes were electrochemically investigated in a three-electrode setup, operating both with H2 / H2 O and CO/ CO2 atmospheres. Heating introduced structural differences in the nickel layer among the pattern electrodes, which appear to affect the electrode performa......In this study, nickel pattern electrodes were electrochemically investigated in a three-electrode setup, operating both with H2 / H2 O and CO/ CO2 atmospheres. Heating introduced structural differences in the nickel layer among the pattern electrodes, which appear to affect the electrode...... at lower temperatures in H2 / H2 O are also presented. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed, and the gas dependence of the polarization resistance was observed as the mixture ratios and temperatures were varied in both atmospheres. A positive relation between the polarization resistance...

  1. Modelling of a tubular membrane contactor for pre-combustion CO2 capture using ionic liquids: Influence of the membrane configuration, absorbent properties and operation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongde Dai


    Full Text Available A membrane contactor using ionic liquids (ILs as solvent for pre-combustion capture CO2 at elevated temperature (303–393 K and pressure (20 bar has been studied using mathematic model in the present work. A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D mass-transfer model was developed based on finite element method. The effects of liquid properties, membrane configurations, as well as operation parameters on the CO2 removal efficiency were systematically studied. The simulation results show that CO2 can be effectively removed in this process. In addition, it is found that the liquid phase mass transfer dominated the overall mass transfer. Membranes with high porosity and small thickness could apparently reduce the membrane resistance and thus increase the separation efficiency. On the other hand, the membrane diameter and membrane length have a relatively small influence on separation performance within the operation range. Keywords: CO2 capture, Pre-combustion, Membrane contactor, Ionic liquids, Modelling

  2. Experimental investigation on the influence of EEV opening on the performance of transcritical CO2 refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yu; Ma, Juanli; Liu, Changhai; Cao, Jing; Liu, Xiufang


    In order to investigate the influence of electronic expansion valve (EEV) opening on the performance of the transcritical CO 2 refrigeration system, an experimental test rig of the transcritical CO 2 system was built up. The system operation parameters such as temperature, pressure were measured with different EEV opening, when the inlet temperatures of the gas-cooler water and the evaporator water were set to 30 °C and 15 °C, respectively. The effects of EEV opening on the pressure, temperature and the performance of the system were studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the EEV opening has great effects on the discharge pressure of the compressor, gas-cooler outlet pressure, and the discharge temperature of the compressor. The compressor input power decreases with the increasing of EEV opening. The cooling capacity and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system peaks at the EEV opening of 40% and 60%, respectively. - Highlights: •Influence of EEV opening on transcritical CO 2 system is investigated experimentally. •EEV opening has little effect on evaporating pressure. •EEV opening has great effects on discharge pressure and temperature of compressor. •Cooling capacity peaks at the EEV opening of 40%. •COP peaks at the EEV opening of 60%

  3. Empirical model for calculating vapor-liquid equilibrium and associated phase enthalpy for the CO2--O2--Kr--Xe system for application to the KALC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Fowler, V.L.


    An empirical model is presented for vapor-liquid equilibria and enthalpy for the CO 2 -O 2 system. In the model, krypton and xenon in very low concentrations are combined with the CO 2 -O 2 system, thereby representing the total system of primary interest in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor program for removing krypton from off-gas generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel. Selected properties of the individual and combined components being considered are presented in the form of tables and empirical equations

  4. Fiscal 1995 investigation on biological fixation of carbon dioxide; 1995 nendo seibutsuteki CO2 kotei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To cope with the global warming caused by CO2, an investigation was conducted into biological fixation. It is necessary to make a many-sided and comprehensive study on the mechanism of CO2 fixation, the scale (area and carbon holding density), the rate and the environmental impact of the introduction of the technology and the technical problems, and to make a quantitative evaluation of each of the methods in order to make them practical proposals. The global ecosystem is classified into the land biota and ocean biota, and each typical ecosystem was surveyed in terms of the surface area, the carbon holding amount (presently existing amount), the net primary production amount, the required nutrient salt amount, the transpiration rate, etc. Next, a discussion was made on the increasing effect of the carbon fixation amount by changing the present ecosystem from the aspect of scale and rate. At the same time, a study was carried out of energy efficiency, economical efficiency and problems. Last, elementary technology was taken up which seems to be important for implementing measures for the biological carbon fixation. As to the ocean, it is necessary to obtain information, which is not sufficient to utilize marine biota for CO2 fixation, especially on the mechanism of depth-direction transfer of organism and its quantitative grasp. As to the land, one of the measures is conversion of the ecosystem where the amount of carbon fixed is small to the ecosystem where the amount is large. 249 refs., 58 figs., 51 tabs.

  5. Investigational research on CO2 isolation technology in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper studied present technical subjects and future study subjects of the CO2 isolation technology in order to clarify technical and social problems and the developmental subjects of the CO2 isolation technology and related technologies for separating/concentrating CO2 emitted in relation to quantity consumption of fossil fuel and storing it in ocean or underground. Main items for the study were: (1) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, (2) investigational study of environmental effect assessment in storing CO2 in ocean, (3) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, etc. Technologies required for the ocean isolation were arranged such as CO2 storage, injection, dispersion technique, CO2 behavior simulation, and the developmental subjects were extracted. Further, in the deep-sea bottom storage method, a simulation to calculate the range of PH effects was conducted presuming the specified amount of CO2 and applying known physical values, and evaluation of the CO2 ocean discharge/solution method was made. A method was also studied for experiments on water bacteria and benthos. 127 refs., 102 figs., 81 tabs.

  6. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J


    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was

  7. Poly(Ionic Liquid)-Derived Carbon with Site-Specific N-Doping and Biphasic Heterojunction for Enhanced CO2Capture and Sensing. (United States)

    Gong, Jiang; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin


    CO 2 capture is a pressing global environmental issue that drives scientists to develop creative strategies for tackling this challenge. The concept in this contribution is to produce site-specific nitrogen doping in microporous carbon fibers. Following this approach a carbon/carbon heterojunction is created by using a poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) as a "soft" activation agent that deposits nitrogen species exclusively on the surface of commercial microporous carbon fibers. This type of carbon-based biphasic heterojunction amplifies the interaction between carbon fiber and CO 2 molecule for unusually high CO 2 uptake and resistive sensing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter


    This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.

  9. CO2 sequestration using waste concrete and anorthosite tailings by direct mineral carbonation in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes. (United States)

    Ben Ghacham, Alia; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy


    Mineral carbonation (MC) represents a promising alternative for sequestering CO2. In this work, the CO2 sequestration capacity of the available calcium-bearing materials waste concrete and anorthosite tailings is assessed in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes using 18.2% flue CO2 gas. The objective is to screen for a better potential residue and phase route and as the ultimate purpose to develop a cost-effective process. The results indicate the possibility of removing 66% from inlet CO2 using waste concrete for the aqueous route. However, the results that were obtained with the carbonation of anorthosite were less significant, with 34% as the maximal percentage of CO2 removal. The difference in terms of reactivity could be explained by the accessibility to calcium. In fact, anorthosite presents a framework structure wherein the calcium is trapped, which could slow the calcium dissolution into the aqueous phase compared to the concrete sample, where calcium can more easily leach. In the other part of the study concerning gas-solid carbonation, the results of CO2 removal did not exceed 15%, which is not economically interesting for scaling up the process. The results obtained with waste concrete samples in aqueous phase are interesting. In fact, 34.6% of the introduced CO2 is converted into carbonate after 15 min of contact with the gas without chemical additives and at a relatively low gas pressure. Research on the optimization of the aqueous process using waste concrete should be performed to enhance the reaction rate and to develop a cost-effective process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Small Scale Geological Heterogeneity on Capillary Trapping of CO2 Using Engineered Beadpacks (United States)

    Ganesan Krishnamurthy, P.; Trevisan, L.; Meckel, T. A.


    During geologic CO2 sequestration, most of the storage domain far from the injection sites is likely to be dominated by buoyancy and capillary forces. Under such flow regimes, small scale geological heterogeneities have been shown to dampen plume migration rates and cause trapping beneath capillary barriers. To understand the impact of such heterogeneities on CO2 trapping processes experimentally, many core-scale and lab scale flow studies have been conducted. Reservoir cores are limited by the scale of investigation possible and most lab experiments are conducted in macroheterogeneous media constructed by arranging homogeneous units to represent heterogeneity. However, most natural sedimentary facies display heterogeneity at a hierarchy of scales, and heterogeneity at the mesoscale (mm to decimeters) goes unrepresented in laboratory experiments due to the difficulty in reproducibility. This work presents results from buoyancy driven migration experiments conducted at the meter scale using glass beads packed in a quasi 2D glass cell and complementary reduced physics simulations. We demonstrate a novel automated technique to build beadpacks with 2D heterogeneous sedimentary features in a reproducible manner. A fluid pair that mimics the phase density and viscosity contrasts, and interfacial tension of CO2-Brine at reservoir pressures and temperatures is employed for the flow experiments. Light transmission technique is used for visualization, and to calibrate and quantify saturation of the trapped non-wetting fluid during the experiments. Invasion Percolation is used to simulate the buoyancy driven flow. With the ability to generate different types of heterogeneous structures in a reproducible manner, and by comparing experiments and simulations, a systematic investigation of the effect of heterogeneity on capillary trapping becomes possible.

  11. CO 2 Capture Capacity and Swelling Measurements of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials via Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune


    Novel nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), which are comprised of organic oligomers or polymers tethered to an inorganic nanosized cores of various sizes, have been synthesized, and their solvating property for CO 2 was investigated using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 capture capacity and swelling behaviors of polyetheramine (Jeffamine M-2070) and its corresponding NOHMs (NOHM-I-PE2070) were reported at temperatures of (298, 308, 323 and 353) K and CO 2 pressure conditions ranging from (0 to 5.5) MPa. The polymeric canopy, or polymer bound to the nanoparticle surface, showed significantly less swelling behavior with enhanced or comparable CO 2 capture capacity compared to pure unbound polyetheramine. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter


    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on modeling the fluid flow in fracture surface, examining the fluid transfer mechanisms and describing the fracture aperture distribution under different overburden pressure using X-ray CT scanner.

  13. Amorphizing of Cu Nanoparticles toward Highly Efficient and Robust Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction to Liquid Fuels with High Faradaic Efficiencies. (United States)

    Duan, Yan-Xin; Meng, Fan-Lu; Liu, Kai-Hua; Yi, Sha-Sha; Li, Si-Jia; Yan, Jun-Min; Jiang, Qing


    Conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into valuable chemicals, especially liquid fuels, through electrochemical reduction driven by sustainable energy sources, is a promising way to get rid of dependence on fossil fuels, wherein developing of highly efficient catalyst is still of paramount importance. In this study, as a proof-of-concept experiment, first a facile while very effective protocol is proposed to synthesize amorphous Cu NPs. Unexpectedly, superior electrochemical performances, including high catalytic activity and selectivity of CO 2 reduction to liquid fuels are achieved, that is, a total Faradaic efficiency of liquid fuels can sum up to the maximum value of 59% at -1.4 V, with formic acid (HCOOH) and ethanol (C 2 H 6 O) account for 37% and 22%, respectively, as well as a desirable long-term stability even up to 12 h. More importantly, this work opens a new avenue for improved electroreduction of CO 2 based on amorphous metal catalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. One-Step Reforming of CO2 and CH4 into High-Value Liquid Chemicals and Fuels at Room Temperature by Plasma-Driven Catalysis. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yi, Yanhui; Wu, Chunfei; Guo, Hongchen; Tu, Xin


    The conversion of CO 2 with CH 4 into liquid fuels and chemicals in a single-step catalytic process that bypasses the production of syngas remains a challenge. In this study, liquid fuels and chemicals (e.g., acetic acid, methanol, ethanol, and formaldehyde) were synthesized in a one-step process from CO 2 and CH 4 at room temperature (30 °C) and atmospheric pressure for the first time by using a novel plasma reactor with a water electrode. The total selectivity to oxygenates was approximately 50-60 %, with acetic acid being the major component at 40.2 % selectivity, the highest value reported for acetic acid thus far. Interestingly, the direct plasma synthesis of acetic acid from CH 4 and CO 2 is an ideal reaction with 100 % atom economy, but it is almost impossible by thermal catalysis owing to the significant thermodynamic barrier. The combination of plasma and catalyst in this process shows great potential for manipulating the distribution of liquid chemical products in a given process. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Investigations of Localized Corrosion of Stainless Steel after Exposure to Supercritical CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; W. O’Connor; S. Bullard


    Severe localized corrosion of a 316 stainless steel autoclave occurred during investigating Type H Portland cement stability in 0.16 M CaCl{sub 2} + 0.02 M MgCl{sub 2} + 0.82 M NaCl brine in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} containing 4% O{sub 2}. The system operated at 85 C and pressure of 29 MPa. However, no corrosion was observed in the same type of autoclave being exposed to the same environment, containing Type H Portland cement cylindrical samples, also operating at pressure of 29 MPa but at 50 C. The operation time for the 85 C autoclave was 53 days (1272 hours) while that for the 50 C autoclave was 66 days (1584 hours). Debris were collected from the base of both autoclaves and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion products were only found in the debris from the 85 C autoclave. The cement samples were analyzed before and after the exposure by X-ray florescence (XRF) methods. Optical microscopy was used to estimate an extent of the 316 stainless steel corrosion degradation.

  16. Theoretical Investigations of Dielectric Breakdown in CO2: Implications for Atmospheric Discharges on Mars (and Venus) (United States)

    Riousset, J. A.


    The detection of an atmospheric discharge in the Martian atmosphere by Ruf et al. [GRL, 36, L13202, 2009] supports the idea of a Martian atmospheric electric circuit [Farrell and Desch, JGR, 106, E4, 2001]. However, the lack of subsequent detection of similar events raises the question of the conditions of their initiation, and the existence of Martian lightning remains a controversial question. On Earth, atmospheric electricity manifests itself in the form of glow, corona, streamer, and leader discharges observed as Saint Elmo's fire, sprites, lightning and jets discharges, and other Transient Luminous Events (TLEs). All of these are dielectric breakdown governed by different physics. Their initiation is associated with the crossing of specific electric field thresholds: relativistic runaway, streamer propagation, conventional breakdown, or thermal runaway thresholds, some better understood than others. For example, the initiation of a lightning discharge is known to occur when the local electric field exceeds a value similar to relativistic runaway field, but the exact threshold, as well as the physical mechanisms at work, remain unclear to date. Scaling laws for electric fields (and other quantities) have been established by Pasko et al. [GRL, 25(12), 2123-2126, 1998] and Pasko [NATO Sci. Series, Springer, 253-311, 2006]. In this work, we develop profiles for initiation criteria in air and in other atmospheric environments. We further calculate their associated scaling laws to determine the ability to trigger lightning flashes and TLEs on Mars. This lets us predict the likelihood of electrical discharges and calculate the expected electric field conditions, under which discharges could be observed. We develop the analogy between Earth sand storm [Nicoll et al., Env. Res. Lett., 6, 014001, 2001] and Martian dust storms [Melnik and Parrot, JGR, 103(A12), 1998] to investigate the charge structure and resulting electric fields necessary to initiate dielectric

  17. Determination of the liquid-phase speciation in the MDEA-H2O-CO2 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Peter W.J.; Huttenhuis, Patrick J.G.; Aken, Coen van; Marsman, Jan Henk; Versteeg, Geert F.


    Aqueous solutions of alkanolamines are commonly used in CO2 capture processes. To describe these complex processes rigorous mass transfer models are needed, in which all mass transfer, kinetics and thermodynamics are incorporated correctly. To improve the quality of the thermodynamic models, not

  18. Towards detergency in liquid CO2–A surfactant formulation for particle release in an apolar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Sutanto, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.


    In this paper we propose, characterize and test a surfactant formulation, consisting of a branched polyoxyethylene type commercial non-ionic surfactant (Igepal CA520), n-hexane and water, for use in CO2 dry-cleaning to enhance the removal of particulate soil. In the formulation lamellar mesophases

  19. Investigations and researches on CO2 balance in a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With an objective to select a promising process by comparing application environments and effectiveness of a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation, recovery and re-utilization technology with other methods, investigations were performed on reducible amount of carbon dioxide discharge by using material balance and system introduction. A large number of chemical and physical technologies are being developed for the separation and refining methods. This paper discusses the technologies for their application to iron and steel making, oil refining, and petrochemical industries, the so-called heavy and large product industries. As a possibility of utilizing the high-temperature separated CO2 in iron and steel making, an investigation was given on the direct iron ore smelting reduction process. It would be unreasonable to use CO2 in oil refining as a substitute to air to regenerate a catalytic decomposition and reformation catalyst because of decline in the catalytic activity. A discussion was given on a case to replace steam with CO2 in steam reformation and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The discussion requires the objective to be focused on such items as C/H ratio at a reformer outlet and relationship of balance in decomposition products. The C1 chemical and others were reviewed to search possibilities for their use as raw materials of chemicals used in chemical industries. Possibilities were discussed to fix high-temperature CO2 into peridotite and serpentine. 42 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Development of robust fluorinated TiO2/PVDF composite hollow fiber membrane for CO2 capture in gas-liquid membrane contactor (United States)

    Lin, Yuqing; Xu, Yilin; Loh, Chun Heng; Wang, Rong


    Gas-liquid membrane contactor (GLMC) is a promising method to attain high efficiency for CO2 capture from flue gas, biogas and natural gas. However, membranes used in GLMC are prone to pore wetting due to insufficient hydrophobicity and low chemical resistance, resulting in significant increase in mass transfer resistance. To mitigate this issue, inorganic-organic fluorinated titania/polyvinylidene fluoride (fTiO2/PVDF) composite hollow fiber (HF) membranes was prepared via facile in-situ vapor induced hydrolyzation method, followed by hydrophobic modification. The proposed composite membranes were expected to couple the superb chemical stability of inorganic and high permeability/low cost of organic materials. The continuous fTiO2 layer deposited on top of PVDF substrate was found to possess a tighter microstructure and better hydrophobicity, which effectively prevented the membrane from wetting and lead to a high CO2 absorption flux (12.7 × 10-3 mol m-2 s-1). In a stability test with 21-day operation of GLMC using 1M monoethanolamine (MEA) as the absorbent, the fTiO2/PVDF membrane remained to be intact with a CO2 absorption flux decline of ∼16%, while the pristine PVDF membrane suffered from a flux decline of ∼80% due to membrane damage. Overall, this work provides an insight into the preparation of high-quality inorganic/organic composite HF membranes for CO2 capture in GLMC application.

  1. Investigation of the charge-transfer in photo-excited nanoparticles for CO2 reduction in non-aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Nada M.


    Full Text Available Photoinduced charge separation in TiO2 and Cu2O semiconductor nanoparticles was examined using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy in order to get insight into the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 in nonaqueous media. For dissolution/grafting of CO2 we have used carboxy-PEG4-amine, and as a solvent poly(ethylene glycol 200. We have found that, in this system, reduction of CO2 starts at potential of -0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl, which is significantly more positive than the potential for electrochemical reduction of CO2 in most organic solvents and water (-2.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer from excited nanoparticles to CO2 is governed both by thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, namely by the redox potential of conduction band electrons and adsorption/binding of CO2 on the surface of nanoparticles.

  2. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania) (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano


    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  3. The Precise Measurement of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Properties of the CO2/Isopentane Binary Mixture, and Fitted Parameters for a Helmholtz Energy Mixture Model (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.; Shoji, Y.; Akasaka, R.; Lemmon, E. W.


    Natural working fluid mixtures, including combinations of CO2, hydrocarbons, water, and ammonia, are expected to have applications in energy conversion processes such as heat pumps and organic Rankine cycles. However, the available literature data, much of which were published between 1975 and 1992, do not incorporate the recommendations of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Therefore, new and more reliable thermodynamic property measurements obtained with state-of-the-art technology are required. The goal of the present study was to obtain accurate vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) properties for complex mixtures based on two different gases with significant variations in their boiling points. Precise VLE data were measured with a recirculation-type apparatus with a 380 cm3 equilibration cell and two windows allowing observation of the phase behavior. This cell was equipped with recirculating and expansion loops that were immersed in temperature-controlled liquid and air baths, respectively. Following equilibration, the composition of the sample in each loop was ascertained by gas chromatography. VLE data were acquired for CO2/ethanol and CO2/isopentane binary mixtures within the temperature range from 300 K to 330 K and at pressures up to 7 MPa. These data were used to fit interaction parameters in a Helmholtz energy mixture model. Comparisons were made with the available literature data and values calculated by thermodynamic property models.

  4. Sensitivity of Terrestrial Water and Energy Budgets to CO2-Physiological Forcing: An Investigation Using an Offline Land Model (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ranjith; Bala, Govindsamy; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Cao, Long; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Ravindranath, N. H.


    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influence climate by suppressing canopy transpiration in addition to its well-known greenhouse gas effect. The decrease in plant transpiration is due to changes in plant physiology (reduced opening of plant stomata). Here, we quantify such changes in water flux for various levels of CO2 concentrations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research s (NCAR) Community Land Model. We find that photosynthesis saturates after 800 ppmv (parts per million, by volume) in this model. However, unlike photosynthesis, canopy transpiration continues to decline at about 5.1% per 100 ppmv increase in CO2 levels. We also find that the associated reduction in latent heat flux is primarily compensated by increased sensible heat flux. The continued decline in canopy transpiration and subsequent increase in sensible heat flux at elevated CO2 levels implies that incremental warming associated with the physiological effect of CO2 will not abate at higher CO2 concentrations, indicating important consequences for the global water and carbon cycles from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Keywords: CO2-physiological effect, CO2-fertilization, canopy transpiration, water cycle, runoff, climate change 1.

  5. Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide: modeling the deep ocean release of a dense emulsion of liquid Co2-in-water stabilized by pulverized limestone particles. (United States)

    Golomb, D; Pennell, S; Ryan, D; Barry, E; Swett, P


    The release into the deep ocean of an emulsion of liquid carbon dioxide-in-seawater stabilized by fine particles of pulverized limestone (CaCO3) is modeled. The emulsion is denser than seawater, hence, it will sink deeper from the injection point, increasing the sequestration period. Also, the presence of CaCO3 will partially buffer the carbonic acid that results when the emulsion eventually disintegrates. The distance that the plume sinks depends on the density stratification of the ocean, the amount of the released emulsion, and the entrainment factor. When released into the open ocean, a plume containing the CO2 output of a 1000 MW(el) coal-fired power plant will typically sink hundreds of meters below the injection point. When released from a pipe into a valley on the continental shelf, the plume will sink about twice as far because of the limited entrainment of ambient seawater when the plume flows along the valley. A practical system is described involving a static mixer for the in situ creation of the CO2/seawater/pulverized limestone emulsion. The creation of the emulsion requires significant amounts of pulverized limestone, on the order of 0.5 tons per ton of liquid CO2. That increases the cost of ocean sequestration by about $13/ ton of CO2 sequestered. However, the additional cost may be compensated by the savings in transportation costs to greater depth, and because the release of an emulsion will not acidify the seawater around the release point.

  6. The Abundance of Atmospheric CO_2 in Ocean Exoplanets: a Novel CO_2 Deposition Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, A.; Sasselov, D.; Podolak, M.


    We consider super-Earth sized planets which have a water mass fraction large enough to form an external mantle composed of high-pressure water-ice polymorphs and also lack a substantial H/He atmosphere. We consider such planets in their habitable zone, so that their outermost condensed mantle is a global, deep, liquid ocean. For these ocean planets, we investigate potential internal reservoirs of CO_2, the amount of CO_2 dissolved in the ocean for the various saturation conditions encountered, and the ocean-atmosphere exchange flux of CO_2. We find that, in a steady state, the abundance of CO_2 in the atmosphere has two possible states. When wind-driven circulation is the dominant CO_2 exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of tens of bars of CO_2 results, where the exact value depends on the subtropical ocean surface temperature and the deep ocean temperature. When sea-ice formation, acting on these planets as a CO_2 deposition mechanism, is the dominant exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of a few bars of CO_2 is established. The exact value depends on the subpolar surface temperature. Our results suggest the possibility of a negative feedback mechanism, unique to water planets, where a reduction in the subpolar temperature drives more CO_2 into the atmosphere to increase the greenhouse effect.

  7. Theoretical Investigations of CO 2 and H 2 Sorption in an Interpenetrated Square-Pillared Metal–Organic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony


    Simulations of CO2 and H2 sorption and separation were performed in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i], a metal-organic material (MOM) consisting of an interpenetrated square grid of Cu2+ ions coordinated to 4,4′-dipyridylacetylene (dpa) rings and pillars of SiF6 2- ions. This class of water stable MOMs shows great promise in practical gas sorption/separation with especially high selectivity for CO2 and variable selectivity for other energy related gases. Simulated CO2 sorption isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption, Qst, at ambient temperatures were in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements at all pressures considered. Further, it was observed that the Qst for CO2 increases as a function of uptake in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i]. This suggests that nascently sorbed CO2 molecules within a channel contribute to a more energetically favorable site for additional CO2 molecules, i.e., in stark contrast to typical behavior, sorbate intermolecular interactions enhance sorption energetics with increased loading. The simulated structure at CO2 saturation shows a loading with tight packing of 8 CO2 molecules per unit cell. The CO2 molecules can be seen alternating between a vertical and horizontal alignment within a channel, with each CO2 molecule coordinating to an equatorial fluorine MOM atom. Calculated H 2 sorption isotherms and Qst values were also in good agreement with the experimental measurements in [Cu(dpa)2SiF 6-i]. H2 saturation corresponds to 10 H2 molecules per unit cell for the studied structure. Moreover, there were two observed binding sites for hydrogen sorption in [Cu(dpa)2SiF 6-i]. Simulations of a 30:70 CO2/H2 mixture, typical of syngas, in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i] showed that the MOM exhibited a high uptake and selectivity for CO2. In addition, it was observed that the presence of H2O had a negligible effect on the CO2 uptake and selectivity in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i], as simulations of a mixture containing CO2, H2, and small amounts of CO, N2, and H2O produced comparable

  8. Measurement of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for the DME + Diisopropyl Ether Binary System and Correlation for the DME + CO2 + Diisopropyl Ether Ternary System (United States)

    Wu, Xianghong; Du, Xiaojie; Zheng, Danxing


    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data have been measured with a static-type VLE apparatus for the dimethyl ether (DME)-diisopropyl ether (DIPE) binary system at five temperatures within the range from 293.04 K to 352.70 K. An isothermal correlation for the experimental data has been carried out based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The regressed binary interaction parameters were used to estimate VLE for the DME-CO2-DIPE ternary system at 298.15 K. From the study, it is demonstrated that DIPE is an excellent absorbent for separation in the DME synthesis process from syngas.

  9. Compressed liquid densities and excess molar volumes for (CO2 + 1-pentanol) binary system at temperatures from 313 to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Sandler, Stanley I.


    Measurements of compressed liquid densities for 1-pentanol and for {CO 2 (1) + 1-pentanol (2)} system were carried out at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa. Densities were measured for binary mixtures at 10 different compositions, x 1 = 0.0816, 0.1347, 0.3624, 0.4651, 0.6054, 0.7274, 0.8067, 0.8573, 0.9216, and 0.9757. A vibrating tube densimeter was used to perform density measurements using two reference calibration fluids. The uncertainty is estimated to be better than ±0.2 kg . m -3 for the experimental density measurements. For each mixture and for 1-pentanol, the experimental densities were correlated using an explicit volume equation of six parameters and an 11-parameter equation of state (EoS). Excess molar volumes were determined for the (CO 2 + 1-pentanol) system using 1-pentanol densities calculated from the 11-parameter EoS and CO 2 densities calculated from a multiparameter reference EoS

  10. Synthesis and Characterisation of ETS-10/Acetate-based Ionic Liquid/Chitosan Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2/N2 Permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Casado-Coterillo


    Full Text Available Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs were prepared by incorporating organic surfactant-free hydrothermally synthesised ETS-10 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ionic liquid (IL to chitosan (CS polymer matrix. The membrane material characteristics and permselectivity performance of the two-component membranes were compared with the three-component membrane and the pure CS membrane. The addition of IL increased CO2 solubility of the polymer, and, thus, the CO2 affinity was maintained for the MMMs, which can be correlated with the crystallinity, measured by FT-IR, and void fraction calculations from differences between theoretical and experimental densities. The mechanical resistance was enhanced by the ETS-10 nanoparticles, and flexibility decreased in the two-component ETS-10/CS MMMs, but the flexibility imparted by the IL remained in three-component ETS-10/IL/CS MMMs. The results of this work provide insight into another way of facing the adhesion challenge in MMMs and obtain CO2 selective MMMs from renewable or green chemistry materials.

  11. Enhanced Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to CO through TiO2 Passivation of InP in Ionic Liquids. (United States)

    Zeng, Guangtong; Qiu, Jing; Hou, Bingya; Shi, Haotian; Lin, Yongjing; Hettick, Mark; Javey, Ali; Cronin, Stephen B


    A robust and reliable method for improving the photocatalytic performance of InP, which is one of the best known materials for solar photoconversion (i.e., solar cells). In this article, we report substantial improvements (up to 18×) in the photocatalytic yields for CO2 reduction to CO through the surface passivation of InP with TiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here, the main mechanisms of enhancement are the introduction of catalytically active sites and the formation of a pn-junction. Photoelectrochemical reactions were carried out in a nonaqueous solution consisting of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM]BF4), dissolved in acetonitrile, which enables CO2 reduction with a Faradaic efficiency of 99% at an underpotential of +0.78 V. While the photocatalytic yield increases with the addition of the TiO2 layer, a corresponding drop in the photoluminescence intensity indicates the presence of catalytically active sites, which cause an increase in the electron-hole pair recombination rate. NMR spectra show that the [EMIM](+) ions in solution form an intermediate complex with CO2(-), thus lowering the energy barrier of this reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD


    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  13. Preliminary investigation on the chemical response of cementitious grouts used for borehole sealing in geologically stored CO2 (United States)

    Giannoukos, Konstantinos; Hall, Matthew; Rochelle, Christopher; Milodowski, Antoni; Rigby, Sean


    The successful geological storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs aims to immobilize the injected CO2 stream in the form of secondary minerals through reaction with primary minerals or pore fluids in the host rock formations. Injection wells and other boreholes within the reservoir represent a major potential pathway for CO2 to leak back to the surface. Therefore, the stability of well seals is a critical factor for the risk assessment of existing and the design of new CO2 injection wells. Cement-based grouts emplaced within the steel borehole liner, and between the liner and the rock formation, must seal the well against leakage, both during the CO2 injection stage and for a significant time after well abandonment, to allow for the CO2 to be immobilized though rock-water interaction in the reservoir. The injected super-critical CO2 (scCO2) experiences temperatures up to 180oC and pressures at depths greater than 800m, and when dissolved in rock formation waters create chemically reactive species that could impact the stability of cement seals. In an attempt to evaluate the impact of scCO2-saturated fluids in class G oilfield grouts, batch experiments at 80bar and 60oC/ 120oC were carried for pure cement and cement-steel cylindrical samples immersed in a realistic formation porewater composition. Destructive and healing features were observed by means of backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSE) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) elemental mapping; both phenomena were evident in Ca leaching from, and deposition on, the surface of the samples, respectively. Structural cement components like Si appear to have retained their original particle-like shape in the regions affected by the CO2 in the 60oC experiments, but their preservation at 120oC is vaguer. The liberation of Ca2+ from the hydrated cement particles (indicated by local decrease of the Ca/Si ratio), and the reactions with the incoming carbonate/bicarbonate anions seem to evolve

  14. Localization of (photorespiration and CO2 re-assimilation in tomato leaves investigated with a reaction-diffusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman N C Berghuijs

    Full Text Available The rate of photosynthesis depends on the CO2 partial pressure near Rubisco, Cc, which is commonly calculated by models using the overall mesophyll resistance. Such models do not explain the difference between the CO2 level in the intercellular air space and Cc mechanistically. This problem can be overcome by reaction-diffusion models for CO2 transport, production and fixation in leaves. However, most reaction-diffusion models are complex and unattractive for procedures that require a large number of runs, like parameter optimisation. This study provides a simpler reaction-diffusion model. It is parameterized by both leaf physiological and leaf anatomical data. The anatomical data consisted of the thickness of the cell wall, cytosol and stroma, and the area ratios of mesophyll exposed to the intercellular air space to leaf surfaces and exposed chloroplast to exposed mesophyll surfaces. The model was used directly to estimate photosynthetic parameters from a subset of the measured light and CO2 response curves; the remaining data were used for validation. The model predicted light and CO2 response curves reasonably well for 15 days old tomato (cv. Admiro leaves, if (photorespiratory CO2 release was assumed to take place in the inner cytosol or in the gaps between the chloroplasts. The model was also used to calculate the fraction of CO2 produced by (photorespiration that is re-assimilated in the stroma, and this fraction ranged from 56 to 76%. In future research, the model should be further validated to better understand how the re-assimilation of (photorespired CO2 is affected by environmental conditions and physiological parameters.

  15. Investigation of heat transfer and pressure drop of CO(2) two-phase flow in a horizontal minichannel

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, J; Haug, F; Franke, C; Bremer, J; Eisel, T; Koettig, T


    An innovative cooling system based on evaporative CO(2) two-phase flow is under investigation for the tracker detectors upgrade at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). The radiation hardness and the excellent thermodynamic properties emphasize carbon dioxide as a cooling agent in the foreseen minichannels. A circular stainless steel tube in horizontal orientation with an inner diameter of 1.42 mm and a length of 0.3 m has been used as a test section to perform the step-wise scanning of the vapor quality in the entire two-phase region. To characterize the heat transfer and the pressure drop depending on the vapor quality in the tube, measurements have been performed by varying the mass flux from 300 to 600 kg/m(2) s, the heat flux from 7.5 to 29.8 kW/m(2) and the saturation temperature from -40 to 0 degrees C (reduced pressures from 0.136 to 0.472). Heat transfer coefficients between 4 kW/m(2) K and 28 kW/m(2) K and pressure gradients up to 75 kPa/m were registered. The measured data was analyzed...

  16. Experimental investigation on mechanical and microstructural properties of AISI 304 to Cu joints by CO2 laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Ranjan Moharana


    Full Text Available Aim of the present work is to investigate mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of continuous wave CO2 laser welded dissimilar couple of AISI 304 stainless steel and commercially pure copper sheets in autogenous mode. Metallurgical analysis of the fusion zone has been done to understand the mixing and solidification behavior. Macroscopic examination has been carried out to observe the macro-segregation pattern of Cu, Fe and Cr rich phases in different zones, and the thickness of HAZ was found to be around 10 µm. The micro-channels formed from the steel side to weld pool describe that the copper solidifies first and provides the nucleation surface for the residual melt to grow. These tubular micro-channels formed may be due to carbide precipitation. The EDS analysis conforms the well mixing of SS and Cu inside the weld pool. The mechanical properties in terms of tensile stress found up to 201 MPa and the fracture are obtained outside the weld zone. Microhardness measurements over the fusion zone have been done to understand the keyhole growth and quenching, solidification sequence and stress distribution over the full area.

  17. In-situ Optical Spectroscopy Investigation of Water and Its influence on Forsterite Transformation in Supercritical CO2 (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Thompson, C. J.; Joly, A. G.; Sklarew, D. S.; Poindexter, L.; Rosso, K. M.


    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from coal/gas-burning power plants is currently viewed as one of the most promising technologies for mitigating green house gas emissions. This strategy involves injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) into deep geological formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers. The feasibility of this approach and the ultimate fate of the stored CO2 are determined by the interactions between scCO2, various minerals in the rock formations, and the host fluids. Currently, there is only limited knowledge about both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the physical and chemical processes that occur between scCO2 and relevant minerals, such as metal silicates and metal aluminosilicates, and the role of water activity for catalyzing mineral transformation reactions. In this work, we have developed a modular in situ optical spectroscopic platform that integrates a scCO2 generation and manipulation system with an array of optical and laser spectroscopies including UV-visible, IR, Raman and laser fluorescence spectroscopy. We have used the system to study i) the dissolution and quantification of H2O/D2O in scCO2 and ii) interaction between scCO2 and a model metal silicate, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), and the effects of the presence of water under variable pressure, temperature and water content. Our results showed that H2O and D2O have unique IR spectral features over a broad spectral range from 700 cm-1 to ~ 2900 cm-1 in scCO2 and their concentrations are directly proportional to the characteristic IR bands that correspond to their stretching (D2O) and bending frequencies (both D2O and H2O). These bands offer a unique spectroscopic signature useful for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the properties and reactivity of small amounts of H2O in scCO2. metal carbonation reactions relevant to sequestration.

  18. [The spectra of a laser-produced plasma source with CO2, O2 and CF4 liquid aerosol spray target]. (United States)

    Ni, Qi-Liang; Chen, Bo


    A laser-produced plasma (LPP) source with liquid aerosol spray target and nanosecond laser was developed, based on both soft X-ray radiation metrology and extreme ultraviolet projection lithography (EUVL). The LPP source is composed of a stainless steel solenoid valve whose temperature can be continuously controlled, a Nd : YAG laser with pulse width, working wavelength and pulse energy being 7 ns, 1.064 microm and 1J respectively, and a pulse generator which can synchronously control the valve and the laser. A standard General Valve Corporation series 99 stainless steel solenoid valve with copper gasket seals and a Kel-F poppet are used in order to minimize leakage and poppet deformation during high-pressure cryogenic operation. A close fitting copper cooling jacket surrounds the valve body. The jacket clamps a copper coolant carrying tube 3 mm in diameter, which is fed by an automatically pressurized liquid nitrogen-filled dewar. The valve temperature can be controlled between 77 and 473 K. For sufficiently high backing pressure and low temperature, the valve reservoir gas can undergo a gas-to-liquid phase transition. Upon valve pulsing, the liquid is ejected into a vacuum and breaks up into droplets, which is called liquid aerosol spray target. For the above-mentioned LPP source, firstly, by the use of Cowan program on the basis of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the authors computed the radiative transition wavelengths and probabilities in soft X-ray region for O4+, O5+, O6+, O7+, F5+, F6+ and F7+ ions which were correspondingly produced from the interaction of the 10(11)-10(12) W x cm(-2) power laser with liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray targets. Secondly, the authors measured the spectra of liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray target LPP sources in the 6-20 nm band for the 8 x 10(11) W x cm(-2) laser irradiance. The measured results were compared with the Cowan calculated results ones, and the radiative transition wavelength and probability for the

  19. The Concept and Analytical Investigation of CO2 and Steam Co-Electrolysis for Resource Utilization in Space Exploration (United States)

    McKellar, Michael G.; Stoots, Carl M.; Sohal, Manohar S.; Mulloth, Lila M.; Luna, Bernadette; Abney, Morgan B.


    CO2 acquisition and utilization technologies will have a vital role in designing sustainable and affordable life support and in situ fuel production architectures for human and robotic exploration of Moon and Mars. For long-term human exploration to be practical, reliable technologies have to be implemented to capture the metabolic CO2 from the cabin air and chemically reduce it to recover oxygen. Technologies that enable the in situ capture and conversion of atmospheric CO2 to fuel are essential for a viable human mission to Mars. This paper describes the concept and mathematical analysis of a closed-loop life support system based on combined electrolysis of CO2 and steam (co-electrolysis). Products of the coelectrolysis process include oxygen and syngas (CO and H2) that are suitable for life support and synthetic fuel production, respectively. The model was developed based on the performance of a co-electrolysis system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Individual and combined process models of the co-electrolysis and Sabatier, Bosch, Boudouard, and hydrogenation reactions are discussed and their performance analyses in terms of oxygen production and CO2 utilization are presented.

  20. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.


    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have

  1. State of the art and risk analysis for CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farret, R.; Gombert, P.; Hulot, C.; BOUR, Olivier; Thoraval, Alain


    This study deals with the impact of supercritical CO 2 injection in deep saline aquifer, but also addresses the case of depleted hydrocarbons fields. After a general presentation of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technique, this report presents the main principles of risk analysis and defines an analysis method applicable to the whole CCS sector. It is based on practices coming from the field of industrial risk analysis, on the knowledge of underground processes, and on the state of the art of health risk analysis in the case of chemical species. The main considered risks are hydraulic risks (fluid pressurization), mechanical risks (cracking, soil rising and induced seismicity), CO 2 migration or leakages towards aquifers and surface, and migration of other species than CO 2 . The report addresses the characterisation of fluids and of possible geochemical evolutions, the characterisation of scenarios of fluid migration, and the hierarchy of health impacts related to fluid leakages

  2. Insight into the electronic effect of phosphine ligand on Rh catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation by investigating the reaction mechanism. (United States)

    Ni, Shao-Fei; Dang, Li


    Improving the catalytic efficiency of CO2 hydrogenation is a big challenge in catalysed CO2 recycling and H2 conservation. The detailed mechanism of [Rh(PCH2X(R)CH2P)2](+) (X(R) = CH2, N-CH3, CF2) catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation is studied to obtain insights into the electronic effect of the substituents at diphosphine ligand on the catalytic efficiency. The most favorable reaction mechanism is found to be composed of three steps: (1) oxidative addition of dihydrogen onto the Rh center of the catalyst; (2) the first hydride abstraction by base from the Rh dihydride complexes; (3) the second hydride transfer from the Rh hydride complexes to CO2. It was found that the transition state for the first hydride abstraction from the Rh dihydride complex is the TOF-determining transition state (TDTS) in the most favorable mechanism. The energetic span (δE) of the cycle is suggested related to the thermodynamic hydricity of the Rh dihydride complex. Model catalyst [Rh(PCH2CF2CH2P)2](+) with a strong σ electron withdrawing group on the diphosphine ligand provides higher hydricity in the Rh dihydride complex and lower activation energy when compared with the other two catalysts. Our study shows that it is the σ electron withdrawing ability rather than the electron donating ability that enhances the catalytic efficiency in catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation. This finding will benefit ligand design in transition metal catalysts and lead to more efficient methods for CO2 transformation.

  3. A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.


    The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

  4. In Situ 13C NMR at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures Investigating the Conversion of CO2 to Magnesium and Calcium Carbonate Minerals (United States)

    Surface, J. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Skemer, P. A.; Hayes, S. E.


    We have constructed specialized NMR hardware to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies of unmixed heterogeneous mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Specifically, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine efficacy of carbonate formation in various geological reservoirs. Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals. When CO2 reacts with the calcium or magnesium in a mineral or rock sample, the 13C chemical shift, linewidth, lineshape, and relaxation times change dramatically. This change can be monitored in situ and provide instantaneous and continuous characterization that maps the chemistry that is taking place. For example, on the pathway to MgCO3 formation, there are a number of phases of Mg(OH)x(H2O)y(CO3)z that are apparent via NMR spectroscopy. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative characterization of multiple metastable mineral phases in pure forms and in mixtures. Results are confirmed via powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy of aquo- hydro- carbonato- magnesium species and calcium carbonate species. We also have monitored the 13C spectroscopy to analyze the phase of CO2 (liquid, supercritical, or gas) and its conversion into other forms, such as bicarbonate and carbonate species, providing a "window" into the in situ pH of the reacting system. Reference: 'In Situ

  5. Investigation of the supercritical CO2 cycle: mapping of the thermodynamic potential for different applications; further understanding of the physical processes, in particular through simulations and analysis of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Hong-Son


    - have revealed a significant de-crease of the static temperature and static pressure in some local area of flow acceleration, leading to the likely appearance of two-phase flow. To prevent such an issue, recommendations for the choice of the compressor inlet conditions and for its preliminary design have been provided. Second, an approach for compressor performance maps has been proposed on the basis of some key dimensionless numbers of the turbomachinery problem. It has been confirmed, using the CFD results, to provide a consistent representation and reliable prediction of the sc-CO 2 compressor performance in the subcritical liquid and supercritical phases, overcoming the limitations of previous approaches. Third, numerical results have revealed no singular behavior of flow properties in the boundary of the sc-CO 2 compressor, even in case of significant transient change of the inlet conditions, typically in terms of fluid compressibility. Finally, the bubble dynamics in liquid CO 2 near the critical point is investigated. Several calculated characteristic parameters suggested that the thermal effects, which relate to the change of the vapor pressure inside the bubble, are important in the CO 2 bubble dynamics. Thus, a very slow contraction has been foreseen during the collapse, leading to the absence of any noticeable pressure rise. This has been additionally sup-ported through simulations using a model from the literature which implementation in Matlab environment was validated through a benchmark. The reported predominant thermal effects mechanism and connected likely absence of cavitation damage are seen to be in line with the lack of detrimental effects experienced in a test program, during which the compressor was operated in the two-phase region. In that case, sc-CO 2 compressor operation in the subcritical liquid region would be promoted for cycle efficiency improvement. (author) [fr

  6. Experimental investigation on predictive models for motive flow calculation through ejectors for transcritical CO2 heat pumps (United States)

    Boccardi, G.; Lillo, G.; Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A. W.; Saraceno, L.; Pieve, M.; Trinchieri, R.


    Nowadays, air conditioning systems, especially those used in residential and office buildings, contribute largely to the energy consumptions and to the direct and indirect emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an interesting option to replace traditional HFCs in vapor compression systems, due to its environmentally friendly characteristics: zero ODP and extremely low GWP. In the case of heat pumps, the use of ejection systems for the expansion phase can contribute to recovery a fraction of the mechanical energy otherwise dissipated as friction, bringing to significant benefits in terms of performance. Currently, at the laboratory DTE-PCU-SPCT of the research center ENEA (Casaccia) in cooperation with the Industrial Engineering Department of Federico II University of Naples, a project is in progress, in order to evaluate experimentally the effect of several ejectors geometries on the global performance of a CO2 heat pump working with a transcritical cycle. As a part of this project, measurements of the motive flow mass flow rate have been carried out, in transcritical CO2 conditions. The ejector sizing is a crucial point for the balancing of components and the correct operation of the CO2 heat pump and therefore the availability of reliable calculation methods for the motive flowrate would be useful. This paper presents the results obtained by a comparison between the new experimental data and the predictions of some predictive semi-empirical correlations available in the open literature for transcritical CO2 conditions. Their predictions are analyzed as a function of the main physical parameters of the process to assess their reliability compared to the experimental data. Based on these indications and of the available experimental data, a new semi-empirical correlations and a calculation method based on the hypothesis of isentropic and choked two-phase flow are presented.

  7. Real-space investigation of short-range magnetic correlations in fluoride pyrochlores NaCaCo2F7 and NaSrCo2F7 with magnetic pair distribution function analysis (United States)

    Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Ross, Kate A.; Krizan, Jason W.; Nilsen, Gøran J.; Wildes, Andrew R.; Cava, Robert J.; Birgeneau, Robert J.; Billinge, Simon J. L.


    We present time-of-flight neutron total scattering and polarized neutron scattering measurements of the magnetically frustrated compounds NaCaCo2F7 and NaSrCo2F7 , which belong to a class of recently discovered pyrochlore compounds based on transition metals and fluorine. The magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF) technique is used to analyze and model the total scattering data in real space. We find that a previously proposed model of short-range XY-like correlations with a length scale of 10-15 Å, combined with nearest-neighbor collinear antiferromagnetic correlations, accurately describes the mPDF data at low temperature, confirming the magnetic ground state in these materials. This model is further verified by the polarized neutron scattering data. From an analysis of the temperature dependence of the mPDF and polarized neutron scattering data, we find that short-range correlations persist on the nearest-neighbor length scale up to 200 K, approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the spin freezing temperatures of these compounds. These results highlight the opportunity presented by these new pyrochlore compounds to study the effects of geometric frustration at relatively high temperatures, while also advancing the mPDF technique and providing an opportunity to investigate a genuinely short-range-ordered magnetic ground state directly in real space.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations on the density profile of CO2 laser-produced Sn plasma for an EUVL source (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Ueno, Y.; Yuspeh, S.; Burdt, R. A.; Amin, N.; Shaikh, N. M.; Tillack, M. S.; Najmabadi, F.


    Experimentally observed density profile of CO2 laser-produced Sn plasma was compared with that predicted by one dimensional hydrodynamic radiation numerical code. Experimental data showed a much smaller corona and a much shorter shift distance of the critical density from the initial target surface as compared with those predicted by an isothermal model and the numerical simulation. The possible reason may come from thin localized laser deposition region, less energy transport into the corona and into the dense region beyond the critical density. This research suggests that more efforts to understand the fundamental dominating the interaction of CO2 laser with high Z plasma are necessary to form a more solid foundation for the application of numerical method to the development of the EUVL source.

  9. Formation of Copper Catalysts for CO2 Reduction with High Ethylene/Methane Product Ratio Investigated with In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Eilert, André; Roberts, F Sloan; Friebel, Daniel; Nilsson, Anders


    Nanostructured copper cathodes are among the most efficient and selective catalysts to date for making multicarbon products from the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR). We report an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the formation of a copper nanocube CO2RR catalyst with high activity that highly favors ethylene over methane production. The results show that the precursor for the copper nanocube formation is copper(I)-oxide, not copper(I)-chloride as previously assumed. A second route to an electrochemically similar material via a copper(II)-carbonate/hydroxide is also reported. This study highlights the importance of using oxidized copper precursors for constructing selective CO2 reduction catalysts and shows the precursor oxidation state does not affect the electrocatalyst selectivity toward ethylene formation.

  10. Improving CO2 permeation and separation performance of CO2-philic polymer membrane by blending CO2 absorbents (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Hu, Leiqing; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa


    To research effects of CO2 absorption capacity and type of CO2 absorbent on the CO2 separation and free-volume properties of facilitated transport membranes, two types of CO2 absorbents, namely monoethanolamine (MEA) and ionic liquids (ILs:[P66614][Triz] and [P66614][2-Op]), were adopted. The CO2 absorption capacities of MEA, [P66614][Triz] and [P66614][2-Op] were about 0.561 mol CO2 per mol, 0.95 mol CO2 per mol and 1.60 mol CO2 per mol, respectively. All mean free-volume hole radiuses of membranes decreased after blending CO2 absorbents. After polymer membrane blended with two ILs, number of free-volume hole increased, resulting in modest increase of the fractional free volume. Both CO2 permeability and selectivity increased after blending MEA and ILs. The increasing range of CO2 permeability corresponded with CO2 absorption capacity of CO2 absorbents, and membrane blending with [P66614][2-Op] showed the highest CO2 permeability of 672.1 Barrers at 25 °C. Pebax/PEGDME membrane blending with MEA obtained the highest CO2/H2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity at 17.8 and 20.5, respectively.

  11. Individual vs. combinatorial effect of elevated CO2 conditions and salinity stress on Arabidopsis thaliana liquid cultures: Comparing the early molecular response using time-series transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Bhaskar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigated the individual and combinatorial effect of elevated CO2 conditions and salinity stress on the dynamics of both the transcriptional and metabolic physiology of Arabidopsis thaliana liquid hydroponic cultures over the first 30 hours of continuous treatment. Both perturbations are of particular interest in plant and agro-biotechnological applications. Moreover, within the timeframe of this experiment, they are expected to affect plant growth to opposite directions. Thus, a major objective was to investigate whether this expected "divergence" was valid for the individual perturbations and to study how it is manifested under the combined stress at two molecular levels of cellular function, using high-throughput analyses. Results We observed that a high salinity has stronger effect than elevated CO2 at both the transcriptional and metabolic levels, b the transcriptional responses to the salinity and combined stresses exhibit strong similarity, implying a robust transcriptional machinery acting to the salinity stress independent of the co-occurrence of elevated CO2, c the combinatorial effect of the two perturbations on the metabolic physiology is milder than of the salinity stress alone. Metabolomic analysis suggested that the beneficial role of elevated CO2 on salt-stressed plants within the timeframe of this study should be attributed to the provided additional resources; these allow the plants to respond to high salinity without having to forfeit other major metabolic functions, and d 9 h-12 h and 24 h of treatment coincide with significant changes in the metabolic physiology under any of the investigated stresses. Significant differences between the acute and longer term responses were observed at both molecular levels. Conclusions This study contributes large-scale dynamic omic data from two levels of cellular function for a plant system under various stresses. It provides an additional example

  12. Adsorption of H2O, H2, O2, CO, NO, and CO2 on graphene/g-C3N4 nanocomposite investigated by density functional theory (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Zhang; Bandaru, Sateesh; Liu, Jin; Li, Li-Li; Wang, Zhenling


    Motivated by the photocatalytic reactions of small molecules on g-C3N4 by these insights, we sought to explore the adsorption of H2O and CO2 molecules on the graphene side and H2O, H2, O2, CO, NO, and CO2 molecules on the g-C3N4 side of hybrid g-C3N4/graphene nanocomposite using first-principles calculations. The atomic structure and electronic properties of hybrid g-C3N4/graphene nanocomposite is explored. The adsorption of small molecules on graphene/g-C3N4 nanocomposite is thoroughly investigated. The computational studies revels that all small molecules on graphene/g-C3N4 nanocomposite are the physisorption. The adsorption characteristics of H2O and CO2 molecules on the graphene side are similar to that on graphene. The adsorption of H2O, H2, O2, CO, NO, and CO2 molecules on the g-C3N4 side always leads to a buckle structure of graphene/g-C3N4 nanocomposite. Graphene as a substrate can significantly relax the buckle degree of g-C3N4 in g-C3N4/graphene nanocomposite.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the MMOF selectivity for CO2 vs. N2 in flue gas mixtures. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijuan; Liu, Jinchen; Li, Zhong; Li, Jing


    The adsorption capacity and selectivity of carbon dioxide and nitrogen at 298 K have been evaluated for two series of MMOFs built on metal paddle-wheel building units, including non-interpenetrated Zn(BDC)(TED)(0.5) (1), Zn(BDC-OH)(TED)(0.5) (2), Zn(BDC-NH(2))(TED)(0.5) (3), and interpenetrated Zn(BDC)(BPY)(0.5) (4), Zn(BDC)(DMBPY)(0.5) (5), Zn(NDC)(BPY)(0.5) (6) and Zn(NDC)(DMBPY)(0.5) (7) framework structures. The ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) has been employed to predict the adsorption selectivity of CO(2)-N(2) binary mixtures on all seven MMOFs using single-component experimental adsorption isotherm data. The applicability of IAST to these systems is verified by GCMC simulations performed on both single- and multi-component gases.

  14. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.


    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  15. CO2 interaction with geomaterials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, George D. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Al-Saidi, Wissam A. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Jordan, Kenneth D. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Voora, Vamsee, K. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lopano, Christina L (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Myshakin, Eugene M. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Hur, Tae Bong (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Warzinski, Robert P. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lynn, Ronald J. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Howard, Bret H. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy


    This work compares the sorption and swelling processes associated with CO2-coal and CO2-clay interactions. We investigated the mechanisms of interaction related to CO2 adsortion in micropores, intercalation into sub-micropores, dissolution in solid matrix, the role of water, and the associated changes in reservoir permeability, for applications in CO2 sequestration and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The structural changes caused by CO2 have been investigated. A high-pressure micro-dilatometer was equipped to investigate the effect of CO2 pressure on the thermoplastic properties of coal. Using an identical dilatometer, Rashid Khan (1985) performed experiments with CO2 that revealed a dramatic reduction in the softening temperature of coal when exposed to high-pressure CO2. A set of experiments was designed for -20+45-mesh samples of Argonne Premium Pocahontas No.3 coal, which is similar in proximate and ultimate analysis to the Lower Kittanning seam coal that Khan used in his experiments. No dramatic decrease in coal softening temperature has been observed in high-pressure CO2 that would corroborate the prior work of Khan. Thus, conventional polymer (or 'geopolymer') theories may not be directly applicable to CO2 interaction with coals. Clays are similar to coals in that they represent abundant geomaterials with well-developed microporous structure. We evaluated the CO2 sequestration potential of clays relative to coals and investigated the factors that affect the sorption capacity, rates, and permanence of CO2 trapping. For the geomaterials comparison studies, we used source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. Preliminary results showed that expandable clays have CO2 sorption capacities comparable to those of coal. We analyzed sorption isotherms, XRD, DRIFTS (infrared reflectance spectra at non-ambient conditions), and TGA-MS (thermal gravimetric analysis) data to compare the effects of various factors on CO2 trapping. In montmorillonite, CO

  16. Neutron radiography for visualization of liquid metal processes: bubbly flow for CO2 free production of Hydrogen and solidification processes in EM field (United States)

    Baake, E.; Fehling, T.; Musaeva, D.; Steinberg, T.


    The paper describes the results of two experimental investigations aimed to extend the abilities of a neutron radiography to visualize two-phase processes in the electromagnetically (EM) driven melt flow. In the first experiment the Argon bubbly flow in the molten Gallium - a simulation of the CO2 free production of Hydrogen process - was investigated and visualized. Abilities of EM stirring for control on the bubbles residence time in the melt were tested. The second experiment was directed to visualization of a solidification front formation under the influence of EM field. On the basis of the neutron shadow pictures the form of growing ingot, influenced by turbulent flows, was considered. In the both cases rotating permanent magnets were agitating the melt flow. The experimental results have shown that the neutron radiography can be successfully employed for obtaining the visual information about the described processes.

  17. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.


    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  18. Saturated CO2 inhibits microbial processes in CO2-vented deep-sea sediments (United States)

    de Beer, D.; Haeckel, M.; Neumann, J.; Wegener, G.; Inagaki, F.; Boetius, A.


    This study focused on biogeochemical processes and microbial activity in sediments of a natural deep-sea CO2 seepage area (Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Japan). The aim was to assess the influence of the geochemical conditions occurring in highly acidic and CO2 saturated sediments on sulfate reduction (SR) and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). Porewater chemistry was investigated from retrieved sediment cores and in situ by microsensor profiling. The sites sampled around a sediment-hosted hydrothermal CO2 vent were very heterogeneous in porewater chemistry, indicating a complex leakage pattern. Near the vents, droplets of liquid CO2 were observed emanating from the sediments, and the pH reached approximately 4.5 in a sediment depth > 6 cm, as determined in situ by microsensors. Methane and sulfate co-occurred in most sediment samples from the vicinity of the vents down to a depth of 3 m. However, SR and AOM were restricted to the upper 7-15 cm below seafloor, although neither temperature, low pH, nor the availability of methane and sulfate could be limiting microbial activity. We argue that the extremely high subsurface concentrations of dissolved CO2 (1000-1700 mM), which disrupt the cellular pH homeostasis, and lead to end-product inhibition. This limits life to the surface sediment horizons above the liquid CO2 phase, where less extreme conditions prevail. Our results may have to be taken into consideration in assessing the consequences of deep-sea CO2 sequestration on benthic element cycling and on the local ecosystem state.

  19. Saturated CO2 inhibits microbial processes in CO2-vented deep-sea sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. de Beer


    Full Text Available This study focused on biogeochemical processes and microbial activity in sediments of a natural deep-sea CO2 seepage area (Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Japan. The aim was to assess the influence of the geochemical conditions occurring in highly acidic and CO2 saturated sediments on sulfate reduction (SR and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM. Porewater chemistry was investigated from retrieved sediment cores and in situ by microsensor profiling. The sites sampled around a sediment-hosted hydrothermal CO2 vent were very heterogeneous in porewater chemistry, indicating a complex leakage pattern. Near the vents, droplets of liquid CO2 were observed emanating from the sediments, and the pH reached approximately 4.5 in a sediment depth > 6 cm, as determined in situ by microsensors. Methane and sulfate co-occurred in most sediment samples from the vicinity of the vents down to a depth of 3 m. However, SR and AOM were restricted to the upper 7–15 cm below seafloor, although neither temperature, low pH, nor the availability of methane and sulfate could be limiting microbial activity. We argue that the extremely high subsurface concentrations of dissolved CO2 (1000–1700 mM, which disrupt the cellular pH homeostasis, and lead to end-product inhibition. This limits life to the surface sediment horizons above the liquid CO2 phase, where less extreme conditions prevail. Our results may have to be taken into consideration in assessing the consequences of deep-sea CO2 sequestration on benthic element cycling and on the local ecosystem state.

  20. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.


    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  1. A comparative investigation of the efficacy of CO2 and high power diode lasers for the forming of EN3 mild steel sheets


    Lawrence, Jonathan


    A comparative investigation of the effectiveness of a high power diode laser (HPDL) and a CO2 laser for the forming of thin section EN3 mild steel sheet has been conducted. The buckling mechanism was identified as the laser forming mechanism responsible for the induced bending. For both lasers it was found that the induced bending angles increased with an increasing number of irradiations and high laser powers, whilst decreasing as the traverse speed was increased. Also, it was apparent from ...

  2. Partitioning of organics between ionic liquids and supercritical CO2: Limiting K-factors in [bmim][N(CN)2]–scCO2 system and generalized correlation with cation- and anion-specific LSERs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal


    Roč. 102, JUL (2015), s. 133-139 ISSN 0896-8446 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : ionic liquids * supercritical fluid chromatography * partition coefficient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2015

  3. The investigations of nanoclusters and micron-sized periodic structures created at the surface of the crystal and amorphous silica by resonant CO2 laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamedgalieva A.F.


    Full Text Available The creation of nanoclasters and micrometer sized periodical structures at the surface of silica (crystal quartz and fused quartz by action of pulsed CO2 laser radiation (pulse energy of 1 J, pulse time of 70 ns have been investigated. The laser action on the surface of samples lead to appearance of two kind of structures – periodical micron-sized structures with the period length close to wave length of CO2 laser irradiation and nanoclusters with size close to 50-100 nanometers. This creation connects with the intensive ablation of matter at the maxima of standing waves which are a results of the interference of falling and surfaces waves. This connects with the resonant absorption of infrared laser radiation by silicate minerals.

  4. Mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible CO2 sequestration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.


    The mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible carbon dioxide sequestration process were investigated experimentally by systematic variation of the reaction temperature, CO2 pressure, particle size, reaction time, liquid to solid ratio and agitation power. The carbonation reaction

  5. Economic growth and CO2 emissions: an investigation with smooth transition autoregressive distributed lag models for the 1800-2014 period in the USA. (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike; Ersin, Özgür Ömer


    The study aims to combine the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration framework with smooth transition autoregressive (STAR)-type nonlinear econometric models for causal inference. Further, the proposed STAR distributed lag (STARDL) models offer new insights in terms of modeling nonlinearity in the long- and short-run relations between analyzed variables. The STARDL method allows modeling and testing nonlinearity in the short-run and long-run parameters or both in the short- and long-run relations. To this aim, the relation between CO 2 emissions and economic growth rates in the USA is investigated for the 1800-2014 period, which is one of the largest data sets available. The proposed hybrid models are the logistic, exponential, and second-order logistic smooth transition autoregressive distributed lag (LSTARDL, ESTARDL, and LSTAR2DL) models combine the STAR framework with nonlinear ARDL-type cointegration to augment the linear ARDL approach with smooth transitional nonlinearity. The proposed models provide a new approach to the relevant econometrics and environmental economics literature. Our results indicated the presence of asymmetric long-run and short-run relations between the analyzed variables that are from the GDP towards CO 2 emissions. By the use of newly proposed STARDL models, the results are in favor of important differences in terms of the response of CO 2 emissions in regimes 1 and 2 for the estimated LSTAR2DL and LSTARDL models.

  6. FY 1996 annual report of investigation on biological fixation of carbon dioxide. 2; 1996 nendo seibutsuteki CO2 kotei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Various kinds of biological fixation processes of CO2 were evaluated from the various viewpoints. Afforestation of tropical and temperate areas, greening of desert, biomass energy production in these areas by energy plantation, coastal mangrove plantation, fertilization with nitrogen and phosphate to outer ocean and coastal, upwelling zone fertilization with iron, and coral reef expansion combined with OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) were comparatively investigated as the selected measures. As a result, the cost of CO2 fixation by cultivation of sea weed and plankton was much higher than that of afforestation. The iron fertilization method which was considered to be one of the high CO2 reduction potentials might be economical. However, its effect could not be quantitatively evaluated. The afforestation of tropical and temperate areas seemed to be most feasible in a short term from the viewpoints of economy and environment. It was suggested that the establishment of a systematic water management technology could make greening and afforestation of desert. 76 refs., 27 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. CO2 blood test (United States)

    ... page: // CO2 blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate ...

  8. Desarrollo de la ingenieria basica de una planta industrial para extraccion con CO2 liquido. I. Extractores Basic engineering development for liquid CO2 extraction industrial plant. I. Extractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Fernando GOLDENBERG


    Full Text Available En base a los resultados obtenidos en una unidad piloto cuyo diseño, montaje y puesta en operación fueron realizados con la finalidad de poder producir el cambio de escala, se dio inicio al proyecto de una planta de producción con características modulares por su flexibilidad operativa en cuanto a capacidad de producción y tipo de materia prima. Se desarrolló la ingeniería conceptual, consistente en la definición de las bases de diseño; las diferentes etapas del proceso, la capacidad de producción a instalar, los rangos de trabajo de las variables operativas, el régimen, la especificación de los materiales de construcción, características de la carga, materiales auxiliares y tipo de instrumentación y control. La ingeniería básica, especificación de equipos y componentes auxiliares, para: alimentación de CO2, bombeo y presurización, acondicionamiento térmico, extracción, separación fluido/extracto, medida y control del caudal, temperatura y presión, se encuentra en una etapa avanzada de ejecución. Se ha comenzado con la ingeniería de detalle de extractores con diferente capacidad.As conclusion to the scaling-up from a pilot plant designed, constructed and operated with this purpose an industrial plant project was started. This plant should show flexibility in both production capacity and raw material type. Conceptual engineering which comprised design basis ; process steps, production capacity, operative variable ranges, flux type, specification of construction materials, raw specifications, auxiliary materials, instrumentation and control type, were developed. Basic engineering comprissing equipment and auxiliary components specification of: CO2 entrance, pumping and pressurization, thermal conditionning, extraction, fluid- extract separation, flow temperature and pressure meassure and control, is in the lates steps. Detail engineering of different capacity extractors has been started at this point.

  9. Peculiarities of CO2 sequestration in the Permafrost area (United States)

    Guryeva, Olga; Chuvilin, Evgeny; Moudrakovski, Igor; Lu, Hailong; Ripmeester, John; Istomin, Vladimir


    Natural gas and gas-condensate accumulations in North of Western Siberia contain an admixture of CO2 (about 0.5-1.0 mol.%). Recently, the development and transportation of natural gas in the Yamal peninsula has become of interest to Russian scientists. They suggest liquifaction of natural gas followed by delivery to consumers using icebreaking tankers. The technique of gas liquefaction requires CO2 to be absent from natural gas, and therefore the liquefaction technology includes the amine treatment of gas. This then leads to a problem with utilization of recovered CO2. It is important to note, that gas reservoirs in the northern part of Russia are situated within the Permafrost zone. The thickness of frozen sediment reaches 500 meters. That is why one of the promising places for CO2 storage can be gas-permeable collectors in under-permafrost horizons. The favorable factors for preserving CO2 in these places are as follows: low permeability of overlying frozen sediments, low temperatures, the existence of a CO2 hydrate stability zone, and the possibility of sequestration at shallow depths (less then 800-1000 meters). When CO2 (in liquid or gas phase) is pumped into the under-permafrost collectors it is possible that some CO2 migrates towards the hydrate stability zone and hydrate-saturated horizons can be formed. This can result on the one hand in the increase of effective capacity of the collector, and on the other hand, in the increase of isolating properties of cap rock. Therefore, CO2 injection sometimes can be performed without a good cap rock. In connection with the abovementioned, to elaborate an effective technology for CO2 injection it is necessary to perform a comprehensive experimental investigation with computer simulation of different utilization schemes, including the process of CO2 hydrate formation in porous media. There are two possible schemes of hydrate formation in pore medium of sediments: from liquid CO2 or the gas. The pore water in the

  10. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.


    ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

  11. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibrium and PVTx properties of geological fluid system with SAFT-LJ EOS including multi-polar contribution. Part I: Application to H 2O-CO 2 system (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Dubessy, Jean


    Molecular based equations of state (EOS) are attractive because they can take into account the energetic contribution of the main types of molecular interactions. This study models vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and PVTx properties of the H 2O-CO 2 binary system using a Lennard-Jones (LJ) referenced SAFT (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) EOS. The improved SAFT-LJ EOS is defined in terms of the residual molar Helmholtz energy, which is a sum of four terms representing the contributions from LJ segment-segment interactions, chain-forming among the LJ segments, short-range associations and long-range multi-polar interactions. CO 2 is modeled as a linear chain molecule with a constant quadrupole moment, and H 2O is modeled as a spherical molecule with four association sites and a dipole moment. The multi-polar contribution to Helmholtz energy, including the dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole, and quadrupole-quadrupole contribution for H 2O-CO 2 system, is calculated using the theory of Gubbins and Twu (1978). Six parameters for pure H 2O and four parameters for pure CO 2 are needed in our model. The Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule is used to calculate the Lennard-Jones energy parameter and volume parameter for the mixture. Two or three binary parameters are needed for CO 2-H 2O mixtures, which are evaluated from phase equilibrium data of the binary system. Comparison with the experimental data shows that our model represents the PVT properties of CO 2 better than other SAFT EOS without a quadrupole contribution. For the CO 2-H 2O system, our model agrees well with the vapor-liquid equilibrium data from 323-623 K. The average relative deviation for CO 2 solubility (expressed in mole fraction) in water is within 6%. Our model can also predict the PVTx properties of CO 2-H 2O mixtures up to 1073 K and 3000 bar. The good performance of this model indicates that: (1) taking account of the multi-polar contribution explicitly improves the agreement of calculated

  12. Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity: An Empirical Investigation


    Giorgio Valente


    We provide empirical evidence that the relationship between market and funding liquidity display significant nonlinearities, consistent with theories of market trading with financially-constrained agents. Using data for the US equity market, we uncover nonlinearities that are consistent with a model with two extreme regimes: a lower regime characterized by the absence of correlation between market liquidity and funding liquidity, and an upper regime where the two variables are statistically p...

  13. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.


    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  14. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO(2). (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M


    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Zn x Cd1-x S tunable band structure-directing photocatalytic activity and selectivity of visible-light reduction of CO2 into liquid solar fuels (United States)

    Tang, Lanqin; Kuai, Libang; Li, Yichang; Li, Haijin; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang


    A series of Zn x Cd1-x S monodispersed nanospheres were successfully synthesized with tunable band structures. As-prepared Zn x Cd1-x S solid solutions show much enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for CO2 photoreduction in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiation, relative to pure CdS analog. Methanol (CH3OH) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) are the major products of CO2 photoreduction for the solid solutions with x = 0, 0.2, and 0.5. Interestingly, Zn0.8Cd0.2S photocatalyst with a wide band gap can also additionally generate ethanol (CH3CH2OH) besides CH3OH and CH3CHO. The balance between the band structure-directing redox capacity and light absorption should be considered to influence both product yield and selectivity of CO2 photoreduction. The possible photoreduction mechanism was tentatively proposed.

  16. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Survey on energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in Cilacap Refinery; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cilacap seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO2 sakugen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  17. Modeling Phase Equilibria for Acid Gas Mixtures using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. 3. Applications Relevant to Liquid or Supercritical CO2 Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Ali, Shahid; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    The CPA (cubic-plus-association) equation of state is applied in this work to a wide range of systems of relevance to CO2 transport. Both phase equilibria and densities over extensive temperature and pressure ranges are considered. More specifically in this study we first evaluate CPA against...

  18. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of Sea-Level and Ocean Climate Change in Response to CO2 Forcing (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; hide


    The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model

  19. Experimental investigation of geochemical and mineralogical effects of CO2 sequestration on flow characteristics of reservoir rock in deep saline aquifers (United States)

    Rathnaweera, T. D.; Ranjith, P. G.; Perera, M. S. A.


    Interactions between injected CO2, brine, and rock during CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers alter their natural hydro-mechanical properties, affecting the safety, and efficiency of the sequestration process. This study aims to identify such interaction-induced mineralogical changes in aquifers, and in particular their impact on the reservoir rock’s flow characteristics. Sandstone samples were first exposed for 1.5 years to a mixture of brine and super-critical CO2 (scCO2), then tested to determine their altered geochemical and mineralogical properties. Changes caused uniquely by CO2 were identified by comparison with samples exposed over a similar period to either plain brine or brine saturated with N2. The results show that long-term reaction with CO2 causes a significant pH drop in the saline pore fluid, clearly due to carbonic acid (as dissolved CO2) in the brine. Free H+ ions released into the pore fluid alter the mineralogical structure of the rock formation, through the dissolution of minerals such as calcite, siderite, barite, and quartz. Long-term CO2 injection also creates a significant CO2 drying-out effect and crystals of salt (NaCl) precipitate in the system, further changing the pore structure. Such mineralogical alterations significantly affect the saline aquifer’s permeability, with important practical consequences for the sequestration process. PMID:26785912

  20. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.


    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  1. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.


    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Facilitated Transport Membranes Composed of Chitosan-Styrene and Chitosan-Acrylonitrile Copolymers Modified by Methylimidazolium Based Ionic Liquids for CO2 Separation from CH4 and N2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia V. Otvagina


    Full Text Available CO2 separation was found to be facilitated by transport membranes based on novel chitosan (CS–poly(styrene (PS and chitosan (CS–poly(acrylonitrile (PAN copolymer matrices doped with methylimidazolium based ionic liquids: [bmim][BF4], [bmim][PF6], and [bmim][Tf2N] (IL. CS plays the role of biodegradable film former and selectivity promoter. Copolymers were prepared implementing the latest achievements in radical copolymerization with chosen monomers, which enabled the achievement of outstanding mechanical strength values for the CS-based membranes (75–104 MPa for CS-PAN and 69–75 MPa for CS-PS. Ionic liquid (IL doping affected the surface and mechanical properties of the membranes as well as the gas separation properties. The highest CO2 permeability 400 Barrers belongs to CS-b-PS/[bmim][BF4]. The highest selectivity α (CO2/N2 = 15.5 was achieved for CS-b-PAN/[bmim][BF4]. The operational temperature of the membranes is under 220 °C.

  3. Hydrochemical field investigations at a potential CO2 storage site - analysis of natural salinisation processes as an indicator for deep reaching flow processes in Eastern Brandenburg (Germany) (United States)

    Endler, Ricarda; Jahnke, Christoph; Ludwig, Oliver


    The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers may cause an upward brine migration as a result of the pressure increase and brine displacement in the reservoir. With regard to a possible endangerment for regional freshwater resources the understanding of natural and induced migration processes of brines is therefore of great importance for the evaluation of potential storage sites. Within the framework of the BMBF project 'brine - CO2 storage in Eastern Brandenburg' (Germany), hydrochemical investigations were carried out to get an idea of the sources of salinisation, the migration pathways and the current processes and interactions between salt- and freshwater aquifers above a potential CO2 storage reservoir. This reservoir is located at a salt anticline structure in a Lower Triassic sandstone formation at a depth of about 1000 m. Since the 19th century freshwater salinisation and salinised soils in part with populations of halophytes were observed in Brandenburg. Both, fault zones in the Mesozoic/Tertiary and Pleistocene erosion processes led locally to a leakage of the Oligocene Rupelian clay formation, the most important confining layer between Mesozoic saltwater and Cenozoic freshwater aquifers, and thus potential migration pathways for brines. Possible sources for the salinisation are the leaching of deep Permian salt structures as well as in situ brackish or marine waters from Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments. Still unclear is especially the timescale of the salinisation processes in the shallow aquifers. To answer these questions, extensive groundwater samples from Pleistocene, Tertiary and Mesozoic aquifers down to depths of 450 m were taken in an investigation area of 50 x 50 km2 surrounding the potential storage site. In addition, deep thermal waters in Brandenburg in depths down to 1700 m were sampled to have comparable data for the storage reservoir and the deep caprock formations. Field parameters and a wide range of hydrochemical indicators (anions

  4. Investigation of the degree of homogeneity and hydrogen bonding in PEG/PVP blends prepared in supercritical CO2: comparison with ethanol-cast blends and physical mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W


    Full Text Available (as monitored by FTIR analysis). The remaining material was then ground to a powder in a coffee grinder. The supercritical CO2-processed blends (scCO2- processed) were prepared by first mixing the weighed-off ingredients (20g samples) in the coffee...PEG the weight fraction of PEG in the blend and ∆HPEG the heat of fusion of the pure PEG- 1000. Based on this calculation, wcrPEG is 1.1 for the physical mixtures, 0.1 for the scCO2-processed samples while no crystalline PEG1000 was measured in the ethanol...

  5. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques


    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  6. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory


    Full Text Available The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs. It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sea-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable

  7. Application of trajectory clustering and source attribution methods for investigating regional CO2 and CH4 concentrations at Germany's highest mountain site (United States)

    Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Ries, Ludwig; Frank, Gabriele; Hachinger, Stephan; Meyer-Arnek, Julian


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) represent the most important contributors to increased radiative forcing enhancing it together by contemporary 2.65 W/m2 on the global average (IPCC 2013). The unbroken increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) has been unequivocally attributed to human emissions mainly coming from fossil fuel burning and land-use changes, while the oceans and terrestrial ecosystems slightly attenuate this rise with seasonally varying strength. Short-term fluctuations in the GHG concentrations that superimpose the seasonal cycle and the climate change driven trend reflect the presence of regional sources and sinks. A perfect place for investigating the comprehensive influence of these regional emissions is provided by the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (47.42°N, 10.98°E, 2.650m a.s.l.) situated in the eastern Alps at the southern side of Zugspitze mountain. Located just 300m below the highest peak of the German Alps, the exposed site is one of the currently 30 global core sites of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme and thus provides ideal conditions to study source-receptor relationships for greenhouse gases. We propose a stepwise statistical methodology for examining the relationship between synoptic-scale atmospheric transport patterns and climate gas mole fractions to finally receive a characterization of the sampling site with regard to the key processes driving CO2 and CH4 concentration levels. The first step entails a reliable radon-based filtering approach to subdivide the detected air masses according to their regional or 'background' origin. Simultaneously, a large number of ten-day back-trajectories from Schneefernerhaus every two hours over the entire study period 2011 - 2015 is calculated with the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al. 2005) and subjected to cluster analysis. The weather- and emission strength-related (short

  8. CO2 blasting in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankerckhoven, Patrick


    Carbon dioxide blasting can be used during the lifetime of nuclear facilities to remove deposited contamination and reduce the dose to personnel during repair and maintenance. By contrast with conventional mechanical or chemical decontamination methods, it does not leave additional secondary wastes. During the process, liquid CO 2 is expanded and converted into dry snow which is compressed and extruded to form small dry ice pellets. These low temperature pellets are blasted at high speed in a stream of compressed air against the surface to be treated where the mechanical and thermal shock embrittles the contaminating layer and severs its bond with the surface. The dry ice sublimes into the atmosphere as CO 2 gas and the loosened contamination can be removed via a ventilation and filtration system. Some examples of the effective use of CO 2 blasting are given. They include decontamination of: a supercompactor used on radioactive waste drums; the walls and floors of a nuclear fuel fabrication plant; the vacuum vessel of the Joint European Torus, hot cells; a phosphate fertilizer plant contaminated by radium 226. (UK)

  9. Methanol absorption characteristics for the removal of H2S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) in a pilot-scale biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Myung Won; Yun, Young Min; Cho, Won Chul; Ra, Ho Won; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Kim, Yong Ku; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, See Hoon; Eom, Won Hyun; Lee, Uen Do; Lee, Sang Bong


    The BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is an attractive process that produces liquid biofuels from biomass. The FT (Fisher–Tropsch) process is used to produce synfuels such as diesel and gasoline from gasified biomass. However, the H 2 S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO 2 (carbon dioxide) in the syngas that are produced from the biomass gasifiers cause a decrease of the conversion efficiency and deactivates the catalyst that is used in the FT process. To remove the acid gases, a pilot-scale methanol absorption tower producing diesel at a rate of 1 BPD (barrel per day) was developed, and the removal characteristics of the acid gases were determined. A total operation time of 500 h was achieved after several campaigns. The average syngas flow rate at the inlet of methanol absorption tower ranged from 300 to 800 L/min. The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H 2 S from 30 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV and COS from 2 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV with a removal of CO 2 from 20% to 5%. The outlet gas composition adhered to the guidelines for FT reactors. No remaining sulfurous components were found, and the tar component was analyzed in the spent methanol after long-term operations. - Highlights: • The gas cleaning system in a pilot-scale BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is reported. • Although methanol absorption tower is conventional process, its application to BTL process is attempted. • The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H 2 S, COS and CO 2 in the syngas. • The sulfurous and tar components in the methanol are analyzed

  10. CO2 cycle (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.


    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  11. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin


    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based...... on 3.8 billion GPS records from 16 thousand cars and 198 million records from 218 cars annotated with fuel consumption data, respectively. The fuel consumption estimates from the system are validated using fuel-pump data. We find that estimates have good accuracy, i.e., are generally within 10......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  12. The CO2nnect activities (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu


    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  13. Investigation on stabilization of CO2 foam by ionic and nonionic surfactants in presence of different additives for application in enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, Ajay


    Application of foam in upstream petroleum industry specifically in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has gained significant interest in recent years. In view of this, an attempt has been paid to design the suitable foaming agents (foamer) by evaluating the influence of three surfactants, five nanoparticles and several additives. Experimental investigations have been carried out in order to examine the mechanism of foam generation in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) as anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants by using the CO2 as gaseous component. It has been found that ionic surfactants show the higher foam life compared to nonionic surfactant. Out of different nano particles used, namely alumina (Al2O3) zirconium oxide (ZrO2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), boron nitride (BN) and silica (SiO2), boron nitride shows the maximum improvement of foam stability. The foam stability of surfactant-nanoparticles foam is further increased by addition of different additives viz. polymer, alcohol and alkali. The results show that, the designed foaming solution have nearly 2.5 times higher half-decay time (t1/2) compared to the simple surfactant system. Finally, it has been found that gas injection rate plays an important role in obtaining a uniform and stabilized foam.

  14. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael


    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO 2 , providing that technology for electricity production with CO 2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO 2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO 2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO 2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO 2 -pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies

  15. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  16. CO2-neutral fuels (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.


    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  17. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.


    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  18. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (United States)

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.


    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Global CO2 Emission from Volcanic Lakes (United States)

    Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Padron, E.; Barrancos, J.; Calvo, D.; Kusukabe, M.; Mori, T.; Nolasco, D.


    During the last two decades, scientists have paid attention to CO2 volcanic emissions and its contribution to the global C budget. Excluding MORBs as a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere, the global CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanism has been estimated about 300 Mt y-1 and this rate accounts for both visible (plume & fumaroles) and non-visible (diffuse) volcanic gas emanations (Mörner & Etíope, 2002). However, CO2 emissions from volcanic lakes have not been considered to estimate the global CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanoes. In order to improve this global CO2 emission rate and estimate the global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes, an extensive research on CO2 emission of volcanic lakes from Phillipines, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Mexico, Indonesia, Germany, France, Cameroon, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Ecuador had been recently carried out. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of volcanic lakes were performed by means of a modified floating device of the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission from each volcanic lake, CO2 efflux maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs). CO2 emission rates were normalized by the lake area (km2), and volcanic lakes were grouped following classification in acid, alkaline and neutral lakes. The observed average normalized CO2 emission rate values increase from alkaline (5.5 t km-2 d-1), neutral (210.0 t km-2 d-1), to acid (676.8 t km-2 d-1) volcanic lakes. Taking into account (i) these normalized CO2 emission rates from 31 volcanic lakes, (ii) the number of volcanic lakes in the world (~ 1100), (iii) the fraction of the investigated alkaline (45%), neutral (39%), and acid (16%) volcanic lakes, and (iv) the average areas of the investigated alkaline (36,8 km2), neutral (3,7 km2), and acid (0,5 km2) volcanic lakes; the global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes is about ~ 182 Mt year-1. This estimated value is about ~ 50% of the actual estimated global CO2

  20. The Inherent Tracer Fingerprint of Captured CO2 (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Gyore, Domokos; Stuart, Finlay; Boyce, Adrian; Haszeldine, Stuart; Chalaturnyk, Rick; Gilfillan, Stuart


    Inherent tracers, the isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams, are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology [1,2]. Despite this potential, the inherent tracer fingerprint in captured CO2 streams has yet to be robustly investigated and documented [3]. Here, we will present the first high quality systematic measurements of the carbon and oxygen isotopic and noble gas fingerprints measured in anthropogenic CO2 captured from combustion power stations and fertiliser plants, using amine capture, oxyfuel and gasification processes, and derived from coal, biomass and natural gas feedstocks. We will show that δ13C values are mostly controlled by the feedstock composition, as expected. The majority of the CO2 samples exhibit δ18O values similar to atmospheric O2 although captured CO2 samples from biomass and gas feedstocks at one location in the UK are significantly higher. Our measured noble gas concentrations in captured CO2 are generally as expected [2], typically being two orders of magnitude lower in concentration than in atmospheric air. Relative noble gas elemental abundances are variable and often show an opposite trend to that of a water in contact with the atmosphere. Expected enrichments in radiogenic noble gases (4He and 40Ar) for fossil fuel derived CO2 were not always observed due to dilution with atmospheric noble gases during the CO2 generation and capture process. Many noble gas isotope ratios indicate that isotopic fractionation takes place during the CO2 generation and capture processes, resulting in isotope ratios similar to fractionated air. We conclude that phase changes associated with CO2 transport and sampling may induce noble gas elemental and isotopic fractionation, due to different noble gas solubilities between high (liquid or supercritical) and low (gaseous) density CO2. Data from the Australian CO2CRC Otway test site show that δ13C of CO2 will change once injected into the storage reservoir, but that this

  1. Investigating cluster formation in adsorption of CO2, CH4, and Ar in zeolites and metal organic frameworks at subcritical temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.


    The critical temperatures, T-c, of CO2, CH4, and Ar are 304 K, 191 K, and 151 K, respectively. This paper highlights some unusual characteristics of adsorption and diffusion of these molecules in microporous structures such as zeolites and metal organic frameworks at temperatures T < T-c. Published

  2. Mechanistic Study of Magnesium Carbonate Semibatch Reactive Crystallization with Magnesium Hydroxide and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.


    This work investigates semibatch precipitation of magnesium carbonate at ambient temperature and pressure using Mg(OH)(2) and CO2 as starting materials. A thermal analysis method was developed that reflects the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)(2) and the formation of magnesium carbonate. The method...... the liquid and solid phases. A stirring rate of 650 rpm was found to be the optimum speed as the flow rate of CO2 was 1 L/min. Precipitation rate increased with gas flow rate, which indicates that mass transfer of CO2 plays a critical role in this precipitation case. Magnesium carbonate trihydrate...

  3. Dynamics of a CO2-seawater interface in the deep ocean


    Hove, Joakim; Haugan, Peter Mosby


    A trough filled with liquid CO2 located at 3940 m depth has been used as a model system for CO2 deposition on the seafloor. To study the intrinsic properties of the interface between CO2 and seawater a wave maker was used to excite regular plane waves. The frequency (≤2.5 rad/s) and wavelength (20 cm-40 cm) of the waves have been measured, and compare reasonably well with the dispersion relation for deep fluid gravity waves. The shear stability of the interface was investigated by setting the...

  4. Synthetic biology for CO2fixation. (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin


    Recycling of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into fuels and chemicals is a potential approach to reduce CO 2 emission and fossil-fuel consumption. Autotrophic microbes can utilize energy from light, hydrogen, or sulfur to assimilate atmospheric CO 2 into organic compounds at ambient temperature and pressure. This provides a feasible way for biological production of fuels and chemicals from CO 2 under normal conditions. Recently great progress has been made in this research area, and dozens of CO 2 -derived fuels and chemicals have been reported to be synthesized by autotrophic microbes. This is accompanied by investigations into natural CO 2 -fixation pathways and the rapid development of new technologies in synthetic biology. This review first summarizes the six natural CO 2 -fixation pathways reported to date, followed by an overview of recent progress in the design and engineering of CO 2 -fixation pathways as well as energy supply patterns using the concept and tools of synthetic biology. Finally, we will discuss future prospects in biological fixation of CO 2 .

  5. Investigating the impact of light and water status on the exchange of COS, 13CO2, CO18O and H218O from bryophytes (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa; Royles, Jessica; Ogee, Jerome; Jones, Samuel; Burlett, Regis; West, Jason; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Genty, Bernard; Griffiths, Howard; Wingate, Lisa


    Terrestrial surfaces are often covered by photoautotrophic communities that play a significant role in the biological fixation of C and N at the global scale. Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are key members in these communities and are especially adapted to thrive in hostile environments, by growing slowly and surviving repeated dehydration events. Consequently, bryophyte communities can be extremely long-lived (>1500yrs) and can serve as valuable records of historic climate change. In particular the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of mosses can be used as powerful proxies describing how growing season changes in atmospheric CO2 and rainfall have changed in the distant past over the land surface. Interpreting the climate signals of bryophyte biomass requires a robust understanding of how changes in photosynthetic activity and moisture status regulate the growth and isotopic composition of bryophyte biomass. Thus theoretical models predicting how changes in isotopic enrichment and CO2 discrimination respond to dehydration and rehydration are used to tease apart climatic and isotopic source signals. Testing these models with high resolution datasets obtained from new generation laser spectrometers can provide more information on how these plants that lack stomata cope with water loss. In addition novel tracers such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) can also be measured at high resolution and precision (bryophyte species (Marchantia sp.) in the light and during the dark, through complete desiccation cycles. Our measurements consistently reveal a strong enrichment dynamic in the oxygen isotope composition of transpired water over the dessication cycle that caused an increase in the oxygen isotope discrimination of CO2. These data followed closely values predicted by our process-based model. We also observed a consistent pattern in the fluxes of CO2 and COS during the desiccation cycle. Initially when the bryophyte was wet and a barrier to diffusion existed

  6. Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaetzle, O.; Paz-García, J.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a

  7. Detection of 14CO2 in radiotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, Francoise; Bocquet, Colette.


    14 CO 2 is detected in exhaled air by conversion to Ba 14 CO 3 which is then filtered, dried and weighed. The radioactivity is measured by liquid scintillation counting. The radioactivity is expressed in μCi per litre of exhaled air according to the ICRP recommendations. The detection threshold is well below the values indicated by the ICRP [fr

  8. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  9. Eddy Covariance Measurements of CO2 and CH4 before and after a Wetland Restoration, Tomago NSW, Australia: A Blue Carbon Investigation (United States)

    Macsween, K.; Edwards, G. C.; Saintilan, N.; Negandhi, K.; Kelleway, J.; Rogers, K.; Safari, D.; Tewari, K.


    Australia holds 33% of the world's tidal marsh area. Scientific and policy interest has recently turned to the value of coastal wetlands for carbon sequestration ("Blue Carbon"). These coastal mangrove and saltmarsh restorations are now at the forefront of developments for ecosystem-based climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Tomago wetland located near Newcastle, NSW, Australia is undergoing rehabilitation restoring tidal inundation to a previously leveed floodplain. It is hypothesised that the restoration of tidal inundation would convert a methane source into a sink as a consequence of soil salinization. At Tomago a Before-After-Control-Impact experimental design has been undertaken to measure the impact of tidal reinstatement on wetland floodplain accretion and gas flux. Prior to tidal reinstatement, eddy covariance towers (CO2 and CH4) were installed as well as surface elevation tables, and continuous water level and water quality loggers. Hydrodynamic modelling identified the sites within the wetland predicted to remain disconnected from tidal flow. Concurrent with the micrometeorological energy balance and gas flux measurements environmental variables such as soil water salinity, inundation regime, and soil microbial communities were undertaken. This comprehensive set of data facilitated the predictive power to explain variation in greenhouse gas flux. Results showed the average CO2 and CH4 fluxes before tidal reinstatement to be -22.70 and 0.25 mg m-2 hr-1 respectively and after tidal reinstatement to be 6.41 and 0.16 mg m-2 hr-1. Over the year the average CO2 and CH4 fluxes were -3.29 and 0.20 mg m-2 hr-1. Results showed CO2 is driving the system in terms of net carbon. Two extreme precipitation events during the measurement period had significant influence on the carbon pool. It was shown that it is possible to regulate CH4 flux through management of water and salinity levels.

  10. Energy and climate impacts of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from CO(2). (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Kleijn, René; Kramer, Gert Jan


    Within the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization there is an increasing interest in using CO2 as a resource to produce sustainable liquid hydrocarbon fuels. When these fuels are produced by solely using solar energy they are labeled as solar fuels. In the recent discourse on solar fuels intuitive arguments are used to support the prospects of these fuels. This paper takes a quantitative approach to investigate some of the claims made in this discussion. We analyze the life cycle performance of various classes of solar fuel processes using different primary energy and CO2 sources. We compare their efficacy with respect to carbon mitigation with ubiquitous fossil-based fuels and conclude that producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels starting from CO2 by using existing technologies requires much more energy than existing fuels. An improvement in life cycle CO2 emissions is only found when solar energy and atmospheric CO2 are used. Producing fuels from CO2 is a very long-term niche at best, not the panacea suggested in the recent public discourse.

  11. CO2 Capture by Injection of Flue Gas or CO2-N2 Mixtures into Hydrate Reservoirs: Dependence of CO2 Capture Efficiency on Gas Hydrate Reservoir Conditions. (United States)

    Hassanpouryouzband, Aliakbar; Yang, Jinhai; Tohidi, Bahman; Chuvilin, Evgeny; Istomin, Vladimir; Bukhanov, Boris; Cheremisin, Alexey


    Injection of flue gas or CO 2 -N 2 mixtures into gas hydrate reservoirs has been considered as a promising option for geological storage of CO 2 . However, the thermodynamic process in which the CO 2 present in flue gas or a CO 2 -N 2 mixture is captured as hydrate has not been well understood. In this work, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of CO 2 capture efficiency on reservoir conditions. The CO 2 capture efficiency was investigated at different injection pressures from 2.6 to 23.8 MPa and hydrate reservoir temperatures from 273.2 to 283.2 K in the presence of two different saturations of methane hydrate. The results showed that more than 60% of the CO 2 in the flue gas was captured and stored as CO 2 hydrate or CO 2 -mixed hydrates, while methane-rich gas was produced. The efficiency of CO 2 capture depends on the reservoir conditions including temperature, pressure, and hydrate saturation. For a certain reservoir temperature, there is an optimum reservoir pressure at which the maximum amount of CO 2 can be captured from the injected flue gas or CO 2 -N 2 mixtures. This finding suggests that it is essential to control the injection pressure to enhance CO 2 capture efficiency by flue gas or CO 2 -N 2 mixtures injection.

  12. Environmentally friendly processing of photoresists in scCO2 and decamethyltetrasiloxane (United States)

    Ouyang, Christine Y.; Lee, Jin-Kyun; Sha, Jing; Ober, Christopher K.


    The chemical waste generated in today's microelectronic fabrication processes has driven the need to develop a more environmentally benign process. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has been evaluated as an environmentally friendly solvent for photoresist development. It is nontoxic, nonflammable, and inert under most conditions. It also possesses advantages such as liquid-like densities, gas-like diffusivity, and zero surface tension. Although scCO2 is a poor solvent for most polymers, certain fluorine-and silicon-containing polymers have shown solubility in scCO2. Previously, negative-tone patterns of 100nm have also been developed in scCO2 using conventional photoresists such as ESCAP and PBOCST with the aid of fluorinated quaternary ammonium salts (QAS). However, the incorporation of fluorine degrades plasma etch resistance, and because of their persistence in nature, fluorinated compounds are coming under increased scrutiny. In order to make the process more environmentally benign, the elimination of fluorine is desirable. Some molecular glass photoresists without the incorporation of fluorine and silicon have thus been designed and synthesized to be processed in scCO2. In addition to scCO2, another environmentally friendly, low VOC solvent, decamethyltetrasiloxane has also been investigated to develop conventional photoresists. In this paper, we demonstrate the patterning of photoresists in both scCO2 and decamethyltetrasiloxane.

  13. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.


    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  14. Investigations of the enterohepatic bile salt circulation using the 14C-glycol cholate/14CO2 exhalation test in persons with Billroth-II stomach resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raguse, G.


    A 14 C-glycol cholate/ 14 CO 2 exhalation test was carried out in 34 normal persons, 32 persons with a Billroth-II resection stomach, and 9 patients with a Billroth-II resection stomach and gastroenterological disorders. Persons with a normal stomach function after B-II resection and an objective lack of symptoms of a gastroenterological disease had normal test results in all cases. In 7 of the 9 B-II resected patients with various disorders or diseases of the intestinal tract of the liver gallbladder on pancreas, 14 CO 2 exhalation was pathologically increased. In agreement with the hypothesis that deconjugation of bile salts can only be caused by bacterial enzymes, a pathological finding can be explained by a pathological bacteria population in the upper intestinal tract or by a loss of bile salts. However, the clinical importance of pathological test results remains doubtful as 3 out of the 7 patients with pathological results presented with no clinical symptoms. (orig.) [de

  15. Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines for CO2 capture: designing for mesoporous CO2 adsorbents. (United States)

    Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Seung Su; Choi, Ung Su


    CO(2) emissions, from fossil-fuel-burning power plants, the breathing, etc., influence the global worming on large scale and the man's work efficiency on small scale. The reversible capture of CO(2) is a prominent feature of CO(2) organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent to sequester CO(2). Herein, (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS), [3-(methylamino)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MAPTMS), and [3-(diethylamino) propyl] trimethoxysilane (DEAPTMS) are immobilized on highly ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) to catch CO(2) as primary, secondary, and tertiary aminosilica adsorbents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the immobilized APTMS, MAPTMS, and DEAPTMS on the SBA-15. We report an interesting discovery that the CO(2) adsorption and desorption on the adsorbent depend on the amine type of the aminosilica adsorbent. The adsorbed CO(2) was easily desorbed from the adsorbent with the low energy consumption in the order of tertiary, secondary, and primary amino-adsorbents while the adsorption amount and the bonding-affinity increased in the reverse order. The effectiveness of amino-functionalized (1(o), 2(o), and 3(o) amines) SBA-15s as a CO(2) capturing agent was investigated in terms of adsorption capacity, adsorption-desorption kinetics, and thermodynamics. This work demonstrates apt amine types to catch CO(2) and regenerate the adsorbent, which may open new avenues to designing "CO(2) basket". Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Equilibria of ternary system acetic acid-water-CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jose M. Jimenez; Mussatto, Solange I.; Tsou, Joana

    , such as acetic acid in fermentations [2, 3]. Thus, from a biotechnological perspective, it is highly interesting to research on the system CO2—H2O with different concentrations of acetic acid (HAc). Based on previous studies [4, 5], this project aims to investigate the vapour/liquid equilibria (VLE...

  17. Membraneless water filtration using CO2. (United States)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick B; Stone, Howard A


    Water purification technologies such as microfiltration/ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO 2 . Dissolution of CO 2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles. Due to the large diffusion potential generated by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO 2 , we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits low energy consumption, three orders of magnitude lower than conventional microfiltration/ultrafiltration processes, and is essentially free from fouling.

  18. Status of knowledge on risks related to CO2 geological storage. Report nr 1: risks during the injection phase. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Philippe; Thoraval, Alain


    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered as a possibility to struggle against greenhouse effect and therefore against climate change. This process is here presented as comprising three main periods: exploitation during 40 to 50 years which itself comprises three phases (design, injection and closure), memory during about 300 years, and a long term period (700 to 800 years during which the existence of the storage and its associated risks will be forgotten). This study concerns the injection phase of the first period and some of its associated risks: leakages, thermal-hydro-mechanical-chemical disturbances at the vicinity of the storage. The report gives an overview of CO 2 geological capture and storage (capture, transport, injection, storage, foreseen storage media, nature of the injected fluid, regulations, returns on experience), identifies the associated risks, discusses issues of assessment of risks related to well leakages and to disturbances at the vicinity of the well (mechanical, physical and chemical, bacteriological risks)

  19. Aluminosilicate Dissolution and Silicate Carbonation during Geologic CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Min, Yujia

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is considered a promising method to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission. Assessing the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) gas or liquid phase water (g, l)-mineral interactions is critical to evaluating the viability of GCS processes. This work contributes to our understanding of geochemical reactions at CO 2-water (g, l)-mineral interfaces, by investigating the dissolution of aluminosilicates in CO2-acidified water (l). Plagioclase and biotite were chosen as model minerals in reservoir rock and caprock, respectively. To elucidate the effects of brine chemistry, first, the influences of cations in brine including Na, Ca, and K, have been investigated. In addition to the cations, the effects of abundant anions including sulfate and oxalate were also examined. Besides the reactions in aqueous phase, we also examine the carbonation of silicates in water (g)-bearing supercritical CO2 (scCO2) under conditions relevant to GCS. For the metal carbonation, in particular, the effects of particle sizes, water, temperature, and pressure on the carbonation of wollastonite were systematically examined. For understanding the cations effects in brine, the impacts of Na concentrations up to 4 M on the dissolution of plagioclase and biotite were examined. High concentrations of Na significantly inhibited plagioclase dissolution by competing adsorption with proton and suppressing proton-promoted dissolution. Ca has a similar effect to Na, and their effects did not suppress each other when Na and Ca co-existed. For biotite, the inhibition effects of Na coupled with an enhancing effect due to ion exchange reaction between Na and interlayer K, which cracked the basal surfaces of biotite. The K in aqueous phase significantly inhibited the dissolution. If the biotite is equilibrated with NaCl solutions initially, the biotite dissolved faster than the original biotite and the dissolution was inhibited by Na and K in brine. The outcomes improve our current knowledge of

  20. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchemoua, A.


    CO 2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO 2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO 2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO 2 -N 2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO 2 -CH 4 and CO 2 -N 2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  1. Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.


    The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the

  2. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.


    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  3. Cooperative CO2 Absorption Isotherms from a Bifunctional Guanidine and Bifunctional Alcohol


    Steinhardt, Rachel; Hiew, Stanley C.; Mohapatra, Hemakesh; Nguyen, Du; Oh, Zachary; Truong, Richard; Esser-Kahn, Aaron


    Designing new liquids for CO2 absorption is a challenge in CO2 removal. Here, achieving low regeneration energies while keeping high selectivity and large capacity are current challenges. Recent cooperative metal–organic frameworks have shown the potential to address many of these challenges. However, many absorbent systems and designs rely on liquid capture agents. We present herein a liquid absorption system which exhibits cooperative CO2 absorption isotherms. Upon introduction, CO2 uptake ...

  4. A novel CO2 sequestration system for environmentally producing hydrogen from fossil-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucker IV, W.


    Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbers are currently used to capture carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial flue gases in various fossil-fuel based energy production systems. MEA is a highly volatile, corrosive, physiologically toxic, and foul-smelling chemical that requires replacement after 1000 operational hours. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), a novel class of materials with negligible vapor pressures and potentiality as benign solvents, may be the ideal replacement for MEA. Ab initio computational modeling was used to investigate the molecular interactions of ILs with CO 2 . The energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the RTILs as CO 2 solvents are on par with MEA. As viable competitors to the present CO 2 separation technology, RTILs may economize the fossil-fuel decarbonization process with the ultimate aim of realizing a green hydrogen economy

  5. India Co2 Emissions (United States)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.


    created a balance in between the “developed” and developing countries. If India was producing the same amounts of emissions per capita as the it would have a total of 20 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

  6. Behavior of CO2/water flow in porous media for CO2geological storage. (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Yu, Minghao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Ziqiu; Suekane, Tetsuya; Song, Yongchen


    A clear understanding of two-phase fluid flow properties in porous media is of importance to CO 2 geological storage. The study visually measured the immiscible and miscible displacement of water by CO 2 using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and investigated the factor influencing the displacement process in porous media which were filled with quartz glass beads. For immiscible displacement at slow flow rates, the MR signal intensity of images increased because of CO 2 dissolution; before the dissolution phenomenon became inconspicuous at flow rate of 0.8mLmin -1 . For miscible displacement, the MR signal intensity decreased gradually independent of flow rates, because supercritical CO 2 and water became miscible in the beginning of CO 2 injection. CO 2 channeling or fingering phenomena were more obviously observed with lower permeable porous media. Capillary force decreases with increasing particle size, which would increase permeability and allow CO 2 and water to invade into small pore spaces more easily. The study also showed CO 2 flow patterns were dominated by dimensionless capillary number, changing from capillary finger to stable flow. The relative permeability curve was calculated using Brooks-Corey model, while the results showed the relative permeability of CO 2 slightly decreases with the increase of capillary number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Spectroscopic investigation of thermodynamic parameters of a plasma plume formed by the action of cw CO2 laser radiation on a metal substrate (United States)

    Vasil'chenko, Zh V.; Azharonok, V. V.; Filatova, I. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.; Golubev, V. S.; Zabelin, A. M.


    Emission spectroscopy methods were used in an investigation of thermodynamic parameters of a surface plasma formed by the action of cw CO2 laser radiation of (2-5)×106 W cm-2 intensity on stainless steel in a protective He or Ar atmosphere. The spatiotemporal structure and pulsation characteristics of the plasma plume were used to determine the fields of the plasma electron density and temperature.

  8. Sustainable Process Networks for CO2 Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Kongpanna, P.; Pavarajam, V.

    , such as methanol (MeOH) have the largest market, this network will include a variety of thermodynamically feasible conversion paths [4]. From reviews of work previously done, there are ranges of possible products that are formed from CO2 and another co-reactant directly. Methanol, dimethyl ether, dimethyl...... the emissions is the conversion of CO2 into useful products, such as methanol [3]. In this work, through a computer-aided framework for process network synthesis-design, a network of feasible conversion processes that all use emitted CO2 is investigated. CO2 is emitted into the environment from various sources......: power generation, industrial processes, transportation and commercial processes. Within these there are high-purity emissions and low-purity emissions. Rather than sending these to the atmosphere, it is possible to collect them and use them for other purposes. In this work, the first step is determining...

  9. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  10. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None listed


    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  11. Ni/SiO2 Catalyst Prepared with Nickel Nitrate Precursor for Combination of CO2 Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane: Characterization and Deactivation Mechanism Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang He


    Full Text Available The performance of Ni/SiO2 catalyst in the process of combination of CO2 reforming and partial oxidation of methane to produce syngas was studied. The Ni/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by using incipient wetness impregnation method with nickel nitrate as a precursor and characterized by FT-IR, TG-DTA, UV-Raman, XRD, TEM, and H2-TPR. The metal nickel particles with the average size of 37.5 nm were highly dispersed over the catalyst, while the interaction between nickel particles and SiO2 support is relatively weak. The weak NiO-SiO2 interaction disappeared after repeating oxidation-reduction-oxidation in the fluidized bed reactor at 700°C, which resulted in the sintering of metal nickel particles. As a result, a rapid deactivation of the Ni/SiO2 catalysts was observed in 2.5 h reaction on stream.

  12. An Experimental Investigation into the Optimal Processing Conditions for the CO2 Laser Cladding of 20 MnCr5 Steel Using Taguchi Method and ANN (United States)

    Mondal, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Asish.; Pal, Pradip Kumar


    This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of laser clad profile formed by means of CO2 laser applying Taguchi method and the artificial neural network (ANN). Laser cladding is one of the surface modifying technologies in which the desired surface characteristics of any component can be achieved such as good corrosion resistance, wear resistance and hardness etc. Laser is used as a heat source to melt the anti-corrosive powder of Inconel-625 (Super Alloy) to give a coating on 20 MnCr5 substrate. The parametric study of this technique is also attempted here. The data obtained from experiments have been used to develop the linear regression equation and then to develop the neural network model. Moreover, the data obtained from regression equations have also been used as supporting data to train the neural network. The artificial neural network (ANN) is used to establish the relationship between the input/output parameters of the process. The established ANN model is then indirectly integrated with the optimization technique. It has been seen that the developed neural network model shows a good degree of approximation with experimental data. In order to obtain the combination of process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and powder feed rate for which the output parameters become optimum, the experimental data have been used to develop the response surfaces.

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Dispersion of Liquids by Ejection Atomizers (United States)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Bondarchuk, S. S.; Evsevleev, M. Ya.; Zharova, I. K.; Zhukov, A. S.; Zmanovskii, S. V.; Kozlov, E. A.; Konovalenko, A. I.; Trofimov, V. F.


    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the dispersivity of liquid droplets in the spray cone of ejection atomizers. The calculational droplet size distribution function was measured by the method of low angles of the probe laser radiation scattering indicatrix on a pneumohydraulic bench under cold blow conditions. The efficiency of the proposed circuit designs of atomizers has been analyzed.

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Kaduna-Grown Cashew Nutshell Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Investigation of Kaduna-Grown Cashew Nutshell Liquid as a Natural Precursor for Dyestuffs, Pigments and Binders for Leather Finishing. ... The results show that CNSL from the Kaduna-grown cashew nuts is a semi-drying oil and suitable for the synthesis of resins and dyestuff intermediates. It, therefore, has a ...

  15. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server


    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  16. Martian Gullies: Formation by CO2 Fluidification (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.


    Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies. Some theories developed tried explain its origin, either by liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones. We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows: In winter CO2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain. In spring the CO2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies. By experimental work with dry granular material, we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material. We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment, sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City, México. We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas, to target goal recognize or to distinguish, (to identify) possible processes evolved in its formation. Also, we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters. Finally, we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material.

  17. Investigation of the cooling film distribution in liquid rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio Silva


    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation of a cooling method widely used in the combustion chambers, which is called cooling film, and it is applied to a liquid rocket engine that uses as propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene. Starting from an engine cooling, whose film is formed through the fuel spray guns positioned on the periphery of the injection system, the film was experimentally examined, it is formed by liquid that seeped through the inner wall of the combustion chamber. The parameter used for validation and refinement of the theoretical penetration of the film was cooling, as this parameter is of paramount importance to obtain an efficient thermal protection inside the combustion chamber. Cold tests confirmed a penetrating cold enough cooling of the film for the length of the combustion chamber of the studied engine.

  18. CO2 convective dissolution controlled by temporal changes in free-phase CO2 properties (United States)

    Jafari Raad, S. M.; Emami-Meybodi, H.; Hassanzadeh, H.


    Understanding the factors that control CO2 convective dissolution, which is one of the permanent trapping mechanisms, in the deep saline aquifer is crucial in the long-term fate of the injected CO2. The present study investigates the effects of temporal changes in the solubility of CO2 at the free-phase CO2/brine interface on the onset of natural convection and the subsequent convective mixing by conducting linear stability analyses (LSA) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). A time-dependent concentration boundary is considered for the free-phase CO2/brine interface where the CO2 concentration first decreases with the time and then remains constant. The LSA results show that the temporal variation in the concentration increases the onset of natural convection up to two orders of magnitude. In addition, the critical Rayleigh number significantly increases as CO2 concentration decreases. In other words, size and pressure of the injected CO2 affect the commencement of convective mixing. Based on LSA results, several scaling relations are proposed to correlate critical Rayleigh number, critical time, and its corresponding wavenumbers with time-dependent boundary's parameters, such as concentration decline rate and equilibrium concentration ratio. The DNS results reveal that the convective fingering patterns are significantly influenced by the variation of CO2 concentration at the interface. These findings improve our understanding of CO2 solubility trapping and are particularly important in estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage sites characterization and screening. Keywords: CO2 sequestration; natural convection; solubility trapping; time-dependent boundary condition; numerical simulation; stability analysis

  19. CO2 perturbation in aquifers : reaction kinetics and metals behavior


    Rillard, Jean


    The aim of this thesis was to investigate hydrogeochemical perturbation induced by CO2 in natural aquifers. In a first step, we used chemical data from natural CO2-rich hydrothermal water. We studied variation of fluid chemical composition as a function of CO2 content in order to evaluate reactivity of minerals composing the initial reservoir. Fluid chemical analyses showed decrease in pH, and systematic enrichment in alkalinity and major cations correlated to increase in CO2 content. Chemica...

  20. Polyvinylidene fluoride/siloxane nanofibrous membranes for long-term continuous CO2 -capture with large absorption-flux enhancement. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Wang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Hua; Chang, Kai-Shiun; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Lee, Kueir-Rarn


    In a CO2 membrane contactor system, CO2 passes through a hydrophobic porous membrane in the gas phase to contact the amine absorbent in the liquid phase. Consequently, additional CO2 gas is absorbed by amine absorbents. This study examines highly porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/siloxane nanofibrous layers that are modified with hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) functional groups and successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane. The performance of these materials in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption is also investigated. Compared with pristine PVDF nanofibrous membranes, the PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous membranes exhibit greater solvent resistance and mechanical strength, making them more suitable for use in CO2 capture by the membrane contactor. The PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous layer in highly porous FAS-modified membranes can prevent the wetting of the membrane by the amine absorbent; this extends the periods of continuous CO2 absorption and results in a high CO2 absorption flux with a minimum of 500 % enhancement over that of the uncoated membranes. This study suggests the potential use of an FAS-modified PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous membrane in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption. The resulting hydrophobic membrane contactor also demonstrates the potential for large-scale CO2 absorption during post-combustion processes in power plants. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A model for estimating CO2 solubility in aqueous alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Partial pressures of carbon dioxide (CO2) over aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) have been correlated using a simple approach where only one chemical equilibrium reaction is taken into account and assuming ideal gas and ideal liquid...... of CO2 over an aqueous alkanolamine solution. Accurate values for the partial pressure of CO2 are obtained for a limited loading, temperature, and pressure range that is useful in modeling CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Heat of absorption values derived from the model agree with experimental...

  2. Convergent Cenozoic CO2 history (United States)

    Royer, D. L.; Beerling, D. J.


    The quality and quantity of Cenozoic CO2 records have increased significantly in the last decade. Gains in quality have come primarily from a fuller accounting of confounding factors; examples include soil respiration rates in the pedogenic carbonate method, alkalinity and seawater δ11B in the boron method, and cell size in the alkenone phytoplankton method. Previously, variability across Cenozoic CO2 estimates in a given time period sometimes exceeded an order of magnitude, but through these improvements variability has been reduced to a factor of two or less. Further improvements in the record can probably be facilitated by more robust quantification of statistical error, generation of CO2 estimates at single locations from multiple methods, and cross-calibration with Pleistocene ice-core CO2 records (Beerling & Royer, 2011, Nature Geoscience 4: 418-420). An improved Cenozoic CO2 record offers opportunities for better understanding Earth system processes. We provide one example related to climate sensitivity. We find a significant relationship between CO2 radiative forcing and global temperature during the Cenozoic, even after accounting for forcings related to solar evolution and paleogeographic changes. Although the calculations are based on simple assumptions and should be taken as provisional, the mean Cenozoic climate sensitivity (3 °C or higher per CO2 doubling) is similar to or higher than calculations for the present-day (~3 °C per CO2 doubling).

  3. 14CO2 in breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, J.L.; Lopez-Majano, V.


    The diagnosis of metabolic disorders can be made by detecting 14 CO 2 in the breath. This is possible because 14 CO 2 can label any organic compound without any deteriorations in the nature of the compound. This type of analysis is dependable, noninvasive and simple to perform with a scintillation counter. (orig.)

  4. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.


    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  5. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  6. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  7. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir...... simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation...

  8. Exergoeconomic analysis of utilizing the transcritical CO2 cycle and the ORC for a recompression supercritical CO2 cycle waste heat recovery: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xurong; Dai, Yiping


    Highlights: • An exergoeconomic analysis is performed for sCO 2 /tCO 2 cycle. • Performance of the sCO 2 /tCO 2 cycle and sCO 2 /ORC cycle are presented and compared. • The sCO 2 /tCO 2 cycle performs better than the sCO 2 /ORC cycle at lower PRc. • The sCO 2 /tCO 2 cycle has comparable total product unit cost with the sCO 2 /ORC cycle. - Abstract: Two combined cogeneration cycles are examined in which the waste heat from a recompression supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle (sCO 2 ) is recovered by either a transcritical CO 2 cycle (tCO 2 ) or an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for generating electricity. An exergoeconomic analysis is performed for sCO 2 /tCO 2 cycle performance and its comparison to the sCO 2 /ORC cycle. The following organic fluids are considered as the working fluids in the ORC: R123, R245fa, toluene, isobutane, isopentane and cyclohexane. Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic models are developed for the cycles on the basis of mass and energy conservations, exergy balance and exergy cost equations. Parametric investigations are conducted to evaluate the influence of decision variables on the performance of sCO 2 /tCO 2 and sCO 2 /ORC cycles. The performance of these cycles is optimized and then compared. The results show that the sCO 2 /tCO 2 cycle is preferable and performs better than the sCO 2 /ORC cycle at lower PRc. When the sCO 2 cycle operates at a cycle maximum pressure of around 20 MPa (∼2.8 of PRc), the tCO 2 cycle is preferable to be integrated with the recompression sCO 2 cycle considering the off-design conditions. Moreover, contrary to the sCO 2 /ORC system, a higher tCO 2 turbine inlet temperature improves exergoeconomic performance of the sCO 2 /tCO 2 cycle. The thermodynamic optimization study reveals that the sCO 2 /tCO 2 cycle has comparable second law efficiency with the sCO 2 /ORC cycle. When the optimization is conducted based on the exergoeconomics, the total product unit cost of the sCO 2 /ORC is slightly lower than that of

  9. Investigation of Active Control of Combustion Instabilities in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinn, B


    This study investigated the feasibility of active control of combustion instabilities in liquid fueled combustors using a liquid fuel injector actuator and adaptive control of combustion instabilities...

  10. Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System Coupled with SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W.


    This report contains the description of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For a system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of normal operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Computer codes were developed to analysis for the S-CO 2 turbomachinery. Based on the design codes, the design parameters were prepared to configure the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 turbomachinery models. A one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the previous PCHE heat exchangers and a design data for the typical type PCHE was produced. In parallel with the PCHE-type heat exchanger design, an airfoil shape fin PCHE heat exchanger was newly designed. The new design concept was evaluated by three-dimensional CFD analyses. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. The MMS-LMR code was also developed to analyze the transient phenomena in a SFR with a supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle to develop the control logic. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na-CO 2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO 2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na-CO 2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  11. Modelling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part VI. Multicomponent mixtures with glycols relevant to oil and gas and to liquid or supercritical CO2 transport applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.


    In this work the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state is applied to multicomponent mixtures containing CO2 with alkanes, water, and glycols. Various modelling approaches are used i.e. different association schemes for pure CO2 (assuming that it is a non-associating compound...

  12. Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO2activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO2, the first step in reduction of CO2. (United States)

    Favaro, Marco; Xiao, Hai; Cheng, Tao; Goddard, William A; Yano, Junko; Crumlin, Ethan J


    A national priority is to convert CO 2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO 2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide structure below the copper surface is essential to bind the CO 2 in the physisorbed configuration at 298 K, and we show that this suboxide is essential for converting to the chemisorbed CO 2 in the presence of water as the first step toward CO 2 reduction products such as formate and CO. This optimum suboxide leads to both neutral and charged Cu surface sites, providing fresh insights into how to design improved carbon dioxide reduction catalysts.

  13. Acoustic velocity investigation and density calculation in liquid nitrogen tetroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, O.V.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Timofeev, B.D.


    Acoustic velocity in liquid nitrogen tetroxide was investigated on an ultrasonic interferometer, which represents a tube with the 30x2.5 mm diameter, at the ends of which ultrasonic sensors are located. The sensors and the interferometer tube are fabricated of the Kh18N9T stainless steel. The calibration tests were carried out on twice-distilled water at the pressure from 1 to 80 bar in the operational range of temperatures from 283 to 360 K. The relative mean square error in experimental data on the acoustic velocity in liquid nitrogen tetroxide is 0.17%. The experimental data are described by the interpolation polynom in the investigated range of state parameters. On the basis of experimental data on the density of liquid nitrogen tetroxide near the saturation line and the experimental values of acoustic velocity, an interpolation equation is suggested to calculate the substance density under investigation in the range of 290-360 K from pressures corresponding to the saturation line, to 300 bar

  14. CO2 Mass transfer model for carbonic anhydrase-enhanced aqueous MDEA solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold; Deslauriers, Maria Gundersen; Neerup, Randi


    In this study a CO2 mass transfer model was developed for carbonic anhydrase-enhanced MDEA solutions based on a mechanistic kinetic enzyme model. Four different enzyme models were compared in their ability to predict the liquid side mass transfer coefficient at temperatures in the range of 298...... the SP model is limited to applications with low CO2 partial pressure such as CCS from coal burning power plants. Two other models that were also investigated are not suitable for implementation into an absorber column simulation, as they cannot describe the influence of changing solvent loading...

  15. First investigation of an all-fiber versatile laser frequency reference at 2 μm for CO2 lidar applications (United States)

    Schilt, S.; Hey Tow, K.; Matthey, R.; Petersen, M.; Thévenaz, L.; Südmeyer, T.


    Nowadays, space-borne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instruments are under investigation by space agencies to monitor the integrated column density or the atmospheric density profile of gaseous species from space to ground.

  16. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.


    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  17. Investigation of the interactions of critical scale-up parameters (pH, pO2 and pCO2) on CHO batch performance and critical quality attributes. (United States)

    Brunner, Matthias; Fricke, Jens; Kroll, Paul; Herwig, Christoph


    Understanding process parameter interactions and their effects on mammalian cell cultivations is an essential requirement for robust process scale-up. Furthermore, knowledge of the relationship between the process parameters and the product critical quality attributes (CQAs) is necessary to satisfy quality by design guidelines. So far, mainly the effect of single parameters on CQAs was investigated. Here, we present a comprehensive study to investigate the interactions of scale-up relevant parameters as pH, pO 2 and pCO 2 on CHO cell physiology, process performance and CQAs, which was based on design of experiments and extended product quality analytics. The study used a novel control strategy in which process parameters were decoupled from each other, and thus allowed their individual control at defined set points. Besides having identified the impact of single parameters on process performance and product quality, further significant interaction effects of process parameters on specific cell growth, specific productivity and amino acid metabolism could be derived using this method. Concerning single parameter effects, several monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variants were affected by process pCO 2 and pH. N-glycosylation analysis showed positive correlations between mAb sialylation and high pH values as well as a relationship between high mannose variants and process pH. This study additionally revealed several interaction effects as process pH and pCO 2 interactions on mAb charge variants and N-glycosylation pattern. Hence, through our process control strategy and multivariate investigation, novel significant process parameter interactions and single effects were identified which have to be taken into account especially for process scale-up.

  18. Sensory Transduction of the CO2 Response of Guard Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Eduardo Zeiger


    Stomata have a key role in the regulation of gas exchange and intercellular CO2 concentrations of leaves. Guard cells sense internal and external signals in the leaf environment and transduce these signals into osmoregulatory processes that control stomatal apertures. This research proposal addresses the characterization of the sensory transduction of the CO2 signal in guard cells. Recent studies have shown that in Vicia leaves kept at constant light and temperature in a growth chamber, changes in ambient CO2 concentrations cause large changes in guard cell zeaxanthin that are linear with CO2-dependent changes in stomatal apertures. Research proposed here will test the hypothesis that zeaxanthin function as a transducer of CO2 signals in guard cells. Three central aspects of this hypothesis will be investigated: CO2 sensing by the carboxylation reaction of Rubisco in the guard cell chloroplast, which would modulate zeaxanthin concentrations via changes in lumen pH; transduction of the CO2 signal by zeaxanthin via a transducing cascade that controls guard cell osmoregulation; and blue light dependence of the CO2 signal transduction by zeaxanthin, required for the formation of an isomeric form of zeaxanthin that is physiologically active as a transducer. The role of Rubisco in CO2 sensing will be investigated in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 in the Arabidopsis mutants R100 and rca-, which have reduced rates of Rubisco-dependent carboxylation. The role of zeaxanthin as a CO2 transducer will be studied in npq1, a zeaxanthin-less mutant. The blue light-dependence of CO2 sensing will be studied in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 under red light. Arabidopsis mutants will also be used in further studies of an acclimation of the stomatal response to CO2, and a possible role of the xanthophyll cycle of the guard cell chloroplast in acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2. Studies on the osmoregulatory role of sucrose in

  19. Oxidative degradation of dyes in water using Co2+/H2O2 and Co2+/peroxymonosulfate. (United States)

    Ling, Sie King; Wang, Shaobin; Peng, Yuelian


    Dye degradation using advanced oxidation processes with Co(2+)/H(2)O(2) and Co(2+)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) systems has been investigated. Two types of dyes, basic blue 9 and acid red 183, were employed. Several parameters affecting dye degradation such as Co(2+), PMS, H(2)O(2), and dye concentrations were investigated. The optimal ratio of oxidant (PMS, H(2)O(2))/Co(2+) for the degradation of two dyes was determined. It is found that dye decomposition is much faster in Co(2+)/PMS system than in Co(2+)/H(2)O(2). For Co(2+)/H(2)O(2), an optimal ratio of H(2)O(2) to Co(2+) at 6 is required for the maximum decomposition of the dyes. For Co(2+)/PMS, higher concentrations of Co(2+) and PMS will increase dye degradation rate with an optimal ratio of 3, achieving 95% decolourisation. For basic blue 9, a complete decolourisation can be achieved in 5 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 7 mg/l basic blue 9 while the complete degradation of acid red 183 will be achieved at 30 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 160 mg/l of acid red 183. The degradation of acid red 183 follows the second-order kinetics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The fluid flow consequences of CO2 migration from 1000 to 600 metres upon passing the critical conditions of CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H.; Hofstee, C.; Orlic, B.


    The minimum injection depth for the storage of CO2 is normally set at 800 metres. At and beyond this depth in the subsurface conditions exist where CO2 is in a so-called critical state. The supercritical CO2 has a viscosity comparable to that of a normal gas and a liquid-like density, Due to the

  1. Carbon dioxide induced bubble formation in a CH4-CO2-H2O ternary system: a molecular dynamics simulation study. (United States)

    Sujith, K S; Ramachandran, C N


    The extraction of methane from its hydrates using carbon dioxide involves the decomposition of the hydrate resulting in a CH4-CO2-H2O ternary solution. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the evolution of dissolved gas molecules in the ternary system at different concentrations of CO2. Various compositions considered in the present study resemble the solution formed during the decomposition of methane hydrates at the initial stages of the extraction process. We find that the presence of CO2 aids the formation of CH4 bubbles by causing its early nucleation. Elucidation of the composition of the bubble revealed that in ternary solutions with high concentration of CO2, mixed gas bubbles composed of CO2 and CH4 are formed. To understand the role of CO2 in the nucleation of CH4 bubbles, the structure of the bubble formed was analyzed, which revealed that there is an accumulation of CO2 at the interface of the bubble and the surrounding water. The aggregation of CO2 at the bubble-water interface occurs predominantly when the concentration of CO2 is high. Radial distribution function for the CH4-CO2 pair indicates that there is an increasingly favorable direct contact between dissolved CH4 and CO2 molecules in the bubble-water interface. It is also observed that the presence of CO2 at the interface results in the decrease in surface tension. Thus, CO2 leads to greater stability of the bubble-water interface thereby bringing down the critical size of the bubble nuclei. The results suggest that a rise in concentration of CO2 helps in the removal of dissolved CH4 thereby preventing the accumulation of methane in the liquid phase. Thus, the presence of CO2 is predicted to assist the decomposition of methane hydrates in the initial stages of the replacement process.

  2. Chemistry of the KALC process. The CO2--I2--CH3I--H2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Bell, J.T.; Fuller, D.W.; Buxton, S.R.; Friedman, H.A.; Billings, M.R.


    The chemistry of the CO 2 --I 2 --CH 3 I--H 2 O system in stainless steel has been investigated with respect to the probable reactions of these components in the KALC process. Iodine is stable in dry CO 2 contained in stainless steel; but in the presence of organic impurities or water, it is lost from solution via reactions which produce solid phases. Methyl iodide, however, is stable in either wet or dry CO 2 solutions. Distribution coefficients for I 2 and CH 3 I between gas and liquid CO 2 have been measured from -26 to +30 0 C; they show that the solutes favor the liquid phase as the temperature is lowered. The corrosion loss of I 2 in the presence of 10 to 200 ppm H 2 O has been followed as a function of time at 0 and +21 0 C. Weak associations between CO 2 and I 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O, and I 2 and I 2 can account for shifts in their respective distribution coefficients, but these associations are not strong enough to produce isolable phases. The occurrence of a weak CO 2 .H 2 O molecular species in the vapor is demonstrated by the near-infrared vibrations of the water group in the species

  3. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  4. Experimental investigations and geochemical modelling of site-specific fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions in underground storage of CO2/H2/CH4 mixtures: the H2STORE project (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Pilz, Peter


    Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting the energy demand and environmental targets of many industrialized countries. Besides the long-term CO2 sequestration, energy can be chemically stored in form of CO2/CH4/H2 mixtures, for example resulting from excess wind energy. A precise estimation of the impact of such gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting environmental targets and the energy demand through storage in form of H2 or CH4, i.e. resulting from excess wind energy. Gas storage in salt caverns is nowadays a mature technology; in regions where favorable geologic structures such as salt diapires are not available, however, gas storage can only be implemented in porous media such as depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers. In such settings, a significant amount of in-situ gas components such as CO2, CH4 (and N2) will always be present, making the CO2/CH4/H2 system of particular interest. A precise estimation of the impact of their gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is therefore crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. In the framework of the collaborative research project H2STORE, the feasibility of industrial-scale gas storage in porous media in several potential siliciclastic depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers is being investigated by means of experiments and modelling on actual core materials from the evaluated sites. Among them are the Altmark depleted gas reservoir in Saxony-Anhalt and the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Brandenburg (Germany). Further sites are located in the Molasse basin in South Germany and Austria. In particular, two

  5. CO2 capture-sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, Elisabeth


    CO 2 capture-sequestration could be an acceptable temporary solution for the abatement of greenhouse gas releases to the atmosphere, before the implementation of new carbon-free power generation means. This paper briefly summarizes the principles of this technology: capture (post-combustion, oxi-combustion, pre-combustion); CO 2 transport and sequestration (deep saline aquifers, injection in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs, injection in abandoned coal seams); examples of operations in progress

  6. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac


    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  7. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2 (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.


    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  8. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    the mass transfer of CO2 with slow-capturing but energetically favorable solvents can open up a variety of new process options for this technology. The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which enhances the mass transfer of CO2 in the lungs by catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2, is one very...... promising mass transfer rate promoter for CCS. This process has been previously been tested successfully in lab scale and in some rare cases in pilot scale, but no validated process model for this technology has been published yet. This PhD thesis presents an investigation of the feasibility of enzyme...... enzyme kinetic model and validating it against in-house pilot plant experiments. The work consisted of identifying a suitable enzyme-solvent system and the ideal process conditions by comparing mass transfer rates of different solvents and enzyme enhanced solvents in a lab scale wetted wall column...

  9. Molecular simulations of CO2 at interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, Alessandro

    . DFT has some advantages over MD in terms of computational cost but MD allows exploration of larger and more complex systems. Dierent options for geologic storage of CO2 have been proposed. Carbonate minerals are ubiquitous, limestone, chalk and marble constitute a signicant fraction of the sedimentary...... rock record and the formations are generally porous so their probable response to CO2 sequestration needs to be investigated. However, despite the large number of geologic sequestration publications on water{rock interactions over the last decade, studies on carbonate reservoirs remain scarce....... Carbonate reservoirs are being considered as CO2 storage sites so more information is needed, for providing data for safety assessment models and for fundamental understanding of the relevant processes and their in uence. Theoretical approaches for the carbonate minerals are even more scarce and only few...

  10. Micro-Raman densimeter for CO2 inclusions in mantle-derived minerals. (United States)

    Kawakami, Yoko; Yamamoto, Junji; Kagi, Hiroyuki


    We investigated the applicability of Raman microprobe spectroscopy for determining the density of CO2 in fluid inclusions in minerals of mantle-derived xenolith samples. A separation (delta) between two Raman bands of CO2 due to Fermi resonance can be a reliable densimeter for CO2 fluid. The relationship between the density of CO2 (g/cm3) and delta (cm-1) can be expressed as: d = -0.03238697 delta 3 + 10.08428 delta 2 - 1046.189 delta + 36163.67. This equation was obtained from the Raman data on CO2 fluid with densities from 0.1 to 1.21 g/cm3, including super critical fluids at 58-59 degrees C. The delta value was constant with increasing temperature from room temperature to 200 degrees C. This indicates that the Raman densimeter is not affected by a possible rise in temperature, an artifact induced by the high flux of the incident laser. The minimum size of measurable inclusions is 1 micron, and the precision in the determination of delta is 0.1 cm-1, corresponding to 0.02 g/cm3 for inclusions of 1 micron in size. The precision can be better for larger inclusions. The micro-Raman densimeter can determine the density of CO2 fluid inclusions over a wide range. In particular, densities of gas and mixtures of gas and liquid phases, which cannot be measured by microthermometry, can be determined.

  11. Effect of organic matter on CO(2) hydrate phase equilibrium in phyllosilicate suspensions. (United States)

    Park, Taehyung; Kyung, Daeseung; Lee, Woojin


    In this study, we examined various CO2 hydrate phase equilibria under diverse, heterogeneous conditions, to provide basic knowledge for successful ocean CO2 sequestration in offshore marine sediments. We investigated the effect of geochemical factors on CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium. The three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium of CO2 hydrate in the presence of (i) organic matter (glycine, glucose, and urea), (ii) phyllosilicates [illite, kaolinite, and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT)], and (iii) mixtures of them was measured in the ranges of 274.5-277.0 K and 14-22 bar. Organic matter inhibited the phase equilibrium of CO2 hydrate by association with water molecules. The inhibition effect decreased in the order: urea equilibrium, while Na-MMT (expandable clay) affected the phase equilibrium because of its interlayer cations. The CO2 hydrate equilibrium conditions, in the illite and kaolinite suspensions with organic matter, were very similar to those in the aqueous organic matter solutions. However, the equilibrium condition in the Na-MMT suspension with organic matter changed because of reduction of its inhibition effect by intercalated organic matter associated with cations in the Na-MMT interlayer.

  12. Investigation of the interactions between 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids and isobutylene using density functional theory. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoning; Guo, Wenli; Wu, Yibo; Li, Wei; Gong, Liangfa; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Shuxin; Shang, Yuwei; Yang, Dan; Wang, Hao


    To identify ionic liquids (ILs) that could be used as solvents in isobutylene (IB) polymerization, the interactions between IB and eight different ILs based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([Bmim] + ) were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The anions in the ILs were chloride, hexafluorophosphate, tetrafluoroborate, bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, tetrachloroaluminate ([AlCl 4 ] - ), tetrachloroferrate, acetate, and trifluoroacetate. The interaction geometries were explained by changes in the total energy, intermolecular distances, Hirshfeld charges, and the electrostatic potential surface. The IL solvents were screened by comparing their interaction intensities with IB to the interaction intensities of reference ILs ([AlCl 4 ] - -based ILs) with IB. The microscopic mechanism for IB dissolution was rationalized by invoking a previously reported microscopic mechanism for the dissolution of gases in ILs. Computation results revealed that hydrogen (H) bonding between C2-H on the imidazolium ring and the anions plays a key role in ion pair (IP) formation. The addition of IB leads to slight changes in the dominant interactions of the IP. IB molecules occupied cavities created by small angular rearrangements of the anions, just as CO 2 does when it is dissolved in an IL. The limited total free space in the ILs and the much larger size of IB than CO 2 were found to be responsible for the poor solubility of IB compared with that of CO 2 in the ILs.

  13. Effect of CO2 partial pressure and different CO2 phases on carbon steel corrosion (United States)

    Mahlobo, MGR; Premlall, K.; Olubambi, PA


    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the recent promising technology aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emission. Like many other developed technologies, CCS is faced with great challenges such as pipeline transportation failure due to corrosion. There are many factors contributing to steel corrosion during the pipeline transportation of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study focuses on CO2 partial pressure and different phases of CO2 as some of the factors contributing to steel corrosion. Carbon steel was used as a testing specimen. High pressure reactor was used in this study to compress CO2 from low to high pressures ultimately changing the CO2 from gaseous phase to gas/liquid phase (subcritical) and to dense phase (supercritical). Weight loss method was employed to determine the corrosion rate while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the carbon steel morphology and phase analysis. Using low magnification digital camera, the type of corrosion that took place on the carbon steel surface was identified.

  14. Synthesis of INERIS works in 2006-2008 on the issue: gaseous phase geochemical monitoring at the surface and in the intermediate roofing of storage sites. CO2 capture and storage 2005 ANR program - Geo-carbon Monitoring Convention ANR-05-CO2-008-05. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryszka, Zbigniew; Charmoille, Arnaud; Bentivegna, Gaetan


    Within the frame of the project of CO 2 capture and storage as a way to struggle against the greenhouse effect, this report proposes a synthesis of works performed by the INERIS in the field of gaseous phase geochemical monitoring, and more particularly on some parts of a larger programme, i.e. leakage detection in storage roofing and aquifers, leakage detection at the surface and at its vicinity (development of means of detection and direct measurement of CO 2 flows at the soil/atmosphere interface, assessment of leakages at the surface on the basis of point measurements), and testing of methods of direct measurement of CO 2 flows on sites

  15. Investigation of CO2 plume behavior for a large-scale pilot test of geologic carbon storage in a saline formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, C.


    The hydrodynamic behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on trapping mechanisms that lead to CO{sub 2} plume stabilization. A numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture is developed to simulate a planned pilot test, in which 1,000,000 metric tons of CO{sub 2} is injected over a four-year period, and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume for hundreds of years. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of the partitioning of CO{sub 2} between dissolved, immobile free-phase, and mobile free-phase forms. Model results indicate that the injected CO{sub 2} plume is effectively immobilized at 25 years. At that time, 38% of the CO{sub 2} is in dissolved form, 59% is immobile free phase, and 3% is mobile free phase. The plume footprint is roughly elliptical, and extends much farther up-dip of the injection well than down-dip. The pressure increase extends far beyond the plume footprint, but the pressure response decreases rapidly with distance from the injection well, and decays rapidly in time once injection ceases. Sensitivity studies that were carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual CO{sub 2} saturation indicate that small changes in properties can have a large impact on plume evolution, causing significant trade-offs between different trapping mechanisms.

  16. CO 2 as versatile carbonation agent of glycosides: Synthesis of 5- and 6-membered cyclic glycocarbonates and investigation of their ring-opening

    KAUST Repository

    Pati, Debasis


    This study demonstrates the successful use of CO as versatile carbonation agent for the synthesis of 5-membered and 6-membered bicyclic glycocarbonates from methyl α-d-mannopyranoside (MDM) and methyl α-d-galactopyranoside (MDG). On the one hand, these two sugars were cyclized into 5-membered glycocarbonates by mere reaction of CO with their hydroxyls either at cis-2,3 or cis-3,4 positions and without resorting to phosgene or its derivatives. The reactivity of the obtained 5-membered cyclic glycocarbonates were further tested with hexyl- and dodecyl amine. The self-assembling behavior of the formed alkyl glycosides in water was investigated and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). On the other hand, secondary hydroxyls at 2- and 3- positions in MDM and MDG were first protected by a ketal group and by two ether, respectively before subjecting their respective 6-position hydroxyl to bromination. Their respective 6-bromo and 4-hydroxyl functions were subsequently reacted in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and CO. The resulting 6-membered cyclic glycocarbonates were then polymerized using 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) or DBU as organocatalyst. All the synthesized 5- and 6-membered cyclic glycocarbonates and polyglycocarbonates were thoroughly characterized by FT-IR, H, C NMR and MALDI-ToF and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC).

  17. Experimental investigation of the magnetochiral index in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchon, Thierry; Vallet, Marc; Chauvat, Dominique; Le Floch, Albert; Thepot, Jean-Yves


    We showed through experiments that the magnetochiral index is polarization invariant and reported its wavelength dependence. These properties were investigated with limonene and using a specially-designed Ar + -ring active interferometer. A Fresnel drag-type optical bias inside the discharge tube, combined with two calibrations and the circumvention of systematic errors, allowed us to reach a detection level in the range of 10 -12 when measuring the change in the magnetochiral index of intracavity liquid samples. Our results are in agreement with the different predictions made for magnetochiral refraction

  18. A numerical investigation of the sCO2 recompression cycle off-design behaviour, coupled to a sodium cooled fast reactor, for seasonal variation in the heat sink temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, J.; Alpy, N.; Moisseytsev, A.; Haubensack, D.; Rodriguez, G.; Sienicki, J.; Avakian, G.


    Highlights: • Year-round behaviour of the supercritical CO 2 recompression cycle is simulated. • Behaviour of the system was uncertain due to large changes in the fluid properties. • Cycle thermodynamic optimisation and component preliminary designs were performed. • No off design cycle stability issues, compressors operate away from surge region. • Independent speed control of compressors maintains power and cycle efficiency. -- Abstract: Supercritical CO 2 cycles are particularly attractive for Generation IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as they can be simple and compact, but still offer steam-cycle equivalent efficiency while also removing potential for Na/H 2 O reactions. However, CO 2 thermophysical properties are very sensitive close to the critical point which raises, in particular, questions about the compressor and so cycle off-design behaviour when subject to inevitable temperature increases that result from seasonal variations in the heat sink temperature. This publication reports the numerical investigation of such an issue that has been performed using the Plant Dynamics Code (ANL, USA), the cycle being optimised for the next French SFR, ASTRID (1500 MW th ), as a test-case. On design, the net plant efficiency is 42.2% for a high pressure (25 MPa) turbine with an inlet temperature of 515 °C and considering a cycle low temperature of 35 °C. The off-design cycle behaviour is studied based on preliminary designs for the main components and assuming the use of a fixed heat sink flow rate. First results obtained using a common fixed shaft speed for all turbomachines, without any other active control, show no stability issues and roughly constant density (and volumetric flow rate) at the main compressor inlet for the range of heat sink temperature considered (21–40 °C). This occurs because the new stationary states are found without requiring a significant shift of mass to the higher pressure level, meaning the compressor inlet pressure

  19. Modeling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part II: Binary mixtures with CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht


    In Part I of this series of articles, the study of H2S mixtures has been presented with CPA. In this study the phase behavior of CO2 containing mixtures is modeled. Binary mixtures with water, alcohols, glycols and hydrocarbons are investigated. Both phase equilibria (vapor–liquid and liquid–liqu...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.


    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.

  1. Cloud optical thickness feedbacks in the CO2 climate problem (United States)

    Somerville, R. C. J.


    A radiative-convective equilibrium model is developed and applied to study cloud optical thickness feedbacks in the CO2 climate problem. The basic hypothesis is that in the warmer and moister CO2-rich atmosphere, cloud liquid water content will generally be larger than at present, so that cloud optical thickness will be larger too. For clouds other than thin cirrus, the result is to increase the albedo more than to increase the greenhouse effect. Thus the sign of the feedback is negative: cloud optical properties alter in such a way as to reduce the surface and tropospheric warming caused by the addition of CO2. This negative feedback can be substantial. When observational estimates of the temperature dependence of cloud liquid water content are employed in the model, the surface temperature change due to doubling CO2 is reduced by about one half.

  2. Final Progress Report: Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James P. Barry; Peter G. Brewer


    OAK-B135 This report summarizes activities and results of investigations of the potential environmental consequences of direct injection of carbon dioxide into the deep-sea as a carbon sequestration method. Results of field experiments using small scale in situ releases of liquid CO2 are described in detail. The major conclusions of these experiments are that mortality rates of deep sea biota will vary depending on the concentrations of CO2 in deep ocean waters that result from a carbon sequestration project. Large changes in seawater acidity and carbon dioxide content near CO2 release sites will likely cause significant harm to deep-sea marine life. Smaller changes in seawater chemistry at greater distances from release sites will be less harmful, but may result in significant ecosystem changes.

  3. Studies on ethylbenzene dehydrogenation with CO2 as soft oxidant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is because of the fact that the liberated H2 reacts with CO2 in the form of reverse water gas shift reaction. ... over 90% of styrene in the world is based on the .... Along with ethylbenzene, N2 or CO2 flow (20 cm3 min−1) was maintained. The reaction was carried out in a temperature of 723 to 923K. The liquid product.

  4. Process Investigation for Conversion of MSW into Liquid Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.T.; Jafri, U.A.; Chugtai, I.R.


    An investigation was conducted on pyrolysis technology to convert the municipal solid waste into liquid fuel. The investigation includes the development of the experimental setup for this process and its future prospects in Pakistan. A pyrolysis process is under consideration for many years for the production of synthetic fuel oils from organic solid waste. The system comprises of pyrolysis reactor, condenser for condensable gas, gas holder (for non- condensable gas). The feedstock used in the pyrolysis reactor is the municipal solid waste (includes kitchen waste, papers etc) in fine mesh size i.e. 2.5 - 3.0 mm. The residue obtained were mainly tar (pyrolytic oil), pyrogas (non - condensable gases) and ash, which shows that process has a potential for the treatment of the municipal solid waste and is a good technology for resource recover. (author)

  5. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of solubility and diffusivity for pure and mixed gases of H2, CO2, and Ar absorbed in the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf2N]). (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Sorescu, Dan C; Luebke, David R; Keller, Murphy J; Wickramanayake, Shan


    Classical molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the self-diffusivity and solubility of pure and mixed CO(2), H(2), and Ar gases absorbed in the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf(2)N]). Overall, the computed absorption isotherms, Henry's law constants, and partial molar enthalpies for pure H(2) agree well with the experimental data obtained by Maurer et al. [J. Chem. Eng. Data 2006, 51, 1364] and the experimental values determined in this work. However, the agreement is poor between the simulations and the experimental data by Noble et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2008, 47, 3453] and Costa Gomes [J. Chem. Eng. Data 2007, 52, 472] at high temperatures. The computed H(2) permeability values are in good agreement with the experimental data at 313 K obtained by Luebke et al. [J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 41; ibid, 2008, 322, 28], but about three times larger than the experimental value at 573 K from the same group. Our computed H(2) solubilities using different H(2) potential models have similar values and solute polarizations were found to have a negligible effect on the predicted gas solubilities for both the H(2) and Ar. The interaction between H(2) and the ionic liquid is weak, about three times smaller than between the ionic liquid and Ar and six times smaller than that of CO(2) with the ionic liquid, results that are consistent with a decreasing solubility from CO(2) to Ar and to H(2). The molar volume of the ionic liquid was found to be the determining factor for the H(2) solubility. For mixed H(2) and Ar gases, the solubilities for both solutes decrease compared to the respective pure gas solubilities. For mixed gases of CO(2) and H(2), the solubility selectivity of CO(2) over H(2) decreases from about 30 at 313 K to about 3 at 573 K. For the permeability, the simulated values for CO(2) in [hmim][Tf(2)N] are about 20-60% different than the experimental data by Luebke et al. [J. Membr

  6. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus


    Faced with depleting fossil carbon sources, the search for alternative energy carriers and energy storage possibilities has become an important issue. Nature utilizes carbon dioxide as starting material for storing sun energy in plant hydrocarbons. A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation of CO 2 involve high temperatures and are often not selective. With the development of more sophisticated methods and better software, theoretical studies have become both increasingly widespread and useful. This concept article summarizes theoretical investigations of the current state of the feasibility of CO 2 activation with molecular transition metal catalysts, highlighting the most promising reactions of CO 2 with olefins to industrially relevant acrylic acid/acrylates, and the insertion of CO 2 into metal-element bonds, particularly for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates and polymers. Rapidly improving computational power and methods help to increase the importance and accuracy of calculations continuously and make computational chemistry a useful tool helping to solve some of the most important questions for the future. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Quantitative analysis of an engineered CO2-fixing Escherichia coli reveals great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Liu, Guoxia; Zhai, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin


    Production of fuels from the abundant and wasteful CO2 is a promising approach to reduce carbon emission and consumption of fossil fuels. Autotrophic microbes naturally assimilate CO2 using energy from light, hydrogen, and/or sulfur. However, their slow growth rates call for investigation of the possibility of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. Although preliminary research has suggested that CO2 fixation in heterotrophic microbes is feasible after incorporation of a CO2-fixing bypass into the central carbon metabolic pathway, it remains unclear how much and how efficient that CO2 can be fixed by a heterotrophic microbe. A simple metabolic flux index was developed to indicate the relative strength of the CO2-fixation flux. When two sequential enzymes of the cyanobacterial Calvin cycle were incorporated into an E. coli strain, the flux of the CO2-fixing bypass pathway accounts for 13 % of that of the central carbon metabolic pathway. The value was increased to 17 % when the carbonic anhydrase involved in the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism was introduced, indicating that low intracellular CO2 concentration is one limiting factor for CO2 fixation in E. coli. The engineered CO2-fixing E. coli with carbonic anhydrase was able to fix CO2 at a rate of 19.6 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rate of 22.5 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1). This CO2-fixation rate is comparable with the reported rates of 14 autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae (10.5-147.0 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rates of 3.5-23.7 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1)). The ability of CO2 fixation was created and improved in E. coli by incorporating partial cyanobacterial Calvin cycle and carbon concentrating mechanism, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that the CO2-fixation rate of this strain is comparable with that of the autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae, demonstrating great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

  8. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.


    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  9. Investigation of polymer electrolyte based on agar and ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Silva


    Full Text Available The possibility to use natural polymer as ionic conducting matrix was investigated in this study. Samples of agarbased electrolytes with different ionic liquids were prepared and characterized by physical and chemical analyses. The ionic liquids used in this work were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate, [C2mim][C2SO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc] and trimethyl-ethanolammonium acetate, [Ch][OAc]. Samples of solvent-free electrolytes were prepared and characterized by ionic conductivity measurements, thermal analysis, electrochemical stability, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. Electrolyte samples are thermally stable up to approximately 190°C. All the materials synthesized are semicrystalline. The electrochemical stability domain of all samples is about 2.0 V versus Li/Li+. The preliminary studies carried out with electrochromic devices (ECDs incorporating optimized compositions have confirmed that these materials may perform as satisfactory multifunctional component layers in the field of ‘smart windows’, as well as ECD-based devices.

  10. China's scientific investigation for liquid waste treatment solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, L; Lin, M.; Kelley, D.


    Full text: Post World War II created the nuclear age with several countries developing nuclear technology for power, defense, space and medical applications. China began its nuclear research and development programs in 1950 with the establishment of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) located near Beijing. CIAE has been China's leader in nuclear science and development with its efforts to create advanced reactor technology and upgrade reprocessing technology. In addition, with China's new emphasis on environmental safety, CIAE is focusing on waste treatment options and new technologies that may provide solutions to legacy waste and newly generated waste from the full nuclear cycle. Radioactive liquid waste can pose significant challenges for clean-up with various treatment options including encapsulation (cement), vitrification, solidification and incineration. Most, if not all, nuclear nations have found the treatment of liquids to be difficult, due in large part to the high economic costs associated with treatment and disposal and the failure of some methods to safely contain or eliminate the liquid. With new environmental regulations in place, Chinese nuclear institutes and waste generators are beginning to seek new technologies that can be used to treat the more complex liquid waste streams in a form that is safe for | transport and for long-term storage or final disposal. In 2004, CIAE and Pacific Nuclear Solutions (USA) began discussions about absorbent technology and applications for its use. Preliminary tests were conducted at CIAE's I Department of Radiochemistry using generic solutions, such as lubricating oil, with absorbent polymers for solidification. Based on further discussions between both parties, it was decided to proceed with a more formal test program in April, 2005. The overall objective of j the test program was to apply absorbent polymers to various waste streams to determine leach rates, stability, performance at differing bonding

  11. Nuclear power and CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, R.


    Temperatures in the atmosphere have risen by nearly one degree in the twentieth century. To contain changes in global climate and their consequences, worldwide emissions of CO 2 need to be curbed drastically in the future. Even if CO 2 emissions are not taken into account, nuclear power has no economic disadvantages compared to fossil fuels. On the basis of an amount of money per ton of carbon emitted, nuclear power is cheaper than coal and, in most cases, also than natural gas. Actually, the worldwide CO 2 problem and energy generation are part of the ongoing 'sustainability' debate. The following arguments, among others, used in the discussion show the sustainable character of nuclear power: - Comparison of the risks associated with major accidents for various sources of energy show nuclear power to be relatively free from hazard. - The introduction of fast breeders and other technical factors will make it possible to use nuclear fission as an important source of energy for many centuries. - The radiotoxicity of waste over very long periods of time can be influenced, for instance, by transmutation. The need to further develop CO 2 -free nuclear power has been recognized by many countries, among them Switzerland. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) works towards developing a new generation of nuclear power plants by 2030. It will be the symbiosis of the new types of reactors with today's modern plants which finally will establish CO 2 -free nuclear fission as a sustainable cornerstone of energy generation worldwide. That nuclear power has this potential for further development must be acknowledged generally. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of the influence of CO2 on hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willquist, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Niel, van E.W.J.


    Stripping gas is generally used to improve hydrogen yields in fermentations. Since CO2 is relatively easy to separate from hydrogen it could be an interesting stripping gas. However, a higher partial CO2 pressure is accompanied with an increased CO2 uptake in the liquid, where it hydrolyses and

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation into the explosive boiling potential of thermally stratified liquid-liquid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabiano, B.; Kersten, R.J.A.; Opschoor, G.; Pastorino, R.


    The occurrence of a rapid phase transition, or so-called explosive boiling, when a cold volatile liquid comes into contact with a hot liquid or hot surface is a potential hazard in industry. This study was focused on the explosive boiling potential of thermally stratified liquid-liquid systems that

  14. Modeling CO2-Water-Mineral Wettability and Mineralization for Carbon Geosequestration. (United States)

    Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Shinya; Jia, Jihui; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) is an important climate change mitigation option along with improved energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. CO 2 geosequestration, that is, to store CO 2 under the subsurface of Earth, is feasible because the world's sedimentary basins have high capacity and are often located in the same region of the world as emission sources. How CO 2 interacts with the connate water and minerals is the focus of this Account. There are four trapping mechanisms that keep CO 2 in the pores of subsurface rocks: (1) structural trapping, (2) residual trapping, (3) dissolution trapping, and (4) mineral trapping. The first two are dominated by capillary action, where wettability controls CO 2 and water two-phase flow in porous media. We review state-of-the-art studies on CO 2 /water/mineral wettability, which was found to depend on pressure and temperature conditions, salt concentration in aqueous solutions, mineral surface chemistry, and geometry. We then review some recent advances in mineral trapping. First, we show that it is possible to reproduce the CO 2 /water/mineral wettability at a wide range of pressures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As the pressure increases, CO 2 gas transforms into a supercritical fluid or liquid at ∼7.4 MPa depending on the environmental temperature. This transition leads to a substantial decrease of the interfacial tension between CO 2 and reservoir brine (or pure water). However, the wettability of CO 2 /water/rock systems depends on the type of rock surface. Recently, we investigated the contact angle of CO 2 /water/silica systems with two different silica surfaces using MD simulations. We found that contact angle increased with pressure for the hydrophobic (siloxane) surface while it was almost constant for the hydrophilic (silanol) surface, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, we found that the CO 2 thin films at the CO 2 -hydrophilic

  15. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture. (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang


    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  16. Polyurethane Foam-Based Ultramicroporous Carbons for CO2 Capture. (United States)

    Ge, Chao; Song, Jian; Qin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Jianguo; Fan, Weibin


    A series of sustainable porous carbon materials were prepared from waste polyurethane foam and investigated for capture of CO2. The effects of preparation conditions, such as precarbonization, KOH to carbon precursor weight ratio, and activation temperature, on the porous structure and CO2 adsorption properties were studied for the purpose of controlling pore sizes and nitrogen content and developing high-performance materials for capture of CO2. The sample prepared at optimum conditions shows CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.67 and 4.33 mmol·g(-1) at 0 and 25 °C under 1 bar, respectively, which are comparable to those of the best reported porous carbons prepared from waste materials. The HCl treatment experiment reveals that about 80% of CO2 adsorption capacity arises from physical adsorption, while the other 20% is due to the chemical adsorption originated from the interaction of basic N groups and CO2 molecules. The relationship between CO2 uptake and pore size at different temperatures indicates that the micropores with pore size smaller than 0.86 and 0.70 nm play a dominant role in the CO2 adsorption at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. It was found that the obtained carbon materials exhibited high recyclability and high selectivity to adsorption of CO2 from the CO2 and N2 mixture.

  17. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.


    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  18. X-ray Investigations of Liquid Bismuth-Copper Alloys (United States)

    Nzali, J. Nomssi; Hoyer, W.


    Liquid copper, bismuth, and eleven bismuth-copper alloys were investigated at temperatures above the liquidus with X-ray diffraction. The experimental procedure was adjusted to reduce the effects of evaporation. The Faber-Ziman total structure factors S(Q) feature a splitting of the first maximum and negative values for Q around 1 Å -1 in a large concentration range. The results are compared to previous neutron diffraction results by Zaiss and Steeb, to square-well potential model calculations by Gopala Rao and Satpathy and to a simple segregation model. The segregation model reproduces the features qualitatively. Partial structure factors are assessed by fitting both neutron and X-ray scattering results with reverse Monte-Carlo simulation

  19. Investigation of electronic transport properties of some liquid transition metals (United States)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.


    We investigated electronic transport properties of some liquid transition metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Pt) using Ziman formalism. Our parameter free model potential which is realized on ionic and atomic radius has been incorporated with the Hard Sphere Yukawa (HSY) reference system to study the electronic transport properties like electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity (σ) and thermo electrical power (Q). The screening effect on aforesaid properties has been studied by using different screening functions. The correlations of our results and others data with in addition experimental values are profoundly promising to the researchers working in this field. Also, we conclude that our newly constructed parameter free model potential is capable to explain the aforesaid electronic transport properties.

  20. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Feaga, Lori; Bodewits, Dennis; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane


    Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

  1. Nanostructures in water-in-CO2 microemulsions stabilized by double-chain fluorocarbon solubilizers. (United States)

    Sagisaka, Masanobu; Iwama, Shuho; Ono, Shinji; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Mohamed, Azmi; Cummings, Stephen; Yan, Ci; James, Craig; Rogers, Sarah E; Heenan, Richard K; Eastoe, Julian


    High-pressure small-angle neutron scattering (HP-SANS) studies were conducted to investigate nanostructures and interfacial properties of water-in-supercritical CO2 (W/CO2) microemulsions with double-fluorocarbon-tail anionic surfactants, having different fluorocarbon chain lengths and linking groups (glutarate or succinate). At constant pressure and temperature, the microemulsion aqueous cores were found to swell with an increase in water-to-surfactant ratio, W0, until their solubilizing capacities were reached. Surfactants with fluorocarbon chain lengths of n = 4, 6, and 8 formed spherical reversed micelles in supercritical CO2 even at W0 over the solubilizing powers as determined by phase behavior studies, suggesting formation of Winsor-IV W/CO2 microemulsions and then Winsor-II W/CO2 microemulsions. On the other hand, a short C2 chain fluorocarbon surfactant analogue displayed a transition from Winsor-IV microemulsions to lamellar liquid crystals at W0 = 25. Critical packing parameters and aggregation numbers were calculated by using area per headgroup, shell thickness, the core/shell radii determined from SANS data analysis: these parameters were used to help understand differences in aggregation behavior and solubilizing power in CO2. Increasing the microemulsion water loading led the critical packing parameter to decrease to ~1.3 and the aggregation number to increase to >90. Although these parameters were comparable between glutarate and succinate surfactants with the same fluorocarbon chain, decreasing the fluorocarbon chain length n reduced the critical packing parameter. At the same time, reducing chain length to 2 reduced negative interfacial curvature, favoring planar structures, as demonstrated by generation of lamellar liquid crystal phases.

  2. Light and CO2 do not affect the mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion in wheat leaves. (United States)

    Tazoe, Youshi; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Badger, Murray R; Evans, John R


    In C(3) plants, diffusion of CO(2) into leaves is restricted by stomata and subsequently by the intercellular airspaces and liquid phase into chloroplasts. While considerable information exists on the effect of environmental conditions on stomatal conductance (g(s)), little is known on whether the mesophyll conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)) changes with respect to photon flux density (PFD) and CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)). In this study, the effects of PFD and/or pCO(2) on g(m) were examined in wheat leaves by combining gas exchange with carbon isotope discrimination measurements using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer. Measurements were made in 2% O(2) to reduce the fractionation associated with photorespiration. The magnitude of g(m) was estimated using the observed carbon isotope discrimination (Delta), ambient and intercellular pCO(2), CO(2) assimilation and respiration rates, either from an individual measurement made under one environmental condition or from a global fit to multiple measurements where PFD was varied. It was found that respiration made a significant and variable contribution to the observed discrimination, which associated with the difference in isotopic composition between CO(2) in the greenhouse and that used for gas exchange measurements. In wheat, g(m) was independent of PFD between 200 and 1500 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and was independent of p(i) between 80 and 500 microbar.

  3. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia. (United States)

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof


    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO 2 ) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO 2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO 2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO 2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO 2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO 2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  4. Effect of copper oxide electrocatalyst on CO2 reduction using Co3O4 as anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.K. Yadav


    Full Text Available The reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 to products electrochemically (RCPE in 0.5 M NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 liquid phase electrolyte solutions was investigated. Cobalt oxide (Co3O4 as anode and cuprous oxide (Cu2O as the cathode were considered, respectively. The impacts of applied potential with time of reaction during reduction of CO2 to products were studied. The anode and cathode were prepared by depositing electrocatalysts on the graphite plate. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC was used to analyze the products obtained from the reduction of CO2. The feasible way of reduction by applying voltages with current densities was clearly correlated. The results illustrate the capability of electrocatalyst successfully to remove atmospheric CO2 in the form of valuable chemicals. Maximum Faradaic efficiency of ethanol was 98.1% at 2 V and for formic acid (36.6% at 1.5 V was observed in NaHCO3. On the other hand, in Na2CO3 electrolyte solution maximum efficiency for ethanol was 55.21% at 1.5 V and 25.1% for formic acid at 2 V. In both electrolytes other end products like methanol, propanol, formaldehyde and acetic acid were formed at various applied voltage and output current densities.

  5. Thermal stability, swelling behavior and CO 2 absorption properties of Nanoscale Ionic Materials (NIMs)

    KAUST Repository

    Andrew Lin, Kun-Yi


    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Nanoscale Ionic Materials (NIMs) consist of a nanoscale core, a corona of charged brushes tethered on the surface of the core, and a canopy of the oppositely charged species linked to the corona. Unlike conventional polymeric nanocomposites, NIMs can display liquid-like behavior in the absence of solvents, have a negligible vapor pressure and exhibit unique solvation properties. These features enable NIMs to be a promising CO2 capture material. To optimize NIMs for CO2 capture, their structure-property relationships were examined by investigating the roles of the canopy and the core in their thermal stability, and thermally- and CO2-induced swelling behaviors. NIMs with different canopy sizes and core fractions were synthesized and their thermal stability as well as thermally- and CO2-induced swelling behaviors were determined using thermogravimetry, and ATR FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. It was found that the ionic bonds between the canopy and the corona, as well as covalent bonds between the corona and the core significantly improved the thermal stability compared to pure polymer and polymer/nanofiller mixtures. A smaller canopy size and a larger core fraction led to a greater enhancement in thermal stability. This thermal stability enhancement was responsible for the long-term thermal stability of NIMs over 100 temperature swing cycles. Owing to their ordered structure, NIMs swelled less when heated or when they adsorbed CO2 compared to their corresponding polymers. This journal is

  6. CO2 sequestration by carbonation of steelmaking slags in an autoclave reactor. (United States)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chu, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi


    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sequestration experiments using the accelerated carbonation of three types of steelmaking slags, i.e., ultra-fine (UF) slag, fly-ash (FA) slag, and blended hydraulic slag cement (BHC), were performed in an autoclave reactor. The effects of reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), temperature, CO(2) pressure, and initial pH on CO(2) sequestration were evaluated. Two different CO(2) pressures were chosen: the normal condition (700 psig) and the supercritical condition (1300 psig). The carbonation conversion was determined quantitatively by using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The major factors that affected the conversion were reaction time (5 min to 12h) and temperature (40-160°C). The BHC was found to have the highest carbonation conversion of approximately 68%, corresponding to a capacity of 0.283 kg CO(2)/kg BHC, in 12h at 700 psig and 160°C. In addition, the carbonation products were confirmed to be mainly in CaCO(3), which was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) to analyze samples before and after carbonation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics were expressed with a surface coverage model, and the carbon footprint of the developed technology in this investigation was calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai


    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  8. Global energy / CO2 projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.


    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  9. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  10. Comparison of Surface and Column Variations of CO2 Over Urban Areas for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Melissa; Kooi, Susan; Browell, Edward


    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. This campaign includes, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). Each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface (0 - 1 km) and column-averaged (0 - 3.5 km) CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four geographically different urban areas are used to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the different urban atmospheric emission environments. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs are used to identify the source of CO2 variations in the urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-microns and 2.05-microns measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we investigate the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to the urban surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  11. Directly converting CO2 into a gasoline fuel (United States)

    Wei, Jian; Ge, Qingjie; Yao, Ruwei; Wen, Zhiyong; Fang, Chuanyan; Guo, Lisheng; Xu, Hengyong; Sun, Jian


    The direct production of liquid fuels from CO2 hydrogenation has attracted enormous interest for its significant roles in mitigating CO2 emissions and reducing dependence on petrochemicals. Here we report a highly efficient, stable and multifunctional Na-Fe3O4/HZSM-5 catalyst, which can directly convert CO2 to gasoline-range (C5-C11) hydrocarbons with selectivity up to 78% of all hydrocarbons while only 4% methane at a CO2 conversion of 22% under industrial relevant conditions. It is achieved by a multifunctional catalyst providing three types of active sites (Fe3O4, Fe5C2 and acid sites), which cooperatively catalyse a tandem reaction. More significantly, the appropriate proximity of three types of active sites plays a crucial role in the successive and synergetic catalytic conversion of CO2 to gasoline. The multifunctional catalyst, exhibiting a remarkable stability for 1,000 h on stream, definitely has the potential to be a promising industrial catalyst for CO2 utilization to liquid fuels.

  12. A New Thickener for CO2 Anhydrous Fracturing Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian


    Full Text Available CO2 dry fracturing technology is well-known for its advantages. Little water is used in this technology, which is able to ease the pressure of consumption on water resources. Many abroad theoretical researches, laboratory experiments and field tests have been taken to explore the yield mechanism, the adaptability and the technology of pure liquid CO2 fracturing. These achievements have been applied to a variety of reservoirs transformation and improven the effectiveness of stimulation treatment in a degree. The researches and studies in the domestic didn’t get popular until recent years. Thus, this article firstly introduces the main development and application about pure CO2 anhydrous fracturing technology, and sums up the effect and evaluation of its fluid through application examples both in the domestic and abroad. However, although this technology has many excellent qualities, but systematic studies indicate that its proppant-carrying capacity is less competitive because of the low viscosity of pure CO2 liquid and other reasons. In a consequence, it is necessary to develop an appropriate thickener for CO2 anhydrous fracturing fluid to improve its carrying capacity. Then this article describes some studies of previous scholars about CO2 thickener. Then we put forward our own research ideas and transform it into actual experiments. Thanks to the valid performances of these tests, we successfully develop a thickener X and cosolvent B.

  13. Interface characteristics in Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan


    Interface characteristics of Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer have been investigated by means of first-principles. The most likely interface is formed by connecting MnSi-termination to the bridge site between two Ag atoms. As annealed at high temperature, the formation of interface DO3 disorder is most energetically favorable. The spin polarization is reduced by both the interface itself and interface disorder due to the interface state occurs in the minority-spin gap. As a result, the magneto-resistance ratio has a sharp drop based on the estimation of a simplified modeling.

  14. Cooperative CO2 Absorption Isotherms from a Bifunctional Guanidine and Bifunctional Alcohol. (United States)

    Steinhardt, Rachel; Hiew, Stanley C; Mohapatra, Hemakesh; Nguyen, Du; Oh, Zachary; Truong, Richard; Esser-Kahn, Aaron


    Designing new liquids for CO 2 absorption is a challenge in CO 2 removal. Here, achieving low regeneration energies while keeping high selectivity and large capacity are current challenges. Recent cooperative metal-organic frameworks have shown the potential to address many of these challenges. However, many absorbent systems and designs rely on liquid capture agents. We present herein a liquid absorption system which exhibits cooperative CO 2 absorption isotherms. Upon introduction, CO 2 uptake is initially suppressed, followed by an abrupt increase in absorption. The liquid consists of a bifunctional guanidine and bifunctional alcohol, which, when dissolved in bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether, forms a secondary viscous phase within seconds in response to increases in CO 2 . The precipitation of this second viscous phase drives CO 2 absorption from the gas phase. The isotherm of the bifunctional system differs starkly from the analogous monofunctional system, which exhibits limited CO 2 uptake across the same pressure range. In our system, CO 2 absorption is strongly solvent dependent. In DMSO, both systems exhibit hyperbolic isotherms and no precipitation occurs. Subsequent 1 H NMR experiments confirmed the formation of distinct alkylcarbonate species having either one or two molecules of CO 2 bound. The solvent and structure relationships derived from these results can be used to tailor new liquid absorption systems to the conditions of a given CO 2 separation process.

  15. Atmospheric Collapse on Early Mars: The Role of CO2 Clouds (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Steakley, K. E.; Murphy, J. R.; Kling, A.


    The abundance of evidence that liquid water flowed on the surface early in Mars' history strongly implies that the early Martian atmosphere was significantly more massive than it is today. While it seems clear that the total CO2 inventory was likely substantially larger in the past, the fundamental question about the physical state of that CO2 is not completely understood. Because the temperature at which CO2 condenses increases with surface pressure, surface CO2 ice is more likely to form and persist as the atmospheric mass increases. For the atmosphere to remain stable against collapse, there must be enough energy, distributed planet wide, to stave off the formation of permanent CO2 caps that leads to atmospheric collapse. The presence of a "faint young sun" that was likely about 25 percent less luminous 3.8 billion years ago than the sun today makes this even more difficult. Several physical processes play a role in the ultimate stability of a CO2 atmosphere. The system is regulated by the energy balance between solar insolation, the radiative effects of the atmosphere and its constituents, atmospheric heat transport, heat exchange between the surface and the atmosphere, and latent heating/cooling. Specific considerations in this balance for a given orbital obliquity/eccentricity and atmospheric mass are the albedo of the caps, the dust content of the atmosphere, and the presence of water and/or CO2 clouds. Forget et al. show that, for Mars' current obliquity (in a circular orbit), CO2 atmospheres ranging in surface pressure from 500 hectopascals to 3000 hectopascals would have been stable against collapsing into permanent surface ice reservoirs. Soto et al. examined a similar range in initial surface pressure to investigate atmospheric collapse and to compute collapse rates. CO2 clouds and their radiative effects were included in Forget et al. but they were not included in Soto et al. Here we focus on how CO2 clouds affect the stability of the atmosphere

  16. Possible impacts of CO2 storage on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poremski, H.J.


    This study examined the potential impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration on the marine environment. The upper layers of oceans are currently saturated with CO 2 , while deeper ocean waters remain undersaturated. Arctic and Antarctic waters have higher uptake rates of CO 2 due to their lower temperatures. CO 2 deposited in Arctic and Antarctic waters sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and is then transported to equatorial latitudes, where stored amounts of CO 2 that are not fixed by biochemical processes will be released and enter the atmosphere again after a period of approximately 1000 years. Nearly 50 per cent of CO 2 fixation occurs as a result of phytoplankton growth, which is dependent on the availability of a range of nutrients, essential trace metals, and optimal physical conditions. Fertilization-induced CO 2 fixation in the sediments of southern oceans will result in nutrient depletion of bottom layers, which will in turn result in lower primary production levels at equatorial latitudes. Current modelling approaches to CO 2 injection assume that the injected CO 2 will dissolve in a plume extending 100 m around a riser. Retention times of several hundred years are anticipated. However, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of CO 2 deep ocean storage technologies. Increased CO 2 uptake can also increase the formation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) acidification, decrease pH values, and inhibit the formation of biomass in addition to impacting on the calcification of many organisms. It was concluded that ocean storage by injection or deep storage is an untenable option at present due to the fact that the effects of excessive CO 2 in marine environments are not fully understood. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Future CO2 removal from pulp mills - Process integration consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, Erik; Berntsson, Thore


    Earlier work has shown that capturing the CO 2 from flue gases in the recovery boiler at a pulp mill can be a cost-effective way of reducing mill CO 2 emissions. However, the CO 2 capture cost is very dependent on the fuel price. In this paper, the potential for reducing the need for external fuel and thereby the possibility to reduce the cost for capturing the CO 2 are investigated. The reduction is achieved by using thermal process integration. In alternative 1, the mill processes are integrated and a steam surplus made available for CO 2 capture, but still there is a need for external fuel. In alternative 2, the integration is taken one step further, the reboiler is fed with MP steam, and the heat of absorption from the absorption unit is used for generation of LP steam needed at the mill. The avoidance costs are in both cases lower than before the process integration. The avoidance cost in alternative 1 varies between 25.4 and 30.7 EUR/tonne CO 2 depending on the energy market parameters. For alternative 2, the cost varies between 22.5 and 27.2 EUR/tonne CO 2 . With tough CO 2 reduction targets and correspondingly high CO 2 emission costs, the annual earnings can be substantial, 18.6 MEUR with alternative 1 and 21.2 MEUR with alternative 2

  18. Modeling and Simulation of CO2 Absorption into Promoted Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Solution in Industrial Scale Packed Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Altway


    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop mathematical model for investigating the CO2 absorption into promoted hot potassium carbonate solution in industrial scale packed column. The absorber is used in a large-scale ammonia plant to remove CO2 from the process gas stream. The CO2 is removed from the gas stream by counter-current absorption in two stages column. Lean solution and semi lean solution were fed into the top of upper part column and lower part column, respectively. To represent the gas-liquid system, a rigorous mathematical model based on the two-film theory is considered. The heat effects are taken into account. The model consists of differential mass and heat balance and considers the interactions between mass-transfer and chemical kinetics using enhancement factor concept. The chemical reaction in the liquid phase is based on the bicarbonate ion formation from CO2 as the rate-determining step. Gas solubility, mass and heat transfer coefficients, reaction kinetics and equilibrium were estimated using correlations from literatures.Therefore, multi-component absorption phenomena were considered in the mathematical model. The model was validated using plant data and was used to compute temperature and concentration profiles in the absorber. The variation in percent CO2 recovery with respect to changes in some operating variables is evaluated. The effect of various kinds of promoters added into potassium carbonate solution on the carbon dioxide recovery was also investigated.

  19. Investigation of hybrid molecular material prepared by ionic liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The most common ionic liquids (IL) employed are imidazolium, pyridinium derivatives, phosphonium and tetralkylammonium compounds. The room temperature ionic liquidity is achieved by tailoring cations and anions to disturb salt's normally highly crystalline nature. For example, the melting point of NaCl can be brought ...

  20. Acclimation of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long-term growth in elevated CO(2) (free-air CO(2) enrichment) and N-fertilization. (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Palmroth, Sari; Ward, Eric; Maier, Chris A; Thérézien, M; Oren, Ram


    We investigated how leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) of loblolly pine trees is influenced by soil nitrogen amendment (N) in stands subjected to ambient or elevated CO(2) concentrations (CO(2)(a) and CO(2)(e), respectively). We also examined how K(leaf) varies with changes in reference leaf water potential (Psi(leaf-ref)) and stomatal conductance (g(s-ref)) calculated at vapour pressure deficit, D of 1 kPa. We detected significant reductions in K(leaf) caused by N and CO(2)(e), but neither treatment affected pre-dawn or midday Psi(leaf). We also detected a significant CO(2)(e)-induced reduction in g(s-ref) and Psi(leaf-ref). Among treatments, the sensitivity of K(leaf) to Psi(leaf) was directly related to a reference K(leaf) (K(leaf-ref) computed at Psi(leaf-ref)). This liquid-phase response was reflected in a similar gas-phase response, with g(s) sensitivity to D proportional to g(s-ref). Because leaves represented a substantial component of the whole-tree conductance, reduction in K(leaf) under CO(2)(e) affected whole-tree water use by inducing a decline in g(s-ref). The consequences of the acclimation of leaves to the treatments were: (1) trees growing under CO(2)(e) controlled morning leaf water status less than CO(2)(a) trees resulting in a higher diurnal loss of K(leaf); (2) the effect of CO(2)(e) on g(s-ref) was manifested only during times of high soil moisture.

  1. Leak detection of CO2 pipelines with simple atmospheric CO2 sensors for carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Charlotte; Hensen, Arjan; Meijer, Harro A. J.


    This paper presents a field test performed with five relatively simple CO2 sensors (Vaisala Carbocap GMP343) that were placed for more than one year in a field in Ten Post, Groningen, The Netherlands. Aim was to investigate their potential use in monitoring pipelines transporting CO2 for carbon

  2. Experimental investigation of non-Newtonian/Newtonian liquid-liquid flow in microchannel (United States)

    Roumpea, Eynagelia-Panagiota; Weheliye, Weheliye; Chinaud, Maxime; Angeli, Panagiota; Lyes Kahouadji Collaboration; Omar. K. Matar Collaboration


    Plug flow of an organic phase and an aqueous non-Newtonian solution was investigated experimentally in a quartz microchannel with I.D. 200 μm. The aqueous phase was a glycerol solution where 1000 and 2000 ppm of xanthan gum was added while the organic phase was silicon oil with 155 and 5 cSt viscosity. The two phases were brought together in a T-junction and their flowrates varied from 0.3 to 6 ml/hr. High speed imaging was used to study the characteristics of the plugs and the effect of the liquid properties on the flow patterns while a two-colour micro-PIV technique was used to investigate velocity profiles and circulation patterns within the plugs. The experimental results revealed that plug length was affected by both flowrate and viscosity. In all cases investigated, a film of the continuous phase always surrounded the plugs and its thickness was compared with existing literature models. Circulation patterns inside plugs were obtained by subtracting the plug velocity and found to be depended on the plug length and the amount of xanthan gum in the aqueous phase. Finally, the dimensionless circulation time was calculated and plotted as a function of the plug length. Department of Chemical Engineering South Kensington Campus Imperial College London SW7 2AZ.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia LUBAŃSKA

    Full Text Available Z pojęciem ochrony środowiska wiąże się bardzo szeroko w ostatnim czasie omawiane zagadnienie dotyczące ograniczenia emisji CO2. Konsekwencją globalnych zmian klimatu wywołanego przez ludzi jest wzrost stężenia atmosferycznego gazów cieplarnianych, które powodują nasilający się efekt cieplarniany. Wzrasta na świecie liczba ludności, a co za tym idzie wzrasta konsumpcja na jednego mieszkańca, szczególnie w krajach szeroko rozwiniętych gospodarczo. Protokół z Kioto ściśle określa działania jakie należy podjąć w celu zmniejszenia stężenia dwutlenku węgla w atmosferze. Pomimo maksymalnej optymalizacji procesu spalania paliw kopalnianych wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii, zastosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii zmiana klimatu jest nieunikniona i konsekwentnie będzie postępować przez kolejne dekady. Prognozuje się, że duże znaczenie odegra nowoczesna technologia, która ma za zadanie wychwycenie CO2 a następnie składowanie go w odpowiednio wybranych formacjach geologicznych (CCS- Carbon Capture and Storage. Eksperci są zgodni, że ta technologia w niedalekiej przyszłości stanie się rozwiązaniem pozwalającym ograniczyć ogromną ilość emisji CO2 pochodzącą z procesów wytwarzania energii z paliw kopalnych. Z analiz Raportu IPCC wynika, iż technologia CSS może się przyczynić do ok. 20% redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla przewidzianej do 2050 roku [3]. Zastosowanie jej napotyka na wiele barier, nie tylko technologicznych i ekonomicznych, ale także społecznych. Inną metodą dającą ujemne źródło emisji CO2 jest możliwość wykorzystania obszarów leśnych o odpowiedniej strukturze drzewostanu. Środkiem do tego celu, oprócz ograniczenia zużycia emisjogennych paliw kopalnych (przy zachowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju może być intensyfikacja zalesień. Zwiększanie lesistości i prawidłowa gospodarka leśna należy do najbardziej efektywnych sposobów kompensowania

  4. Preliminary investigation of liquid phase sintering in ferrous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.


    Liquid phase sintering was utilized to achieve, by a simple compaction and sintering procedure involving short times and moderate temperatures, a virtually full dense high carbon Fe:C alloy and high boron Fe:B alloy. Parameters such as powder characteristics and mixing, compacting pressure, heating program and the liquid phase fraction were found to influence the sintered density. The response of the Fe:C alloy to a heat treatment is reported along with preliminary experiments in the iron base ternary system Fe:W:C. Residual porosities observed in microstructures of certain liquid phase sintered compacts were accounted for by a proposed capillary flow of the liquid phase and a local densification competing against an overall densification. Some general recommendations are made for liquid phase sintering of powder aggregates. 15 fig., 7 tables

  5. Investigation of sheared liquids by neutron backscattering and reflectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, M; Hock, R; Frick, B; Zabel, H


    We have investigated by neutron scattering structural and dynamical properties of water solutions of the triblock copolymer P85 under shear. To this end a shear cell that suits the requirements for neutron backscattering and another for reflectivity experiments have been built. In reflectivity measurements we find the polymer concentration (nominal concentration of 33% by weight) to vary right at the surface between 12% and 52% for hydrophilic or hydrophobic coated silicon wavers, for temperatures between 18 C and 73 C and for shear rates up to 2500 s sup - sup 1. Additional structural changes deeper in the bulk are also observed. On the backscattering instrument (IN10 at ILL) we find that the liquid appears to stick to the plates of the shear cell, implying an unusual macroscopic velocity distribution that differs from that found earlier for lubrication oils. We report further on changes of the quasielastic line width in the direction of the shear gradient for different temperatures and shear rates. (orig.)

  6. Experimental investigation of detonation waves instabilities in liquid high explosives (United States)

    Sosikov, V. A.; Torunov, S. I.; Utkin, A. V.; Mochalova, V. M.; Rapota, D. Yu


    Experimental investigation of unstable detonation front structure in mixtures of liquid high explosives (nitromethane and FEFO—bis-(2-fluor-2.2-dinitroethyl)-formal) with inert diluents (acetone, methanol, DETA—diethylene triamine) has been carried out. Inhomogeneities have been registered by electro-optical camera NANOGATE 4BP allowing to make 4 frames with the exposure time 10 ns. According to experimental results the detonation front in nitromethane–acetone mixture is unstable. It is evident that pulsations on detonation front do not form spatial periodic structure and their dimensions differ several times. But mean longitudinal size of pulsation is about 500 μm at 20 wt% of acetone concentration. This means that the typical size of cell equals to reaction zone width. The same structure of cellular front have been registered in 70/30 FEFO–methanol mixture. Second kind of instability, failure waves, was observed in neat nitromethane at the free surface. In this case the stability loss result in turbulent flow which is clearly detected in the shots obtained. Adding small amount of DETA (0.5 wt%) results in disappearance of the failure waves and flow stabilization. The effect is caused by the fact that DETA sharply accelerates initial rate of chemical reaction because it is sensitizer for nitromethane.

  7. Bonding analysis of the [C(2)O(4)](2+) intermediate formed in the reaction of CO(2)(2+) with neutral CO(2). (United States)

    Feixas, Ferran; Ponec, Robert; Fiser, Jirí; Roithová, Jana; Schröder, Detlef; Price, Stephen D


    The bonding patterns of the [C(2)O(4)](2+) dication formed upon interaction of CO(2)(2+) with neutral CO(2) are investigated using the analysis of domain-averaged Fermi holes (DAFHs). The DAFH approach provides an explanation for the previously observed "asymmetry" of the energy deposition in the pair of CO(2)(+) monocations formed in the thermal reaction CO(2)(2+) + CO(2) --> [C(2)O(4)](2+) --> 2 CO(2)(+), specifically that the CO(2)(+) monocation formed from the dication dissociates far more readily than the CO(2)(+) monocation formed from the neutral molecule. The bonding pattern is consistent with a description of intermediate [C(2)O(4)](2+) as a complex between the triplet ground state of CO(2)(2+) with the singlet ground state of neutral CO(2), which can, among other pathways, smoothly proceed to a nondegenerate pair of (4)CO(2)(+) + (2)CO(2)(+) where the former stems from the dication and the latter stems from the neutral reactant. Hence the "electronic history" of the components is retained in the [C(2)O(4)](2+) intermediate. In addition, dissociation of (4)CO(2)(+) is discussed based on CCSD and CASSCF calculations. Equilibrium geometries for the ground electronic states of CO(2)(0/+/2+) and some other relevant structures of CO(2)(+) are determined using the MRCI method.

  8. A comparative investigation into the formation behaviors of char, liquids and gases during pyrolysis of pinewood and lignocellulosic components. (United States)

    Shi, Xinhua; Wang, Jie


    The pyrolysis characteristics of xylan, cellulose, ADF (a mixture of cellulose and lignin extracted from pine wood) and pine wood were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor by determining the distributions of three-phase products, the elemental compositions of char products, the conversions of components and the profiles of gas release rate during pyrolysis as well as the compositions of liquid products. Interactions were found to occur between the different components. Lignin accelerated the release of CO2 and CO from cellulose and intensified the decomposition of cellulose to smaller molecular weight liquid compounds. Pine wood exhibited the componential interactions, resulting in the broadened temperature range of mass loss, the enhanced yield of char, and the increased heterogeneity of char. Pine wood produced more bio-oil than each component sample, with the compositional formula of CH1.07O0.31. The formation of liquid compounds from pine wood was also observed to be influenced by the componential interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.


    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (Δ) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to Δ, and thus Δ is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in Δ upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in Δ suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the

  10. Simulasi Numeris Karakteristik Pembakaran CH4/CO2/Udara dan CH4/CO2/O2 pada Counterflow Premixed Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangga Wicaksono


    Full Text Available The high amount of CO2 produced in a conventional biogas reactor needs to be considered. A further analysis is needed in order to investigate the effect of CO2 addition especially in thermal and chemical kinetics aspect. This numerical study has been held to analyze the effect of CO2 in CH4/CO2/O­2 and CH4/CO2/Air premixed combustion. In this study one dimensional analisys in a counterflow burner has been performed. The volume fraction of CO2 used in this study was 0%-40% from CH4’s volume fraction, according to the amount of CO2 in general phenomenon. Based on the flammability limits data, the volume fraction of CH4 used was 5-61% in O2 environment and 5-15% in air environment. The results showed a decreasing temperature along with the increasing percentage of CO2 in each mixtures, but the effect was quite smaller especially in stoichiometric and lean mixture. CO2 could affects thermally (by absorbing heat due to its high Cp and also made the production of unburnt fuel species such as CO relatively higher.

  11. CO2 store: the Valleys case study on CO2 capture, transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarises results of a study of the potential to capture and store underground the emissions from the proposed Valleys power plant, a 450MW IGCC plant, fuelled by a mixture of petroleum coke (petcoke) and locally mined anthracite, to be constructed at Onllwyn, near Drym, in the South Wales Coalfield. The study is based upon 85% of the total carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, approximately 2.45 million tonnes of CO 2 per year, being captured annually from the Valleys power plant, compressed to 110bar pressure and sent by pipeline for storage in an underground geological reservoir. Fitted for CO 2 capture, the net output of the power plant would be 400MW. Feedstock utilisation would be around 1.05Mt/year based on an annual load factor for the gasification plant of 87.5%. The plant would be economically viable providing carbon credits of 20 Euros per tonne of CO 2 avoided were available, e.g. from the European Union (EU) Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). This is approximately the current price of EU ETS credits at the time of writing. The CO 2 would be captured pre-combustion, using a physical solvent process. The pipeline would be constructed of carbon steel and would consist of an onshore leg of around 90km and an offshore leg of around 45km. Pipeline capital costs are assessed at between 50-70MEuros. Annual pipeline operation and maintenance costs are assessed as 3% of the capital cost, at around 1.8MEuros. Geological investigations demonstrated that the opportunities for geological storage of CO 2 in the Welsh coalfield and the Bristol Channel are limited, and the best potential for a geological CO 2 storage site for the CO 2 captured from the Valleys power plant is in the St George's Channel Basin (SGCB), off the NW coast of Pembrokeshire. An outline risk assessment of CO 2 storage at this site was undertaken. The reservoir consists of relatively thin fluvial sands that occur near the base of the Cainozoic succession. The distribution of these sands in 3

  12. Numerical investigation of biogas diffusion flames characteristics under several operation conditions in counter-flow configuration with an emphasis on thermal and chemical effects of CO2 in the fuel mixture (United States)

    Mameri, A.; Tabet, F.; Hadef, A.


    This study addresses the influence of several operating conditions (composition and ambient pressure) on biogas diffusion flame structure and NO emissions with particular attention on thermal and chemical effect of CO2. The biogas flame is modeled by a counter flow diffusion flame and analyzed in mixture fraction space using flamelet approach. The GRI Mech-3.0 mechanism that involves 53 species and 325 reactions is adopted for the oxidation chemistry. It has been observed that flame properties are very sensitive to biogas composition and pressure. CO2 addition decreases flame temperature by both thermal and chemical effects. Added CO2 may participate in chemical reaction due to thermal dissociation (chemical effect). Excessively supplied CO2 plays the role of pure diluent (thermal effect). The ambient pressure rise increases temperature and reduces flame thickness, radiation losses and dissociation amount. At high pressure, recombination reactions coupled with chain carrier radicals reduction, diminishes NO mass fraction.

  13. Buoyancy-driven CO2/brine flow at reservoir conditions (United States)

    Oh, J.; Kim, K.; Han, W.; Kim, T.; Kim, J.; Park, E.


    Suitable geological formations should guarantee a long-term safe and reliable storage of the injected supercritical CO2. In this study we targeted the cases of gravity-driven CO2 plume migration in a storage formation and the resulting CO2 leakage to overlying formation through a possible fractures or abandoned wells. A laboratory experiment and numerical model for two-phase core-flooding tests were designed to understand the buoyancy effect on supercritical CO2 migration under reservoir conditions. A series of core flooding tests were performed with Berea sandstone cores which have 20 % porosity and 1.7×10-13 m2 permeability. Unlike the normal core-flooding tests, the core was set up in a vertical direction and the CO2 was released at the bottom of the core to investigate the gravity effect on CO2 migration. During the test, the downstream pressure was maintained at 10 MPa, and the confining pressure was kept at 20 MPa. The temperature was set to be 40 °C to reflect the 1 km subsurface environment. The CO2-flooding (drainage) tests with brine-saturated core were performed with various CO2-release periods. The CO2 saturation was measured with a linear X-ray scanner. In addition to laboratory experiments, numerical simulations were performed to provide further insight into the CO2 migration behavior. TOUGH2 with ECO2N module was used to simulate CO2/brine core-flooding tests. Dimensionless numbers (Capillary number and Bond number) were calculated with the simulation results at various time points covering both the release and monitoring period.

  14. Exploration of public acceptance regarding CO2 underground sequestration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, M.; Tokushige, K.; Mori, Y.; Furukawa, A.


    Mechanisms for gaining public acceptance of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) aquifer sequestration were investigated through the use of questionnaires and focus group interviews. The study was performed as part of a CO 2 sequestration technology promotion project in Japan. The questionnaire portion of the study was conducted to determine public opinions and the extent of public awareness of CO 2 sequestration technologies. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students majoring in environmental sociology. Participants were provided with newspaper articles related to CO 2 sequestration. The focus group study was conducted to obtain qualitative results to complement findings from the questionnaire survey. Results of the survey suggested that many participants were not particularly concerned about global warming, and had almost no knowledge about CO 2 sequestration. The opinions of some students were influenced by an awareness of similar types of facilities located near their homes. Attitudes were also influenced by the newspaper articles provided during the focus group sessions. However, many older participants did not trust information presented to them in newspaper format. Results suggested that many people identified afforestation as an alternative technology to CO 2 sequestration, and tended to think of CO 2 in negative terms as it contributed to global warming. Some participants assumed that CO 2 was harmful. The majority of respondents agreed with the development of CO 2 sequestration technologies as part of a program of alternative emissions abatement technologies. The provision of detailed information concerning CO 2 sequestration did not completely remove anxieties concerning the technology's potential negative impacts. It was concluded that a confident communications strategy is needed to persuade Japanese residents of the need to implement CO 2 sequestration technologies. 11 refs., 2 figs

  15. Variable conductivity and embolism in roots and branches of four contrasting tree species and their impacts on whole-plant hydraulic performance under future atmospheric CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domec, J.C.; North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC; Schafer, K.; Oren, R.; Kim, H.S.; McCarthy, H.R.


    Tree growth and wood quality are being affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and precipitation regimes. Plant photosynthesis is likely to be higher under elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, thereby increasing the availability of carbohydrates for growth. This study quantified the effect of elevated CO 2 concentration on anatomical and functional traits related to water transport, gas exchange, water economy and drought tolerance. The conditions under which embolism in the xylem of roots and branches are most likely to occur were investigated on 4 tree species at the Duke Forest free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) facility. The trees occupied different canopy strata and represented different xylem types. The study determined whether different xylem anatomies result in a wide range of hydraulic conductance and difference in resistance to cavitation. The link between liquid and gas-phase transport and how it is affected by elevated CO 2 was then quantified. Physiological changes observed under elevated CO 2 were not clearly related to structural change in the xylem of any of the species. The study showed that in some species, elevated CO 2 changed the hydraulic pathways, most likely structurally, thereby affecting the liquid phase transport and reducing stomatal conductance. The results provided a better understanding of the physiological and anatomical mechanisms that determine the responses of tree species to drought, and more generally to global change. 96 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Growth and Development of Impatiens hawkeri


    Zhang, Fan-Fan; Wang, Yan-Li; Huang, Zhi-Zhe; Zhu, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun


    The effects of CO2 enrichment on growth and development of Impatiens hawkeri, an important greenhouse flower, were investigated for the purpose of providing scientific basis for CO2 enrichment to this species in greenhouse. The plants were grown in CO2-controlled growth chambers with 380 (the control) and 760 (CO2 enrichment) μmol⋅mol-1, respectively. The changes in morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and leaf ultrastructure of Impatiens were examined. Results showed that CO2 enrichment inc...

  17. Crystallography and Physical Properties of BaCo2As2, Ba0.94K0.06Co2As2, and Ba0.78K0.22Co2As2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, V K [Ames Laboratory; Quirinale, Dante G [Ames Laboratory; Lee, Yongbin [Ames Laboratory; Harmon, Bruce N [Ames Laboratory; Furukawa, Yuji [Ames Laboratory; Ogloblichev, V V [Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science; Huq, A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Abernathy, D L [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Stephens, P W [SUNY of Stony Brook; McQueeney, Robert J [Ames Laboratory; Kreyssig, Aandreas [Ames Laboratory; Goldman, Alan I [Ames Laboratory; Johnston, David C [Ames Laboratory


    The crystallographic and physical properties of polycrystalline and single crystal samples of BaCo2As2 and K-doped Ba{1-x}K{x}Co2As2 (x = 0.06, 0.22) are investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility chi, magnetization, heat capacity Cp, {75}As NMR and electrical resistivity rho measurements versus temperature T. The crystals were grown using both Sn flux and CoAs self-flux, where the Sn-grown crystals contain 1.6-2.0 mol% Sn. All samples crystallize in the tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure (space group I4/mmm). For BaCo2As2, powder neutron diffraction data show that the c-axis lattice parameter exhibits anomalous negative thermal expansion from 10 to 300 K, whereas the a-axis lattice parameter and the unit cell volume show normal positive thermal expansion over this T range. No transitions in BaCo2As2 were found in this T range from any of the measurements. Below 40-50 K, we find rho ~ T^2 indicating a Fermi liquid ground state. A large density of states at the Fermi energy D(EF) ~ 18 states/(eV f.u.) for both spin directions is found from low-T Cp(T) measurements, whereas the band structure calculations give D(EF) = 8.23 states/(eV f.u.). The {75}As NMR shift data versus T have the same T dependence as the chi(T) data, demonstrating that the derived chi(T) data are intrinsic. The observed {75}As nuclear spin dynamics are consistent with the presence of ferromagnetic and/or stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. The crystals of Ba{0.78}K{0.22}Co2As2 were grown in Sn flux and show properties very similar to those of undoped BaCo2As2. On the other hand, the crystals from two batches of Ba{0.94}K{0.06}Co2As2 grown in CoAs self-flux show evidence of weak ferromagnetism at T < 10 K with small ordered moments at 1.8 K of 0.007 and 0.03 muB per formula unit, respectively.

  18. Experimental study on CO2 frosting and clogging in a brazed plate heat exchanger for natural gas liquefaction process (United States)

    Wu, Jitan; He, Tianbiao; Ju, Yonglin


    The plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE), which has been widely used in natural gas liquefaction (LNG) industry at present, has some disadvantages such as being sensitive to the impurities in the feed gas, such as water, CO2 and H2S. Compared with the PFHE, the brazed plate heat exchanger (BPHE), which has been applied in some boil off gas (BOG) recycling LNG plants of small to middle size, has simpler inherent structure and higher impurity tolerance. In this study the BPHE is suggested to replace the PFHE to simplify or even omit the massive CO2 purification equipment for the LNG process. A set of experimental apparatus is designed and constructed to investigate the influence of the CO2 concentration of the natural gas on solid precipitation inside a typical BPHE meanly by considering the flow resistance throughout the LNG process. The results show that the maximum allowable CO2 concentration of the natural gas liquefied in the BPHE is two orders of magnitude higher than that in the PFHE under the same condition. In addition, the solid-liquid separation for the CO2 impurity is studied and the reasonable separating temperature is obtained. The solid CO2 should be separated below 135 K under the pressure of 3 MPa.

  19. Interface characteristics in Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan


    Highlights: • Inferface DO 3 disorder is most favorable in Co 2 MnSi/Ag/Co 2 MnSi trilayer. • Interface itself and inferface DO 3 disorder destroy the half-metallicity of interface layers. • Magnetoresistance is reduced by the interface itself and interface disorder. • Magnetotransport coefficient is largely reduced by the interface itself and interface disorder. - Abstract: Interface characteristics of Co 2 MnSi/Ag/Co 2 MnSi trilayer have been investigated by means of first-principles. The most likely interface is formed by connecting MnSi-termination to the bridge site between two Ag atoms. As annealed at high temperature, the formation of interface DO 3 disorder is most energetically favorable. The spin polarization is reduced by both the interface itself and interface disorder due to the interface state occurs in the minority-spin gap. As a result, the magneto-resistance ratio has a sharp drop based on the estimation of a simplified modeling.

  20. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    ppmvin 1960 to 390 ppmv in 2012, probably due to human activity. A lot of research is being carried out forreducing CO2emissions from large stationary sources. Ofwhich, the carbonate looping process is anew process and has the potential to reduce CO2emissions with lower energy penalties. Most of thework...... and the main parameter that controls the performance of the carbonator, a process model integrating the carbonate looping process with the cement pyro-process was simulated. The process simulation results indicate that the CO2 emission was only 0.07 kg/ kg cl, with an energy penalty of 2 MJ/kg CO2 captured......Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310...

  1. CO2 Virtual Science Data Environment API (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CO2 Virtual Data Environment is a comprehensive effort at bringing together the models, data, and tools necessary to perform research on atmospheric CO2.This...

  2. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that were created...

  3. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that...

  4. Development of indirect indicators for CO2 intrusion into freshwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humez, P.


    This study deals with the impact of CO 2 leakages out of geological storage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Compared to other existing studies, the major added value of this study lies, on the one hand, in the research of new monitoring tools and isotopic approach in the context of CCS aiming at early and sensitive detection of CO 2 leakage and, on the other hand, in the application of these tools at the (limited) laboratory scale as well as at field scale. In order to test these tools, solid and liquid materials were sampled out of the major strategic drinking water Albian aquifer in the Paris Basin (France). We have then precisely characterized and used them within a batch experiment. This experiment yields interesting results which help understanding and constraining precisely the water-rock-CO 2 interactions as well as the isotopic responses. A real scale application of the method was then performed in Norway. It was an opportunity to develop this isotopic program and to track the isotopic evolution composition, while differentiating the natural processes and the system response to the CO 2 injection. When applied to the detection of CO 2 leakage context, the two case studies open the way for choosing the 'best' isotopic tools as indirect indicators of CO 2 presence in these specific systems. The efficiency of these isotopic tools comes from the recording of the CO 2 footprint all along the water-rock-CO 2 interactions. Using such tools imposes a rigorous methodology, which is tackled in this manuscript. Furthermore, future application will require adapting to the specifics of a proposed site. (author)

  5. Cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Comans, Rob N.J.; Witkamp, Geert-Jan


    A cost evaluation of CO 2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a basic design was made for the major process equipment, and total investment costs were estimated with the help of the publicly available literature and a factorial cost estimation method. Finally, the sequestration costs were determined on the basis of the depreciation of investments and variable and fixed operating costs. Estimated costs are 102 and 77 EUR/ton CO 2 net avoided for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively. For wollastonite, the major costs are associated with the feedstock and the electricity consumption for grinding and compression (54 and 26 EUR/ton CO 2 avoided, respectively). A sensitivity analysis showed that additional influential parameters in the sequestration costs include the liquid-to-solid ratio in the carbonation reactor and the possible value of the carbonated product. The sequestration costs for steel slag are significantly lower due to the absence of costs for the feedstock. Although various options for potential cost reduction have been identified, CO 2 sequestration by current aqueous carbonation processes seems expensive relative to other CO 2 storage technologies. The permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO 2 by mineral carbonation may justify higher costs, but further cost reductions are required, particularly in view of (current) prices of CO 2 emission rights. Niche applications of mineral carbonation with a solid residue such as steel slag as feedstock and/or a useful carbonated product hold the best prospects for an economically feasible CO 2 sequestration process. (author)

  6. Flow of CO2 ethanol and of CO2 methanol in a non-adiabatic microfluidic T-junction at high pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanch Ojea, R.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Pallares, J.; Grau, F.X.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.


    In this work, an experimental investigation of the single- and multiphase flows of two sets of fluids, CO2–ethanol and CO2–methanol, in a non-adiabatic microfluidic T-junction is presented. The operating conditions ranged from 7 to 18 MPa, and from 294 to 474 K. The feed mass fraction of CO2 in the

  7. CO2 geological storage into a lateral aquifer of an offshore gas field in the South China Sea: storage safety and project design (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Dexiang; Ezekiel, Justin; Zhang, Weidong; Mi, Honggang; Ren, Shaoran


    The DF1-1 gas field, located in the western South China Sea, contains a high concentration of CO2, thus there is great concern about the need to reduce the CO2 emissions. Many options have been considered in recent years to dispose of the CO2 separated from the natural gas stream on the Hainan Island. In this study, the feasibility of CO2 storage in the lateral saline aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field is assessed, including aquifer selection and geological assessment, CO2 migration and storage safety, project design, and economic analysis. Six offshore aquifers have been investigated for CO2 geological storage. The lateral aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field has been selected as the best target for CO2 injection and storage because of its proven sealing ability, and the large storage capacity of the combined aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir geological structure. The separated CO2 will be dehydrated on the Hainan Island and transported by a long-distance subsea pipeline in supercritical or liquid state to the central platform of the DF1-1 gas field for pressure adjustment. The CO2 will then be injected into the lateral aquifer via a subsea well-head through a horizontal well. Reservoir simulations suggest that the injected CO2 will migrate slowly upwards in the aquifer without disturbing the natural gas production. The scoping economic analysis shows that the unit storage cost of the project is approximately US26-31/ton CO2 with the subsea pipeline as the main contributor to capital expenditure (CAPEX), and the dehydration system as the main factor of operating expenditure (OPEX).

  8. Investigation of nonionic diazo dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such changes were observed with the images taken by polarized optical microscope. (POM). The detail discussions on such behaviours were also made. Keywords. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC); polymer-induced phase separation (PIPS); droplet morphology; order parameter; dichroic dye; contrast ratio. 1.

  9. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Pant, Deepak


    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO2) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon organic compounds

  10. CO2 Permeability of Biological Membranes and Role of CO2 Channels (United States)

    Endeward, Volker; Arias-Hidalgo, Mariela; Al-Samir, Samer; Gros, Gerolf


    We summarize here, mainly for mammalian systems, the present knowledge of (a) the membrane CO2 permeabilities in various tissues; (b) the physiological significance of the value of the CO2 permeability; (c) the mechanisms by which membrane CO2 permeability is modulated; (d) the role of the intracellular diffusivity of CO2 for the quantitative significance of cell membrane CO2 permeability; (e) the available evidence for the existence of CO2 channels in mammalian and artificial systems, with a brief view on CO2 channels in fishes and plants; and, (f) the possible significance of CO2 channels in mammalian systems. PMID:29064458

  11. Distribution of sulfur-containing aromatics between [hmim][Tf2N] and supercritical CO2: a case study for deep desulfurization of oil refinery streams by extraction with ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal


    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2006), s. 70-77 ISSN 1463-9262 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * diesel fuel desulfurization * supercritical carbon dioxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.192, year: 2006

  12. Equilibria of ternary system Acetic Acid—Water—CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JIMENEZ GUTIERREZ, Jose M. (Chema); Mussatto, Solange I.; TSOU, Joana

    ) of the ternary system HAc—H2O—CO2 at different subcritical conditions. A proposed computer model could be validated with experimental data, leading to a certain degree of adjustment due to specific factors, such as the binary interaction parameter kij, used in the model based on the Peng-Robinson EoS coupled...... in a very wide range of applications. However, those conditions, especially the levels of high pressure required at larger scale, involve certain equipment limitations. An alternative to overcome those restrictions is to use subcritical carbon dioxide. In order to understand the different systems......, such as acetic acid in fermentations [2, 3]. Thus, from a biotechnological perspective, it is highly interesting to research on the system CO2—H2O with different concentrations of acetic acid (HAc). Based on previous studies [4, 5], this project aims to investigate the vapour/liquid equilibria (VLE...

  13. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow (United States)

    Voytkov, Ivan V.; Zabelin, Maksim V.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.


    The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  14. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytkov Ivan V.


    Full Text Available The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  15. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.


    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  16. China's Scientific Investigation for Liquid Waste Treatment Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liangjin, B.; Meiqiong, L.; Kelley, D.


    Post World War II created the nuclear age with several countries developing nuclear technology for power, defense, space and medical applications. China began its nuclear research and development programs in 1950 with the establishment of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) located near Beijing. CIAE has been China's leader in nuclear science and technical development with its efforts to create advanced reactor technology and upgrade reprocessing technology. In addition, with China's new emphasis on environmental safety, CIAE is focusing on waste treatment options and new technologies that may provide solutions to legacy waste and newly generated waste from the full nuclear cycle. Radioactive liquid waste can pose significant challenges for clean up with various treatment options including encapsulation (cement), vitrification, solidification and incineration. Most, if not all, nuclear nations have found the treatment of liquids to be difficult, due in large part to the high economic costs associated with treatment and disposal and the failure of some methods to safely contain or eliminate the liquid. With new environmental regulations in place, Chinese nuclear institutes and waste generators are beginning to seek new technologies that can be used to treat the more complex liquid waste streams in a form that is safe for transport and for long-term storage or final disposal. [1] In 2004, CIAE and Pacific Nuclear Solutions, a division of Pacific World Trade, USA, began discussions about absorbent technology and applications for its use. Preliminary tests were conducted at CIAE's Department of Radiochemistry using generic solutions, such as lubricating oil, with absorbent polymers for solidification. Based on further discussions between both parties, it was decided to proceed with a more formal test program in April, 2005, and additional tests in October, 2005. The overall objective of the test program was to apply absorbent polymers to various waste streams

  17. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines (United States)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.


    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  18. A thermodynamic investigation of liquid gold-antimony alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayer, E.; Castanet, R.


    The enthalpies of mixing of liquid Au-Sb alloys were determined between 906 and 1028 K giving Δ mix H o m = x Sb x Au (-11.234-1.1078x Sb + 5.713x Sb 2 ) kJ mol -1 . The minimum was found at x Sb = 0.45 with Δ mix H o m = -2.62 ± 0.2 kJ mol -1 contrary to published measurements on liquid Au-Sb alloys. The limiting partial molar enthalpy of Au in Sb at 935 K was measured to Δ mix h o m (Au, liq, in ∞Sb, liq) = -6.05 ± 0.4 kJ mol -1 . The enthalpy of formation of the solid compound AuSb 2 determined at 298 K by solution calorimetry in liquid Sb, Δ f H o m (AuSb 2 ) = -5.40 ± 0.6 kJ mol -1 , is found in fair agreement with literature data. DTA measurements were performed on the Au-rich part of the liquidus and a new liquidus curve is suggested between Au and the eutectic concentration. The eutectic point was found at 630.37 ± 0.25 K and x Sb 0.350. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of some features of ferroelectric phase transition in a liquid-crystal binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissyan, A.Ts.; Baghdasaryan, Z.V.; Vardanyan, K.K.


    Investigation of some features of the ferroelectric phase transition in a liquid-crystal binary system is carried out. It is shown that in investigated systems the flexoelectric effects are responsible, in basic, for occurrence of the spontaneous polarization

  20. Investigation of Ba 1- xSr xCo 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ as cathodes for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells both in the absence and presence of CO 2 (United States)

    Yan, Aiyu; Yang, Min; Hou, Zhifang; Dong, Yonglai; Cheng, Mojie

    Ba 1- xSr xCo 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF)(0 ≤ x ≤ 1) composite oxides were prepared and tested as cathodes for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) both in the absence and presence of CO 2. It is found that the BSCF cathodes in the whole range of strontium doping levels show promising performance at 500-600 °C in the absence of CO 2, among which the SrCo 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (SCF) cathode gives the highest power density while BaCo 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BCF) cathode shows the lowest performance. The impedance analysis reveals that both the ohmic resistance and polarization resistance of the fuel cell increases when the strontium content decreases. It is believed that the microstructure and electrical conductivity simultaneously affect the process of oxygen reduction. The presence of CO 2 deteriorates the BSCF performance by adsorbing on the cathode surface and thus obstructing the oxygen surface exchange reaction. The CO 2 exerts a more intense influence on BSCF with higher barium content.

  1. Technique for measuring 14 CO 2 uptake by soil microorganisms in situ. (United States)

    Smith, D W; Fliermans, C B; Brock, T D


    Uptake of (14)CO(2) in soils due to algae or sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was examined by incubation of soil samples with gaseous (14)CO(2) and subsequent chemical oxidation of biologically fixed radioactive isotope to (14)CO(2) for detection with a liquid scintillation counting system. The (14)CO(2) was added to the soil in the gas phase so that no alteration of the moisture or ionic strength of the soil occurred. Wet oxidation of radioactive organic matter was carried out in sealed ampoules, and the (14)CO(2) produced was transferred to a phenethylamine-liquid scintillation counting system with a simply constructed apparatus. The technique is inexpensive and efficient and does not require elaborate traps since several possible interfering factors were found to have no harmful effects. Experiments in coal mine regions and in geothermal habitats have demonstrated the ecological applicability of this technique for measurement of CO(2) fixation by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and soil algae.

  2. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan


    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  3. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Austin


    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds. This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  4. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine (United States)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.


    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  5. A terahertz transmission imaging based approach for liquid alcohol wettability investigation (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Bo; Su, Yunyun; Jiang, Weixiang; Cai, Bin; You, Guanjun; Ma, Yan


    By using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), the transmission spectral images of a series of aliphatic monohydric liquid alcohols were investigated in this work. The image gray value indicated the non-uniform distribution of the liquid. After noise reduction, the depth distribution was computed from the image content, which depended on the wettability of the container surface by the liquid. Then the volume of the liquid crept up to the container surface was compared quantitatively. Our result showed that the surface wettability of the PS container surface by the liquids increased with the alcohol alkyl chain increasing, which was verified by the contact angle of the liquid and the surface. The study indicated that the THz image might offer a potential technique for detecting the wettability of liquid directly without an additional contact angle experiment.

  6. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel


    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  7. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Feasibility of enhanced natural weathering as a CO2 emission reduction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.


    /or thermal activation). The only available pre-treatment option that has proven to be energetically and potentially economically feasible is conventional grinding. In Chapter 2 the mechanisms of aqueous steel slag carbonation are studied experimentally. Process variables, such as particle size, temperature, and carbon dioxide pressure are systematically varied and their influence on the carbonation rate is investigated. In Chapter 3 the mechanisms of aqueous steel slag carbonation are further investigated, together with the environmental properties of the (carbonated) steel slag. In Chapter 4, the mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible carbon dioxide sequestration process are investigated experimentally by systematic variation of the reaction temperature, CO2 pressure, particle size, reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio, and agitation power. The obtained insight in the reaction mechanisms in Chapter 2 - 4 is used as the (experimental) basis for the energetic and economic assessment of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation in Chapters 5 and 6. The energy consumption of a mineral carbonation plant causes extra CO2 emissions and, thereby, reduces the net amount of CO2 sequestered by the process. Chapter 5 studies the energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency of the aqueous mineral carbonation in dependence of various process variables using either wollastonite or steel slag as feedstock. A flowsheet of a mineral carbonation plant is designed and the process is simulated to determine the properties of streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. In Chapter 6 a cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation is presented, using either wollastonite or steel slag as feedstock. On the basis of a basic design of the major process equipment, the total investment costs are estimated with the help of publicly available literature and a factorial cost estimation method. Subsequently, the sequestration costs are

  8. Experimental investigations on weakly polar liquid crystal-aerosil composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Chethan V; Prasad, S Krishna; Yelamaggad, C V [Centre for Liquid Crystal Research, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560013 (India)


    We have carried out differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric studies on composites of hydrophilic aerosil with a liquid crystal that does not possess a terminal polar group. While the shift in the nematic-isotropic transition temperature is in agreement with the general behaviour observed for such composites, the dielectric studies show, contrary to the commonly observed feature, that there is a systematic increase in the relaxation frequency associated with the rotation of the molecules around their short axis, as the aerosil concentration in the composite is increased.

  9. Gaussian-Charge Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Models for CO2. (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Moultos, Othonas A; Economou, Ioannis G; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z


    A polarizable intermolecular potential model using three classical Drude oscillators on the atomic sites has been developed for CO2. The model is rigid with bond lengths and molecular geometries set to their experimental values. Electrostatic interactions are represented by three Gaussian charges connected to the molecular frame by harmonic springs. Nonelectrostatic interactions are represented by the Buckingham exponential-6 potential, with potential parameters optimized to vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data. A nonpolarizable CO2 model that shares the other ingredients of the polarizable model was also developed and optimized to VLE data. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were used to evaluate the two models with respect to a variety of thermodynamic and transport properties, including the enthalpy of vaporization, second virial coefficient, density in the one-phase fluid region, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, radial distribution functions, self-diffusion coefficient, and shear viscosity. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data was found for all properties studied. The polarizable and nonpolarizable models provide a similar representation of CO2 properties, which indicates that the properties of pure CO2 fluid are not strongly affected by polarization. The polarizable model, which has an order of magnitude higher computational cost than the nonpolarizable model, will likely be useful for the study of a mixture of CO2 and polar components for which polarization is important.

  10. Investigation of the liquid crystal alignment layer: effect on electrical properties


    Abderrahmen, Asma; Romdhane, Fayda Fekih; Ouada, Hafedh Ben; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh


    We investigate the electrical behavior of a symmetric liquid crystal (LC) cell: elecrode-silane-LC-silane-electrode. The silane (chlorodimethyloctadecyl-silane) layer induces a homeotropic orientation of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) molecules. The wettability technique is used to detect the change of the surface energy of the electrode upon cleaning and silane layer deposition. We report on the dynamic impedance measurements of the nematic liquid crystal cell. It is found that the silane ...

  11. Does leaf photosynthesis adapt to CO2-enriched environments? An experiment on plants originating from three natural CO2 springs. (United States)

    Onoda, Yusuke; Hirose, Tadaki; Hikosaka, Kouki


    Atmospheric CO2 elevation may act as a selective agent, which consequently may alter plant traits in the future. We investigated the adaptation to high CO2 using transplant experiments with plants originating from natural CO2 springs and from respective control sites. We tested three hypotheses for adaptation to high-CO2 conditions: a higher photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE); a higher photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); and a higher capacity for carbohydrate transport from leaves. Although elevated growth CO2 enhanced both PNUE and WUE, there was no genotypic improvement in PNUE. However, some spring plants had a higher WUE, as a result of a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, and also a lower starch concentration. Higher natural variation (assessed by the coefficient of variation) within populations in WUE and starch concentration, compared with PNUE, might be responsible for the observed population differentiation. These results support the concept that atmospheric CO2 elevation can act as a selective agent on some plant traits in natural plant communities. Reduced stomatal conductance and reduced starch accumulation are highlighted for possible adaptation to high CO2.

  12. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism (United States)

    Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.


    Abstract Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back‐arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid‐dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s−1 (117 t d−1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d−1, comparable with the expected back‐arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man‐portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom‐up quantification of CO2 fluxes. PMID:28944134

  13. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E


    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  14. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism (United States)

    Queißer, M.; Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.


    Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s-1 (117 t d-1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d-1, comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO2 fluxes.

  15. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  16. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David


    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  17. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Graham


    Full Text Available Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2 respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil–snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model–measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil–snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux

  18. Technological CO2 reduction potential for transport in CO2; Technologisch CO2-reductie potentieel voor transport in 2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passier, G.L.M.; Driever, J.P.M.; Van Baalen, J.; Foster, D.; Kadijk, G.; Verbeek, R.


    TNO conducted a study of the CO2 reduction potential in Dutch continental transport up to 2040. The main conclusion is that reduction of approximately 40% in CO2 emissions compared to 1990 is feasible by means of technological innovations and deployment of alternative energy sources. (mk) [Dutch] TNO heeft een studie uitgevoerd naar CO2-besparingsmogelijkheden in het Nederlandse continentaal vervoer tot het jaar 2040. De hoofdconclusie is dat een reductie van ca. 40% in de CO2-uitstoot ten opzichte van 1990 mogelijk is door middel van technologische innovaties en toepassing van alternatieve energiebronnen.

  19. Soil CO2 efflux measurement network by means of closed static chambers to monitor volcanic activity at Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)

    Amonte, Cecilia; García-Merino, Marta; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; García-Hernández, Rubén; Pérez, Aaron; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Tenerife (2304 km2) is the largest of the Canary Islands and has developed a central volcanic complex (Cañadas edifice), that started to grow about 3.5 My ago. Coeval with the construction of the Cañadas edifice, shield basaltic volcanism continued until the present along three rift zones oriented NW-SE, NE-SW and NS (hereinafter referred as NW, NE and NS respectively). Main volcanic historical activity has occurred along de NW and NE rift-zones, although summit cone of Teide volcano, in central volcanic complex, is the only area of the island where surface geothermal manifestations are visible. Uprising of deep-seated gases occurs along the aforementioned volcanic structures causing diffuse emissions at the surface environment of the rift-zones. In the last 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the study of diffuse degassing as a powerful tool in volcano monitoring programs. Diffuse degassing studies are even more important volcanic surveillance tool at those volcanic areas where visible manifestations of volcanic gases are absent. Historically, soil gas and diffuse degassing surveys in volcanic environments have focused mainly on CO2 because it is, after water vapor, the most abundant gas dissolved in magma. One of the most popular methods used to determine CO2 fluxes in soil sciences is based on the absorption of CO2 through an alkaline medium, in its solid or liquid form, followed by gravimetric, conductivity, or titration analyses. In the summer of 2016, a network of 31 closed static chambers was installed, covering the three main structural zones of Tenerife (NE, NW and NS) as well as Cañadas Caldera with volcanic surveillance porpoises. 50 cc of 0.1N KOH solution is placed inside the chamber to absorb the CO2 released from the soil. The solution is replaced weekly and the trapped CO2 is then analyzed at the laboratory by titration. The are expressed as weekly integrated CO2 efflux values. The CO2 efflux values ranged from 3.2 to 12.9 gṡm-2

  20. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, James, P.


    Funding from DoE grant # FG0204-ER63721, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, supposed several postdoctoral fellows and research activities at MBARI related to ocean CO2 disposal and the biological consequences of high ocean CO2 levels on marine organisms. Postdocs supported on the project included Brad Seibel, now an associate professor at the University of Rhode Island, Jeff Drazen, now an associate professor at the University of Hawaii, and Eric Pane, who continues as a research associate at MBARI. Thus, the project contributed significantly to the professional development of young scientists. In addition, we made significant progress in several research areas. We continued several deep-sea CO2 release experiments using support from DoE and MBARI, along with several collaborators. These CO2 release studies had the goal of broadening our understanding of the effects of high ocean CO2 levels on deep sea animals in the vicinity of potential release sites for direct deep-ocean carbon dioxide sequestration. Using MBARI ships and ROVs, we performed these experiments at depths of 3000 to 3600 m, where liquid CO2 is heavier than seawater. CO2 was released into small pools (sections of PVC pipe) on the seabed, where it dissolved and drifted downstream, bathing any caged animals and sediments in a CO2-rich, low-pH plume. We assessed the survival of organisms nearby. Several publications arose from these studies (Barry et al. 2004, 2005; Carman et al. 2004; Thistle et al. 2005, 2006, 2007; Fleeger et al. 2006, 2010; Barry and Drazen 2007; Bernhard et al. 2009; Sedlacek et al. 2009; Ricketts et al. in press; Barry et al, in revision) concerning the sensitivity of animals to low pH waters. Using funds from DoE and MBARI, we designed and fabricated a hyperbaric trap-respirometer to study metabolic rates of deep-sea fishes under high CO2 conditions (Drazen et al, 2005), as well as a gas-control aquarium system to support laboratory studies of the

  1. Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 sorbent for highly selective CO2 capture (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwu; Zhai, Xinru; Liu, Dongyang; Sun, Yan


    Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 materials are used as CO2 sorbent to improve the selectivity of CH4/CO2 separation. The SBA-15 sorbents modified by physical CO2 absorbents are very limited to increasing CO2 adsorption and present poor selectivity. However, the SBA-15 sorbents modified by chemical CO2 absorbents increase CO2 adsorption capacity obviously. The separation coefficients of CO2/CH4 increase in this case. The adsorption and regeneration properties of the SBA-15 sorbents modified by TEA, MDEA and DIPA have been compared. The SBA-15 modified by triethanolamine (TEA) presents better CO2/CH4 separation performance than the materials modified by other CO2 absorbents.

  2. Energyless CO2 Absorption, Generation, and Fixation Using Atmospheric CO2. (United States)

    Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Okada, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Yamada, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Kenta; Mukai, Chisato


    From an economic and ecological perspective, the efficient utilization of atmospheric CO2 as a carbon resource should be a much more important goal than reducing CO2 emissions. However, no strategy to harvest CO2 using atmospheric CO2 at room temperature currently exists, which is presumably due to the extremely low concentration of CO2 in ambient air (approximately 400 ppm=0.04 vol%). We discovered that monoethanolamine (MEA) and its derivatives efficiently absorbed atmospheric CO2 without requiring an energy source. We also found that the absorbed CO2 could be easily liberated with acid. Furthermore, a novel CO2 generator enabled us to synthesize a high value-added material (i.e., 2-oxazolidinone derivatives based on the metal catalyzed CO2-fixation at room temperature) from atmospheric CO2.

  3. Potential gains from CO2 trading in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten


    A new Green Paper from the European Commission on emissions trading foresees the setting-up of a CO2 trading system within the EU for the energy sector. Because any such international environmental agreement is self-enforcing, the participants must have an economic net gain from joining...... the proposed system. Our contribution is therefore to follow the Green Paper proposal and investigate whether member countries and the largest industrial boilers in the electricity sector actually will get significant net gains from CO2 trade in the European Union rather than undertaking domestic actions...... solely. We show, based on PRIMES model, that a full CO2 emission trading system between Annex B countries suggest overall cost savings in the order of 40 % compared to a situation with no trading at all between Member States. A tradable CO2 permit scheme with comprehensive coverage of emissions within...

  4. Synthesis of polyglycocarbonates through polycondensation of glucopyranosides with CO2

    KAUST Repository

    Pati, Debasis


    Starting from α-methyl D-glucopyranoside (MDG), three strategies of synthesis of polyglycocarbonates through direct polycondensation with CO2 were tried. Using unprotected MDG for reaction with CO2, water soluble oligoglycocarbonates could be obtained; α-methyl-2,3-di-O-methyl D-glucopyranoside (MDMG) which had its hydroxyls in the C2 and C3 positions protected was also subjected to polycondensation with CO2, affording polyglycocarbonates of limited molar mass due to an equilibrium that prevented the progress of the condensation reaction as in the previous case. Lastly, the polycondensation of MDMG with CO2 and aliphatic or aromatic dihalides was carried out in the presence of Cs2CO3; this resulted in the formation of polyglycocarbonates of rather high molar mass containing either aliphatic or aromatic linkers. The structures of the synthesized monomers and polyglycocarbonates were thoroughly characterized. The thermal properties of the obtained polyglycocarbonates were further investigated by TGA and DSC.

  5. Competition of electron transfer, dissociation, and bond-forming processes in the reaction of the CO(2)(2+) dication with neutral CO(2). (United States)

    Ricketts, Claire L; Schröder, Detlef; Roithová, Jana; Schwarz, Helmut; Thissen, Roland; Dutuit, Odile; Zabka, Jan; Herman, Zdenek; Price, Stephen D


    The bimolecular reactivity of the CO(2)(2+) dication with neutral CO(2) is investigated using triple quadrupole and ion-ion coincidence mass spectrometry. Crucial for product analysis is the use of appropriate isotope labelling in the quadrupole experiments in order to distinguish the different reactive pathways. The main reaction corresponds to single-electron transfer from the neutral reagent to the dication, i.e. CO(2)(2+) + CO(2) --> 2CO(2)(+); this process is exothermic by almost 10 eV, if ground state monocations are formed. Interestingly, the results indicate that the CO(2)(+) ion formed when the dication accepts an electron dissociates far more readily than the CO(2)(+) ion formed from the neutral CO(2) molecule. This differentiation of the two CO(2)(+) products is rationalized by showing that the population of the key dissociative states of the CO(2)(+) monocation will be favoured from the CO(2)(2+) dication rather than from neutral CO(2). In addition, two bond-forming reactions are observed as minor channels, one of which leads to CO(+) and O(2)(+) as ionic products and the other affords a long-lived C(2)O(3)(2+) dication.

  6. Shifting terrestrial feedbacks from CO2 fertilization to global warming (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan; Canadell, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael; Piao, Shilong; Vautard, Robert; Sardans Jordi Sardans, Jordi


    stabilizes by 2060 in RCP4.5. So in light of the Paris agreement, it is more important to investigate climate change impacts on carbon stocks than to expect a continuation of increasing sink due to CO2 fertilization, which will have only a small role or disappear in RCP2.6 during this century.