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Sample records for investigate iodine-induced scc

  1. Investigation on potential SCC in gas transmission pipeline in China

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    Jian, S. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China); Zupei, Y.; Yunxin, M. [China Petroleum Pipeline Corp., Beijing (China). Science and Technology Center

    2004-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a common phenomenon that occurs on the outer surfaces of buried pipelines. This paper investigated aspects of SCC on 3 transmission pipelines on the West-East Gas Pipeline Project in China. The study was comprised of 3 different investigations: (1) an investigation of SCC cases on constructed pipelines; (2) an evaluation of SCC sensitivity of pipeline steels in typical soil environments; and (3) an analysis of soil environments and operation conditions of western pipelines. The study included a review of pipeline corrosion investigations, as well as an examination of pipeline failure cases. Investigative digs were conducted at 21 sites to test soil chemistries. Slow strain rate stress were conducted to evaluate SCC sensitivity of steel pipelines used in China. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted to characterize the electrochemical behaviour of the X70 line pipe steel in different soil environments. Results of the study showed that the environmental conditions in many locations in China contributed to SCC in pipelines. SCC was observed on the surface of X70 steel pipe specimens in both marsh and saline environments. Seasonal temperature changes also contributed additional stress on pipelines. The movement of soil bodies in mountainous areas also contributed to stress and coating damage. It was concluded that proper cathodic protection can alleviate concentrations of local solutions under disbanded coatings. Overprotection of SCC will accelerate the growth of cracks and the degradation of coatings. Samples gathered from the solutions found under the disbanded coatings of pipelines will be used to form part of a reference database for predicting SCC in oil and gas pipelines in the future. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Analitical electron mycroscopy (AEM) investigations of primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.S.; Perry, D.J.; Lewis, N.; Thompson, C.D.; Yang, W.J.S.

    1997-08-01

    The microstructure of nickel alloys, particularly the grain boundary composition and intergranular precipitates, plays an important role in high temperature primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC) performance. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) was used to examine SCC cracks in Alloys 600 and X-750 to investigate the role of grain boundary precipitates, dislocations and oxides in primary water SCC (PWSCC). Analysis of oxides by AEM and ESCA/Auger indicates that the crack tip oxides are different than the oxides formed on the outer surfaces. Comparison of heats with good and poor SCC resistance has identified metallurgical features that affect cracking. These AEM results show that the mechanism of PWSCC in nickel-base alloys does not involve void formation or blunting of the crack tip near intergranular carbides. The role of grain boundary composition, the interaction of cracks with carbides and other intergranular precipitates, and observations from AEM examinations ahead of the crack tip are discussed in relation to the mechanism of SCC

  3. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  4. Investigation of plastic zones near SCC tips in a pipeline after hydrostatic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Elboujdaini, M.; Gao, M.; Revie, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is an important failure mechanism for oil and gas pipelines. In the past, hydrostatic testing has been frequently used to assess and mitigate stress corrosion cracking. It is commonly agreed that an effective hydrostatic test not only eliminates critical crack-like flaws, but also blunts the sub-critical crack tip thereby suppressing further SCC propagation. However, little study has been done on the plastic deformation that results from the high stress intensity at the crack tip due to hydrostatic testing pressure and its possible role in subsequent SCC propagation. In this study, microstructural details were examined of an API 5L X52 SCC-containing pipe removed from field service. Plastic deformation generated by the hydrostatic testing pressure was revealed by using high-resolution imaging of a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The existence of the microscopic plastic zones around some crack tips suggests that caution should be taken when setting up pipeline hydrostatic tests

  5. A study of iodine induced stress corrosion cracking of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qian; Ti Zhongxin; Pan Ying; Li Cong; Peng; Xiaoming

    2003-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of the various zirconium alloys was studied by axial tensile testing in an inert (argon) environment with different iodine concentration at 300 degree C, 350 degree C and 400 degree C. Creep tests of the samples of different orientations (L-T, T-L) were performed at 350 degree C. The testing loads were selected as those typically used in SCC tests in a series of steps. The characterizations of the SCC fractures have been observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructures of the material have been examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and optical microscope. The textures of zirconium alloys have been determined by X-ray diffractometer. The influences of the material state, test temperature, iodine concentration and creep on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking behavior have been discussed. (authors)

  6. Investigation of p53 codon72 polymorphism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC specimens and normal population by PCR

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    Deyhimi P.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: A single nucleotide polymorphism at codon 72 of the p53 gene alters the p53 protein structure and affects its activity. This polymorphism depends on geographic regions and race. Also its association with some cancers has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate this polymorphism in well differentiated oral SCC and normal population in the city of Isfahan. "nMaterials and Methods: In this case-control study, 20 paraffin blocks of non metastatic and well differentiated oral SCC were selected from the archive of oral pathology department of dental school between 2001 and 2005. 20 whole blood samples from normal people were considered as control group. After DNA extraction, p53 codon 72 polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique using specific primers of Arg and Pro and agarose gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test with p<0.05 as the level of significance. "nResults: The prevalence of Arg/Arg , Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro genotypes in case group were 45%,45% and 10% respectively compared to 45%,50% and 5% in controls. There was no statistical significant difference in p53 codon 72 genotypes distribution between case and control groups. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, p53 polymorphism could not be considered as a genetic predisposing factor for oral SCC development in Isfahan.

  7. An Investigation of the Mechanism of IGA/SCC of Alloy 600 in Corrosion Accelerating Heated Crevice Environments. Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, Jesse

    1999-01-01

    OAK-B135 An Investigation of the Mechanism of IGA/SCC of Alloy 600 in Corrosion Accelerating Heated Crevice Environments. Technical Progress Report. This program focuses on understanding the mechanisms causing corrosion damage to steam generator tubes in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the effects of the proposed remedial measures. The crevice formed by the tube/tube support plate (T/TSP) intersection in a PWR steam generator is a concentration site for nonvolatile impurities (referred to as hideout) in the steam generator water. The restricted mass transport in the small crevice volume prevents the species, which concentrate during the generation of steam, from quickly dispersing into the bulk water. The concentrated solutions in crevices have been a contributing cause of several forms of corrosion of steam generator tubes including intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC), pitting, and wastage.

  8. SCC investigation of low alloy ultra-high strength steel 30CrMnSiNi2A in 3.5wt% NaCl solution by slow strain rate technique

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    Liu Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate stress corrosion cracking (SCC mechanism of low alloy ultra-high strength steel 30CrMnSiNi2A in environment containing NaCl, SCC behavior of the steel in 3.5wt% NaCl solution is investigated by slow strain rate technique (SSRT with various strain rates and applied potentials, surface analysis technique, and electrochemical measurements. SCC susceptibility of the steel increases rapidly with strain rate decreasing from 1 × 10−5 s−1 to 5 × 10−7 s−1, and becomes stable when strain rate is lower than 5 × 10−7 s−1. SCC propagation of the steel in the solution at open circuit potential (OCP needs sufficient hydrogen which is supplied at a certain strain rate. Fracture surface at OCP has similar characteristics with that at cathodic polarization −1000 mVSCE, which presents characteristic fractography of hydrogen induced cracking (HIC. All of these indicate that SCC behavior of the steel in the solution at OCP is mainly controlled by HIC rather than anodic dissolution (AD.

  9. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  10. Computational modelling of SCC flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To benefit from the full potential of self-compacting concrete (SCC) prediction tools are needed for the form filling of SCC. Such tools should take into account the properties of the concrete, the shape and size of the structural element, the position of rebars, and the casting technique. Examples...

  11. Determination of I-SCC crack propagation rate of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo-Seog, Ryu

    2002-01-01

    Threshold stress intensity (K ISCC ) and propagation rate of iodine-induced SCC in recrystallized and stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 were determined using a DCPD method. Dynamic system flowing Ar gas through iodine chamber at 60 deg C provided a constant iodine pressure of 1000 Pa during test. The SCC curves of crack velocity vs. stress intensity showed the typical SCC curves that are composed of stages I, II and III. The threshold K ISCC at 350 deg C was about 9 and 9.5 MPa √m for the stress- relieved Zircaloy-4 and the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, respectively. The plateau velocity in the stage II at 350 deg C was 4-8x 10 -4 mm/sec in the range of 20-40 MPa√m. In comparison with recrystallized Zircaloy-4, stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 had a lower threshold stress intensity factor and a little higher SCC velocity, indicating that SRA Zircaloy-4 was more sensitive to SCC in respect of velocity. The fracture mode in recrystallized Zircaloy was mostly a transgranular fracture with river pattern. An intergranular mode and the flutting were scarcely observed. (author)

  12. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism as combination of different etiologies: an overlooked entity in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppiani, Luca; Cascio, Christian; Lo Pinto, Giuliano

    2016-10-01

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis, which raises several diagnostic and therapeutical challenges, is often overlooked. Hyperthyroidism can induce atrial fibrillation, a harmful arrhythmia which can precipitate heart failure and cause stroke. We report the case of an elderly man who was diagnosed with tachyfibrillation secondary to hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hyperfunction was subsequently related both to previous amiodarone therapy (probably mixed form) and the recent use of iodinated contrast medium for computed tomography scan. Thyroid ultrasonography showed a plongeant multinodular goitre. After initial worsening, thyroid function improved slowly but progressively on high-dose thyreostatic therapy combined with steroid therapy; tachyfibrillation caused heart failure and a thrombus in the left atrium, and proved initially resistant to combined antiarrhythmic treatments. Progressive reduction in thyroid hormone levels, together with combined cardiologic therapies, controlled the heart rate, though atrial fibrillation persisted; anticoagulant therapy resolved the atrial thrombus. Alterations in thyroid function are common in amiodarone-treated patients, who therefore require regular hormonal checks. The different forms of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis must be investigated, since they require different therapies, though mixed forms often occur. The superimposition of further iodine excess due to other causes may be catastrophic and cause severe cardiac problems in these patients.

  13. Risk Stratification of iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis before contrast agent application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, E.

    2004-01-01

    Today, examinations using iodine containing contrast media are rather frequent. Even though in modern contrast agents the content of free iodine is low, in vivo deiodination results in a non physiologic high iodine load of the thyroid gland. Whilst in normal thyroid tissue iodine metabolism and hormone production are self-regulating in spite of the variable iodine load, those mechanisms are disturbed in autonomous thyroid tissue. Clinical studies displayed low risk of iodine induced thyrotoxicosis after application of contrast agent. Nonetheless the clinician has to assess the risk of thyrotoxicosis for each individual patient and he has to decide how to cope with this risk. Thyroid scintigraphy using Tc-99m-pertechnetate with quantitative measurement of the thyroidal uptake (TcTU) has been shown to be a useful tool in this question, especially when performed under suppression of the non-autonomous tissue (TcTUs). In particular patients with pre-existing suppression of the TSH secretion should be selected for this investigation. Also at risk are elderly persons and those with diffuse or nodular goitres. In spite of the high frequency of contrast agent applications, data on scintigraphy for risk evaluation of thyrotoxicosis and on efficacy of prophylactic medication are scarce. Based on own results and on a review of literature, the risk of thyrotoxicosis seems to be negligible in patients with a TcTUs of less than 1% even in case of preexistent latent hyperthyroidism. If a suppressed TSH level is known and TcTUs is higher than 1%, prophylactic medication should be given. There is evidence for a combination therapy inhibiting both iodine uptake and metabolism, i.e. with perchlorate and thiamazole, being more efficient than monotherapy, particularly in patients with high risk of thyrotoxicosis. (orig.)

  14. SCC with high volume of fly ash content

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    Bakhrakh Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is a very perspective building material. It provides great benefits during the construction of heavily reinforced buildings. SCC has outstanding properties such as high flowability, dense structure and high strength due to specific quality of aggregates, fillers, their proportion in mix, use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Main disadvantages of SCC are high price and the difficulty of obtaining a proper mix. Use of fillers, such as fly ash type F, is a way to make SCC cheaper by replacing part of cement. Fly ash also provides some technological and operating advantages. In this paper the influence of high volume (60% from cement fly ash type F on the properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete is investigated. The result of the work shows the possibility of reduction the cost of SCC using ordinary fillers and high amount of fly ash. The investigated SCC has low speed of hardening (7-day compressive strength at the range of 41.8 MPa and high volume of entrained air content (3.5%.

  15. Analysis of SCC sensitive areas for X65 pipeline structure in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L. Y.; Zhou, H.; Gao, L.; Yin, Q.; Jiang, K. B.

    2017-11-01

    SCC sensitive areas of welded specimens in the marine environment was investigated by means of magnetic field distribution detection, residual stress measurement and corrosion morphology observation. The study found that both HAZ and parent material surfaces of welded specimens could generate high-level stress concentration areas under the action of marine environment, thereby becoming sensitive areas of SCC. The combined effect of residual stress and corrosion damage results in the formation of SCC sensitive areas. Meanwhile, SCC sensibility on HAZ and parent material surfaces are determined by residual stress level and corrosion damage degree on the structure surface, respectively. Appropriate preventive measures should be taken according to the determinant of HAZ and parent material surfaces’ SCC sensibility when SCC preventive measures of X65 pipeline structure servicing in the marine environment are designed.

  16. EFFECTS OF LASER SHOCK PEENING ON SCC BEHAVIOR OF ALLOY 600

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    Abhishek Telang; Amrinder Gill; S.R.Mannava; Vijay K. Vasudevan; Dong Qian; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the effects of laser shock peening (LSP) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 600 in tetrathionate solution were investigated. The degree of sensitization was quantified using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DLEPR) tests. The sensitized Alloy 600 was demonstrated to be susceptible to intergranular SCC in tetrathionate solution. Following LSP, residual stresses and the amount of plastic strain introduced in Alloy 600 were characterized. The effects of LSP on SCC susceptibility of Alloy 600 in tetrathionate solution were evaluated by slow strain rate tests and constant load tests. Results indicate a significant increase in resistance to crack initiation and decreased susceptibility to SCC after LSP.

  17. Structural Studies Reveal the Functional Modularity of the Scc2-Scc4 Cohesin Loader

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    William C.H. Chao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable accuracy of eukaryotic cell division is partly maintained by the cohesin complex acting as a molecular glue to prevent premature sister chromatid separation. The loading of cohesin onto chromosomes is catalyzed by the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex. Here, we report the crystal structure of Scc4 bound to the N terminus of Scc2 and show that Scc4 is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR superhelix. The Scc2 N terminus adopts an extended conformation and is entrapped by the core of the Scc4 superhelix. Electron microscopy (EM analysis reveals that the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex comprises three domains: a head, body, and hook. Deletion studies unambiguously assign the Scc2N-Scc4 as the globular head domain, whereas in vitro cohesin loading assays show that the central body and the hook domains are sufficient to catalyze cohesin loading onto circular DNA, but not chromatinized DNA in vivo, suggesting a possible role for Scc4 as a chromatin adaptor.

  18. Evaluation of SCC morphology on L-grade stainless steels in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Takamori, Kenrou; Kumagai, Katsuhiko; Ooki, Suguru; Fukuda, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Hironobu; Futami, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a large number of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been observed in core shrouds and re-circulation (PLR) pipings made of L-grade stainless steel in Japanese BWRs (Boiling Water Reactors). L-grade stainless steels, which contain less carbon to avoid the sensitization due to welding, have been developed as SCC-resistant materials after many SCC experiences on sensitized type304. As L-grade materials, especially type 316L and 316NG stainless steels have shown little susceptibility to SCC initiation in laboratory tests, it has to be considered that there exist some unknown factors excluding sensitization that cause SCC in these materials. From the detailed investigations of plant components so far, SCC of L-grade stainless steels show different characteristics from those observed on conventional sensitized type 304 especially in their crack morphology. In this paper, classification of observed cracks according to their morphology is discussed, followed by evaluation on root causes of SCC. The present conclusions are (1) crack orientations mainly depend on the maximum principal stress direction of welding residual stresses, (2) SCC susceptibility of L-grade stainless steels is enhanced by material hardening by machining or grinding, and (3) in L-grade materials SCC can propagate into the weld metal but in many case, cracks seem to be arrested near the fusion line. (author)

  19. Performance characteristics of SCC radioimmunoassay and clinical significance serum SCC Ag assay in patients with malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Youn

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the performance characteristics of SCC RIV and the clinical significance of serum SCC Ag assay in patients with malignancy, serum SCC Ag levels were measured by SCC RIV kit in 40 normal controls and 35 percents with various untreated malignancy, who visited Chonju Presbyterian Medical Center. The results were as follows; 1. The SCC RIA was simple to perform and can be completed in two workday. And the standard curve and reproducibility were both good. 2. The mean serum SCC Ag level in normal controls was 1.64 ± 0.93 ng/mL and normal upper limit of serum SCC Ag was defined as 2.6 ng/mL. 3 out of 40 (7.5%) normal controls showed elevated SCC Ag levels above the normal upper limit. 3. In 35 patients with various untreated malignancy, 18 patients (51.4%) showed elevated serum SCC Ag levels, 59.1% of 22 patients with cervical cancer, 80% of 5 patients with lung cancer, 33% of 3 patients with esophageal cancer, 0% of 2 patients with rectal cancer and 0% of 3 patients with breast cancer showed elevated serum SCC Ag levels. Above results represent that SCC RIV is simple method to perform followed by good standard curve and reproducibility, and may be a useful indicator reflecting diagnostic data of patients with cervical cancer and lung cancer

  20. Cohesin rings devoid of Scc3 and Pds5 maintain their stable association with the DNA.

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    Irina Kulemzina

    Full Text Available Cohesin is a protein complex that forms a ring around sister chromatids thus holding them together. The ring is composed of three proteins: Smc1, Smc3 and Scc1. The roles of three additional proteins that associate with the ring, Scc3, Pds5 and Wpl1, are not well understood. It has been proposed that these three factors form a complex that stabilizes the ring and prevents it from opening. This activity promotes sister chromatid cohesion but at the same time poses an obstacle for the initial entrapment of sister DNAs. This hindrance to cohesion establishment is overcome during DNA replication via acetylation of the Smc3 subunit by the Eco1 acetyltransferase. However, the full mechanistic consequences of Smc3 acetylation remain unknown. In the current work, we test the requirement of Scc3 and Pds5 for the stable association of cohesin with DNA. We investigated the consequences of Scc3 and Pds5 depletion in vivo using degron tagging in budding yeast. The previously described DHFR-based N-terminal degron as well as a novel Eco1-derived C-terminal degron were employed in our study. Scc3 and Pds5 associate with cohesin complexes independently of each other and require the Scc1 "core" subunit for their association with chromosomes. Contrary to previous data for Scc1 downregulation, depletion of either Scc3 or Pds5 had a strong effect on sister chromatid cohesion but not on cohesin binding to DNA. Quantity, stability and genome-wide distribution of cohesin complexes remained mostly unchanged after the depletion of Scc3 and Pds5. Our findings are inconsistent with a previously proposed model that Scc3 and Pds5 are cohesin maintenance factors required for cohesin ring stability or for maintaining its association with DNA. We propose that Scc3 and Pds5 specifically function during cohesion establishment in S phase.

  1. Iodine Replete among Populations in Nigeria: Is the Population Tending Towards the Development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH?

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    Onyeaghala A. Augustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient which is required for normal thyroid function. The recommended daily intake for iodine is 150 µg, however in pregnant women; higher levels up to 250 µg could be required. Deficiency of iodine in any given population results in iodine deficiency disorder (IDD. Researchers in Nigeria as far back as 1967 had reported the existence of IDD. To combat this public health problem with its associated medical consequences, a policy to ensure salt iodization was enacted. The Nation’s consistent approach to combat IDD was globally recognized and it was adjudged as the only country in Africa that had achieved the goals of sustained elimination of IDD. Although the health benefits derivable from salt iodization seem to outweigh its risk, yet recent epidemiological data are pointing that populations within the country could be tending toward the development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH, a common disorder associated with salt iodization following chronic iodine deficiency. The need therefore to use evidence based approach to re-examine the County’s iodization policy as well as investigate the impact of salt iodization on thyroid hormone formation, metabolism and associated pathologies becomes very imperative. This could be very helpful in order to prevent the burden of non- communicable disease in a nation already battling with epidemics of various infectious diseases.

  2. Influence of microcracks on the SCC initiation of Zy-4 claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, A.; Oncioiu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the main cause of defect of CANDU type fuel bundles during operation. Its investigation arose major concerns in the entire scientific world. SCC appears basically in presence of the simultaneous action of a corrosive agent and a mechanical stress. This paper presents the role of microcracks initiated at the inner surface of the fuel cladding as a decisive step in starting the SCC process. This microcracks act like a fracture initiation patterns there where the SCC cracks appear. The research focused upon the influence of various testing parameters (such as iodine concentration, stress applied) on the SCC occurrence in samples of CANDU Zy-4 fuel cladding and on the determination of SCC critical starting values. A C-ring experimental method to obtained different strains and stress values was used. The stressed rings were exposed to corrosive environment containing iodine. While the temperature and iodine concentration was maintained constant the period of chemical corrosion and stress were varied. The statistic studies conducted on SCC-tested samples showed that the most probable dimension of a crack is 100 μm. The probability of occurrence of cracks as resulted from experimental data is in good agreement with that obtained using the Miller's model. Investigation by SAM method revealed the type of chemical corrosion, the shape and propagation modes of cracks; the XPS technique was used to determine the iodine concentration on the samples' surface. (authors)

  3. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doctor, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  4. Effects of Adequate Iodine Supply on the Incidence of Iodine-Induced Thyroid Disorders in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk, Vid; Zaletel, Katja; Pirnat, Edvard; Hojker, Sergej; Gaberšček, Simona

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the changes in the incidence and characteristics of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (II-Hyper) and iodine-induced hypothyroidism (II-Hypo) in the two-year period before and the 10-year period after the increase in mandatory salt iodization from the previous 10 mg/kg of potassium iodide to 25 mg/kg in 1999. Furthermore, the aim was to determine the duration of treatment in II-Hyper patients, since no data regarding severity and treatment of II-Hyper with respect to iodine supply are available. This retrospective study reviewed medical records of 885 Slovenian patients first diagnosed with II-Hyper or II-Hypo between 1998 and 2009 at the Thyroid Department of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. II-Hyper and II-Hypo were diagnosed by one out of 10 senior internal medicine specialists. The diagnosis was based on an adequate patient history, and laboratory measurements of thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, and thyroid antibodies. In most cases, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy were performed. Demographic characteristics and the type and the duration of treatment were also reviewed. The incidence of II-Hypo was significantly higher after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p hyperthyroidism decreased, predominantly due to the increased proportion of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (p = 0.007 and p = 0.015, respectively). The duration of treatment with antithyroid drugs and perchlorate was significantly shorter after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). A significantly positive correlation between the year of the occurrence of excessive iodine intake (EII)-induced thyroid disease and the duration of treatment with amiodarone was found (R = 0.132; p = 0.048), suggesting that the longer the patients had an adequate iodine supply, the longer they could take amiodarone before EII-induced thyroid disorder developed. After the

  5. Influence of texture on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, I.; Lemaignan, C.

    1992-01-01

    The specific study was carried out to measure the influence of texture on the behaviour of Zircaloy-4 under iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking. The aim was to determine the relative effects of various metallurgical parameters involved in fuel rod fracture by pellet-clad interaction (PCI). Cladding tubes of different geometries were manufactured from a given Zircaloy-4 ingot. In this way tubes with different textures were obtained. Rings from these tubes were then subjected to slow tensile tests in an inert atmosphere and in an iodine vapour atmosphere. The sensitivity of the tubes to stress corrosion cracking is quantified by the loss of ductility of fracture between the tests in each atmosphere. Combined with the findings of other studies, the results showed that: (a) Texture has a strong effect on the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of Zircaloy-4, (b) the mechanical properties do not have any bearing on the material behaviour under stress corrosion cracking, and that the better behaviour of a recrystallized material - compared to the same material in a stress-relieved state - can be explained solely by the texture effect, (c) texture is a more important parameter than chemical composition of Zircaloy-4, on condition that this composition remains within the ASTM specification. The conflict between the various mechanisms involved in stress corrosion crack propagation may explain these observations. Preliminary extrapolation of these conclusions to the irradiated material shows that a more specific study is needed using appropriate parameters. (orig.)

  6. Rehabilitation of the gas pipeline that had a rupture in service caused by SCC (Stress Corrosion C raking); Rehabilitacion al servicio de un gasoducto que ha sufrido una ruptura en servicio por SCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando; Carzoglio, Eduardo; Hryciuk, Pedro [TGN - Transportadora de Gas del Norte S.A. (Argentina). Depto. de Integridad

    2003-07-01

    TGN had a rupture in service on Gasoducto Troncal Norte. After initial evaluation of the causes of the rupture it was concluded that it had been caused by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). Subsequent investigation in the area of the rupture revealed that colonies of cracks, typical of SCC were found in pipes located near the rupture. In order to put back in service the pipeline in a safety condition, SCC mitigation activities were performed. A decision was made to conduct a hydro test along approximately 30 kilometers of pipe. The stages of the works, the problems faced and the solutions found are dealt with, as well as the conclusions reached upon completion of the works which allowed a better understanding of SCC phenomenon. The methodology for the identification of those areas susceptible to SCC is also described. (author)

  7. The effect of form pressure on the air void structure of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Vibæk; Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    The high workability of self-compacting concrete (SCC) invites to high casting rates. However, casting walls at high rate may result in large pressure at the bottom of the form and subsequently compression of the air voids. This paper deals with the influence of hydrostatic pressure during setting...... on the air void structure of hardened, air entrained SCC. The subject was examined through laboratory investigations of SCC with two different amounts of air entrainment. The condition in the form was simulated by using containers making it possible to cure concrete under various pressures corresponding...... to the bottom of castings of 0, 2, 4, and 6 meters height. The laboratory investigations were supplemented with data from two full-scale wall castings. The air void structure of the hardened concretes was determined on plane sections. The results indicate that the pressure related changes of the air void...

  8. Pengaruh Penambahan Admixture Terhadap Karakteristik Self Compacting Concrete (Scc)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Mariani; Sampebulu, Victor; Ahmad, Abdul Gani

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen laboratorium yang sifatnya pengenalan terhadap materi SCC.SCC atau Self Compacting Concrete adalah sebuah inovasi dalam teknologi konstruksi betondewasa ini yang menggunakan bahan tambah (admixture) untuk menghasilkan beton berkinerjatinggi. Pada penelitian ini ingin diketahui pengaruh penambahan admixture kimiaSuperplasticizer “Mighty 150 S” dan Retarder “Conplast Dessue Possolit” terhadap karakteristikSCC. Superplasticizer diberikan dalam 3 variasi kadar (1,...

  9. Elucidating the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, M.; Shimada, S.; Nishimura, S.; Amano, K.

    1984-01-01

    Several experimental investigations were made to enhance understanding of the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for Zircaloy: (1) oxide penetration process, (2) crack initiation process, and (3) crack propagation process. Concerning the effect of the oxide layer produced by conventional steam-autoclaving, no significant difference was found between results for autoclaved and as-pickled samples. Tests with 15 species of metal iodides revealed that only those metal iodides which react thermodynamically with zirconium to produce zirconium tetraiodide (ZrI 4 ) caused SCC of Zircaloy. Detailed SEM examinations were made on the SCC fracture surface of irradiated specimens. The crack propagation rate was expressed with a da/dt=C Ksup(n) type equation by combining results of tests and calculations with a finite element method. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the Frequencies for Canister Inspections for SCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-15SN0802042, “Evaluate the Frequencies for Canister Inspections for SCC” under Work Package FT-15SN080204, “ST Field Demonstration Support – SNL”. It reviews the current state of knowledge on the potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of dry storage canisters and evaluates the implications of this state of knowledge on the establishment of an SCC inspection frequency. Models for the prediction of SCC by the Japanese Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), the United States (U.S.) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are summarized, and their limitations discussed.

  11. Glass fiber effect on mechanical properties of Eco-SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad M. L., V.; Loksesh, G.; Ramanjaneyulu, B.; Venkatesh, S.; Mousumi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Sustainable Construction encouraging the use of recycled materials and implies adoption of fewer natural resources in buildings and other infrastructure. In this paper Quarry Dust (QD) is used as partial replacement for River Sand (RS) to make Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) of grade M40. Glass fiber is used as strengthening material to the developed concrete. The present study mainly focused to develop Eco-SCC using QD. In this study it was found that, for developing Eco-SCC, what is the optimum dosage of replacement of QD in RS. Fresh properties of SCC are satisfying the EFNARC specifications and also target strength is achieved. Further it is concluded that, with the glass fiber addition there is an improvement in the split and flexural strength values.

  12. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  13. Effects of temperature on SCC propagation in high temperature water injected with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yoshiyuki, Kaji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    To understand the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in the boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant environment, it is significant to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by the radiolysis of water on SCC under the various water chemistry and operational conditions. At the start-up or shut-down periods, for example, the conditions of radiation and temperature on the structural materials are different from those during the plant normal operation, and may be influencing on SCC behaviour. Therefore, the effect of temperature on SCC in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 was evaluated by SCC propagation test at the present study. Oxide films on the metal surface in crack were examined and the thermal equilibrium diagram was calculated to estimate the environmental situation in the crack. On the thermally sensitized type 304 SS, crack growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 to simulate water radiolysis in the core. Small CT type specimens with a width of 15.5 mm and thickness of 6.2 mm were machined from the sensitized SS. SCC growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with 100 ppb H 2 O 2 at 453 and 561 K. To minimize H 2 O 2 decomposition by a contact with metal surface of autoclave, the CT specimen was isolated from inner surface of the autoclave by the inner modules made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and PTFE lining was also used for the inner surface of inlet and sampling tubes. Base on the measurement of sampled water, it was confirmed that 80-90 % of injected H 2 O 2 remained around the CT specimen in autoclave. Constant load at initial K levels of 11-20 MPam 1/2 was applied to the CT specimens during crack growth tests. After crack growth tests, CT specimens were split into two pieces on the plane of crack propagation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination and laser Raman spectroscopy for outer oxide layer of oxide

  14. Predicting the Yield Stress of SCC using Materials Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual model for predicting the Bingham rheological parameter yield stress of SCC has been established. The model used here is inspired by previous work of Oh et al. (1), predicting that the yield stress of concrete relative to the yield stress of paste is a function of the relative thickne...... and distribution were varied between SCC types. The results indicate that yield stress of SCC may be predicted using the model.......A conceptual model for predicting the Bingham rheological parameter yield stress of SCC has been established. The model used here is inspired by previous work of Oh et al. (1), predicting that the yield stress of concrete relative to the yield stress of paste is a function of the relative thickness...... of excess paste around the aggregate. The thickness of excess paste is itself a function of particle shape, particle size distribution, and particle packing. Seven types of SCC were tested at four different excess paste contents in order to verify the conceptual model. Paste composition and aggregate shape...

  15. Report B : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - bond, transfer length, and development length of prestressing strand in SCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Due to its economic advantages, the use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) has : increased rapidly in recent years. However, because SCC mixes typically have decreased : amounts of coarse aggregate and high amounts of admixtures, industry members h...

  16. SCC: Semantic Context Cascade for Efficient Action Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2017-11-09

    Despite the recent advances in large-scale video analysis, action detection remains as one of the most challenging unsolved problems in computer vision. This snag is in part due to the large volume of data that needs to be analyzed to detect actions in videos. Existing approaches have mitigated the computational cost, but still, these methods lack rich high-level semantics that helps them to localize the actions quickly. In this paper, we introduce a Semantic Cascade Context (SCC) model that aims to detect action in long video sequences. By embracing semantic priors associated with human activities, SCC produces high-quality class-specific action proposals and prune unrelated activities in a cascade fashion. Experimental results in ActivityNet unveils that SCC achieves state-of-the-art performance for action detection while operating at real time.

  17. Comparison of ANN and RKS approaches to model SCC strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Aravind J.; Sathyan, Dhanya; Anand, K. B.; Aravind, N. R.

    2018-02-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) is a high performance concrete that has high flowability and can be used in heavily reinforced concrete members with minimal compaction segregation and bleeding. The mix proportioning of SCC is highly complex and large number of trials are required to get the mix with the desired properties resulting in the wastage of materials and time. The research on SCC has been highly empirical and no theoretical relationships have been developed between the mixture proportioning and engineering properties of SCC. In this work effectiveness of artificial neural network (ANN) and random kitchen sink algorithm(RKS) with regularized least square algorithm(RLS) in predicting the split tensile strength of the SCC is analysed. Random kitchen sink algorithm is used for mapping data to higher dimension and classification of this data is done using Regularized least square algorithm. The training and testing data for the algorithm was obtained experimentally using standard test procedures and materials available. Total of 40 trials were done which were used as the training and testing data. Trials were performed by varying the amount of fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, dosage and type of super plasticizer and water. Prediction accuracy of the ANN and RKS model is checked by comparing the RMSE value of both ANN and RKS. Analysis shows that eventhough the RKS model is good for large data set, its prediction accuracy is as good as conventional prediction method like ANN so the split tensile strength model developed by RKS can be used in industries for the proportioning of SCC with tailor made property.

  18. Casticin impairs cell growth and induces cell apoptosis via cell cycle arrest in human oral cancer SCC-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Guan-Ling; Peng, Shu-Fen; Liao, Ching-Lung; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Fan, Ming-Jen; La, Kuang-Chi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2018-02-01

    Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, present in natural plants, has been shown to have biological activities including anti-cancer activities. Herein, we investigated the anti-oral cancer activity of casticin on SCC-4 cells in vitro. Viable cells, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and Ca 2+ production, levels of ΔΨ m and caspase activity were measured by flow cytometric assay. Cell apoptosis associated protein expressions were examined by Western blotting and confocal laser microscopy. Results indicated that casticin induced cell morphological changes, DNA condensation and damage, decreased the total viable cells, induced G 2 /M phase arrest in SCC-4 cells. Casticin promoted ROS and Ca 2+ productions, decreases the levels of ΔΨ m , promoted caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in SCC-4 cells. Western blotting assay demonstrated that casticin affect protein level associated with G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Confocal laser microscopy also confirmed that casticin increased the translocation of AIF and cytochrome c in SCC-4 cells. In conclusion, casticin decreased cell number through G 2 /M phase arrest and the induction of cell apoptosis through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways in SCC-4 cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Latest SCC Issues of core shroud and recirculation piping in Japanese BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Yuichi; Sakashita, Akihiro; Fukuda, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Hironobu; Futami, Tsuneo

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports that a high incidence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) cracks have been found in the core Shroud and PLR piping of several Japanese BWR plants. The results of investigations show the cracks to be of SCC type in 316L stainless steel and with different characteristics from the type in 304 stainless steel. The cracks on the shroud surface were mainly verified near the shroud ring weld line and core region weld line, and the crack shape could be classified into two types: one type was circumferential cracking in the shroud ring, and the other was isolated occurrences of radial cracking in the core region. The structural integrity of those shrouds with cracks was evaluated under a conservative assumption and confirmed to be adequate. A relatively large error was identified in measuring the crack depth in the PLR piping. (author)

  20. Assessment and management of SCC in a liquid pipeline: case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Pablo; Tandon, Samarth; Gao, Ming; Krishnamurthy, Ravi [Blade Energy Partners, Houston, Texas (United States); Peverelli, Romina (PIMS of London, London (United Kingdom)); Moreno Ochoa, Carlos (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico)); Diaz Solis, Esau (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico))

    2010-07-01

    A 30-inch crude oil pipeline system was built between Nuevo Teapa to Venta de Carpjo from 1978 to 1980. It is owned by Pemex; its total length is 570 km, and it has strategic importance in Mexico's refining capability. In this oil pipeline, various degrees of external and internal corrosion have been found, and recent incidents occurred as a result of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper presents an approach for managing high pH SCC in such a pipeline: it includes a comprehensive verification excavation plan, a strict in-ditch NDT investigation protocol, statistical models to determine the probability of detection and identification, sizing tolerance analyses, and an assessment methodology that is backed up by the material testing program. All the results provided by the application of the approach lead to the development of integrity management strategies. An integrity management plan is established and refined before the next inspection.

  1. Porosity of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) incorporating high volume fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Murti, G. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of concrete could be triggered by the presence of aggressive agents from the environment into the body of concrete. The penetration of these agents is influenced by the pore characteristics of the concrete. Incorporating a pozzolanic material such as fly ash could modify the pore characteristic of the concrete. This research aims to investigate the influence of incorporating fly ash at high volume level on the porosity of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Laboratory investigations were carried out following the ASTM C642 for measuring density and volume of permeable pores (voids) of the SCC with varying fly ash contents (50-70% by weight of total binder). In addition, a measurement of permeable voids by saturation method was carried out to obtain an additional volume of voids that could not be measured by the immersion and boiling method of ASTM C642. The results show that the influence of fly ash content on the porosity appears to be dependent on age of SCC. At age less than 56 d, fly ash tends to cause an increase of voids but at 90 d of age it reduces the pores. The additional pores that can be penetrated by vacuum saturation method counts about 50% of the total voids.

  2. SCC of 2304 Duplex Stainless Steel—Microstructure, Residual Stress and Surface Grinding Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

  3. The Scc2/Scc4 complex acts in sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation by maintaining nucleosome-free regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Serra, Lidia; Kelly, Gavin; Patel, Harshil; Stewart, Aengus; Uhlmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The cohesin complex is at the heart of many chromosomal activities, including sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation1-3. Cohesin loading onto chromosomes depends on the Scc2/Scc4 cohesin loader complex4-6, but the chromatin features that form cohesin loading sites remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the RSC chromatin remodeling complex recruits budding yeast Scc2/Scc4 to broad nucleosome-free regions, that the cohesin loader itself helps to maintain. Consequently, inactivation of the cohesin loader or RSC complex have similar effects on nucleosome positioning, gene expression and sister chromatid cohesion. These results reveal an intimate link between local chromatin structure and higher order chromosome architecture. Our findings pertain to the similarities between two severe human disorders, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, caused by mutations in the human cohesin loader, and Coffin-Siris syndrome, resulting from mutations in human RSC complex components7-9. Both could arise from gene misregulation due to related changes in the nucleosome landscape. PMID:25173104

  4. Curcumin inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC-9 cells proliferation by regulating miR-9 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Can; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Lifang; Zhang, Chenping; Zhou, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • miR-9 expression level was significantly decreased in OSCC tissues. • Curcumin significantly inhibited SCC-9 cells proliferation. • miR-9 mediates the inhibition of SCC-9 proliferation by curcumin. • Curcumin suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in SCC-9 cells. • miR-9 mediates the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by curcumin. - Abstract: Curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has shown anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the miR-9 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explored the potential relationships between miR-9 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in curcumin-mediated OSCC inhibition in vitro. As the results shown, the expression levels of miR-9 were significantly lower in clinical OSCC specimens than those in the adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, our results indicated that curcumin inhibited OSCC cells (SCC-9 cells) proliferation through up-regulating miR-9 expression, and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling by increasing the expression levels of the GSK-3β, phosphorylated GSK-3β and β-catenin, and decreasing the cyclin D1 level. Additionally, the up-regulation of miR-9 by curcumin in SCC-9 cells was significantly inhibited by delivering anti-miR-9 but not control oligonucleotides. Downregulation of miR-9 by anti-miR-9 not only attenuated the growth-suppressive effects of curcumin on SCC-9 cells, but also re-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling that was inhibited by curcumin. Therefore, our findings would provide a new insight into the use of curcumin against OSCC in future

  5. Curcumin inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC-9 cells proliferation by regulating miR-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Can [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Lili; Zhu, Lifang [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhang, Chenping, E-mail: zhang_cping@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Tumors, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhou, Jianhua [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • miR-9 expression level was significantly decreased in OSCC tissues. • Curcumin significantly inhibited SCC-9 cells proliferation. • miR-9 mediates the inhibition of SCC-9 proliferation by curcumin. • Curcumin suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in SCC-9 cells. • miR-9 mediates the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by curcumin. - Abstract: Curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has shown anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the miR-9 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explored the potential relationships between miR-9 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in curcumin-mediated OSCC inhibition in vitro. As the results shown, the expression levels of miR-9 were significantly lower in clinical OSCC specimens than those in the adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, our results indicated that curcumin inhibited OSCC cells (SCC-9 cells) proliferation through up-regulating miR-9 expression, and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling by increasing the expression levels of the GSK-3β, phosphorylated GSK-3β and β-catenin, and decreasing the cyclin D1 level. Additionally, the up-regulation of miR-9 by curcumin in SCC-9 cells was significantly inhibited by delivering anti-miR-9 but not control oligonucleotides. Downregulation of miR-9 by anti-miR-9 not only attenuated the growth-suppressive effects of curcumin on SCC-9 cells, but also re-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling that was inhibited by curcumin. Therefore, our findings would provide a new insight into the use of curcumin against OSCC in future.

  6. Behaviour of Cronidur30 and 440C Steels Under Different SCC Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzen, G.; Scheerer, M.; Simon, Z.; Merstallinger, A.; Tesch, A.

    2014-06-01

    A high corrosion resistance of metal alloys does not necessarily correlate with a high resistance to stress- corrosion cracking (SCC). Hence, in current study the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of two high strength steels, namely Cronidur 30 and AISI-440C was investigated. These steels belong to martensitic stainless Cr-steel grades and meet ambitious requirements in terms of strength, hardness, wear and corrosion resistance. Nevertheless, they are not classified as class 1 acc. to the ECSS-Q-70-37C standard. The Cronidur 30 and AISI-440C steels have been widely used in bearings for space applications where no sustained tensile stresses appear [1]. Recently, new applications as well as new bearing designs [2] are of interest in which these steels are subjected to sustained tensile stresses. Therefore the SCC behaviour of these materials becomes of particular interest. Apart from the standard results gained according to the ECSS-Q-70-37C the present study focused on microstrucutural characteristics of the tested steels.SCC tests were performed similar to the ESA standard ECSS-Q-70-37C (75% proof stress) but at different load levels in the range between 15% and 75% of the corresponding Rp0.2. The detailed microstructural analysis showed that AISI- 440C compared to Cronidur 30 is more sensitive to pitting corrosion as well as to stress corrosion cracking. The AISI - 440C failed the SCC test at the level of Rp0.2 - 25% and also showed signs of a pronounced intergranular corrosion, whereas the Cronidur 30 (in as special heat treatment) passed a level of Rp0.2- 60% without any signs of a corrosive attack. However there remain some concerns with regard to the reliability of Cronidur 30 due to the sensitivity of the mechanical, corrosion and SCC properties on the heat treatment as well as the low fracture elongation and rather brittle behaviour that has been observed. It has been found that even very small surface imperfections may cause the nucleation of

  7. The SMC Loader Scc2 Promotes ncRNA Biogenesis and Translational Fidelity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musinu Zakari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Scc2-Scc4 complex is essential for loading the cohesin complex onto DNA. Cohesin has important roles in chromosome segregation, DSB repair, and chromosome condensation. Here we report that Scc2 is important for gene expression in budding yeast. Scc2 and the transcriptional regulator Paf1 collaborate to promote the production of Box H/ACA snoRNAs which guide pseudouridylation of RNAs including ribosomal RNA. Mutation of SCC2 was associated with defects in the production of ribosomal RNA, ribosome assembly, and splicing. While the scc2 mutant does not have a general defect in protein synthesis, it shows increased frameshifting and reduced cap-independent translation. These findings suggest Scc2 normally promotes a gene expression program that supports translational fidelity. We hypothesize that translational dysfunction may contribute to the human disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome, which is caused by mutations in NIPBL, the human ortholog of SCC2.

  8. SCC behaviour of nickel based alloys in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    SCC of nickel-based alloys (alloys 600, X-750, 182, 82...) is of great concern to the nuclear power industry. Misjugement on the susceptibility of the alloys to SCC and underestimation of the actual stress level caused a world-wide economical problem for the nuclear reactors. An up-to-date review of the phenomenon is presented on the basis of literature data, with an emphasis on the influence of mechanical, microstructural and chemical parameters on alloy 600 SCC in PWR's environments. The effect of stress and strain rate on crack initiation and propagation is also considered. Further to this survey, the contribution of mechanisms likely to be involved (slip dissolution model, hydrogen-induced-cracking, corrosion-deformation interactions) is examined. Better knowledge of the effect of parameters, such as temperature, stress and the alloy structure, makes it possible to predict fairly well the initiation and propagation time of the cracks and to evaluate the remedial actions to be taken. (author). 41 refs., 8 figs

  9. Cutaneous squamous cell cancer (cSCC) risk and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesantharao, Pooja; Wang, Wei; Ioannidis, Nilah M; Demehri, Shadmehr; Whittemore, Alice S; Asgari, Maryam M

    2017-04-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common cancer among Caucasians in the United States, with rising incidence over the past decade. Treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer, including cSCC, in the United States was estimated to cost $4.8 billion in 2014. Thus, an understanding of cSCC pathogenesis could have important public health implications. Immune function impacts cSCC risk, given that cSCC incidence rates are substantially higher in patients with compromised immune systems. We report a systematic review of published associations between cSCC risk and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. This review includes studies that analyze germline class I and class II HLA allelic variation as well as HLA cell-surface protein expression levels associated with cSCC risk. We propose biological mechanisms for these HLA-cSCC associations based on known mechanisms of HLA involvement in other diseases. The review suggests that immunity regulates the development of cSCC and that HLA-cSCC associations differ between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. This difference may reflect the presence of viral co-factors that affect tumorigenesis in immunosuppressed patients. Finally, we highlight limitations in the literature on HLA-cSCC associations, and suggest directions for future research aimed at understanding, preventing and treating cSCC. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Review and Assessment of SCC Experiments with RPV Steels in Oskarshamn 2 and 3 (ABB Report SBR 99-020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Hans-Peter; Ritter, Stefan [Paul Scherrer Inst., Laboratory for Materials Behaviour, Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Dept.

    2005-11-15

    Some years ago SKI and the Swedish utilities sponsored SCC investigations, where non cladded and cladded (Inconel 182/AISI 308L) bolt-loaded C(T) specimens of different reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been exposed to boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) environment in Oskarshamn 3 and 2 during a five- and four-year period. In the following report, the Swedish stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data from this project are critically reviewed and assessed on the basis of the relevant service experience and of the accumulated experimental background knowledge on SCC of carbon (C) and low-alloy steel (LAS) and dissimilar weld joints in high-temperature (HT) water. The investigations in Oskarshamn 3/2 generally revealed a low SCC crack growth susceptibility of RPV steels and interdendritic (ID) SCC in the Inconel 182 weld metal under BWR/NWC and HWC conditions. All non-cladded specimens and specimens with AISI 308L stainless steel cladding revealed no or only minor crack growth. However, the specimens with Inconel 182 cladding and fatigue pre-crack in the weld metal revealed clear, but minor crack growth into the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the RPV steel under BWR/NWC conditions. Marked crack growth (of 2.43 mm) in the RPV steel was only observed in one of the Inconel 182 cladded specimens tested under BWR/NWC conditions with a high K{sub I} value of 48.8 MPa.{radical}m, where the fatigue pre-crack-tip was located in the RPV steel base metal far beyond its HAZ. Although the extent of cracking has rather surprising for a bolt-loaded specimen, the average SCC crack growth rate (CGR) of 0.5 mm/year over the five-year testing period was still within the upper range of constant load SCC CGRs in autoclave tests in oxygenated high-purity water and below the BWRVIP-60 SCC disposition line (DL)1, and thus does not represent an immediate concern. The initial K{sub I} value of this specimen represents a rather deep crack

  11. SCC mitigation in BWRs by platinum addition: effect of environment and injection rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.; Grundler, P.V.; Veleva, L.; Ramar, A.

    2015-01-01

    On-line noble metal chemical addition is a technology developed by General Electric to mitigate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in reactor internals and recirculation pipes of boiling water reactors (BWRs) avoiding the negative side-effects of the classical hydrogen water chemistry. For a more efficient reduction of the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) Pt is injected into the feed water during power operation. Pt is claimed to deposit as very fine metallic particles on all water-wetted surfaces and to stay electrocatalytic over long periods. To assess this SCC mitigation technique, the deposition and distribution behaviour of Pt on stainless steel coupon specimens, exposed to simulated BWR water conditions, using a sophisticated high-temperature water loop, has been investigated in detail at PSI. During the tests Pt solution was injected into the loop and Pt was deposited on the specimens. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques and Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry were used to characterise the Pt distribution and concentration on the specimens. In this paper results from a set of experiments with varying concentrations of dissolved H 2 and O 2 in the high-temperature water, as well as from tests with different Pt injection rates are presented and discussed. These experiments revealed a clear difference in the Pt deposition behaviour in terms of size and homogeneity in distribution depending on the water chemistry and injection rate. A reducing environment and slow Pt injection rates resulted in the most effective Pt deposition, thus potentially in a better protection against SCC. (authors)

  12. Calibration Device Designed for proof ring used in SCC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. Y.; Kang, Z. Y.; Yu, Y. L.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a calibration device for proof ring used in SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) experiment was designed. A compact size loading device was developed to replace traditional force standard machine or a long screw nut. The deformation of the proof ring was measured by a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) during the calibration instead of digital caliper or a dial gauge. The calibration device was verified at laboratory that the precision of force loading is ±0.1% and the precision of deformation measurement is ±0.002mm.

  13. Flow Induced segregation in full scale castings with SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2007-01-01

    Though promising, pioneering work has been carried out with rheological characterization and numerical modelling of form filling with SCC, the approach is far from standard in the concrete industry and clearly the approach does not yet hold all the answers to relevant questions. In particular flow...... induced segregation is a major risk during casting and it is not yet clear how this phenomenon should be modelled. In this paper testing and numerical simulations of full-scale wall castings are compared. Two different SCCs and three different filling methods were applied resulting in different flow...

  14. Lead-induced SCC of alloy 600 in plausible steam generator crevice environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Manolescu, A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mirzai, M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Laboratory stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test environments developed to simulate representative BNGS-A steam generator (SG) crevice chemistries have been used to determine the susceptibility of Alloy 600 to lead-induced SCC under plausible SG conditions. Test environments were based on plant SG hideout return data and analysis of removed tubes and deposits. Deviations from the normal near neutral crevice pH environment were considered to simulate possible faulted excursion crevice chemistry and to bound the postulated crevice pH range of 3-9 (at temperature). The effect of lead contamination up to 1000 ppm, but with an emphasis on the 100 to 500 ppm range, was determined. SCC susceptibility was investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and encapsulated C-ring tests. CERT tests were performed at 305 degrees C on tubing representative of BNGS-A SG U-bends. The C-ring test method allowed a wider test matrix covering three temperatures (280, 304 and 315 degrees C), three strain levels (0.2%, 2% and 4%) and tubing representative of U-bends plus tubing given a simulated stress relief to represent material at the tubesheet. The results of this test program confirmed that in the absence of lead contamination, cracking does not occur in these concentrated, 3.3 to 8.9 pH range, crevice environments. Also, it appears that the concentrated crevice environments suppress lead-induced cracking relative to that seen in all-volatile-treatment (AVT) water. For the (static) C-ring tests, lead-induced SCC was only produced in the near-neutral crevice environment and was more severe at 500 ppm than 100 ppm PbO. This trend was also observed in CERT tests but some cracking/grain boundary attack occurred in acidic (pH 3.3) and alkaline (pH 8.9) environments. The C-ring tests indicated that a certain amount of resistance to cracking was imparted by simulated stress relief of the tubing. This heat treatment, confirmed to have resulted in sensitization, promoted

  15. LAFD: TA-3 NISC & SCC Facility Familiarization Tour, OJT #53356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norman, Rich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Gene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blumberg, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCurdy, Patrick B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL, the Laboratory, or the Lab) conducts familiarization tours for Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) personnel at the Strategic Computing Complex (SCC), TA-03-2327, and the Nonproliferation & International Security Complex (NISC), TA-03-2322. These tours are official LANL business; their purpose is to orient the firefighters to the SCC and the NISC so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. The tour includes ingress and egress of the buildings, layout and organization of the buildings, evacuation procedures, and areas of concern to emergency responders within these buildings. LAFD firefighters have the training, skills, and abilities to perform these emergency responder tasks; other LANL personnel who have the required clearance level cannot perform these tasks. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The report will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour. A corresponding checklist will also be used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to the LAFD personnel.

  16. Crystal Structure of the Cohesin Gatekeeper Pds5 and in Complex with Kleisin Scc1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Gil Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by cohesin, whose Smc1, Smc3, and kleisin (Scc1 subunits form a ring structure that entraps sister DNAs. The ring is opened either by separase, which cleaves Scc1 during anaphase, or by a releasing activity involving Wapl, Scc3, and Pds5, which bind to Scc1 and open its interface with Smc3. We present crystal structures of Pds5 from the yeast L. thermotolerans in the presence and absence of the conserved Scc1 region that interacts with Pds5. Scc1 binds along the spine of the Pds5 HEAT repeat fold and is wedged between the spine and C-terminal hook of Pds5. We have isolated mutants that confirm the observed binding mode of Scc1 and verified their effect on cohesin by immunoprecipitation and calibrated ChIP-seq. The Pds5 structure also reveals architectural similarities to Scc3, the other large HEAT repeat protein of cohesin and, most likely, Scc2.

  17. Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot

  18. Revised phylogeny and novel horizontally acquired virulence determinants of the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nykyri

    Full Text Available Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2, which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny

  19. CEA, SCC and NSE levels in exhaled breath condensate--possible markers for early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingchang; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Cong; Hu, Yanjie; Xu, Shan; Ying, Kejing; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xing

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death. The sensitive and non-invasive diagnostic tools in the early stage are still poor. We present a pilot study on the early diagnosis of LC by detecting markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC samples were collected from 105 patients with LC and 56 healthy controls. We applied chemiluminescence immunoassay to detect CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen and NSE (neuron specific enolase) in EBC and serum. Concentrations of markers were compared between independent groups and subgroups. A significantly higher concentration level of each marker was found in patients with LC than healthy controls. The areas under curve of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 0.800, 0.771, 0.659, 0.679, 0.636 and 0.626 for EBC-CEA, serum-CEA, EBC-SCC, serum-SCC, EBC-NSE and serum-NSE, respectively. Markers in EBC had a higher positive rate (PR) and were more specific to histologic types than markers in serum. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association of presenting markers with the stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EBC-CEA showed the best predictive characteristic (p tumor markers in EBC may have a better diagnostic performance for LC than those in serum. With further investigation on the combination of markers in EBC, detection of EBC could probably be a novel and non-invasive method to detect NSCLC earlier.

  20. Prediction of the impact of flow induced inhomogeneities in Self Compacting Concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Roussel, N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    SCC is nowadays a worldwide used construction material. However, heterogeneities induced by casting may lead to variations of local properties and hence to a potential decrease of the structure’s load carrying capacity. The heterogeneities in SCC are primarily caused by static and dynamic...

  1. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of various stainless steels in oxygenated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Masatsune; Kawamoto, Teruaki

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate new plant materials for their future applications to boiling water reactors (BWRs), the creviced bent beam SCC tests (CBB tests) were conducted on various sensitized stainless steels in oxygenated high temperature water. The results obtained are as follows. 1. Field SCC can be easily reproduced by the CBB test using the specimens taken from the 304 stainless steel pipe weld joints. 2. The SCC susceptibility of 18Cr-11Ni stainless steel in oxygenated high temperature water decreases markedly with the reduction of the carbon content. 3. The SCC susceptibility of low carbon stainless steels (304L, 316L) and stabilized stainless steels (321, 347) is significantly lower than that of the 304 and 316 stainless steels. 4. The addition of molybdenum causes the sensitization of stainless steels to delay at lower temperatures, improving the SCC resistance of the weld joints of BWR pipe materials. (auth.)

  2. Metazoan Scc4 homologs link sister chromatid cohesion to cell and axon migration guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad C Seitan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae Scc2 binds Scc4 to form an essential complex that loads cohesin onto chromosomes. The prevalence of Scc2 orthologs in eukaryotes emphasizes a conserved role in regulating sister chromatid cohesion, but homologs of Scc4 have not hitherto been identified outside certain fungi. Some metazoan orthologs of Scc2 were initially identified as developmental gene regulators, such as Drosophila Nipped-B, a regulator of cut and Ultrabithorax, and delangin, a protein mutant in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. We show that delangin and Nipped-B bind previously unstudied human and fly orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans MAU-2, a non-axis-specific guidance factor for migrating cells and axons. PSI-BLAST shows that Scc4 is evolutionarily related to metazoan MAU-2 sequences, with the greatest homology evident in a short N-terminal domain, and protein-protein interaction studies map the site of interaction between delangin and human MAU-2 to the N-terminal regions of both proteins. Short interfering RNA knockdown of human MAU-2 in HeLa cells resulted in precocious sister chromatid separation and in impaired loading of cohesin onto chromatin, indicating that it is functionally related to Scc4, and RNAi analyses show that MAU-2 regulates chromosome segregation in C. elegans embryos. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knock down Xenopus tropicalis delangin or MAU-2 in early embryos produced similar patterns of retarded growth and developmental defects. Our data show that sister chromatid cohesion in metazoans involves the formation of a complex similar to the Scc2-Scc4 interaction in the budding yeast. The very high degree of sequence conservation between Scc4 homologs in complex metazoans is consistent with increased selection pressure to conserve additional essential functions, such as regulation of cell and axon migration during development.

  3. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  4. Value and significance of tumor markers as CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199 and CYFRA21-1 in the diagnosis of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Juan Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value and significance of serum CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199 and CYFRA21-1 in the diagnosis of cervical cancer by comparing the detection of five serum markers. Methods: A total of 108 cases were divided into three groups, including 60 cervical cancerpatients and 20 cervical intraepithelial neoplasiain patients treated in our hospital from September 2015 to September 2016 and 28 healthy women. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect and compare the serum levels of CA125, CA199, CYFRA21-1 and ELISA method was used to detect and compare the serum levels of SCC-Ag, CEA. Results: (1 There was no statistically significant difference in the serum CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199, CYFRA21-1 levels between CIN group and control group. The serums CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199, CYFRA21-1 levels of cervical cancer patients were significantly higher than the other two groups. The differences were statistically significant. (2There were statistically significant differences in the serum CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199, CYFRA21-1 levels between different cervical pathological type groups.The serum CA125, CA199, CEA levels of cervical glandular cancer patients were significantly higher than the other two groups. The differences were statistically significant. The serum SCC-Ag, CYFRA21-1 levels of cervical squamous cancer patients were significantly higher than the other two groups. The differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The serums CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199, CYFRA21-1 levels of cervical cancer patients were significantly higher than cervical intraepithelial neoplasiain patients and healthy women. The serum CA125, CA199, CEA levels of cervical glandular cancer patients were significantly higher and the serum SCC-Ag, CYFRA21-1 levels of cervical squamous cancer patients were significantly higher. The five tumor markers can be used in diagnosis of cervical cancer and they are also worthy in distinguishing cervical pathological types.

  5. Serviceability and Prestress Loss Behavior of SCC Prestressed Concrete Girders Subjected to Increased Compressive Stresses at Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    There are limited measurements documented in the literature related to long-term prestress losses in self-consolidated concrete (SCC) members. Recorded test data has shown variations in mechanical property behavior of SCC compared to conventional HSC...

  6. Structure of the Pds5-Scc1 Complex and Implications for Cohesin Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle W. Muir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion is a fundamental prerequisite to faithful genome segregation. Cohesion is precisely regulated by accessory factors that modulate the stability with which the cohesin complex embraces chromosomes. One of these factors, Pds5, engages cohesin through Scc1 and is both a facilitator of cohesion, and, conversely also mediates the release of cohesin from chromatin. We present here the crystal structure of a complex between budding yeast Pds5 and Scc1, thus elucidating the molecular basis of Pds5 function. Pds5 forms an elongated HEAT repeat that binds to Scc1 via a conserved surface patch. We demonstrate that the integrity of the Pds5-Scc1 interface is indispensable for the recruitment of Pds5 to cohesin, and that its abrogation results in loss of sister chromatid cohesion and cell viability.

  7. Report D : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - creep, shrinkage and abrasion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete specimens were fabricated for shrinkage, creep, and abrasion resistance : testing. Variations of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and conventional concrete were : all tested. The results were compared to previous similar testing programs an...

  8. Report A : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - shear characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Because of its unique ability to maintain high flow-ability and remain homogeneous, : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) has the potential to significantly reduce the costs : associated with civil infrastructure; however, the use of higher paste and l...

  9. Report E : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - hardened mechanical properties and durability performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete is one of the most produced and utilized materials in the world. Due to : the labor intensive and time consuming nature of concrete construction, new and : innovative concrete mixes are being explored. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is on...

  10. Modelling realistic TiO2 nanospheres: A benchmark study of SCC-DFTB against hybrid DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Daniele; Fazio, Gianluca; Di Valentin, Cristiana

    2017-10-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are nowadays considered fundamental building blocks for many technological applications. Morphology is found to play a key role with spherical NPs presenting higher binding properties and chemical activity. From the experimental point of view, the characterization of these nano-objects is extremely complex, opening a large room for computational investigations. In this work, TiO2 spherical NPs of different sizes (from 300 to 4000 atoms) have been studied with a two-scale computational approach. Global optimization to obtain stable and equilibrated nanospheres was performed with a self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) simulated annealing process, causing a considerable atomic rearrangement within the nanospheres. Those SCC-DFTB relaxed structures have been then optimized at the DFT(B3LYP) level of theory. We present a systematic and comparative SCC-DFTB vs DFT(B3LYP) study of the structural properties, with particular emphasis on the surface-to-bulk sites ratio, coordination distribution of surface sites, and surface energy. From the electronic point of view, we compare HOMO-LUMO and Kohn-Sham gaps, total and projected density of states. Overall, the comparisons between DFTB and hybrid density functional theory show that DFTB provides a rather accurate geometrical and electronic description of these nanospheres of realistic size (up to a diameter of 4.4 nm) at an extremely reduced computational cost. This opens for new challenges in simulations of very large systems and more extended molecular dynamics.

  11. NSE, CEA and SCC - a useful combination of tumor markers in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, W.; Jany, B.

    1988-01-01

    The usefulness of neuronspecific enolase (NSE), CEA, and of the tumor associated antigen SSC was investigated in 61 patients with histologically proven lung cancer (small cell lung cancer n=25, adenocarcinoma n=14, squamous cell carcinoma n=18 and large cell carcinoma n=4). The sensitivity of NSE was 93.3% in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), whereas in adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma only 8 or 13%, resp., elevated serum NSE were found. CEA was the most sensitive marker for adenocarcinoma (58.3%). Contrary to NSE, however, CEA does not allow any conclusions concerning differential diagnosis as pathological serum concentrations were also observed in 46.6% both in small cell lung cancer and in squamous cell carcinoma. SCC demonstrated a sensitivity of 53% in squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated serum levels were also found in adenocarcinoma (41.6%), but never in small lung cancer. For all three markers tested, high serum concentrations were predominantly present in patients with advanced disease state. (orig.) [de

  12. Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Kruska, Karen; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2017-03-27

    Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for the 21% and 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 h, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400h exposure at constant stress intensity, which resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Interestingly, post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and will discuss their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

  13. Imiquimod induces apoptosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells via regulation of A20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Cheol Sohn

    Full Text Available Imiquimod, a nucleoside analogue of the imidazoquinoline family, is being used to treat various cutaneous cancers including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Imiquimod activates anti-tumor immunity via Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 in macrophage and other immune cells. Imiquimod can also affect tumor cells directly, regardless of its impact on immune system. In this study, we demonstrated that imiquimod induced apoptosis of SCC cells (SCC12 and A20 was involved in this process. When A20 was overexpressed, imiquimod-induced apoptosis was markedly inhibited. Conversely, knockdown of A20 potentiated imiquimod-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, A20 counteracted activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, suggesting that A20-regulated JNK activity was possible mechanism underlying imiquimod-induced apoptosis of SCC12 cells. Finally, imiquimod-induced apoptosis of SCC12 cells was taken place in a TLR7-independent manner. Our data provide new insight into the mechanism underlying imiquimod effect in cutaneous cancer treatment.

  14. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted and traditional caustic leaching of spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Yuan, Jie; Tian, Zhongliang; Yang, Kai; Yao, Zhen; Yu, Bailie; Zhang, Liuyun

    2018-01-01

    The spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis was subjected to caustic leaching to investigate the different effects of ultrasound-assisted and traditional methods on element fluorine (F) leaching rate and leaching residue carbon content. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissolved in deionized water was used as the reaction system. Through single-factor experiments and a comparison of two leaching techniques, the optimum F leaching rate and residue carbon content for ultrasound-assisted leaching process were obtained at a temperature of 70°C, residue time of 40min, initial mass ratio of alkali to SCC (initial alkali-to-material ratio) of 0.6, liquid-to-solid ratio of 10mL/g, and ultrasonic power of 400W, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the leaching residue carbon content was 94.72%, 2.19% larger than the carbon content of traditional leaching residue. Leaching wastewater was treated with calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and bleaching powder and the treated wastewater was recycled caustic solution. All in all, benefiting from advantage of the ultrasonication effects, ultrasound-assisted caustic leaching on spent cathode carbon had 55.6% shorter residue time than the traditional process with a higher impurity removal rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytotoxic Effect of the Genus Sinularia Extracts on Human SCC25 and HaCaT Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.H.; Chou, T.H.; Liang, C.H.; Lin, R.J.; Sheu, J.H.; Wang, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Soft corals of the genus Sinularia are being increasingly adopted to treat a wide variety of disease processes. However, the mechanism underlying its activity against human oral cancer cells is poorly understood. This study evaluates the cyototoxicity effects of the genus Sinularia extracts (S. grandilobata, S. parva, S. triangula, S. scabra, S. nanolobata and S. gibberosa) by SCC25 and HaCaT cells. The cell adhesion assay indicates that extracts reduce the cell attachment. Extracts exhibit a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect using MTS assay.Treatment of extracts to observe the morphological alterations in cells, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and apoptotic bodies is demonstrated. Flow cytometry shows that extracts sensitized the cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, suggesting cell death by apoptosis. Extracts of the genus Sinularia thus apparently cause apoptosis of SCC25 and HaCaT cells, and warrant further research investigating the possible antioral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  16. Application of tumor markers SCC-Ag, CEA, and TPA in patients with cervical precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Farah; Shahghassempour, Shapour; Noshine, Bahram; Arab, Maliheh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Rafizadeh, Mitra; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2014-01-01

    To determine the potential clinical utility of tumor markers CEA, TPA, and SCC-Ag for early detection of cervical precancerous lesions. A case-control study was carried out on 120 women (46 patients with histologically confirmed cervical precancerous lesions and 74 healthy controls). The significance of serum selected tumor markers in early detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were assessed. Of the case group, the rates of CIN I, II, III, was 69.6%, 23.9%, and 6.5%, respectively. According to the manufacturer's cut-off values of 2 ng/ml, 5 ng/ml, and 70 U/ml for SCC-Ag, CEA and TPA tests, in that order, SCC-Ag test had a sensitivity of 13%, but CEA and TPA tests could not distinguish between case and control groups. The diagnostic sensitivities were highest at cut-off values of 0.55 ng/ml for SCC-Ag, 2.6 ng/ ml for CEA, and 25.5 U/ml for TPA which were 93%, 61%, and 50%, respectively. However, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was the largest for SCC-Ag (0.95 vs. 0.61 and 0.60 for CEA and TPA, respectively). Moreover, there was a highly significant direct correlation between SCC-Ag concentration and the degree of cervical precancerous lesions (r=0.847, ptumor marker in Iranian patients with CIN and it needs to be more evaluated by studies with larger populationa.

  17. Genome sequence of the model plant pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum SCC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Outi; Laine, Pia; Koskinen, Patrik; Pasanen, Miia; Pennanen, Ville; Harjunpää, Heidi; Nykyri, Johanna; Holm, Liisa; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Palva, E Tapio; Pirhonen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Pectobacterium are economically important plant pathogens that cause soft rot disease on a wide variety of plant species. Here, we report the genome sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum strain SCC1, a Finnish soft rot model strain isolated from a diseased potato tuber in the early 1980's. The genome of strain SCC1 consists of one circular chromosome of 4,974,798 bp and one circular plasmid of 5524 bp. In total 4451 genes were predicted, of which 4349 are protein coding and 102 are RNA genes.

  18. Advanced Inspection and Repair Welding Techniques for SCC Countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.; Nishimoto, K.; Uchimoto, T.

    2012-01-01

    Feasibility studies of advanced inspection and repair welding techniques were conducted in the framework of the Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency of Japan (NISA) project on the enhancement of ageing management and maintenance of NPPs. In this paper, features of NDE methods investigated in the projects, main results of research activities and prospect of nickel based alloy weld inspection are discussed. We also make a review for the integrity and reliability evaluation techniques for repair welding of ageing plants which were intensively investigated in view of regulatory criteria, in NISA project. (author)

  19. Monitoring Conditions Leading to SCC/Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Fuel Grade Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    This is the draft final report of the project on field monitoring of conditions that lead to SCC in ethanol tanks and piping. The other two aspects of the consolidated program, ethanol batching and blending effects (WP#325) and source effects (WP#323...

  20. Durability Indicators Comparison for SCC and CC in Tropical Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Calado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC demands more studies of durability at higher temperatures when subjected to more aggressive environments in comparison to the conventional vibrated concrete (CC. This work aims at presenting results of durability indicators of SCC and CC, having the same water/binder relations and constituents. The applied methodologies were electrical resistivity, diffusion of chloride ions and accelerated carbonation experiments, among others, such as microstructure study, scanning electron microscope and microtomography experiments. The tests were performed in a research laboratory and at a construction site of the Pernambuco Arena. The obtained results shows that the SCC presents an average electrical resistivity 11.4% higher than CC; the average chloride ions diffusion was 63.3% of the CC; the average accelerated carbonation penetration was 45.8% of the CC; and the average open porosity was 55.6% of the CC. As the results demonstrated, the SCC can be more durable than CC, which contributes to elucidate the aspects related to its durability and consequent prolonged life cycle.

  1. A Preliminary Modified Volumetric Mix Design for Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC by Utilizing Asphalt Dust Waste (ADW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Isham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of asphalt roads has been commonly used as for infrastructure development since ancient times. The production of asphalt using drum mix plants has created powder waste in the premix batching plant industry. It consists of very fine powders and causesproblems to the environment today. However, powder waste can be successfully and economically utilized in the development of self-compacting concrete (SCC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fresh properties and the compressive strength of SCC containing asphalt dust waste (ADW. For this purpose, a simple modified volumetric mix design approach based on the Okumura Method was adapted to produce SCC mixes. In order to obtain this SCC, a series of SCC mixes with a specific water/binder ratio (0.3, superplasticizer ratio (2% as well as different amounts of aggregate, sand and ADW were prepared. Fresh properties of the SCC mix were tested using tests such as slump-flow, J-Ring, L-box and V-funnel which showed satisfactory results for MD840 and MD850. The compressive strength for MD840 and MD850 after 28 days was 40.8 MPa and 34.7 MPa respectively. In conclusion, the simple modified volumetric mix design method by utilizing ADW in SCC can be suggested for the development of SCC.

  2. High-strength self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) for infrastructure elements : implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Because of its unique nature, high-strength self-consolidating concrete (HS-SCC) has the potential to significantly reduce costs : associated with transportation-related infrastructure, benefiting both MoDOT and the residents of Missouri. HS-SCC is a...

  3. Finite difference simulation of ultrasonic NDE methods for the detection and sizing of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pörtzgen, N.; Volker, A.W.F.; Fingerhut, M.; Tomar, M.; Wassink, C.

    2006-01-01

    Although solutions for detection and sizing of longitudinal and circumferential cracks in pipeline walls exist, reliable detection and sizing of SCC in pipelines has been a challenge for Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) for many years. Detection and sizing are impeded by the fact that SCC can have

  4. Environmental mitigation for SCC initiation of BWR core internals by hydrogen injection during start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozaki, K.; Abe, A.; Nagata, N.; Takiguchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen injection into the reactor water has been applied to many BWR power stations. Since hydrogen injected accelerates recombination of oxidant generated by water radiolysis, oxidant concentration, such as dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water can be reduced. As the result of the reduction of oxidant concentration, Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) at the surface of structural material can be lowered. Lowered ECP moderates Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) sensitivity of structural materials, such as stainless steels. As usual, hydrogen injection system begins to work after the plant start-up is finished, when the condition of normal operation is established. Accordingly, Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) does not cover all the period of plant operation. As far as SCC crack growth is considered, loss of HWC during plant start-up does not result in significant crack growth, because of duration of plant start-up is much shorter than that of plant normal operation, when HWC condition is being satisfied. However, the reactor water environment and load conditions during a plant start-up may contribute to the initiation of SCC. It is estimated that the core internals are subjected to the strain rate that may cause susceptibility to SCC initiation during start-up. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) has a peak, and ECP is in high levels during start-up. Therefore it is beneficial to perform hydrogen injection during start-up as well in order to suppress SCC initiation. We call it HWC During Start-up (HDS) here. (orig.)

  5. Prevention of SCC occurring in an expansion transition region of steam generator tubing by Ni-plating in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Applicability of a nickel-plating technique was investigated for a possible proactive method to prevent stress corrosion cracking in the expansion transition region of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubing around the top of the tubesheet. The surface of steam generator tubes is plated with nickel in the region from the bottom ends of the U-tubes up to above the location where the tube is to be expanded, before the expansion process. The nickel-plated regions of the tubes are then inserted into the holes of the tube sheet and expanded to build up a steam generator. In order to verify the applicability and the effectiveness of the technique, mockup tests were performed for nickel-plated Alloy 600 HTMA tubes with hydraulic expansions. Integrity of the expanded nickel plating layers was examined and susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by using the C-ring and the slow strain rate tests in simulated pressurized water reactor environments. (author)

  6. Assessment of and proposal for a mechanistic interpretation of the SCC of high nickel alloys in lead-containing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The SCC of Alloys 600 and 690 in lead-containing solutions, 'lead stress corrosion cracking' (PbSCC) is quite aggressive on tubing in conditions of operation of steam generators (SG) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). Lead dissolved in water can produce PbSCC at concentrations of Pb as low as 0.1 ppm in these alloys. PbSCC is perhaps the most generally aggressive of the environmental species that occur in SGs. This discussion considers the occurrence of Pb in SGs and the PbSCC that can result. The dependencies of PbSCC on the variables of pH, potential, species, alloy composition, alloy structure, temperature and stress are reviewed. Also, important features of the mechanism of PbSCC are assessed. The most significant question related to PbSCC is why more is not occurring in view of the low thresholds for the PbSCC and the ubiquity of the Pb. While there are usually no common specific sources for Pb in most secondary systems, Pb concentrates on surfaces of tubing efficiently over long times. Regardless, it appears that extensive PbSCC does not occur because it is immobilized by forming stable compounds with other species such as sulfur, carbon, phosphorous and silica. Pb is also immobilized by forming stable adsorbed states with oxides such as magnetite and hematite. The possibility of releasing Pb to produce PbSCC increases as water chemistry produces more pure systems and as chemical cleaning is used. Contrary to the common assumption that PbSCC is TGSCC, that of Alloy 600MA is generally IGSCC; only the sensitized (SN), stress relieved (SR) and thermally treated (TT) conditions of Alloys 600 and 690 sustain TGSCC in Pb-containing solutions. In view of the prevailing IGSCC produced by Pb in MA materials, the possibility of all IGSCC in SGs being due to Pb should be considered where crevice environments are in the nominally neutral range. TGSCC that is observed in SGs can be produced by other, although not widely appreciated, environments. The mechanism of PbSCC

  7. SCC life estimation based on cracks initiated from the corrosion pits of bolting material SCM435 used in steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hitomi; Ochi, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Isao; Momoo, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Life estimation was performed for the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that occurs in deaerated and wet hot pure steam at the bottoms of the threads of bolts made of SCM435 (equivalent to AISI 4137) used in steam turbine. SCC is believed to occur when corrosion pits are formed and grow to critical size, after which SCC is initiated and cracks propagate until the critical fracture toughness value is reached. Calculations were performed using laboratory and field data. The results showed that, for a 40mm diameter bolt with 0.2% offset strength of 820MPa, the critical crack depth for straight-front cracks was 5.4mm. The SCC life depends on the lubricant used; the SCC life estimated from this value is approximately 70,000 hours when graphite is used as a lubricant. (author)

  8. A study on the Pb-SCC characteristics of Korean-made S/G tube materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I. G.; Lee, C. S. [Sunmoon Univ., Cheonan (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking(SCC) tests were performed using C-ring specimens for commercial and korean-made Alloys 600 and 690, in order to evaluate the SCC resistance in caustic environments with electrochemical potential of +125mV at 315 deg C for 480 hrs. Different cracking phenomenon was observed with NaOH concentrations. No SCC crack was observed in 4% and 50% NaOH solutions, while intergranular stress corrosion cracking(IGSCC) was found for commercial Alloy 600 MA in 10%, 20%, and 30% NaOH solutions. Caustic SCC was most severe in 30% NaOH solution. Interestingly, in 30% NaOH solution, transgranular stress corrosion cracking was detected from C690TT, contrary to the previous results. In case of two times duration(1,000 rs), transgranular stress corrosion cracking(TGSCC) was also detected. This crack nucleation stage of TGSCC has changed to the crack propagation stage of IGSCC in the longer immersion time of 3,000 hrs. SCC resistance of korean-made Alloy 690 TT was found out to be much superior to that of the other alloys. C-ring tests were also carried out to analyze the effect of Pb on SCC in 4% NaOH solution at 345 deg C with the variation of Pb concentration. It seemed that Pb-SCC occurred when Pb concentration was above at least 100 ppm. Pb-SCC resistance was increased with Cr concentration in alloy compositions. Korean-made materials were better than commercial materials for caustic SCC and Pb-SCC resistance. 54 refs., 28 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  9. Experimental Investigation of Shrinkage Strains for Elements of Self-Compacted Concrete (SCC)

    OpenAIRE

    , HE Sadiku; , DR Kryeziu; , RM Hadri

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is material which has wide usage in engineering especially in construction engineering and road infrastructure facilities. Development trends indicates for high rise constructions, modern skyscrapers that is impossible building of such constructions with conventional concretes and low consistency, therefore there is a need for concrete with high processes because of great amount of steel in cross section of concrete elements, solution for such construction is self-compacted concrete ...

  10. A Study on the Susceptibility to SCC of 7050 Aluminum Alloy by DCB Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Qi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The stress corrosion cracking (SCC of different aging states for 7050 aluminum alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride aqueous solution has been studied by means of double cantilever beam (DCB specimens, cathodic polarization, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and time-of-flying second ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS. The results showed that the susceptibility to SCC (Iscc of 7050 aluminum alloy decreases with increasing the aging time. When a cathodic polarization potential of −1100 mV was applied to DCB specimens, the ion current intensity of hydrogen (IH+ near the crack tip and Iscc increased obviously, thus the degree of the diffusion of hydrogen into the grain boundary become more serious. The observation of microstructure indicated that the precipitates on the grain boundary become coarse and are sparsely distributed with increasing the aging time of 7050 aluminum alloy.

  11. The Influence of Dissolved hydrogen on Nickel Alloy SCC: A Window to Fundamental Insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Morton; S.A. Attanasio; G.A. Young; P.L. Andresen; T.M. Angeliu

    2000-10-12

    Prior stress corrosion crack growth rate (SCCGR) testing of nickel alloys as a function of the aqueous hydrogen concentration (i.e., the concentration of hydrogen dissolved in the water) has identified different functionalities at 338 and 360 C. These SCCGR dependencies have been uniquely explained in terms of the stability of nickel oxide. The present work evaluates whether the influence of aqueous hydrogen concentration on SCCGR is fundamentally due to effects on hydrogen absorption and/or corrosion kinetics. Hydrogen permeation tests were conducted to measure hydrogen pickup in and transport through the metal. Repassivation tests were performed in an attempt to quantify the corrosion kinetics. The aqueous hydrogen concentration dependency of these fundamental parameters (hydrogen permeation, repassivation) has been used to qualitatively evaluate the film-rupture/oxidation (FRO) and hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC) SCC mechanisms. This paper discusses the conditions that must be imposed upon these mechanisms to describe the known nickel alloy SCCGR aqueous hydrogen concentration functionality. Specifically, the buildup of hydrogen within Alloy 600 (measured through permeability) does not exhibit the same functionality as SCC with respect to the aqueous hydrogen concentration. This result implies that if HAC is the dominant SCC mechanism, then corrosion at isolated active path regions (i.e., surface initiation sites or cracks) must be the source of localized elevated detrimental hydrogen. Repassivation tests showed little temperature sensitivity over the range of 204 to 360 C. This result implies that for either the FRO or the HAC mechanism, corrosion processes (e.g., at a crack tip, in the crack wake, or on surfaces external to the crack) cannot by themselves explain the strong temperature dependence of nickel alloy SCC.

  12. Influence of Recycled Concrete Dust on the Properties of Self– Compacting Concrete (SCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskas, Ernestas; Lazauskas, Mantas; Grigaliūnas, Paulius

    2017-01-01

    Concrete – composite material which economical effect mostly depends on the amount of binder material (usually cement), its type and fineness. Cement manufacturing generates great employment of energy resources. The demand for all kind of manufacturing natural resources are aimed to be reduced as much as possible. Alternative raw material resources are being introduced and tested together with increasing self-compacting concrete (SCC) popularity in Lithuania. Considering environmental require...

  13. Effect of Thermal Aging on SCC, Material Properties and Fracture Toughness of Stainless Steel Weld Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, T.; Ballinger, R. G.; Hanninen, H.; Saukkonen, T.

    An experimental program has been conducted in order to understand how the spinodal decomposition may affect material properties changes in Type 316L BWR pipe weld metals. The program includeed Charpy-V, tensile, SCC crack growth and in-situ fracture toughness testing as a function of aging time and temperature. In this paper we report results of fracture toughness, SCC crack growth rate and fracture morphology studies of Type 316L stainless steel weld metals under simulated BWR conditions, consisting of 288°C, high purity water containing 300 ppb dissolved oxygen (defined for purposes of this paper as "In-Situ"). SCC crack growth results show an approximately 2X increase in crack growth rate over that of the unaged material. In-situ fracture toughness measurements indicate that environmental exposure can result in a reduction of toughness by up to 40% over the corresponding at-temperature air values. Detailed analysis of the results strongly suggest that spinodal decomposition is responsible for the degradation in properties measured ex-environment. Analysis of the results also strongly suggests that the in-situ properties degradation is the result of hydrogen absorbed by the material during exposure to the high temperature aqueous environment.

  14. Asphalt dust waste material as a paste volume in developing sustainable self compacting concrete (SCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Isham; Shahidan, Shahiron; Bahari, Nur Amira Afiza Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures are usually designed to have high workability during the fresh state through the influence of higher volumes of paste in concrete mixtures. Asphalt dust waste (ADW) is one of disposed materials obtained during the production of asphalt premix. These fine powder wastes contribute to environmental problems today. However, these waste materials can be utilized in the development of sustainable and economical SCC. This paper focuses on the preliminary evaluations of the fresh properties and compressive strength of developed SCC for 7 and 28 days only. 144 cube samples from 24 mixtures with varying water binder ratios (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and ADW volume (0% to 100%) were prepared. MD940 and MD950 showed a satisfactory performance for the slump flow, J-Ring, L-Box and V-Funnel tests at fresh state. The compressive strength after 28 days for MD940 and MD950 was 36.9 MPa and 28.0 MPa respectively. In conclusion, the use of ADW as paste volume should be limited and a higher water binder ratio will significantly reduce the compressive strength.

  15. SLNB in cutaneous SCC: A review of the current state of literature and the direction for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadiat, Omeed; Higgins, Shauna; Sutton, Adam; Ly, Alexandre; Wysong, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    The concept of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been universally accepted for melanoma, however, remains controversial for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We performed a quantitative review on 260 cases of SCC that had a SLNB. The positivity rate was found to be 14.6%. Literature was qualitatively reviewed to determine whether a positive SLNB has any bearing on prognosis in SCC cases, finding a significant relationship between poor prognosis and a positive SLN (P = 0.0082). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of effectiveness of SCC prevention technologies after long term operation at the 'Fugen' Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Toyotaka; Abe, Teruyoshi; Nakamura, Takahisa; Myochin, Munetaka; Takagi, Hisatsugu

    2014-01-01

    Suffered SCC (stress corrosion cracking) at the primary cooling system in 1980, the 'Fugen' power station introduced the three preventive technologies immediately. After the upgrade of the plant, no SCC occurred during the operation period. We have inspected the actual structural materials of the 'Fugen' power station on its decommissioning stage to evaluate effectiveness of SCC management technologies, which are combining material replacement, induction heating stress improvement (IHSI) to reduce the welding residual tensile stress, and application of hydrogen addition to reduce oxygen in the water. No crack in the materials was found by metallurgical structure observation. Moreover, judging from the analysis of residual stress and the heat affected zone in the materials, the effectiveness of SCC management technologies was verified. (author)

  17. IGA/SCC propagation rate measurements on alloy 600 steam generator tubing using a side stream model boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, H.; Matsueda, K.; Matsunaga, T.; Kitera, T.; Arioka, K.; Tsuruta, T.; Okamoto, S.

    1993-01-01

    IGA/SCC crack propagation rate measurements using various types of IGA/SCC predefected ALloy 600 tubing were tested in model boilers, a side stream model boiler at Ohi Unit 1 and similar model boilers in the laboratory. Types of IGA/SCC predefects introduced from the outside of the tubing were as follows. (1) Actual IGA/SCC predefect introduced by high temperature caustic environments; (2) Longitudinal predefect by electrodischarge machining (EDM) method, and then crack tip fatigue was introduced to serve as the marker on the fractured surface (EDM slit + fatigue). IGA/SCC crack propagation rate was measured after the destructive examination by Cr concentration profile on fracture surface for (1), and observation of intergranular fractured surface propagated from the marked fatigue was employed for (2) and (3) after the model boiler tests. As for the water chemistry conditions, mainly AVT (high N 2 H 4 ) + boric acid (5-10ppm as B in SGs) treatment for both model boilers, and some of the tests for the model boiler in the laboratory employed AVT (high N 2 H 4 ) without boric acid. The results of IGA/SCC crack propagation rate measurements were compared with each other, and the three methods employed showed a good coincidence with the rate of ca. 1 x 10 -5 mm/Hr for AVT (high N 2 H 4 ) + boric acid treatment condition, in the case that crack tip boron intensity (B/O value by IMMA analysis) of more than 1 was observed

  18. Isoalantolactone inhibits UM-SCC-10A cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjun Wu

    Full Text Available Isoalantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the roots of Inula helenium L. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoalantolactone possesses antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic and anti-proliferative properties in a variety of cells, but there are no studies concerning its effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. In the present study, an MTT assay demonstrated that isoalantolactone has anti-proliferative activity against the HNSCC cell line (UM-SCC-10A. Immunostaining identified that this compound induced UM-SCC-10A cell apoptosis but not necrosis. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects, flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that the apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest during the G1 phase, up-regulation of p53 and p21, and down-regulation of cyclin D. Furthermore, our results revealed that induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway led to up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression (Bcl-2, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (Cyto c, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and activation of caspase-3 (Casp-3. Involvement of the caspase apoptosis pathway was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. Together, our findings suggest that isoalantolactone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and was associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in UM-SCC-10A cells. Therefore, isoalantolactone may become a potential drug for treating HNSCC.

  19. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-02

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments.

  20. Therapy-relevant aberrant expression of MRP3 and BCRP mRNA in TCC-/SCC-bladder cancer tissue of untreated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mona; Mostageer, Marwa; Rohde, Jan; Zaghloul, Ashraf; Knüchel-Clarke, Ruth; Saad, Shady; Attia, Deena; Mahran, Laila; Spahn-Langguth, Hilde

    2017-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a critical factor, which results in suboptimal outcomes in cancer chemotherapy. One principal mechanism of MDR is the increased expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Of these, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) confer MDR when overexpressed in cancer cell lines. We measured the mRNA expression of MRP3 and BCRP in primary untreated bladder cancer specimens using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in comparison to normal bladder tissue. The MRP3 and BCRP expression in the two major histotypes of bladder cancer; transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; urothelial type of bladder cancer) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 'Schistosoma-induced' bladder cancer) were compared. Furthermore, the association between MRP3 and BCRP expression and tumor grade and stage were investigated. MRP3 mRNA expression in bladder cancer specimens was increased ~13-fold on average compared to normal bladder tissue (n=36, PTCC showed significantly increased MRP3 mRNA expression compared to SCC of the bladder (PTCC and SCC of the bladder (P=0.1072). The increased MRP3 mRNA expression was not related to bladder tumor grade (P=0.3465) but was, however, significantly higher in superficial than in invasive bladder tumors (P=0.0173). The decreased expression of BCRP was not related to bladder tumor grade (P=0.1808) or stage (P=0.8016). The current data show that bladder cancer is associated with perturbed expression of MRP3 and BCRP. Representing drug resistance factors, determining the expression of these transporters in native tumors may be predictive of the outcome of chemotherapy based-treatment of bladder cancer.

  1. SCC präsentiert HPC- und Big-Data-Forschung in Leipzig

    OpenAIRE

    Kirner, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Das SCC nahm vom 23. - 25. Juni 2014 an der HPC-Ausstellung, welche im Rahmen der International Supercomputing Conference (ISC'14) in Leipzig stattfand, mit einem Messestand teil. Der Messestand zog durch mehrere Wanddrucke, eine PowerPoint Präsentation auf zwei Großbildschirmen und Tassen im modischen KITDesign mehrere hundert Besucher an. Besonderes Interesse erweckte unser Exponat, das Prototyp-Panel des CMS-Detektors am Large Hadron Collider (LHC) des CERN (Genf), eine der Hauptquellen fü...

  2. Assessing SCC and IASCC of austenitic alloys for application to the SCWR concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teysseyre, S.; Was, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    From the standpoint of environmental degradation of material, the selection of alloys for use as structural material in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) must include assessment of the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the alloys in supercritical water. Moreover, as experience in current reactors showed that irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a. major concern, a comprehensive study must include the assessment of the effect of irradiation on SCC in supercritical water. Therefore, such selection faces multiple obstacles. The first is the lack of data on the corrosion and SCC susceptibility of the candidate alloys in this environment. There is a need to produce basic data using complementary experimental techniques. The second is the difficulty to obtain material irradiated in conditions relevant for SCWR. Availability of such material is needed to determine the influence of irradiation and its influence on SCC. Techniques such as proton irradiation are appealing surrogates for neutron irradiation in assessing its effect of stress corrosion cracking initiation, and can be used for screening of various material and environmental conditions. However, neutron irradiation is required to confirm the role of in-core irradiation on crack growth and in performing final verification of the effect of alternative irradiation on candidate alloys. Another obstacle would be the lack of facilities for testing materials in the unirradiated and irradiated state in supercritical water. The University of Michigan has developed a comprehensive programme to assess the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic alloys in supercritical water in unirradiated, proton-irradiated and neutron-irradiated state. The cracking susceptibility of unirradiated alloys has been evaluated by a set of constant extension rate tensile, CERT, experiments and by determination of the crack propagation rate by DCPD technique under constant K

  3. SCC500: next-generation infrared imaging camera core products with highly flexible architecture for unique camera designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Roy N.; Grealish, Kevin; Kacir, Tom; Arsenault, Barry; Murphy, Robert H.; Miller, Scott

    2003-09-01

    A new 4th generation MicroIR architecture is introduced as the latest in the highly successful Standard Camera Core (SCC) series by BAE SYSTEMS to offer an infrared imaging engine with greatly reduced size, weight, power, and cost. The advanced SCC500 architecture provides great flexibility in configuration to include multiple resolutions, an industry standard Real Time Operating System (RTOS) for customer specific software application plug-ins, and a highly modular construction for unique physical and interface options. These microbolometer based camera cores offer outstanding and reliable performance over an extended operating temperature range to meet the demanding requirements of real-world environments. A highly integrated lens and shutter is included in the new SCC500 product enabling easy, drop-in camera designs for quick time-to-market product introductions.

  4. Overexpression of c-met in oral SCC promotes hepatocyte growth factor-induced disruption of cadherin junctions and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, M; Shen, X; Huang, L; Carpenter, W M; Lin, C S; Silverman, S; Regezi, J; Kramer, R H

    2004-10-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the ligand for the c-met proto-oncogene product, is a multifunctional protein that enhances tumor cell motility, extracellular matrix invasion, and mitogenic or morphogenic activities of various cell types. In this study we examined the expression of the c-Met receptor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in vivo and in vitro to explore its relationship to tumor progression and invasiveness. Biopsy specimens of human oral SCC were immunohistochemically stained for c-Met. Nearly all primary oral SCC lesions and lymph node metastases consistently showed intense staining for c-Met, whereas normal oral mucosa showed faint to negative staining only on basal cells. In a panel of human oral SCC cell lines, we found a strong correlation between the levels of c-Met expression and the cells' response to HGF in motility and invasion assays. Sensitivity to HGF also correlated with the expression of the c-Met 9-kb mRNA. When the non-invasive HOC-605 cell line, which expresses a low level of c-Met receptor, was transfected with an expression plasmid containing human c-met cDNA, the transfectant cells showed motile and invasive responses to HGF. Immunostaining and immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that E-cadherin and c-Met were physically associated at SCC cell-cell junctions, suggesting a direct role for c-Met in induction of junctional integrity. Importantly, HGF caused a rapid elevation of unbound beta-catenin, suggesting its availability for nuclear signal transduction and triggering of cell motility and invasiveness. Thus, overexpression of c-Met may facilitate disruption of E-cadherin junctions. Collectively, these results suggest that HGF/c-Met signaling is a common event in oral SCC that may trigger phenotype modulation and enhanced invasion and metastasis.

  5. Mechanical and corrosion properties of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 related to primary side SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, J.A.; Jacko, R.J.; Gold, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The two-fold objective of the program is to provide the mechanical property data required for the development of a strain rate damage model for environmentally assisted cracking of Inconel 600 and to evaluate critical damage model parameters in primary water environments by conducting a series of stress corrosion tests. The test program includes mechanical property tests at 20 0 C, 316 0 C and strain rate tests to determine critical strain rate SCC parameters in primary water environments. Data are presented from slow strain rate tensile tests, stress relaxation tests and creep tests. A short discussion of the Gerber-Garud Strain Rate Damage Model is included to provide the background rationale for the test program. Utilitarian aspects of the Strain Rate Damage Model and the test program data are presented. Analysis of accelerated stress corrosion testing at high temperatures, and the contribution of thermally activated inelastic deformation to apparent activation energies for stress corrosion cracking is emphasized

  6. The behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Whardani, Putri Nurul Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) has the ability to flow and self-compacting. One of the benefit of SCC can reduced the construction time and labor cost. The materials to be used for see slightly different with the conventional concrete. Less coarse aggregate to be used up to 50%. The maximum size of coarse aggregate was also limited e.g. 10 mm. Other material was quartz sand with grain size of 50-650 µm. For reducing the around of cement, bagasse ash was used as partial replacement of cement. In this research, the variations of w/c to be used, e.g. 0.275, 0.300, 0.325 and the percentage of bagasse ash substitution were 10%, 15%, and 20%. EFNARC standard was conducted for slump flow test following the V-funnel test and L-box shape test. The maximum value of slump flow test was 75.75 cm, V-funnel test was 4.95 second, and L-box test was 1.000 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 0% of bagasse ash. The minimum value of slump flow test was 61.50 cm, V-funnel test is 21.05 second, and L-box test was 0.743 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 20% of bagasse ash. The maximum value of compressive strength was 67.239 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 15% of bagasse ash. And the minimum value of compressive strength was 41.813 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 20% bagasse ash.

  7. Effect of cold work and processing orientation on the SCC behavior of Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshier, W.C.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Cold work accelerates SCC growth rates in Alloy 600. However, the variation in crack growth rates generated from cold worker material has been significant, and the effect has been difficult to quantify. A study was performed in hydrogenated water adjusted to pH 10.2 to systematically evaluate the effect of cold work on Alloy 600 as a function of temperature, amount of cold work, stress intensity factor, and processing orientation. Cold work was introduced into the material by either tensile prestraining or cold rolling plate product. Crack growth rates were determined between 252 and 360 C, stress intensity factors between 21 and 55 MPa√m, and yield strengths between 201 and 827 MPa. The material with the highest yield strength was cold rolled and tested in the longitudinal-transverse (LT) and short-transverse (ST) orientations. Crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature, stress intensity factor, and yield strength. Furthermore, crack growth rates were a strong function of the processing orientation in the cold rolled plate, with growth rates being approximately an order of magnitude greater in the ST orientation compared to the LT orientation. Crack growth rates in the LT orientation were measured between 0.003 and 1.95 x 10 -9 m/s and between 0.066 and 6.3 x 10 -9 m/s in the ST orientation. Activation energies were slightly greater in the ST orientation, ranging from 154 to 191 kcal/mole, compared to activation energies between 126 and 157 kJ/mole in the LT orientation. The results of this study demonstrate that although cold work can be used to accelerate SCC, the orientation of crack growth can significantly affect the results, and must be taken into account when analyzing data from cold worked material

  8. Inkjet Printed Fully-Passive Body-Worn Wireless Sensors for Smart and Connected Community (SCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir I. Morshed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Future Smart and Connected Communities (SCC will utilize distributed sensors and embedded computing to seamlessly generate meaningful data that can assist individuals, communities, and society with interlocking physical, social, behavioral, economic, and infrastructural interaction. SCC will require newer technologies for seamless and unobtrusive sensing and computation in natural settings. This work presents a new technology for health monitoring with low-cost body-worn disposable fully passive electronic sensors, along with a scanner, smartphone app, and web-server for a complete smart sensor system framework. The novel wireless resistive analog passive (WRAP sensors are printed using an inkjet printing (IJP technique on paper with silver inks (Novacentrix Ag B40, sheet resistance of 21 mΩ/sq and incorporate a few discrete surface mounted electronic components (overall thickness of <1 mm. These zero-power flexible sensors are powered through a wireless inductive link from a low-power scanner (500 mW during scanning burst of 100 ms by amplitude modulation at the carrier signal of 13.56 MHz. While development of various WRAP sensors is ongoing, this paper describes development of a WRAP temperature sensor in detail as an illustration. The prototypes were functionally verified at various temperatures with energy consumption of as low as 50 mJ per scan. The data is analyzed with a smartphone app that computes severity (Events-of-Interest, or EoI using a real-time algorithm. The severity can then be anonymously shared with a custom web-server, and visualized either in temporal or spatial domains. This research aims to reduce ER visits of patients by enabling self-monitoring, thereby improving community health for SSC.

  9. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) for infrastructure elements: implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Myers, John J.: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5269-8218 : Because of its unique nature, self-consolidating concrete (SCC) has the potential to significantly reduce costs associated with transportation-related infrastructure, benefiting both MoDOT and th...

  10. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25 Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Dziedzic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH, taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue. Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid.

  11. No high-risk HPV detected in SCC of the oral tongue in the absolute absence of tobacco and alcohol--a case study of seven patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, T.J.H.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Slootweg, P.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Cleef, P. van; Wilde, P.C.M. de

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the mobile tongue in the absence of tobacco and alcohol. The literature suggests that human papilloma virus (HPV) may be involved in the development of SCC of the head and neck,

  12. SCC analysis of Alloy 600 tubes from a retired steam generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2013-09-01

    Steam generators (SG) equipped with Alloy 600 tubes of a Korean nuclear power plants were replaced with a new one having Alloy 690 tubes in 1998 after 20 years of operation. To set up a guide line for an examination of the other SG tubes, a metallographic examination of the defected tubes was carried out. A destructive analysis on 71 tubes was addressed, and a relation among the stress corrosion crack (SCC) defect location, defect depth, and location of the sludge pile was obtained. Tubes extracted from the retired SG were transferred to a hot laboratory. Detailed nondestructive analysis examinations were taken again at the laboratory, and the tubes were then destructively examined. The types and sizes of the cracks were characterized. The location and depth of the SCC were evaluated in terms of the location and height of the sludge. Most axial cracks were in the sludge pile, whereas the circumferential ones were around the top of the tube sheet (TTS) or below the TTS. Average defect depth of the axial cracks was deeper than that of the circumferential ones. Axial cracks at tube support plate (TSP) seem to be related with corrosion/sludge in crevice like at the TTS region. Circumferential cracks at TSP seem to be caused by tube denting at the upper part of the TSP. Tubes not having clear ECT signals for quantifying an ECT data-base. Tubes having no ECT signal. Tubes with a large ECT signal. Tubes with various types and sizes of flaws (primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), outside diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC), Pit). Tubes with distinct PWSCC or ODSCC. Tubes were extracted from the RSG based on the field ECT with the criteria, and transferred to a hot laboratory at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for destructive examination. A comprehensive ECT inspection was performed again at the hot laboratory to confirm the location of the cracks obtained from a field inspection. These exact locations of the defects were marked on the

  13. SRNL SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SCC STUDIES AT ROOM TEMPERTURE [stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

    2014-11-12

    Phase II, Series 2 corrosion testing performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Energy 3013 container has been completed. The corrosion tests are part of an integrated plan conducted jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Savannah River Site. SRNL was responsible for conducting corrosion studies in small-scale vessels to address the influence of salt composition, water loading, and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and on the resulting corrosion of Type 304L and 316L stainless steel (304L and 316L). This testing was conducted in two phases: Phase I evaluated a broad spectrum of salt compositions and initial water loadings on the salt mixtures exposed to 304L and 316L and the resulting corrosion; Phase II evaluated the corrosion of 304L at specific water loadings and a single salt composition. During Phase I testing at high initial moisture levels (0.35 to 1.24 wt%)a, the roomtemperature corrosion of 304L exposed to a series of plutonium oxide/chloride salt mixtures ranged from superficial staining to pitting and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). 304L teardrop coupons that exhibited SCC were directly exposed to a mixture composed of 98 wt % PuO2, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl2. Cracking was not observed in a 316L teardrop coupon. Pitting was also observed in this environment for both 304L and 316L with depths ranging from 20 to 100 μm. Neither pitting nor SCC was observed in mixtures with a greater chloride salt concentration (5 and 28 wt%). These results demonstrated that for a corrosive solution to form a balance existed between the water loading and the salt chloride concentration. This chloride solution results from the interaction of loaded water with the hydrating CaCl2 salt. In Phase II, Series 1 tests, the SCC results were shown to be reproducible with cracking occurring in as little as 85 days. The approximate 0.5 wt% moisture level was found to

  14. Arrest of SCC, fatigue and hydrogen assisted cracks, and make harmless the cracks by overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji; Sano, Hayato; Hashikura, Yasuaki; Mizukami, Hiroshi; Ando, Kotoji; Houjyou, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative method for arresting SCC, fatigue and hydrogen assisted cracks, and making harmless the cracks by overloads. By overloading, compressive residual stress is introduced ahead of the crack. The residual stress reduces K values and arrests the crack. By the method, K ISCC , K IHE and ΔK th increase with increasing K ov (K value by overload) and the notional threshold values were given by the equation: N K ISCC , N K IHE and Δ N K th =C + DK ov . Where C is K ISCC , K IHE and ΔK th (in the case of stress ratio is negative), respectively. Proportional constant D is about 0.27 - 0.3. Experimental results showed that D showed good agreement with theoretical values. However, in the case of fatigue D depends on stress ratio and it decrease with increasing stress ratio. If the national threshold value ( N K ISCC , N K IHE and Δ N K th ) are enough larger than applied K or ΔK values, crack is able to be arrested and can be made harmless. (author)

  15. The influence of Incoloy-800 alloy microstructure upon SCC behaviour in the medium of primary circuit of the steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulger, M.; Lucan, D.; Radulescu, M.; Velciu, L.; Demetrescu, I.

    2001-01-01

    Stress cracking corrosion (SCC) in steam generator tubing is one of the major degrading processes appearing from simultaneous mechanical stress and environmental chemical aggression. It can affect the Incoloy-800 tubing in both primary and secondary circuits. The objective of this work was the analysis of behaviour to SCC of the micro structurally modified Incoloy-800 alloy (the material of the steam generator tubing) in hydrogen environment. The microstructural modification of the alloy was achieved by heat treatment in the temperature range 400 deg.C - 800 deg.C, specific to the grain limit of carbide precipitation. Subsequently to heat treatment, occurrence of precipitated carbides is accompanied by occurrence of Cr depleted areas which results in alloy sensitizing. These areas were evidenced by means of potential-dynamical reactivation method. Heat treatment of the samples tested for corrosion is described as well as the intrinsic effect of hydrogen upon Incoloy-800 samples. Incipient intergranular and even intragranular cracks were observed in the stressed and heat treated samples. Occurrence of cracks after 72 h is explained as due to the cathodic polarisation which concentrates the reaction of hydrogen release on alloy in areas with film damages and maximal stresses. The content of absorbed H 2 was calculated by means of the electric charge determined by coulometric method in which the samples electrolytically hydrogenated were anodically polarized. The degree of hydrogen embrittlement of samples was determined by comparing the content of hydrogen absorbed by hydrogenated thermo-mechanically treated samples with that of the hydrogen absorbed by heat treated unstressed hydrogenated samples and with the content of hydrogen absorbed in the samples for delivery. In conclusion, the microstructurally modified alloy by heat treatment at 700 deg.C for 1 hour (sensitized) is more susceptible to SCC in primary circuit in the presence of hydrogen while material

  16. The Low-Lying Electronic States of Scandium Monocarbide, ScC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiao-Wei; Merer, Anthony; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2017-06-01

    Extensive wavelength-resolved fluorescence studies have been carried out for the electronic bands of ScC and Sc{}^{13}C lying in the range 14000 - 16000 cm^{-1}. Taken together with detailed rotational analyses of these bands, these studies have clarified the natures of the low-lying electronic states. The ground state is an Ω = 3/2 state, with a vibrational frequency of 648 cm^{-1}, and the first excited electronic state is an Ω = 5/2 state, with a frequency of 712 cm^{-1}, lying 155.54 cm^{-1} higher. These states are assigned as the lowest spin-orbit components of X^2Π_i and a^4Π_i, respectively. The quartet nature of the a state is confirmed by the observation of the ^4Π_{3/2} component, 18.71 cm^{-1} above the ^4Π_{5/2} component. The strongest bands in the region studied are two ^4Δ_{7/2} - ^4Π_{5/2} transitions, where the upper states lie 14355 and 15445 cm^{-1} above X^2Π_{3/2}. Extensive doublet-quartet mixing occurs, which results in some complicated emission patterns. The energy order, a^4Π above X^2Π, is consistent with the ab initio calculations of Kalemos et al., but differs from that found by Simard et al in the isoelectronic YC molecule. A. Kalemos, A. Mavridis and J.F. Harrison, J. Phys. Chem. A155, 755 (2001). B. Simard, P.A. Hackett and W.J. Balfour, Chem. Phys. Lett., 230, 103 (1994).

  17. Recurrence of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ileum diagnosed by elevation of serum SCC: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Kazuhiro; Kamii, Naoki; Kawanishi, Norio; Okada, Tadao; Todo, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the intestine is extremely rare. This report describes a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the small intestine. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital because of a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. She underwent laparotomy owing to the diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction due to a pelvic mass after conservative treatment. The affected ileum was resected, and histopathological examination revealed proliferation of differentiated squamous cell carcinoma at the submucosal area with no adenocarcinoma component. At the 4th month after the operation, the level of serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen was elevated. At 6 months after the operation, the serum SCC value was further elevated, and enhanced CT revealed two new pelvic tumors with enhancement at the mesentery and free space. A second laparotomy was performed 8 months after the operation. Histopathological examination showed differentiated squamous cell carcinoma as in the first operation. The level of serum SCC decreased at the 28th postoperative day. Chemotherapy including carboplatin and paclitaxel was performed as an adjuvant regimen. The patient has experienced no recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma for 55 months.

  18. The effect of w/c ratio on microstructure of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Victor, Amalina, Khoirunnisa Nur

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a concrete that can flow and compact by itself without vibrator. The ability of SCC to flow by itself makes this concrete very suitable for construction that has very small reinforcement gaps. In this study, SCC was designed to get a compressive strength above 60 MPa at the age of 28 days. Sugarcane bagasse ash was used as substitution material for cement replacement. Percentages of sugarcane bagasse ash used were 10%, 15%, and 20%. There were three w/c values that vary from 0.275, 0.300, and 0.325. Testing standards referred to ASTM, EFNARC and ACI. The fresh concrete test was slump flow, L-box and V-funnel. The maximum compressive strength was in the mixture with the sugarcane bagasse ash composition of 15% and w/c=0.275 which was 67.24 MPa. The result of SEM test analysis found that the mixture composition with 15% sugarcane bagasse ash has solid CSH structure, small amount of pores, and smaller pore diameter than other mixtures.

  19. Characteristics of Aerococcus viridans isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk SCC, yield, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Shiyao; Khan, Saeed U; Fanning, Séamus; Han, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow. One-year sampling for subclinical mastitis composite milk was conducted based on monthly DHI data from September 2013 to August 2014, in a commercial herd located in Beijing, China. All samples were cultured and pathogens were identified using microbiology method. A. viridians isolates were further identified by API identification system and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing method. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to test the antibiotic resistance of A. viridians against kinds of antimicrobial substance. SCC, milk yield, and milk composition data were from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) results. Results showed that a total of 279 (16.67%) A. viridans isolates were identified from among 1674 bacterial isolates cultured from milk samples with high SCC. The incidence of mastitis caused by A. viridans was the highest (48-53%) during the summer season. Majority of the isolates were susceptible to most of antimicrobial compounds tested, especially to β-lactams, but were found to be resistant (50-90%) to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. The average SCC of the A. viridans infected cows was significantly higher (1000.0 × 10 3  cells/mL) (P  0.05) by 1.86 kg/day. Reductions were also observed in fat content (P > 0.05), lactose (P  0.05), whereas protein content increased significantly (P bovine subclinical mastitis wherein it exerts an effect on SCC, milk yield, and composition.

  20. EPRI-NASA Cooperative Project on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Zircaloys. [nuclear fuel failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubicciotti, D.; Jones, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Examinations of the inside surface of irradiated fuel cladding from two reactors show the Zircaloy cladding is exposed to a number of aggressive substances, among them iodine, cadmium, and iron-contaminated cesium. Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of well characterized samples of Zircaloy sheet and tubing was studied. Results indicate that a threshold stress must be exceeded for iodine SCC to occur. The existence of a threshold stress indicates that crack formation probably is the key step in iodine SCC. Investigation of the crack formation process showed that the cracks responsible for SCC failure nucleated at locations in the metal surface that contained higher than average concentrations of alloying elements and impurities. A four-stage model of iodine SCC is proposed based on the experimental results and the relevance of the observations to pellet cladding interaction failures is discussed.

  1. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels in Fuel Grade Ethanol and Blends - Study to Evaluate Alternate Standard Tests and Phenomenological Understanding of SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Main aim of this project was to evaluate alternate standard test methods for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and compare them with the results from slow strain rate test (SSRT) results under equivalent environmental conditions. Other important aim of...

  2. Improvement of the SCC resistance of FCC alloys: influence of pre-fatigue on the SCC resistance of the austenitic stainless steel-316L in a MgCl2 boiling solution at 117 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiere, I. de

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of pre-fatigue of FCC materials on their mechanical and electrochemical response to better understand and delay the SCC damage. The material/environment couple tested is the 316L polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel in boiling MgCl 2 at 30% mass. Samples are pre-strained in low cycle fatigue under plastic strain control, with a p/2 value of 0.4%, for various number of cycles (25%, 75% and at the number of cycles to reach saturation during pre-fatigue). It was found that only pre-fatigue at saturation improves the SCC resistance of the material, both on SSRT and constant load tests. A delayed crack initiation up to 10% of strain. which increases strain to failure by half. mostly accounts for this beneficial effect, during SSRT tests. Furthermore, other pre-straining only resulted in loss of strain to fracture and no delay in crack initiation. We related the crack initiation delay to the surface strain state due to pre-fatigue. It provides fine parallel slip bands. homogeneously located at the surface of the samples. This surface state induces an increasing anodic surface-cathodic surface ratio which lowers the kinetics of localised corrosion. thus that of crack initiation. We also show some experiments implying that pre-fatigue at saturation decreases the SCC crack growth velocity which can be understood through the CEP (Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity) Model. We also show that this beneficial effect is probably available on other fcc material/environment couples, such as OFHC Cu/ 1 M NaNO 2 at pH 9. (author)

  3. An additional electrostatic interaction between adrenodoxin and P450c27 (CYP27A1) results in tighter binding than between adrenodoxin and p450scc (CYP11A1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuleva, I A; Cao, C; Waterman, M R

    1999-01-22

    Mitochondrial cytochrome P450c27 (product of the CYP27A1 gene) is found to have significantly higher affinity for the common redox partner adrenodoxin than another mitochondrial P450, P450scc (product of the CYP11A1 gene). To investigate the basis of the approximately 30-fold difference in adrenodoxin binding, two sets of P450c27 mutants were generated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Mutations of one set were within the putative adrenodoxin-binding site containing conserved lysine residues also crucial in P450scc for binding adrenodoxin. The second set included mutations within a sequence aligning with the "meander region" of P450BM-3 proposed to be a site of redox-partner interactions in P450s (Hasemann, C. A., Kurumbail, R. G., Boddupalli, S. S., Peterson, J. A., and Deisenhofer, J. (1995) Structure 3, 41-62). Mutation of the P450c27 conserved lysines (K354A and K358A) led to a approximately 20-fold increase in apparent Ks for adrenodoxin, confirming that these two positively charged residues conserved in mitochondrial P450s are important for adrenodoxin binding. Mutation of Arg-418, conserved in the CYP27A1 family, to serine also decreased the affinity for adrenodoxin approximately 20-fold. This residue is predicted to be located in the meander region. A triple K354A/K358A/R418S mutation profoundly reduced adrenodoxin binding. Thus, in contrast to P450scc, where mutation of the two conserved positively charged residues results in virtually complete inhibition of adrenodoxin binding, in P450c27 there are three of such residues (Lys-354, Lys-358, and Arg-418) important for adrenodoxin interaction.

  4. Illuminating the pathway for the next generation of cardiovascular medicine practitioners and researchers: Highlights of the Joint PASCAR-SCC clinical symposium on hypertension and heart failure, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanda, Martin H; Dzudie, Anastase; Hamadou, Ba; Monkam, Yves; Luma, Henry; Douala, Marie Solange; Nganhyim, Loryane; Dzekem, Bonaventure S; Nana, Theophile N; Nel, George; Mocumbi, Ana O; Stewart, Simon; Sliwa, Karen; Priso, Eugene Belley

    The Pan-African Society of Cardiology roadmap aims to achieve a 25% control of hypertension by the year 2025. Whether this is attainable or not depends largely on the capacity of healthcare providers and policy makers to address the rising prevalence of hypertension and its complications, including heart failure. Task sharing is fundamental in optimising hypertension control. The Clinical Research Education, Networking and Consultancy (CRENC) engaged with the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) and the Cameroon Cardiac Society (SCC) in a joint hypertension and heart failure symposium at the Douala General Hospital in 2016. The primary aims were to foster clinical research in cardiovascular medicine by raising awareness on cardiovascular diseases, to provide evidence-based training of an international standard, to encourage the conduction and dissemination of high-quality research, and to build programmes for continuing medical education. The secondary aim was to potentiate the 2nd Douala Research and Scientific Days. The symposium, which featured didactic lectures interspaced with oral/poster abstract presentations and a clinical visit, culminated in the launching of the book Heart of Africa, and the Young Investigator award. It is hoped that these served to capacitate existing cardiovascular structures, breed the next generation of cardiovascular physicians and researchers, and imprint a trail of clinical research excellence to be emulated in Cameroon and beyond.

  5. SCC and Corrosion Fatigue characterization of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a corrosive environment – experiments and numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baragetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a review of the complete characterization in different aggressive media of a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, performed by the Structural Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Bergamo, is presented. The light alloy has been investigated in terms of corrosion fatigue, by axial fatigue testing (R = 0.1 of smooth and notched flat dogbone specimens in laboratory air, 3.5% wt. NaCl–water mixture and methanol–water mixture at different concentrations. The first corrosive medium reproduced a marine environment, while the latter was used as a reference aggressive environment. Results showed that a certain corrosion fatigue resistance is found in a salt water medium, while the methanol environment caused a significant drop – from 23% to 55% in terms of limiting stress reduction – of the fatigue resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, even for a solution containing 5% of methanol. A Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC experimental campaign at different methanol concentrations has been conducted over slightly notched dog-bone specimens (Kt = 1.18, to characterize the corrosion resistance of the alloy under quasi-static load conditions. Finally, crack propagation models have been implemented to predict the crack propagation rates for smooth specimens, by using Paris, Walker and Kato-Deng-Inoue-Takatsu propagation formulae. The different outcomes from the forecasting numerical models were compared with experimental results, proposing modeling procedures for the numerical simulation of fatigue behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  6. The Effect of Adding PET (Polyethylen Terephthalate) Plastic Waste on SCC (Self-Compacting Concrete) to Fresh Concrete Behavior and Mechanical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswatama W, K.; Suyoso, H.; Meyfa U, N.; Tedy, P.

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect PET waste plastics on SCC then PET plastic waste content for SCC is made into 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; and 10%. As reference concrete is made SCC with 0% PET level. The results on all fresh concrete test items indicate that for all PET waste levels made are meeting the criteria as SCC. The effect of adding PET to fresh concrete behavior on all test items shows that the filling ability and passing ability of concrete work increases with increasing of PET. However, the increase in PET will decrease its mechanical properties. The result of heat test shows that the mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength, splitting, and elastic modulus) after heating at 250°C temperature has not changed, while at 600°C has significant capacity decline. To clarify the differences between SCC before and after heating, microstructure analysis was done in the form of photo magnification of specimen using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope).

  7. Liderazgo de una empresa familiar que influye en el clima laboral de los trabajadores de la empresa SEDEMI S.C.C

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Valenzuela, Darwin Fausto

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo detalla el estudio del liderazgo y su influencia en el clima organizacional de los trabajadores de la empresa familiar Sedemi S.C.C., con la fin de proponer opciones de mejora, que coadyuven al directorio de la empresa, para fomentar un ambiente laboral agradable y motivador para sus empleados, y de esta manera incrementar su desempeño laboral. La investigación se realizó en la empresa SEDEMI S.C.C. La población objetivo está conformada por los empleados administrativos y ...

  8. Prophylactic dissection of level V in primary mucosal SCC in the clinically N positive neck: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Timothy; Kerr, Stephen J; Giddings, Charles E B

    2017-09-01

    To review the evidence for level V dissection in the management of previously untreated mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck presenting with nodal metastasis when level V is clinically uninvolved. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were used to conduct a systematic review of the current literature, including all English language articles published after 1990. A literature search was performed on November 29, 2015, of Medline, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library. The search yielded a total of 270 papers. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, leaving 20 eligible papers. Overall prevalence was calculated using random effect meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of level V occult disease in the node (N)-positive neck, irrespective of subsite, was 2.56% (95% confidence interval 1.29-3.84) (2,368 patients and 2,533 necks). The prevalence of occult level V metastasis was up to 7.7% for oral cavity and 8.3% for oropharyngeal tumors. Five studies reported regional recurrence rates over variable time periods. There is exceedingly limited data on outcomes, such as spinal accessory nerve function, quality of life, and perioperative complications. Mucosal head and neck SCC presenting with nodal metastasis but with level V clinically uninvolved has a low prevalence of occult level V disease. Routine dissection of level V does not appear to be warranted; however, a definitive conclusion is unable to be drawn due to limited data on morbidity and oncological outcomes. Laryngoscope, 127:2074-2080, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Use of fracture mechanical methods for the investigation of ambient impacts on crack propagation under constantly increased strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, W.

    1991-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of three metallic materials was investigated using both, linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methodologies. By comparison of the experimental results with existing models for the relationship between deformation rate and crack growth velocity additional information pertaining to the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking in the corrosion systems investigated was obtained. A proposal for a test procedure is presented, which allows the evaluation of the characteristic SCC parameters K lscc and da/dt in testing times significantly shorter than those required in conventional SCC tests. (orig.) With 61 figs., 8 tabs [de

  10. Pre-radiotherapy and post-radiotherapy serial serum Squamous Cell Carcinoma antigen (SCC) and CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen (CEA) in the monitoring of squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Park, Choong Hak [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the significance of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor markers in uterine cervix carcinoma. In 22 patients with histologically proven primary squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, tumor volume was checked either by using MRI (in 20 patients) or ultrasound (in 2 patients). Pre-treatment serum SCC levels were checked in 22 patients and CEA levels in 21 patients. After curative radiotherapy, post-treatment SCC and CEA were checked regularly. SCC was raised in 68.2% and CEA was raised in 19.0% before treatment. The coefficient of correlation between tumor volume and pre-reatment SCC was 0.59382 when one extremely deviated case was excluded. And there was no correlation between tumor volume and CEA. After the treatment, SCC was raised in 9.1% and CEA was raised in 4.8%. In further follow up measurement, raise of SCC was associated with clinical relapse or persistence of disease. The specificity of raised SCC level in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 93.8%. The sensitivity in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 100%. The positive predictive values was 85.7%. The median lead time for recurrence was 1.2 months. Both SCC and CEA were good tumor markers for monitoring treatment effect in patients with raised pre-treatment levels. But the sensitivity of pretreatment CEA was low, while that of pretreatment SCC was high. And there was no additional gain by adding CEA measurements to SCC measurements.

  11. Pre-radiotherapy and post-radiotherapy serial serum Squamous Cell Carcinoma antigen (SCC) and CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen (CEA) in the monitoring of squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Park, Choong Hak

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor markers in uterine cervix carcinoma. In 22 patients with histologically proven primary squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, tumor volume was checked either by using MRI (in 20 patients) or ultrasound (in 2 patients). Pre-treatment serum SCC levels were checked in 22 patients and CEA levels in 21 patients. After curative radiotherapy, post-treatment SCC and CEA were checked regularly. SCC was raised in 68.2% and CEA was raised in 19.0% before treatment. The coefficient of correlation between tumor volume and pre-reatment SCC was 0.59382 when one extremely deviated case was excluded. And there was no correlation between tumor volume and CEA. After the treatment, SCC was raised in 9.1% and CEA was raised in 4.8%. In further follow up measurement, raise of SCC was associated with clinical relapse or persistence of disease. The specificity of raised SCC level in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 93.8%. The sensitivity in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 100%. The positive predictive values was 85.7%. The median lead time for recurrence was 1.2 months. Both SCC and CEA were good tumor markers for monitoring treatment effect in patients with raised pre-treatment levels. But the sensitivity of pretreatment CEA was low, while that of pretreatment SCC was high. And there was no additional gain by adding CEA measurements to SCC measurements

  12. Microdomain Yield Behaviour in an Ultra-High Strength Low Alloy Steel for Marine Use with Low Sensitivity of SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiang; Tao, Anxiang; Xu, Pingguang; Ping, Dehai

    The present paper involves a fundamental research on microdomain yield behavior of an ultrahigh strength low alloy steel with high temperature tempered bainite. The smooth cylinder specimen was took from deep water mooring chain links from the steel with the chemical composition of 0.23C-0.25Si -0.70Mn-3.55 (Cr+Ni+Mo) -0.13 (V+Nb+Ti) (mass %) ,which was quenched from 1253K and then tempered at 873K Its macroscopic yield strength is 1120MPa and the tensile strength is 1250MPa In-situ neutron diffraction measurements of loading tension have suggested that a good linear elastic deformation can be kept up to 500MPa stress, and then (200) priority non-linear elastic strain, that is the yield of crystal lattice occur at 700MPa and the (110) non-linear elastic strain was found at 800MPa. The (200) and (110) nonlinear elastic strain increases gradually when the stress was further increased, however, the (211) kept its linear elastic deformation stage as before. The sub-microstructural analysis carried out using TEM and additional determine the nature and quantitative analysis has revealed that there are three kinds of alloy carbides: (1) θ-M3C cementites with an average particle size of less than 50 nm which inside laths and lath boundaries; (2) ɛ-M2C formed uniformly within the ferrites with a length of less than 200 nm and width of less than 20 nm; (3) ultra-fine high density MC cohered with matrix α-Fe and its particle size is about 2 nm. The whole microdomain yield behaviour of the material was possibly influenced by the fcc-MC with high density. The results of CLT (constant load), SSRT (slow strain rate) and KIscc test of the present chain in seawater solution indicate, that threshold value of SCC (stress corrosion cracking) stress exceed 0.8 tensile strength and the chain's KIscc value is double of KIscc value of 4340 steel type parts. MC not only form strong hydrogen trap, but also slow down microdomain yield likely by means of increasing yield strength of

  13. Raman spectroscopy differentiates squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from normal skin following treatment with a high-powered CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sara A; Shanblatt, Ashley A; Beckman, Hugh; Strasswimmer, John; Terentis, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    The number of cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), which include squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), continues to rise as the aging population grows. Mohs micrographic surgery has become the treatment of choice in many cases but is not always necessary or feasible. Ablation with a high-powered CO2 laser offers the advantage of highly precise, hemostatic tissue removal. However, confirmation of complete cancer removal following ablation is difficult. In this study we tested for the first time the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as an in situ diagnostic method to differentiate NMSC from normal tissue following partial ablation with a high-powered CO2 laser. Twenty-five tissue samples were obtained from eleven patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery to remove NMSC tumors. Laser treatment was performed with a SmartXide DOT Fractional CO2 Laser (DEKA Laser Technologies, Inc.) emitting a wavelength of 10.6 μm. Treatment levels ranged from 20 mJ to 1200 mJ total energy delivered per laser treatment spot (350 μm spot size). Raman spectra were collected from both untreated and CO2 laser-treated samples using a 785 nm diode laser. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Binary Logistic Regression (LR) were used to classify spectra as originating from either normal or NMSC tissue, and from treated or untreated tissue. Partial laser ablation did not adversely affect the ability of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate normal from cancerous residual tissue, with the spectral classification model correctly identifying SCC tissue with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity following partial laser ablation, compared with 92% sensitivity and 60% selectivity for untreated NMSC tissue. The main biochemical difference identified between normal and NMSC tissue was high levels of collagen in the normal tissue, which was lacking in the NMSC tissue. The feasibility of a combined high-powered CO2 laser ablation, Raman diagnostic procedure for the

  14. SCC mec typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from pigs of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkhowa, S; Sarma, D K; Pegu, S R

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of both humans and animal. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes serious infections both in hospitals and communities due to its multidrug resistance tendency. This study was undertaken to characterize the MRSA isolates from pigs and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates. Forty nine MRSA strains (one strain per positive pig) isolated from pigs of Northeast India were characterized by SCCmec typing and antimicrobial resistance. The overall prevalence of MRSA was 7.02 % with the highest prevalence recorded in pigs aged 1-3 months (P = 0.001) and in nasal samples (P = 0.005). Two SCC mec types (type III and V) were found in Indian pigs with predominance of type V. All isolates were resistant to penicillin. Seventeen resistance groups were observed where 87.75 % isolates showed multidrug resistance (showed resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials). The most predominant resistance pattern observed was Oxytetracycline + Penicillin + Sulfadiazine + Tetracycline accounting 12.24 % of the isolates. The present study contributes to the understanding of characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of porcine MRSA isolates which in turn will help in devising strategy for the control of this pathogen. Findings of the study also throw light on multidrug resistance MRSA and emphasize the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in animal practice.

  15. Archive of digital Chirp sub-bottom profile data collected during USGS Cruise 07SCC01 offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In June of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical survey offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LDNR) as part of the USGS Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) project. This project is part of a broader study focused on Subsidence and Coastal Change (SCC). The purpose of the study was to investigate the shallow geologic framework and monitor the enviromental impacts of Hurricane Katrina (Louisiana landfall was on August 29, 2005) on the Gulf Coast's barrier island chains. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital 512i and 424 Chirp sub-bottom profile data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 07SCC01 tells us the data were collected in 2007 for the Subsidence and Coastal Change (SCC) study and the data were collected during the first field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity identification (ID). All Chirp systems use a signal of continuously varying frequency; the Chirp systems used during this survey produce high resolution, shallow penetration profile images beneath the seafloor. The towfish is a sound source and receiver, which is typically towed 1 - 2 m below the sea surface. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor or sediment layers

  16. SCC of Ti-6Al-4V foil by methanol - Effect of treatments with 2,4-pentanedione and its metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, E. G.; Fugassi, P.

    1972-01-01

    The susceptibility of Ti-6Al-4V foil to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) by methanol can be decreased by treatment of the foil with 2,4-pentanedione prior to its immersion in the corroding media. It is assumed that such treatments remove from the protective film formed on the foil by exposure to the atmosphere, certain metal ions whose oxides are more readily penetrated by the ions, Na + and Cl- or Fe(3+) and Cl-, present in the corroding media.

  17. Algorithms for SCC Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Barnat; J. Chaloupka (Jakub); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study and improve the OBF technique [Barnat, J. and P.Moravec, Parallel algorithms for finding SCCs in implicitly given graphs, in: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Methods in Verification (PDMC 2006), LNCS (2007)], which was used in

  18. p53 alterations and HPV infections are common in oral SCC: p53 gene mutations correlate with the absence of HPV 16-E6 DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhallow, J; Steingrimsdottir, H; Elamin, F; Warnakulasuriya, S; Farzaneh, F; Johnson, N; Tavassoli, M

    1998-01-01

    To examine the association between HPV infections and p53 gene aberrations, a panel of 28 oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 12 potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions were analysed for p53 mutations in exons 2-9. p53 protein was analysed by immunocytochemistry using DO7 antibody. The same panel was also examined for the possible presence of HPV infection. p53 overexpression was detected in 13/26 (50%) malignant and 2/9 (22%) premalignant lesions. Mutations in the coding region of the p53 gene were found in 10 malignant samples. None of the premalignant lesions were shown to have p53 mutations. The total number of p53 mutations in 10 samples were 14 of which 12 (85%) were in exon 5 suggesting the presence of hot spots in exon 5 for carcinogens involved in the transformation of oral epithelial cells. The presence of HPV DNA was first screened with consensus primers to the L1 region and nested PCR approach. HPV 6 and HPV 16 were detected in 14/28 (50%) oral SCC and 4 of 12 (33%) precancerous lesions, 7 tumours harboured both types. The samples were then examined for the presence of E6 oncogenic sequence of HPV16 using E6 specific primers. 7/27 (26%) SCC and 5/9 (55%) premalignant lesions harboured E6 DNA of which 6 (3 SCC and 3 premalignant) were negative with L1 primers suggesting possible integration of the specific viral genes or loss of other viral DNA sequences after integration of larger viral fragments. 9/10 (90%) SCC with p53 mutations were negative for E6 DNA. Our results show that both p53 alterations and HPV infection may be important etiological factors in the development of oral cancer. However, there is: i) No concordance between p53 mutations and its overexpression. ii) the presence of HPV capsid DNA (L1) does not necessarily indicate the presence of HPV oncogenic genes. iii) p53 gene mutations, but not overexpression, correlate with the absence of HPV 16-E6 and not L1 gene.

  19. The correlation between total lesion glycolysis and serum SCC level in different stages of cervical cancer using PET-FDG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PF Kao; HT Hsu; SY MA; TC Yen; IT Hsiao; MF Chun; MC Chen; CH Lai

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of whole body 'functional' tumor mass was developed in evaluating biochemical characteristics of tumor by using positron emission tomography (PET) and [F-18] fludeoxyglucose (FDG) (Larson SM, et al. Clin Positron Imaging 1999;2:159-171). The evaluation of cancer total lesion glycolysis was useful in monitoring cancer treatment response. A lesion detection system based on image segmentation method of region growing in FDG whole body PET imaging was developed for calculating the total lesion glycolysis. This method will automatically compute the lesion volume and the total standard uptake value (SUV) number in each detected lesion by a user-entered SUV threshold. After excluding the physiological uptake region, the summation of SUV values from all lesion volumes will be added up to represent the total tumor (including lymph node and distant metastasis) glycolysis. With the concept of tumor burden, total tumor glycolysis was first tested to correlate with the serum SCC level and clinical FIGO staging in cervical cancer patients. Methods: The software was written in MATLAB. Given SUV images, each lesion volume is detected by using a 3D region-growing segmentation method, in terms of some SUV thresholds, and starting from a given location (seed). The seeds are selected by using the mouse, and by simply viewing the whole body images slice-by-slice. The threshold is a user-entered value in the SUV software. After the lesion detection, the SUV software will display the detected lesion volumes, and show the SUV value in each lesion volume, as well as the total SUV values of all detected lesion volumes. In this study, the FDG whole body PET imaging of 84 different FIGO stage cervical cancer patients were used for the total tumor glycolysis measurement. The total tumor glycolysis was correlated with the serum SCC level and clinical FIGO staging in these patients. Results: The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.221 for SUV and SCC with p=0.043. This

  20. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex is Required for Checkpoint Kinase 2 Chromatin Loading and its Phosphorylation to DNA Damage Response in SCC-4 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Feng, Yi; Luo, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is a significant mediator of diverse responses to DNA damage. The present study was aimed to identify possible interactive proteins of Chk2 and try to clarify the underlying mechanism regarding Chk2 chromatin loading and its phosphorylation to DNA damage response in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Differently tagged Chk2 and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex (MCM2, MCM3, MCM5, and MCM6) were overexpressed into SCC-4 cells. After 48 h of transfection cell fractionation was performed to localize proteins. In addition, immunoreactive species were detected by immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblot (IB) analysis, and protein-protein interaction between Chk2 and MCM complex was ensured by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. Expression of MCM2 and MCM6 was downregulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the chromatin and non-chromatin fraction were analyzed. The expression of Chk2 phosphorylation (pT68-Chk2) was measured after administration of different dosages of siMCM2 (0.5 μg, 1 μg, and 2.5 μg) and camptothecin (CPT). Our results showed that Chk2 directly interacts with MCM2, MCM3, MCM5, and MCM6 in SCC-4 cells. Downregulation of MCM2 and MCM6 markedly reduced Chk2 chromatin fraction, and downregulation of MCM2 decreased the expression of pT68-Chk2 to DNA damage response in a dose manner. Our results suggest that the interaction between Chk2 and MCM complex is required for Chk2 chromatin loading and its phosphorylation to DNA damage response in SCC-4 cells. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Thermodynamic consideration of hydrogen injection in BWR coolant. Estimation of potential for SCC control and oxidation-reduction condition of reactor coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Kaori; Hirano, Hideo; Domae, Masashi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab; Kushida, H.

    2001-04-01

    Hydrogen injection into BWR coolant has been carried out in order to reduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It was clarified by in-plant test that SCC can be reduced under corrosion potential -0.23 V(v.s.SHE), but the theoretical basis has not been clarified. On the other hand, highly precise water quality analysis of re-circulatory-system water is generally performed. Especially, nitrogen compound changes chemical from to NO{sub 3}{sup -} -> NO{sub 2}{sup -} -> NH{sub 3}, and the NH{sub 3} becomes the cause of the increase of dose rate of the main steamy system in connection with the increase in the amount of hydrogen injection. However, the relation between this chemical form, oxidisation reduction potential, and temperature is not clear: Then, in this paper, these two points were considered by thermodynamics calculation at 25-300degC using the thermodynamics data in the high temperature accumulated in CRIEPI, and calculation results are summarized as follows; (1) the potential of the stainless steel to which the chemical form change to FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} from NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is equilibrium is about -0.23 V at 288degC so this change is expected as one of factors for reduction of SCC, (2) the changes of chemical form of nitrogen compounds show oxidation-reduction of reactor coolant, so it can be useful as the index for control of dose rate. (author)

  2. Review of NDE Methods for Detection and Monitoring of Atmospheric SCC in Welded Canisters for the Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for used nuclear fuel (UNF) were originally envisioned for storage periods of short duration (~ a few decades). However, uncertainty challenges the opening of a permanent repository for UNF implying that UNF will need to remain in dry storage for much longer durations than originally envisioned (possibly for centuries). Thus, aging degradation of DCSSs becomes an issue that may not have been sufficiently considered in the design phase and that can challenge the efficacy of very long-term storage of UNF. A particular aging degradation concern is atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DCSSs located in marine environments. In this report, several nondestructive (NDE) methods are evaluated with respect to their potential for effective monitoring of atmospheric SCC in welded canisters of DCSSs. Several of the methods are selected for evaluation based on their usage for in-service inspection applications in the nuclear power industry. The technologies considered include bulk ultrasonic techniques, acoustic emission, visual techniques, eddy current, and guided ultrasonic waves.

  3. Investigation of smooth specimen scc test procedures; variations in environment, specimen size, stressing frame, and stress state. [for high strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifka, B. W.; Sprowls, D. O.; Kelsey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The variables studied in the stress-corrosion cracking performance of high strength aluminum alloys were: (1) corrosiveness of the environment, (2) specimen size and stiffness of the stressing system, (3) interpretation of transgranular cracking, and (4) interaction of the state of stress and specimen orientation in a product with an anisotropic grain structure. It was shown that the probability of failure and time to fracture for a specimen loaded in direct tension are influenced by corrosion pattern, the stressing assembly stiffness, and the notch tensile strength of the alloy. Results demonstrate that the combination of a normal tension stress and a shear stress acting on the plane of maximum susceptibility in a product with a highly directional grain cause the greatest tendency for stress-corrosion cracking.

  4. Basic evaluation of measurement of the serum level of squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen (SCC) and its value in following irradiated patients with cancer of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Yasunori; Tadokoro, Masanori; Kazato, Sadayuki

    1987-01-01

    The measuremet of the serum level of squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen (SCC) purified from liver metastasis of cancer of the uterine cervix by an RIA kit is basically evaluated. The results of sensitivity, the recovery test, dilution test and variance test are good enough for clinical application. In gynecological disorders, the possitive rate is high (62 % [29/47]) in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. Furthermore, the rate and level are related with the clinical staging. The changes of the serum SCC level in irradiated patients with cancer of the uterine cervix were a good reflection of the effectiveness of the treatment. (author)

  5. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Tumor Markers (CEA, SCC, CYFRA 21-1, TPS) in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Vivian; Meirovitz, Amichay; Leibovici, Vera; Rachmut, Jacob; Peretz, Tamar; Eliashar, Ron; Gross, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Establishing prognostic factors is very important in the management of cancer patients. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical significance of a panel of tumor markers, including CEA (Carcino Embryonic Antigen), SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen), TPS (Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen) and CYFRA 21-1 in head and neck cancer patients, for assessing treatment response and prognosis of patients. We evaluated 312 blood samples from 143 head and neck cancer patients, from several sub-groups: 82 Larynx Carcinoma pre- and 38 post-therapy, 46 Oral Cavity pre and 29 post-therapy, 12 nasopharynx, 16 parotid and other salivary gland patients. Blood tumor markers levels were evaluated by conventional ELISA assays. Correlations of marker levels to stage of disease, lymph node involvement and therapy, were performed. Serum levels of all four tumor markers were higher before therapy and decreased thereafter in all patients. The decrease in TPS level following therapy was significant (p=0.03). Significantly higher levels of TPS and similarly higher levels of the other tumor markers were demonstrated in advanced disease (stages III and IV) patients, as opposed to early disease (stages I and II) patients (p=0.012). Node positive patients had significantly higher TPS levels as compared to node negative (p=0.02). The same trend was shown by the other markers as well, but did not reach statistical significance. TPS was best correlated to survival of patients; those having low levels had the best clinical outcome and longer survival. CEA, SCC, TPS and CYFRA 21-1 can all serve as useful tumor markers in HNC patients. They assessed response to therapy and were prognostic for recurrence. TPS proved to be the most sensitive predictor of advanced disease and poor prognosis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Emergence of sequence type 779 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harboring a novel pseudo staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-SCC-SCCCRISPR composite element in Irish hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinnevey, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of nosocomial infection in Irish hospitals for 4 decades, and replacement of predominant MRSA clones has occurred several times. An MRSA isolate recovered in 2006 as part of a larger study of sporadic MRSA exhibited a rare spa (t878) and multilocus sequence (ST779) type and was nontypeable by PCR- and DNA microarray-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element typing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a novel 51-kb composite island (CI) element with three distinct domains, each flanked by direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences, including (i) a pseudo SCCmec element (16.3 kb) carrying mecA with a novel mec class region, a fusidic acid resistance gene (fusC), and two copper resistance genes (copB and copC) but lacking ccr genes; (ii) an SCC element (17.5 kb) carrying a novel ccrAB4 allele; and (iii) an SCC element (17.4 kb) carrying a novel ccrC allele and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) region. The novel CI was subsequently identified by PCR in an additional 13 t878\\/ST779 MRSA isolates, six from bloodstream infections, recovered between 2006 and 2011 in 11 hospitals. Analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) carried by the CI showed amino acid sequence similarity of 44 to 100% to ORFs from S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). These findings provide further evidence of genetic transfer between S. aureus and CoNS and show how this contributes to the emergence of novel SCCmec elements and MRSA strains. Ongoing surveillance of this MRSA strain is warranted and will require updating of currently used SCCmec typing methods.

  7. Steroidogenic impairment due to reduced ovarian transcription of cytochrome P450 side-chain-cleavage (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) during experimental nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rico, Miguel; Guadalupe Ortiz-López, María; Camacho-Castillo, Luz; Cárdenas, Mario; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Menjívar, Marta

    2006-07-10

    The nephrotic syndrome is a renal disease characterized by proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, edema and hyperlipidemia. It has been reported that female nephrotic rats are characterized by loss of the oestrus cycle, follicle atresia, low gonadotropin and steroid concentrations; particularly, undetectable estradiol levels. Therefore, to determine the mechanisms involved in the ovarian steroidogenesis impairment, in this present study we evaluated the ovarian expression of the essential steroidogenesis components: cytochrome P450 side cholesterol chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). The experiments were conducted in the rat experimental model of nephrosis induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) and in control groups. The evaluation of the expression of P450scc and StAR mRNA were performed during the acute phase of nephrosis as well as after the exogenous administration of 1 or 4 doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), or a daily dose of FSH or FSH+hCG for 10 days. In addition, serum hormone concentrations, intra-ovarian steroid content, and the reproductive capacity were determined. The results revealed a decreased expression of mRNA of P450scc enzyme and StAR during nephrosis, and eventhough they increased after gonadotropins treatment, they did not conduce to a normal cycling rat period or fertility recovery. This study demonstrates that the mechanism by which ovarian steroid biosynthesis is altered during acute nephrosis involves damage at the P450scc and StAR mRNA synthesis and processing.

  8. Two scandium-biuret complexes: [Sc(C2H5N3O2)(H2O)5]Cl3 x H2O and [Sc(C2H5N3O2)4](NO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-05-01

    The scandium(III) cations in the structures of pentaaqua(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trichloride monohydrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)(5)]Cl(3) x H(2)O, (I), and tetrakis(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trinitrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(4)](NO(3))(3), (II), are found to adopt very different coordinations with the same biuret ligand. The roles of hydrogen bonding and the counter-ion in the establishment of the structures are described. In (I), the Sc(3+) cation adopts a fairly regular pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry arising from one O,O'-bidentate biuret molecule and five water molecules. A dense network of N-H...Cl, O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, resulting in dimeric associations of two cations and two water molecules. In (II), the Sc(3+) cation (site symmetry 2) adopts a slightly squashed square-antiprismatic geometry arising from four O,O'-bidentate biuret molecules. A network of N-H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, which features [010] chains of cations. One of the nitrate ions is disordered about an inversion centre. Both structures form three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks.

  9. Study on Effectiveness of Processed and Unprocessed Black Liquor pulps in improving the properties of PPC mortar, Concrete and SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthkumar, M.; Sathyan, Dhanya; Prabha, B.

    2018-02-01

    The cost of construction materials is increasing day by day because of high demand, scarcity of raw materials and high price of energy. From the view point of energy saving and over consumption of resources, the use of alternative constituents in construction materials is now a global concern. From this, the extensive research and development works towards exploring new ingredients are required for producing sustainable and environment friendly construction materials. Bagasse pulp liquor is one such material that can be used as a chemical admixture which is obtained as a by-product of paper manufacturing process. Around 5 million tons of bagasse pulp is obtained throughout the world each year. since the material is a waste product from paper industry, this can be changed as a admixture by its effective use in concrete. In the present investigation black pulp liquor is added to fresh concrete in different dosages, the concrete is then tested for workability, compressive strength, flexural, split tensile strength and setting time. From results it is shown that 1% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the fresh properties of the concrete, 2% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the mechanical properties of the concrete and acts as a set retarder.

  10. Stratigraphy and Geologic Structure at the SCC and NISC Building Sites, Technical Area 3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavine, A.; Krier, D.; Caporuscio, F.; Gardner, J.

    1998-09-01

    Ten closely spaced, shallow (<100 ft) drill cores were obtained from the 1.22-Ma-old Bandelier Tuff at a 4-acre site for proposed construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. The goal of the investigation was to identify faults that may have potential for earthquake-induced surface ruptures at the site. Careful mapping of contact surfaces within the Bandelier Tuff was supplemented with results of geochemical analyses to establish unit boundaries with a high degree of accuracy. Analysis shows that the upper contact surface of Unit 3 of the Bandelier Tuff provides no evidence of faults beneath the building site, and that the subsurface structure is consistent with a shallowly dipping (< 2{degree}), unbroken block. Because no significant or cumulative faulting events have disturbed the site in the last 1.22 million years, it is unlikely that surface rupture will occur at the site in future large earthquakes. Uncertainty analysis suggests that this method would detect faults with {ge}2 ft of cumulative stratigraphic separation.

  11. Learnings from investigations on SG divider plates: Coupling field characterizations with numerical mechanical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossillon, F.; Depradeux, L.; Miloudi, S.; Deforge, D.; Lemaire, E.; Massoud, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel based alloys stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been a major concern for the nuclear power plant utilities since the 1970s. Since 2002, SCC indications have been found on steam generator (SG) divider plates made of alloy 600 on French PWRs (pressurized water reactors) 900 MWe units. Although integrity is not questioned, many studies have been conducted to deepen understanding of the phenomenon. Among numerous studies to investigate the SCC damage phenomena, advanced mechanical analysis has been performed to improve the knowledge of the in-service loadings of the SG 900 MWe partition stub and divider plate. Manufacturing steps are taken into account, such as welding and the first hydro-test, to have a more precise description of the mechanical states in the vicinity of the welds where SCC is likely to occur. Recently, EDF hot laboratories made destructive examinations of a decommissioned SG. To fulfil the analyses computations have been carried out on the dedicated configuration. A 3D FE model, including the simulation of the welding and hydro-test, has been set up. Comparisons with experimental investigations on the divider plate of decommissioned SG have shown a good agreement between experimental and numerical results. These results emphasize the redistribution of weld residual stresses after the first hydro-test, and the effect of hydro-testing on the plastic deformation of the stub only in some specific cases of 900 MWe SG

  12. Learnings from investigations on SG divider plates: Coupling field characterizations with numerical mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossillon, F., E-mail: frederique.rossillon@edf.fr [EDF SEPTEN, 12-14 Avenue Dutrievoz, Villeurbanne (France); Depradeux, L. [EC2-MS, 66 Bd Niels Bohr, Villeurbanne (France); Miloudi, S. [EDF CEIDRE, CNPE de Chinon, Avoine (France); Deforge, D. [EDF CEIDRE, 2 Rue Ampère, Saint Denis (France); Lemaire, E. [EDF UNIE, Cap Ampère, Saint Denis (France); Massoud, J.P. [EDF SEPTEN, 12-14 Avenue Dutrievoz, Villeurbanne (France)

    2014-04-01

    Nickel based alloys stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been a major concern for the nuclear power plant utilities since the 1970s. Since 2002, SCC indications have been found on steam generator (SG) divider plates made of alloy 600 on French PWRs (pressurized water reactors) 900 MWe units. Although integrity is not questioned, many studies have been conducted to deepen understanding of the phenomenon. Among numerous studies to investigate the SCC damage phenomena, advanced mechanical analysis has been performed to improve the knowledge of the in-service loadings of the SG 900 MWe partition stub and divider plate. Manufacturing steps are taken into account, such as welding and the first hydro-test, to have a more precise description of the mechanical states in the vicinity of the welds where SCC is likely to occur. Recently, EDF hot laboratories made destructive examinations of a decommissioned SG. To fulfil the analyses computations have been carried out on the dedicated configuration. A 3D FE model, including the simulation of the welding and hydro-test, has been set up. Comparisons with experimental investigations on the divider plate of decommissioned SG have shown a good agreement between experimental and numerical results. These results emphasize the redistribution of weld residual stresses after the first hydro-test, and the effect of hydro-testing on the plastic deformation of the stub only in some specific cases of 900 MWe SG.

  13. Assessment of the level of environmental pollution due to leachate migration from the closed Mallam SCC waste disposal site Accra-Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odai, R. N.

    2013-07-01

    The closed Mallam State Corporation (SCC) waste disposal site is one of the many unengineered and improperly decommissioned municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Accra, Ghana. The site served as a landfill site for the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (A.M.A) for 7 years and received variety of solid waste from the A.M.A and other neighbouring municipal assemblies. Leachate management plans were however, not implemented. Untreated leachate from the waste disposal site flows through the human settlements around the waste disposal site and enter into nearby surface water (Bawere Stream). The site was closed in 2001 after several agitations from the people living around, coupled with the fact that it was full to its maximum. The waste disposal site was not properly decommissioned prior to its closure. As a result, untreated leachate from the site still flows through the human settlement and enter the Bawere Stream. The research was carried out to assess the level of contamination of surface water, soil and groundwater due to leachate migration from the closed waste disposal site with emphasis on major ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - , HCO 3 - SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and PO 4 3- ) and trace elements (Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, As, Zn, Hg, Cu and Co). Major ions were measured using conventional methods. Trace element concentrations were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Stable isotopic composition (δ 18 O and δ 2 H) of the surface water, soil and groundwater were determined using the Liquid-Water Stable Isotope Analyzer (Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy via laser absorption). Results showed high level of contamination of the surface water. The mean concentrations of Na + , K + , Fe, Pb, Cd and Mn (388 mg/L, 53 mg/L, 0.046 mg/L, 0.229 mg/L and 0.234 mg/L respectively) in the surface water were above the maximum permissible limit of the WHO (1996) guideline for drinking water. The mean δ 18 O and δ 2 H values of the surface water were -1.59

  14. 20-Hydroxycholecalciferol, product of vitamin D3 hydroxylation by P450scc, decreases NF-kappaB activity by increasing IkappaB alpha levels in human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Janjetovic

    Full Text Available The side chain of vitamin D3 is hydroxylated in a sequential manner by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1 to form 20-hydroxycholecalciferol, which can induce growth arrest and differentiation of both primary and immortalized epidermal keratinocytes. Since nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, we examined the capability of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol to modulate the activity of NF-kappaB, using 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol as a positive control. 20-hydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the activation of NFkappaB DNA binding activity as well as NF-kappaB-driven reporter gene activity in keratinocytes. Also, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol induced significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of the NF-kappaB inhibitor protein, IkappaB alpha, in a time dependent manner, while no changes in total NF-kappaB-p65 mRNA or protein levels were observed. Another measure of NF-kappaB activity, p65 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was also inhibited in extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes. Increased IkappaB alpha was concomitantly observed in cytosolic extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes, as determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. In keratinocytes lacking vitamin D receptor (VDR, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol did not affect IkappaB alpha mRNA levels, indicating that it requires VDR for its action on NF-kappaB activity. Comparison of the effects of calcitrol, hormonally active form of vitamin D3, with 20-hydrocholecalciferol show that both agents have a similar potency in inhibiting NF-kappaB. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor for the induction of inflammatory mediators, our findings indicate that 20-hydroxycholecalciferol may be an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases.

  15. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  16. Photodynamic therapy using a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na): comparative effect with 5-aminolevulinic acid on squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, ultraviolet B-induced skin tumor, and phorbol ester-induced hyperproliferative skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Susumu; Sakata, Isao; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Iizuka, Hajime

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is available for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). Recently, we developed a new PDT photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na), and have shown that ATX-S10(Na) PDT is effective for the treatment of various human skin diseases, such as squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, and psoriasis. In the present study, we compared the effects of ATX-S10(Na) PDT and ALA PDT on hyperproliferative skin induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on the squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, in vitro, and on UVB-induced skin tumors in vivo. TPA treatment induced epidermal acanthosis, which was more markedly suppressed by ATX-S10(Na) PDT than by ALA PDT. ATX-S10(Na) PDT more effectively eliminated UVB-induced AK and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than ALA PDT. Furthermore, both ATX-S10(Na) PDT and ALA PDT induced the death of SCC15 cells, and the effect of ATX-S10(Na) PDT was greater than that of ALA PDT. Our results indicate that ATX-S10(Na) PDT might be more effective than ALA PDT for the treatment of various skin diseases.

  17. Different classes of EGFR inhibitors may have different potential to improve local tumour control after fractionated irradiation: a study on C225 in FaDu hSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.; Schuetze, C.; Petersen, C.; Pimentel, N.; Hessel, F.; Harstrick, A.; Baumann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Previous experiments reported from this laboratory have shown that simultaneous application of the selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitor BIBX1382BS during fractionated irradiation significantly prolonged growth delay of FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma but did not improve local tumour control. The present study investigates the effect of the EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) C225 on local tumour control of FaDu tumours after combined treatment with single dose and fractionated irradiation to address whether different classes of EGFR inhibitors have different potential to improve the outcome of radiotherapy in the same tumour model. Material and methods: In unirradiated tumours, C225 was given either once or 4 times i.p. to the nude mice. Irradiation experiments were performed with graded single doses under clamp hypoxic conditions or with 30 fractions in 6 weeks with graded total doses under ambient blood flow. C225 was given 6 h before or 6 h before and 2, 5 and 7 days after single dose irradiation. During fractionated irradiation C225 was given once per week. Experimental endpoints were tumour growth delay and local tumour control 120 after end of irradiation. Results: C225 treatment resulted in prolongation of tumour growth delay after drug treatment alone as well as after single dose and fractionated irradiation. TCD 50 values were reduced from 56.3 Gy [95% CI 50; 62 Gy] after single dose irradiation alone to 46.0 Gy [41;51] (enhancement ratio [ER]=1.22, P 50 ) was 73.0 Gy [64; 82] in control tumours and 63.1 Gy [57; 69] after simultaneous C225 treatment, corresponding to an ER of 1.2 (P=0.01). Conclusion: Treatment of FaDu hSCC with the anti-EGFR mAb C225 resulted in a significant prolongation of tumour growth delay after single dose and fractionated irradiation. In contrast to previous results on the EGFR-TK inhibitor BIBX1382BS, this prolongation of growth delay translated into a slight but

  18. Enhanced MAPK signaling drives ETS1-mediated induction of miR-29b leading to downregulation of TET1 and changes in epigenetic modifications in a subset of lung SCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A; Wappett, M; Delpuech, O; Brown, H; Chresta, C M

    2016-08-18

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is comprised of several histological subtypes, the two most common being adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Targeted therapies have successfully improved response rates in patients with AC tumors. However, the majority of SCC tumors lack specific targetable mutations, making development of new treatment paradigms for this disease challenging. In the present study, we used iterative non-negative matrix factorization, an unbiased clustering method, on mRNA expression data from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and a panel of 24 SCC cell lines to classify three disease segments within SCC. Analysis of gene set enrichment and drug sensitivity identified an immune-evasion subtype that showed increased sensitivity to nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition, a replication-stress associated subtype that showed increased sensitivity to ataxia telangiectasia inhibition, and a neuroendocrine-associated subtype that showed increased sensitivity to phosphoinositide 3-kinase and fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibition. Additionally, each of these subtypes exhibited a unique microRNA expression profile. Focusing on the immune-evasion subtype, bioinformatic analysis of microRNA promoters revealed enrichment for binding sites for the MAPK-driven ETS1 transcription factor. Indeed, we found that knockdown of ETS1 led to upregulation of eight microRNAs and downregulation of miR-29b in the immune-evasion subtype. Mechanistically, we found that miR-29b targets the DNA-demethylating enzyme, TET1, for downregulation resulting in decreased 5-hmC epigenetic modifications. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling by gefitinib led to decreased ETS1 and miR-29b expression with a corresponding increase in TET1 expression and increase in 5-hmC. Collectively, our work identifies three subtypes of lung SCC that differ in drug sensitivity and shows a novel mechanism of

  19. 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) decreases progesterone synthesis through cAMP-PKA pathway and P450scc downregulation in mouse Leydig tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiumei; Tang, Rong; Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Qin, Yufeng; Wu, Wei; Hu, Yanhui; Xu, Bin; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as flame retardants in textiles, plastics and electronics and represent a group of persistent environmental contaminants. They have been found to accumulate in human and marine mammals. Previous studies have shown that PBDEs have endocrine-disrupting properties and reproductive toxicity. However, the mechanisms under the reproductive disruptions are still not well understood. In this study, we explored the effects of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on progesterone biosynthesis and possible mechanisms in mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1). Our results showed that BDE-47 could reduce progesterone production and decrease the intracellular cAMP level induced by hCG or forskolin. These suggested that BDE-47 decreasing progesterone production in mLTC-1 cells may be associated with the decline of intracellular cAMP level. Moreover, our data also indicated that the site G protein in cAMP-PKA pathway may be involved in this process. Furthermore, the addition of cAMP analog, 8-Br-cAMP, could not reverse the decrease of progesterone biosynthesis, indicating that a post-cAMP site (or sites) might be involved into the BDE-47-decreased progesterone production. In addition, we found BDE-47 reduced the activity of P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), which was companied with the decline of P450scc mRNA and protein level in mLTC-1 cells. Put all together, these results suggested that progesterone synthesis decrease induced by BDE-47 may be associated with attenuation of cAMP generation and reduction of P450scc activity.

  20. Multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the evaluation of the mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the oral cavity. Correlation with pathological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giovanni Salvatore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To retrospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT in the assessment of the mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC having histopathological exams as standard of reference. Materials and methods Institutional review board approval with a waiver of informed patient consent was obtained. Of the 147 patients selected from our database who underwent surgical excision of a tumour arising into the oral cavity, thirty-six patients (26 men, 10 women; mean age, 56 years; range, 30-75 years with hystologically proven SCC who performed both a preoperative MRI and MDCT, composed our final study population. Images were qualitatively analyzed in consensus by two expert radiologist in head and neck imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were assessed for both MRI and MDCT. Differences in sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated at a statistical significance of p Results The sensitivity, the specificity and the accuracy of MRI and MDCT in the detection of the mandibular involvement were respectively 93%, 82%, 86% and 79%, 82%, 81%, while the positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were respectively 76%, 95% and 73%, 86%. There wasn't any statistically significant difference in overall diagnostic accuracy between MRI and MDCT in the evaluation of mandibular tumour invasion (p > .05. Conclusion MRI showed to have a higher sensitivity compare to MDCT in the assessment of mandibular involvement from SCC arising in the oral cavity although none statistically significant differences were noted.

  1. Mucins CA 125, CA 19.9, CA 15.3 and TAG-72.3 as tumor markers in patients with lung cancer: comparison with CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCC and NSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; Auge, Jose Maria; Escudero, Jose Miguel; Marrades, Ramon; Viñolas, Nuria; Carcereny, Emilio; Ramirez, Jose; Filella, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Tumor marker serum levels were prospectively studied in 289 patients with suspected, but unconfirmed, lung cancer and in 513 patients with lung cancer [417 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and 96 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients]. In patients with benign disease, abnormal serum levels were found for the following tumor markers: CEA (in 6.6% of patients); CA 19.9 (6.2%); CA 125 (28.7%); NSE (0.7%); CYFRA (8.7%); TAG-72.3 (4.2%); SCC (3.5%), and CA 15.3 (3.5%). Excluding patients with renal failure or liver diseases, tumor marker specificity improved with abnormal levels in 0.5% for NSE, 0.9% for SCC, 2.8% for CEA, CA 15.3 and TAG-72.3, 3.8% for CA 19.9, 4.2% for CYFRA and 21.4% for CA 125. Excluding CA 125, one of the markers was abnormal in 15% of patients without malignancy. Tumor marker sensitivity was related to cancer histology and tumor extension. NSE had the highest sensitivity in SCLC and CYFRA and CEA in NSCLC. Significantly higher concentrations of CEA, SCC, CA 125, CA 15.3 and TAG-72.3 were found in NSCLC than in SCLC. Likewise, significantly higher CEA (p tumors. Using a combination of 3 tumor markers (CEA, CYFRA 21-1 in all histologies, SCC in squamous tumors and CA 15.3 in adenocarcinomas), a high sensitivity may be achieved in all histological types. Tumor markers may be useful in the histological differentiation of NSCLC and SCLC. Using specific criteria for the differentiation of SCLC and NSCLC, the sensitivity was 84.2 and 68.8%, the specificity was 93.8 and 99.7%, the positive predictive value was 98.3 and 98.5% and the negative predictive value was 57.7 and 93.3%, respectively. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Stress corrosion crack initiation of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment during creep, relaxation, and constant strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezequel, T.; Auzoux, Q.; Le Boulch, D.; Bono, M.; Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C.; Chabretou, V.; Mozzani, N.; Rautenberg, M.

    2018-02-01

    During accidental power transient conditions with Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), the synergistic effect of the stress and strain imposed on the cladding by thermal expansion of the fuel, and corrosion by iodine released as a fission product, may lead to cladding failure by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). In this study, internal pressure tests were conducted on unirradiated cold-worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment. The goal was to investigate the influence of loading type (constant pressure tests, constant circumferential strain rate tests, or constant circumferential strain tests) and test temperature (320, 350, or 380 °C) on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC). The experimental results obtained with different loading types were consistent with each other. The apparent threshold hoop stress for I-SCC was found to be independent of the test temperature. SEM micrographs of the tested samples showed many pits distributed over the inner surface, which tended to coalesce into large pits in which a microcrack could initiate. A model for the time-to-failure of a cladding tube was developed using finite element simulations of the viscoplastic mechanical behavior of the material and a modified Kachanov's damage growth model. The times-to-failure predicted by this model are consistent with the experimental data.

  3. Retrospective Investigation of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma on the Lip Treated with Peplomycin Administered Through a Superficial Temporal Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kambayashi, Yumi; Furudate, Sadanori; Hidaka, Takanori; Kakizaki, Aya; Watabe, Akiko; Haga, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya

    2017-04-01

    Continuous intra-arterial (IA) administration of peplomycin (PEP) through a tumor-feeding artery is one of the most effective treatments for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in cosmetic areas. In order to determine the effective and safe dose of PEP and the curative rate of IA-PEP, we retrospectively investigated a case series of 24 patients with cSCC on the lips who were treated with IA-PEP. IA-PEP reduced the tumor mass in all 24 cases (100%). A complete response occurred in 17 patients (70.8%), and a partial response occurred in seven (29.2%). Moreover, 17 patients (70.8%) were cured, three patients developed cervical lymph node metastasis (12.5%), and four developed local recurrence (16.7%). Three out of the 24 patients developed interstitial pneumonia (12.5%). Low-dose IA-PEP administered through a superficial temporal artery was a highly effective treatment that achieved a curative response for 70.8% of patients with cSCC on the lips. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of the Use of Laser Shock Peening for Enhancing Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Nuclear Energy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay K. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jackson, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Teysseyre, Sebastien [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alexandreanu, Bogdan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Yiren [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The objective of this project, which includes close collaboration with scientists from INL and ANL, is to investigate and demonstrate the use of advanced mechanical surface treatments like laser shock peening (LSP) and ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) and establish baseline parameters for enhancing the fatigue properties and SCC resistance of nuclear materials like nickel-based alloy 600 and 304 stainless steel. The research program includes the following key elements/tasks: 1) Procurement of Alloy 600 and 304 SS, heat treatment studies; 2) LSP and UNSM processing of base metal and welds/HAZ of alloys 600 and 304; (3) measurement and mapping of surface and sub-surface residual strains/stresses and microstructural changes as a function of process parameters using novel methods; (4) determination of thermal relaxation of residual stresses (macro and micro) and microstructure evolution with time at high temperatures typical of service conditions and modeling of the kinetics of relaxation; (5) evaluation of the effects of residual stress, near surface microstructure and temperature on SCC and fatigue resistance and associated microstructural mechanisms; and (6) studies of the effects of bulk and surface grain boundary engineering on improvements in the SCC resistance and associated microstructural and cracking mechanisms

  5. Use of SCC in Prefabricated Concrete Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Lauritsen, Ib

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents observations made on the use of self-compacting concrete for pre-cast elements at Byggebjerg Beton A/S during the last 3 years. The elements include L- and sandwich elements and are mainly produced for agriculture purposes. In general, the flow properties and air content...

  6. Decoupling schemes for the SCC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-01-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  7. The use of SCC and textile reinforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grünewald, S.; Kok, M.A.D.; Nijsse, R.; Raghunath, P.

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier article (CPI issue of August 2011 [1]) a method was presented for producing precast curved panels with a thickness of a few centimeters using the 'flexible mould method'. This method is the central theme in the PhD study of the first author on the realization of freeform architecture

  8. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    The method of mixing may affect the degree of agglomeration of particles in cement-based materials and thus the properties of the materials in their fresh, hardening, and hardened state. The larger the external force applied during mixing, the larger surface forces can be overcome and the smaller...... agglomerates will remain. The paper focuses on the effect of mixing schedule on self-compacting concrete properties. Workability and micro structure of a typical Danish self-compacting concrete mixed at varying intensity and with addition of superplasticizer in either one or two batches are described...

  9. Improvement of the SCC resistance of FCC alloys: influence of pre-fatigue on the SCC resistance of the austenitic stainless steel-316L in a MgCl{sub 2} boiling solution at 117 deg C; Recherche d'une amelioration du comportement en CSC d'alliages de structure CFC: influence d'une pre-deformation en fatigue oligocyclique sur le comportement en CSC de l'acier inoxydable austenitique 316L dans une solution bouillante de MgCl{sub 2} a 117 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiere, I. de

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of pre-fatigue of FCC materials on their mechanical and electrochemical response to better understand and delay the SCC damage. The material/environment couple tested is the 316L polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel in boiling MgCl{sub 2} at 30% mass. Samples are pre-strained in low cycle fatigue under plastic strain control, with a p/2 value of 0.4%, for various number of cycles (25%, 75% and at the number of cycles to reach saturation during pre-fatigue). It was found that only pre-fatigue at saturation improves the SCC resistance of the material, both on SSRT and constant load tests. A delayed crack initiation up to 10% of strain. which increases strain to failure by half. mostly accounts for this beneficial effect, during SSRT tests. Furthermore, other pre-straining only resulted in loss of strain to fracture and no delay in crack initiation. We related the crack initiation delay to the surface strain state due to pre-fatigue. It provides fine parallel slip bands. homogeneously located at the surface of the samples. This surface state induces an increasing anodic surface-cathodic surface ratio which lowers the kinetics of localised corrosion. thus that of crack initiation. We also show some experiments implying that pre-fatigue at saturation decreases the SCC crack growth velocity which can be understood through the CEP (Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity) Model. We also show that this beneficial effect is probably available on other fcc material/environment couples, such as OFHC Cu/ 1 M NaNO{sub 2} at pH 9. (author)

  10. Investigation of Laser Peening Effects on Hydrogen Charged Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleski, Tania M. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States)

    2008-10-30

    Hydrogen-rich environments such as fuel cell reactors can exhibit damage caused by hydrogen permeation in the form of corrosion cracking by lowering tensile strength and decreasing material ductility. Coatings and liners have been investigated, but there were few shot-peening or laser peening studies referenced in the literature with respect to preventing hydrogen embrittlement. The surface compressive residual stress induced by laser peening had shown success in preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for stainless steels in power plants. The question arose if the residual stresses induced by laser peening could delay the effects of hydrogen in a material. This study investigated the effect of laser peening on hydrogen penetration into metal alloys. Three areas were studied: laser peening, hydrogenation, and hydrogen detection. This study demonstrated that laser peening does not reduce the hydrogen permeation into a stainless steel surface nor does it prevent hydrogen embrittlement. The effect of laser peening to reduce hydrogen-assisted fatigue was unclear.

  11. Adsorption of rare gases on the C20 nanocage: a theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Rezvan; Kamalinahad, Saeedeh; Solimannejad, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    The adsorption of rare gases (Rg) on the external surface of pristine and Sc-doped C20 (ScC19) nanocage is investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Also, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations are performed at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G (d) level. The NBO analyses indicate that the adsorption of Rg molecules with studied nanocage significantly alters its electronic nature. Theoretical results have shown that Rg is weakly adsorbed on the pristine C20, so this nanocage cannot be a proper sensor for detecting and sensing rare gases. In order to improve properties of the nanocage as a promising sensor, Sc-doping process was investigated. The more negative adsorption energies (Eads) of Rg/ScC19 means that adsorption of Rg on the surface of ScC19 is energetically more favored than C20 and other nano-structures as reported in previous studies. It is expected that significant changes in the electronic properties caused by Rg may be used for designing new sensors for detection of rare gases.

  12. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  13. S08: investigation and repair of a cracked feeder at Point Lepreau GS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Celovsky, A.; Wright, M.D.; Gendron, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Early in 1997 investigation of a low level leak in the Point Lepreau GS (PLGS) PHTS revealed that an outlet feeder, S08, was leaking. Ultrasonic inspection, and subsequent failure analysis, revealed that the leak was a consequence of a crack. Given the unusual nature of this event, and current concerns over feeder thinning, a detailed and careful removal and examination procedure was developed. The S08 outlet feeder was removed and shipped to Chalk River Laboratories for examination. The examination confirmed that the failure was a through-wall crack, most likely the consequence of stress corrosion cracking. A critical point of the analysis was to determine how the crack initiated, and subsequently propagated. High residual stresses and possible abnormal loading in conjunction with chemistry environments resulted in the Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of the S08 outlet feeder bend. It is recognized that some of the causative factors implicated in the S08 failure apply to other outlet feeders. In particular, residual stresses in the non-stress-relieved, short-radius cold bent pipes will remain relatively high over the future life of the feeders. However, the risk of CANDU feeder failure by SCC is judged to be extremely low based on the evidence of the inspections carried out to date and the good performance record of feeder pipe in the CANDU industry. The channel was restored to its locked configuration, and the failed section of feeder replaced. (author)

  14. Fire investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  15. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  16. Legibility Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    One frequent problem in legibility investigations is that the tested typefaces vary on too many variables. In an investigation which compares typefaces that – at the same time – vary on letter width, weight, contrast and skeleton, it will be difficult to determine precisely why the findings come....... One is the master typeface; three of the remaining typefaces have one stylistic feature that differs from the master (skeleton, weight, and width); and three have two stylistic features that differ from the master (weight/skeleton, weight/contrast and weight/width). In an experimental investigation...

  17. Clinical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    Unit No. 77/20 (FY77, 0) An Analysis of Ameloblastic Fibro- odontoma ....................... 27 Department of Medicine Nork Unit No, 69/338 (FY69, T...Ar, Analysis of Ameiloblastic Fibro- odontoma ,IRK UNIT NO: 77/20 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: COL George J Tsagaris, DC ASSOCIATE INVESTIGATORS: OBJECTIVES...The coals of this research study are to report upon and analyze cases of ameloblastic fibro- odontoma and to correlate these findinas with those of

  18. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  19. Investigation of fiber-reinforced self-consolidating concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The rising cost of materials and labor, as well as the demand for faster construction, has prompted development of cheaper, faster alternatives to conventional building techniques. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC), a high performance concrete charac...

  20. Severity investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de; Godart, B.

    2013-01-01

    From the confirmation inspection and its subsequent test results the presence of AAR has either been confirmed or eliminated. Assuming the first outcome, the next step is to investigate the severity of the situation, see Figure 23. One should keep in mind that it is possible that some evidence of

  1. Investigating Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Prendergast, Canice

    2000-01-01

    Agency theory has had little to say about the control of bureaucratic corruption, perhaps the greatest agency problem that exists. The author considers the role of incentive contracting in reducing corruption through the use of independent investigations-a common way to monitor corruption. In simple settings, bureaucratic corruption can be suppressed by rewarding and penalizing bureaucrats...

  2. Implementación de un Direccionamiento Estratégico para SEDEMI S.C.C. (Servicios de Mecánica Industrial, Diseño, Construcción y Montaje de Estructuras Metálicas) enfocado a la línea de servicio para el Sector Petrolero

    OpenAIRE

    Pillajo Brito, Ana Lucia

    2013-01-01

    135 hojas : ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 4787 edemi S.C.C. - Servicios de Mecánica Industrial, Diseño, Construcción y Montaje de Estructuras Metálicas, es una organización Ecuatoriana que nace en el año 1993, tiene como objeto social la fabricación e instalación de estructuras metálicas, construcción de obras civiles, vial, puentes, fabricación de bandejas y ductos porta cables. Con una especialización en la fabricación de estructuras de acero que cuenta con tres unidades operativas...

  3. Geotechnical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    assessment are discussed in Construction Site Environmental Survey and Clearance Procedures Manual (Draft), EM 1110-1-4000, Walker (1988), and Borrelli ...EM 1110-1-1804 1 January 2001 US Army Corps of Engineers ENGINEER MANUAL Geotechnical Investigations ENGINEERING AND DESIGN Report Documentation Page...for all official USACE engineer regulations, circulars, manuals , and other documents originating from HQUSACE. Publications are provided in portable

  4. Comparison of conventional and self-consolidating concrete for drilled shaft construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Many entities currently use self-consolidating concrete (SCC), especially for drilled shaft construction. This project investigated the use of SCC : and various test methods to assess the suitability of SCC in underwater placement conditions. Eight m...

  5. Crosshole investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Pihl, J.

    1987-09-01

    The analysis of the radar and seismic data has given a consistent description of the fracture zones at the Crosshole site in agreement with geological and other geophysical observations made in the boreholes. The hydraulic investigations within the Crosshole project have yielded substantial progress in assessing the hydrogeology of fractured granitic rocks. The crosshole hydraulic testing concentrated on measuring the distribution of hydraulic properties within the extensive fractured zones identified by geophysics. A new analysis involving the 'dimension' of the flow test has been developed to analyse the results of the crosshole sinusoidal testing. The combined analysis of the geophysical and the hydraulic data set has shown that groundwater flow is concentrated within a few major features which have been identified by the geophysical methods. (orig./DG)

  6. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  7. Investigations on the mechanisms of PWSCC of strain hardened austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couvant, T.; Legras, L. [EDF/R and D, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Pokor, C. [EDF/DIN/CEIDRE, DLCH, Avoine (France); Vaillant, F. [EDF/R and D, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Brechet, Y. [LTPCM/INPG, Grenoble (France); Boursier, J.M. [EDF/R and D, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Moulart, P. [EDF/DIN/CEIDRE, DLCH, Avoine (France)

    2007-07-01

    Limited cases of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been recently observed in French PWRs (heaters of pressurizers), in high strain hardened non-sensitized austenitic stainless steels exposed to primary environment. Consequently, a R and D program has been conducted, in addition to hot laboratories investigations, in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for PWSCC at 360{sup o}C. Stress corrosion tests were performed on AISI 304L and 316L, in hydrogenated primary environments (7.2 < pH{sub 320{sup o}C} < 9.2) at 360{sup o}C. Particular attention was directed towards the correlation between selective oxidation and strain localization due to microtwining and strain incompatibilities. Based on electron microscope examinations (SEM and TEM), a description of the possible contribution of the strain localization in the mechanism of PWSCC is proposed. Experimental results are finally compared to hot laboratory observations of pressurizer heaters. (author)

  8. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  9. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  10. Stress corrosion crack depth investigation using the time reversed elastic nonlinearity diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian E; Pieczonka, Lukasz; Remillieux, Marcel C; Ulrich, Timothy J; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of the ability to probe depth information of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) are presented using the time reversed elastic nonlinearity diagnostic (TREND). Depth estimation of SCC is important to determine when a stainless steel canister has been breached. TREND is a method to focus elastic energy to a point in space in order to probe that point for damage and its' depth penetration is used here to study depth information about SCC. High frequencies are used to probe near the surface, while low frequencies are used to probe deeper into a stainless steel section of a cylinder.

  11. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  12. Short clinical crowns (SCC) – treatment considerations and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul, G. R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    When the clinical crowns of teeth are dimensionally inadequate, esthetically and biologically acceptable restoration of these dental units is difficult. Often an acceptable restoration cannot be accomplished without first surgically increasing the length of the existing clinical crowns; therefore, successful management requires an understanding of both the dental and periodontal parameters of treatment. The complications presented by teeth with short clinical crowns demand a comprehensive treatment plan and proper sequencing of therapy to ensure a satisfactory result. Visualization of the desired result is a prerequisite of successful therapy. This review examines the periodontal and restorative factors related to restoring teeth with short clinical crowns. Modes of therapy are usually combined to meet the biologic, restorative, and esthetic requirements imposed by short clinical crowns. In this study various methods for treating short clinical crowns are reviewed, the role that restoration margin location play in the maintenance of periodontal and dental symbiosis and the effects of violation of the supracrestal gingivae by improper full-coverage restorations has also been discussed. Key words:Short clinical crown, surgical crown lengthening, forced eruption, diagnostic wax up, alveoloplasty, gingivectomy. PMID:24558561

  13. Effects of Temperature and Corrosion Potential on SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Peter L.; Seeman, Russell A.

    This study reinforces the expectation that a consistent benefit of low corrosion potential is achievable at intermediate temperatures associated with BWR start up. Such low corrosion potentials can probably only be achieved using NobleChem™ and injection of H2 or other reductants such as hydrazine or carbohydrazide because very low residual levels of O2 can elevate the corrosion potential. The high growth rates that occur during start up merit mitigation, although this study did not find growth rates that were orders of magnitude higher than at 288 °C. However, this study did not attempt to simulate all aspects of start up, especially the sources of dynamic strain such as differential thermal expansion, which can be estimated by are not known.

  14. Short clinical crowns (SCC) - treatment considerations and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R; Poduval, Soorya T; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-10-01

    When the clinical crowns of teeth are dimensionally inadequate, esthetically and biologically acceptable restoration of these dental units is difficult. Often an acceptable restoration cannot be accomplished without first surgically increasing the length of the existing clinical crowns; therefore, successful management requires an understanding of both the dental and periodontal parameters of treatment. The complications presented by teeth with short clinical crowns demand a comprehensive treatment plan and proper sequencing of therapy to ensure a satisfactory result. Visualization of the desired result is a prerequisite of successful therapy. This review examines the periodontal and restorative factors related to restoring teeth with short clinical crowns. Modes of therapy are usually combined to meet the biologic, restorative, and esthetic requirements imposed by short clinical crowns. In this study various methods for treating short clinical crowns are reviewed, the role that restoration margin location play in the maintenance of periodontal and dental symbiosis and the effects of violation of the supracrestal gingivae by improper full-coverage restorations has also been discussed. Key words:Short clinical crown, surgical crown lengthening, forced eruption, diagnostic wax up, alveoloplasty, gingivectomy.

  15. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    been produced. To improve identification of the flow (i.e. dead zones, plug flow, laminar flow, turbulent flow, blocking etc.) the form has one transparent acrylic plate and it has shown valuable to change between normal greyish concrete, and a pigmented (red) concrete during the filling process...

  16. SCC-induced failure of a 304 stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Disney, D.J.; Szostak, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 1991 January 12, a 304 Stainless Steel (SS) suction line in the AECL-Research NRU reactor failed, shutting down the reactor for approximately 12 months. The pipe, a 32 mm schedule 40 304 stainless steel line exposed to D 2 O at temperatures ≤35 degrees C had been in service for approximately 20 years, although no manufacturing data or composition specifications were available. The failure and resultant leak resulted in a small loss of D 2 O moderator from the reactor vessel. The pipe cracked approximately 180 degrees C around the circumference of a weld. This failure was unexpected and hense a thorough metallographic examination was carried out on the failed section, on the rest of the line (Line 1212), and on representative samples from the rest of the reactor in order to assess the integrity of the remaining piping

  17. The SCC testing of nuclear steam generator tubing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P. E.; Sarver, J. M.; Miglin, B. P.

    1996-05-01

    The integrity of heat-exchanger tubes in a nuclear reaction system is crucial for the safe operation of a power plant. In order to study the corrosion behavior of certain alloys, constant extension rate (CERT) tests were performed on alloy 690 and alloy 800 nuclear steam generator tubing specimens. In this article, the CERT test results (such as maximum stress achieved and crack morphology) are correlated to tubing microstructure, chemistry, and manufacturing processes.

  18. Effect of Ethanol Chemistry on SCC of Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    Pipeline companies have a keen interest in assessing the feasibility of transporting fuel grade ethanol (FGE) and ethanol blends in existing pipelines. Previous field experience and laboratory research, funded by PRCI and API, has shown that steel ca...

  19. Numerical investigation on stress corrosion cracking behavior of dissimilar weld joints in pressurized water reactor plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyan Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been incidents recently where stress corrosion cracking (SCC observed in the dissimilar metal weld (DMW joints connecting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV nozzle with the hot leg pipe. Due to the complex microstructure and mechanical heterogeneity in the weld region, dissimilar metal weld joints are more susceptible to SCC than the bulk steels in the simulated high temperature water environment of pressurized water reactor (PWR. Tensile residual stress (RS, in addition to operating loads, has a great contribution to SCC crack growth. Limited experimental conditions, varied influence factors and diverging experimental data make it difficult to accurately predict the SCC behavior of DMW joints with complex geometry, material configuration, operating loads and crack shape. Based on the film slip/dissolution oxidation model and elastic-plastic finite element method (EPFEM, an approach is developed to quantitatively predict the SCC growth rate of a RPV outlet nozzle DMW joint. Moreover, this approach is expected to be a pre-analytical tool for SCC experiment of DMW joints in PWR primary water environment.

  20. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intake and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Dietrich, Thomas; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Lund, Eiliv; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Agudo, Antonio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ramon Quiros, J.; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vrieling, Alina; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio

    2009-01-01

    Recent alcohol consumption is all established risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or the upper aero-digestive tract. In contrast, the role or lifetime exposure to alcohol with regard to risk of SCC is not well established. Historical data oil alcohol use are available in 271,253

  1. An Investigation on Self-Compacting Concrete Using Ultrafine Natural Steatite Powder as Replacement to Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was made on flow properties and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete (SCC with ultrafine natural steatite powder (UFNSP as replacement to cement. The tests were conducted on specimens with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of replacement of UFNSP to the weight of cement and compared to the control specimens. The flow properties of all specimens were tested and checked for their limit with the existing guidelines. The compressive strength test was done on all specimens for strength of 7 days, 14 days, 28 days, and 56 days. The hardened samples were tested for their microstructural behavior and the elements Mg, Ca, and Si were mapped. Through mapping, the formations of M-S-H along with C-S-H are observed. The results show that the addition of UFNSP influences the flow property, by reducing the flow, and increases the compressive strength till 20% replacement. Further the addition of UFNSP increases the denseness of microstructure of the specimens thus resulting in the strength increment.

  2. Personal Investigations Processing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIPS is a system that maintains the Security/Suitability Investigations Index (SII) for OPM. It contains over 11 million background investigation records of Federal...

  3. TEM investigations on the effect of chromium content and of stress relief treatment on precipitation in Alloy 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennour, M.; Chaumun, E.; Crépin, J.; Duhamel, C.; Gaslain, F.; Guerre, C.; Curières, I. de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Slight change of the Cr content does not affect the microstructure of the butt welds. •Stress relief thermal treatment leads to the intergranular precipitation of Cr 23 C 6 . •The Cr 23 C 6 carbides are supposed to improve the SCC resistance of the butt welds. -- Abstract: Nickel-base alloys are widely used in nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Most of them have been found susceptible to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in nominal PWR primary water. The time to initiation depends on the material and is longer for weld metals than for Alloy 600. This study will focus on Alloy 82, which is used in Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs). In service, DMWs are either in the as-welded state or have undergone a stress relief treatment. Previous SCC studies showed that the heat treatment reduces significantly the SCC susceptibility of the weld. In this context, this study focuses on the microstructure characterization of the weld in the as-welded state and in the heat-treated state. As chromium content is also a key factor for the SCC susceptibility, welds with low chromium content and medium chromium content were studied. The lower SCC susceptibility of the heat-treated welds was attributed to intergranular Cr 23 C 6 resulting from a combined effect of heat treatment and chromium and carbon contents. These intergranular carbides could explain the better behavior of Alloy 82, compared to other nickel-base alloys

  4. The Parkinsons Registry Investigation of Diagnosis and Etiology (PRIDE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Caroline M. Tanner, MD, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Northern California Institute for Research and Education San Francisco, CA 94121-1545...Northern California Institute for Research and Education San Francisco, CA 94121-1545 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...Environmental toxicant data. With CEHTP, assess SCC toxicants spatially and temporally using multiple database sources. (Methods under development) o GIS

  5. Investigative Journalism: global perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the work of nine members or associates of the Media Discourse Group. Investigative Journalism: Global Perspectives presents a theoretical and practical guide to contemporary international investigative journalism to outline principles of modern investigative work in the digital world. A diverse range of contributions from academics, journalists, and activists interrogate wide ranging issues such as state power, freedom of speech and social justice, as well as exploring...

  6. Personnel Security Investigations -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains the types of background investigations, decisions, level of security clearance, date of security clearance training, and credentials issued to...

  7. EDIS Investigation Filing Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset contains investigation, document and attachment metadata from the USITC's Electronic Document Information System (EDIS), as well as access to attached...

  8. Security Investigation Database (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Security Investigation & Personnel Security Clearance - COTS personnel security application in a USAID virtualized environement that can support USAID's business...

  9. Investigating Encrypted Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe

    When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.

  10. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  11. Investigating the Watergate Scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the events leading up to and the investigation that followed the Watergate break-in. Presents a lesson plan using primary documents that allows students to explore the workings of congressional investigations, the key figures in the scandal, and the arguments of the different participants. Includes copies of the documents. (DSK)

  12. Vamistor resistor investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of the failure investigation conducted on resistors produced by the Vamistor Divison, Wagner Electric Corporation. This failure investigation included; failure analyses, chemical and metallurgical analyses, failure mechanism studies, seal leak analyses, and nondestructive stress tests. The data, information, conclusions, and recommendation can be helpful in assessing current usage of these resistors.

  13. Effect of acupuncture for radioactive-iodine-induced anorexia in thyroid cancer patients: a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yoon, Jeungwon; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Jung, In-Chul; Kim, Sungchul; Lee, Suk-Hoon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for radioactive iodine (RAI)-induced anorexia in thyroid cancer patients. Fourteen thyroid cancer patients with RAI-induced anorexia were randomized to a true acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both groups were given 6 true or sham acupuncture treatments in 2 weeks. Outcome measures included the change of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia and Cachexia Treatment (FAACT; Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale [ACS], Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), weight, body mass index (BMI), ACTH, and cortisol levels. The mean FAACT ACS scores of the true and sham acupuncture groups increased from baseline to exit in intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses; the true acupuncture group showed higher increase but with no statistical significance. Between groups, from baseline to the last treatment, statistically significant differences were found in ITT analysis of the Table of Index (TOI) score (P = .034) and in PP analysis of the TOI (P = .016), FACT-G (P = .045), FAACT (P = .037) scores. There was no significant difference in VAS, weight, BMI, ACTH, and cortisol level changes between groups. Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, our findings support the safety and potential use of acupuncture for RAI-induced anorexia and quality of life in thyroid cancer patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. AASHTOWare Preconstruction Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-17

    The AKDOT&PF Northern Region construction section has successfully implemented AASHTOWare SiteManager on all construction projects. This project is to investigate and test the AASHTOWare Preconstruction module for statewide implementation. This proje...

  15. Investigating body function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monks, R.; Riley, A.L.M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the investigation of body function, especially small bowel function but also liver function, using bile acids and bile salts or their metabolic precursors labelled with radio isotopes and selenium or tellurium. (author)

  16. Outbreaks and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Gets Fungal Infections? People living with HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis ...

  17. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  18. Geologic and Seismologic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Utah, Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, August 1994 2. Caliente Creek Stream Group Investigation California, Draft Feasibility Report. June...trenching and soil-stratigraphic investigations east of Sacramento, north of the study area ( Tierra Engineering Consultants, 1983) at Folsom Dam showed...Geologic Map of California, Olaf P. Jenkins edition, Mariposa Sheet: California Division qf Mines and Geology, Scale 1:250,000. Tierra Entgineering

  19. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...

  20. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...... for a proper acknowledgment of epistemology’s role in conceptual improvement...

  1. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  2. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next

  3. The therapeutic investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In years gone by, the diagnostic process was an intellectual exercise in history taking and examination, then choosing the appropriate investigation. In the Medieval Ages, when. I started practising, we performed X-rays and a few blood tests, and had a centrifuge and microscope in the consulting rooms. There were no ...

  4. electronic and structural investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-30

    Mar 30, 2018 ... Indian Academy of Sciences https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-018-1572-8. Milling effect on the photo-activated properties of TiO2 nanoparticles: electronic and structural investigations. YOUCEF MESSAI1,2, BERTRAND VILENO2,4, DAVID MARTEL3, PHILIPPE TUREK2,4 and. DJAMEL EDDINE MEKKI1,∗.

  5. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  6. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  7. Practical Investigations of Volition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarick, Donna L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied conditions and consequences, the characteristics of agentic (volitional, teleological) human behavior in investigations of weight control, vocational exploration, and eating disorders. Demonstrated the ability of individuals professing eating and exercise problems, to exhibit control; and in separate study examining personality factors and…

  8. Biosurveillance in outbreak investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Rojas Smith, Lucia; Farris, Tonya R

    2013-03-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax attacks in 2001, public health entities implemented automated surveillance systems based on disease syndromes for early detection of bioterror events and to increase timeliness of responses. Despite widespread adoption, syndromic surveillance systems' ability to provide early notification of outbreaks is unproven, and there is little documentation on their role in outbreak response. We hypothesized that biosurveillance is used in practice to augment classical outbreak investigations, and we used case studies conducted in 2007-08 to determine (1) which steps in outbreak investigations were best served by biosurveillance, and (2) which steps presented the greatest opportunities for improvement. The systems used in the case studies varied in how they functioned, and there were examples in which syndromic systems had identified outbreaks before other methods. Biosurveillance was used successfully for all steps of outbreak investigations. Key advantages of syndromic systems were sensitivity, timeliness, and flexibility and as a source of data for situational awareness. Limitations of biosurveillance were a lack of specificity, reliance on chief complaint data, and a lack of formal training for users. Linking syndromic data to triage notes and medical chart data would substantially increase the value of biosurveillance in the conduct of outbreak investigations and reduce the burden on health department staff.

  9. Sequences for Student Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided investigation. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…

  10. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  11. The gravimetric geodesy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siry, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The Gravimetric Geodesy Investigation which will utilize altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data from GEOS-C, ATS-F, and other spacecraft as appropriate to improve our knowledge of the earth's gravitational field is discussed. This investigation is interrelated with the study of oceanographic phenomena such as those associated with tides and currents, hence the latter are considered together with gravitational effects in the analysis of the data. The oceanographic effects, each of the order of a meter or two in amplitude and with still smaller uncertainties does not seriously hamper the altimeter gravimetric studies at the five meter level. Laser and satellite-to-satellite tracking data, when combined with the altimeter results, should provide the basis for such studies over wide areas of the ocean surface. Laser and conventional geodetic tracking data from ISAGEX and succeeding campaigns will provide a valuable framework for these analyses.

  12. Ball Lightning Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. L.; Nikitin, A. I.; Dijkhuis, G. C.

    Ball lightning (BL) researches' review and theoretical models of three different authors are presented. The general review covers investigations from 1838 until the present day, and includes a discussion on observation data, experimental modeling, and theoretical approaches. Section 6.1 is written by Bychkov and Nikitin; authors of the sections 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 are, respectively, Bychkov, Nikitin and Dijkhuis.

  13. Clinical Investigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-30

    Munson ACH Ft. Leavenworth, KS 66027 (9) Dept/Svc: Ophthalmology (10) Associate Investigators: (11) Key Words: cataract extraction intra ocular lens...determine the occurrence and time of postoperative ocular complications and and adverse reactions for intraocular lens implant; to identify subgroups...designated as "(14)e" (15) Study Objective: To determine if using preoperative chemoradiotherapy will obviate the need for pelvic exenteration in

  14. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-30

    Major Robert Stewart, arrived in January after completing his doctoral research on the immune response to respiratory viruses at the University of... pathogenetic import remain unclear. Drug-ind. ;- d lupis nakes feasible the investigation of poten- tial early immunr) qic abnormalities which would lead...Transmission of Bunyamwera Viruses to Humans by the Biting Midge Culicoides Varripennis (5) Start Date: (6) Est Compl Date: 1986 (7) Principal

  15. Chaos and remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current research into the nature of chaos indicates that even for systems that are well known and easily modeled, slight changes in the scale used to measure the input have unpredictable results in the model output. The conduct of a remedial investigation (RI) is dictated by well-established rules of investigation and management, yet small changes in project orientation, regulatory environment, or site conditions have unpredictable consequences to the project. The consequences can lead to either brilliant success or utter failure. The chaotic effect of a change in scale is most often illustrated by an exercise in measuring the length of the coast of Great Britain. If a straight ruler 10-kilometers long is used, the sum of the 10-kilometer increments gives the length of the coast. If the ruler is changed to five kilometers long and the exercise is repeated, the sum of the five-kilometer increments will not be the same as the sum of the 10-kilometer increments. Nor is there a way to predict what the length of the coast will be using any other scale. Several examples from the Fernald Project RI are used to illustrate open-quotes changes in scaleclose quotes in both technical and management situations. Given that there is no way to predict the outcome of scale changes in a RI, technical and project management must be alert to the fact that a scale has changed and the investigation is no longer on the path it was thought to be on. The key to success, therefore, is to develop specific units of measure for a number of activities, in addition to cost and schedule, and track them regularly. An example for tracking a portion of the field investigation is presented. The determination of effective units of measure is perhaps the most difficult aspect of any project. Changes in scale sometimes go unnoticed until suddenly the budget is expended and only a portion of the work is completed. Remedial investigations on large facilities provide new and complex challenges

  16. Investigation on the Mechanisms Governing the Robustness of Self-Compacting Concrete at Paste Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vurst, F; Lesage, Karel; Grunewald, S.; Vandewalle, Lucie; Vantomme, John; Schutter, G; Khayat, Kamal H.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the many advantages, the use of self-compacting concrete
    (SCC) is currently widely limited to application in precast factories and sihiations
    in which external vibration would cause large difficulties. One of the main
    limitations is the higher sensitivity to small variations

  17. Investigational approaches for mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle F Surmont

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available MPM is a rare, aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new investigational approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the aetiology, epidemiology, natural history and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving.The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000–2011 using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA, Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands, Cochrane Library (Great Britain, National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA, HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment – INAHTA, NIH database (USA, International Pleural Mesothelioma Program – WHOLIS (WHO Database , with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, investigational, drugsCurrently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under investigation for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients.

  18. Investigational Approaches for Mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmont, Veerle F.; Thiel, Eric R. E. van; Vermaelen, Karim; Meerbeeck, Jan P. van

    2011-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new investigational approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the etiology, epidemiology, natural history, and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000–2011) using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA), Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands), Cochrane Library (Great Britain), National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA), HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment – INAHTA), NIH database (USA), International Pleural Mesothelioma Program – WHOLIS (WHO Database), with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, investigational, drugs. Currently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under investigation for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients.

  19. Investigating wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  20. Investigation into Plastic Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Stašelytė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strength of laminating plastic cards at different lamination temperatures. For investigation purposes, two types of plastic substrate and films have been used. Laminate strength has been tested (CMYK to establish the impact of colours on the strength of laminate. The paper compares inks supplied by two different producers. The colour characteristics of CIE L*a*b* space before and after the lamination process have been found. According to lamination strength and characteristics of the colours, the most suitable inks, temperature and films have been chosen.

  1. Physics in Carnacki's investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2007-01-01

    In the stories of Carnacki, created by the English writer William H. Hodgson and written between 1910 and 1912, we find an interesting mixture of science and fantasy. In spite of the fact that Carnacki is a ghost finder, who investigates in an environment where supernatural is acting, we see the character using technology and sometimes discussing of physics phenomena such as X-rays. The Carnacki's stories can be seen as mirrors of the physics and technology knowledge at the beginning of Twent...

  2. Investigation of EAS cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS. These investigations were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such investigations obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015–1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum ‘knee’ range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.

  3. Epilepsy and radiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomberg, T.

    2005-01-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogenous group of disorders with multiple causes. Clinical management of epilepsy patients requires knowledge of seizure syndromes, causes, and imaging features. The aim of radiological investigations is to recognize the underlying cause of epilepsy. The main indications for neuroimaging studies are partial and secondarily generalized seizures, patients with neurological signs and intractable seizures, and patients with focal signs on EEG. Partial seizures of any type are more likely to be associated with a focus that may be identified on neuroimaging. MRI is the method of choice for evaluating structural abnormalities of the brain. High resolution MRI and dedicated imaging technique are needed for detection of subtle pathological changes as cortical dysplasias and temporal medial sclerosis. Other lesions that may be detected include neoplasms, vascular malformations, destructive lesions following brain injury, stroke, infection, etc. CT continues to be the technique for the investigation of patients with seizures under certain conditions. New techniques such as functional MRI, MR spectroscopy, SPECT, receptor PET and magnetic source imaging are becoming clinical tools for improving diagnosis [et

  4. Investigator's guide to steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The Investigator's Guide to Steganography provides a comprehensive look at this unique form of hidden communication from its earliest beginnings to its most modern uses. The book begins by exploring the past, providing valuable insight into how this method of communication began and evolved from ancient times to the present day. It continues with an in-depth look at the workings of digital steganography and watermarking methods, available tools on the Internet, and a review of companies who are providing cutting edge steganography and watermarking services. The third section builds on the first two by outlining and discussing real world uses of steganography from the business and entertainment to national security and terrorism. The book concludes by reviewing steganography detection methods and what can be expected in the future

  5. The Kepler Asteroseismic Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The aim of asteroseismology is to probe the interiors of stars and quantify their properties, such as radius, mass, rotation and age, through observations of oscillation modes. Using the ultrahigh photometric precision and the extended length of the time series from Kepler one can perform...... asteroseismology which is orders of magnitudes more accurate than one could do just a few years ago. The Kepler asteroseismic programme is being conducted through the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC), whose 400 members are organized into 13 working groups (KASC WGs) by type of variable star. The KASC...... WGs are established to ensure an efficient and structured work within KASC focusing on data analysis, stellar modelling and publication of data. The goals of the asteroseismic part of the Kepler project are to perform detailed studies of stellar interiors and to support the exoplanet investigation...

  6. Investigating the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/appro......Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design...... design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory...

  7. Properties and mesostructural characteristics of linen fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete in slender columns

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry A. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    In this study the linen fibers were used to reinforce self-compacting concrete (SCC) with 2 and 4 kg/m3 contents; then their effects on the fresh and hardened properties of SCC were investigated. Furthermore, three circular slender columns were cast using both plain and linen fiber reinforced (LFR) SCC in order to study the variations of hardened properties and mesostructural characteristics along the columns height. The addition of linen fibers to SCC reduced its workability and affected its...

  8. Experimental investigations on chloride effects on EAC of LAS under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, M.; Roth, A.; Widera, M.

    2015-01-01

    This program was devoted to examine the principle effects of permanent and temporary chloride contaminations on environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels (LAS). Particular focus was laid on deriving a better understanding with regard to the effects of chloride on the general corrosion behavior of LAS in oxygenated high-temperature water (HTW) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms for crack initiation and propagation due to chloride assisted EAC. Therefore, systematic investigations on the effect of chloride on the EAC behavior of LAS were performed to understand and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The overall project was therefore divided into three phases, focusing on the effect of chloride on: 1) general corrosion, 2) crack initiation, and 3) crack growth of low-alloy steels in oxygenated high-temperature water. Studies on the effect of chloride on the general corrosion behaviour were performed by immersion tests that were evaluated using electrochemical monitoring techniques and different post-test investigation methods like SEM, ToF-SIMS, and others. From the performed investigations it is concluded that the presence of small amounts of chloride in oxygenated HTW causes an incorporation of chloride into the oxide layer, a thinning of the oxide layer thickness, and pronounced pitting. The crack initiation susceptibility of LAS was investigated using CERT tests. These tests showed an increased number of crack initiation locations and a decrease of the elongation at fracture with increasing chloride concentrations. Crack growth rate tests clearly demonstrated that not the increase in the chloride concentration per se, but the conjoint occurrence of an active or dormant crack and increased chloride concentration causes an increase in the observed crack growth rates. For practical applications of LAS in oxygenated HTW the results obtained in the frame of this project clearly indicate that short term transients, as simulated in this

  9. Ultrasonic mitigation investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, B.P.; Shepard, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    The suggestion was made that the introduction of ultrasound into Tank 101-SY might serve to release the hydrogen bubbles trapped in the slurry. This would cause a continuous release of bubbles and thereby prevent the turnover phenomenon. Two major considerations were (1) the method for delivering the energy into the slurry and (2) the effective volume of action. In this study, we attached the former by designing and testing a liquid-filled waveguide and radiator, and the latter by making ultrasonic property measurements on synthetic waste. Our conclusion is that ultrasonic mitigation may not be feasible, primarily because of the very high attenuation (1000 to 50000 dB/m) factor to 10 to 30 kHz. Such a high attenuation would restrict the action volume to such a low value as to make the method impractical. Further investigations are recommended to identify the cause of this effect and determine if this same effect will be seen in real 101-SY waste.

  10. Tape recorder failure investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. D.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Carnahan, C. C.; Snyder, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    Two end-item tape recorders lost 4:1 mode data recording mode capability at less than half of their 1 6,000-cycle, 4-year operating life. Subsequent life tests on two spare recorders also experienced 4:1 mode data loss at 8,000 and 11,700 cycles. Tear down inspection after completion of the life tests showed that the tape had worn through the alfesil record and reproduce heads. An investigation was initiated to understand the cause of excessive tape head wear and the reasons why the 4:1 mode data rate, low-speed mode is more damaging than the 1:1 mode data rate, high-speed recording mode. The objective was to establish how operating conditions (tape speed, humidity, temperature, stop/start cycles) affects head life with the goal of extending head life on the remaining in-service tape recorders. Another interest was to explain why an earlier vendor life test showed capability beyond 16,000 cycles.

  11. The Dawn Topography Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the Dawn topography investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital topography models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the topography will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.

  12. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  13. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  14. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  15. Cross-cultural investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y; Case, R; Bleiker, C; Henderson, B

    1996-01-01

    In Piaget's system, the development of children's cognitive structures is seen as progressing through a universal sequence from sensorimotor, to concrete, to formal logical thought. The data that have been obtained on his measures are problematic in their support for this view, however, because they indicate that adults in traditional societies often fail his formal tasks. Piaget's (1972) interpretation of such findings was that they indicated a problem with his measures, not his theory - if appropriate measures were available, he believed that formal logical operations would be found in all cultures and social groups. Our own interpretation differs. While we acknowledge that adults in all cultures are capable of thinking in a fashion that is more sophisticated, subtle, and complex than that of young children, we see the highest forms of thought as being dependent on the mastery of systems that are cultural creations and not universal human attainments - and we see Piaget's system of formal operations as being just one example of the sort of system that can be created by a culture and passed on from one generation to the next. In a previous investigation, Fiati (1992) studied children who were growing up in isolated, agricultural villages in the Volta region of West Africa. In these communities, life was still a traditional one, and children's experiences with time, money, and mathematical computation were considerably different from those of children who were attending schools in the nearby towns. Under these conditions, Fiati found that village children's skill in using numbers or in thinking about quantitative variables did not develop to a very high level as compared to that of their peers in the towns or as compared to their own thinking about social issues. In the terms used in the present Monograph, it appeared as though children's central conceptual structures for number - in contrast to their central conceptual structures for narrative - did not advance

  16. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dalaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  17. DGMK technical meeting: SCC - latest developments and experiences in practice. Papers; DGMK-Fachtagung: SCC - Neueste Entwicklungen und Erfahrungen aus der Praxis. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Occupational safety and health management systems were the topic of the DGMK meeting. Certification of industrial plants by Safety Certificat Contractors (SSC) becomes a competitive property in mineral oil industry. Experiences, training of employees, accident statistics and health improvement of various enterprises are reported. (uke)

  18. Credible investigation of air accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, K.

    2004-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate

  19. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  20. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M; Jeyakumar, S; Manimaran, A; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Sivaram, M; Ramesha, K P; Das, D N; Kataktalware, Mukund A; Jayaprakash, G; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred ( Bos indicus × Bos taurus ) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  1. Non-invasive label-free investigation and typing of head and neck cancers by multimodal nonlinear microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tobias; Vogler, Nadine; Dietzek, Benjamin; Akimov, Denis; Inhestern, Johanna; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Early detection and typing of tumors is pressing matter in clinical research with important impacts for prognosis and successful treatment. Currently, staining is the golden standard in histopathology but requires surgical removal of tissue. In order to avoid resection of non-diseased tissue a non-invasive real-time imaging method is required which can be applied ideally intrasurgically. In this proceeding a combination of second harmonic generation (SHG), two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) imaging has been employed to investigate tissue sections of head and neck carcinomas focussing on laryngeal carcinoma. Primary laryngeal and other head and neck carcinomas consist to 99% of squamous cell carcinoma. By fusing the various imaging methods it is possible to measure the thickness of the epithelial cell layer as a marker for dysplastic or cancerous tissue degradation and to differentiate keratinizing and nonkeratininzing squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). As nonkeratinizing SCCs of the oropharynx correlate with a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as a subentity of head and neck cancer, and HPV related tumors are associated with a better clinical prognosis, the differentiation between keratinizing and non-keratinizing forms of SCCs is of high diagnostic value. TPEF is capable of displaying cell nuclei, therefore, morphologic information as cell density, cell to cytoplasm ratio, size and shape of cell nuclei can be obtained. SHG - on the other hand - selectively reveals the collagen matrix of the connective tissue, which is useful for determination of tumor-islets boundaries within epithelial tissue - a prerequisite for precise resection. Finally CARS in the CH-stretching region visualizes the lipid content of the tissue, which can be correlated with the dysplastic grade of the tissue.

  2. Study of the stress corrosion cracking of zirconium alloys in iodine vapor and its relation with nuclear fuel element failures for pellet-cladding interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojorge, Claudia D.

    2003-01-01

    Fission product induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zirconium alloy cladding is a relevant attribute to be considered when evaluating nuclear fuel performance in power reactors. It is normally introduced in the codes through a typical parameter, namely the threshold stress needed to start a brittle fissure in normal reactor operating conditions. Iodine induced SCC of Zircaloy-4 cladding was measured at 350 and 400 C degrees by the pressurised-tube technique, method which permits an accurate control of the tensile hoop stress applied on the material. Materials with two different thermo-mechanical treatments were used, essentially differing in the number of roll steps used to arrive to tube finale dimensions. Threshold stress values of about 180-200 MPa were obtained in both cases at 400 C degrees, whereas the results at 350 C degrees have been strongly affected by the different fabrication routes. From the microscopic failure analysis carried out using optical and electronic microscopy, it was concluded that improper treatment may produce surface defects which can act as SCC initiators, giving way to failure at much lower applied stresses than in the case of well finished tubes [es

  3. Iodine stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy: Laboratory data, a phenomenological model, and predictions of in-reactor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.K.; Tasooji, A.

    1981-01-01

    Data from laboratory tests performed on unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloy have been used as the basis for developing a phenomenological model of iodine-induced stress corrosion crack initiation and growth. The model is capable of predicting the response of cladding subjected to complex loading conditions. Major features of the data incorporated into the model include the existence of a threshold stress, the effect of iodine concentration, temperature effects, the role of chemical inhomogeneities and mechanical flaws, crack initiation in smooth specimens, crack propagation rates as a function of stress intensity in flawed specimens, and the detrimental effect of irradiation. The major physical processes addressed by the model include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC), transgranular SCC, ductile rupture, iodine penetration by surface diffusion along existing on incipient cracks, and stress and strain intensification and triaxiality caused by cracks or flaws. A probabilistic description of the size distribution of the flaws found in as-fabricated cladding is used at the basis for quantitatively extrapolating the laboratory test results to predict in-reactor cladding behavior. The in-reactor SCC resistance of a large fuel assembly is predicted to be substantially lower and more variable than that of small laboratory specimens. (orig.)

  4. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  5. The analysis of variability of pH level and somatic cell count (SCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in sowsf colostrum and milk depending on the reproductive cycle, litter size and consecutive pair of teats. The animal specimens were 30 sows of the Zlotnicka White breed. Z.otnicka pigs were subjected to the National Genetic Resources ...

  6. Effect of Ethanol Blends and Batching Operations on SCC of Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    This is the draft final report of the project on blending and batching (WP#325) of the Consolidated Program on Development of Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Pipeline Transportation of Ethanol Blends. The other two aspects of the consolidated progra...

  7. Description of Non-Covalent Interactions in SCC-DFTB Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miriyala, Vijay Madhav; Řezáč, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 10 (2017), s. 688-697 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-11321Y Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional tight binding * DFTB3 * non-covalent interactions * dispersion correction * hydrogen bonding correction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.229, year: 2016

  8. SCC susceptibility and flaw tolerance evaluation for steam generator channel head materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothron, H.; Wolfe, R.

    2015-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) has been reported in the divider plate assemblies of steam generators in operation outside of the United States. Evaluations have been performed to assess the susceptibility of U.S. steam generator channel head materials to PWSCC and the flaw tolerance of the channel head assembly in instances where cracking is assumed to occur. Earlier work concluded that the cracks reported in the foreign steam generators could not cause failure of the divider plate in the limiting U.S. steam generators during the design basis accident or normal operating conditions. Three additional cracking scenarios represent a potential breach of the primary pressure boundary of the channel head assembly: cracks initiating in the divider plate then propagating through the channel head cladding and into the low alloy steel shell material, cracks initiating in the tubesheet cladding then propagating to the tube-to-tubesheet weldments, and cracks initiating in the tube-to-tubesheet weld. Operating experience and literature were reviewed to determine the likelihood that cracks will propagate into the carbon steel channel head material and cause a breach in the primary pressure boundary. A flaw tolerance evaluation demonstrated that the structural integrity of the steam generator channel head is not compromised by a crack originating in the divider plate. Assumed axial and circumferential flaws in the steam generator channel head material remain well below the allowable flaw depths after 40 years of operation. Utilities can use the results from this analysis to determine the need to inspect steam generator Alloy 600 material in the divider plate assembly or the low-alloy steel channel head material in the period of operation beyond 40 years. (authors)

  9. Effect of soluble zinc additions on the SCC performance of nickel alloys in deaerated hydrogenated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.S.; Thompson, C.D.; Gladding, D.; Schurman, M.K.

    1997-08-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth rates (SCCGR) of alloy 600, EN82H and X-750 were measured in deaerated hydrogenated water to determine if soluble zinc mitigates SCCGR. Constant load compact tension specimen tests were conducted. Two test strategies were used to discern a possible zinc effect. The first strategy employed separate SCCGR tests in zinc and non-zinc environments and compared the resulting crack growth rates. The second strategy varied zinc levels at the midterm of single specimen SCCGR tests and characterized the resulting crack growth rate effect through an electrical potential drop in-situ crack monitor. Results from the direct comparison and midterm changing chemistry tests did not discern a zinc influence; any apparent zinc influence is within test to test variability (∼1.5x change in crack growth rate). AEM, AUGER and ESCA crack tip fracture surface studies identified that zinc was not incorporated within crack tip oxides. These studies identified nickel rich crack tip oxides and spinel, with incorporated zinc, (∼5 atom percent) bulk surface oxides

  10. Evaluation of SCC susceptibility of alloy 800 under CANDU SG secondary-side conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Lu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a coordinated program, AECL is developing a set of tools to aid with the prediction and management of steam generator performance. Although stress corrosion cracking (of Alloy 800) has not been detected in any operating steam generator, for life management it is necessary to develop mechanistic models to predict the conditions under which stress corrosion cracking is plausible. Therefore, constant extension rate tests were carried out for Alloy 800 under various steam generator crevice chemistry conditions at applied potentials. These tests were designed to evaluate the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 under CANDU( steam generator operating conditions. Based on the experimental results, the recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zone for Alloy 800 determined by electrochemical polarization measurements was verified with the respect of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. The effects of lead contamination on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 tubing were also evaluated. The experimental results from constant extension rate tests obtained under applied potentials suggest that Alloy 800 has good performance inside much of a previously recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zone determined by electrochemical analysis. Alloy 800 is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under normal CANDU steam generator operating conditions. However, Alloy 800 may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under near-neutral crevice chemistry conditions in the presence of oxidants. In addition, stress corrosion cracking susceptibility is increased by lead contamination. This observation suggests that the previously defined electrochemical corrosion potential limit under near-neutral crevice conditions could be modified to minimize stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 800. The test results from this work also suggest that the pH dependency of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 in the secondary side steam generator crevice solutions is different from that observed in sodium hydroxide solutions. This information can be used by utilities to assess the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 steam generator tubing materials and to make decisions for steam generator water chemistry management. (author)

  11. Conceptual similarities and common predictive approaches for SCC in high temperature water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the many conceptual similarities that exist among structural materials subject to environmentally assisted cracking in high temperature water. While cracking has been viewed as a highly mechanistically and phenomenologically unique process for every material, temperature, environment, loading, etc., there is an increasingly strong basis for treating environmental crack advance processes of ductile alloys in hot water from a common mechanistic and predictive perspective. This paper addresses the roles of various materials (ranging from low alloy and carbon steels, to stainless steels, to high nickel alloys), water chemistries (e.g., including various BWR and PWR conditions), temperature (from 360 C), irradiation, etc. on the crack advance process. Viewed from the perspective of the crack tip system, differences once perceived as large (e.g., in corrosion potential for BWRs vs. PWRs) are now recognized as relatively small (e.g., crack advance always occurs at low potential associated with deaerated water because of oxygen depletion in the crack). Additionally, since these materials rely on good passivity, and since creep increases with temperature, the importance to crack advance of film rupture and metal dissolution/repassivation is common to all of these cracking systems. While unique aspects must be acknowledged and modeled for specific materials (e.g., MnS dissolution in low alloy steels, thermal sensitization, irradiation effects) and specific water chemistries (e.g., effects of high sulfide levels, occluded chemistries, nickel metal stability at high H 2 fugacity), the recognition of the broad similarities and the existence of a common underlying framework leads to a more complete understanding of and predictive approaches for environmentally assisted cracking in high temperature water

  12. Recovery from sublethal damage during fractionated irradiation of human FaDu SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Cordula; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Voelkel, Wolfram; Thames, Howard D.; Baumann, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: The present study addresses whether recovery of sublethal damage in tumours may change during fractionated irradiation in FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma and whether such an effect might contribute to the pronounced time factor of fractionated irradiation previously found in this tumour. Patients and methods: FaDu tumours were transplanted s.c. into the right hind leg of NMRI nu/nu mice. Single doses or 2, 4, and 8 equal fractions in 3.5 days were applied in previously unirradiated tumours and after priming with 18 fractions of 3 Gy in 18 or 36 days. All irradiations were given under clamp hypoxic conditions. Experimental endpoints were tumour control dose 50% (TCD 50 ) and α/β values without and after priming. Results: Without priming TCD 50 increased with increasing number of fractions from 38.8 Gy (95% CI 35;45) after single dose irradiation to 54.0 Gy (42;57) after 8 fractions. No increase in TCD 50 when given in 1, 2, 4, or 8 fractions in 3.5 days was found after priming with 18 3-Gy fractions in 18 and 36 days. After priming with 18 fractions in 18 days TCD 50 remained constant at 25 Gy and after priming with 18 fractions in 36 days at 42 Gy. The α/β ratio without priming was 68 Gy (42;127). After fractionated irradiation with 18 3-Gy fractions in 18 and 36 days the α/β ratio increased to 317 Gy (38;∞) and to infinite, respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicate that clonogenic cells in FaDu tumours lose entirely their capacity to recover from sublethal radiation damage during fractionated irradiation. Therefore, an increased repair capacity as an explanation for the pronounced time factor of fractionated irradiation in this tumour can be ruled out

  13. Evaluation of Rigid-Rod Polymeric Fibers by Post-Treatment in scC02

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-30

    in nature. The loss in properties was accompanied by an increase in the size of voids within the fiber while ATR- FTIR spectroscopy revealed no...40 wt. % dimethylvinylated and trimethylvinylated silica and 1-5 wt % tetra(trimethylsiloxy)silane and 0.7 wt % xylene . Sylgard 184... FTIR Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy equipment and procedures are identical to those described in our previous

  14. Vibrational absorption spectra, DFT and SCC-DFTB conformational study and analysis of [Leu]enkephalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Niehaus, T.A.; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2003-01-01

    The endogenous morphine-like pentapeptide, [Leu]enkephalin, which binds to the opiate receptor in the brain, spinal core and gut, is the subject of this study. Vibrational absorption (VA) measurements were carried out on [Leu] enkephalin in non-polar solvent, DMSO-D6 to stabilize the environment...

  15. The analysis of variability of pH level and somatic cell count (SCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... meter type pH 211 by Hanna Instruments and a specific electrode for milk measurements .... Means labelled with different letters (A, B) are statistically different when P ≤ 0.01; means labelled with different letters. (a, b, c) are statistically ..... Foisnet A, Farmer C, David C, Quesnel H (2010). Relationships.

  16. LAr calorimeter for SCC with a common vacuum bulkhead---a concept to improve hermeticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, W.L.; Watt, R.D.

    1989-11-01

    A new concept for a Barrel/Endcap LAr Calorimeter (LAC) is described in which the Barrel and Endcaps are in separate vacuum enclosures but share a common vacuum bulkhead (CVB). We explore 2 possible bulkhead construction types; welded plate sandwich panels, and brazed sandwich panels in which the core is an isotropic cellular solid--foamed aluminum. Gas lines and electric cables from he innermost Drift Chamber pass through radial holes in the core of the sandwich bulkhead. The CVB concept offers the potential to obtain a more hermetic calorimeter with significantly reduced dead material and/or space in the interface region common to conventional design LAr detectors for the SSC with Endcap features. To utilize a common additional steps to remove the Drift Chamber, a large increase in Endcap standby heat leak, and perhaps, new cryogenic safety issues. We find that significant amount of dead mass can be removed from critical regions of the vacuum shells when compared to a promising SSC LAC reference design. It is also shown that the increased standby heat leak of this concept can be easily removed by existing cooling capacity in another large LAr calorimeter. It is further shown that shut-downs need not be appreciably longer. Finally, it is argued that cryogen spill hazards can be avoided if the Endcap's LAr is removed during Drift chamber maintenance shutdowns, and that cryogenic safety is not compromised

  17. On mapping distributed S-Net to the 48-core Intel SCC processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraaten, M.; Grelck, C.; van Tol, M.W.; Bakker, R.; Jesshope, C.R.; Göhringer, D; Hübner, M; Becker, J

    2011-01-01

    Distributed S-NET is a declarative coordination language and component technology primarily aimed at modern multi-core/many-core chip architectures. It builds on the concept of stream processing to structure dynamically evolving networks of communicating asynchronous components. These components

  18. Methods of respiratory system investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Different methods of chest organs investigation are discussed in detail: roentgenoscopy, roentgenography, tomography and others. A detailed roentgenologic semiotics of every method is presented, as well as their comparative evaluation

  19. An Investigation on Quadratic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Argues that exploring a familiar topic or examination question in a novel manner is a useful way to find topics for mathematical investigation in the classroom. The example used to illustrate the premise is a quadratic equation. (PK)

  20. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, Mathias; Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    2017-01-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter’s planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor ...

  1. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    SKB plans to commence site investigations in 2002. The present report is a broadening of the general programme and describes the execution of the investigations in so-called discipline-specific programmes for the disciplines geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro geochemistry, transport properties of the rock and surface ecosystems. It also describes various technical aspects of drilling, which comprises a significant portion of the investigations. Based on this possible programme, site-specific programmes will then be prepared and adapted to the site-specific questions and conditions on the specific candidate area. The main product of the investigations is a site description. This document presents an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. Provided that the initial site investigation shows that the site is still favourable, complete investigations are commenced. Primary investigation data are stored in SKB's database SICADA. The database's primary data mainly represent parameter values for single measurement points or limited measurement objects. Primary data are subjected to both discipline-specific and integrated analysis and interpretation in order to be able to subdivide the site into suitable geometric units and to assign discipline-specific properties to these geometric units. In this way a three-dimensional, primarily geo scientific, site-descriptive model of rock and ground is built. The site-descriptive model is represented with the aid of both geographic information systems (GIS) and above all SKB's CAD-based computer tool, Rock Visualization System (RVS). RVS is also used as an active instrument in the interpretation of information, especially to be able to judge the relative locations of different deformation zones. When the site has been selected, the investigations are focused on characterizing conditions at depth

  2. Hurricane Katrina Wind Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjarlais, A. O.

    2007-08-15

    This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures

  3. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    SKB plans to commence site investigations in 2002. The present report is a broadening of the general programme and describes the execution of the investigations in so-called discipline-specific programmes for the disciplines geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro geochemistry, transport properties of the rock and surface ecosystems. It also describes various technical aspects of drilling, which comprises a significant portion of the investigations. Based on this possible programme, site-specific programmes will then be prepared and adapted to the site-specific questions and conditions on the specific candidate area. The main product of the investigations is a site description. This document presents an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. Provided that the initial site investigation shows that the site is still favourable, complete investigations are commenced. Primary investigation data are stored in SKB's database SICADA. The database's primary data mainly represent parameter values for single measurement points or limited measurement objects. Primary data are subjected to both discipline-specific and integrated analysis and interpretation in order to be able to subdivide the site into suitable geometric units and to assign discipline-specific properties to these geometric units. In this way a three-dimensional, primarily geo scientific, site-descriptive model of rock and ground is built. The site-descriptive model is represented with the aid of both geographic information systems (GIS) and above all SKB's CAD-based computer tool, Rock Visualization System (RVS). RVS is also used as an active instrument in the interpretation of information, especially to be able to judge the relative locations of different deformation zones. When the site has been selected, the investigations are focused on characterizing

  4. Numerical investigation on the combined effects of varying piston bowl geometries and ramp injection rate-shapes on the combustion characteristics of a kerosene-diesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Zhao, Feiyang; Yu, Wenbin; Mohan, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection rate-shaping on heat-release is significant with less turbulence. • Two peak heat-releases are seen for the shallow-depth re-entrant piston. • Significant combustion phasing occurs with kerosene usage and high turbulence. - Abstract: In this work, the combustion characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine fueled with kerosene-diesel blends, using different piston bowl geometries together with varying injection rate-shapes were investigated. A total of three combustion bowl geometries, namely the omega combustion chamber (OCC), the shallow-depth combustion chamber (SCC) and the shallow-depth re-entrant combustion chamber (SRCC), were used together with six different ramp injection rate-shapes and pure diesel, kerosene-diesel and pure kerosene fuels. It is seen that the SRCC geometry, which has the shortest throat length, gives the highest turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and this resulted in two peak heat-releases, with a primary peak heat-release during the premixed combustion phase and a secondary peak heat-release during the mixing-controlled combustion phase. In addition, the SCC geometry gives rather distinct premixed combustion and mixing-controlled combustion phases due to the fact that combustion is predominantly controlled by the injected fuel spray itself because of less turbulence. Also, when kerosene is used in place of diesel, the heat-release during the premixed combustion phase increases and diminishes during the mixing-controlled and late combustion phases. It is interesting to note that the effect of injection rate-shaping on the heat-release rate is more obvious for bowl geometries that generate less TKE. Moreover, bowl geometries that generate higher TKEs as well as fuels with lower viscosities generally give lower carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and higher nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions. More importantly, it is possible to achieve low NO and CO emissions simultaneously by using the

  5. DNA testing in homicide investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahlow, Joseph A; Cameron, Thomas; Arendt, Alexander; Cornelis, Kenneth; Bontrager, Anthony; Suth, Michael S; Black, Lisa; Tobey, Rebbecca; Pollock, Sharon; Stur, Shawn; Cotter, Kenneth; Gabrielse, Joel

    2017-10-01

    Objectives With the widespread use of DNA testing, police, death investigators, and attorneys need to be aware of the capabilities of this technology. This review provides an overview of scenarios where DNA evidence has played a major role in homicide investigations in order to highlight important educational issues for police, death investigators, forensic pathologists, and attorneys. Methods This was a nonrandom, observational, retrospective study. Data were obtained from the collective files of the authors from casework during a 15-year period, from 2000 through 2014. Results A series of nine scenarios, encompassing 11 deaths, is presented from the standpoint of the police and death investigation, the forensic pathology autopsy performance, the subsequent DNA testing of evidence, and, ultimately, the final adjudication of cases. Details of each case are presented, along with a discussion that focuses on important aspects of sample collection for potential DNA testing, especially at the crime scene and the autopsy. The presentation highlights the diversity of case and evidence types in which DNA testing played a valuable role in the successful prosecution of the case. Conclusions By highlighting homicides where DNA testing contributed to the successful adjudication of cases, police, death investigators, forensic pathologists, and attorneys will be better informed regarding the types of evidence and situations where such testing is of potential value.

  6. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units

  7. Novel methods for tendon investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Michael; Langberg, Henning; Bojsen-Møller, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Tendon structures have been studied for decades, but over the last decade, methodological development and renewed interest for metabolic, circulatory and tissue protein turnover in tendon tissue has resulted in a rising amount of investigations. Method. This paper will detail the various...... modern investigative techniques available to study tendons. Results. There are a variety of investigative methods available to study the correlations between mechanics and biology in tendons. Conclusion. The available methodologies not only allow for potential insight into physiological...... and pathophysiological mechanisms in tendon tissue, but also, to some extent, allow for more elaborate studies of the intact human tendon. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1080/09638280701785403...

  8. Ground vortex flow field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.

  9. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  10. Critical Viscosity of Xenon investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal investigator and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-investigator, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.

  11. Artificial radioisotopes in hydrological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Bedmar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have an important part in hydrological investigations. Sealed radiation sources have been used for measurements of sediments transported by river water, of thickness and density of sediment layers. X-ray fluorescence analysis and well-logging are widely applied in hydrological research. Tracer techniques have been useful in flow rate and river dynamics research, sediments tracing, irrigation and ground water problems, infiltration rate evaluation etc. The IAEA is supporting several projects involving the use of radioactive tracers in hydrological investigations p.e. in Guatemala, Romania, South East Asia, Brazil, Chile and Nicaragua

  12. Evaluation of Military Criminal Investigative Organizations Child Death Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-22

    of the mother, any concerns in prenatal care, and obtain doctor’s notes of the pregnancy . These apply to SIDS cases where the infant’s death is...autopsy photographs appended to the investigative file or documentation photographs were taken and retained by medical staff. MCIO policies require the...suspects underwent law enforcement background checks which were appended to the files. The background checks included queries of the National Crime

  13. The GLAST Guest Investigator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.

    2007-01-01

    We provide an overview of the GLAST Guest Investigator (GI) program, which will support basic research relevant to the GLAST mission in yearly cycles beginning approximately two months after launch. Current details about the GLAST GI program will always be posted on the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC) website: http://glast.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/.

  14. Preliminary investigations of Agrobacterium -mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary steps in the genetic transformation of indica rice MR219 was investigated in the plant- Agrobacterium tumefaciens interaction. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.2 harboring the modified GUS gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was used. Various ...

  15. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  16. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF STRESSES DISTRIBUTIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between cavity size and number on one hand and combinations of web thicknesses were investigated theoretically. The least number of cavities was 4 for end-web to centre web ratio of 1:2 at constant shell thickness with the least web thickness equal to 12.5mm. The effects of the number of cavities and ...

  17. Investigation into breath meditation: Phenomenological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This integral heuristic phenomenological investigation records participants' experiences of a single session of breath meditation with special reference to psychotherapy and sport psychology. There were 8 participants, 4 men and 4 women, with mean age of 45 years and age range from 31 to 62 years. Various breathing ...

  18. Journal of Biomedical Investigation: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following instructions relating to submissions must be adhered to. Failure to conform can lead to delay in publication. Preferred method of submission. Manuscripts may be submitted by post (Editor-in-chief Journal of Biomedical Investigation, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine College ...

  19. 78 FR 64026 - Investigative Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...-North New Haven Line, Subdivision 7, in West Haven, CT. The accident occurred at milepost 69.58 on main... provides approaching trains a stop signal. The investigative hearing will discuss the following issue areas... maintenance and inspection program; Adequacy of existing Federal passenger car safety standards emphasizing...

  20. Intravenous opioid drug abuse as an independent risk factor for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma-A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, H; Cohen, O; Slavin, M; Haimovich, Y; Halperin, D; Lahav, Y

    2018-04-01

    Intravenous opioid drug abuse (IVDA) was previously correlated with laryngeal cancer. However, discrimination of this correlation by anatomical subsites has not yet been described. In this study, we aim to further establish the association between IVDA and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to indicate the laryngeal subsites that are predisposed for this correlation. A retrospective matched case-control study. Patients diagnosed with supraglottic SCC (SG-SCC) between 1996 and 2016 treated in a tertiary academic referral centre were enrolled to the case group. The control group comprised of matched patients diagnosed with glottis SCC (G-SCC). Matching was based on gender, age and socio-economic rank. Variables studies as risk factors included the following: smoking, alcohol consumption, history of IVDA and infectious diseases. The variables were tested for association with the 2 groups and with each other. Forty-eight patients with SG-SCC were matched with 48 patients with G-SCC. IVDA rates significantly increased among patients with SG-SCC. Of the SG-SCC group, 18.8% had a positive history for IVDA compared with 2.1% of the G-SCC (P = .008). A history of IVDA was found to be a risk factor for SG-SCC, independent of smoking, excessive alcohol and socio-economic status. The odds ratio for patients with an IVDA history to have SG-SCC relatively to G-SCC was 10.846 (95% CI: 1.3-89.4). Intravenous opioid drug abuse represents an independent risk factor for SG-SCC. The pathogenesis should be investigated not just as a risk factor, as opioids are commonly used for pain management in oncologic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  2. AUDIT OF ADVANCED LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakra, Mohammad Saeed Al; Asghar, Abdul Shaheed; Khan, Amjad Ali; Kashif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Advanced laboratory investigations at reference laboratories play a key role in the diagnosis of the disease, but misuse of this precious and expensive tool may misguide the physician in patient management. This study was carried out as an audit of investigations performed at a reference laboratory, in order to assess their cost effectiveness, to identify various errors, the degree of correlation of requested tests with the clinical diagnosis and benefit to the patients. A four phase audit of 337 laboratory investigation prescription was performed from April 2012 to March 2013 in the Medical, Administration in collaboration with Department of Medical Laboratory and various Clinics at the King Salman Armed Forces Hospital in Northwestern Region, - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All the information was recorded on a questionnaire pro forma. On data compilation and analysis it was found that 174(51.63%) test results were within normal reference range, while 163 (48.37%) test results were reported as positive. Also 218 (64.69%) investigations results correlated with clinical assessment by the physician, while 119 (35.31%) investigation results did not correlate with the clinical assessment by the physician. The expenses incurred Euro 12868 were spent on non-correlated tests while on correlated tests were Euro 31831. In terms of benefit to the patients 243 (82.09%) patients were reported by clinicians to have benefited from the reference laboratory tests, while 53 (17.91%) cases did not benefit from the reference laboratory tests as assessed by the clinicians and 41 (12.16%) cases in which even clinician did not respond regarding the benefit to the patients. Three categories of errors were identified (26.40%), i.e., at the level of clinicians (12.75%), at the level of hospital lab (5.04%) and at the level of reference lab (8.60%). Thorough clinical assessment and judicious utilization of available preliminary laboratory tests are the keys to precise diagnosis and are

  3. Scientific Investigation with the SJCSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbey, E.; Delpeyroux, G.; Douay, E.; Juchereau, C.; Garavet, O.

    2012-04-01

    Scientific Investigation with the SJCSI (Saint Jean* Crime Scene Investigation) Our work, which we have been teaching for 3 years, consists of a scientific investigation. We create a case from A to Z and then our students (15 to 16 years old) are meant to collect samples and clues from a reconstituted crime scene and then have to catch the culprit thanks to laboratory tests crossing four subjects: Physics and Chemistry, Biology, Math and English. I'm a biology teacher and I work with 3 other teachers in my school. The objectives of these activities are: • Make sciences more attractive by putting them into a context of crime investigation. • Use science techniques to find a culprit or to clear a suspect. • To acquire scientific knowledge. • Realize that the different scientific subjects complement each other to carry out a survey. • Use English language and improve it. The investigation consists of doing experiments after collecting different samples and clues on the crime scene. Examples of Biology experimentation: • Detecting the origin of the blood samples found on the crime scene. Students observe blood samples with a microscope and compare the characteristics to those of human blood found on the web. They discover that blood samples found aren't human blood because the red cells have a nucleus. By using the information given in the scenario, they discover that blood sample belongs to the parrot of a suspect. Students, also take a photo of their microscopic preparations, add title and caption and so they learn the cell's structure and the characteristics of blood cells. • In another case, students have to study the blood sample found under the victims fingernails. They observe blood preparation and compare it to the blood of a suspect who has a genetic disease: drepanocytosis. So, they discover the characteristics of blood cells by comparing them to sickle cells. • DNA electrophoresis to identify DNA found, for example, on the gun. • Blood type

  4. Nuclear methods in entomological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, G.R.; Bhatia, Parvathy

    1979-01-01

    Insect pests of crops are responsible for immense crop losses in agriculture. Ever since the release of high yielding varieties and improved crop husbandry practices the problems posed by insect pests have been accentuated, as these conditions provide ideal environment for their development. Effective control of insect pests can help greatly in achieving a breakthrough in agricultural production. In order to sustain production and reduce crop losses entomologists all over the world have continued their efforts to devise and develop methods of pest control taking full advantage of the advances made in other branches of science. Consequently, avenues opened by the developments in the field of nuclear energy have also been fully exploited in investigating various pest problems. This communication briefly highlights the various areas of research in which nuclear toots have been fruitfutty used in investigating problems posed by insect pests. (auth.)

  5. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  6. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  7. Investigation of Balcony Plume Entrainment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Li, B. Z.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation on the scenarios of the spill plume and its equation was presented in this paper. The study includes two aspects, i.e., the small-scale experiment and the numerical simulation. Two balcony spill plume models are assessed by comparing with the FDS (Fire Dynamic Simulation) and small scale model experiment results. Besides validating the spill model by experiments, the effect of different fire location on balcony plume is also discussed.The results show that the balcony equatio...

  8. Theoretical Investigations Regarding Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Georg Lind

    Neoclassical Valence Bond Theory, Quantum Transport, Quantum Interference, Kondo Effect, and Electron Pumping. Trap a single organic molecule between two electrodes and apply a bias voltage across this "molecular junction". When electrons pass through the molecule, the different electron paths can...... interfere destructively or constructively. Destructive interference effects in electron transport could potentially improve thermo-electrics, organic logic circuits and energy harvesting. We have investigated destructive interference in off-resonant transport through organic molecules, and have found a set...

  9. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bandrowski

    Full Text Available The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT. The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org providing details on the people, policies, and issues being

  10. Supernumerary teeth: an investigating tool in forensic crime investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Rupinder Kaur; Sangeri, Kishore Kumar; Ramalakshmi, M; Pavithra, S; Rajesh, M; Singh, Laiphrakpam Girindra

    2015-05-01

    Supernumerary tooth is an additional entity to the normal series and is seen in all the quadrants of the jaw. The prevalence rates of supernumerary teeth in the permanent dentition, reported in the literature, vary between 0.1% and 6.9%. The presence of supernumerary teeth may be part of developmental disorders. As supernumerary tooth is a rare condition, it can be used as identification tool for crime investigation. A total of 30 volunteers with a supernumerary tooth were analyzed and casts were made after taking alginate impression. All the casts were coded and were given to five observers for correct identification of those volunteers with respective prepared cast. Personal identification and the cast identification of volunteers were done (cast of the volunteers). The matching identification is followed as below: Of five observers 1(st) observer able to detect 25 (83%), 2(nd) observer 27 (90%), 3(rd) observer 26 (87%), 4(th) observer 25 (83%) and 5(th) observer 28 (91%). As positive matching identification was 87%, supernumerary tooth can be used for crime investigation and used as greatest weapon in criminal identification.

  11. Mechanical behavior of confined self-compacting reinforced concrete circular columns under concentric axial loading

    OpenAIRE

    Khairallah, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    While there is abundant research information on ordinary confined concrete, there are little data on the behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) under such condition. Due to higher shrinkage and lower coarse aggregate content of SCC compared to that of Normal Concrete (NC), its composite performance under confined conditions needs more investigation. This paper has been devoted to investigate and compare the mechanical behavior of confined concrete circular columns cast with SCC and NC und...

  12. Investigation with slow traction conditions of the stress corrosion of carbon steels in alkaline media. Role of passivating inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroud, Lakhdar

    1991-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (S.C.C.) sensitivity of carbon steels in basic media, such as carbonates, is well known. A constant strain-rate test have allowed to observe two steels (A42 [E26] and XC38) behaviour in such conditions at pH 9. The S.C.C. potentials susceptibility range has been found. Inter and Trans-granular cracking have been revealed and measured with micrographic methods. A crack growth rate has been studied as a function of strain rate: an experimental rate has been compared to calculated values from methods which have proposed previously, and methods which have been elaborated in this work. These last permit a best approach of cracking in our case. The chromates use, as inhibitor ions, has permit to decrease the corrosive attack and to cancel the crack growth rate. (author) [fr

  13. Investigating reading comprehension through EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Baretta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p69   Experimental studies point that different factors can influence reading comprehension, such as the topic, text type, reading task, and others. The advances in technologies for the past decades have provided researchers with several possibilities to investigate what goes on in one’s brain since their eyes meet the page until comprehension is achieved. Since the mid-80’s, numerous studies have been conducted with the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG to investigate the process of reading, through the analysis of different components – n400, n100 or n1, P2, among others. These components reveal, for example, how the brain integrates the meaning of a specific word in the semantic context of a given sentence.  based on previous studies, which demonstrate that different types of words affect cognitive load, this paper aims at investigating how the brain processes function and content words inserted in expository and narrative texts with suitable / unsuitable conclusions. results showed that the type of text and word influence the cognitive load in different scalp areas (midline, right and left hemispheres. The  n1s were more pronounced to the content words inserted in narrative texts and to the function words inserted in the expository type of texts, corroborating former studies.

  14. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  15. EPR investigations on technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Munze, R.; Kirmse, R.; Stach, J.

    1986-01-01

    Stimulated by the widespread use of the isotope /sup 99m/Tc in the field of nuclear medicine, there has been a substantial growth of interest in the chemistry of this man-made element. A particular need emerges for analytical methods allowing solution investigations of coordination compounds of technetium with low substance use. Considering these facts, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) appears to be a very suitable method because only very small amounts of the compounds are needed (lower than 1 mg). The resulting spectra give information regarding the valence state, symmetry and bonding properties of the compounds under study

  16. Structure investigations of electrodeposited nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertes, A.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Lakatos-Varsani, M. (Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Physical Chemistry); Kajcsos, Z. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics); Csordas, L. (Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Solid State Physics); Brauer, G. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf bei Dresden (German Democratic Republic)); Leidheiser, H. Jr. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (USA). Center for Surface and Coatings Research)

    1982-08-01

    Nickel, electrodeposited under different conditions and yielding different values of stress, was investigated by positron annihilation (lifetime and Doppler-broadening), Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements. Two-component positron lifetime spectra were obtained. The first component is thought to result from bulk annihilation and trapping at single trapping centres (TC). Estimations of TC-concentrations are obtained by means of the trapping model. The second one possibly denotes annihilation at voids, the number of which is dependent on the stress in the deposit. Results of Doppler-broadening measurements support this interpretation. The Moessbauer results show differences in the magnetic orientation in the three samples examined.

  17. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  18. INVESTIGATION OF SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan HRUŠOVSKÝ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of vegetable oils to undergo violent thermal oxidation is long-known problem. The process of this oxidation is investigated by the means of differential thermal analysis. Polyurethane foam was saturated with Tung oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids at three different mass rations, and airfl ow at three different rates is introduces to the sample to ensure suffi cient volume of air for oxidation. The samples were thermally stressed both dynamically and isothermally. The results were compared to results of standard differential Mackey test.

  19. Investigation of biflavonoids as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitkazina, G.D.; Koposova, R.P.; Eselbaeva, G.O.

    1999-01-01

    In the last years, the biochemical background is represented as the proportion of endogenous radioprotectors and radiosensitizers constituting the natural radiosensitivity. Such representation may reflect a multifactor level of radiosensitivity. This paper describes the biflavonoids that are capable of increasing a non-specific resistance of an organism. Experiments on investigation of the radioprotector properties were conducted for the white pedigree less rats subjected to a single X-ray exposure under the average lethal dose of 7 Gy. Two ways of biflavonoids application were tested

  20. Home brewery as science investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flander, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Part of the compulsory program in primary school is to promote the cross-curricular links among different subjects, days of science in particular make this possible. We organize these days like science investigations for 9th graders. They do some research on the first day and present the results on the second day. Because some experiments with living beings last for a long time, we have at least a two week long break. In the meantime children are encouraged to work on their project, they search for better solutions, do some extra measurement, etc. Students are also stimulated to upgrade their knowledge, be innovative, to come up with individual contributions in the presentations and actively participate in the debate at the plenary presentation at the end of the second day. We offer different workshops to children (catalysts, smart cars, electronics in the hen house, plants in the universe, solar panel and home brewery) but we follow the same objectives like being able to plan a simple scientific investigation (form the question, hypothesis, variables, etc.), being able to use tools and technology for experimenting, collecting and presenting data with critical evaluation, being able to share and present new information. Pupils that choose home brewery are invited to come up with a statement like "Brewer agency has prepared a contract to investigate the influence of different ingredients in beer production with a purpose of preparing beer with the highest amount of alcohol." They start investigating at home by looking into how beer is made and according to the statement they also form questions, hypotheses, variables and make a plan. At school they form groups, present their plans and discuss best options to make a beer. They join their forces and each group prepares beer in the same way, changing only one variable (for example: added sugar, type of cereal). During making beer students also acquire other skills through the following activities: - Measuring sugar

  1. Migraine: Does aura require investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijiaratnam, Nirosen; Barber, Daniel; Lim, Kai Zheong; Paul, Eldho; Jiang, Matthew; Chosich, Benjamin; Wijeratne, Tissa

    2016-09-01

    Migraine is a debilitating condition that affects approximately 15% of the general population. It represents a huge proportion of presentations to the emergency department and a significant number of neurology admissions. Patients are often investigated with imaging. This is particularly the case with migraine with aura (MA). The yield of imaging is however low. There is limited information on Australian hospital presentations and utility of imaging. We aimed to analyse the demographics of migraine presentations to our hospital and the yield of imaging in our centre to help guide future approaches to these patients. We retrospectively looked at medical records of patients presenting to the western health from January 2012 to June 2013. Patients were classified as either having migraine with aura or without. Baseline demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and imaging studies (CT brain, MRI brain and carotid Doppler studies) in each group were evaluated. Patients found to have white matter hyperintensities on MRI were further evaluated. We found patients with aura were more likely to have hypercholesterolemia (12% vs 7%, p=0.05). Patients with aura were more likely to be evaluated with imaging (CT brain (70% vs 41% paura were investigated with carotid Doppler studies. Only 1 patient had an abnormal result. Patients with white matter hyperintensities were older (51 vs 39 years; paura to be largely similar. We also found imaging in either group to be of almost no clinical value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  3. Radio science investigations with Voyager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshleman, V.R.; Tyler, G.L.; Croft, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The planned radio science investigations during the Voyager missions to the outer planets involve: (1) the use of the radio links to and from the spacecraft for occultation measurements of planetary and satellite atmospheres and ionospheres, the rings of Saturn, the solar corona, and the general-relativistic time delay for radiowave propagation through the Sun's gravity field; (2) radio link measurements of true or apparent spacecraft motion caused by the gravity fields of the planets, the masses of their larger satellites, and characteristics of the interplanetary medium; and (3) related measurements which could provide results in other areas, including the possible detection of long-wavelength gravitational radiation propagating through the Solar System. The measurements will be used to study: atmospheric and ionospheric structure, constituents, and dynamics; the sizes, radial distribution, total mass, and other characteristics of the particles in the rings of Saturn; interior models for the major planets and the mean density and bulk composition of a number of their satellites; the plasma density and dynamics of the solar corona and interplanetary medium; and certain fundamental questions involving gravitation and relativity. The instrumentation for these experiments is the same ground-based and spacecraft radio systems as will be used for tracking and communicating with the Voyager spacecraft, although several important features of these systems have been provided primarily for the radio science investigations. (Auth.)

  4. Proteomic Investigations into Hemodialysis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, Mario; Sirolli, Vittorio; Pieroni, Luisa; Felaco, Paolo; Amoroso, Luigi; Urbani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate determinant of the success and quality of hemodialysis therapy. Membrane’s performance can be evaluated in terms of removal efficiency for unwanted solutes and excess fluid, and minimization of negative interactions between the membrane material and blood components that define the membrane’s bio(in)compatibility. Given the high concentration of plasma proteins and the complexity of structural functional relationships of this class of molecules, the performance of a membrane is highly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire. Proteomic investigations have been increasingly applied to describe the protein uremic milieu, to compare the blood purification efficiency of different dialyzer membranes or different extracorporeal techniques, and to evaluate the adsorption of plasma proteins onto hemodialysis membranes. In this article, we aim to highlight investigations in the hemodialysis setting making use of recent developments in proteomic technologies. Examples are presented of why proteomics may be helpful to nephrology and may possibly affect future directions in renal research. PMID:26690416

  5. Proteomic Investigations into Hemodialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bonomini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate determinant of the success and quality of hemodialysis therapy. Membrane’s performance can be evaluated in terms of removal efficiency for unwanted solutes and excess fluid, and minimization of negative interactions between the membrane material and blood components that define the membrane’s bio(incompatibility. Given the high concentration of plasma proteins and the complexity of structural functional relationships of this class of molecules, the performance of a membrane is highly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire. Proteomic investigations have been increasingly applied to describe the protein uremic milieu, to compare the blood purification efficiency of different dialyzer membranes or different extracorporeal techniques, and to evaluate the adsorption of plasma proteins onto hemodialysis membranes. In this article, we aim to highlight investigations in the hemodialysis setting making use of recent developments in proteomic technologies. Examples are presented of why proteomics may be helpful to nephrology and may possibly affect future directions in renal research.

  6. Investigating biofuels through network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curci, Ylenia; Mongeau Ospina, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel policies are motivated by a plethora of political concerns related to energy security, environmental damages, and support of the agricultural sector. In response to this, much scientific work has chiefly focussed on analysing the biofuel domain and on giving policy advice and recommendations. Although innovation has been acknowledged as one of the key factors in sustainable and cost-effective biofuel development, there is an urgent need to investigate technological trajectories in the biofuel sector by starting from consistent data and appropriate methodological tools. To do so, this work proposes a procedure to select patent data unequivocally related to the investigated sector, it uses co-occurrence of technological terms to compute patent similarity and highlights content and interdependencies of biofuels technological trajectories by revealing hidden topics from unstructured patent text fields. The analysis suggests that there is a breaking trend towards modern generation biofuels and that innovators seem to focus increasingly on the ability of alternative energy sources to adapt to the transport/industrial sector. - Highlights: • Innovative effort is devoted to biofuels additives and modern biofuels technologies. • A breaking trend can be observed from the second half of the last decade. • A patent network is identified via text mining techniques that extract latent topics.

  7. Investigations of SPS orbit drifts

    CERN Document Server

    Drøsdal, L; Cornelis, K; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Wenninger, J; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the s...

  8. Bioanalysis Young Investigator: Sadagopan Krishnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sadagopan

    2011-05-01

    Supervisor's supporting comments. I am pleased to recommend Sadagopan Krishnan for the Bioanalysis Young Investigator award. Sadagopan is a bright, creative and highly-motivated young bioanalytical chemist. His theses in our laboratory involved the development of electrochemiluminescent arrays for chemical toxicity screening utilizing cytochrome P450 metalloenzymes. He was senior author of a paper in Analytical Chemistry on this that was featured on the cover. He also investigated fundamental properties of human metabolic cytochrome P450s - research was carried out at his own initiative, and explains for the first time the role of iron spin state on enzyme electron transfer rates. He then developed thin films that mimic the natural cytochrome P450 redox cycle for the first time. He worked with several other group members to develop a superparamagnetic labeling scheme for immunosensing of proteins by surface plasmon resonance at unprecedented low levels, down to 10 fg/ml. Sadagopan has also demonstrated strong leadership skills. After his PhD, Sadagopan joined the group of Fraser Armstrong at Oxford University, UK, as a postdoctoral fellow. He is currently expanding his research horizons into the area of biofuel cells. His eventual goal is to join the faculty of a major university and build a world-class research group in bioanalytical chemistry.

  9. Texture investigation by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the conventional angle dispersive neutron diffraction a monochromatic neutron beam is used. The pole figures under investigation have to be scanned one after another. The commonly applied angle dispersive method is limited to the consideration of Bragg reflection being isolated in the diffraction pattern. The application of multidetectors or position sensitive detectors is discussed. In the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) diffraction a white pulsed neutron beam allows one to satisfy the Bragg law for all lattice spacing at a fixed scattering angle. The main charateristics of the TOF diffraction experiment are shortly outlined. In this method all non-forbidden Bragg reflections are recorded in one pattern simultaneously. The TOF technique is well-suited to study low symmetric or multiphased specimens, especially geological materials, requiring a large number of pole figures for mathematical texture analysis. Multidetector systems can be used to shorten the necessary time for experiments. The registration of all Bragg reflections of fixed scattering geometry is equivalent to the information of the inverse pole figure for the corresponding sample position. Having short exposition times this approach can be applied for in-situ investigations. The magnetic moments of neutrons can be used to study magnetic anisotropies in materials. Two different techniques are discussed

  10. 32 CFR 637.6 - Customs investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Customs investigations. 637.6 Section 637.6... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.6 Customs investigations. (a) Customs violations will be investigated as prescribed in AR 190-41. When customs authorities find...

  11. Investigation of musicality in birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, David; Roeske, Tina C; Voss, Henning U; Naguib, Marc; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2014-02-01

    Songbirds spend much of their time learning, producing, and listening to complex vocal sequences we call songs. Songs are learned via cultural transmission, and singing, usually by males, has a strong impact on the behavioral state of the listeners, often promoting affiliation, pair bonding, or aggression. What is it in the acoustic structure of birdsong that makes it such a potent stimulus? We suggest that birdsong potency might be driven by principles similar to those that make music so effective in inducing emotional responses in humans: a combination of rhythms and pitches-and the transitions between acoustic states-affecting emotions through creating expectations, anticipations, tension, tension release, or surprise. Here we propose a framework for investigating how birdsong, like human music, employs the above "musical" features to affect the emotions of avian listeners. First we analyze songs of thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) by examining their trajectories in terms of transitions in rhythm and pitch. These transitions show gradual escalations and graceful modifications, which are comparable to some aspects of human musicality. We then explore the feasibility of stripping such putative musical features from the songs and testing how this might affect patterns of auditory responses, focusing on fMRI data in songbirds that demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. Finally, we explore ideas for investigating whether musical features of birdsong activate avian brains and affect avian behavior in manners comparable to music's effects on humans. In conclusion, we suggest that birdsong research would benefit from current advances in music theory by attempting to identify structures that are designed to elicit listeners' emotions and then testing for such effects experimentally. Birdsong research that takes into account the striking complexity of song structure in light of its more immediate function - to affect behavioral state in listeners - could

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Experimental investigations into the shear behavior of self-compacting RC beams with and without shear reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar N. HANOON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is a new generation of high-performance concrete, known for its excellent deformability and high resistance to segregation and bleeding. Nonetheless, SCC may be incapable of resisting shear because the shear resistance mechanisms of this concrete are uncertain, especially the aggregate interlock mechanism. This uncertainty is attributed to the fact that SCC contains a smaller amount of coarse aggregates than normal concrete (NC does. This study focuses on the shear strength of self-compacting reinforced concrete (RC beams with and without shear reinforcement. A total of 16 RC beam specimens was manufactured and tested in terms of shear span-to-depth ratio and flexural and shear reinforcement ratio. The test results were compared with those of the shear design equations developed by ACI, BS, CAN and NZ codes. Results show that an increase in web reinforcement enhanced cracking strength and ultimate load. Shear-tension failure was the control failure in all tested beams.

  14. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...

  15. INVESTIGATION OF CORRUPTION WITHIN MULTINATIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. PUIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays companies worldwide are battling to survive and grow in what have continued to be highly adverse economic conditions. In this regard, many multinationals have intensified their efforts to detect and investigate the cases of corruption, as a special form of fraud. The purpose of this article is to analyze the cases of corruption identified within companies in the last year, the evolution of this negative phenomenon and the general perception of companies in this matter. Taking into consideration the aspects above we focus on the conceptual framework of corruption and the studies conducted in the past, later describing its main characteristics and form of manifestations. Finally, we present recent findings of corruption studies issued at the beginning of 2014.

  16. Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnyat, S. [LIIHS-IRIT, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: basnyat@irit.fr; Chozos, N. [Dept. of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nick@dcs.gla.ac.uk; Palanque, P. [LIIHS-IRIT, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: palanque@irit.fr

    2006-12-15

    The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the

  17. Sherlock Project - Investigate to mitigate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouch, B.; Lorthios, J.; Boccanfuso, M.; Thebault, Y.; Praud, M.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the understanding of ageing mechanisms and to support the asset management of steam generators (SGs), EDF in collaboration with the Materials Ageing Institute (MAI) is undertaking a major project to investigate two retired steam generators. The two selected SGs, one from Cruas unit 4 and the other from Paluel unit 2, are recirculating AREVA designs with thermally treated alloy 600 tube bundles and presenting about 30 years of operation. Topics of interest concern wear mechanisms, vibration fatigue, secondary side corrosion of tubes, denting, clogging, fouling, alloy 690 tube plugs, SG internals, tube ends, secondary side chemistry, zinc injection and NDT (non-destructive testing) probes developments by reliability studies. For each topic, the paper will describe the broad guidelines of the destructive examinations program. Most of these examinations will be performed in the new hot laboratory of EDF called LIDEC

  18. Investigation of uranyl ions complexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, N.I.; Kakhaeva, T.V.; Kvaratskheli, Yu.K.; Vodolazov, L.I.; Rodionov, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Spatial distribution of uranium in anionite VP-1AP grains during elevated auc sorption from carbonate media is investigated by the X-ray microanalysis. The form of the concentration profile in the grain depth varies from uniform after the first sorption and alkaline treatment then meniscus during the repeated sorption with 1-3 h phase contact time to volume in a grain after 4 h of contract. In this case the nonuniformity coefficient of uranium distribution in grains increases from 0.026 to 0.045. Capacity on uranium determined in regions along the grain diameter after alkaline treatment of saturated sorbent and repeated uranium sorption from carbonate solutions increases practically two times

  19. Investigations of solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of solar combi systems are on the marked to day. The best performing systems are highly advanced energy systems with thermal stratification manifolds, an efficient boiler and only one control system, which controls both the boiler and the solar collector loop (Weiss et al., 2003......). However, it is still too early to draw conclusions on the design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions needs to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal domestic hot water preparation? Is a stratification manifold always more...... desirable than a fixed inlet position? This paper presents experimental investigations of an advanced solar combi system with thermal stratification manifold inlets both in the solar collector loop and in the space heating system and with an external domestic hot water preparation. Theoretical...

  20. Radiological investigation of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of the report ''Radiological investigation of drinking water'' submitted by a working group of WHO to the Brussels meeting held between Nov 7 and 10, 1978. Annex II is emphasized of the WHO publication bearing the title ''The revision of WHO standards for drinking water''. It is shown that the draft of the revision does not basically differ from the revision introduced in Czechoslovakia and published in a revised standard CSN 83 0611 Drinking Water from 1978, including its harmonization with the Decree 59/72 Collect. of Laws on the protection of health from ionizing radiation, and from the standard CSN 83 0523 Radiometric analysis of drinking water. It is also shown that the text of the working group report contains some incorrect or unclear statements and views, which is explained by the misunderstanding of some ICRP recommendations. (H.S.)

  1. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1998-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Marketing an investigational drug service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, V B; Crane, V; Hayman, J N

    1993-04-01

    The customer survey was a useful tool for marketing the IDS. It provided guidelines for making decisions about the best use of limited human and material resources. Analyzing the results of the survey provided new priorities and directions for the IDS. These results were then used in conjunction with pharmacy financial and operational data to focus on areas of greatest importance to the customers and the pharmacy. Physicians should not be reluctant to pursue compassionate use treatments because of the administrative programs responsibilities that accompany such programs. Every patient should have the opportunity to benefit from alternative therapies that are investigational. For the quality of patient care to be maintained or even enhanced when studies are conducted, nurses must be well trained. The marketing survey fulfilled its purpose of identifying service gaps and allowing us to improve our services.

  3. Metabolomics techniques for nanotoxicity investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengying; Huang, Wanqiu; Chen, Zhipeng; Jiang, Hulin; Chen, Jiaqing; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are commonly defined as engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nm or less. Investigations of their potential toxicological impact on biological systems and the environment have yet to catch up with the rapid development of nanotechnology and extensive production of nanoparticles. High-throughput methods are necessary to assess the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. The omics techniques are well suited to evaluate toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Besides genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling, metabolomics holds great promises for globally evaluating and understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-organism interaction. This manuscript presents a general overview of metabolomics techniques, summarizes its early application in nanotoxicology and finally discusses opportunities and challenges faced in nanotoxicology.

  4. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... of normal video and high speed video (100 Hz) can not reveal any instability in the process when humping occurs. Contrary to this, photo diode signals (sampled at 3 kHz) clearly indicate a characteristic signal when humps occur.When the seam area and seam width have manually been measured on high speed...

  5. Investigating late-onset ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Miriam; Hammerton, Gemma; Collishaw, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult ADHD has been assumed to be a continuation of childhood-onset ADHD. However, recent studies have identified individuals with ADHD in adulthood who have not had ADHD in childhood. Whether or not these individuals have a 'typical' neurodevelopmental profile is not clear. METHODS: We...... tested two explanations for the emergence of apparent late-onset ADHD symptomatology using the ALSPAC epidemiological cohort, by grouping individuals according to their scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) hyperactivity subscale at ages 12 and 17 years. First, we tested whether...... some of those with apparent late-onset ADHD symptoms had been potentially misclassified on the basis of earlier SDQ hyperactivity scores (ages 7, 8 and 9 years) or of subthreshold symptoms at age 12 years. Second, we investigated the possibility that those with 'genuine' late-onset ADHD symptoms had...

  6. Investigations of solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of solar combi systems are on the marked to day. The best performing systems are highly advanced energy systems with thermal stratification manifolds, an efficient boiler and only one control system, which controls both the boiler and the solar collector loop (Weiss et al., 2003...... desirable than a fixed inlet position? This paper presents experimental investigations of an advanced solar combi system with thermal stratification manifold inlets both in the solar collector loop and in the space heating system and with an external domestic hot water preparation. Theoretical......). However, it is still too early to draw conclusions on the design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions needs to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal domestic hot water preparation? Is a stratification manifold always more...

  7. Investigating a new material Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul; Ayres, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Investigating ways of integrating material performance as a design parameter, four presented projects employ the ability to model force and flow to parameterize and calculate material properties. According to Beylerian and Ritter material performance is today regarded as one of the richest sources...... of innovation. By understanding materials not as static or inanimate, but as engaged by complex behaviours and performances, a new dimension of design potentials can be unleashed. The notion of a new digital-material practice, in which the design and detailing of materials are directly linked to the design...... and detailing of buildings, provides the framework for an emerging field of architectural research. Aiming to innovate structural thinking and create better and more sustainable material usage, these new material practices rely on the ability to compute complex inter-scalar dependencies and link these directly...

  8. Investigation of the memorization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Mariana Cretu

    Full Text Available Memorizing involves many processes that are not fully known. This research area is just as exciting for contemporary scientists as well as it was for the ones in antiquity, considering the crucial importance of memory in human life and personality. In the last decades important steps in the knowledge of the memorization process were made by cognitive neuroscience. The paper focuses on the analysis of this process with references to its early known beginning. The study first analyses this topic in Plato's work and continues with opinions of other scientists/philosophers. Analogies between earlier and current theories, including dynamic aspects of the store, retain and recall of information, drive us to a personal point of view referring to the interpretation of Plato's book, The Republic; therefore, new directions of investigation referring to the entities and processes from human body can occur in the next future.

  9. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Poonam

    Nanotechnology has revolutionalized the landscape of modern science and technology, including materials, electronics, therapeutics, bioimaging, sensing, and the environment. Research in the past decade has examined the fate of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as the interactions between nanoparticles and biological and ecosystems using primarily toxicological and ecotoxicological approaches. However, due to the versatility in the physical and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, and due to the vast complexity of their hosting systems, the solubility, transformation, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are still poorly understood. Nanotechnology has been undergoing tremendous development in recent decades, driven by realized perceived applications of nanomaterials in electronics, therapeutics, imaging, sensing, environmental remediation, and consumer products. Nanoparticles on entering the blood stream undergo an identity change, they become coated with proteins. There are different kind of proteins present in blood. Proteins compete for getting coated over the surface of nanoparticle and this whole entity of proteins coated over nanoparticle surface is called Protein Corona. Proteins tightly bound to the surface of nanoparticle form hard corona and the ones loosely bound on the outer surface form soft corona. This dissertation is aimed at spectroscopic investigation of Protein Corona. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review of the literature based on nanomaterials with the focus on carbon based nanomaterilas and introduction to Protein Corona. Chapter II is based different methods used for Graphene Synthesis,different types of defects and doping. In Chapter III influence of defects on Graphene Protein Corona was investigated. Chapter IV is based on the study of Apoptosis induced cell death by Gold and silver nanoparticles. In vitro study of effect of Protein Corona on toxicity of cells was done.

  11. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Noopur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram′s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

  12. Empirical Investigation of Industrial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenko Zahariev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to an aspect in the sphere of management – business priorities of industrial management in XXI century. In modern times the actuality of treated problems is mainly laid into the necessities of the real management practice in industrial organizations and the need theoretical and applied knowledge to be offered to that practice which would allow it methodologically right and methodically correct to implement the corresponding changes in management of a concrete organization. Objects of analyses and evaluations are some fragmented approbations of theses using the corresponding instruments. The characteristic features of the organizations’ profiles and the persons interviewed participated in the investigation are summarized. The determining approaches for Bulgarian organizations are considered too. On the basis of the critical analyses the fundamental tasks are drawn which are inherent to contemporary industrial managers. Attention is paid to key management functions for an effective managerial process. An analysis of managers reaching the best results in industrial management is presented as well as when they are reached. Outlined are also specific peculiarities of industrial management in theRepublicofBulgariaand parameters of the level of productiveness in conditions of business globalization and priority forms in marketing of the ready product / service in XXI century. The results of the launched idea for the necessity to create a new International management architecture (NIMA are determined – structure and structure defining parameters. The results of the investigation of main business priorities in industrial management are commented as well as expected problems in the process of functioning of industrial organizations in XXI century. At the end the corresponding conclusions are made in respect to the techniques used in determining effectiveness of industrial management in Bulgarian organizations.

  13. Experimental investigation of nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D; Taylor, D J; Franke, P; Schroter, R C

    2008-05-01

    The airway geometry of the nasal cavity is manifestly complex, and the manner in which it controls the airflow to accomplish its various physiological functions is not fully understood. Since the complex morphology and inaccessibility of the nasal passageways precludes detailed in-vivo measurements, either computational simulation or in-vitro experiments are needed to determine how anatomical form and function are related. The fabrication of a replica model of the nasal cavity, of a high optical clarity and derived from in-vivo scan data is described here, together with characteristics of the flow field investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization. Flow visualization is shown to be a capable and convenient technique for identifying key phenomena. Specifically the emergence of the jet from the internal nasal valve into the main cavity, how it impacts on the middle turbinate, and the large enhancement of dispersion that accompanies the initial appearance of flow instability are revealed as particularly significant features. The findings from the visualization experiments are complemented by PIV imaging, which provides quantitative detail on the variations in velocity in different regions of the nasal cavity. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the cavity geometry in partitioning the flow into high shear zones, which facilitate rapid heat transfer and humidification from the nasal mucosa, and slower zones affording greater residence times to facilitate olfactory sensing. The experimental results not only provide a basis for comparison with other computational modelling but also demonstrate an alternative and flexible means to investigate complex flows, relevant to studies in different parts of the respiratory or cardiovascular systems.

  14. Use of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen for follow-up monitoring of cervical cancer patients who were treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Min; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Joo-Young; Seo, Sang Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Moon, Sung Ho; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the significance of monitoring the levels of the serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) for the detection of recurrent disease in patients with cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The records of 112 patients with cervical cancer were reviewed. Serum SCC-Ag levels were measured at regular follow-up visits. A SCC-Ag level of 2 ng/mL was considered the upper limit of normal. Biochemical failure was defined as two consecutively increasing SCC-Ag values above normal. Recurrent disease was confirmed by histologic and radiographic studies. Eighteen patients (16%) developed recurrent disease. Sixteen patients had initially elevated SCC-Ag, post-treatment normalization of SCC-Ag, and tumor recurrence. The SCC-Ag difference (ΔSCC-Ag), defined as the difference between the last value after two consecutively increases above normal and the value immediately before the elevation, had good clinical performance in predicting cancer recurrence. The cutoff value of ΔSCC-Ag was 0.95 ng/mL. SCC-Ag is a relatively good method for the detection of disease recurrence in patients with cervical cancer who were treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy

  15. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen and squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels for patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer treated with radiation therapy alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    1998-01-01

    Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) levels have been reported to be useful as prognostic factors, indicators of clinical response, and predictors for recurrence in patients with lung cancer treated by surgery or chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were useful as independent prognostic factors in patients with stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with radiation therapy alone. The serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were measured in 158 and 47 patients, respectively, before radiation therapy. Serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were measured by sandwich radioimmunoassay using the CEA-RIA (radioimmunoassay) kit and the SCC-RIA kit. Serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were above reference values in 19% and 30% of the patients, respectively. The 5-year survival rates were significantly better for patients with a negative SCC Ag result than for those with positive SCC Ag levels (p=0.0001), though no significant difference in survival rates was seen by CEA positivity (p=0.25). SCC Ag positivity (p=0.0006) and stage (p=0.04) were the important prognostic factors, as determined by multivariate analyses. Pretreatment serum SCC Ag level may be useful as an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer who are treated with radiation therapy alone. (author)

  16. Bedrock Hydrogeology - Site investigation SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan [Geosigma AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Assoes AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  17. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications

  18. Interactive investigations into planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, I.

    2015-12-01

    Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for investigations into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.

  19. Investigation of small ruptured aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Masaru; Ikawa, Fusao; Obayashi, Naohiko; Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Nosaka, Ryou; Inagawa, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with ruptured aneurysms smaller than 5 mm in diameter are sometimes encountoied at our hospital. However, the operative indication for unruptured aneurysm is over 5 mm according to the JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR DETECTION OF ASYMPTOMATIC BRAIN DISEASES. We therefore analyzed the characteristics of ruptured aneurysms smaller than 5 mm in diameter. A retrospective review of all SAH patients using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) between April 1999 and March 2004 was conducted. We compared 201 SAH patients with DSA (group A) and 61 with aneurysms smaller than 5 mm (group B). Age, gender, familial history, hypertension, and location of the ruptured aneurysm were examined. In males younger than 40 years old, anterior communicating artery/distal anterior cerebral artery (Acom/DACA) aneurysms were significantly correlated with group B rather than group A. Familial history and hypertension were not found to be characteristic in group B in this study. Small unruptured aneurysms may have a risk of rupture especially in young males with Acom/DACA aneurysms. Further investigations on small aneurysms are needed. (author)

  20. Investigating characteristics of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjar Salajeqe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behavior of members of a firm is considered as the primary step in understanding the organization's culture. In fact, it is always essential to study organizations’ culture when a new action is about to occur. In fact, by leveraging culture, it is becoming easier to accomplish other tasks within organizations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing organizational culture in food industry. The proposed study has adapted a questionnaire based on Denison organizational culture dimensions and distributed it among different groups of employees who worked for one of Iranian food maker in city of Zahedan, Iran. Cronbach alphas for job involvement, consistency, compatibility and mission are 0.786, 0.779, 0.707 and 0.908, respectively. The results indicate that dimensions of job involvement (3.31 and organizational compatibility (3.16 are in better position compared with dimensions of consistency (3.14 and mission (3.11. The study does not find any significance difference between in internal-external focus. In other words, the organization has paid sufficient attention to internal as well as external affairs.

  1. Investigation of Sustainable Housing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roshanfekr Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to sustainable development in cities. The quality of human life is directly related to environmental quality. Because many people live in cities as a place of social, economic and cultural relationships, certain issues such as environmental crises, energy, air and noise pollution and traffic jams are some of the factors that can alter the quality of human life. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of human life, attention to sustainable development (or sustainability in cities is proposed. Sustainable building has a comprehensive significance that begins with the conception of negative and positive impacts on the environment. Several descriptions of sustainable or green buildings have been created; however, they all pursue one goal, which is to create sustainable urban developments and protection of the environment. The quality of indoor environments, materials, and energy consumption, water usage, the impact of building construction processes and building maintenance are some of the factors that affect the environment and sustainability. Sustainable building is an attempt to relieve the minus impacts on the environment that occur during a building’s lifetime. This research investigates the important factors that have relevance to green buildings and introduces several criteria of sustainable housing.

  2. BIOMINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF APATITE PIEZOELECTRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlikowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of apatite piezoelectricity was conducted in order to assess piezoelectric properties of bone. In the first stage, mineralogical analysis of different apatite crystals, regarding their purity and fitness for the experiments was performed. After the crystals had been chosen, 0.8 mm-thick plates were cut, perpendicular and parallel to the crystallographic Z axis. The plates were then polished and dusted with gold. Electrodes were attached to the opposite surfaces of the plates with conductive glue. So prepared plates were hooked up to the EEG machine used for measuring electrical activity in the brain. The plates were then gently tapped to observe and register currents generated in them. Acquired data was processed by subtracting from the resulting graphs those generated by a hand movement, without tapping the plate. Results indicate that apatite plates have weak piezoelectric properties. Observed phenomenon may be translated to bone apatite, which would explain, at least partially, piezoelectric properties of bone. Acquired results suggest that there is a relation between the mechanical workload of bones (bone apatite and theirelectrical properties. Considering the massive internal surface of bones, they may be treated as a kind of internal “antenna” reacting not only to mechanical stimuli, but to changes in electromagnetic field as well. Observed phenomena no doubt significantly influence the biological processes occurring in bones and the whole human body.

  3. INVESTIGATING ENVIRONMENTAL SINKS OF MACROLIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possible environmental sinks (wastewater effluents, biosolids, sediments) of macrolide antibiotics (i.e., azithromycin, roxithromycin and clarithromycin)are investigated using state-of-the-art analytical chemistry techniques. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews

  4. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  5. Investigations on Flexible Multiferroic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhasis; Biswas, Bulbul; Majumder, S. B.

    2008-10-01

    Multiferroic ceramics are one of the most attractive materials for the next generation computer memories, smart sensors, and high frequency microelectronic devices. As compared to single phase multiferroic, piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composite materials exhibit larger magnetoelectric coefficients and therefore better suited for practical applications. In the present paper, we have provided a brief introduction on the multiferroic electro-ceramics followed by the outline of recent research trends on these materials. The potentials of flexible polymer-magnetostrictive composite materials, synthesized by economic chemical based processing routes, has been outlined. To make flexible multiferroic composites, cobalt iron oxide (CoFe2O4) (CFO) spinel powders were synthesized by a polymer assisted decomposition route. The cation mixing in as prepared as well as calcined CFO powders were investigated by XRD Rietveld refinement. Guided by the structural refinement results the processing conditions of the powder synthesis were optimized to yield spinal CFO powder with improved magnetic properties. These powders were dispersed into ferroelectric polyvinyledene (PVDF) matrix and the polymer-spinal composite was cast using different weight fractions of the spinel component. The composites were characterized in terms of its structure and microstructure. Preliminary dielectric and magnetic properties of these CFO-polymer composites is reported.

  6. Investigation of Diarrhea in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E Mönkemüller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhea is a common problem in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, resulting in significant morbidity and potential mortality. In the early stages of immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients are susceptible to infection with the same enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts, but with progressive immunodeficiency, these patients become susceptible to numerous opportunistic disorders. The main factor to consider when tailoring the work-up of diarrhea in the HIV-infected patient is the immune status, which is reflected by the total CD4 lymphocyte cell count. A CD4 count of less than 100 cells/µL is significantly correlated with opportunistic disorders. For the HIV-infected patient with diarrhea, repeated stool studies to investigate for bacteria, ova and parasites should be the first step. When either upper or lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms are present and stool studies are negative, endoscopy directed to the probable organ of involvement is appropriate. If localizing symptoms are absent, the most appropriate next test is sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Not infrequently, despite extensive evaluation, the cause of diarrhea in patients with AIDS remains unexplained. Recently, the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, including protease inhibitors, has led to a change in the epidemiology of diarrhea in AIDS patients. As their immune status improves, HIV-infected patients treated with combination therapy become less prone to opportunistic disorders. However, diarrhea appears to be frequent because several antiretroviral agents can themselves cause diarrhea.

  7. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, V

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...

  8. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  9. The different functions and clinical significances of caveolin-1 in human adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pin Fu,1 Fuchun Chen,2 Qi Pan,2 Xianda Zhao,1 Chen Zhao,1 William Chi-Shing Cho,3 Honglei Chen1,4 1Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 2Department of Thoracosurgery, Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Wenling, Wenling, Zhejiang, 3Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 4Department of Pathology, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Caveolin-1 (Cav-1, a major structural protein of caveolae, is an integral membrane protein which plays an important role in the progression of carcinoma. However, whether Cav-1 acts as a tumor promoter or a tumor suppressor still remains controversial. For example, the tumor-promoting function of Cav-1 has been found in renal cancer, prostate cancer, tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, lung SCC and bladder SCC. In contrast, Cav-1 also plays an inhibitory role in esophagus adenocarcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and cutaneous SCC. The role of Cav-1 is still controversial in thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, pancreas cancer, oral SCC, laryngeal SCC, head and neck SCC, esophageal SCC and cervical SCC. Besides, it has been reported that the loss of stromal Cav-1 might predict poor prognosis in breast cancer, gastric cancer, pancreas cancer, prostate cancer, oral SCC and esophageal SCC. However, the accumulation of stromal Cav-1 has been found to be promoted by the progression of tongue SCC. Taken together, Cav-1 seems playing a different role in different cancer subtypes even of the same organ, as well as acting differently in the same cancer subtype of different organs. Thus, we hereby explore the functions of Cav-1 in human adenocarcinoma and SCC from the perspective of clinical significances and pathogenesis. We envision that novel targets may come with the further investigation of Cav-1 in carcinogenesis

  10. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  11. A retrospective investigation on canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1 in oral oncogenesis reveals dogs are not a suitable animal model for high-risk HPV-induced oral cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Porcellato

    Full Text Available CPV1 (also called COPV is a papillomavirus responsible for oral papillomatosis in young dogs. The involvement of this viral type in oral oncogenesis has been hypothesized in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, but has never been investigated in other neoplastic and hyperplastic oral lesions of dogs. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CPV1 in different neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions in order to assess its role in canine oral oncogenesis; according to the results obtained, a second aim of the study was to define if the dog can be considered a valid animal model for oral high risk HPV-induced tumors. Eighty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE canine oral lesions including 78 oral tumors (papillomas, SCCs, melanomas, ameloblastomas, oral adenocarcinomas and 10 hyperplastic lesions (gingival hyperplasia were investigated with immunohistochemistry for the presence of papillomavirus L1 protein and with Real-Time PCR for CPV1 DNA. RT-PCR for RNA was performed on selected samples. All viral papillomas tested were positive for immunohistochemistry and Real-time PCR. In 3/33 (10% SCCs, viral DNA was demonstrated but no viral RNA could be found. No positivity was observed both with immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR in the other hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity of dogs. Even though the finding of CPV1 DNA in few SCCs in face of a negative immunohistochemistry could support the hypothesis of an abortive infection in the development of these lesions, the absence of viral RNA points out that CPV1 more likely represents an innocent bystander in SCC oncogenesis. The study demonstrates a strong association between CPV1 and oral viral papillomas whereas viral contribution to the pathogenesis of other oral lesions seems unlikely. Moreover, it suggests that a canine model of CPV1 infection for HPV-induced oncogenesis could be inappropriate.

  12. A retrospective investigation on canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1) in oral oncogenesis reveals dogs are not a suitable animal model for high-risk HPV-induced oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcellato, Ilaria; Brachelente, Chiara; Guelfi, Gabriella; Reginato, Alice; Sforna, Monica; Bongiovanni, Laura; Mechelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    CPV1 (also called COPV) is a papillomavirus responsible for oral papillomatosis in young dogs. The involvement of this viral type in oral oncogenesis has been hypothesized in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), but has never been investigated in other neoplastic and hyperplastic oral lesions of dogs. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CPV1 in different neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions in order to assess its role in canine oral oncogenesis; according to the results obtained, a second aim of the study was to define if the dog can be considered a valid animal model for oral high risk HPV-induced tumors. Eighty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) canine oral lesions including 78 oral tumors (papillomas, SCCs, melanomas, ameloblastomas, oral adenocarcinomas) and 10 hyperplastic lesions (gingival hyperplasia) were investigated with immunohistochemistry for the presence of papillomavirus L1 protein and with Real-Time PCR for CPV1 DNA. RT-PCR for RNA was performed on selected samples. All viral papillomas tested were positive for immunohistochemistry and Real-time PCR. In 3/33 (10%) SCCs, viral DNA was demonstrated but no viral RNA could be found. No positivity was observed both with immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR in the other hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity of dogs. Even though the finding of CPV1 DNA in few SCCs in face of a negative immunohistochemistry could support the hypothesis of an abortive infection in the development of these lesions, the absence of viral RNA points out that CPV1 more likely represents an innocent bystander in SCC oncogenesis. The study demonstrates a strong association between CPV1 and oral viral papillomas whereas viral contribution to the pathogenesis of other oral lesions seems unlikely. Moreover, it suggests that a canine model of CPV1 infection for HPV-induced oncogenesis could be inappropriate.

  13. Project Aquarius--Geohydrologic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganus, William J.

    1970-01-01

    Piper and Stead (1965) suggested several potential applications of nuclear explosives in the development and management of water resources. The Aquarius study began with an investigation of these potential applications in Arizona. The three district physiographic provinces of Arizona offered a wide range of geohydrologic settings for study of modification by nuclear explosives Damming of surface water by hulking techniques including rock quarrying, was considered the most favorable application for analysis. A general discussion of geologic and hydrologic conditions for a canyon site in North-central Arizona is given. Groundwater recharge by cratering in alluvial materials is rated as the second most favorable application and a site in Southeastern Arizona, representative of a typical alluvial fan setting, is discussed. Other applications are presented but hold less promise due to lack of geohydrologic and nuclear explosion data necessary for proper evaluation. In the review of potential sites for study, primary consideration was given to distance of site irom population centers and to the quantity of water that could be developed and managed. For surface water resource development by nuclear explosions, additional considerations for site selection included canyon shape for landslide, throw-out or rock-fill techniques, canyon meanders necessary for diversion channels, low permeable rock types for minimizing problems of radioisotope migration, and a clear identification of any groundwater system that could be affected. In the site selection for recharge craters, considerations included adequate subsurface storage space, aquifer characteristics favorable to recharge and recovery, subsurface lithologic type and distribution that would permit control of radioisotopes by either monitoring or removal, suspended sediment load of water source, and estimated increased efficiency of artificial recharge over natural recharge. (author)

  14. Borehole investigations of firn processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Robert L.

    Information on paleoclimate and firn processes can be obtained from the shallow regions of an ice sheet via borehole logging. I introduce a method for measuring vertical strain in a borehole using a borehole video camera and artificial marking bands. The method uses image processing to determine the distance from the camera to a marker. One product of these measurements is a depth-age scale for the firn at Taylor Dome. The age of an ash layer in the core is 675 +/- 25 years. I compare this method with a similar method using a metal detector to locate the markers. Data collected at Siple Dome with the two methods agrees, and I discuss the merits of each system. From a similar analysis to that used for Taylor Dome, the same ash layer found in both cores has an age of 665 +/- 30 years at Siple Dome, in agreement with the measurements from Taylor Dome. I develop a method for measuring vertical motion using natural markers in the borehole wall. This method determines the returned brightness from an annular region of the borehole wall, and produces a Borehole Optical Stratigraphic (BOS) profile. Features in this BOS profile can be tracked to determine strain. Using data from Summit, Greenland, I calculate the vertical strain that took place between 2 logs taken 70 days apart. Annual layers can be resolved in the BOS signal. A depth-age scale for the firn at Siple Dome, made by counting these annual layers, agrees with similar depth-age scales produced by traditional stratigraphy on the core. I investigate the relationship between the BOS signal and the detailed firn density profile provided by the Wallingford Neutron Scattering density probe. The BOS and density profiles show positive correlation near the surface, with correlation decreasing and becoming negative near the bottom of the survey at 30 meters. This phenomenon could be related to the transitions between densification-mechanism regimes.

  15. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  16. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubayah, R.; Goetz, S. J.; Blair, J. B.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Hansen, M.; Healey, S. P.; Hofton, M. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Kellner, J.; Luthcke, S. B.; Swatantran, A.

    2014-12-01

    Spaceborne lidar has been identified as a key technology by the international ecosystem science community because it enables accurate estimates of canopy structure and biomass and forms the basis for fusion approaches that extend the capabilities of existing and planned radar missions, such as the NASA-ISRO SAR and the ESA BIOMASS mission. The Global Ecosystems Dynamics Investigation Lidar (GEDI Lidar) was recently selected by NASA's Earth Ventures Instrument (EVI) program. From its vantage point on the International Space Station, GEDI Lidar provides high-resolution observations of forest vertical structure and addresses three, core science questions: What is the aboveground carbon balance of the land surface? What role will the land surface play in mitigating atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades? How does ecosystem structure affect habitat quality and biodiversity? GEDI informs these science questions by making billions of lidar waveform observations of canopy structure over its nominal one year mission length. The instrument uses three laser transmitters to produce 14 parallel tracks of 25 m footprints. These canopy measurements are then used to measure biomass and in fusion with radar and other remote sensing data to quantify changes in biomass resulting from disturbance and recovery. GEDI further marries ecosystem structure from lidar with ecosystem modeling to predict the sequestration potential of existing forests and to evaluate the impact of policy-driven afforestation and reforestation actions on sequestering additional carbon. Lastly, GEDI's observations of ecosystem structure provide a mapping of critical habitat metrics at the fine scales required for understanding the patterns, processes, and controls on biodiversity and habitat quality. The selection of GEDI Lidar, when combined with the rapid advancement of new radar missions and the availability of long-term land cover archives from passive optical sensors, ushers in an exciting new era of land

  17. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    groundwaters, and also by stable isotopes and uranium isotopes in secondary minerals. Information on timing of water and solute movements is important because it indicates any correlation with the timing of external events that might have perturbed and destabilised the groundwater system in the past, and allows a timescale to be estimated for the persistence of stable conditions. Data from a number of published site investigation projects and research programmes are reviewed to illustrate the patterns of geochemical data and the relationships between them, and how these are interpreted in terms of hydrodynamic stability. Data from Aespoe and Stripa and from exploratory boreholes at Finnsjoen and other sites in Sweden are compiled and discussed. Preliminary data from SKB's ongoing site investigations at Simpevarp/Laxemar and Forsmark are not considered in detail but their general similarities with Aespoe and Finnsjoen/SFR respectively are introduced into the discussion of geochemical evidence for groundwater stability in inland and coastal areas. Relevant data from Finnish sites including Olkiluoto, from the Whiteshell URL area in Canada, from Sellafield in the UK, and from the Tono area and URL in Japan are also summarised in appendices and discussed because they add further insights into the interpretation of geochemical indicators for a range of geological environments. The compiled data provide only limited scope for comparison of groundwater evolution and stability between inland and coastal areas in Sweden, because of the patchiness of representative data especially from early site studies. The external changes that might have perturbed stable groundwater conditions in the past are glaciation (i.e. melt water, mechanical loading/unloading and permafrost) and varying sea water infiltration at coastal sites due to changes in palaeo-Baltic and isostatic conditions. The present distributions of palaeo-Baltic sea water in groundwaters at coastal sites vary, reflecting

  18. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Smellie, John; Gimeno, Maria J.; Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F.; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Pedersen, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the δ 18 O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V

  19. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria J.; Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F. [Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Pedersen, Karsten [Micans AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the {delta}{sup 18}O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V

  20. Landslide: Mineralogical and Physical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Viluș; Grozav, Adia; Rogobete, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    In order to construct a road bed foundation, if land has moved, on an area with old landslides, there is a high chance of it moving again. The investigation was made in a region with hilly relief, in which the parent materials of soils are argillaceous marls of Pliocene age. Because the slope is scarped and the versant has been cut, the soil mass slide favoured of the particle-size distribution dominated by heavy clay. With a reiteratedly percolative moisture regime, the soil material is saturated in water fora long period (700-800 mm precipitation/year), and that can increase the slope mass, thereby increasing the driving forces. In a soil profile situated on the top of the hill, with landslide for about 40 m length of the road, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were analysed physic-chemical and mineralogical. For the heavy and light minerals from the sand fraction a polarized light analyser is used, and for clay minerals X-ray, differential thermal and infrared absorption method are used. The particle-size distribution in the soil profile is dominated by the clay fraction, which reached 53.2% in the ABt horizon and 63.0% in the Bt horizon (67-93 cm depth). The structure of the light minerals, consists of quartz (41-58%); feldspar (10.16-18.10%); muscovite (14.10-26.04). The heavy minerals are oxides (2.61-15.26%), hornblende (0.58-2.87%) and biotite (0.51-2.68%). It must be mentioned the presence of the metamorphic minerals, with the source of the Poiana Rusca mountains. These minerals are epidote (1.01-1.86%), disthene (0.70-1.86%), staurolite (0.73-2.46%) and sillimanite (0.35-0.45%). The clay minerals, inherited from the parent material or formed during the soil-forming process are dominated by smectite, which represent (71-85%) from the total clay minerals, illite 10-21%, and Kaolinite, 4-12%. Rheological properties, like plastic index (53.8%), activity index (1.01%) and consistency index (0.99-1.00%) show that the shrinkage - swelling processes are

  1. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  2. [Expression of promyelocytic leukaemia protein in Bowen's disease, skin squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongyu; Ma, Huiqun; Wang, Shijie; Ma, Yunyun; Zou, Xingwei; Li, Ruilian

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the expression of promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein of PML protein in Bowen's disease (BD), skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and explore the role of PML in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PML protein in normal skin tissues and lesions of Bowen's disease, SCC and BCC were detected with immunohistochemistry. Normal skin tissues did not express PML protein. In BCC, PML showed rather low expressions in the skin lesions (8.69% in cell nuclei and 4.35% in cytoplasm). The lesions in BD and SCC (grade I and II) showed obvious overexpression of PML protein in the cell nuclei and cytoplasm, and its expression in the cell nuclei of these lesions was significantly higher than that in grade III-IV SCC. PML protein may play an important role in the early stage of SCC, and its overexpression may contribute to the carcinogenesis and metastasis of SCC.

  3. Electrophoretic analysis of the "cross-class" interaction between novel inhibitory serpin, squamous cell carcinoma antigen-1 and cysteine proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, S; Nakamura, K; Tanaka, T; Numa, F; Suminami, Y; Tsunaga, N; Kakegawa, H; Katunuma, N; Kato, H

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the "cross-class" interaction between cysteine proteinases and a novel inhibitory serpin, recombinant squamous cell carcinoma (rSCC) antigen-1, which inhibits a serine proteinase, chymotrypsin. rSCC antigen-1 inhibited the cysteine proteinases, papain, papaya proteinase IV and cathepsin L. Interestingly, although rSCC antigen-1 formed sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- and heat-stable complexes with chymotrypsin, rSCC antigen-1 gave the 40 kDa fragment and small molecular mass peptide by incubation with papain without forming an SDS- and heat-stable complex. The cleavage was observed between the Gly353-Ser354 bond, indicating that rSCC antigen-1 interacts with cysteine proteinases not at the predicted reactive site P1-P1' portion (Ser354-Ser355), but at the Gly353-Ser354 of the P2-P1 portion. These findings promote understanding of the "suicide inhibition" mechanism of SCC antigen-1 against cysteine proteinases.

  4. Effect of water content on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 in iodine-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2005-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 (UNS R60804) was studied in 10 g/L iodine dissolved in various alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 1 propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-octanol. SCC was observed in all the systems studied and it was found that the higher the size of alcohol molecule, the lower the SCC susceptibility. The existence of intergranular attack -controlled by the diffusion of the active species- is a condition for the SCC process to occur. In the present work the inhibiting effect of water on the SCC susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 in iodine-alcoholic solutions was also investigated and the results showed that the minimum water content to inhibit the SCC process depends on the type of alcohol used as a solvent. (author) [es

  5. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    the geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded

  6. Activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk of different somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Kelly, A L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2015-11-01

    Individual caprine milk with different somatic cell counts (SCC) were studied with the aim of investigating the percentage distribution of leukocyte cell types and the activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes; proteolysis of casein was also studied in relation to cell type following recovery from milk. The experiment was conducted on 5 intensively managed dairy flocks of Garganica goats; on the basis of SCC, the experimental groups were denoted low (L-SCC; 1,501,000 cells/mL) SCC. Leukocyte distribution differed between groups; polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes were higher in M-SCC and H-SCC milk samples, the percentage macrophages was the highest in H-SCC, and levels of nonviable cells significantly decreased with increasing SCC. Activities of all the main proteolytic enzymes were affected by SCC; plasmin activity was the highest in H-SCC milk and the lowest in L-SCC, and elastase and cathepsin D activities were the highest in M-SCC. Somatic cell count influenced casein hydrolysis patterns, with less intact α- and β-casein in H-SCC milk. Higher levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides were detected in sodium caseinate incubated with leukocytes isolated from L-SCC milk, independent of cell type, whereas among cells recovered from M-SCC milk, macrophages yielded the highest levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides from sodium caseinate. The level of high electrophoretic mobility peptides was higher in sodium caseinate incubated with polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes and macrophages isolated from M-SCC, whereas the same fraction of peptides was always the highest, independent of leukocyte type, for cells recovered from H-SCC milk. In caprine milk, a level of 700,000 cells/mL represented the threshold for changes in leukocyte distribution, which is presumably related to the immune status of the mammary gland. Differences in the profile of indigenous lysosomal proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk may influence the integrity of casein

  7. Criminal Network Investigation: Processes, Tools, and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    important challenge for criminal network investigation, despite the massive attention it receives from research and media. Challenges such as the investigation process, the context of the investigation, human factors such as thinking and creativity, and political decisions and legal laws are all challenges......Criminal network investigations such as police investigations, intelligence analysis, and investigative journalism involve a range of complex knowledge management processes and tasks. Criminal network investigators collect, process, and analyze information related to a specific target to create...... that could mean the success or failure of criminal network investigations. % include commission reports as indications of process related problems .. to "play a little politics" !! Information, process, and human factors, are challenges we find to be addressable by software system support. Based on those...

  8. A Classroom Investigation into the Catenary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Ed

    2011-01-01

    The quest to find the equation of a catenary makes an ideal investigation for upper secondary students. In the modelling exercise that follows, no knowledge of calculus is required to gain a fairly good understanding of the nature of the curve. This investigation is best described as a scientific investigation--a "hands on" experience…

  9. Kinesthetic Investigations in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Brooke A.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2014-01-01

    Creating investigations that allow students to see physics in their everyday world and to be kinesthetically active outside of the traditional physics classroom can be incredibly engaging and effective. The investigations we developed were inquiry investigations in which students engaged in concrete experiences before we discussed the abstract…

  10. How To Investigate a Sexual Harassment Complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses how administrators should investigate sexual harassment complaints. When conducted properly, the investigation process will resolve the claim fairly and reduce the likelihood of further harassment and the risk of litigation. Administrators should keep a file of all complaints, investigate thoroughly, conduct interviews properly, make…

  11. Cytochrome P450 levels are altered in patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the carcinogenesis of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) in human esophagus by determining expression patterns and protein levels of representative CYPs in esophageal tissue of patients with SCC and controls. METHODS: mRNA expression of CYP2E1...

  12. Rotation capacity of self-compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, P.

    2006-01-01

    Steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) has been used in segmental tunnel linings in the past years. In order to investigate the effect of steel fibers on the rotation capacity of plastic hinges in self-compacting concrete (SCC) the effect of the addition of fibers to SCC in compression, tension and

  13. Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M.J.; Green, L.E.; Schukken, Y.H.; Bradley, A.J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Haas, de Y.; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n =

  14. Archive of chirp seismic reflection data collected during USGS cruises 00SCC02 and 00SCC04, Barataria Basin, Louisiana, May 12-31 and June 17-July 2, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, S.V.; Kindinger, J.L.; Flocks, J.G.; Wiese, D.S.; Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Britsch, L.D.; Brooks, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    This archive consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data collected in the Barataria Basin of southern Louisiana. These data were acquired in May, June, and July of 2000 aboard the R/V G.K. Gilbert. Included here are data in a variety of formats including binary, American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), Hyper-Text Markup Language (HTML), shapefiles, and Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) and Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. Binary data are in Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format and may be downloaded for further processing or display. Reference maps and GIF images of the profiles may be viewed with a web browser. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) information provided here is compatible with Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) GIS software.

  15. Archive of Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Cruises 01SCC01 and 01SCC02, Timbalier Bay and Offshore East Timbalier Island, Louisiana, June-August, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2003-01-01

    In June, July, and August of 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of New Orleans (UNO), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, conducted a shallow geophysical and sediment core survey of Timbalier Bay and the Gulf of Mexico offshore East Timbalier Island, Louisiana. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital seismic reflection data, trackline navigation files, trackline navigation maps, observers' logbooks, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) information, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. In addition, a filtered and gained digital Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) image of each seismic profile is provided. Please see Kulp and others (2002), Flocks and others (2003), and Kulp and others (in prep.) for further information about the sediment cores collected and the geophysical results. For convenience, a list of acronyms and abbreviations frequently used in this report is also included. This Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) document is readable on any computing platform that has standard DVD driver software installed. Documentation on this DVD was produced using Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) utilized by the World Wide Web (WWW) and allows the user to access the information using a web browser (i.e. Netscape, Internet Explorer). To access the information contained on this disc, open the file 'index.htm' located at the top level of the disc using a web browser. This report also contains WWW links to USGS collaborators and other agencies. These links are only accessible if access to the Internet is available while viewing this DVD. The archived boomer seismic reflection data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry et al., 1975) and may be downloaded for processing with public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU), currently located at http://www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes/index.html. Examples of SU processing scripts are provided in the BOOM.tar file located in the SU subfolder of the SOFTWARE folder located at the top level of this disc. In-house (USGS) DOS and Microsoft Windows compatible software for viewing SEG-Y headers - DUMPSEGY.EXE (Zihlman, 1992) - is provided in the USGS subfolder of the SOFTWARE folder. Processed profile images, trackline navigation maps, logbooks, and formal metadata may be viewed with a web browser.

  16. Archive of Chirp Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Cruises 01SCC01 and 01SCC02, Timbalier Bay and Offshore East Timbalier Island, Louisiana, June 30 - July 9 and August 1 - 12, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.; Kindinger, Jack G.

    2003-01-01

    In June, July, and August of 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of New Orleans, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, conducted a shallow geophysical and sediment core survey of Timbalier Bay and the Gulf of Mexico offshore East Timbalier Island, Louisiana. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital seismic reflection data, trackline navigation files, trackline navigation maps, observers' logbooks, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) information, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. In addition, a gained digital Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) image of each seismic profile is provided. Please see Kulp and others (2002), Flocks and others (2003), and Kulp and others (in prep.) for further information about the sediment cores collected and the geophysical results. For convenience, a list of acronyms and abbreviations frequently used in this report is also included. This Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) document is readable on any computing platform that has standard DVD driver software installed. Documentation on this DVD was produced using Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) utilized by the World Wide Web (WWW) and allows the user to access the information using a web browser (i.e. Netscape, Internet Explorer). To access the information contained on these discs, open the file 'index.htm' located at the top level of each disc using a web browser. This report also contains WWW links to USGS collaborators and other agencies. These links are only accessible if access to the internet is available while viewing these DVDs. The archived chirp seismic reflection data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry et al., 1975) and may be downloaded for processing with public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU), currently located at http://www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes/index.html. Examples of SU processing scripts are provided in the CHIRP.tar file located in the SU subfolder of the SOFTWARE folder located at the top level of each disc. In-house (USGS) DOS and Microsoft Windows compatible software for viewing SEG-Y headers - DUMPSEGY.EXE (Zihlman, 1992) - is provided in the USGS subfolder of the SOFTWARE folder. Processed profile images, trackline navigation maps, logbooks, and formal metadata may be viewed with a web browser.

  17. Investigations for the radiotechnology of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poehland-Block, H.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation technology of drugs is investigated. The following groups or substances are individually dealt with: 1) Investigations on enzymes: determination of the residual germ number and the residual activity of pancreatin and bromelin after irradiation with 60 Co gamma radiation. 2) Investigations on 60 Co gamma-irradiated emulsifiers from the polyethylene glycolsorbitan fatty acid ester series, on thus produced and on irradiated emulsions. 3) Irradiation and testing of granulatum simplex and tablets prepared from this. (EK/LH) [de

  18. Preformulation and Formulation Investigational New Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    AD-A252 024 CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-85-C-5003 TITLE: PREFORMULATION AND FORMULATION INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Douglas R. Flanagan... PREFORMULATION AND FOMULATION INVESTIGATIONAL Contract No. NEW DRUGS DAMD17-85-C-5003 6. AUTHOR(S) 0603807A Douglas R. Flanagan, John L. Lach (deceased), and...RA V, 16. PRICE CODE formulation studies , clinical studies 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CtASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20

  19. 225 years of the Venus atmosphere investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsukov, V.L.; Volkov, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Historical review of investigation into the Venus atmosphere is given. It begins from the discovery of planetary atmosphere made by a great Russian scientist Lomonosov in 1761 till the latest atmosphere investigations by means of the Vega-1 and Vega-2 descent vehicles in 1985 within the framework of the international project for studying. The Venus planet and Halley comet. Results of investigation into physical properties and chemical composition of the planetary atmosphere and surface are present in short

  20. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  1. VOLTAMMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VOLTAMMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROXO-, CHLORO-, EDTA AND CARBOHYDRATE COMPLEXES OF LEAD, CHROMIUM, ZINC, CADMIUM AND COPPER: POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO METAL SPECIATION STUDIES IN BREWERY WASTEWATER.

  2. 48 CFR 750.7110-1 - Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7110-1 Investigation. The Evaluation Division of the Office of...

  3. Investigating the relationship between social responsibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the relationship between social responsibility and improving organizational commitment in employees of Tehran Ghavamin Bank with respect to the mediating role of psychological empowerment.

  4. Investigating road safety management processes in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice”

  5. 21 CFR 812.25 - Investigational plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protocol describing the methodology to be used and an analysis of the protocol demonstrating that the investigation is scientifically sound. (c) Risk analysis. A description and analysis of all increased risks to which subjects will be exposed by the investigation; the manner in which these risks will be minimized...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF ANGULAR BALL BEARING WEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Savchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Wearing process of balls in an angular ball bearing has been investigated in the paper. Force affecting a separator from the side of balls is determined theoretically. Wear rate may be calculated with a formula for abrasive wear while substituting numerical parameter values of the investigated ball bearing for formula symbols.

  7. Lake-tilting investigations in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasse, T.

    1996-04-01

    The main aim of lake-tilting investigations is to determine the course of the glacio-isostatic uplift, i.e. to find a formula for the uplift. Besides the lake-tilting graphs, knowledge of the recent relative uplift and the gradient of some marine shorelines are used for solving this problem. This paper summarizes four investigations. 23 refs, 10 figs

  8. DNA Barcoding Investigations Bring Biology to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how DNA barcoding investigations bring biology to life. Biologists recognize the power of DNA barcoding not just to teach biology through connections to the real world but also to immerse students in the exciting process of science. As an investigator in the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University in New…

  9. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Investigations leading to the understanding and development of solid state magnesium batteries are considered important, as Mg is free from hazards and is also highly stable and abundant. A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of about 100 mm thickness is investigated for electrochemical reversibility of the Mg/Mg2+ couple and ...

  10. Lake-tilting investigations in southern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    The main aim of lake-tilting investigations is to determine the course of the glacio-isostatic uplift, i.e. to find a formula for the uplift. Besides the lake-tilting graphs, knowledge of the recent relative uplift and the gradient of some marine shorelines are used for solving this problem. This paper summarizes four investigations. 23 refs, 10 figs.

  11. Investigations of fabric stratifiers for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    water. In this paper investigations of a number of different fabric stratification pipes are presented and compared to a non flexible inlet stratifier. Additional, detailed investigations of the flow structure close to two fabric stratification pipes are presented for one set of operating conditions...

  12. Computer forensics investigation; implications for improved cyber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer forensics investigation is relatively new in Nigeria but promises to serve as a watch dog in curbing and checkmating cyber-crimes and ensuring cyber security. This paper aimed at examining the concepts of cyber-crime, cyber security and the implications of computer forensics investigation on cyber security in ...

  13. Investigative Journalism and the Moral Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Theodore L.; Ettema, James S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how investigative journalists work within the unresolved tension between detached observation and active moral agency. Concludes that investigative journalism may oversee the reinforcement of dominant moral values, but may also preside over the definition and development, as well as the debasement and dissolution, of those values. (MS)

  14. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical investigation involving the electrical resistivity and gravity methods was carried out within the premises of a Beverage Factory in Edo State. The investigation was to enable the determination of the cause(s) of a ground subsidence within the premises of the boilers. The vertical electrical sounding interpretation ...

  15. Spectroscopic investigations on ion beam irradiated polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, O.; Chipara, M. E-mail: mchipara@unlserve.unl.edu; Enge, W.; Compagnini, G.; Reyes-Romero, J. E-mail: vetr@caracas.c-com.net; Bacmeister, U.; Chipara, M.D

    2000-05-02

    Luminescence investigations on polycarbonate irradiated with accelerated uranium ions are reported. The dependence of luminescence spectra on the penetration length, deposited energy and dose and track radius is investigated. The luminescence spectrum has been assigned to phenyls. It is suggested that most phenyls are located within the latent track. The experimental results are in good agreement with data obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.

  16. 77 FR 44174 - Procedures for Safety Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... of safety investigations. The rule is intended to state clearly the Board's policy and procedures for... statutory authority, when appropriate, following standard safety investigation policies, practices, and... has adhered to the regulatory philosophy and the applicable principles of regulation as set forth in...

  17. Investigative Journalism Techniques. Evaluation Guide Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark

    Noting that program evaluators can profit by adopting the investigative journalist's goal of discovering hidden information, this guide explores the journalist's investigative process--without its element of suspicion--and discusses how components of this process can be applied to program evaluation. After listing the major characteristics of the…

  18. Hydrological and hydrogeochemical investigations in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.

    1985-07-01

    Underground investigations in boreholes are presumed to be an important investigation technique for the detailed design of a final repository for nuclear waste. The siting of the repository will be based on surface investigations, but for detailed investigations when the access shafts are sunk, investigations in underground boreholes from the initial shafts and tunnels will be of importance. The hydrogeological investigations in boreholes aimed at testing and developing of hydrogeological techniques and instruments for use in an underground environment in order to reflect actual working and testing conditions. This report is the final report from the hydrogeological investigations in boreholes, and it summarizes the different activities carried out during the course of the program. Most of the included activities are reported in separate internal reports, and therefore only the most important results are included, together with the experiences and conclusions gained during the investigations. The hydrogeochemical part of the program is in a separate final report, consequently no hydrogeochemical information is in the current report. (Author)

  19. An Investigation of Double Bass Vibrato Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe various vibrato characteristics of university double bass students. The primary objectives were: (1) to describe vibrato rate and width for commonly used fingers in first, fourth, and thumb positions; (2) to investigate whether students initiate vibrato in an upward or downward direction;…

  20. The Power of Investigating: Guiding Authentic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Julie V.; Nyberg, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Children want to explore, dig, build, play, and wonder. To do this they need to touch, feel, see, observe, listen, manipulate, plan, and create. How does a teacher build and maintain a learning environment that will help students investigate meaningful questions? How does a teacher plan and manage ongoing investigations? How does a teacher use…

  1. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOLINIUM DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Antifungal activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei of some substituted quinolinium derivatives has been investigated. It was established that the most perspective compound for detail investigation of antifungal activity by labeled biomarkers method was N-phenylbenzoquinaldinium tetrafluoroborate.

  2. Experimental investigation of submerged perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, G.A.; Kozlov, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Results of investigations into determination of steam velocity dependence o on coolant steam content and hydraulic resistance of submerged perforated plates (spp) of steam-drum of npp with rbmk-1000 reactor are presented. The data on be ench-scale investigation of spp hydrodynamics are given. The formula for calculation of steam velocity and recommendations on choice of spp design are pr resented

  3. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and recharge zones in Suki river basin, ... future, investigation was carried out with the help of geophysical indicators. Vertical electrical sounding studies were conducted at 17 ..... This will aid in understanding the spatial variation of these parameters to demar-.

  4. Tracer investigations of catalytic reactions of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermietzel, J.

    1984-12-01

    Tracer techniques with 14 C-labelled compounds were used to investigate the isomerization of C 8 -aromatics and reforming of light gasoline. The investigations aimed at determining the selectivity of newly developed catalysts and at elucidating the reaction mechanisms. The appropriate tracer methods are briefly discussed including their theoretical fundamentals

  5. Investigative Journalism, Corruption and Sustainable Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigative journalism is critical to the advancement and preservation of a country's democratic institutions and way of life and in helping to catalyse equitable development. Thus, the study focuses on how to curb corruption in Nigeria, through investigative journalism, so as to engender development at all levels. The study ...

  6. Photodynamic therapy with topical methyl- and hexylaminolevulinate for prophylaxis and treatment of UV-induced SCC in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Poulsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) is a long-chained 5-aminolevulinic acid-ester that has been proposed as a novel photosensitizing agent to methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). The more lipophilic HAL, may improve treatment outcome for non-melanoma skin cancer....

  7. Gonadal development and growth in 46,XX and 46,XY individuals with P450scc deficiency (congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Torsson, A; Damkjaer Nielsen, M

    1991-01-01

    pathology. Gonadectomy was performed in the 2 surviving 46,XY individuals at the age of 7 years, and histological examination showed normal testicular morphology but very few germ cells. Postmortem examination of the testes of the 2-month-old subject showed normal testicular histology, and quantitative...... normal breast and pubic hair development after oral estrogen replacement and topical testosterone administration. The glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was adjusted in accordance with repeated measurements of serum sodium and serum potassium, plasma renin concentration and blood pressure...

  8. Recommendations for CAMAC Serial Highway drivers and LAM Graders for the SCC-L2 Serial Crate Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The functional requirements of Drivers for the CAMAC Serial Highway defined in IEEE Standard 595-1976 are described. The description is independent of the implementation, and in particular no assumption is made about the boundary between hardware and software within the Driver. Topics covered are the user interface, the supporting system services required, demand handling, and a detailed discussion of the message analysis for various levels of error recovery. An appendix describes the recommended features of LAM Graders for use with the Serial Crate Controller Type L2 of IEEE Std 595-1976

  9. The tumor markers CA 125 and SCC antigen : their significance in patients with endometrial or cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duk, Marinus Jitze

    1990-01-01

    Tumorcellen produceren een grote verscheidenheid aan stoffen (tumor-geassocieerde antigenen), waartegen antilichamen kunnen worden opgewekt. Met behulp van deze antilichamen kan de aanwezigheid van dergelijke stoffen in tumorcellen en lichaamsvloeistoffen met zeer gevoelige immunologische technieken

  10. Gonadal development and growth in 46,XX and 46,XY individuals with P450scc deficiency (congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Torsson, A; Damkjaer Nielsen, M

    1991-01-01

    and 8 years). In the surviving individuals, the diagnosis was established during the first 2-4 months of life by extensive endocrine studies of blood and urine. In the remaining patient, the diagnosis was made on the basis of karyotype (46,XY), anatomy of internal and external genitalia and adrenal...... normal breast and pubic hair development after oral estrogen replacement and topical testosterone administration. The glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was adjusted in accordance with repeated measurements of serum sodium and serum potassium, plasma renin concentration and blood pressure...

  11. Screening of repeated dose toxicity data present in SCC(NF)P/SCCS safety evaluations of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Mathieu; Pauwels, Marleen; Ates, Gamze; Vivier, Manon; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2012-03-01

    Alternative methods, replacing animal testing, are urgently needed in view of the European regulatory changes in the field of cosmetic products and their ingredients. In this context, a joint research initiative called SEURAT was recently raised by the European Commission and COLIPA, representing the European cosmetics industry, with the overall goal of developing an animal-free repeated dose toxicity testing strategy for human safety assessment purposes. Although cosmetic ingredients are usually harmless for the consumer, one of the initial tasks of this research consortium included the identification of organs that could potentially be affected by cosmetic ingredients upon systemic exposure. The strategy that was followed hereof is described in the present paper and relies on the systematic evaluation, by using a self-generated electronic databank, of published reports issued by the scientific committee of DG SANCO responsible for the safety of cosmetic ingredients. By screening of the repeated dose toxicity studies present in these reports, it was found that the liver is potentially the most frequently targeted organ by cosmetic ingredients when orally administered to experimental animals, followed by the kidney and the spleen. Combined listing of altered morphological, histopathological, and biochemical parameters subsequently indicated the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, including steatosis and cholestasis, triggered by a limited number of cosmetic compounds. These findings are not only of relevance for the in vitro modeling efforts and choice of compounds to be tested in the SEURAT project cluster, but also demonstrate the importance of using previously generated toxicological data through an electronic databank for addressing specific questions regarding the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.

  12. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  13. Air accident investigation among regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajer, Marcia; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to describe and compare regulatory aviation agencies according to their subordination and attributions to investigate air accidents. Possible consequences in identifying the contributory factors are also presented. Distinct procedures investigating air accidents among agencies lead to a lack of standardization of the statistics, making it difficult to analyze the data globally. Separately the information does not configure the entire scenario of what occurred, affecting the analysis and subsequent interventions. We recommend a joint and collaborative work between the different committees that operate in the investigation of air accidents.

  14. Investigative journalism: a case for intensive care?

    OpenAIRE

    Lashmar, P

    2009-01-01

    Is Investigative Journalism in the UK dying or can a ‘Fifth Estate’ model resuscitate it? This paper is an examination of whether the American subscription and donation models such as ProPublica, Spot.US and Truthout are the way forward. In January 2009 a group of the UK’s top investigative journalists met privately to discuss ‘What is to be done?’ about the perceived perilous state of investigative journalism. There is profound concern that the traditional media either no longer has, or wish...

  15. Investigating Possibilities for E-Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Tweddell Levinsen, Karin

    2004-01-01

    as dealing with twoperspectives:Knowledge Acquisition in1) Continuing Healthcare Education - Lundbeck Institute perspective.2) Computer Human Environments - HCI-Research Group perspective.This report contains the resulting descriptions of analyses, investigations andevaluations carried out in the pre...... at the Lundbeck Institute, investigating the current activities, the lessons learnedwithin Continuing Medical Education (CME), the visions of e-learning and thepeople it is targeted at. Chapter 4 and 5 provides the more external perspectivesbeing based on investigations of learning models and pedagogical tools...

  16. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  17. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  18. Porous silicon investigated by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.M. de la; Pareja, R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the anodic conversion in silicon single crystals is investigated by positron lifetime measurements. Anodization at constant current induces changes in the positron lifetime spectrum of monocrystalline silicon samples. It is found that theses changes are primarily dependent on the silicon resistivity. The annihilation parameter behaviour of anodized samples, treated at high temperature under reducing conditions, is also investigated. The results reveal that positron annihilation can be a useful technique to characterize porous silicon formed by anodizing as well as to investigate its thermal behaviour. (author)

  19. A common cancer in an uncommon location: A case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Kelly; Saucedo, Melissa; Raju, Divya; Aydin, Nail

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is common however SCC is rarely seen on the nipple, with only ten cases of SCC of the nipple in literature (American Cancer Society, 2015; Scotto et al., 1983; Pendse and O'Connor, 2015; Loveland-Jones et al., 2010; Brookes et al., 2005; Sofos et al., 2013; King and Kremer, 2012; Venkataseshan et al., 1994; Hosaka et al., 2011) [1-9]. An 80 year old female presenting with a chief complaint of an abnormal lesion on the medial portion of her right nipple areola complex. A biopsy showed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. She had an extensive history of prolonged sun exposure predisposing her to cutaneous SCC however none to the breast region. Her mammogram was negative for any invasive disease so a wide local excision was performed with no complications. Due to the rarity of SCC of the breast or nipple, a biopsy is necessary to rule out other more common types of malignancies on the nipple that present with a similar physical appearance. We then examined the many different risk factors for SCC and the different methods for treating SCC whether it is cutaneous or of the nipple or breast. We also discussed the treatment of Paget's disease of the breast (PDB) as SCC of the nipple or breast can be mistaken for PDB. The cases of SCC of the Nipple demonstrate the importance of recognizing changes of the skin even in locations not typically associated with SCC (American Cancer Society, 2015; Scotto et al., 1983; Pendse and O'Connor, 2015; Loveland-Jones et al., 2010; Brookes et al., 2005; Sofos et al., 2013; King and Kremer, 2012; Venkataseshan et al., 1994; Hosaka et al., 2011) [1-9]. We concluded with a future suggestion of investigating possible risk factors specific to SCC of the breast or nipple. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular analysis and antibiotic resistance investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular analysis and antibiotic resistance investigation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with staphylococcal food poisoning and nosocomial infections. Y Zhang, S Cheng, G Ding, M Zhu, X Pan, L Zhang ...

  1. Observatory for Planetary Investigations from the Stratosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Observatory for Planetary Investigation from the Stratosphere (OPIS) project demonstrated the ability of the Wallops Arc Second Pointing (WASP) system to provide...

  2. In situ investigations at Avery Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    Descriptions and representative data are given for the in situ investigations being performed in the Avery Island Mine. Sufficient detail is presented such that investigators can judge whether any of the studies being performed would be valuable for their numerical modeling exercises. The basic investigations being performed include heater tests, brine migration experiments, and flatjack tests. The heater tests consist of the emplacement of single simulated waste canisters with different power levels. The bulk thermal and mechanical response is measured of the salt surrounding the emplacement. The brine migration studies involve the measurement of moisture inflow into heated boreholes. The flatjack studies are an investigation of the deformation of the borehole when subjected to controlled boundary conditions of stress and temperature

  3. Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas and plesiomonas species isolated from children with diarrhoea in Amuwo-Odofin and Surulere Local Government areas of Lagos, Nigeria.

  4. Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of epichlorohydrin by crude epoxide hydrolase from domestic duck liver. X Ling, D Lu, J Wang, J Chen, L Ding, J Chen, H Chai, P Ouyang ...

  5. 337Info - Unfair Import Investigations Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — The 337Info database contains data relating to Section 337 investigations instituted, or otherwise initiated, by the U.S. International Trade Commission on or after...

  6. 75 FR 57472 - Clinical Investigator Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... toxicological, pharmacological, and manufacturing data to support investigational use in humans; Fundamental issues in the design and conduct of clinical trials; Statistical and analytic considerations in the... studies, and chemistry/manufacturing information) that supports initial clinical trials in humans...

  7. Investigation of subcooled boiling onset propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josipovic, M.; Riznic, J.; Vrhovac, M.; Spasojevic, D.

    1986-01-01

    In paper is presented a method for thermohydrodynamicaly and kinematically nonequilibrium two-phase mixture flow basic process and phenomena investigation, during chosen transient. Comparison and brief discussion of results on experimental facility KVP are included. (author)

  8. Investigations of pollutant migration using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    2002-01-01

    The third GSF Lysimeter Workshop focused on pollutant migration in underground strata, i.e. the dispersion of water constituents as referred to water transport on the basis of ideal tracer investigations [de

  9. Investigation of measuring strategies in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Hiller, Jochen; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    measuring results using different measuring strategies applied in different inspection software. The strategy influence is determined by calculating the measuring uncertainty. This investigation includes measurements of two industrial items, an aluminum pipe connector and a plastic toggle, a hearing aid...

  10. Investigation of an AGC for Audio Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerizadeh, Seyediman; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Marker-Villumsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of an amplifier with discrete time Automatic Gain Control (AGC) which is intended for implementation in hearing aid is performed. The aim of this investigation is to find the AGC’s minimum gain step size for which the glitches become inaudible. Such AGCs produce undesirable...... glitches at the output turning into audible sound effects. In order to find this minimum gain step size both objective and subjective evaluation methods have been used. The investigations show that the objective measures indicate a lower limit for the step size where the sound artefacts are no longer...... audible. This is in contrast with the subjective method where several test persons can hear the sound artefacts for all step sizes. Thus, the investigated AGC is not suitable for IC implementation therefore an alternative AGC system is proposed....

  11. Important Issues in Ecotoxicological Investigations Using Earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    The importance and beneficial effects of earthworms on soil structure and quality is well-established. In addition, earthworms have proved to be important model organisms for investigation of pollutant effects on soil ecosystems. In ecotoxicological investigations effects of various pollutants on earthworms were assessed. But some important issues regarding the effects of pollutants on earthworms still need to be comprehensively addressed. In this review several issues relevant to soil ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are emphasized and guidelines that should be adopted in ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are given. The inclusion of these guidelines in ecotoxicological studies will contribute to the better quantification of impacts of pollutants and will allow more accurate prediction of the real field effects of pollutants to earthworms.

  12. Investigating Navy Officer Retention Using Data Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    OFFICER RETENTION USING DATA FARMING by Aurel N. DeHollan September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Samuel E. Buttrey Second Reader: Thomas W...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATING NAVY OFFICER RETENTION USING DATA FARMING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) DeHollan...historical loss rates. The application of data farming to this model allows for investigation of different scenarios that can provide insight into both

  13. Police investigations: discretion denied yet undeniably exercised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2014-01-01

    Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482

  14. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.

    1998-10-02

    This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina.

  15. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina

  16. 39 CFR 230.4 - Arrest and investigative powers of criminal investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrest and investigative powers of criminal investigators. 230.4 Section 230.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL General Policy and Authority § 230.4 Arrest and investigative powers of...

  17. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  18. Investigation equipment and methods used by Posiva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.

    2006-10-01

    Posiva Oy, a company jointly owned by TVO and Fortum, submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground research facility, ONKALO, for rock characterisation for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel will be constructed. The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel was started in September 2004. This report describes the investigation methods and equipment developed and used by Posiva Oy during the confirming site investigations from the surface. The report covers the areas of drilling of deep investigation holes, geophysical loggings, geophysical ground and tunnel surveys, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical as well as rock mechanical methods. Emphasis is given on those equipment and methods developed by Posiva and those that have frequently and recently been used in the Posiva's characterisation programmes including methods applied during excavation of ONKALO access tunnel. The database used for the field investigation data is also briefly described in this report. (orig.)

  19. A dynamics investigation into edge plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.

    2002-08-01

    The present experimental work investigates plasma turbulence in the edge region of magnetized high-temperature plasmas. A main topic is the turbulent dynamics parallel to the magnetic field, where hitherto only a small data basis existed, especially for very long scale lengths in the order of ten of meters. A second point of special interest is the coupling of the dynamics parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. This anisotropic turbulent dynamics is investigated by two different approaches. Firstly, spatially and temporally high-resolution measurements of fluctuating plasma parameters are investigated by means of two-point correlation analysis. Secondly, the propagation of signals externally imposed into the turbulent plasma background is studied. For both approaches, Langmuir probe arrays were utilized for diagnostic purposes. (orig.)

  20. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    2012-01-01

    "ABSTRACT: In this article, shortcomings with US domestic counter-terrorism intelligence and associated efforts since 2000 are analysed. Potential suggestions for the extended development of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) are then discussed. Some of these propositions touch on developm......"ABSTRACT: In this article, shortcomings with US domestic counter-terrorism intelligence and associated efforts since 2000 are analysed. Potential suggestions for the extended development of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) are then discussed. Some of these propositions touch...... still needs to be accorded to the ‘intelligence methodology’ of ‘wait and watch’. Simultaneously, the FBI needs to keep moving more from mainly a post facto emphasis to more of an a priori one in its investigations. Thereby, the FBI can continue to move towards improved delivery and better meet its role...

  1. Laboratory investigation of constitutive property scaling behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.

    1994-01-01

    Because many constitutive rock properties must be measured at one scale but applied at another, scaling behavior is an issue facing many applied disciplines, including the petroleum industry. A research program has been established to investigate and a quantify scaling behavior through systematic physical experimentation, with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. The approach is to systematically isolate those factors that influence property scaling and investigate their relative contributions to overall scaling behavior. Two blocks of rock, each exhibiting differing heterogeneity structure. have recently been examined. The two samples were found to yield different scaling behavior, as exhibited by changes in the distribution functions and semi-variograms. Simple models have been fit to the measured scaling behavior that are of similar functional form but of different magnitude

  2. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  3. First principles investigation of nitrogenated holey graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cui-Yan; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Shi, Li-Bin

    2018-04-01

    The zero band gap problem limits the application of graphene in the field of electronic devices. Opening the band gap of graphene has become a research issue. Nitrogenated holey graphene (NHG) has attracted much attention because of its semiconducting properties. However, the stacking orders and defect properties have not been investigated. In this letter, the structural and stacking properties of NHG are first investigated. We obtain the most stable stacking structure. Then, the band structures for bulk and multilayer NHG are studied. Impact of the strain on the band gaps and bond characteristics is discussed. In addition, we investigate formation mechanism of native defects of carbon vacancy (VC), carbon interstitial (Ci), nitrogen vacancy (VN), and nitrogen interstitial (Ni) in bulk NHG. Formation energies and transition levels of these native defects are assessed.

  4. Digital Forensic Investigation Models, an Evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Mushtaque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In business today, one of the most important segments that enable any business to get competitive advantage over others is appropriate, effective adaptation of Information Technology into business and then managing and governing it on their will. To govern IT organizations need to identify value of acquiring services of forensic firms to compete cyber criminals. Digital forensic firms follow different mechanisms to perform investigation. Time by time forensic firms are facilitated with different models for investigation containing phases for different purposes of the entire process. Along with forensic firms, enterprises also need to build a secure and supportive platform to make successful investigation process possible. We have underlined different elements of organizations in Pakistan; need to be addressed to provide support to forensic firms.

  5. An investigation on wind turbine resonant vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Kim, Taeseong; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine resonant vibrations are investigated based on aeroelastic simulations both in frequency and time domain. The investigation focuses on three different aspects: the need of a precise modeling when a wind turbine is operating close to resonant conditions; the importance of estimating wind...... turbine loads also at low turbulence intensity wind conditions to identify the presence of resonances; and the wind turbine response because of external excitations. In the first analysis, three different wind turbine models are analysed with respect to the frequency and damping of the aeroelastic modes....... Fatigue loads on the same models are then investigated with two different turbulence intensities to analyse the wind turbine response. In the second analysis, a wind turbine model is excited with an external force. This analysis helps in identifying the modes that might be excited, and therefore...

  6. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  7. Investigations of food irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    All Nippon Spice Assoc. (ANSA) requested the approval in the Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare (MHLW) of radiation irradiation of their products for sterilization and pesticide in 2000. Problems of food irradiation (FI) which started from this ANSA request have been investigated by concerned Japanese administrations and associations with reference to trends in foreign countries, and of which outline till Aug., 2009 is described in this paper. On ANSA petition, AEC (Atomic Energy Committee) required the investigation of the safety problem in FI as it matched AEC policy and there have been background problems of Japanese people who have been having refusal response to radiation themselves. In 2003, Food Safety Committee (FSC) started, and AEC radiation expert committee investigated the trend and detection methodology of irradiated foods. Next year, FSC approved the irradiation of potato to prevent budding; MHLW began to study the detection methodology; and AEC mentioned to consider the FI problem in the Cabinet meeting and set up its expert committee (2005). MHLW reported the above decision in Councils of food/drug and of food hygiene (2006), published the methodology (thermoluminescence method) and started to monitor spices; and FSC discussed about FI problems with World Health Organization (WHO) experts (2007). During these years, the administrations trusted various investigations like foreign trends, safety and assessment of FI. In 2009, MHLW published results of their trusted investigations, based on which food hygienic and standardization sections began to investigate the problems; and FSC, the toxicity study of alkylcyclobutanone. During the period later than 2007, not only spices but also other foods like dried vegetables, tea, certain farm and marine products have been subject to monitoring (MHLW). Thus, MHLW has taken a leading role in actual approval of irradiated potato and in monitoring of imported foods. (K.T.)

  8. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic

  9. Comparison investigation for biological diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundulis, A.; Galins, A.; Grundulis, A.; Zihmane, K.

    2003-01-01

    The application of vegetable oils as diesel-engine fuels is being discussed and investigated as a means of exploiting agricultural potential in the production of regenerative energy sources. Traditional vegetable oils transesterification using methanol or ethanol technology for biofuel production is complicate and expensive. We investigate different kind of oils and fuel additives mixtures and offer simplified technology for biofuel production. The work presents compare of energetic and physical parameters of rape-seed-oil methyl and ethyl ester and oil mixture (authors)

  10. Paleontology investigations aided by medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansu, M.J.; Carpenter, K.; Albano, J.; Meals, R.; Brady, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Medical radiology instruments provide useful tools for nondestructive investigations in other scientific fields. To date, 15 paleontology specimens have been studied using conventional diagnostic units, therapy simulators, and CT scanners. Most specimens, individual marine animals or large dinosaur heads, needed a combination of studies to complete the investigation. Among the results shown are the inner ear of a Plesiosaurus, which is 76 million years old, and a pearl attached to an extinct clam species, which is 1 million years old. The results confirm the usefulness of radiology as a tool in the field of paleontology

  11. Investigations into electrical discharges in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Klyarfel'D, B N

    2013-01-01

    Investigations into Electrical Discharges in Gases is a compilation of scientific articles that covers the advances in the investigation of the fundamental processes occurring in electrical discharges in gases and vapors. The book details the different aspects of the whole life cycle of an arc, which include the initiation of a discharge, its transition into an arc, the lateral spread of the arc column, and the recovery of electric strength after extinction of an arc. The text also discusses the methods for the dynamic measurement of vapor density in the vicinity of electrical discharges, alon

  12. Recent advances in vapor intrusion site investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Thomas; Loll, Per; Eklund, Bart

    2017-12-15

    Our understanding of vapor intrusion has evolved rapidly since the discovery of the first high profile vapor intrusion sites in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research efforts and field investigations have improved our understanding of vapor intrusion processes including the role of preferential pathways and natural barriers to vapor intrusion. This review paper addresses recent developments in the regulatory framework and conceptual model for vapor intrusion. In addition, a number of innovative investigation methods are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    bilock number) -his annual report contains preformulation and formulation studies on WR249,655.2CL’ C141-6s2CI) , WR238,605, WR171,669’HCI...RMI-S ltr, 31 Jul 1992 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED O0hK ri~t. GUt*Y . 00 Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs Annual Progress...63764D99 BB 049 1I. ITLE (InCIu7* SOcurity Cfa.811 fcotIOn) (U) Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs 13¶. PERSONAL AUTHORl Lach

  14. Further investigation of the "reactor anomaly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, G. T.; Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, Gerard; Jonkmans, G.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of a more realistic and extensive inclusion of first forbidden beta decay into the determination of the reactor neutrino flux is investigated. Forbidden decays make up approximately 30% of all fission product decays so their possible impact on the neutrino flux should not be neglected. Because of an incomplete knowledge of the requisite nuclear structure it is not possible to incorporate the forbidden decays in an exact fashion thus a variety of scenarios are investigated. It appears that including first forbidden decays measurably modifies the anti-neutrino spectrum, and the uncertainty on the neutrino flux should be expanded beyond 4%.

  15. Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...

  16. Transport properties of self-consolidating concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonebi, M.; Nanukuttan, S. [Queens University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Planning Architecture & Civil Engineering

    2009-03-15

    This study reports the findings from an investigation carried out to study the effect of the mixture variations on the durability of medium- and high-strength self-consolidating concrete (SCC). The mixture variations studied include the type of mineral admixtures, such as limestone powder (LSP) and pulverized fuel ash (PFA), and viscosity-modifying admixtures (VMA) for both medium- and high-strength SCC. Air permeability, water permeability, capillary absorption, and chloride diffusivity were used to assess the durability of SCC mixtures in comparison with normal, vibrated concretes. The results showed that SCC mixtures, for medium- and high-strength grades using PFA followed by LSP give lower permeability, properties compared with normal concretes. SCC made with VMA had a higher sorptivity, air permeability, and water permeability compared with other SCC mixtures, which can be attributed to higher water-cement ratio (w/c) and lack of pore filling effect. An in-place migration coefficient was obtained using the in-place ion migration test. This was used to compare the potential diffusivity of different concretes. The results indicated that SCC, for both grades of strength, made with PFA showed much lower diffusivity values in comparison with other mixtures, whereas the SCC mixtures with VMA showed higher diffusivity.

  17. Literature Survey on the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Low-Alloy Steels in High Temperature Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.P.

    2002-02-01

    The present report is a summary of a literature survey on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour/ mechanisms in low-alloy steels (LAS) in high-temperature water with special emphasis to primary-pressure-boundary components of boiling water reactors (BWR). A brief overview on the current state of knowledge concerning SCC of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel and piping steels under BWR conditions is given. After a short introduction on general aspects of SCC, the main influence parameter and available quantitative literature data concerning SCC of LAS in high-temperature water are discussed on a phenomenological basis followed by a summary of the most popular SCC models for this corrosion system. The BWR operating experience and service cracking incidents are discussed with respect to the existing laboratory data and background knowledge. Finally, the most important open questions and topics for further experimental investigations are outlined. (author)

  18. Treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma. The role of external and endoluminal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.; Wannenmacher, M.; Becker, H.; Herth, F.; Gagel, B.

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In a retrospective study the role of radiation therapy for the treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma was investigated. Patients and Methods: Between 1984 and 1997, 25 patients with primary tracheal carcinoma were treated with external beam radiotherapy (17 squamous-cell carcinoma [SCC], 8 adenoid cystic carcinoma [ACC], median dose SCC 60 Gy, ACC 55 Gy). An additional brachytherapy boost was carried out in 10/25 patients (median dose SCC 18 Gy, ACC 15 Gy). Ten patients underwent operative treatment. Results: The median survival (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC was 33 months (ACC 94.2). The 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC were 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), and 26% (ACC 85.7%). Patients with ACC and patients with a complete remission after treatment had a significantly better survival probability (log rank test, p [de

  19. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  20. Application of nano-sized TiO2 as an inhibitor of stress corrosion cracking in the steam generator tube materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Uh Chul; Choi, Byung Seon

    2010-01-01

    Several chemicals were studied to suppress the damage due to a stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the steam generator (SG) tubes in nuclear power plants. SCC tests were carried out to investigate the performance of TiO2 on several types of SG tube materials. The SCC tests were conducted by using an m-RUB specimen in a 10% NaOH solution at a temperature of 315 degrees C. The test with the addition of TiO2 showed a decrease in the SCC rate for the SG tubing materials. In order to improve the inhibition property in a crevice of TiO2, a sonochemical technique was applied to reduce the size of the TiO2 particle. From the SCC tests with the RUB specimen, the SG tube materials showed an enhanced cracking resistance with the addition of nano-sized TiO2 and the surface property was also changed.

  1. Preliminary Investigation on the Phytochemical Constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demand for honey consumption nowadays is continuously increasing worldwide due to its multiple importance from food to medicine. The medicinal value of honey lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce health benefits to man. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the two honey samples ...

  2. Hydrogeophysical investigation for groundwater potential in central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This hydro geophysical investigation is aimed at delineating the aquiferous units in the central part of Minna by determining their depths, thicknesses, resistivities and the potential borehole depth at various locations within the area employing the technique the Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) using the Schlumberger array.

  3. Investigating mass customization and sustainability compatibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationships between sustainability and mass customization in the business field. First a literature review investigates their enablers. This section ends with empirical conclusions about the impact of mass customization on sustainability highlighting some complementarities between these two ...

  4. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CLEOME VISCOSA FROM NIGERIA. Gabriel Olatunji, Peter Weyerstahl, Stephen Oguntoye. Abstract. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR.

  5. Psycholinguistic and Neurolinguistic Investigations of Scalar Implicature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the representation and composition of meaning in scalar implicatures. Scalar implicature is the phenomenon whereby the use of a less informative term (e.g., "some") is inferred to mean the negation of a more informative term (e.g., to mean "not all"). The experiments reported here investigate how the…

  6. An experimental investigation to characterise soil macroporosity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 5 ... quality monitoring and groundwater pollution assessment due to preferential leaching of solutes and pesticides,study of soil structural properties and infiltration behaviour of soils,investigation of flash floods in rivers, and hydrological ...

  7. Investigation of antimagnetic rotation in 100Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.; Garg, U.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Frauendorf, S.; Kharraja, B.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.

    2001-01-01

    High spin states have been studied in the nucleus 100 Pd with the aim of investigating the novel phenomenon of ''antimagnetic rotation.'' A cascade of four ''rotational-band-like'' transitions is proposed as corresponding to antimagnetic rotation, based on the observed spectroscopic properties and a comparison with calculations in the configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky formalism

  8. An Observational Investigation of Penetrative Convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Lenschow, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Data taken during the Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX) by the NCAR Electra aircraft have proven useful for investigating the structure of thermals penetrating into the turbulent inversion layer which caps the convective mixed layer. Variances, covariances, spectra and cospectra of poten...

  9. The resource investigation and community structure characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinese fir is one of the most important commercial timber species in south China. Mycorrhizal fungi has been applied in many trees and showed important effect on enhancing the productive forces and the soil activities, but there is little report about the mycorrhizal fungi on Chinese fir. So this paper investigated the ...

  10. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  11. Structural investigation on gamma-irradiated polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopictechniques are used to investigate the microstructural changes in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels on gamma irradiation. SANS measurements have revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in nanometre scale and reduction of their size ...

  12. Structural investigation on gamma-irradiated polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopic techniques are used to investigate the microstructural changes in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydro- gels on gamma irradiation. SANS measurements have revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in nanometre scale and reduction of ...

  13. Investigating amoebic pathogenesis using Entamoeba histolytica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, causes diarrhea and liver abscesses resulting in 50 million cases of infection worldwide annually. Elucidation of parasite virulence determinants has recently been investigated using genetic approaches. We have undertaken a genomics approach to identify novel virulence ...

  14. Investigation of Galactosylated Low Molecular Weight Chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the stability towards drug release and for targeting purposes. Chitosan coated liposomes have been formed via ionic interaction between the positively charged chitosan and negatively charged lipid on the surface of the liposomes [9]. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and characterize DOX-bearing, ligand.

  15. Diamond Fire: Serious Accident Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Waconda; Ivan Pupulidy; Leonard Diaz; Robin Broyles; Roberta Junge; James Saveland

    2012-01-01

    This incident is effectively two studies. The first study, and the reason the Serious Accident Investigation Team was assembled, was due to a fatality, which the autopsy later determined to have been caused by a heart attack. The team was not aware of the cause of death for over 4 weeks after the incident occurred. However, the observed and reported cases of heat...

  16. Investigating Functions with a Ferris Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather Lynn; Hornbein, Peter; Azeem, Sumbal

    2016-01-01

    The authors provide a dynamic Ferris wheel computer activity that teachers can use as an instructional tool to help students investigate functions. They use a student's work to illustrate how students can use relationships between quantities to further their thinking about functions.

  17. 49 CFR 659.35 - Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigations. 659.35 Section 659.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight...

  18. Investigating the Reading-to-Write Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Yuly Asencion

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which the reading-to-write construct is the sum of one's reading and writing abilities or an independent construct. The investigation included an analysis of (a) test tasks, (b) the relationship of test task scores and scores on reading and writing measures, and (c) the effects of proficiency level and educational…

  19. INVESTIGATION OF SHALLOW FOUNDATION SOIL BEARING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the soil bearing capacity and foundation settlement characteristics of Minna City Centre development site using standard penetration test (SPT) data obtained from10 SPT boreholes at 0.6, 2.1 and 3.6 m depths to correlate soil properties. Evaluation of foundation bearing capacity and settlement ...

  20. School Roles: A Way to Investigate Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jacqueline A.; King, Gillian A.; Servais, Michelle; Kertoy, Marilyn; Spencer, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Students who are more engaged in school have higher academic achievement, lower dropout rates, and increased involvement in activities during early adulthood. Unfortunately, children with disabilities participate less than children without disabilities, thus increasing their risk for depression and anxiety. This study investigated the lack of…