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Sample records for investigate alkaloid biosynthesis

  1. Biosynthesis of tylophora alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchandani, N.B.; Iyer, S.S.; Badheka, L.P.

    1974-01-01

    Using labelled precursors, biosynthesis of the tylophora alkaloids, tylophorine, tylophorinidine and tylophorinide has been investigated in Tylophora asthmatica plants. The radioactive precursors, phenylalanine-2- 14 C, benzoic acid-1- 14 C, benzoic acid-ring 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C and cinnamic acid-2- 14 C were administered to the plants individually by wick technique. Tylophorine was isolated in each case and assayed for its radioactivity to find out the incorporation of the label into it. The results indicate that: (1) phenylalanine via cinnamic acid is an important precursor in the biosynthesis of tylophorine (2) orinithine participates in tylophorine biosynthesis via pyrroline and (3) tylophorinidine may be a direct precursor of tylophorine. (M.G.B.)

  2. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants and remains the only commercial source for the narcotic analgesics morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic derivatives such as oxycodone and naltrexone. The plant also produces several other benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with potent pharmacological properties including the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Opium poppy has served as a model system to investigate the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants. The application of biochemical and functional genomics has resulted in a recent surge in the discovery of biosynthetic genes involved in the formation of major benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in opium poppy. The availability of extensive biochemical genetic tools and information pertaining to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism is facilitating the study of a wide range of phenomena including the structural biology of novel catalysts, the genomic organization of biosynthetic genes, the cellular and sub-cellular localization of biosynthetic enzymes and a variety of biotechnological applications. In this review, we highlight recent developments and summarize the frontiers of knowledge regarding the biochemistry, cellular biology and biotechnology of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  3. Evaluation of Biosynthetic Pathway and Engineered Biosynthesis of Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kishimoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. However, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. In this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products and elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthetic processes. The alkaloids discussed in this review are ditryptophenaline (dimeric diketopiperazine alkaloid, saframycin (tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, strictosidine (monoterpene indole alkaloid, ergotamine (ergot alkaloid and opiates (benzylisoquinoline and morphinan alkaloid. This review also discusses the engineered biosynthesis of these compounds, primarily through heterologous reconstitution of target biosynthetic pathways in suitable hosts, such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. Those heterologous biosynthetic systems can be used to confirm the functions of the isolated genes, economically scale up the production of the alkaloids for commercial distributions and engineer the biosynthetic pathways to produce valuable analogs of the alkaloids. In particular, extensive involvement of oxidation reactions catalyzed by oxidoreductases, such as cytochrome P450s, during the secondary metabolite biosynthesis is discussed in details.

  4. Plant tropane alkaloid biosynthesis evolved independently in the Solanaceae and Erythroxylaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirschitzka, Jan; Schmidt, Gregor W; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; D'Auria, John Charles

    2012-06-26

    The pharmacologically important tropane alkaloids have a scattered distribution among angiosperm families, like many other groups of secondary metabolites. To determine whether tropane alkaloids have evolved repeatedly in different lineages or arise from an ancestral pathway that has been lost in most lines, we investigated the tropinone-reduction step of their biosynthesis. In species of the Solanaceae, which produce compounds such as atropine and scopolamine, this reaction is known to be catalyzed by enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. However, in Erythroxylum coca (Erythroxylaceae), which accumulates cocaine and other tropane alkaloids, no proteins of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family were found that could catalyze this reaction. Instead, purification of E. coca tropinone-reduction activity and cloning of the corresponding gene revealed that a protein of the aldo-keto reductase family carries out this reaction in E. coca. This protein, designated methylecgonone reductase, converts methylecgonone to methylecgonine, the penultimate step in cocaine biosynthesis. The protein has highest sequence similarity to other aldo-keto reductases, such as chalcone reductase, an enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis, and codeinone reductase, an enzyme of morphine alkaloid biosynthesis. Methylecgonone reductase reduces methylecgonone (2-carbomethoxy-3-tropinone) stereospecifically to 2-carbomethoxy-3β-tropine (methylecgonine), and has its highest activity, protein level, and gene transcript level in young, expanding leaves of E. coca. This enzyme is not found at all in root tissues, which are the site of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in the Solanaceae. This evidence supports the theory that the ability to produce tropane alkaloids has arisen more than once during the evolution of the angiosperms.

  5. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J; Adihou, Hélène; Grün, Peter; Pöschel, Laura; Richter, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald; Bode, Helge B

    2015-10-19

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis was elucidated to involve a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. The occurrence of these biosynthesis gene clusters in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates an important biological function in bacteria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Xanthine Alkaloids: Occurrence, Biosynthesis, and Function in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kouichi; Yokota, Takao; Crozier, Alan

    Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid found in non-alcoholic beverages such as tea, coffee, and cocoa. It was discovered in tea and coffee in the 1820s, but it was not until 2000 that details of molecular events associated with caffeine biosynthesis began to be unraveled. Reviewed are the occurrence of xanthine alkaloids in the plant kingdom and the elucidation of the caffeine biosynthesis pathway, providing details of the N-methyltransferases, belonging to the motif B' methyltransferase family, which catalyze three steps in the four-step pathway leading from xanthosine to caffeine. Pathways for the metabolism and degradation of xanthine alkaloids are discussed, although as yet the genes and enzymes involved have not been isolated. This chapter also considers the in planta role of caffeine in chemical defense that has been demonstrated using transgenic caffeine-forming tobacco and chrysanthemum plants, which are resistant to attack by pathogens and herbivores. Finally, future research is considered that might lead to the production of naturally decaffeinated beverages and agricultural crops that contain elevated levels of "natural" pesticides.

  7. Plant-like biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccile, Joshua A; Spraker, Joseph E; Le, Henry H; Brandenburger, Eileen; Gomez, Christian; Bok, Jin Woo; Macheleidt, Juliane; Brakhage, Axel A; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Keller, Nancy P; Schroeder, Frank C

    2016-06-01

    Natural product discovery efforts have focused primarily on microbial biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) containing large multimodular polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases; however, sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed a vast number of BGCs containing smaller NRPS-like genes of unknown biosynthetic function. Using comparative metabolomics, we show that a BGC in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus named fsq, which contains an NRPS-like gene lacking a condensation domain, produces several new isoquinoline alkaloids known as the fumisoquins. These compounds derive from carbon-carbon bond formation between two amino acid-derived moieties followed by a sequence that is directly analogous to isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. Fumisoquin biosynthesis requires the N-methyltransferase FsqC and the FAD-dependent oxidase FsqB, which represent functional analogs of coclaurine N-methyltransferase and berberine bridge enzyme in plants. Our results show that BGCs containing incomplete NRPS modules may reveal new biosynthetic paradigms and suggest that plant-like isoquinoline biosynthesis occurs in diverse fungi.

  8. Isolation, biosynthesis and biological activity of alkaloids of Tylophora asthmatica, a versatile medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchandani, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    Tylophorine and related new alkaloids have been isolated from Tylophora asthmatics, Pergularia pallida and Ficus hispida plants. Biosynthesis of this group of alkaloids has been carried out using various labelled precursors for the first time and from the systematic degradation of the isolated radiolabelled tylophorine, it has been concluded that these alkaloids arise from one molecule each of tyrosine, phenylalanine and ornithine. The interactions of Tylophora alkaloids particularly tylophorinidine with biomolecules such as lysozyme and bovine serum albumin have also been studied and binding characteristics determined. It was found that Tylophora alkaloid extract possesses antianaphylactic activity as observed in passive peritoneal anaphylaxis in rats. The drug also possessed mild antihistaminic and anticholinergic activities. Studies of the extract on the bronchial smooth muscle both in vivo and in vitro did not reveal bronchiodilator potential of the drug. In addition, the distribution and metabolism of the drug was studied in vivo using 14 C radiolabelled alkaloids prepared by biosynthetic method. This study further revealed its usefulness since the drug is absorbed by vital organs and also it is not metabolised into fragments which could cause some other damage. Tylophora alkaloids have also been found to be anti-mutagenic. 10 tables, 5 figures, 24 refs. (author)

  9. Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: involvement of an aldehyde intermediate during C-26 amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Akiko; Moriuchi, Yuka; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2013-05-01

    The C-26 amino group of steroidal alkaloids, such as tomatine, is introduced during an early step of their biosynthesis from cholesterol. In the present study, the mechanism of C-26 amination was reinvestigated by administering stable isotope labeled compounds, such as (26,26,26,27,27,27-(2)H6)cholesterol during biosynthesis of tomatine, solanine and solasonine. The chemical compositions of tomatine and solanine so obtained were analyzed by LC-MS after administering the d6-cholesterol to a tomato seedling and a potato shoot, respectively. The resulting spectra indicated that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during biosynthesis. Furthermore, administration of (6-(13)C(2)H3)mevalonate in combination with lovastatin to an eggplant seedling, followed by GC-MS analysis of solasodine after TMS derivatization established that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during solasonine biosynthesis. These findings are in contrast to an earlier observation that one hydrogen atom was lost from C-26 during tomatidine biosynthesis, and suggest that C-26 nitrogen atom addition involves an aldehyde intermediate. Thus, it is proposed that the C-26 amination reaction that occurs during steroidal alkaloid biosynthesis proceeds by way of a transamination mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tyrosine aminotransferase contributes to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and L-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent K(m) values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of L-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde.

  11. Homospermidine synthase, the first pathway-specific enzyme of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, evolved from deoxyhypusine synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Dietrich; Hartmann, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are preformed plant defense compounds with sporadic phylogenetic distribution. They are thought to have evolved in response to the selective pressure of herbivory. The first pathway-specific intermediate of these alkaloids is the rare polyamine homospermidine, which is synthesized by homospermidine synthase (HSS). The HSS gene from Senecio vernalis was cloned and shown to be derived from the deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) gene, which is highly conserved among all eukaryotes and archaebacteria. DHS catalyzes the first step in the activation of translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which is essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation and which acts as a cofactor of the HIV-1 Rev regulatory protein. Sequence comparison provides direct evidence for the evolutionary recruitment of an essential gene of primary metabolism (DHS) for the origin of the committing step (HSS) in the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. PMID:10611289

  12. A Tale of Three Cell Types: Alkaloid Biosynthesis Is Localized to Sieve Elements in Opium Poppy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David A.; Franceschi, Vincent R.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Opium poppy produces a diverse array of pharmaceutical alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids of opium poppy accumulate in the cytoplasm, or latex, of specialized laticifers that accompany vascular tissues throughout the plant. However, immunofluorescence labeling using affinity-purified antibodies showed that three key enzymes, (S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3′-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), berberine bridge enzyme (BBE), and codeinone reductase (COR), involved in the biosynthesis of morphine and the related antimicrobial alkaloid sanguinarine, are restricted to the parietal region of sieve elements adjacent or proximal to laticifers. The localization of laticifers was demonstrated using antibodies specific to the major latex protein (MLP), which is characteristic of the cell type. In situ hybridization showed that CYP80B1, BBE, and COR gene transcripts were found in the companion cell paired with each sieve element, whereas MLP transcripts were restricted to laticifers. The biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids in opium poppy involves cell types not implicated previously in plant secondary metabolism and dramatically extends the function of sieve elements beyond the transport of solutes and information macromolecules in plants. PMID:14508000

  13. Integration of Transcriptome, Proteome and Metabolism Data Reveals the Alkaloids Biosynthesis in Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqing; Huang, Peng; Zhu, Pengcheng; Chen, Jinjun; Shi, Mingming; Guo, Fang; Cheng, Pi; Zeng, Jing; Liao, Yifang; Gong, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Depeng; Guo, An-Yuan; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    Background The Macleaya spp., including Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa, are traditional anti-virus, inflammation eliminating, and insecticide herb medicines for their isoquinoline alkaloids. They are also known as the basis of the popular natural animal food addictive in Europe. However, few studies especially at genomics level were conducted on them. Hence, we performed the Macleaya spp. transcriptome and integrated it with iTRAQ proteome analysis in order to identify potential genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis. Methodology and Principal Findings We elaborately designed the transcriptome, proteome and metabolism profiling for 10 samples of both species to explore their alkaloids biosynthesis. From the transcriptome data, we obtained 69367 and 78255 unigenes for M. cordata and M. microcarpa, in which about two thirds of them were similar to sequences in public databases. By metabolism profiling, reverse patterns for alkaloids sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protopine, and allocryptopine were observed in different organs of two species. We characterized the expressions of enzymes in alkaloid biosynthesis pathways. We also identified more than 1000 proteins from iTRAQ proteome data. Our results strongly suggest that the root maybe the organ for major alkaloids biosynthesis of Macleaya spp. Except for biosynthesis, the alkaloids storage and transport were also important for their accumulation. The ultrastructure of laticifers by SEM helps us to prove the alkaloids maybe accumulated in the mature roots. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Macleaya spp. This work provides clues to the identification of the potential modulate genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya spp., and sheds light on researches for non-model medicinal plants by integrating different high-throughput technologies. PMID:23326424

  14. GC-MS investigation of tropane alkaloids in Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipov, Stefan; Berkov, Strahil

    2002-01-01

    Alkaloids, GS-MS, Datura stramonium The alkaloid spectrum in roots, leaves and seeds of Datura stramonium L. was investigated by GC-MS. Twenty-nine tropane alkaloids are detected. Twelve of them are new constituents for the species and the two tropane esters 3-(3'-acetoxytropoyloxy)tropane (21) and 3-(2'-hydroxytropoyloxy)tropane (26) are described for the first time.

  15. INVESTIGATIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF ALKALOID OF TRIFOLIATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thin layer chromatography (tlc) of the alkaloid on pre-coated silica gel 60 F gave only one spot implying that alkaloid. 254 contained in trifoliate yam was chromatographically pure. The allelopathic ... the levels of total proteins, soluble sugars and proline in bean seedlings. ... source of carbohydrate, protein, vitamins and.

  16. Coregulated expression of loline alkaloid-biosynthesis genes in Neotyphodium uncinatum cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Stromberg, Arnold J; Spiering, Martin J; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-08-01

    Epichloë endophytes (holomorphic Epichloë spp. and anamorphic Neotyphodium spp.) are systemic, often heritable symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Pooideae). Many epichloae provide protection to their hosts by producing anti-insect compounds. Among these are the loline alkaloids (LA), which are toxic and deterrent to a broad range of herbivorous insects but not to mammalian herbivores. LOL, a gene cluster containing nine genes, is associated with LA biosynthesis. We investigated coordinate regulation between LOL-gene expression and LA production in minimal medium (MM) cultures of Neotyphodium uncinatum. Expression of all LOL genes significantly fit temporal quadratic patterns during LA production. LOL-gene expression started before LA were detectable, and increased while LA accumulated. The highest gene expression level was reached at close to the time of most rapid LA accumulation, and gene expression declined to a very low level as amounts of LA plateaued. Temporal expression profiles of the nine LOL genes were tightly correlated with each other, but not as tightly correlated with proC and metE (genes for biosynthesis of precursor amino acids). Furthermore, the start days and peak days of expression significantly correlated with the order of the LOL-cluster genes in the genome. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated three pairs of genes-lolA and lolC, lolO and lolD, and lolT and lolE-expression of which was especially tightly correlated. Of these, lolA and lolC tended to be expressed early, and lolT and lolE tended to be expressed late, in keeping with the putative roles of the respective gene products in the LA-biosynthesis pathway. Several common transcriptional binding sites were discovered in the LOL upstream regions. However, low expression of P(lolC2)uidA and P(lolA2)uidA in N. uncinatum transformants suggested induced expression of LOL genes might be subject to position effect at the LOL locus.

  17. Structural basis and enzymatic mechanism of the biosynthesis of C9- from C10-monoterpenoid indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Hill, Marco; Wang, Meitian; Panjikar, Santosh; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Cutting carbons: The three-dimensional structure of polyneuridine aldehyde esterase (PNAE) gives insight into the enzymatic mechanism of the biosynthesis of C(9)- from C(10)-monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (see scheme). PNAE is a very substrate-specific serine esterase. It harbors the catalytic triad S87-D216-H244, and is a new member of the alpha/beta-fold hydrolase superfamily. Its novel function leads to the diversification of alkaloid structures.

  18. New method for the study of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis using biotransformation of deuterium-labeled precursor in tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahchy, A. E.; Boisbrun, M.; Chretien, F.; Henry, M.; Chapleur, Y.; Laurain-Mattar, D.; Ptak, A.; Dupire, F.

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation of deuterated-4'-O-methylnorbelladine into alkaloids galanthamine and lycorine in tissue cultures of Leucojum aestivum was demonstrated using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. GC-MS screening was also carried to investigate other native and deuterated alkaloids. A total of six labeled alkaloids were identified indicating that 4'-O-methyl-d3-norbelladine is incorporated into three different groups of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids that are biosynthesized by three modes of intramolecular oxidative phenol coupling. (authors)

  19. Regulation of neurosteroid allopregnanolone biosynthesis in the rat spinal cord by glycine and the alkaloidal analogs strychnine and gelsemine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venard, C; Boujedaini, N; Belon, P; Mensah-Nyagan, A G; Patte-Mensah, C

    2008-04-22

    The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3alpha,5alpha-THP) is well characterized as a potentially therapeutic molecule which exerts important neurobiological actions including neuroprotective, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anesthetic and analgesic effects. We have recently observed that neurons and glial cells of the rat spinal cord (SC) contain various key steroidogenic enzymes such as 5alpha-reductase and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase which are crucial for 3alpha,5alpha-THP biosynthesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the rat SC actively produces 3alpha,5alpha-THP. As the key factors regulating neurosteroid production by nerve cells are unknown and because glycine is one of the pivotal inhibitory neurotransmitters in the SC, we investigated glycine effects on 3alpha,5alpha-THP biosynthesis in the rat SC. Glycine markedly stimulated [(3)H]-progesterone conversion into [(3)H]3alpha,5alpha-THP by SC slices. The alkaloid strychnine, well-known as a glycine receptor (Gly-R) antagonist, blocked glycine stimulatory effect on 3alpha,5alpha-THP formation. Gelsemine, another alkaloid containing the same functional groups as strychnine, increased 3alpha,5alpha-THP synthesis. The stimulatory effects of glycine and gelsemine on 3alpha,5alpha-THP production were additive when the two drugs were combined. These results demonstrate that glycine and gelsemine, acting via Gly-R, upregulate 3alpha,5alpha-THP biosynthesis in the SC. The data also revealed a structure-activity relationship of the analogs strychnine and gelsemine on neurosteroidogenesis. Possibilities are opened for glycinergic agents and gelsemine utilization to stimulate selectively 3alpha,5alpha-THP biosynthetic pathways in diseases evoked by a decreased neurosteroidogenic activity of nerve cells.

  20. Single cell subtractive transcriptomics for identification of cell-specifically expressed candidate genes of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Christian; Beuerle, Till; Hollmann, Julien; Ober, Dietrich

    2015-09-01

    Progress has recently been made in the elucidation of pathways of secondary metabolism. However, because of its diversity, genetic information concerning biosynthetic details is still missing for many natural products. This is also the case for the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. To close this gap, we tested strategies using tissues that express this pathway in comparison to tissues in which this pathway is not expressed. As many pathways of secondary metabolism are known to be induced by jasmonates, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing species Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale of the Boraginales order were treated with methyl jasmonate. An effect on pyrrolizidine alkaloid levels and on transcript levels of homospermidine synthase, the first specific enzyme of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, was not detectable. Therefore, a method was developed by making use of the often observed cell-specific production of secondary compounds. H. indicum produces pyrrolizidine alkaloids exclusively in the shoot. Homospermidine synthase is expressed only in the cells of the lower leaf epidermis and the epidermis of the stem. Suggesting that the whole pathway of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis might be localized in these cells, we have isolated single cells of the upper and lower epidermis by laser-capture microdissection. The resulting cDNA preparations have been used in a subtractive transcriptomic approach. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction has shown that the resulting library is significantly enriched for homospermidine-synthase-coding transcripts providing a valuable source for the identification of further genes involved in pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Evolution and Functional Characterization of a Bifunctional Decarboxylase Involved in Lycopodium Alkaloid Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Hanada, Kousuke; Maruyama, Akira; Aoyagi, Kaori; Komatsu, Kana; Ueno, Hideki; Yamashita, Madoka; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Oikawa, Akira; Yamazaki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Lycopodium alkaloids (LAs) are derived from lysine (Lys) and are found mainly in Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae. LAs are potentially useful against Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and myasthenia gravis. Here, we cloned the bifunctional lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC), the first gene involved in LA biosynthesis, from the LA-producing plants Lycopodium clavatum and Huperzia serrata. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the L. clavatum L/ODC (LcL/ODC). The recombinant LcL/ODC preferentially catalyzed the decarboxylation of l-Lys over l-ornithine (l-Orn) by about 5 times. Transient expression of LcL/ODC fused with the amino or carboxyl terminus of green fluorescent protein, in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, showed LcL/ODC localization in the cytosol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hairy roots and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing LcL/ODC enhanced the production of a Lys-derived alkaloid, anabasine, and cadaverine, respectively, thus, confirming the function of LcL/ODC in plants. In addition, we present an example of the convergent evolution of plant Lys decarboxylase that resulted in the production of Lys-derived alkaloids in Leguminosae (legumes) and Lycopodiaceae (clubmosses). This convergent evolution event probably occurred via the promiscuous functions of the ancestral Orn decarboxylase, which is an enzyme involved in the primary metabolism of polyamine. The positive selection sites were detected by statistical analyses using phylogenetic trees and were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, suggesting the importance of those sites in granting the promiscuous function to Lys decarboxylase while retaining the ancestral Orn decarboxylase function. This study contributes to a better understanding of LA biosynthesis and the molecular evolution of plant Lys decarboxylase. PMID:27303024

  2. New Insights into the Biosynthesis Pathway of Polyketide Alkaloid Argimycins P in Streptomyces argillaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhui Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Argimycins P are a recently identified family of polyketide alkaloids encoded by the cryptic gene cluster arp of Streptomyces argillaceus. These compounds contain either a piperideine ring, or a piperidine ring which may be fused to a five membered ring, and a polyene side chain, which is bound in some cases to an N-acetylcysteine moiety. The arp cluster consists of 11 genes coding for structural proteins, two for regulatory proteins and one for a hypothetical protein. Herein, we have characterized the post-piperideine ring biosynthesis steps of argimycins P through the generation of mutants in arp genes, the identification and characterization of compounds accumulated by those mutants, and cross-feeding experiments between mutants. Based in these results, a biosynthesis pathway is proposed assigning roles to every arp gene product. The regulation of the arp cluster is also addressed by inactivating/overexpressing the positive SARP-like arpRI and the negative TetR-like arpRII transcriptional regulators and determining the effect on argimycins P production, and through gene expression analyses (reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR of arp genes in regulatory mutants in comparison to the wild type strain. These findings will contribute to deepen the knowledge on the biosynthesis of piperidine-containing polyketides and provide tools that can be used to generate new analogs by genetic engineering and/or biocatalysis.

  3. New Insights into the Biosynthesis Pathway of Polyketide Alkaloid Argimycins P in Streptomyces argillaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Suhui; Braña, Alfredo F.; González-Sabín, Javier; Morís, Francisco; Olano, Carlos; Salas, José A.; Méndez, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Argimycins P are a recently identified family of polyketide alkaloids encoded by the cryptic gene cluster arp of Streptomyces argillaceus. These compounds contain either a piperideine ring, or a piperidine ring which may be fused to a five membered ring, and a polyene side chain, which is bound in some cases to an N-acetylcysteine moiety. The arp cluster consists of 11 genes coding for structural proteins, two for regulatory proteins and one for a hypothetical protein. Herein, we have characterized the post-piperideine ring biosynthesis steps of argimycins P through the generation of mutants in arp genes, the identification and characterization of compounds accumulated by those mutants, and cross-feeding experiments between mutants. Based in these results, a biosynthesis pathway is proposed assigning roles to every arp gene product. The regulation of the arp cluster is also addressed by inactivating/overexpressing the positive SARP-like arpRI and the negative TetR-like arpRII transcriptional regulators and determining the effect on argimycins P production, and through gene expression analyses (reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR) of arp genes in regulatory mutants in comparison to the wild type strain. These findings will contribute to deepen the knowledge on the biosynthesis of piperidine-containing polyketides and provide tools that can be used to generate new analogs by genetic engineering and/or biocatalysis. PMID:29503641

  4. GAME9 regulates the biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids and upstream isoprenoids in the plant mevalonate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Pablo D; Sonawane, Prashant D; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Dewangan, Veena; Weithorn, Efrat; Tal, Lior; Meir, Sagit; Rogachev, Ilana; Malitsky, Sergey; Giri, Ashok P; Goossens, Alain; Burdman, Saul; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-02-15

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are cholesterol-derived molecules produced by solanaceous species. They contribute to pathogen defence but are toxic to humans and considered as anti-nutritional compounds. Here we show that GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 9 (GAME9), an APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor, related to regulators of alkaloid production in tobacco and Catharanthus roseus, controls SGA biosynthesis. GAME9 knockdown and overexpression in tomato and potato alters expression of SGAs and upstream mevalonate pathway genes including the cholesterol biosynthesis gene STEROL SIDE CHAIN REDUCTASE 2 (SSR2). Levels of SGAs, C24-alkylsterols and the upstream mevalonate and cholesterol pathways intermediates are modified in these plants. Δ(7)-STEROL-C5(6)-DESATURASE (C5-SD) in the hitherto unresolved cholesterol pathway is a direct target of GAME9. Transactivation and promoter-binding assays show that GAME9 exerts its activity either directly or cooperatively with the SlMYC2 transcription factor as in the case of the C5-SD gene promoter. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of SGA biosynthesis and means for manipulating these metabolites in crops.

  5. Towards a Molecular Understanding of the Biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids in Support of Their Expanding Medical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Takos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloids characteristically produced by the subfamily Amaryllidoideae of the Amaryllidaceae, bulbous plant species that include well know genera such as Narcissus (daffodils and Galanthus (snowdrops, are a source of new pharmaceutical compounds. Presently, only the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, is produced commercially as a drug from cultivated plants. However, several Amaryllidaceae alkaloids have shown great promise as anti-cancer drugs, but their further clinical development is restricted by their limited commercial availability. Amaryllidaceae species have a long history of cultivation and breeding as ornamental bulbs, and phytochemical research has focussed on the diversity in alkaloid content and composition. In contrast to the available pharmacological and phytochemical data, ecological, physiological and molecular aspects of the Amaryllidaceae and their alkaloids are much less explored and the identity of the alkaloid biosynthetic genes is presently unknown. An improved molecular understanding of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis would greatly benefit the rational design of breeding programs to produce cultivars optimised for the production of pharmaceutical compounds and enable biotechnology based approaches.

  6. Investigations of activities of alkaloid of trifoliate yam ( dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaloid was extracted from the tubers of Dioscorea dumetorum by a procedure that consisted of acidification with dilute HCl, basification with dilute ammonia solution and extraction with chloroform. It was investigated for its cytotoxic, genotoxic and allelopathic activities on Allium cepa roots, tomato seeds and bean ...

  7. Biosynthesis, asymmetric synthesis, and pharmacology, including cellular targets, of the pyrrole-2-aminoimidazole marine alkaloids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Mourabit, A; Zancanella, M.A; Tilvi, S.; Romo, D.

    The pyrrole-2-aminoimidazole (P-2-AI) alkaloids are a growing family of marine alkaloids, now numbering well over 150 members, with high topographical and biological information content. Their intriguing structural complexity, rich and compact...

  8. Biosynthesis and biomimetic synthesis of alkaloids isolated from plants of the Nitraria and Myrioneuron genera: an unusual lysine-based metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Edmond; Poupon, Erwan

    2010-01-01

    This review describes a wide panel of alkaloids isolated from plants of the Nitraria genus, focusing on their biosynthesis and discussing the resulting biomimetic chemistry in relevant cases. The scope is purposely limited to alkaloids derived at least to some extent from L-lysine, considering that most of these molecules have unique structures and are specific to the genus. Some of the biosynthetic pathways described are taken from the literature, but others are proposed here for the first time. The latter are mostly hypotheses justified by the fact that they are based on metabolic routes frequently encountered for other Nitraria alkaloids, and thus permit unification of the biosynthesis around common pivotal biosynthetic intermediates. Myrioneuron alkaloids are also presented as a newly discovered class with striking similarities to Nitraria alkaloids.

  9. Evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in Apocynaceae: revisiting the defence de-escalation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshultz, Tatyana; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Straub, Shannon C K; Weitemier, Kevin; Hirsch, Elliot; Koval, Khrystyna; Mema, Lumi; Liston, Aaron

    2018-02-26

    Plants produce specialized metabolites for their defence. However, specialist herbivores adapt to these compounds and use them for their own benefit. Plants attacked predominantly by specialists may be under selection to reduce or eliminate production of co-opted chemicals: the defence de-escalation hypothesis. We studied the evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in Apocynaceae, larval host plants for PA-adapted butterflies (Danainae, milkweed and clearwing butterflies), to test if the evolutionary pattern is consistent with de-escalation. We used the first PA biosynthesis specific enzyme (homospermidine synthase, HSS) as tool for reconstructing PA evolution. We found hss orthologues in diverse Apocynaceae species, not all of them known to produce PAs. The phylogenetic analysis showed a monophyletic origin of the putative hss sequences early in the evolution of one Apocynaceae lineage (the APSA clade). We found an hss pseudogene in Asclepias syriaca, a species known to produce cardiac glycosides but no PAs, and four losses of an HSS amino acid motif. APSA clade species are significantly more likely to be Danainae larval host plants than expected if all Apocynaceae species were equally likely to be exploited. Our findings are consistent with PA de-escalation as an adaptive response to specialist attack. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Lysine Decarboxylase Catalyzes the First Step of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Coevolved with Alkaloid Production in Leguminosae[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Katayama, Kae; Ikeura, Emi; Oikawa, Akira; Toyooka, Kiminori; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2012-01-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the first-step in the biosynthetic pathway of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), which form a distinct, large family of plant alkaloids. A cDNA of lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC) was isolated by differential transcript screening in QA-producing and nonproducing cultivars of Lupinus angustifolius. We also obtained L/ODC cDNAs from four other QA-producing plants, Sophora flavescens, Echinosophora koreensis, Thermopsis chinensis, and Baptisia australis. These L/ODCs form a phylogenetically distinct subclade in the family of plant ornithine decarboxylases. Recombinant L/ODCs from QA-producing plants preferentially or equally catalyzed the decarboxylation of l-lysine and l-ornithine. L. angustifolius L/ODC (La-L/ODC) was found to be localized in chloroplasts, as suggested by the transient expression of a fusion protein of La-L/ODC fused to the N terminus of green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells and hairy roots produced enhanced levels of cadaverine-derived alkaloids, and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing (La-L/ODC) produced enhanced levels of cadaverine, indicating the involvement of this enzyme in lysine decarboxylation to form cadaverine. Site-directed mutagenesis and protein modeling studies revealed a structural basis for preferential LDC activity, suggesting an evolutionary implication of L/ODC in the QA-producing plants. PMID:22415272

  11. Silencing the Transcriptional Repressor, ZCT1, Illustrates the Tight Regulation of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus Hairy Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen F Rizvi

    Full Text Available The Catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Transcription factors (TFs are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. To increase TIA biosynthesis, we elicited the TIA transcriptional activators (ORCAs and other unidentified TFs with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (MJ, while simultaneously silencing the expression of the transcriptional repressor ZCT1. To silence ZCT1, we developed transgenic hairy root cultures of C. roseus that expressed an estrogen-inducible Zct1 hairpin for activating RNA interference. The presence of 17β-estradiol (5μM effectively depleted Zct1 in hairy root cultures elicited with MJ dosages that either optimize or inhibit TIA production (250 or 1000μM. However, silencing Zct1 was not sufficient to increase TIA production or the expression of the TIA biosynthetic genes (G10h, Tdc, and Str, illustrating the tight regulation of TIA biosynthesis. The repression of the TIA biosynthetic genes at the inhibitory MJ dosage does not appear to be solely regulated by ZCT1. For instance, while Zct1 and Zct2 levels decreased through activating the Zct1 hairpin, Zct3 levels remained elevated. Since ZCT repressors have redundant yet distinct functions, silencing all three ZCTs may be necessary to relieve their repression of alkaloid biosynthesis.

  12. Identification of a Second Site of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Comfrey to Boost Plant Defense in Floral Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Lars H; Stegemann, Thomas; Sievert, Christian; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-05-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase, an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species. In comfrey ( Symphytum officinale ; Boraginaceae), PAs are reported to be synthesized in the roots, with HSS being localized in cells of the root endodermis. Here, we show that comfrey plants activate a second site of HSS expression when inflorescences start to develop. HSS has been localized in the bundle sheath cells of specific leaves. Tracer feeding experiments have confirmed that these young leaves express not only HSS but the whole PA biosynthetic route. This second site of PA biosynthesis results in drastically increased PA levels within the inflorescences. The boost of PA biosynthesis is proposed to guarantee optimal protection especially of the reproductive structures. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Biosynthesis of a new tobacco alkaloid, hydroxy-N-acylnornicotine in the trichomes of Nicotiana stocktonii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zador, E.; Jones, D.

    1986-01-01

    A new tobacco alkaloid from section Repandae is highly toxic to an insect (Manduca sexta) unsusceptible to previously described nicotine alkaloids (1). They have localized the alkaloid, HO-N-acylnornicotine (HO-NAN) nearly entirely to the exudate secreted by the epidermal trichomes of N. stocktonii. Only the nicotine and nornicotine were found in abundance inside the trichomes, while primarily nicotine was present inside the aerial vegetative parts and root. These results suggest that the HO-NAN is synthesized by the trichomes. When unlabelled nicotine was fed to isolated leaves there was an increase in internal nicotine, nornicotine and secretion of HO-NAN. Feeding leaves with 2'-C 14 nicotine resulted in labelling of both nornicotine and HO-NAN. These data strongly suggest synthesis of HO-NAN from nicotine via nornicotine in the trichomes, followed by rapid secretion. The possible evolutionary significance of this pathway of synthesis and secretion is discussed

  14. Biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids from penicillium commune using response surface methodology (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M. G.; Cheema, T. A.; Baig, S.; Nadeem, M.; Nelofar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study employed the response surface methodology (RSM), a statistical technique, for the identification, screening and optimization of fermentation factors to produce ergot alkaloids under laboratory conditions by Penicillium commune. The static surface culture fermentation technique helped to enhance the production of ergot alkaloids. In the first step Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of ten factors, including nine ingredients of fermentation medium and one process parameter. It was found that sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O played the pivotal role in enhancing the yield of ergot alkaloids. In the second step, the effect of concentration levels of sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O was further optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) under the same fermentation conditions. The optimized concentrations of sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O were 41%, 39% and 0.11% respectively, which significantly enhanced the yield of ergot alkaloids. (author)

  15. Pyridinoacridine alkaloids of marine origin: NMR and MS spectral data, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis P. Sandjo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues, which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity.

  16. New Insights into the Biosynthesis Pathway of Polyketide Alkaloid Argimycins P in Streptomyces argillaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Suhui Ye; Suhui Ye; Alfredo F. Braña; Alfredo F. Braña; Javier González-Sabín; Francisco Morís; Carlos Olano; Carlos Olano; José A. Salas; José A. Salas; Carmen Méndez; Carmen Méndez

    2018-01-01

    Argimycins P are a recently identified family of polyketide alkaloids encoded by the cryptic gene cluster arp of Streptomyces argillaceus. These compounds contain either a piperideine ring, or a piperidine ring which may be fused to a five membered ring, and a polyene side chain, which is bound in some cases to an N-acetylcysteine moiety. The arp cluster consists of 11 genes coding for structural proteins, two for regulatory proteins and one for a hypothetical protein. Herein, we have charact...

  17. Tyrosine Aminotransferase Contributes to Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and l-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent Km values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of l-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. PMID:21949209

  18. Alkaloids and phenolics biosynthesis increases mango resistance to infection by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mango wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is one of the most important diseases affecting mango yields in Brazil. Information regarding the biochemical mechanisms involved in mango resistance against C. fimbriata is absent in the literature. Thus, the present study determined and quantified alkaloids and phenolics in the stem tissue of mango plants from Palmer (susceptible and Ubá (resistant cultivars. Furthermore, it was examined the effect of these secondary metabolites against C. fimbriata growth in vitro. The high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the concentration of two alkaloids (theobromine and 7-methylxanthine and six phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin and epicatechin in the inoculated plants from cv. Ubá was higher in comparison with inoculated plants from cv. Palmer. The concentration of the secondary metabolites was higher in the non-inoculated plants from cv. Palmer than in the inoculated ones, while the opposite was observed for plants of cv. Ubá. Peaks in the concentrations of secondary metabolites in the inoculated plants from both cultivars occurred at 7 and 14 days after inoculation. The different concentrations (10 to 30 mg∙mL−1 of secondary metabolites added to the Petri dishes greatly inhibited C. fimbriata growth over time. These results suggest that secondary metabolites played an important role in the resistance of mango plants against C. fimbriata infection.

  19. Strictosidine-related enzymes involved in the alkaloid biosynthesis of Uncaria tomentosa root cultures grown under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Reyes, Ileana; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana A; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    The activity and gene expression of strictosidine-related enzymes in Uncaria tomentosa root cultures exposed to oxidative stress were studied. Elicitation with 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) or a combination of 0.8 mM buthionine sulfoximine and 0.2 mM jasmonic acid (BSO-JA) increased peroxidase activities by twofold at Day 8 and glutathione reductase by 1.4-fold at Day 5 in H2 O2 elicited cultures respect to the control. Production of monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA), 3α-dihydrocadambine, and dolichantoside was stimulated after H2 O2 elicitation, reaching levels of 886.4 ± 23.6, 847.7 ± 25.4, and 87.5 ± 7.2 µg/g DW, at Day 8 which were 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold higher relative to control. BSO-JA elicited cultures produced about twice alkaloids than H2 O2 -treated cultures, following a biphasic pattern with maxima at 0.5 and 8 days. Alkaloid production was preceded by increase in strictosidine synthase (STR) and strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) activities. After elicitation with H2 O2 or BSO-JA, the STR activity (pKat/mg protein) increased by 1.9-fold (93.8 ± 17.8 at 24 h) or 2.5-fold (102.4 ± 2.2 at 6 h) and the SGD activity (pKat/mg protein) by 2.8-fold (245.2 ± 14.4 at 6 h) or 4.2-fold (421.2 ± 1.8 at 18 h) relative to control. STR and SGD transcripts were upregulated after elicitation. H2 O2 -treated roots showed higher levels of STR at 48-192 h and SGD at 24-48 h, while BSO-JA treatments showed STR increased at 12 h and SGD at 24 h. Also, LC/ESI-MS confirmed the biosynthesis of dolichantoside from N-ω-methyltryptamine and secologanin by U. tomentosa protein extracts. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz André

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants of the Huperziaceae family, which comprise the two genera Huperzia and Phlegmariurus, produce various types of lycopodium alkaloids that are used to treat a number of human ailments, such as contusions, swellings and strains. Huperzine A, which belongs to the lycodine type of lycopodium alkaloids, has been used as an anti-Alzheimer's disease drug candidate. Despite their medical importance, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for the members of this family. We used massive parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-GS FLX Titanium platform to generate a substantial EST dataset for Huperzia serrata (H. serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus (P. carinatus as representative members of the Huperzia and Phlegmariurus genera, respectively. H. serrata and P. carinatus are important plants for research on the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of bioactive compound biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation as well as genetic marker detection in these species. Results For H. serrata, 36,763 unique putative transcripts were generated from 140,930 reads totaling over 57,028,559 base pairs; for P. carinatus, 31,812 unique putative transcripts were generated from 79,920 reads totaling over 30,498,684 base pairs. Using BLASTX searches of public databases, 16,274 (44.3% unique putative transcripts from H. serrata and 14,070 (44.2% from P. carinatus were assigned to at least one protein. Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG orthology annotations revealed that the functions of the unique putative transcripts from these two species cover a similarly broad set of molecular functions, biological processes and biochemical pathways. In particular, a total of 20 H. serrata candidate cytochrome P450 genes, which are more abundant in leaves than in roots and might be involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis, were found based on the comparison of H

  1. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Wagner L; Martins, Auxiliadora O; Fernie, Alisdair R; Tohge, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs.

  2. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid and gibberellin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner L. Araújo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs.

  3. Biosynthesis of antinutritional alkaloids in solanaceous crops is mediated by clustered genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, M; Heinig, U; Tzfadia, O; Bhide, A J; Shinde, B; Cardenas, P D; Bocobza, S E; Unger, T; Malitsky, S; Finkers, R; Tikunov, Y; Bovy, A; Chikate, Y; Singh, P; Rogachev, I; Beekwilder, J; Giri, A P; Aharoni, A

    2013-07-12

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) such as α-solanine found in solanaceous food plants--as, for example, potato--are antinutritional factors for humans. Comparative coexpression analysis between tomato and potato coupled with chemical profiling revealed an array of 10 genes that partake in SGA biosynthesis. We discovered that six of them exist as a cluster on chromosome 7, whereas an additional two are adjacent in a duplicated genomic region on chromosome 12. Following systematic functional analysis, we suggest a revised SGA biosynthetic pathway starting from cholesterol up to the tetrasaccharide moiety linked to the tomato SGA aglycone. Silencing GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 4 prevented accumulation of SGAs in potato tubers and tomato fruit. This may provide a means for removal of unsafe, antinutritional substances present in these widely used food crops.

  4. Development of transcriptomic resources for interrogating the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids in medicinal plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Góngora-Castillo

    Full Text Available The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs, includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine, malaria (quinine, and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine. Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of developmental tissues, and in the case of C. roseus, in cultured cells and roots following elicitor treatment. Through an iterative assembly process, we generated robust transcriptome assemblies for all three species with a substantial number of the assembled transcripts being full or near-full length. The majority of transcripts had a related sequence in either UniRef100, the Arabidopsis thaliana predicted proteome, or the Pfam protein domain database; however, we also identified transcripts that lacked similarity with entries in either database and thereby lack a known function. Representation of known genes within the MIA biosynthetic pathway was robust. As a diverse set of tissues and treatments were surveyed, expression abundances of transcripts in the three species could be estimated to reveal transcripts associated with development and response to elicitor treatment. Together, these transcriptomes and expression abundance matrices provide a rich resource

  5. Overexpression of ORCA3 and G10H in Catharanthus roseus Plants Regulated Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Metabolism Revealed by NMR-Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qifang; Wang, Quan; Yuan, Fang; Xing, Shihai; Zhao, Jingya; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Tian, Yuesheng; Wang, Guofeng; Tang, Kexuan

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the production of the anticancer dimeric indole alkaloids in Catharanthuse roseus, much research has been dedicated to culturing cell lines, hairy roots, and efforts to elucidate the regulation of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) biosynthesis. In this study, the ORCA3 (Octadecanoid-derivative Responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain) gene alone or integrated with the G10H (geraniol 10-hydroxylase) gene were first introduced into C. roseus plants. Transgenic C. roseus plants overexpressing ORCA3 alone (OR lines), or co-overexpressing G10H and ORCA3 (GO lines) were obtained by genetic modification. ORCA3 overexpression induced an increase of AS, TDC, STR and D4H transcripts but did not affect CRMYC2 and G10H transcription. G10H transcripts showed a significant increase under G10H and ORCA3 co-overexpression. ORCA3 and G10H overexpression significantly increased the accumulation of strictosidine, vindoline, catharanthine and ajmalicine but had limited effects on anhydrovinblastine and vinblastine levels. NMR-based metabolomics confirmed the higher accumulation of monomeric indole alkaloids in OR and GO lines. Multivariate data analysis of 1H NMR spectra showed change of amino acid, organic acid, sugar and phenylpropanoid levels in both OR and GO lines compared to the controls. The result indicated that enhancement of MIA biosynthesis by ORCA3 and G10H overexpression might affect other metabolic pathways in the plant metabolism of C. roseus. PMID:22916202

  6. Overexpression of ORCA3 and G10H in Catharanthus roseus plants regulated alkaloid biosynthesis and metabolism revealed by NMR-metabolomics.

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    Qifang Pan

    Full Text Available In order to improve the production of the anticancer dimeric indole alkaloids in Catharanthuse roseus, much research has been dedicated to culturing cell lines, hairy roots, and efforts to elucidate the regulation of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA biosynthesis. In this study, the ORCA3 (Octadecanoid-derivative Responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain gene alone or integrated with the G10H (geraniol 10-hydroxylase gene were first introduced into C. roseus plants. Transgenic C. roseus plants overexpressing ORCA3 alone (OR lines, or co-overexpressing G10H and ORCA3 (GO lines were obtained by genetic modification. ORCA3 overexpression induced an increase of AS, TDC, STR and D4H transcripts but did not affect CRMYC2 and G10H transcription. G10H transcripts showed a significant increase under G10H and ORCA3 co-overexpression. ORCA3 and G10H overexpression significantly increased the accumulation of strictosidine, vindoline, catharanthine and ajmalicine but had limited effects on anhydrovinblastine and vinblastine levels. NMR-based metabolomics confirmed the higher accumulation of monomeric indole alkaloids in OR and GO lines. Multivariate data analysis of (1H NMR spectra showed change of amino acid, organic acid, sugar and phenylpropanoid levels in both OR and GO lines compared to the controls. The result indicated that enhancement of MIA biosynthesis by ORCA3 and G10H overexpression might affect other metabolic pathways in the plant metabolism of C. roseus.

  7. [Stereochemistry, syntheses and biological activity of lupine alkaloids--from studies on the leguminous plants growing mainly in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Shigeru

    2007-10-01

    Lupine alkaloids have been studied from the viewpoints of biosynthesis, biotechnology, chemotaxonomy, and biological activity, on the basis of the chemical investigation of the leguminous plants of the 28 species belonging to the 9 genera, which mainly grow in Japan. The results obtained have been comprehensively reviewed by authors. This review describes the stereochemistry of lupine alkaloids and focuses on the conformational flexibility of nitrogen-fused systems such as quinolizidine and indolizidine, syntheses of new unusual types of alkaloids from known lupine alkaloids, and pharmacological activity of lupine alkaloids, especially kappa-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive effects of matrine-type lupine alkaloids.

  8. Interactions between {beta}-carboline alkaloids and bovine serum albumin: Investigation by spectroscopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafisi, Shohreh, E-mail: drshnafisi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahyab, Ataollah [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri Sadeghi, Golshan [Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    {beta}-Carboline alkaloids are present in medicinal plants such as Peganum harmala L. that have been used as folk medicine in anticancer therapy. BSA is the major soluble protein constituent of the circulatory system, and has many physiological functions including the transport of a variety of compounds. This study is the first attempt to investigate the binding of {beta}-carboline alkaloids to BSA by using a constant protein concentration and varying drug concentrations at pH 7.2. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods were used to analyze the binding modes of {beta}-carboline alkaloids, the binding constants and the effects of drug complexation on BSA stability and conformation. Spectroscopic evidence showed that {beta}-carboline alkaloids bind BSA via hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals contacts along with H-bonding with the -NH groups, with overall binding constants of K{sub harmine-BSA}=2.04 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}, K{sub tryptoline-BSA}=1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}, K{sub harmaline-BSA}=5.04 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sup -1}, K{sub harmane-BSA}=1.41 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} and K{sub harmalol-BSA}=1.01 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sup -1}, assuming that there is one drug molecule per protein. The BSA secondary structure was altered with a major decrease of {alpha}-helix from 64% (free protein) to 59% (BSA-harmane), 56% (BSA-harmaline and BSA-harmine), 55% (BSA-tryptoline), 54% (BSA-harmalol) and {beta}-sheet from 15% (free protein) to 6-8% upon {beta}-carboline alkaloids complexation, inducing a partial protein destabilization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the binding of {beta}-carboline alkaloids to BSA by using the spectroscopic methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the effects of drug complexation on BSA stability and conformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A partial protein destabilization occurred at high alkaloids concentration. Black

  9. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  10. De Novo RNA Sequencing and Expression Analysis of Aconitum carmichaelii to Analyze Key Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Diterpene Alkaloids

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    Megha Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum carmichaelii is an important medicinal herb used widely in China, Japan, India, Korea, and other Asian countries. While extensive research on the characterization of metabolic extracts of A. carmichaelii has shown accumulation of numerous bioactive metabolites including aconitine and aconitine-type diterpene alkaloids, its biosynthetic pathway remains largely unknown. Biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites is tightly controlled and mostly occurs in a tissue-specific manner; therefore, transcriptome analysis across multiple tissues is an attractive method to identify the molecular components involved for further functional characterization. In order to understand the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, Illumina-based deep transcriptome profiling and analysis was performed for four tissues (flower, bud, leaf, and root of A. carmichaelii, resulting in 5.5 Gbps clean RNA-seq reads assembled into 128,183 unigenes. Unigenes annotated as possible rate-determining steps of an aconitine-type biosynthetic pathway were highly expressed in the root, in accordance with previous reports describing the root as the accumulation site for these metabolites. We also identified 21 unigenes annotated as cytochrome P450s and highly expressed in roots, which represent candidate unigenes involved in the diversification of secondary metabolites. Comparative transcriptome analysis of A. carmichaelii with A. heterophyllum identified 20,232 orthogroups, representing 30,633 unigenes of A. carmichaelii, gene ontology enrichment analysis of which revealed essential biological process together with a secondary metabolic process to be highly enriched. Unigenes identified in this study are strong candidates for aconitine-type diterpene alkaloid biosynthesis, and will serve as useful resources for further validation studies.

  11. Coupling Deep Transcriptome Analysis with Untargeted Metabolic Profiling in Ophiorrhiza pumila to Further the Understanding of the Biosynthesis of the Anti-Cancer Alkaloid Camptothecin and Anthraquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mami; Mochida, Keiichi; Asano, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Chiba, Motoaki; Udomson, Nirin; Yamazaki, Yasuyo; Goodenowe, Dayan B.; Sankawa, Ushio; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Toyoda, Atsushi; Totoki, Yasushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Buell, C. Robin; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    The Rubiaceae species, Ophiorrhiza pumila, accumulates camptothecin, an anti-cancer alkaloid with a potent DNA topoisomerase I inhibitory activity, as well as anthraquinones that are derived from the combination of the isochorismate and hemiterpenoid pathways. The biosynthesis of these secondary products is active in O. pumila hairy roots yet very low in cell suspension culture. Deep transcriptome analysis was conducted in O. pumila hairy roots and cell suspension cultures using the Illumina platform, yielding a total of 2 Gb of sequence for each sample. We generated a hybrid transcriptome assembly of O. pumila using the Illumina-derived short read sequences and conventional Sanger-derived expressed sequence tag clones derived from a full-length cDNA library constructed using RNA from hairy roots. Among 35,608 non-redundant unigenes, 3,649 were preferentially expressed in hairy roots compared with cell suspension culture. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin were identified; specifically, genes involved in post-strictosamide biosynthetic events and genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthraquinones and chlorogenic acid. Untargeted metabolomic analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) indicated that most of the proposed intermediates in the camptothecin biosynthetic pathway accumulated in hairy roots in a preferential manner compared with cell suspension culture. In addition, a number of anthraquinones and chlorogenic acid preferentially accumulated in hairy roots compared with cell suspension culture. These results suggest that deep transcriptome and metabolome data sets can facilitate the identification of genes and intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of secondary products including camptothecin in O. pumila. PMID:23503598

  12. Identification of a Second Site of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Comfrey to Boost Plant Defense in Floral Stage1,2[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Thomas; Sievert, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase, an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species. In comfrey (Symphytum officinale; Boraginaceae), PAs are reported to be synthesized in the roots, with HSS being localized in cells of the root endodermis. Here, we show that comfrey plants activate a second site of HSS expression when inflorescences start to develop. HSS has been localized in the bundle sheath cells of specific leaves. Tracer feeding experiments have confirmed that these young leaves express not only HSS but the whole PA biosynthetic route. This second site of PA biosynthesis results in drastically increased PA levels within the inflorescences. The boost of PA biosynthesis is proposed to guarantee optimal protection especially of the reproductive structures. PMID:28275146

  13. The gene encoding polyneuridine aldehyde esterase of monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in plants is an ortholog of the alpha/betahydrolase super family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, E; Warzecha, H; Seibel, F; Haebel, S; Lottspeich, F; Stöckigt, J

    2000-03-01

    The biosynthesis of the anti-arrhythmic alkaloid ajmaline is catalysed by more than 10 specific enzymes. In this multistep process polyneuridine aldehyde esterase (PNAE) catalyses a central reaction by transforming polyneuridine aldehyde into epi-vellosimine, which is the immediate precursor for the synthesis of the ajmalane skeleton. PNAE was purified from cell suspension cultures of Rauvolfia serpentina. The N-terminal sequence and endoproteinase LysC fragments of the purified protein were used for primer design and for the amplification of specific PCR products leading to the isolation of PNAE-encoding cDNA from a R. serpentina library. The PNAE cDNA was fused with a C-terminal His-tag, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity using Ni-affinity chromatography. The pure enzyme shows extraordinary substrate specificity, completely different to other esterases. Sequence alignments indicate that PNAE is a new member of the alpha/beta hydrolase super family.

  14. Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: incorporation of 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-al into tomatine with tomato seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Akiko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2014-08-01

    The C-26 amino group of tomatine, a representative Solanaceae steroidal alkaloid, is introduced in an early step of its biosynthesis from cholesterol. We recently proposed a transamination mechanism for the C-26 amination as opposed to the previously proposed mechanism involving a nitrogen nucleophilic displacement. In the present study, a deuterium labeled C-26 aldehyde, (24,24,27,27,27-(2)H5)-3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-al, was synthesized and fed to a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling. LC-MS analysis of the biosynthesized tomatine indicated that the labeled aldehyde was incorporated into tomatine. The finding strongly supports the intermediacy of the aldehyde and the transamination mechanism during C-26 amination. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Dynamic metabolic reprogramming of steroidal glycol-alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may impart early blight resistance in wild tomato (Solanum arcanum Peralta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Balkrishna A; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Hussain, Khalid; Panda, Sayantan; Meir, Sagit; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Giri, Ashok P; Kamble, Avinash C

    2017-11-01

    Exploration with high throughput leaf metabolomics along with functional genomics in wild tomato unreveal potential role of steroidal glyco-alkaloids and phenylpropanoids during early blight resistance. Alternaria solani severely affects tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield causing early blight (EB) disease in tropical environment. Wild relative, Solanum arcanum Peralta could be a potential source of EB resistance; however, its underlying molecular mechanism largely remains unexplored. Hence, non-targeted metabolomics was applied on resistant and susceptible S. arcanum accessions upon A. solani inoculation to unravel metabolic dynamics during different stages of disease progression. Total 2047 potential metabolite peaks (mass signals) were detected of which 681 and 684 metabolites revealed significant modulation and clear differentiation in resistant and susceptible accessions, respectively. Majority of the EB-triggered metabolic changes were active from steroidal glycol-alkaloid (SGA), lignin and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. Further, biochemical and gene expression analyses of key enzymes from these pathways positively correlated with phenotypic variation in the S. arcanum accessions indicating their potential role in EB. Additionally, transcription factors regulating lignin biosynthesis were also up-regulated in resistant plants and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed sequence-specific binding of rSaWRKY1 with MYB20 promoter. Moreover, transcript accumulation of key genes from phenylpropanoid and SGA pathways along with WRKY and MYB in WRKY1 transgenic tomato lines supported above findings. Overall, this study highlights vital roles of SGAs as phytoalexins and phenylpropanoids along with lignin accumulation unrevealing possible mechanistic basis of EB resistance in wild tomato.

  16. HPTLC and GC/MS Study of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids of Two Narcissus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, Eman; Abou-Donia, Amina H; Darwish, Fikria A; Toaima, Soad M; Takla, Sarah S; Pigni, Natalia B; Bastida, Jaume

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we report on the alkaloid profile and dynamic of alkaloid content and diversity in two Narcissus plants at different stages of development. The alkaloid profile of the two Narcissus species was investigated by GC/MS and HPTLC. Fifty eight Amaryllidaceae alkaloids were detected, and 25 of them were identified in the different organs of N. tazetta and N. papyraceus. The alkaloid 3-O-methyl-9-O-demethylmaritidine is tentatively identified here for the first time from the Amaryllidaceae family, and four alkaloids (tazettamide, sternbergine, 1-O-acetyllycorine, 2,11-didehydro-2-dehydroxylycorine) are tentatively identified for the first time in the genus Narcissus. The different organs of the two species analyzed showed remarkable differences in their alkaloid pattern, type of biosynthesis, main alkaloid and number of alkaloids. Lycorine-type alkaloids dominated the alkaloid, metabolism in N. papyraceus, while alkaloids of narciclasine-, galanthamine- and homolycorine-types were found only in the species N. tazetta L. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Haiting; Liu, Jing; Liu, Hanzhu; Xin, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration. PMID:25101324

  18. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiting Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration.

  19. Potential active-site residues in polyneuridine aldehyde esterase, a central enzyme of indole alkaloid biosynthesis, by modelling and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern-Dogru, Emine; Ma, Xueyan; Hartmann, Joachim; Decker, Heinz; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-06-01

    In the biosynthesis of the antiarrhythmic alkaloid ajmaline, polyneuridine aldehyde esterase (PNAE) catalyses a central reaction by transforming polyneuridine aldehyde into epi-vellosimine, which is the immediate precursor for the synthesis of the ajmalane skeleton. The PNAE cDNA was previously heterologously expressed in E. coli. Sequence alignments indicated that PNAE has a 43% identity to a hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis, which is a member of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily. The catalytic triad, which is typical for this family, is conserved. By site-directed mutagenesis, the members of the catalytic triad were identified. For further detection of the active residues, a model of PNAE was constructed based on the X-ray crystallographic structure of hydroxynitrile lyase. The potential active site residues were selected on this model, and were mutated in order to better understand the relationship of PNAE with the alpha/beta hydrolases, and as well its mechanism of action. The results showed that PNAE is a novel member of the alpha/beta hydrolase enzyme superfamily.

  20. Distinct Cell-Specific Expression of Homospermidine Synthase Involved in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Three Species of the Boraginales1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemüller, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, a pathway involved in the plant’s chemical defense. HSS has been shown to be recruited repeatedly by duplication of a gene involved in primary metabolism. Within the lineage of the Boraginales, only one gene duplication event gave rise to HSS. Here, we demonstrate that the tissue-specific expression of HSS in three boraginaceous species, Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale, is unique with respect to plant organ, tissue, and cell type. Within H. indicum, HSS is expressed exclusively in nonspecialized cells of the lower epidermis of young leaves and shoots. In S. officinale, HSS expression has been detected in the cells of the root endodermis and in leaves directly underneath developing inflorescences. In young roots of C. officinale, HSS is detected only in cells of the endodermis, but in a later developmental stage, additionally in the pericycle. The individual expression patterns are compared with those within the Senecioneae lineage (Asteraceae), where HSS expression is reproducibly found in specific cells of the endodermis and the adjacent cortex parenchyma of the roots. The individual expression patterns within the Boraginales species are discussed as being a requirement for the successful recruitment of HSS after gene duplication. The diversity of HSS expression within this lineage adds a further facet to the already diverse patterns of expression that have been observed for HSS in other PA-producing plant lineages, making this PA-specific enzyme one of the most diverse expressed proteins described in the literature. PMID:22566491

  1. Investigations on some metabolites of Tecoma stans Juss. callus tissue. Part II. Chromatographical analysis of alkaloid and quinone compounds

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    Barbara Dohnal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tecoma stans Juss. callus tissue grown on Murashige-Mei Lie Lin (M-L and Murashige-Skoog (RT-k medium supplemented with Tecoma alkaloid precursors like lysine, mevalonic acid lactone and quinolinic acid, were investigated for their alkaloid content by thin-layer (TLC and paper (PC chromatography methods. The results were compared with those obtained by parallel analysis of greenhouse plant leaves. Seven alkaloid spots were detected in the leaf extracts, namely: actinidine, 4-noractinidine, boschniakine, tecomanine, two spots of skytanthine derivatives and one unidentified spot. Only l spot corresponding to skytanthine derivatives appeard in the extracts of callus tissues cultured on basal M-L medium or supplemented with lysine or mevalonic acid lactone. However, 3 alkaloid spots were revealed in extracts of homogeneous parenchyma-like callus tissues obtained o-n, RT-k medium. Beside the skytanthine derivatives rnentioned above, actinidine and tecomanine were identified, and moreover, in callus tissues growing on the same medium (RT-k supplemented with quinolinic acid, boschniakine was found. It was found that T. stans leaves as well as callus tissues cultured on RT-k medium contained traces of lapachol and another quinone-type compound.

  2. Scientific investigation of crude alkaloids from medicinal plants for the management of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ali, Niaz; Shah, Ismail; Ullah, Shafi; Ghias, Mehreen; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Gul, Farah; Akhtar, Sohail; Ullah, Abd; Akbar, Wajid; Ullah, Asad

    2016-06-13

    Tissue damage is associated with pain, which is an alarming sign. Aspirin and morphine have been widely used in recent decades for management of pain. Medicinal herbs have been in use for treatment of different diseases for centuries. Many of these herbs possess analgesic activity with relatively less incidences of adverse effects. The strong positive correlation of alkaloids in medicinal plants for analgesic activity persuades an intention to determine possible analgesic activity of total alkaloids extracted from the selected medicinal plants using animal models to answer its possible mechanisms. Crude alkaloids from selected medicinal plants (Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala and Broussonetia papyrifera) were extracted as per reported literature. The test crude alkaloids were screened foracute toxicity study. Writhings induced by acetic acid, tail immersion method and formalin-induced nociception assay procedures were used for possible analgesic effects of the crude alkaloids. Crude alkaloids were safe up to dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight in mice. The alkaloids significantly reduced the abdominal constrictions, and increased the time for paw licking response in both phases with a significant raise in latency time in nociception models (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the antinociceptive response was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with naloxone suggesting involvement of the opioid receptors for possible antinociceptive action. Crude alkaloids of Woodfordia fruticosa and Peganum harmala showed prominent analgesic potentials through inhibition of peripheral as well as central nervous system mechanisms. Further work is required for isolation of the pharmacologically active constituents.

  3. “Self” and “Non-Self” in the Control of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis: Plant Phospholipases A2 with Alkaloid-Specific Molecular Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Michael; Brandt, Wolfgang; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Roos, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of specialized metabolites requires plants to manage the inherent burdens, including the risk of self-intoxication. We present a control mechanism that stops the expression of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes by blocking the antecedent signal transduction cascade. Cultured cells of Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae) and Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) overproduce benzophenanthridine alkaloids and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, respectively, in response to microbial elicitors. In both plants, an elicitor-responsive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) at the plasma membrane generates signal molecules that initiate the induction of biosynthetic enzymes. The final alkaloids produced in the respective plant inhibit the respective PLA, a negative feedback that prevents continuous overexpression. The selective inhibition by alkaloids from the class produced in the “self” plant could be transferred to leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana via recombinant expression of PLA2. The 3D homology model of each PLA2 displays a binding pocket that specifically accommodates alkaloids of the class produced by the same plant, but not of the other class; for example, C. roseus PLA2 only accommodates C. roseus alkaloids. The interaction energies of docked alkaloids correlate with their selective inhibition of PLA2 activity. The existence in two evolutionary distant plants of phospholipases A2 that discriminate “self-made” from “foreign” alkaloids reveals molecular fingerprints left in signal enzymes during the evolution of species-specific, cytotoxic phytoalexins. PMID:25670767

  4. Chemical Diversity Investigation of Hepatotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Qianliguang (Senecio scandens and Related Species by UHPLC-QTOF-MS

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    Lin Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Qianliguang (Senecio scandens is a common Chinese medicinal herb. Qianliguang-containing herbal proprietary products are registered as over-the-counter remedies in China and exported to Western countries. The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs has raised concerns about the safety of using Qianliguang and its products. The present study aims at investigation of different types of PAs present in Qianliguang collected from representative locations in China.

  5. A field investigation into a suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis in horses in western Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B; Gummow, B

    2015-03-01

    A disease outbreak investigation was conducted in western Queensland to investigate a rare suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) toxicosis in horses. Thirty five of 132 horses depastured on five properties on the Mitchell grass plains of western Queensland died in the first six months of 2010. Clinical-pathological findings were consistent with PA toxicosis. A local variety of Crotalaria medicaginea was the only hepatotoxic plant found growing on affected properties. Pathology reports and departure and arrival dates of two brood mares provided evidence of a pre wet season exposure period. All five affected properties experienced a very dry spring and early summer preceded by a large summer wet season. The outbreak was characterised as a point epidemic with a sudden peak of deaths in March followed by mortalities steadily declining until the end of June. The estimated morbidity (serum IGG>50IU/L) rate was 76%. Average crude mortality was 27% but higher in young horses (67%) and brood mares (44%). Logistic regression analysis showed that young horses and brood mares and those grazing denuded pastures in December were most strongly associated with dying whereas those fed hay and/or grain based supplements were less likely to die. This is the first detailed study of an outbreak of PA toxicosis in central western Queensland and the first to provide evidence that environmental determinants were associated with mortality, that the critical exposure period was towards the end of the dry season, that supplementary feeding is protective and that denuded pastures and the horses physiological protein requirement are risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing Tropane Alkaloid Production Based on the Functional Identification of Tropine-Forming Reductase in Scopolia lurida, a Tibetan Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihui Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia lurida, a native herbal plant species in Tibet, is one of the most effective producers of tropane alkaloids. However, the tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in this plant species of interest has yet to be studied at the molecular, biochemical, and biotechnological level. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of a putative short chain dehydrogenase (SDR gene. Sequence analysis showed that SlTRI belonged to the SDR family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SlTRI was clustered with the tropine-forming reductases. SlTRI and the other TA-biosynthesis genes, including putrescine N-methyltransferase (SlPMT and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (SlH6H, were preferably or exclusively expressed in the S. lurida roots. The tissue profile of SlTRI suggested that this gene might be involved in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. By using GC-MS, SlTRI was shown to catalyze the tropinone reduction to yield tropine, the key intermediate of tropane alkaloids. With the purified recombinant SlTRI from Escherichiacoli, an enzymatic assay was carried out; its result indicated that SlTRI was a tropine-forming reductase. Finally, the role of SlTRI in promoting the tropane alkaloid biosynthesis was confirmed through metabolic engineering in S. lurida. Specifically, hairy root cultures of S. lurida were established to investigate the effects of SlTRI overexpression on tropane alkaloid accumulation. In the SlTRI-overexpressing root cultures, the hyoscyamine contents were 1.7- to 2.9-fold higher than those in control while their corresponding scopolamine contents were likewise elevated. In summary, this functional identification of SlTRI has provided for a better understanding of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. It also provides a candidate gene for enhancing tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in S. lurida via metabolic engineering.

  7. The synthesis of 3H-putrescine and subsequent biosynthesis of 3H-jacobine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Senecio jacobaea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.L.; Buhler, D.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the preparation of tritiated putrescine dihydrochloride ([2,3- 3 H]-1,4-diaminobutane dihydro-chloride) from succinonitrile (1,4-butanedinitrile) and 3 H 2 O, with a radiochemical yield of 16%. Tritiated jacobine and other pyrrolizidine alkaloids were then biosynthesized in Senecio jacobaea using 3 H-putrescine-2HCl as the precursor with a radiochemical yield of 0.9% into total pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Jacobine accounted for 36% of the total. This synthetic method provides a relatively inexpensive source for the preparation of these labelled compounds. (author)

  8. The Iboga Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Catherine; Massiot, Georges

    Iboga alkaloids are a particular class of indolomonoterpenes most often characterized by an isoquinuclidine nucleus. Their first occurrence was detected in the roots of Tabernanthe iboga, a sacred plant to the people of Gabon, which made it cult object. Ibogaine is the main representative of this class of alkaloids and its psychoactive properties are well documented. It has been proposed as a drug cessation treatment and has a wide range of activities in targeting opioids, cocaine, and alcohol. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a background on this molecule and related compounds and to update knowledge on the most recent advances made. Difficulties linked to the status of ibogaine as a drug in several countries have hampered its development, but 18-methoxycoronaridine is currently under evaluation for the same purposes and for the treatment of leishmaniasis. The chapter is divided into six parts: an introduction aiming at defining what is called an iboga alkaloid, and this is followed by current knowledge on their biosynthesis, which unfortunately remains a "black box" as far as the key construction step is concerned. Many of these alkaloids are still being discovered and the third and fourth parts of the chapter discuss the analytical tools in use for this purpose and give lists of new monomeric and dimeric alkaloids belonging to this class. When necessary, the structures are discussed especially with regard to absolute configuration determinations, which remain a point of weakness in their assignments. Part V gives an account of progress made in the synthesis, partial and total, which the authors believe is key to providing solid solutions to the industrial development of the most promising molecules. The last part of the chapter is devoted to the biological properties of iboga alkaloids, with particular emphasis on ibogaine and 18-methoxycoronaridine.

  9. Influence of Nonpolar Substances on the Extraction Efficiency of Six Alkaloids in Zoagumhwan Investigated by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array (UPLC-PDA detection method was established for the determination of six alkaloids in Zoagumhwan (ZGW, and further for investigating the influence of nonpolar substances on the extraction efficiency of these alkaloids. The method was based on a BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column and mobile phase of aqueous phosphoric acid and acetonitrile including 0.05% buffer solution under gradient elution. ZGW samples of ZGW I, II, III and IV were obtained and prepared by pre-processing the crude materials of Coptidis rhizoma and Evodiae fructus using four technologies, namely direct water decoction, removal of nonpolar substances in Evodiae fructus by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by SFE and removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by steam distillation. The developed and validated UPLC-PDA method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough based on the facts that the six alkaloids showed good regression (r > 0.9998, the limit of detections and quantifications for six alkaloids were less than 28.8 and 94.5 ng/mL, respectively, and the recovery was in the range of 98.56%–103.24%. The sequence of the total contents of six alkaloids in these samples was ZGW II > ZGW IV > ZGW III > ZGW I. ZGW II, in which nonpolar substances, including essential oils, were firstly removed from Evodiae fructus by SFE, had the highest content of the total alkaloids, indicating that extraction efficiency of the total alkaloids could be remarkably increased after Evodiae fructus being extracted by SFE.

  10. The Catharanthus alkaloids: pharmacognosy and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Der Heijden, Robert; Jacobs, Denise I; Snoeijer, Wim; Hallard, Didier; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The Catharanthus (or Vinca) alkaloids comprise a group of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids. Vinblastine is now marketed for more than 40 years as an anticancer drug and became a true lead compound for drug development. Due to the pharmaceutical importance and the low content in the plant of vinblastine and the related alkaloid vincristine, Catharanthus roseus became one of the best-studied medicinal plants. Consequently it developed as a model system for biotechnological studies on plant secondary metabolism. The aim of this review is to acquaint a broader audience with the recent progress in this research and with its exciting perspectives. The pharmacognostical aspects of the Catharanthus alkaloids cover botanical (including some historical), phytochemical and analytical data. An up-to-date view on the biosynthesis of the alkaloids is given. The pharmacological aspects of these alkaloids and their semi-synthetic derivatives are only discussed briefly. The biotechnological part focuses on alternative production systems for these alkaloids, for example by in vitro culture of C. roseus cells. Subsequently it will be discussed to what extent the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated genetically ("metabolic engineering"), aiming at higher production levels of the alkaloids. Another approach is to produce the alkaloids (or their precursors) in other organisms such as yeast. Despite the availability of only a limited number of biosynthetic genes, the research on C. roseus has already led to a broad scientific spin-off. It is clear that many interesting results can be expected when more genes become available.

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jeremy; Stevens, Kiri

    2014-12-01

    This review covers pyrrolizidine alkaloids isolated from natural sources. Topics include: aspects of structure, isolation, and biological/pharmacological studies; total syntheses of necic acids, necine bases and closely-related non-natural analogues.

  12. Alkaloids in the mite Scheloribates laevigatus: further alkaloids common to oribatid mites and poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, Ralph A; Norton, Roy A; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Garraffo, Hugo Martin; Spande, Thomas F

    2011-02-01

    Poison frogs are chemically defended from predators by diverse alkaloids, almost all of which are sequestered unchanged from alkaloid-containing arthropods in the frog diet. Oribatid mites recently have been proposed as a major dietary source of poison frog alkaloids. Here, we report on alkaloids common to an oribatid mite and poison frogs. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of methanol extracts of adult Scheloribates laevigatus (Oribatida: Scheloribatidae) revealed nine alkaloids. Five of these have been detected previously in the skin glands of poison frogs: two isomers of the pumiliotoxin 291G, two isomers of the 5,6,8-trisubstituted indolizidine 209C, and the 5,6,8-trisubstituted indolizidine 195G. The other four alkaloids, a pumiliotoxin, a tricyclic (coccinelline-like), and two isomers of an izidine, were not previously known, but are similar in structure to alkaloids found in poison frogs. Alkaloids were not detected in immature S. laevigatus, suggesting that they are adult-specific and possibly the result of mite biosynthesis. Although most of the alkaloids detected in S. laevigatus are common to poison frogs, the geographic distributions of these organisms are not sympatric. The findings of this study indicate that oribatid mites, and in particular, members of the genus Scheloribates, represent a relatively unexplored arthropod repository for alkaloids and a significant dietary source of alkaloids in poison frogs.

  13. The Securinega alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkin, Eqor; Atkatlian, William; Porée, François-Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Securinega alkaloids represent a family of plant secondary metabolites known for 50 years. Securinine (1), the most abundant and studied alkaloid of this series was isolated by Russian researchers in 1956. In the following years, French and Japanese scientists reported other Securinega compounds and extensive work was done to elucidate their intriguing structures. The homogeneity of this family relies mainly on its tetracyclic chemical backbone, which features a butenolide moiety (cycle D) and an azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane ring system (rings B and C). Interestingly, after a period of latency of 20 years, the Securinega topic reemerged as a prolific source of new natural structures and to date more than 50 compounds have been identified and characterized. The oligomeric subgroup gathering dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric units is of particular interest. The unprecedented structure of the Securinega alkaloids was the subject of extensive synthetic efforts culminating in several efficient and elegant total syntheses. The botanical distribution of these alkaloids seems limited to the Securinega, Flueggea, Margaritaria, and Breynia genera (Phyllanthaceae). However, only a limited number of plant species have been considered for their alkaloid contents, and additional phytochemical as well as genetic studies are needed. Concerning the biosynthesis, experiments carried out with radiolabelled aminoacids allowed to identify lysine and tyrosine as the precursors of the piperidine ring A and the CD rings of securinine (1), respectively. Besides, plausible biosynthetic pathways were proposed for virosaine A (38) and B (39), flueggine A (46), and also the different oligomers flueggenine A-D (48-51), fluevirosinine A (56), and flueggedine (20). The case of nirurine (45) and secu'amamine (37) remains elusive and additional studies seem necessary to understand their mode of production. The scope of biological of activities of the Securinega alkaloids was mainly centered on the CNS

  14. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Schardl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae. Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes, and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens, which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS, indole-diterpenes (IDT, and lolines (LOL in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed.

  15. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Young, Carolyn A.; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Farman, Mark L.; Webb, Jennifer S.; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D.; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed. PMID:23744053

  16. Currencies of mutualisms: sources of alkaloid genes in vertically transmitted epichloae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L; Young, Carolyn A; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E; Panaccione, Daniel G; Farman, Mark L; Webb, Jennifer S; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-06-06

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed.

  17. Dioxygenases Catalyze O-Demethylation and O,O-Demethylenation with Widespread Roles in Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Metabolism in Opium Poppy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy. PMID:23928311

  18. Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-04

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy.

  19. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: occurrence, biology, and chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jeremy; Stevens, Kiri

    2017-01-04

    Covering: 2013 up to the end of 2015This review covers the isolation and structure of new pyrrolizidines; pyrrolizidine biosynthesis; biological activity, including the occurrence of pyrrolizidines as toxic components or contaminants in foods and beverages; and formal and total syntheses of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids and closely related non-natural analogues.

  20. Transcript profiling of a bitter variety of narrow-leafed lupin to discover alkaloid biosynthetic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ting; Nagy, Istvan; Mancinotti, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Lupins (Lupinus spp.) are nitrogen-fixing legumes that accumulate toxic alkaloids in their protein-rich beans. These anti-nutritional compounds belong to the family of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), which are of interest to the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. To unleash the potential...... different tissues and two different sequencing technologies. In addition, we present a list of 33 genes that are closely co-expressed with LDC and that represent strong candidates for involvement in lupin alkaloid biosynthesis. One of these genes encodes a copper amine oxidase able to convert the product......, transporters, and regulators involved in lupin alkaloid biosynthesis....

  1. Alkaloids of some Asian Sedum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, JH; THart, H; Stevens, JF

    The leafy parts of 16 Asian species belonging to the three sections of Sedum were investigated for the presence of alkaloids. Only in seven species of Sedum sect. Sedum were alkaloids found. Sedum bulbiferum, S. japonicum, S. lepidopodium, S. morrisomensis, S. oryzifolium, S. polytrichoides and S.

  2. Alkaloids of Nelumbo lutea (Wild.) pers. (Nymphaeaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, S G

    1977-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of an alcoholic extract of the petioles of Nelumbo lutea resulted in the identification of the alkaloids N-methylasimilobine, anonaine, and roemerine. The alkaloids nuciferine, armepavine, N-nornuciferine, and N-norarmepavine, previously previously reported in the whole plant, were also identified.

  3. Evidence for an ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudzynski, P; Hölter, K; Correia, T; Arntz, C; Grammel, N; Keller, U

    1999-02-01

    A gene (cpd1) coding for the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) that catalyzes the first specific step in the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids, was cloned from a strain of Claviceps purpurea that produces alkaloids in axenic culture. The derived gene product (CPD1) shows only 70% similarity to the corresponding gene previously isolated from Claviceps strain ATCC 26245, which is likely to be an isolate of C. fusiformis. Therefore, the related cpd1 most probably represents the first C. purpurea gene coding for an enzymatic step of the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway to be cloned. Analysis of the 3'-flanking region of cpd1 revealed a second, closely linked ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene named cpps1, which codes for a 356-kDa polypeptide showing significant similarity to fungal modular peptide synthetases. The protein contains three amino acid-activating modules, and in the second module a sequence is found which matches that of an internal peptide (17 amino acids in length) obtained from a tryptic digest of lysergyl peptide synthetase 1 (LPS1) of C. purpurea, thus confirming that cpps1 encodes LPS1. LPS1 activates the three amino acids of the peptide portion of ergot peptide alkaloids during D-lysergyl peptide assembly. Chromosome walking revealed the presence of additional genes upstream of cpd1 which are probably also involved in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis: cpox1 probably codes for an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase (which could represent the chanoclavine cyclase), and a second putative oxidoreductase gene, cpox2, is closely linked to it in inverse orientation. RT-PCR experiments confirm that all four genes are expressed under conditions of peptide alkaloid biosynthesis. These results strongly suggest that at least some genes of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in C. purpurea are clustered, opening the way for a detailed molecular genetic analysis of the pathway.

  4. Phytochemistry of norditerpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum and Delphinium

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Aconitum and Delphinium genera are important rich sources of toxic C19-diterpenoid alkaloids. The alkaloidal content of A. napellus and D. elatum seeds have been investigated in detail. After maceration, crude alkaloidal extracts were obtained and then purified by repeated column chromatography (over silica and alumina gels) to sample homogeneity yielding five known C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from A. napellus, aconitine, neoline, 14-O-acetyltalatisamine, 14-O-benzoylaconine, and taurenine, and...

  5. A new quinoline alkaloid from the roots of Dictamnus angustifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Bo; Qu, Wei; Guan, Fu-Qin; Li, Lin-Zhen; Liang, Jing-Yu

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the quinoline alkaloids from the roots of Dictamnus angustifolius G.Don ex Sweet (Rutaceae). The quinoline alkaloids were isolated by various column chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. A new quinoline alkaloid, 5-methoxylrobustine (1), along with five known quinoline alkaloids were obtained, and their structures were identified as dictamnine (2), robustine (3), isopteleine (4), γ-fagarine (5), and skimmianine (6). Cytotoxicity testing of these alkaloids showed that all of them had weak cytotoxic activities against human breast cancer cells (MCF7). Compound 1 is a new quinoline alkaloid. Alkaloid 3 showed stronger anti-proliferation effect than the other alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Somatic Embryogenesis, Rhizogenesis, and Morphinan Alkaloids Production in Two Species of Opium Poppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdelmajid Kassem

    2001-01-01

    Morphine was only detected in aerial parts of Papaver somniferum album. Codeine and thebaine were detected in the rhizogenous but no embryonic callus. These results suggest that root organogenesis is causally related to alkaloid biosynthesis.

  7. Ergot Alkaloids of the Family Clavicipitaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Simona; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2017-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are highly diverse in structure, exhibit diverse effects on animals, and are produced by diverse fungi in the phylum Ascomycota, including pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of plants. These mycotoxins are best known from the fungal family Clavicipitaceae and are named for the ergot fungi that, through millennia, have contaminated grains and caused mass poisonings, with effects ranging from dry gangrene to convulsions and death. However, they are also useful sources of pharmaceuticals for a variety of medical purposes. More than a half-century of research has brought us extensive knowledge of ergot-alkaloid biosynthetic pathways from common early steps to several taxon-specific branches. Furthermore, a recent flurry of genome sequencing has revealed the genomic processes underlying ergot-alkaloid diversification. In this review, we discuss the evolution of ergot-alkaloid biosynthesis genes and gene clusters, including roles of gene recruitment, duplication and neofunctionalization, as well as gene loss, in diversifying structures of clavines, lysergic acid amides, and complex ergopeptines. Also reviewed are prospects for manipulating ergot-alkaloid profiles to enhance suitability of endophytes for forage grasses. PMID:28168931

  8. Exploiting plant alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläger, Sabrina; Dräger, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants have been used for medicine since ancient times. Modern pharmaceuticals still rely on alkaloid extraction from plants, some of which grow slowly, are difficult to cultivate and produce low alkaloid yields. Microbial cells as alternative alkaloid production systems are emerging. Before industrial application of genetically engineered bacteria and yeasts, several steps have to be taken. Original alkaloid-forming enzymes have to be elucidated from plants. Their activity in the heterologous host cells, however, may be low. The exchange of individual plant enzymes for alternative catalysts with better performance and optimal fermentation parameters appear promising. The overall aim is enhancement and stabilization of alkaloid yields from microbes in order to replace the tedious extraction of low alkaloid concentrations from intact plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigations on Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and COX-2 Inhibitory Potential of Alkaloids from Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Madhu; Kumar, Manish; Sharma, Upendra; Singh, Bikram; Kaur, Satwinderjeet

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, an ayurvedic medicinal plant, Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. commonly known as 'Kadamb' was explored for its potential against oxidative stress and cancer. The fractions namely AC-4 and ACALK (alkaloid rich fraction) were isolated from A. cadamba leaves by employing two different isolation methods and evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The structure of the isolated AC-4 was characterized tentatively as dihydrocadambine by using various spectroscopic techniques such as ESI-QTOF-MS, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC. Results of various antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS cation radical, superoxide anion radical scavenging, and plasmid nicking assay demonstrated that both the fractions viz. AC-4 and ACALK possess ability to scavenge DPPH, ABTS radicals and effectively protected plasmid pBR322 DNA from damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Further, when both fractions were evaluated for their potential to suppress growth of HeLa and COLO 205 cells, only ACALK fraction showed antiproliferative effects. ACALK exhibited GI 50 of 205.98 and 99.54 μg/ml in HeLa and COLO 205 cell lines, respectively. Results of Hoechst staining in cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells confirmed that ACALK induced cell death in HeLa cells via apoptotic mode. Both the fractions also inhibited COX-2 enzyme activity. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

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    Wu Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC, total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant activity (DPPH. The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g. However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g. Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL. Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  11. Visual identification of alkaloids in some medicinal plants: common alkaloid reagents versus bromocresol green

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    Shamsa F, Esfahani HR, Gamooshi RA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Background: Alkaloids are a group of nitrogenous compounds with potential effects on the physiological behavior of human and animals. Some of these compounds are considered important drugs in modern medicine, such as atropine and morphine. Plants are considered the most important source of alkaloids. Therefore, investigating the presence of alkaloids in different plants is very important. Usually, alkaloids in plants are identified by methods such as those of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer, among others, which require milligrams of alkaloids for identification. In the present study, a fast and sensitive procedure for detecting of alkaloids in plants is presented.   "n"nMethods: Twelve dried plants samples were investigated for the presence alkaloids. After extracting the total alkaloid into methanol using a Soxhlet extractor, a few milligrams of the extract was transferred to a separatory funnel, buffered to pH 4.7, the bromocresol green (BCG solution (10-4 M was added, mixed and extracted with CHCl3 until a yellow color was observed in the CHCl3 layer, indicating the presence of the alkaloid. The crude extracts were also investigated by the standard methods of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer for the presence of alkaloids.   "n"nResults: Investigation of the 12 plant samples for the presence of alkaloids by the standard reagents of Dragendorf, Wagner, and Meyer showed that only Camelia sinensis (flowers, Echium amoenum Fisch & Mey (flowers, and Stachys (aerial parts are devoid

  12. Jasmonate mediates salt-induced nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    Xiaodong Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate (JA, as an important signal, plays a key role in multiple processes of plant growth, development and stress response. Nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. are essential secondary metabolites. Whether environmental factors control nicotine biosynthesis and the underlying mechanism remains previously unreported. Here, we applied physiological and biochemical approaches to investigate how salt stress affects nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco. We found that salt stress induced the biosynthesis of JA, which subsequently triggered the activation of JA-responsive gene expression and, ultimately, nicotine synthesis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the existence of many NtMYC2a-recognized G-box motifs in the promoter regions of NtLOX, NtAOS, NtAOC and NtOPR genes. Applying exogenous JA increased nicotine content, while suppressing JA biosynthesis reduced nicotine biosynthesis. Salt treatment could not efficiently induce nicotine biosynthesis in transgenic anti-COI1 tobacco plants. These results demonstrate that JA acts as the essential signal which triggers nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco after salt stress.

  13. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

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    Nikolić Milan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century a new era began in medicine, pharmaceutics and chemistry that was strongly connected with alkaloids and alkaloid drugs. Even before that it was known that certain drugs administered in limited doses were medicines, and toxic if taken in larger doses (opium, coke leaves, belladonna roots, monkshood tubers crocus or hemlock seeds. However, the identification, isolation and structural characterization of the active ingredients of the alkaloid drugs was only possible in the mid 20th century by the use of modern extraction equipment and instrumental methods (NMR, X-ray diffraction and others.In spite of continuing use over a long time, there is still great interest in investigating new drugs, potential raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the more detailed investigation and definition of bio-active components and the indication of their activity range, and the partial synthesis of new alkaloid molecules based on natural alkaloids. The scope of these investigations, especially in the field of semi-synthesis is to make better use of the bio-active ingredients of alkaloid drugs, i.e. to improve the pharmacological effect (stronger and prolonged effect of the medicine, decreased toxicity and side effects, or to extend or change the applications. A combined classification of alkaloids was used, based on the chemical structure and origin, i.e. the source of their isolation to study alkaloid structure. For practical reasons, the following classification of alkaloids was used: ergot alkaloids, poppy alkaloids, tropanic alkaloids purine derivative alkaloids, carbon-cyclic alkaloids, and other alkaloids. The second part of this report presents a table of general procedures for alkaloid isolation from plant drugs (extraction by water non-miscible solvents, extraction by water-miscible solvents and extraction by diluted acid solutions. Also, methods for obtaining chelidonine and

  14. RIA for indol alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, H.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of RIAs for indol alkaloids (ajmaline, ergotamine, ergocristine, ergometrine, and lysergic acid) is described, and applications for this RIA and the RIA for raubasine and serpentine are mentioned. The indol alkaloide RIAs are shown to be suitable both for alkaloid distribution measurements in Catharantus and Rauwolfia plants and C. purpurea sclerotia as well as for the selection of high-efficiency strains and the optimisation of cultures of plant tissues and saprophytic fungi. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegink, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with 14 C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. 14 C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little 14 C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much 14 C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I 5 0 for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria

  16. Arginine decarboxylase as the source of putrescine for tobacco alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The putrescine which forms a part of nicotine and other pyrrolidine alkaloids is generally assumed to arise through the action of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, we have previously noted that changes in the activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), an alternate source of putrescine, parallel changes in tissue alkaloids, while changes in ODC activity do not. This led us to undertake experiments to permit discrimination between ADC and ODC as enzymatic sources of putrescine destined for alkaloids. Two kinds of evidence presented here support a major role for ADC in the generation of putrescine going into alkaloids: (a) A specific 'suicide inhibitor' of ADC effectively inhibits the biosynthesis of nicotine and nornicotine in tobacco callus, while the analogous inhibitor of ODC is less effective, and (b) the flow of 14C from uniformly labelled arginine into nicotine is much more efficient than that from ornithine.

  17. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

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    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  18. Indole Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus: Bioproduction and Their Effect on Human Health

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    Lorena Almagro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a medicinal plant belonging to the family Apocynaceae which produces terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs of high medicinal importance. Indeed, a number of activities like antidiabetic, bactericide and antihypertensive are linked to C. roseus. Nevertheless, the high added value of this plant is based on its enormous pharmaceutical interest, producing more than 130 TIAs, some of which exhibit strong pharmacological activities. The most striking biological activity investigated has been the antitumour effect of dimeric alkaloids such as anhydrovinblastine, vinblastine and vincristine which are already in pre-, clinical or in use. The great pharmacological importance of these indole alkaloids, contrasts with the small amounts of them found in this plant, making their extraction a very expensive process. To overcome this problem, researches have looked for alternative sources and strategies to produce them in higher amounts. In this sense, intensive research on the biosynthesis of TIAs and the regulation of their pathways has been developed with the aim to increase by biotechnological approaches, the production of these high added value compounds. This review is focused on the different strategies which improve TIA production, and in the analysis of the beneficial effects that these compounds exert on human health.

  19. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

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    J. A. P. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion in yeast diploid strain XS2316.

  20. Structural investigations of N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase from Medicago truncatula: insights into the ultimate step of putrescine biosynthesis in plants

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    Bartosz eSekula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Putrescine, 1,4-diaminobutane, is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of more complexed polyamines, spermidine and spermine. Unlike other eukaryotes, plants have evolved a multistep pathway for putrescine biosynthesis that utilizes arginine. In the final reaction, N-carbamoylputrescine is hydrolyzed to putrescine by N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (CPA, EC 3.5.1.53. During the hydrolysis, consecutive nucleophilic attacks on the substrate by Cys158 and water lead to formation of putrescine and two by-products, ammonia and carbon dioxide. CPA from the model legume plant, Medicago truncatula (MtCPA, was investigated in this work. Four crystal structures were determined: the wild-type MtCPA in complex with the reaction intermediate, N-(dihydroxymethylputrescine as well as with cadaverine, which is a longer analogue of putrescine; and also structures of MtCPA-C158S mutant unliganded and with putrescine. MtCPA assembles into octamers, which resemble an incomplete left-handed helical twist. The active site of MtCPA is funnel-like shaped, and its entrance is walled with a contribution of the neighboring protein subunits. Deep inside the catalytic cavity, Glu48, Lys121 and Cys158 form the catalytic triad. In this studies, we have highlighted the key residues, highly conserved among the plant kingdom, responsible for the activity and selectivity of MtCPA towards N-carbamoylputrescine. Moreover, since, according to previous reports, a close MtCPA relative from Arabidopsis thaliana, along with several other nitrilase-like proteins, are subjected to allosteric regulation by substrates, we have used the structural information to indicate a putative secondary binding site. Based on the docking experiment, we postulate that this site is adjacent to the entrance to the catalytic pocket.

  1. Alkaloid patterns in some varieties of Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkov, Strahil; Zayed, Rawia; Doncheva, Tsvetelina

    2006-04-01

    A comparative GC-MS investigation of the alkaloid patterns of three varieties of Datura stramonium vars. stramonium, tatula and godronii, was carried out. Twenty-five tropane alkaloids were identified in the plant organs. Alkaloid patterns of the roots, leaves and seeds of the varieties grown at equal conditions in Bulgaria were very similar. In contrast, alkaloid pattern of D. stramonium var. stramonium, grown in Egypt, showed significant differences indicating that it is influenced more strongly by the environmental factors than genetic ones.

  2. TOXIC PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS OF ECHIUM AMOENUM FISCH. & MEY.

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    MITRA MEHRABANI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids are present in some species of Echium (Boraginaceae. In this study petals of Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey. (Gol-e-Gavzaban as a popular herbal medicine in Iran, were investigated for pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The alkaloids were separated and purified by preparative TLC and characterized by IR, one and two dimensional 1H and 13C-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Four toxic alkaloids namely: echimidine I, echimidine isomer II, 7-angeloyl retronecine III and 7-tigloyl retronecine IV were identified.

  3. Cultivation of diploid and tetraploid hairy roots of Datura stramonium L. in stirred tank bioreactor for tropane alkaloids production

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    ATANAS PAVLOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass accumulation and tropane alkaloids production by diploid and tetraploid hairy root cultures of Datura stramonium L. cultivated in stirred tank bioreactor at different aeration rates were investigated. The maximal growth for both hairy root cultures (ADB = 8.3 g/L and 6.8 g/L for diploid and tetraploid line, respectively was achieved at aeration rate of 15.0 L/(L.h. The corresponding growth indexes were remarkably high (GIDW = 9.0 and 7.8 for diploid and tetraploid line, respectively compared to the values, usually reported for other hairy root cultures. The optimal aeration rate for biomass accumulation was also optimal for alkaloids biosynthesis. According to our survey, the achieved maximal amounts of accumulated hyoscyamine (35.0 mg/L and 27.0 mg/L for diploid and tetraploid line were the highest reported in the scientific literature for D. stramonium L. hairy roots. During the cultivation in stirred tank bioreactor, the hairy roots biosynthesized pharmaceutically important alkaloid scopolamine in minor concentrations. This is an important observation since scopolamine was not detected during submerged cultivation of these hairy root lines in other bioreactor types. However, the ploidy level was found to be the most important factor concerning scopolamine production by D. stramonium L. hairy roots cultures. The present work demonstrated the effect of ploidity levels on biomass accumulation and tropane alkaloids production by D. stramonium L. hairy roots cultivated in stirred tank bioreactor. This investigation show that the stirred tank bioreactor could be successfully applied for both maximal biomass accumulations, as well as for manipulation of tropane alkaloids production by diploid and tetraploid D. stramonium L. hairy root cultures.

  4. Alkaloids from Sternbergia colchiciflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkov, Strahil; Bastida, Jaume; Tsvetkova, Reneta; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one alkaloids and related compounds were found in Sternbergia colchiciflora (Amaryllidaceae), a hitherto not studied plant species. Twenty of them were detected by GC-MS in the crude extracts of this plant species. Ten alkaloids were isolated and their structures confirmed by NMR, MS and CD measurements. Many of the compounds found in this species, such as lycorine, tazettine, haemanthidine, are known to possess strong bioactivity. Variations in the alkaloid pattern were found during the phenological cycle of the plant. Lycorine-type compounds were dominant in the plant organs during both the flowering period and dormancy. The alkaloid pattern during both periods of leaf development and fructification was dominated by haemanthamine-type in the leaves and lycorine-type compounds in the bulbs, respectively.

  5. Novel Euglenoid Derived Alkaloid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Disclosed herein is a purified toxin isolated from Euglena sanguinea. More specifically the toxin, termed euglenophycin, is an alkaloid having herbicidal and...

  6. Genetics, Genomics and Evolution of Ergot Alkaloid Diversity

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    Carolyn A. Young

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization. The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine.

  7. Alkaloids of Andrachne aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, S; Hootelé, C

    2000-06-01

    Two new 2,6-disubstituted piperidine alkaloids andrachcinine (1) and andrachcinidine (5) have been isolated from Andrachne aspera along with andrachamine and andrachcine (2). The absolute configurations of 1, 2, and 5 were established. (+)-Allosedridine and the new alkaloids (-)-8-epi-8-ethylnorlobelol I (4) and (-)-8-epihalosaline (7) were also identified as constituents of A. aspera. Structures were determined by MS and NMR techniques and by chemical conversions.

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Various Ratios of Polysaccharides/Alkaloids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effects of various ratios of polysaccharides/ alkaloids from the rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch (RCC) on α-glucosidase. Methods: The polysaccharides (PSD) and alkaloids (ALK) from RCC were prepared using the water extraction and alcohol precipitation method and Reinecke's ...

  9. Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta | Karou | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sida acuta is a shrub indigenous to pantropical regions. The plant is widely used for its various pharmacological properties. Among compounds of pharmacological interest occurring in the plant, are indoloquinoline alkaloids. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of alkaloids of S. acuta ...

  10. A new spermidine macrocyclic alkaloid isolated from Gymnosporia arenicola leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gustavo; Martinho, Ana; Soengas, Raquel González; Duarte, Ana Paula; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-10-01

    The isolation and structural elucidation of a macrocyclic alkaloid, characterized by the presence of a 13-membered macrolactam ring containing a spermidine unit N-linked to a benzoyl group is hereby reported. The structure of this previously unknown spermidine alkaloid isolated from Gymnosporia arenicola (Celastraceae) leaves has been elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy (including bidimensional analysis) and further characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and polarimetry. A route for the biosynthesis of this new bioactive macrocycle is proposed and the cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated against two ATCC cell lines - one normal-derived (MCF10A) and one cancer-derived cell line (MCF7) - using the MTT assay. The alkaloid revealed to be non-cytotoxic against both cell lines. The IC50 values from the cells were also determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyoscyamine biosynthesis in Datura stramonium hairy root in vitro systems with different ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A; Berkov, S; Weber, J; Bley, Th

    2009-05-01

    Hyoscyamine biosynthesis in Datura stramonium hairy roots with different ploidy levels was investigated. For the first time, we report that hairy roots undergo endoreduplication and therefore consist mainly of cells with doupled sets of chromosomes of primary plant tissues, used for Agrobacterium transformation. The alkaloid profiles of hairy roots obtained from diploid and tetraploid plants were similar in terms of the major compounds, but they differed significantly with respect to the minor compounds (here defined as those that accounted for stramonium hairy root cultures are also presented.

  12. Alkaloids Induce Programmed Cell Death in Bloodstream Forms of Trypanosomes (Trypanosoma b. brucei

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    Michael Wink

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential induction of a programmed cell death (PCD in Trypanosoma b. brucei by 55 alkaloids of the quinoline, quinolizidine, isoquinoline, indole, terpene, tropane, steroid, and piperidine type was studied by measuring DNA fragmentation and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. For comparison, the induction of apoptosis by the same alkaloids in human leukemia cells (Jurkat APO-S was tested. Several alkaloids of the isoquinoline, quinoline, indole and steroidal type (berberine, chelerythrine, emetine, sanguinarine, quinine, ajmalicine, ergotamine, harmine, vinblastine, vincristine, colchicine, chaconine, demissidine and veratridine induced programmed cell death, whereas quinolizidine, tropane, terpene and piperidine alkaloids were mostly inactive. Effective PCD induction (EC50 below 10 µM was caused in T. brucei by chelerythrine, emetine, sanguinarine, and chaconine. The active alkaloids can be characterized by their general property to inhibit protein biosynthesis, to intercalate DNA, to disturb membrane fluidity or to inhibit microtubule formation.

  13. Cytotoxicity of Hymenocallis expansa alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoun, M D; Mendoza, N T; Ríos, Y R; Proctor, G R; Wickramaratne, D B; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1993-08-01

    From the bulbs and leaves of Hymenocallis expansa (Amaryllidaceae), three alkaloid constituents were identified: (+)-tazettine, (+)-hippeastrine, and (-)-haemanthidine. These alkaloids demonstrated significant cytotoxicity when tested against a panel of human and murine tumor cell lines.

  14. Investigation of Uña De Gato I. 7-Deoxyloganic acid and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies on pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, I; Dunbar, D C; Khan, R A; Ganzera, M; Khan, I A

    2001-07-01

    The C-8-(S) isomer of deoxyloganic acid (7-deoxyloganic acid), together with beta-sitosteryl glucoside, five known stereoisomeric pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids and the tetracyclic oxindole isorhyncophylline, were isolated from the inner bark of Uncaria tomentosa. Structures of the isolated compounds were based on 1H and 13C NMR data, mainly 2D NMR experiments, including 1H-13C HMBC and 1H-1H NOESY correlation. Furthermore, the hitherto unreported 15N chemical shifts of the isomeric oxindole alkaloids, using 1H-15N HMBC experiments, were utilized to facilitate their characterization. Uncarine D showed weak cytotoxic activity against SK-MEL, KB, BT-549 and SK-OV-3 cell lines with IC(50) values between 30 and 40 microg/ml, while uncarine C exhibited weak cytotoxicity only against ovarian carcinoma (IC(50) at 37 microg/ml).

  15. Investigation of Symphytum cordatum alkaloids by liquid-liquid partitioning, thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroczek, Tomasz [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: tmroczek@pharmacognosy.org; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine [Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Phytochimie, Ecole de Pharmacie Geneve-Lausanne, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Glowniak, Kazimierz [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Mietkiewicz-Capala, Agnieszka [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Hostettmann, Kurt [Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Phytochimie, Ecole de Pharmacie Geneve-Lausanne, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2006-05-04

    From the alkalised crude extract of Symphytum cordatum (L.) W.K. roots, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were extracted as free tertiary bases and polar N-oxides in a merely one-step liquid-liquid partitioning (LLP) in separation funnel and subsequently pre-fractionated by preparative multiple-development (MD) thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel plates. In this way three alkaloid fractions of different polarities and retention on silica gel plates were obtained as: the most polar N-oxides of the highest retention, the tertiary bases of medium retention, and diesterified N-oxides of the lowest retention. The former fraction was reduced into free bases by sodium hydrosulfite and purified by LLP on Extrelut-NT3 cartridge. It was further analysed together with the two other fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface on XTerra C{sub 18} column using a gradient elution. Based on MS {sup n} spectra, 18 various alkaloids have been tentatively determined for the first time in this plant as the following types of structure: echimidine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-sarracinyl-9-viridiflorylretronecine (two diasteroisomers), echimidine (two diasteroisomers), lycopsamine (two diasteroisomers), dihydroechinatine-N-oxide, dihydroheliospathuline-N-oxide, lycopsamine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-acetyllycopsamine-N-oxide, symphytine-N-oxide (two diasteroisomers) and 2'',3''-epoxyechiumine-N-oxide.

  16. Investigation of Symphytum cordatum alkaloids by liquid-liquid partitioning, thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroczek, Tomasz; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Mietkiewicz-Capala, Agnieszka; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    From the alkalised crude extract of Symphytum cordatum (L.) W.K. roots, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were extracted as free tertiary bases and polar N-oxides in a merely one-step liquid-liquid partitioning (LLP) in separation funnel and subsequently pre-fractionated by preparative multiple-development (MD) thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel plates. In this way three alkaloid fractions of different polarities and retention on silica gel plates were obtained as: the most polar N-oxides of the highest retention, the tertiary bases of medium retention, and diesterified N-oxides of the lowest retention. The former fraction was reduced into free bases by sodium hydrosulfite and purified by LLP on Extrelut-NT3 cartridge. It was further analysed together with the two other fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface on XTerra C 18 column using a gradient elution. Based on MS n spectra, 18 various alkaloids have been tentatively determined for the first time in this plant as the following types of structure: echimidine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-sarracinyl-9-viridiflorylretronecine (two diasteroisomers), echimidine (two diasteroisomers), lycopsamine (two diasteroisomers), dihydroechinatine-N-oxide, dihydroheliospathuline-N-oxide, lycopsamine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-acetyllycopsamine-N-oxide, symphytine-N-oxide (two diasteroisomers) and 2'',3''-epoxyechiumine-N-oxide

  17. Versatility of the Burkholderia cepacia complex for the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides: a comparative structural investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cuzzi

    Full Text Available The Burkholderia cepacia Complex assembles at least eighteen closely related species that are ubiquitous in nature. Some isolates show beneficial potential for biocontrol, bioremediation and plant growth promotion. On the contrary, other strains are pathogens for plants and immunocompromised individuals, like cystic fibrosis patients. In these subjects, they can cause respiratory tract infections sometimes characterised by fatal outcome. Most of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex species are mucoid when grown on a mannitol rich medium and they also form biofilms, two related characteristics, since polysaccharides are important component of biofilm matrices. Moreover, polysaccharides contribute to bacterial survival in a hostile environment by inhibiting both neutrophils chemotaxis and antimicrobial peptides activity, and by scavenging reactive oxygen species. The ability of these microorganisms to produce exopolysaccharides with different structures is testified by numerous articles in the literature. However, little is known about the type of polysaccharides produced in biofilms and their relationship with those obtained in non-biofilm conditions. The aim of this study was to define the type of exopolysaccharides produced by nine species of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex. Two isolates were then selected to compare the polysaccharides produced on agar plates with those formed in biofilms developed on cellulose membranes. The investigation was conducted using NMR spectroscopy, high performance size exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results showed that the Complex is capable of producing a variety of exopolysaccharides, most often in mixture, and that the most common exopolysaccharide is always cepacian. In addition, two novel polysaccharide structures were determined: one composed of mannose and rhamnose and another containing galactose and glucuronic acid. Comparison of exopolysaccharides obtained

  18. Alkaloids from Hippeastrum papilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Bastida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor marketed as a hydrobromide salt (Razadyne®, Reminyl® for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, is obtained from Amaryllidaceae plants, especially those belonging to the genera Leucojum, Narcissus, Lycoris and Ungernia. The growing demand for galanthamine has prompted searches for new sources of this compound, as well as other bioactive alkaloids for the treatment of AD. In this paper we report the isolation of the new alkaloid 11β-hydroxygalanthamine, an epimer of the previously isolated alkaloid habranthine, which was identified using NMR techniques. It has been shown that 11β-hydroxygalanthamine has an important in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Additionally, Hippeastrum papilio yielded substantial quantities of galanthamine.

  19. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para’, para-ortho’, or ortho-para’ regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a p...

  20. An efficient synthesis of loline alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Mesut; Mayer, Peter; Trauner, Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Loline (1) is a small alkaloid that, in spite of its simple-looking structure, has posed surprising challenges to synthetic chemists. It has been known for more than a century and has been the subject of extensive biological investigations, but only two total syntheses have been achieved to date. Here, we report an asymmetric total synthesis of loline that, with less then ten steps, is remarkably short. Our synthesis incorporates a Sharpless epoxidation, a Grubbs olefin metathesis and an unprecedented transannular aminobromination, which converts an eight-membered cyclic carbamate into a bromopyrrolizidine. The synthesis is marked by a high degree of chemo- and stereoselectivity and gives access to several members of the loline alkaloid family. It delivers sufficient material to support a programme aimed at studying the complex interactions between plants, fungi, insects and bacteria brokered by loline alkaloids.

  1. Alkaloidal components in the poisonous plant, Ipomoea carnea (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Mitsue; Gorniak, Silvana L; Ikeda, Kyoko; Minami, Yasuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Watson, Alison A; Nash, Robert J; Molyneux, Russell J; Asano, Naoki

    2003-08-13

    Natural intoxication of livestock by the ingestion of Ipomoea carnea (Convolvulaceae) sometimes occurs in tropical regions of the world. Polyhydroxylated alkaloids were isolated from the leaves, flowers, and seeds of the poisonous plant and characterized. Chromatographic separation of the leaf extract resulted in the isolation of swainsonine (1), 2-epi-lentiginosine (2), calystegines B(1) (3), B(2) (4), B(3) (5), and C(1) (6), and N-methyl-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (7). The contents of 1 in the fresh leaves and flowers were 0.0029 and 0.0028%, respectively, whereas the contents of 1, 3, and 4 in the seeds were approximately 10 times higher than those in the leaves and flowers. Alkaloids 3, 4, and 6 showed a potent inhibitory activity toward rat lysosomal beta-glucosidase, with IC(50) values of 2.1, 0.75, and 0.84 microM, respectively, and alkaloid 5 was a moderate inhibitor of alpha- and beta-mannosidases. Although alkaloid 1 is known as a powerful inhibitor of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase (IC(50) = 0.02 microM), alkaloid 2, which has been thought to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of 1, was also a potent inhibitor of alpha-mannosidase with an IC(50) value of 4.6 microM.

  2. [Study on effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of protoberberine alkaloids in extracts from Corydalis saxicola total alkaloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-yang; Xie, Hui; Lu, Tu-lin; Shi, Yue-jiao; Zhang, Xing-de; Liu, Ting

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of protoberberine alkaloids in extracts from Corydalis saxicola total alkaloids. The in vitro single-pass intestinal perfusion model in rats was established to study the changes in absorption kinetic parameters of dehydrocavidine, berberine hydrochloride and palmatine chloride in C. saxicola total alkaloids after the addition of different concentrations oligochitosan and evaluate the effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of the drugs. The concentration of oligochitosan had different effects on the absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficient (Peff) of the three active component in rat intestines. Ka and Peff in 0.5% oligochitosan group significantly increased, indicating a stronger effect in promoting the absorption. Oligochitosan has a certain effect in promoting the intestinal absorptions of protoberberine alkaloids in C. saxicola total alkaloids.

  3. Tropane alkaloids in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that are toxic to humans and animals. Through accidental or intentional mixing of these plants with normal food and feed the consumers of these products will be exposed to the toxins. In this report tropane alkaloids will be

  4. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  5. Quantitative changes in proteins responsible for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit at different ripening stages: A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-06-03

    To better understand the regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, a targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing LC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring was conducted on two strawberry cultivars at three ripening stages. This quantitative proteomic workflow was improved through an OFFGEL electrophoresis to fractionate peptides from total protein digests. A total of 154 peptide transitions from 47 peptides covering 21 proteins and isoforms related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were investigated. The normalized protein abundance, which was measured using isotopically-labeled standards, was significantly changed concurrently with increased anthocyanin content and advanced fruit maturity. The protein abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanidin synthase, chalcone isomerase; flavanone 3-hydroxylase; dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2, was all significantly increased in fruit of more advanced ripeness. An interaction between cultivar and maturity was also shown with respect to chalcone isomerase. The good correlation between protein abundance and anthocyanin content suggested that a metabolic control point may exist for anthocyanin biosynthesis. This research provides insights into the process of anthocyanin formation in strawberry fruit at the level of protein concentration and reveals possible candidates in the regulation of anthocyanin formation during fruit ripening. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation of strawberry fruit during ripening is challenging due to limited molecular biology tools and established hypothesis. Our targeted proteomic approach employing LC-MS/MS analysis and MRM technique to quantify proteins in relation to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in strawberry fruit during fruit ripening is novel. The identification of peptides

  6. Proteomics analysis of Mahonia bealei leaves with induction of alkaloids via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yanzhen; Yang, Bingxian; Fu, Zhirong; Li, Ximin; Tian, Jingkui

    2014-10-14

    Alkaloids are one of the most attractive sources for obtaining active natural products. However, alkaloids exist in the plants as the secondary metabolites with tracing amount, and there is an enormous demand for a large production. In the present study, we aimed to profile the modification of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in Mahonia bealei seedlings under the binary stress of ultraviolet-B irradiation and dark incubation. Comparative proteomics analysis was carried out to address the underlying proteome variations that accounted for the alkaloid induction under treatment. Thirteen differential proteins were identified in the leaves under binary stress. Of note, the abundance of S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase was highly increased to sustain a high concentration of S-adenosyl-L-methionine for the enhanced biosynthesis of alkaloids. Additionally, we presented the application of CPLL to M. bealei leaf proteins. Three new secondary metabolism proteins and 12 additional differential proteins were identified only after CPLL treatment. Six genes in the benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis pathway were selected to verify their variable expression using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results suggest that the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in M. bealei leaf were increased to eliminate the adverse effect of UV-B exposure. The suppression of photosynthesis and respiratory rate may save an extra energy for the secondary metabolites, and the enhanced N-metabolism may supply sufficient primary metabolite precursors. To our best knowledge, this is the first work aimed at the secondary metabolism proteomic characterization of M. bealei using the CPLL technique. It also presented an effective and innovative process to improve the contents of alkaloids in medicinal plants for industrial production. Besides the effective and innovative process to improve the contents of alkaloids in M. bealei leaves for industrial production, the presented combinatorial

  7. New bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Laureliopsis philippiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Dan; Thi, Loi Pham; Rasmussen, Hasse Bonde

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Laureliopsis philippiana resulted in isolation of a new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid (1) named laureliopsine A. The structure was established by spectroscopic methods, including 2D homo- and heteronuclear NMR experiments. This finding of a bisbenzylisoquinoline...

  8. Analysis, separation, and bioassay of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, C E; Crews, C; Hanley, A B

    1996-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been linked to liver and lung cancers and a range of other deleterious effects. As with many natural toxicants, major problems arise in determining the effects of the different members of the class and the importance of various forms of ingestion. In this study we have investigated the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum officinale), determined the levels in different parts of the plant and in herbal remedies, separated the alkaloids into two main groups--the principal parent alkaloids and the corresponding N-oxides--and, finally, carried out a simple bioassay based upon the mutagenic capability of the separated compounds in a human cell line. We conclude that the part of the plant ingested is important in terms of alkaloid challenge and that the effect of two of the major groups of alkaloids individually is different from that of alkaloids in the whole plant extract.

  9. Stimulation of reserpine biosynthesis in the callus of Rauvolfia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So enhancing this alkaloid in the already available system is a beneficial approach. Tryptophan is the starting material in the biosynthesis of reserpine. Callus was induced from leaf explants of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. on MS medium supplemented with the combination of 9 μM 2,4-D and 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l tryptophan.

  10. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using Shewanella loihica PV-4 with antibacterial activity: Novel approach and mechanisms investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing; Zhang, Baogang; Xing, Xuan; Zhao, Yingxin; Cai, Ruquan; Wang, Wei; Gu, Qian

    2018-04-05

    Metallic nanoparticle based disinfection represents a promising approach for microbial pollution control in drinking water and thus, biosynthesis of non precious metal nanoparticles is of considerable interest. Herein, an original and efficient route for directly microbial synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) by Shewanella loihica PV-4 is described and their satisfactorily antimicrobial activities are established. Cu-NPs were successfully synthesized and most of them attaching on the bacterial cell surfaces suggested extracellular Cu(II) bioreduction mainly contributed to this biosynthesis. Using a suite of characterization methods, polycrystalline nature and face centered cubic lattice of Cu-NPs were revealed, with size in the range of 10-16 nm. With Cu-NPs dosage of 100 μg/mL and 10 5 CFU/mL fresh Escherichia coli suspension, the obtained antibacterial efficiency reached as high as 86.3 ± 0.2% within 12 h. Cell damages were primarily caused by the generated reactive oxygen species with H 2 O 2 playing significant roles. Both cell membrane and cytoplasm components were destroyed, while the key inactivation mechanisms were lipid peroxidation and DNA damage as concluded through correlation analysis. The cost-effective and eco-friendly biosynthesis of Cu-NPs with high antibacterial activities make them particularly attractive for drinking water disinfection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 Is Required for Steroidal Alkaloid Glycosylation and Prevention of Phytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itkin, M.; Rogachev, I.; Alkan, N.; Rosenberg, T.; Malitsky, S.; Masini, L.; Meir, S.; Lijima, Y.; Aoki, K.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Prusky, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Aharoni, A.

    2011-01-01

    Steroidal alkaloids (SAs) are triterpene-derived specialized metabolites found in members of the Solanaceae family that provide plants with a chemical barrier against a broad range of pathogens. Their biosynthesis involves the action of glycosyltransferases to form steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs).

  12. Bioactive alkaloids from marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Majik, M.S.

    lines while kuanoniamine C was less potent but showed high selectivity toward the estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line (Kijjoa et. al., 2007). Recently, Davis’s and coworkers, reported two new cytotoxici- ty peridoacridine alkaloids viz... 10 sponge, Trachycladus laevispirulifer. Excitingly, it displayed promising selective cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. 12.3.1. BISINDOLE ALKALOIDS Bis-indole alkaloids, consisting of two indole moieties...

  13. The alkaloids of Strychnos dolichothyrsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoorte, R; Svendsen, A B

    1976-01-01

    In the stem bark of Strychnos dolichothyrsa Gilg ex Onochie et Hepper (Loganiaceae) the following alkaloids were found: bisnor-dihydrotoxiferine, bisnor-C-curarine, bisnor-dihydrotoxiferine N-oxide and bisnor-dihydrotoxiferine di-N-oxide. Tentatively, two alkaloids were identified as bisnor-C-alkaloid D and 18-deoxy Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde. Bisnor-dihydrotoxiferine seems to give dichlorometho compounds and N-oxides easily, analogous with strychnine and brucine.

  14. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in commercial comfrey-containing products and botanical materials by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Gratz, Samuel R; Wolnik, Karen A

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides are found in several plant families throughout the world. PAs are potentially toxic to the liver and/or lungs in humans and may cause acute liver failure, cirrhosis, pneumonitis, or pulmonary hypertension. PAs are also carcinogenic to animals, and they have been linked to the development of hepatocellular and skin squamous cell carcinomas as well as liver angiosarcomas. According to experimental studies, the quantity of PAs in some herbal teas and dietary supplements is sufficient to be carcinogenic in exposed individuals. A method for the extraction and identification of PAs and their N-oxides in botanical materials and commercial comfrey-containing products has been developed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Following optimization of the extraction procedure and the chromatographic conditions, the method was applied to the analysis of 10 herbal remedies. All of the products that were labeled to contain comfrey were found to contain measurable quantities of PAs.

  15. Recent progress in the metabolic engineering of alkaloids in plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Weslee S; Runguphan, Weerawat; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2013-04-01

    Plant alkaloids have a rich chemical ecology that has been exploited for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. Despite being highly represented within today's pharmacopoeia, relatively little is known about the biosynthesis, regulation and transport of these molecules. Understanding how nature synthesizes plant alkaloids will enhance our ability to overproduce--that is, to metabolically engineer--these medicinally useful compounds as well as new-to-nature compounds (with potentially improved bioactivity) derived from these natural scaffolds. Recent progress in the metabolic engineering of nitrogen-containing plant natural products--specifically the monoterpene indole alkaloids, the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and the glucosinolates--was made possible through the characterization of various components in both native and engineered enzymatic pathways. The subsequent reconfiguration and tuning of these biological 'parts' has enabled the production of selected products at increasingly higher titers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. inhibitive action of alkaloids and non alkaloid fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIDELIS ABENG

    alkaloidal and alkaloidal fractions of the extracts of ..... Nnanna, L. A., Onwolagba, B. N., Mejeha, I. M and. Okeoma, K. B., 2010. Inhibition effects of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of aluminium alloy. African Journal of Pure and Applied.

  17. Inhibitive action of alkaloids and non alkaloid fractions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2.0 MHCl solution by non-alkaloidal and alkaloidal fractions of the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus (NAEPA and AEPA respectively) was studied using gravimetric and gasometric techniques at 303 and 323 K. The results revealed that the extracts functioned as good corrosion inhibitors.

  18. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user.

  19. Antibacterial alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A Gonzaga, Wellington; Weber, Andréia D; Giacomelli, Sandro R; Dalcol, Ionara I; Hoelzel, Solange C S; Morel, Ademir F

    2003-04-01

    Two new dihydrobenzophenanthridine-type alkaloids, 6-methoxy dioxolo[4',5':4,5]benzo[c] dioxolo[4,5- j]phenanthridine (1) and 2,3,13-trimethoxy-5,11a-dihydro dioxolo[4',5':4,5]benzo[c]phenanthridine (2) were isolated from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, together with four other previously known benzophenanthridine alkaloids, 6-acetonyldihydronitidine (3) [= 8-acetonyldihydronitidine], 6-acetonyldihydroavicine (4) [= 8-acetonyldihydroavicine], 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (5) and xanthoxyline (6). The structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. For alkaloids 1 and 2 we propose the trivial names rhoifolines A and B. The crude plant extracts and the alkaloids 3, 4 and 6 showed activity against Gram (+/-) bacteria, while the new alkaloids 1 and 2 were inactive.

  20. Alkaloids of root barks of Zanthoxylum spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlemwerger, Sandra Virginia Alves; Sales, Edijane Matos; Costa, Rafael dos Santos; Velozo, Eudes da Silva; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva

    2012-01-01

    In 1959, Gottlieb and Antonaccio published a study reporting the occurrence of lignan sesamin and triterpene lupeol in Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba. In this work we describe the phytochemical study of the root bark of the Z. tingoassuiba which allowed the identification of the lupeol, sesamin, and alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine, chelerythrine, anorttianamide, cis-N-methyl-canadin, predicentine, 2, 3-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxy-tetrahydro protoberberine. The investigation of hexane and methanol extracts of the root bark of Z. rhoifolium and Z. stelligerum also investigated showed the presence of alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine, anorttianamide, cis-N-methyl-canadine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3- methylenedioxybenzophen anthridine and angoline. The occurrence of 2,3-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxy-tetrahydro protoberberine is first described in Z. tingoassuiba and Z. stelligerum. This is also the first report of the presence of hesperidin and neohesperidin in roots of Z. stelligerum (author)

  1. Biosynthesis of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gong-Li; Tang, Man-Cheng; Song, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) alkaloids are naturally occurring antibiotics isolated from a variety of microorganisms and marine invertebrates. This family of natural products exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial and strong antitumor activities, and the potency of clinical application has been validated by the marketing of ecteinascidin 743 (ET-743) as anticancer drug. In the past 20 years, the biosynthetic gene cluster of six THIQ antibiotics has been characterized including saframycin Mx1 from Myxococcus xanthus, safracin-B from Pseudomonas fluorescens, saframycin A, naphthyridinomycin, and quinocarcin from Streptomyces, as well as ET-743 from Ecteinascidia turbinata. This review gives a brief summary of the current status in understanding the molecular logic for the biosynthesis of these natural products, which provides new insights on the biosynthetic machinery involved in the nonribosomal peptide synthetase system. The proposal of the THIQ biosynthetic pathway not only shows nature's route to generate such complex molecules, but also set the stage to develop a different process for production of ET-743 by synthetic biology.

  2. Sampangine (a Copyrine Alkaloid) Exerts Biological Activities through Cellular Redox Cycling of Its Quinone and Semiquinone Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Fakhri; Morgan, J Brian; Liu, Wenlong; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Jekabsons, Mika B; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2015-12-24

    The cananga tree alkaloid sampangine (1) has been extensively investigated for its antimicrobial and antitumor potential. Mechanistic studies have linked its biological activities to the reduction of cellular oxygen, the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and alterations in heme biosynthesis. Based on the yeast gene deletion library screening results that indicated mitochondrial gene deletions enhanced the sensitivity to 1, the effects of 1 on cellular respiration were examined. Sampangine increased oxygen consumption rates in both yeast and human tumor cells. Mechanistic investigation indicated that 1 may have a modest uncoupling effect, but predominately acts by increasing oxygen consumption independent of mitochondrial complex IV. Sampangine thus appears to undergo redox cycling that may involve respiratory chain-dependent reduction to a semi-iminoquinone followed by oxidation and consequent superoxide production. Relatively high concentrations of 1 showed significant neurotoxicity in studies conducted with rat cerebellar granule neurons, indicating that sampangine use may be associated with potential neurotoxicity.

  3. Molecular docking study of Papaver alkaloids to some alkaloid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nofallah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: More than 40 different alkaloids have been obtained from opium the most important of which are morphine, codeine, papaverine, noscapine and tabaine. Opioid alkaloids produce analgesia by affecting areas of the brain that have peptides with pharmacological pseudo-opioid properties. These alkaloids show important effects on some intracellular peptides like mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Therefore, studying the effects of these alkaloids on different receptors is essential. Methods: Molecular docking is a well-known method in exploring the protein-ligand interactions. In this research, five important alkaloids were docked to crystal structure of human mu opioid receptor (4DKL, human delta opioid receptor (4EJ4 and human kappa opioid receptor (4DJH which were retrieved from protein databank. The 3D-structures of alkaloids were drawn by chembiooffice2010 and minimized with hyperchem package and submitted to molecular docking utilizing autodock-vina. Flexibility of the proteins was considered. The docking studies were performed to compare the affinity of these five alkaloids to the mentioned receptors. Results: We computationally docked each alkaloid compound onto each receptor structure and estimated their binding affinity based on dock scores. Dock score is a criteria including binding energy which utilized here for prediction and comparison of the binding affinities. Binding interactions of the docked alkaloids in receptor pockets were also visually inspected and compared. Conclusion: In this approach, using docking study as a computational method provided a valuable insight of opioid receptor pocket structures which would be essential to design more efficient drugs in pain managements and addiction treatments.

  4. How polyamine synthesis inhibitors and cinnamic acid affect tropane alkaloid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Patricia L; Alvarez, María A; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra I

    2007-01-01

    Hairy roots of Brugmansia candida produce the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine. In an attempt to divert the carbon flux from competing pathways and thus enhance productivity, the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors cyclohexylamine (CHA) and methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG) and the phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase inhibitor cinnamic acid were used. CHA decreased the specific productivity of both alkaloids but increased significantly the release of scopolamine (approx 500%) when it was added in the mid-exponential phase. However, when CHA was added for only 48 h during the exponential phase, the specific productivity of both alkaloids increased (approx 200%), favoring scopolamine. Treatment with MGBG was detrimental to growth but promoted release into the medium of both alkaloids. However, when it was added for 48 h during the exponential phase, MGBG increased the specific productivity (approx 200%) and release (250- 1800%) of both alkaloids. Cinnamic acid alone also favored release but not specific productivity. When a combination of CHA or MGBG with cinnamic acid was used, the results obtained were approximately the same as with each polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor alone, although to a lesser extent. Regarding root morphology, CHA inhibited growth of primary roots and ramification. However, it had a positive effect on elongation of lateral roots.

  5. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  6. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including their respective N-oxides in selected food products available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Aaron C H

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), including their respective N-oxides, in foodstuffs available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 234 samples (48 food items) were collected randomly from a local market and analysed. About 50% of samples were found to contain detectable amount of PAs. Amongst the 48 food items, PAs were not detected in 11 food items, including barley flour, beef, cattle liver, pork, pig liver, chicken meat, chicken liver, milk, non-fermented tea, Melissa tea and linden tea. For those found to contain detectable PAs, the summed PA content ranged up to 11,000 µg kg -1 . The highest sum of PA content among the 37 food items calculated with lower bound was cumin seed, then followed by oregano, tarragon and herbs de Provence with ranges of 2.5-11,000, 1.5-5100, 8.0-3300 and 18-1300 µg kg -1 respectively. Among the samples, the highest sum of PA content was detected in a cumin seed sample (11,000 µg kg -1 ), followed by an oregano (5100 µg kg -1 ), a tarragon (3300 µg kg -1 ) and a herbs de Provence (1300 µg kg -1 ). In general, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except that the total PAs in honey and specific tea infusion in this study were comparatively lower.

  7. Coumarin and alkaloids of Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarici, Tatiane Regina; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Pirani, Jose Rubens

    2010-01-01

    The genus Rauia, that is poorly chemically studied, belongs to the Rutaceae family. This family has been known to contain a large variety of secondary metabolites. Our phytochemical investigation of the stem and leaves of Rauia resinosa has led to the identification of the structurally related coumarins: murralongin (1), murrangatin (2), munomicrolin (3), murrangatin diacetate (4), umbelliferone (5), rauianin (6) and one novel coumarin: 3-ethylrauianin (7); the alkaloids: N-methyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone (8), mirtopsine (9), dictamine (10), g-fagarine (11), skimmianine (12), Z-dimethylrhoifolinate (13), zantodioline (14), zantobungeanine (15), veprissine (16), one novel alkaloid 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine (17) and 8-hydroxy-N-methylflindersine (18) that is described as a natural product for the first time, and a mixture of steroids: as sitosterol and stigmasterol. (author)

  8. Indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Januario, Ana Helena; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Jorge Jose de Brito; Conserva, Lucia Maria

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of two specimens of Esenbeckia grandiflora, collected in the south and northeast regions of Brazil, was investigated. In this study, three b-indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from the leaves (rutaecarpine, 1-hydroxyrutaecarpine) and roots (euxylophoricine D) were isolated for the first time in this genus. In addition, the triterpenes α-amyrin, β-amyrin, α-amyrenonol, β-amyrenonol, 3α-hydroxy-ursan-12-one, and 3α-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-oleanane, the coumarins auraptene, umbelliferone, pimpinelin, and xanthotoxin, the furoquinoline alkaloids delbine and kokusaginine, and the phytosteroids sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and 3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated from the leaves, twigs, roots and stems of this species. Structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. (author)

  9. New prenylated carbazole alkaloids from Zanthoxylum armatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdul; Badshah, Syed; Khan, Dilfaraz; Ali, Farman; Amanullah, Malik; Hanrahan, Jane

    2014-12-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Zanthoxylum armatum led in the isolation of two new prenylated alkaloids 2,6,7-trimethoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)carbazole-3-carbaldehyde (1) and methyl-2,6,7-trimethoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)carbazole-3-carboxylate (2), along with three known lignans cisamin (3), methyl pirpirtol (4), and fargesin (5) and one known alkaloid dictamine (6). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and crystallographic analysis and by comparison of the data with those in the literature. All the isolated compounds were screened for the DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Compounds 1, 2, and 6 showed profound activity while compounds 3-5 showed moderate activity.

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Joao Sammy N.; Machado, Luciana L.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Overk, Cassia R.; Ping Yao; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Helindicine (1), a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid with unusual structural features, together with the known lycopsamine (2), were isolated from the roots of Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae). The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HREIMS. This is the first report of a lactone pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the genus Heliotropium. Compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for antioxidant activity and showed moderate activity. (author)

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Joao Sammy N.; Machado, Luciana L.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L.; Lemos, Telma L.G. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Overk, Cassia R.; Ping Yao; Cordell, Geoffrey A. [University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States). College of Pharmacy. Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy

    2005-11-15

    ndicine (1), a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid with unusual structural features, together with the known lycopsamine (2), were isolated from the roots of Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae). The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HREIMS. This is the first report of a lactone pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the genus Heliotropium. Compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for antioxidant activity and showed moderate activity. (author)

  12. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppré, Michael; Colegate, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant. To determine whether the attraction of the butterflies to the plant is an accurate indicator of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in G. spilanthoides. The alkaloid fraction of a methanolic extract of G. spilanthoides was analysed using HPLC with electrospray ionisation MS and MS/MS. Two HPLC approaches were used, that is, a C18 reversed-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, and a porous graphitic carbon column with a basic mobile phase. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were confirmed, with the free base forms more prevalent than the N-oxides. The major alkaloids detected were lycopsamine and intermedine. The porous graphitic carbon HPLC column, with basic mobile phase conditions, resulted in better resolution of more pyrrolizidine alkaloids including rinderine, the heliotridine-based epimer of intermedine. Based on the MS/MS and high-resolution MS data, gymnocoronine was tentatively identified as an unusual C9 retronecine ester with 2,3-dihydroxy-2-propenylbutanoic acid. Among several minor-abundance monoester pyrrolizidines recognised, spilanthine was tentatively identified as an ester of isoretronecanol with the unusual 2-acetoxymethylbutanoic acid. The butterflies proved to be reliable indicators for the presence of pro-toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in G. spilanthoides, the first aquatic plant shown to produce these alkaloids. The presence of the anti-herbivory alkaloids may contribute to the plant's invasive capabilities and would certainly be a consideration in any risk assessment of deliberate utilisation of the plant. The prolific growth of the plant and the structural diversity of its pyrrolizidine alkaloids may make it ideal for investigating biosynthetic

  13. Investigating sesquiterpene biosynthesis in Ginkgo biloba: molecular cloning and functional characterization of (E,E)-farnesol and α-bisabolene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Iffat; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Baerson, Scott R; Techen, Natascha; Chappell, Joe; Khan, Ikhlas A; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and has been extensively investigated as a source of bioactive natural compounds, including bioactive flavonoids, diterpene lactones, terpenoids and polysaccharides which accumulate in foliar tissues. Despite this chemical diversity, relatively few enzymes associated with any biosynthetic pathway from ginkgo have been characterized to date. In the present work, predicted transcripts potentially encoding enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of diterpenoid and terpenoid compounds, including putative terpene synthases, were first identified by mining publicly-available G. biloba RNA-seq data sets. Recombinant enzyme studies with two of the TPS-like sequences led to the identification of GbTPS1 and GbTPS2, encoding farnesol and bisabolene synthases, respectively. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis revealed the two terpene synthase genes as primitive genes that might have evolved from an ancestral diterpene synthase.

  14. Comparison of a specific HPLC determination of toxic aconite alkaloids in processed Radix aconiti with a titration method of total alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezso; Borcsa, Botond; Heydel, Barbara; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István; Ma, Yan; Widowitz, Ute; Bauer, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) roots are only applied after processing. Nevertheless, several cases of poisoning by improperly processed aconite roots have been reported. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable analytical method to assess the amount of toxic aconite alkaloids in commercial aconite roots, and to compare this method with the commonly used total alkaloid content determination by titration. The content of mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine in 16 commercial samples of processed aconite roots was determined by an HPLC method and the total alkaloid content by indirect titration. Five samples were selected for in vivo toxicological investigation. In most of the commercial samples, toxic alkaloids were not detectable, or only traces were found. In four samples, we could detect >0.04% toxic aconite alkaloids, the highest with a content of 0.16%. The results of HPLC analysis were compared with the results obtained by titration, and no correlation was found between the two methods. The in vivo results reassured the validity of the HPLC determination. Samples with mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine content below the HPLC detection limit still contained up to 0.2% alkaloids determined by titration. Since titration of alkaloids gives no information selectively on the aconitine-type alkaloid content and toxicity of aconite roots this method is not appropriate for safety assessment. The HPLC method developed by us provides a quick and reliable assessment of toxicity and should be considered as a purity test in pharmacopoeia monographs.

  15. Alkaloids and acetogenins in Annonaceae development: biological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa González-Esquinca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical studies of the plant family Annonaceae have intensified in the last several decades due to the discovery of annonaceous molecules with medicinal potential (e.g., benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and acetogenins. Approximately 500 alkaloids have been identified in 138 Annonaceae species in 43 genera. In addition, until 2004, 593 annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs had been identified, from 51 species in 13 genera.This suggests that plants from this family allocate important resources to the biosynthesis of these compounds. Despite the diversity of these molecules, their biological roles, including their physiological and/or ecological functions, are not well understood. In this study, it was provided new data describing the variety and distribution of certain alkaloids and ACGs in annonaceous plants in distinct stages of development. The potential relationships among some of these compounds and the seasonally climatic changes occurring in the plant habitat are also discussed. These data will improve our understanding of the secondary metabolism of these pharmacologically important molecules and their expression patterns during development, which will help to determine the optimal growth conditions and harvest times for their production.

  16. Alkaloidal Variation in Cissampelos Capensis (Menispermaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene de Wet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cissampelos capensis, commonly known by the Afrikaans name “dawidjies” or “dawidjieswortel”, is the most important and best known medicinal plant of the family Menispermaceae used by the Khoisan and other rural people in the western region of South Africa. The main alkaloids in the leaves, stems and rhizomes were isolated and identified. Several of the main compounds were previously found in species of the related genus Antizoma and this similarity indicates that the two genera are closely related if not congeneric. Bulbocapnine (an aporphine alkaloid, dicentrine (an aporphine alkaloid and salutaridine (a morphinane alkaloid were the main alkaloids in the leaves, while bulbocapnine, cissacapine, cycleanine and insularine (the last three are bisbenzyltetrahydro-isoquinoline alkaloids are the major compounds in the stems. The rhizome contains mostly bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids, with 12-O-methylcurine, cissacapine and cycleanine as the main ones. Alkaloids appear to be quite variable within different plant parts and different provenances, as confirmed by the difference in alkaloid patterns between coastal and inland forms of Cissampelos capensis (the morphinane alkaloid salutaridine, for example, is the major leaf alkaloid along the coast but is practically absent from the inland form of the species. The variety of alkaloids identified may contribute to the medicinal value of this species. The data on alkaloidal variation in the species has potential value and practical applications in chemotaxonomy, toxicology and pharmacognosy.

  17. Search for alkaloids on callus culture of Passiflora alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Wesz Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary work on Passiflora alata leaves failed to detect harmane alkaloids using LC. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of harmane alkaloids through the cell culture of P. alata, inducing its precursor (L-tryptophan. The leaf explants presented satisfactory results after disinfection, and the callus formation was initiated in MS media with adequate quantities of phytohormones. Sixty days after inoculation, calli were inoculated in the optimized semi-solid MS media, with and without the addition of L-tryptophan (50, 100, 200 mg/L and kept in standard conditions for 90 days. Calli were collected on days 6, 16, 26, 36, and 90, followed by acid-base extraction, and analysed by LC. The results showed an absence of harmane, harmin, harmol, harmalol, and harmaline. With L-tryptophan feeding, two peaks were detected, collected and analysed through positive mode electrospray [ESI(+-MS] and sequential analysis in tandem ESI(+-MS/MS. The spectra obtained were very similar, with a repetition of the more intense ions, and consecutive loss of 68 Da units, attributed to the heterocycle pyrazole. It appeared that this transformation was not related to any enzymatic pathway previously described for the plant from L-tryptophan, and the biosynthesis of β-carboline alkaloids in callus culture of P. alata were not observed in this work.As folhas de varias espécies de Passiflora são utilizadas como ansioliticas e sedativas. Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae consta em três edições da farmacopéia brasileira, porem não há muitos estudos sobre sua composição química. No passado, enfatizava-se a ação conjunta de alcalóides e flavonóides. Em trabalho anterior, não foi detectada a presença de alcalóides harmanicos através de CLAE. Assim, decidiu-se investigar a produção dos mesmos através de cultivo celular, introduzindo seu precursor metabólico L-triptofano. Os explantes foliares apresentaram resultados satisfatorios

  18. Genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Mei, Nan; Fu, Peter P

    2010-04-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are common constituents of many plant species around the world. PA-containing plants are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock and wildlife. They can inflict harm to humans through contaminated food sources, herbal medicines and dietary supplements. Half of the identified PAs are genotoxic and many of them are tumorigenic. The mutagenicity of PAs has been extensively studied in different biological systems. Upon metabolic activation, PAs produce DNA adducts, DNA cross-linking, DNA breaks, sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations and chromosome mutations in vivo and in vitro. PAs induced mutations in the cII gene of rat liver and in the p53 and K-ras genes of mouse liver tumors. It has been suggested that all PAs produce a set of (+/-)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine-derived DNA adducts and similar types of gene mutations. The signature types of mutations are G : C --> T : A transversion and tandem base substitutions. Overall, PAs are mutagenic in vivo and in vitro and their mutagenicity appears to be responsible for the carcinogenesis of PAs. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism: a century of discovery and a brave new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a structurally diverse group of plant specialized metabolites with a long history of investigation. Although the ecophysiological functions of most BIAs are unknown, the medicinal properties of many compounds have been exploited for centuries. These include the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, the antimicrobial agents sanguinarine and berberine, and the antitussive and anticancer drug noscapine. BIA biosynthesis involves a restricted number of enzyme types that catalyze landmark coupling reactions and subsequent functional group modifications. A pathogenesis-related (PR)10/Bet v1 'Pictet-Spenglerase', several O-methyl-, N-methyl- and O-acetyltransferases, cytochromes P450, FAD-dependent oxidases, non-heme dioxygenases and NADPH-dependent reductases have been implicated in the multistep pathways leading to structurally diverse alkaloids. A small number of plant species, including opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Ranunculales, have emerged as model systems to study BIA metabolism. The expansion of resources to include a wider range of plant species is creating an opportunity to investigate previously uncharacterized BIA pathways. Contemporary knowledge of BIA metabolism reflects over a century of research coupled with the development of key innovations such as radioactive tracing, enzyme isolation and molecular cloning, and functional genomics approaches such as virus-induced gene silencing. Recently, the emergence of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics has expedited the discovery of new BIA biosynthetic genes. The growing repository of BIA biosynthetic genes is providing the parts required to apply emerging synthetic biology platforms to the development of production systems in microbes as an alternative to plants as a commecial source of valuable BIAs.

  20. Arabinogalactan biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins are abundant cell surface proteoglycans in plants and are implicated to act as developmental markers during plant growth. We previously reported that AtGALT31A, AtGALT29A, and AtGLCAT14A-C, which are involved in the biosynthesis of arabinogalactan proteins, localize......GALT29A. Therefore, the electrostatic status of Y144, which is regulated by an unknown kinase/phosphatase system, may regulate AtGALT29A enzyme activity. Moreover, we have identified additional proteins, apyrase 3 (APY3; At1g14240) and UDPglucuronate epimerases 1 and 6 (GAE1, At4g30440; GAE6, At3g23820...

  1. Acetogenins and alkaloids during the initial development of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Saldaña, Christian Anabí; Cruz-Ortega, María Del Rocío; Martínez Vázquez, Mariano; De-la-Cruz-Chacón, Iván; Castro-Moreno, Marisol; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2017-10-26

    In plants, the presence and distribution of specialized metabolites during the early stages of development are not documented enough, even though their biosynthesis is one of the most important strategies for survival. In this study, five alkaloids and four acetogenins were detected in Annona muricata L. during early development seedling, including three phases of root emergence and three of seedling formation. Hexane and alkaloid extracts were obtained from each organ, which were analyzed in a gas-mass chromatograph and in a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a photodiode array UV detector (HPLC-DAD). This research shows the presence of the acetogenins cis-uvarimicin IV, mosinone, muricina B, and cis-annonacin-10-one, as well as of the alkaloids reticuline, coreximine, anonaine, asimilobine, and nornuciferine, both groups with a variable organ-specific distribution, related with the formation of organs and tissues.

  2. [A method for the determination of ergot alkaloids in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, C; Baltes, W; Krönert, W; Weber, R

    1988-02-01

    A suitable method has been developed for the routine analysis of the ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergometrinine, ergosine, ergosinine, ergotamine, ergotaminine, ergocornine, ergocorninine, alpha-ergocryptine, alpha-ergocryptinine, beta-ergocryptine, beta-ergocryptinine, ergocristine and ergocristinine in cereal products. The method consists of food extraction, cleaning of the crude extract by a modified form of the Extrelut method, and identification and quantitative determination of the alkaloids by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results are confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Market investigations have shown contaminations in ecological as well as in conventional products, with rye products mainly being contaminated. Within the EEC, a maximum value of 0.05% ergot respectively a total alkaloid content of 1 mg/kg in cereals used for food production is prescribed. This value was not exceeded in any of the investigated samples.

  3. Copper catalysed synthesis of indolylquinazolinone alkaloid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe the total synthesis of indolylquinazolinone alkaloid bouchardatine and some of the quinazolinone derivatives. The aerobic oxidation induced by copper(I) bromide, followed by Vilsmeier-Haack formylation gives the natural product bouchardatine alkaloid in good yield.

  4. Selective reduction of peptidic ergot alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvak, L.; Stuchlík, J.; Schreiberová, M.; Sedmera, Petr; Havlíček, Vladimír; Flieger, Miroslav; Čejka, J.; Kratochvíl, B.; Jegorov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 65, - (2000), s. 1762-1776 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : indole alkaloids * ergot alkaloids * ergopeptides Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.960, year: 2000

  5. Wild tobacco genomes reveal the evolution of nicotine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuqing; Brockmöller, Thomas; Navarro-Quezada, Aura; Kuhl, Heiner; Gase, Klaus; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Wenwu; Kreitzer, Christoph; Stanke, Mario; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Pandey, Priyanka; Pandey, Shree P; Timmermann, Bernd; Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-06-06

    Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of Nicotiana species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, Nicotiana attenuata (2.5 Gb) and Nicotiana obtusifolia (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these Nicotiana genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis. The biosynthetic machinery that allows for nicotine synthesis in the roots evolved from the stepwise duplications of two ancient primary metabolic pathways: the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pathways. In contrast to the duplication of the polyamine pathway that is shared among several solanaceous genera producing polyamine-derived tropane alkaloids, we found that lineage-specific duplications within the NAD pathway and the evolution of root-specific expression of the duplicated Solanaceae-specific ethylene response factor that activates the expression of all nicotine biosynthetic genes resulted in the innovative and efficient production of nicotine in the genus Nicotiana Transcription factor binding motifs derived from TEs may have contributed to the coexpression of nicotine biosynthetic pathway genes and coordinated the metabolic flux. Together, these results provide evidence that TEs and gene duplications facilitated the emergence of a key metabolic innovation relevant to plant fitness.

  6. ALKALOIDAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY STUDIES OF THREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mattock's test for unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (hepatotoxic) revealed that only C. retusa contained these alkaloids amongst the three species. This indicated that this is a potentially toxic specie. The alkaloids of C. retusa were toxic to albino (Wistar) rats. Marked microscopic lesions were found, principally in the liver.

  7. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  8. The role of germacrene D as a precursor in sesquiterpene biosynthesis: investigations of acid catalyzed, photochemically and thermally induced rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow, N; Konig, W A

    2000-09-01

    Germacrene D is considered as a precursor of many sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. We have investigated the acid catalyzed as well as the photochemically and thermally induced rearrangement processes of germacrene D isolated from several Solidago species, which contain both enantiomers of germacrene D. Enantiomeric mixtures of sesquiterpenes of the cadinane, eudesmane (selinane), oppositane, axane, isodaucane, and bourbonane group as well as isogermacrene D were identified as main products and made available as reference compounds for structure investigations and stereochemical assignments of plant constituents. Delta-amorphene, one of the rearrangement products, was identified as a natural product for the first time. The absolute configuration of gamma-amorphene was revised by correlation with the absolute configuration of germacrene D. The mechanisms of the rearrangement reactions are discussed.

  9. Alkaloids from flowers and leaves of Erythrina speciosa Andrews; Alcaloides de flores e folhas de Erythrina speciosa Andrews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Terezinha de Jesus; Cafeu, Mariana Carrara; Akiyoshi, Gisele; Ferreira, Dalva Trevisan; Galao, Olivio Fernandes; Andrei, Cesar Cornelio [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: tjfaria@uel.br; Pinge Filho, Phileno; Paiva, Manoel Ronaldo Carvalho [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Patologicas; Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal e Vegetal; Barbosa, Aneli de Melo [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2007-05-15

    In vitro bioassays with leave extracts of Erythrina speciosa showed promising activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. From the flowers of E. speciosa two alkaloids were isolated: erysotrine and erythartine. The leaves furnished one alkaloid, nororientaline. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This is the first report about the investigation of alkaloids in flowers and leaves of this species, as well the first report of nororientaline occurrence in this plant. (author)

  10. Lycopodium alkaloids from Palhinhaea cernua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fu-Wei [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Luo, Ji-Feng; Wang, Yue-Hu, E-mail: wangyuehu@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sun, Qian-Yun; Yang, Fu-Mei [Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Natural Products, Guizhou Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Liu, Fang [College of Landscape and Horticulture, Yunnan Agricultural University (China); Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, (China)

    2012-07-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, acetyllycoposerramine M and palcernine A were isolated from whole plant extracts of Palhinhaea cernua L. together with ten previously identified compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses using the Flack parameter. (author)

  11. O hydrogen bonds in alkaloids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only ...

  12. Nutrients decrease pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentrations in Senecio jacobaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Vrieling, K.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the defence compounds pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in roots and shoots of Senecio jacobaea are reported in response to nutrient addition in order to investigate whether changes in concentration are adaptive. PA concentrations were examined in leaves and roots of 40 vegetative ragwort

  13. ALKALOIDS OF THE SEDUM ACRE-GROUP (CRASSULACEAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1993-01-01

    The 16 species of the Sedum acre-group were investigated for the presence of alkaloids. They are S. acre of S. ser. Acria, S. alpestre, S. annuum, S. apoleipon, S. borissovae, S. euxinum, S. grisebachii, S. laconicum, S. multiceps, S. sexangulare, S. tuberiferum, S. tuberosum, S. ursi, and S.

  14. Brine Shrimp Lethality of a Glutarimide Alkaloid from Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbiaceae) against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were investigated. A glutarimide alkaloid, julocrotine (1) showed'very high cytotoxic activity with a LCs0. (95 % CI) value of 0.074 (0.052-0.105) pglml when tested in vitro while lupeol (2).

  15. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio jacobaea affect fungal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the growth-reducing effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Senecio jacobaea on nine plant-associated fungi (five strains of Fusarium oxysporum, two of F. sambucinum, and two of Trichoderma sp). Fungal growth was monitored on water agar media containing different concentrations

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock poisoning, primarily liver damage, caused by consumption of plants containing 1,2-dehydropyrro-lizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs), and the corresponding N-oxides, is a relatively common occurrence worldwide. Because of the economic impact, extensive investigations...

  17. [Analysis of effect of topographical conditions on content of total alkaloid in Coptidis Rhizoma in Chongqin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Huang, He; Yang, Yan-fang; Wu, He-zhen

    2014-12-01

    To study ecology suitability rank dividing of the total alkaloid content of Coptis Rhizoma for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material in Chongqing province. Based on the investigation of PCB and DEM data of Chongqing province, the relationship between the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma and topographical conditions was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information systems (GIS)-based assessment and landscape ecological principles were applied to assess eco logy suitability areas of Coptis Rhizoma in Chongqing. slope, aspect and altitude are main topographical factors that affect the content of the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma The total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma is higher in the lower altitude, shady slope and bigger slope areas. The total alkaloid content is higher in the south areas of Chongqing province and lower in the northeast. Terrain conditions of the southern region of Chongqing are most suitable for The accumulated of total alkaloid Coptis Rhizoma content.

  18. Biosynthesis of Rishirilide B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schwarzer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rishirilide B was isolated from Streptomyces rishiriensis and Streptomyces bottropensis on the basis of its inhibitory activity towards alpha-2-macroglobulin. The biosynthesis of rishirilide B was investigated by feeding experiments with different 13C labelled precursors using the heterologous host Streptomyces albus J1074::cos4 containing a cosmid encoding of the gene cluster responsible for rishirilide B production. NMR spectroscopic analysis of labelled compounds demonstrate that the tricyclic backbone of rishirilide B is a polyketide synthesized from nine acetate units. One of the acetate units is decarboxylated to give a methyl group. The origin of the starter unit was determined to be isobutyrate.

  19. Carry-over of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from feed to milk in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Mulder, P P J; Zeilmaker, M J; van den Top, H J; Remmelink, G J; Brandon, E F A; Klijnstra, M; Meijer, G A L; Schothorst, R; Van Egmond, H P

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxins present in many plants belonging to the families of Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. Particularly notorious are pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in ragwort species (Senecio), which are held responsible for hepatic disease in horses and cows and may lead to the death of the affected animals. In addition, these compounds may be transferred to edible products of animal origin and as such be a threat for the health of consumers. To investigate the possible transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from contaminated feed to milk, cows were put on a ration for 3 weeks with increasing amounts (50-200 g day(-1)) of dried ragwort. Milk was collected and sampled twice a day; faeces and urine twice a week. For milk, a dose-related appearance of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was found. Jacoline was the major component in milk despite being a minor component in the ragwort material. Practically no N-oxides were observed in milk, notwithstanding the fact that they constituted over 80% of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in ragwort. The overall carry-over of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids was estimated to be only around 0.1%, but for jacoline 4%. Notwithstanding the low overall carry-over, this may be relevant for consumer health considering the genotoxic and carcinogenic properties demonstrated for some of these compounds. Analysis of the faeces and urine samples indicated that substantial metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is taking place. The toxicity and potential transfer of metabolites to milk is unknown and remains to be investigated.

  20. Antifungal Quinoline Alkaloids from Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretton, Sylvian; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Azzollini, Antonio; Favre-Godal, Quentin; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Voinesco, Francine; Michellod, Emilie; Sanglard, Dominique; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Cuendet, Muriel; Christen, Philippe

    2016-02-26

    Chemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica led to the isolation and characterization of five polyhydroxymethoxyflavonoids, namely, oxyanin A (1), vitexicarpin (3), chrysosplenol E (4), flindulatin (5), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6), and six quinolone alkaloids, waltheriones M-Q (2, 7, 8, 10, 11) and 5(R)-vanessine (9). Among these, compounds 2, 7, 8, 10, and 11 have not yet been described in the literature. Their chemical structures were established by means of spectroscopic data interpretation including (1)H and (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY NMR experiments and UV, IR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were established by ECD. The isolated constituents and 10 additional quinoline alkaloids previously isolated from the roots of the plant were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and 10 compounds (7, 9, 11-16, 18, 21) showed growth inhibitory activity on both planktonic cells and biofilms (MIC ≤ 32 μg/mL). Their spectrum of activity against other pathogenic Candida species and their cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells were also determined. In addition, the cytological effect of the antifungal isolated compounds on the ultrastructure of C. albicans was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy.

  1. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Cryptantha species: including two new open chain diesters one of which is amphoteric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Davis, T Zane; Betz, Joseph M; Panter, Kip E

    2013-01-01

    A livestock poisoning outbreak near Kingman, Arizona, USA, potentially linked to dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, prompted an evaluation of some local plants for the presence of these hepatotoxic alkaloids. To qualitatively and quantitatively examine two species of Cryptantha, a Boraginaceous genus previously shown to produce potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, collected from the vicinity of Kingman, Arizona. Plant extracts were analysed using HPLC-electrospray ionisation (+)-MS and MS/MS to determine the presence of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid esters. Identities were confirmed by comparison of chromatographic and MS data with authenticated standards and, in the case of the previously undescribed alkaloids, using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass measurement. Cryptantha inequata and C. utahensis were shown to produce retronecine-based dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids at approximately 0.05% and 0.09% w/w respectively. Cryptantha inequata produced mainly echimidine, acetylechimidine and echiuplatine; dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that were previously associated with Echium plantagineum. The previously undescribed structure of echiuplatine was elucidated as an amphoteric, open chain diester with angelic acid and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid. Along with lycopsamine, intermedine and dihydroxyechiumine, C. utahensis produced cryptanthine, a previously undescribed open chain diester alkaloid esterified with angelic acid and 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoic acid. All pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected were present in the plants mainly as their N-oxides. The retronecine-based alkaloids detected in both Cryptantha species herein investigated aligns them within the Krynitzkia subgenus. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids detected are expected to be toxic but the low levels in the plants potentially mitigate the risk. The identification of the amphoteric echiuplatine provides a cautionary note with respect to the analysis of total

  2. Ultrasound-assisted biosynthesis of CuO-NPs using brown alga Cystoseira trinodis: Characterization, photocatalytic AOP, DPPH scavenging and antibacterial investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haidong; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Xing; Parsaee, Zohreh

    2018-03-01

    This contribution reports the biosynthesis of CuO NPs via ultrasound method using the Cystoseira trinodis extracts as an eco friendly and time saving process. The characterization of cupric oxide NPs was performed using XRD, FE-SEM, EDX, TEM, AFM, photoluminescence, UV-Vis, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy investigations. SEM images show the spherical structure with the average crystallite size 6nm to 7.8nm of CuO. XRD analysis approved the formation of pure monoclinic crystallite structures of CuO NPs. These observations were confirmed by TEM analysis. The photocatalytic studies reveal the activity of the prepared CuO NPs as an efficient catalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of UV and Sunlight. CuO NPs under varying experimental parameters such as dye concentration, catalytic load, pH. The results of the in vitro biological screening effect of CuO NPs (zone of growth inhibition and minimal inhibitory concentrations) in comparison with cephalexin (as a standard compound) using the disc diffusion method was demonstrated the significant bactericidal activity against some bacteria strain including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), and Streptococcus faecalis (S. faecalis). Furthermore, the Nps found to inhibit the activity of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals effectively. This study introduces a facile, green and low coast method for the synthesis of monoclinic CuO NPs with catalytic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypericin: chemical synthesis and biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin-Fang; Wang, Zeng-Hui; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2014-02-01

    Hypericin is one of the most important phenanthoperylene quinones extracted mainly from plants of the genus Hypericum belonging to the sections Euhypericum and Campylosporus of Keller's classification. Widespread attention to the antiviral and anti-tumor properties of hypericin has spurred investigations of the chemical synthesis and biosynthesis of this unique compound. However, the synthetic strategies are challenging for organic and biological chemists. In this review, specific significant advances in total synthesis, semi-synthesis, and biosynthesis in the past decades are summarized. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jie; Wang, De-Zhen; Zou, Zong-Yao; Wang, Yan-Zhi; Gao, Qian; Li, Xue-Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root. The content of alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC. The content of total alkaloids in adventitious root harvested in different time was ranged from 2.5% to 2.9%, in which that of berberine and coptisine were the highest, reaching to 1%, and that of palmatine was only 0.1%. It suggested there was no significant difference of total alkaloids at different harvesting time. Nevertheless, the difference of the alkaloids content from different parts was much significant. The content of total alkaloid of adventitious root near to rhizome was about 4%, 2 times higher than that away from rhizome (only 2%). In addition, different processing technologies would affect alkaloids content obviously. There was hardly loss of alkaloids when the fresh adventitious root was washed with water, but it would decrease alkaloids content when the dried adventitious root was washed. Medicine value of Coptis chinensis adventitious root near to rhizome is higher than that away from rhizome. And fresh Coptis chinensis adventitious root can be washed with water.

  5. Toxicoproteomic assessment of liver responses to acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Khan, Imran; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Yao; Wong, Wing-Yan; Chan, Wood-Yee; Wendy Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Lin, Ge

    2018-04-03

    A toxicoproteomic study was performed on liver of rats treated with retrorsine (RTS), a representative hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid at a toxic dose (140 mg/kg) known to cause severe acute hepatotoxicity. By comparing current data with our previous findings in mild liver lesions of rats treated with a lower dose of RTS, seven proteins and three toxicity pathways of vascular endothelial cell death, which was further verified by observed sinusoidal endothelial cell losses, were found uniquely associated with retrorsine-induced hepatotoxicity. This toxicoproteomic study of acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication lays a foundation for future investigation to delineate molecular mechanisms of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Alkaloids as chemotaxonomic markers from the Philippine endemic Uncaria perrottetii and Uncaria lanosa f. philippinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Edneil Olivar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation on the aerial parts of Uncaria perrottetii led to the isolation of three pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids uncarine A or isoformosanine (1, uncarine E or isopteropodine (2, and rauniticine-allo-oxindole A (3. Five oxindole alkaloids, isomitraphylline (4, mitraphylline (5, uncarine B or formosanine (6, uncarine F (7, corynoxine (8, and uncarine D or speciophylline (9, were isolated from the leaves of Uncaria lanosa f. philippinensis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques and in comparison with the literature data. These compounds proved to be important chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Uncaria. Keywords: Rubiaceae, Uncaria, Oxindole alkaloids, Chemotaxonomy, Uncarine

  7. Alkaloids from Boophone haemanthoides (Amaryllidaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nair, J. J.; Rárová, L.; Strnad, Miroslav; Bastida, J.; van Staden, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 12 (2013), s. 1705-1710 ISSN 1934-578X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Alkaloid * Amaryllidaceae * Boophone haemanthoides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2013 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000328588200011

  8. Progress of pharmacological studies on alkaloids from Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Cao, Jian-Xin; Yao, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Sheng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloid was a kind of biological active ingredient. There were various types of alkaloids in Apocynaceae. This paper reviewed the progress on alkaloids from Apocynaceae, which contained origin, structure, and pharmacological activity.

  9. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio sp from Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Vasquez, Liliana; Reina Artiles, Matias; Gonzalez Coloma, Azucena; Cabrera Perez, Raimundo; Ruiz Mesia, Lastenia

    2011-01-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic) were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon), F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt) and F. solani (Mart), no significant activity being observed. (author)

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio sp from Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Vasquez, Liliana; Reina Artiles, Matias [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez Coloma, Azucena [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA), CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Cabrera Perez, Raimundo [Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Tenerife (Spain). Unidad de Fitopatologia, Facultad de Biologia; Ruiz Mesia, Lastenia [Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana (LIPNAA-UNAP), AA.HH. Nuevo San Lorenzo, San Juan, Iquitos (Peru). Lab. de Investigacion en Productos Naturales Antiparasitarios de la Amazonia

    2011-07-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic) were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon), F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt) and F. solani (Mart), no significant activity being observed. (author)

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of senecio sp from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ruiz Vásquez and Matías Reina Artiles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon, F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt and F. solani (Mart, no significant activity being observed.

  12. Flavonols, leuco-anthocyanins, cinnamic acids, and alkaloids in dried leaves of some Asiatic and Malesian Simaroubaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1966-01-01

    Herbarium specimens of 13 species of the Simaroubaceae were investigated on phenolic compounds present in their hydrolised leaf extracts and on the presence of alkaloids (table 2). Leucoanthocyanins, myricetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, as well as alkaloids were demonstrated to occur rather

  13. Exactly which synephrine alkaloids does Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, D B; Cutter, G; Poehlman, E T; Moore, D R; Barnes, S

    2005-04-01

    Following the withdrawal of ephedrine from the dietary supplement marketplace sales of products containing Citrus aurantium (CA) (bitter orange) for weight loss are believed to have increased dramatically. CA contains a number of constituents speculated to lead to weight loss, of which the most frequently cited constituent is synephrine. Concerns have been raised about the safety of products containing synephrine. To develop an adequate basis for clinical and public health recommendations, it is necessary to understand the nature of the synephrine alkaloids in CA. There are six possible isomers of synephrine (para, meta, ortho; and for each a d or l form). Some authors have stated that CA contains only p-synephrine, whereas other authors have stated that CA contains m-synephrine. This is an important distinction because the two molecules have different pharmacologic properties, which may differentially affect safety and efficacy. We are unable to identify published data that explicitly show whether CA contains p-synephrine, m-synephrine, or both. In this brief report, we show that at least one product purportedly containing synephrine alkaloids from CA contains both p-synephrine and m-synephrine. We believe this justifies further investigation into which synephrine alkaloids are present in CA and products purportedly containing synephrine alkaloids from CA and the relative quantities of each of the different isomers.

  14. An uptake system for dietary alkaloids in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Secunda, S I; Garraffo, H M; Spande, T F; Wisnieski, A; Cover, J F

    1994-06-01

    The skin of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) contains a wide variety of alkaloids that presumably serve a defensive role. These alkaloids persist for years in captivity, but are not present in captive-raised frogs. Alkaloids fed to poison frogs (Dendrobates, Phyllobates, Epipedobates) are readily accumulated into skin, where they remain for months. The process can be selective; an ant indolizidine is accumulated, while an ant pyrrolidine is not. Frogs (Colostethus) of the same family, which do not normally contain alkaloids, do not accumulate alkaloids. Such an alkaloid uptake system provides a means of maintaining skin alkaloids and suggests that some if not all such 'dendrobatid alkaloids' may have a dietary origin.

  15. Ageratum enation virus Infection Induces Programmed Cell Death and Alters Metabolite Biosynthesis in Papaver somniferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Srivastava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB, respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch’s postulates. Comprehensive microscopic analysis of infiltrated plants reveals severe structural anomalies in leaf and stem tissues represented by unorganized cell architecture and vascular bundles. Moreover, the characteristic blebs and membranous vesicles formed due to the virus-induced disintegration of the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles were also present. An accelerated nuclear DNA fragmentation was observed by Comet assay and confirmed by TUNEL and Hoechst dye staining assays suggesting virus-induced programmed cell death. Virus-infection altered the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. The biosynthesis potential of morphine, thebaine, codeine, and papaverine alkaloids reduced significantly in infected plants except for noscapine whose biosynthesis was comparatively enhanced. The expression analysis of corresponding alkaloid pathway genes by real time-PCR corroborated well with the results of HPLC analysis for alkaloid perturbations. The changes in the metabolite and alkaloid contents affect the commercial value of the poppy plants.

  16. Gene clusters for insecticidal loline alkaloids in the grass-endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Martin J; Moon, Christina D; Wilkinson, Heather H; Schardl, Christopher L

    2005-03-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same order and orientation. Also identified was lolF-2, but its possible linkage with either cluster was undetermined. Most lol genes were regulated in N. uncinatum and N. coenophialum, and all were expressed concomitantly with loline-alkaloid biosynthesis. A lolC-2 RNA-interference (RNAi) construct was introduced into N. uncinatum, and in two independent transformants, RNAi significantly decreased lolC expression (P lol-gene products indicate that the pathway has evolved from various different primary and secondary biosynthesis pathways.

  17. Phytochemical genomics of the Madagascar periwinkle: Unravelling the last twists of the alkaloid engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Clastre, Marc; Besseau, Sébastien; Oudin, Audrey; Burlat, Vincent; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Lanoue, Arnaud; Papon, Nicolas; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Courdavault, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle produces a large palette of Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs), a class of complex alkaloids including some of the most valuable plant natural products with precious therapeutical values. Evolutionary pressure on one of the hotspots of biodiversity has obviously turned this endemic Malagasy plant into an innovative alkaloid engine. Catharanthus is a unique taxon producing vinblastine and vincristine, heterodimeric MIAs with complex stereochemistry, and also manufactures more than 100 different MIAs, some shared with the Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae and Rubiaceae members. For over 60 years, the quest for these powerful anticancer drugs has inspired biologists, chemists, and pharmacists to unravel the chemistry, biochemistry, therapeutic activity, cell and molecular biology of Catharanthus roseus. Recently, the "omics" technologies have fuelled rapid progress in deciphering the last secret of strictosidine biosynthesis, the central precursor opening biosynthetic routes to several thousand MIA compounds. Dedicated C. roseus transcriptome, proteome and metabolome databases, comprising organ-, tissue- and cell-specific libraries, and other phytogenomic resources, were developed for instance by PhytoMetaSyn, Medicinal Plant Genomic Resources and SmartCell consortium. Tissue specific library screening, orthology comparison in species with or without MIA-biochemical engines, clustering of gene expression profiles together with various functional validation strategies, largely contributed to enrich the toolbox for plant synthetic biology and metabolic engineering of MIA biosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The killer of Socrates: Coniine and Related Alkaloids in the Plant Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Hotti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coniine, a polyketide-derived alkaloid, is poisonous to humans and animals. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, which leads to inhibition of the nervous system, eventually causing death by suffocation in mammals. Coniine’s most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC. In chemistry, coniine holds two historical records: It is the first alkaloid the chemical structure of which was established (in 1881, and that was chemically synthesized (in 1886. In plants, coniine and twelve closely related alkaloids are known from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L., and several Sarracenia and Aloe species. Recent work confirmed its biosynthetic polyketide origin. Biosynthesis commences by carbon backbone formation from butyryl-CoA and two malonyl-CoA building blocks catalyzed by polyketide synthase. A transamination reaction incorporates nitrogen from l-alanine and non-enzymatic cyclization leads to γ-coniceine, the first hemlock alkaloid in the pathway. Ultimately, reduction of γ-coniceine to coniine is facilitated by NADPH-dependent γ-coniceine reductase. Although coniine is notorious for its toxicity, there is no consensus on its ecological roles, especially in the carnivorous pitcher plants where it occurs. Lately there has been renewed interest in coniine’s medical uses particularly for pain relief without an addictive side effect.

  19. Alkaloids isolated from the leaves of atemoya (Annona cherimola × Annona squamosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Rabêlo,Suzana V.; Costa,Emmanoel V.; Barison,Andersson; Dutra,Lívia M.; Nunes,Xirley P.; Tomaz,José C.; Oliveira,Gibson G.; Lopes,Norberto P.; Santos,Maria de Fátima C.; Almeida,Jackson R.G. da Silva

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAtemoya is an interspecific annonaceous hybrid between Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona squamosa L. Its phytochemical investigation led to seven alkaloids, including two aporphine (anonaine and asimilobine), three oxoaporphine (lanuginosine, liriodenine and lysicamine) and two proaporphine (pronuciferine and stepharine). These alkaloids were identified by a series of spectrometric methods, mainly MS and NMR (1D and 2D), as well as by comparison with literature data. Our findings show...

  20. Functional Characterization of 4´OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba eGurkok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes remain to be revealed. In this study, expressions of 3-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4´-O-methyltransferase (4´OMT and reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (7OMT genes were subjected tomanipulation to functionally characterize their roles in BIA biosynthesis. Measurements of alkaloid accumulation were performed in leaf, stem and capsule tissues accordingly. Suppression of 4´OMT expression caused reduction in the total alkaloid content in stem tissue whereas total alkaloid content was significantly induced in the capsule. Silencing of the 7OMT gene also caused repression in total alkaloid content in the stem. On the other hand, over-expression of 4´OMT and 7OMT resulted in higher morphine accumulation in the stem but suppressed amount in the capsule. Moreover, differential expression in several BIA synthesis genes (CNMT, TYDC, 6OMT, SAT, COR, 4´OMT and 7OMT were observed upon manipulation of 4´OMT and 7OMT expression. Upon silencing and overexpression applications, tissue specific effects of these genes were identified. Manipulation of 4´OMT and 7OMT genes caused differentiated accumulation of BIAs including morphine and noscapine in capsule and stem tissues.

  1. Dutch survey pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal forage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.P.J.; Beumer, B.; Oosterink, J.E.; Jong, de J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant metabolites produced by a number of plants from the Asteraceae (Compositae), Boriginaceae and Fabaceae (Leguminosae) families. Many of these alkaloids have been shown to be highly toxic, causing hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), liver cirrhosis

  2. Plant alkaloids of the polymethyleneamine series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogoza, Ludmila N; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F; Tolstikov, Genrikh A [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-04-30

    The published data on the structures and biological activities of the plant alkaloids of the biogenic polymethyleneamine series, viz., putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), spermidine (1,8-diamino-4 -azaoctane), and spermine (1,12-diamino-4,9-diazadodecane), are considered and systematised. The structures and biological activities of some synthetic analogues of these alkaloids are also presented.

  3. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  4. Plant alkaloids of the polymethyleneamine series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoza, Ludmila N.; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F.; Tolstikov, Genrikh A.

    2005-04-01

    The published data on the structures and biological activities of the plant alkaloids of the biogenic polymethyleneamine series, viz., putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), spermidine (1,8-diamino-4 -azaoctane), and spermine (1,12-diamino-4,9-diazadodecane), are considered and systematised. The structures and biological activities of some synthetic analogues of these alkaloids are also presented.

  5. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Anne-Maria; Demetrowitsch, Tobias J.; Schwarz, Karin; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid. PMID:29250094

  6. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maria Wesseling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid.

  7. Alkaloid profiles and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Fumaria species from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancheva, Radka Z; Ivanov, Ivan G; Aneva, Ina Y; Dincheva, Ivayla N; Badjakov, Ilian K; Pavlov, Atanas I

    2016-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of alkaloid profiles of five Fumaria species, naturally grown in Bulgaria (F. officinalis, F. thuretii, F. kralikii, F. rostellata and F. schrammii) and analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of alkaloid extracts were performed. Fourteen isoquinoline alkaloids were identified, with the principle ones being protopine, cryptopine, sinactine, parfumine, fumariline, fumarophycine, and fumaritine. Protopine contents, defined by HPLC analysis varied between 210.6 ± 8.8 μg/g DW (F. schrammii) and 334.5 ± 7.1 μg/g DW. (F. rostellata). While all of the investigated alkaloid extracts significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity, the F. kralikii demonstrated the highest level of inhibition (IC(50) 0.13 ± 0.01 mg extract/mL).

  8. Distinct sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from in Salvadoran and Peruvian Celastraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Oliver; Núñez, Marvin J; Perestelo, Nayra R; Reyes, Carolina P; Torres-Romero, David; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2017-10-01

    As part of a bioprospecting program aimed at the discovery of undescribed natural products from Salvadoran and Peruvian flora, the phytochemical investigations of four Celastraceae species, Celastrus vulcanicola, Maytenus segoviarum, Maytenus jeslkii, and Maytenus cuzcoina, were performed. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of five previously undescribed macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, named vulcanicoline-A, cuzcoinine, vulcanicoline-B, jelskiine, and vulcanicoline-C, along with sixteen known alkaloids. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectrometric and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, including COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments. The absolute configurations of alkaloids were proposed based on optical rotation sign, and biogenetic considerations. This study represents the first phytochemical analysis of Maytenus segoviarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitive determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. by field-amplified, sample-stacking, sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kun; Xu, Yi; Mu, Xiuni; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Lv, Junjiang

    2016-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the toxic components in Tussilago farfara L. Due to the lack of standard substances for quantitative analysis and traces of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in total alkaloids, the full quality control of Tussilago farfara L has been limited. In this study, we aimed to solve the difficulty of determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and identify more components in the total alkaloids. An on-line preconcentration method has been applied to improve determining sensitivity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. in which included field-amplified sample stacking and sweeping in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The main parameters that affected separation and stacking efficiency were investigated in details. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity enhancement factors obtained by the developed method for the analytes were from 15- to 12-fold, the limits of detection of senkirkine and senecionine were 2∼5 μg/L. Senkirkine and senecionine have been detected in alkaloids (c) of Tussilago farfara L, along ferulic acid methyl ester and methyl caffeate. The developed method was also applied to the analysis of acid extraction (a) of Tussilago farfara L, and senkirkine could be detected directly. The results indicated that the developed method is feasible for the analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L with good recoveries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Anxiolytic-like effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina suberosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Maria Amelia R.; Batista, Andrea N. de L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Santos, Luciana de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Nogueira, Paulo J. de C.; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo L. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Latif, Abdul; Arfan, Mohammad [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemical Sciences

    2011-07-01

    Two alkaloids, erysodine (1) and erysothrine (2) were isolated from the flowers of a Pakistani medicinal plant, Erythrina suberosa. These compounds were investigated for anxiolytic properties, and the results showed significant effect, in an acute oral treatment with 1-2, which were suspended in saline (NaCl 0.9%) plus DMSO 1%, and evaluated in 122 Swiss male mice exposed to two tests of anxiety - the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the light/dark transition model (LDTM). (author)

  11. Anxiolytic-like effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina suberosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Maria Amelia R.; Batista, Andrea N. de L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Santos, Luciana de A.; Nogueira, Paulo J. de C.; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo L.; Latif, Abdul; Arfan, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Two alkaloids, erysodine (1) and erysothrine (2) were isolated from the flowers of a Pakistani medicinal plant, Erythrina suberosa. These compounds were investigated for anxiolytic properties, and the results showed significant effect, in an acute oral treatment with 1-2, which were suspended in saline (NaCl 0.9%) plus DMSO 1%, and evaluated in 122 Swiss male mice exposed to two tests of anxiety - the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the light/dark transition model (LDTM). (author)

  12. Determination of terpenoid indole alkaloids in hairy roots of Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, Amir; Laakso, Into; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant rich in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), some of which possess important pharmacological properties. The study material including transgenic hairy root cultures have been developed and their potential for alkaloid production are being investigated. In this study, a comprehensive GC-MS method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of alkaloids from Rhazya hairy roots was developed. The composition of alkaloids was determined by using GC-MS. In quantification, the ratio between alkaloid and internal standard was based on extracted ion from total ion current (TIC) analyses. The developed method was validated. An acceptable precision with RSD ≤ 8% over a linear range of 1 to 100 µg/mL was achieved. The accuracy of the method was within 94-107%. Analysis of hairy root extracts indicated the occurrence of a total of 20 TIAs. Six of them, pleiocarpamine, fluorocarpamine, vincamine, ajmalicine and two yohimbine isomers are reported here for the first time in Rhazya. Trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatisation of the extracts resulted in the separation of two isomers for yohimbine and also for vallesiachotamine. Clearly improved chromatographic profiles of TMS-derivatives were observed for vincanine and for minor compounds vincamine and rhazine. The results show that the present GC-MS method is reliable and well applicable for studying the variation of indole alkaloids in Rhazya samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da, E-mail: emmanoelvc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Departamento de Quimica; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Divisao de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    2013-05-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values lower than 20.0 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -}1 (10.5and 16.2 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu molL{sup -1}, respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  14. Racemic alkaloids from the fungus Ganoderma cochlear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Long; Dou, Man; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yong-Ming; Li, Rong-Tao; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Seven pairs of new alkaloid enantiomers, ganocochlearines C-I (1, 3-8), and three pairs of known alkaloids were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma cochlear. The chemical structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 3-10 were assigned by ECD calculations. Biological activities of these isolates against renal fibrosis were accessed in rat normal or diseased renal interstitial fibroblast cells. Importantly, the plausible biosynthetic pathway for this class of alkaloids was originally proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alkaloids from Duguetia flagellaris Huber (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, V.R.; Sette, I.M.F.; Da-Cunha, E.V.L.; Silva, M.S.; Barbosa Filho, J.M.; Maia, J.G.S.

    2001-01-01

    Ten aporphine alkaloids were isolated from ethanol extract of leaves, thin branches and stem bark of Duguetia flagellaris Huber (Annonceae); they were identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopic techniques; five were aporphine strictu sensu: nornuciferine (1), isopiline (2), O-methylisopiline (3), calycinine (3), duguevanine (5), and five 7-hydroxyaporphines: pachypodanthine (6), oliveroline β-N-oxide (8), oliveridine (9), and duguetine (10). Alkaloids 2, 6, 7 and 8 are being cited for the first time in Duguetia genus. This study also includes a literature review of the chemical constituents of the genus Duguetia, predominantly aporphine alkaloids, all isolated from plants that occur in South America. (author)

  16. Engineering Microbial Cells for the Biosynthesis of Natural Compounds of Pharmaceutical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jeandet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes constitute important platforms for the biosynthesis of numerous molecules of pharmaceutical interest such as antitumor, anticancer, antiviral, antihypertensive, antiparasitic, antioxidant, immunological agents, and antibiotics as well as hormones, belonging to various chemical families, for instance, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, polyketides, amines, and proteins. Engineering microbial factories offers rich opportunities for the production of natural products that are too complex for cost-effective chemical synthesis and whose extraction from their originating plants needs the use of many solvents. Recent progresses that have been made since the millennium beginning with metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biosynthesis of natural products of pharmaceutical significance will be reviewed.

  17. OVIPOSITION AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ALKALOIDAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1000 ppm concentration and ovicidal activity at 25-100 ppm concentration against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Water treated with alkaloidal extract at 1000ppm received significantly more egg rafts of vector mosquitoes ...

  18. Highly Selective Hydroformylation of the Cinchona Alkaloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, Marielle; Beijer, Felix H.; Padron, José M.; Toth, Imre; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2002-01-01

    The four naturally occurring cinchona alkaloids were subjected to hydroformylation to create an extra functional group that allows immobilization. Cinchonidine, quinine, and quinidine, could be hydroformylated with virtually complete terminal selectivity, using a rhodium/tetraphosphite catalyst. The

  19. Defensive properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the selection factors that drive chemical diversification of secondary metabolites of constitutive defence systems in plants, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), is still incomplete. Historically, plants always have been confronted with microorganisms. Long before herbivores

  20. Alkaloids from Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Alias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical study of the bark of Fissistigma latifolium (Annonaceae yielded a new aporphine alkaloid, (--N-methylguattescidine (1, and eight known alkaloids: liriodenine (2, oxoxylopine (3, (--asimilobine (4, dimethyltryptamine (5, (--remerine (6, (--anonaine (7, columbamine (8 and lysicamine (9. The compounds were isolated using various chromatographic methods and structural elucidation was accomplished by means of spectroscopic methods, notably 1D-NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, UV, IR and MS.

  1. Dutch survey pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal forage

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, P.P.J.; Beumer, B.; Oosterink, J.E.; Jong, de, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant metabolites produced by a number of plants from the Asteraceae (Compositae), Boriginaceae and Fabaceae (Leguminosae) families. Many of these alkaloids have been shown to be highly toxic, causing hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), liver cirrhosis and ultimately death. PAs may have also mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Amongst livestock, cattle and horses are especially susceptible to the toxic effects of the PAs. Humans may also be at r...

  2. Importance of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Bee Products

    OpenAIRE

    OZANSOY, GÖRKEM; KÜPLÜLÜ, ÖZLEM

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidinealkaloids are one of the groups of harmful chemicals of plants, which arenatural toxins. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids found in about 3% of all floweringplants of widespread geographical distribution are known as one of thecomponents of the hepatotoxic group of plant origin and referred as hepatotoxicpyrrolizidine alkaloids. According to researches, bee products is regarded asone of the main food sources in the exposure of people to pyrrolizidinealkaloids. Consumption of pyrrolizidine ...

  3. Polycyclic alkaloids via transannular Mannich reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vital, Paulo; Hosseini, Masood; Shanmugham, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    The tricyclic compound 13, representing the framework of the cylindricine 4 and lepadiformine 5 alkaloids, was prepared in a single operation via the first example of a transannular Mannich reaction involving a macrocyclic diketoamine 12.......The tricyclic compound 13, representing the framework of the cylindricine 4 and lepadiformine 5 alkaloids, was prepared in a single operation via the first example of a transannular Mannich reaction involving a macrocyclic diketoamine 12....

  4. Potential of Plant Alkaloids as Antipyretic Drugs of Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imad; Khan, Haroon; Gilani, Anwar-Ul-Hassan; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

    2017-01-01

    Fever or Pyrexia means abnormal rise in body temperature above the usual range of normal in response to a variety of infectious, immunological and neoplastic stimuli. To normalize these febrile conditions, several synthetic agents are in clinical practice such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and aspirin. However, they are having many side effects which sometimes challenge their applications. The various sources are under investigation worldwide to overcome issues of unwanted effects and to better therapeutic response. In this scenario botanicals such as alkaloids, the most widely distributed and studied plant secondary metabolites, could effectively produce the molecules with better antipyretic effect and safety profile. The current review deals with 21 isolated alkaloids from 14 plants species having some antipyretic effect in preliminary screening/preclinical studies with the possible mechanism and structural edges. Therefore, these alkaloids of plant origin are candidates for further detail studies to ascertain their mechanism(s) and clinical utility or as lead compounds for future drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Determination of alkaloids in onion nectar by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Soto, Verónica; Jofré, Viviana Patricia; Galmarini, Claudio Romulo; Silva, María Fernanda

    2016-07-01

    Nectar is the most important floral reward offered by plants to insects. Minor components such as alkaloid compounds in nectar affect bee foraging, with great influence in seed production. CE is an advantageous tool for the analysis of unexplored samples such as onion nectar due to the limited amounts of samples. Considering the importance of these compounds, a simultaneous determination of nicotine, theophylline, theobromine, caffeine, harmaline, piperine in onion nectar by MEKC-UV is herein reported. The extraction of alkaloid compounds in nectar was performed by SPE using a homemade miniaturized column (C18 ). Effects of several important factors affecting extraction efficiency as well as electrophoretic performance were investigated to acquire optimum conditions. Under the proposed conditions, the analytes can be separated within 15 min in a 50 cm effective length capillary (75 μm id) at a separation voltage of 20 kV in 20 mmol/L sodium tretraborate, 100 mmol/L SDS. The amount of sample requirement was reduced up to 2000 times, when compared to traditional methods, reaching limits of detection as low as 0.0153 ng/L. For the first time, this study demonstrates that there are marked qualitative and quantitative differences in nectar alkaloids between open pollinated and male sterile lines (MSLs) and also within MSLs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Fusarium

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    Javier Avalos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many fungi of the genus Fusarium stand out for the complexity of their secondary metabolism. Individual species may differ in their metabolic capacities, but they usually share the ability to synthesize carotenoids, a family of hydrophobic terpenoid pigments widely distributed in nature. Early studies on carotenoid biosynthesis in Fusarium aquaeductuum have been recently extended in Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium oxysporum, well-known biotechnological and phytopathogenic models, respectively. The major Fusarium carotenoid is neurosporaxanthin, a carboxylic xanthophyll synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the activity of four enzymes, encoded by the genes carRA, carB, carT and carD. These fungi produce also minor amounts of β-carotene, which may be cleaved by the CarX oxygenase to produce retinal, the rhodopsin’s chromophore. The genes needed to produce retinal are organized in a gene cluster with a rhodopsin gene, while other carotenoid genes are not linked. In the investigated Fusarium species, the synthesis of carotenoids is induced by light through the transcriptional induction of the structural genes. In some species, deep-pigmented mutants with up-regulated expression of these genes are affected in the regulatory gene carS. The molecular mechanisms underlying the control by light and by the CarS protein are currently under investigation.

  7. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

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    Juan Pan

    Full Text Available The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline, -NHCH3 (loline, -N(CH32 (N-methylloline, -N(CH3Ac (N-acetylloline, -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline, and -N(CH3CHO (N-formylloline. Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for

  8. Enzymes from Fungal and Plant Origin Required for Chemical Diversification of Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in Grass-Epichloë Symbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  9. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B; Schardl, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium transoxanum Bunge

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    M. R. Delnavazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The plants belonging to the genus Heliotropium L. (Boraginaceae are the main sources of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. In the present study, we have investigated the PAs of the aerial parts of Heliotropium transoxanum Bunge, a perennial species native to Iran. Methods: Silica gel column chromatography and silica gel PTLC were applied for the isolation of PAs present in the total methanol extract of H. transoxanum. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EIMS spectral analyses. Results: Three PAs, heliotrine (1, lasiocarpine (2 and heliotrine N-oxide (3,with known mutagenic and genotoxic properties, were isolated from the aerial parts of H. transoxanum. Conclusion: The results of this study on the presence of toxic PAs in H. transoxanum introduce this herb as a poisonous species and also suggest it as an appropriate source for the isolation of heliotrine and lasiocarpine for further toxicological and pharmacological studies.

  11. The biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl quinate esters and their role in the storage of cocaine in Erythroxylum coca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, José Carlos Pardo; Schmidt, Gregor W; Paetz, Christian; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; D'Auria, John C

    2013-07-01

    Complexation of alkaloids is an important strategy plants utilize to facilitate storage in vacuoles and avoid autotoxicity. Previous studies have implicated hydroxycinnamoyl quinate esters in the complexation of purine alkaloids in Coffea arabica. The goal of this study was to determine if Erythroxylum coca uses similar complexation agents to store abundant tropane alkaloids, such as cocaine and cinnamoyl cocaine. Metabolite analysis of various E. coca organs established a close correlation between levels of coca alkaloids and those of two hydroxycinnamoyl esters of quinic acid, chlorogenic acid and 4-coumaroyl quinate. The BAHD acyltransferase catalyzing the final step in hydroxycinnamoyl quinate biosynthesis was isolated and characterized, and its gene expression found to correlate with tropane alkaloid accumulation. A physical interaction between chlorogenic acid and cocaine was observed and quantified in vitro using UV and NMR spectroscopic methods yielding similar values to those reported for a caffeine chlorogenate complex in C. arabica. These results suggest that storage of cocaine and other coca alkaloids in large quantities in E. coca involves hydroxycinnamoyl quinate esters as complexation partners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alkaloids as taxonomic markers in some species of Magnolia L. and Liriodendron L.

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    Mirosław Furmanowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Magnoliaceae cultivated in Poland were investigated: Liriodendron tulipifera L. and 6 species of magnolia: Magnolia acuminata L., M. denudata Desr., M. kobus DC., M. obovata Thunb., M. salicifolia Maxim. and M. tripetala L. For alkaloid detection in the leaves thin-,layer chromatography was used. In Liriodendron tulipifera L. and in all the Magnolia species liriodenine which exhibits cytostatic activity was detected. The extract of Liriodendron tulipifera L. leaves showed, beside liriodenine other spots on the chromatogram than did the magnolias. Alkaloids can be utilized in the chemotaxonomy of Magnoliaceae as a diagnostic trait. The results of the investigations indicate a certain distinctiveness of M. acuminata L., in agreement with those obtained by way of numerical taxonomy. Most similar as regards alkaloid content in leaves are M. obovata Thunb. and M. tripetala L.

  13. Retention behavior of selected alkaloids in Reversed Phase micellar chromatographic systems

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    Petruczynik Anna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS concentrations on retention, separation selectivity, peak shapes and systems efficiency were investigated. Herein, the retention data for 11 alkaloids were determined on an RP18 silica column with mobile phases containing methanol as organic modifier, with acetate buffer at pH 3.5, and, subsequently, with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The results of this study indicate that the retention of alkaloids decreases with the increase of SDS concentration in the mobile phase. The increase of SDS concentration, however, leads to the significantly improvement of peak symmetry and the increase of theoretical plate number in all cases. The best system efficiency for most of the investigated alkaloids was obtained in a mobile phase containing 0.1 M SDS, while most symmetrical peaks were obtained through the addition of 0.3 M of SDS to the mobile phase.

  14. Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and clef...

  15. The alkaloids of the madangamine group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Mercedes; Pérez, Maria; Ballette, Roberto; Proto, Stefano; Bosch, Joan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is focused on madangamines, a small group of complex diamine alkaloids isolated from marine sponges of the order Haplosclerida, and covers their isolation, characterization, biogenesis, biological activity, and synthesis. Structurally, madangamines are pentacyclic alkaloids with an unprecedented skeletal type, characterized by a common diazatricyclic core and two peripheral macrocyclic rings. The isolation of these alkaloids from Xestospongia ingens (madangamines A-E) and Pachychalina alcaloidifera (madangamine F) is described in detail. Physical and complete spectroscopic 1H and 13C NMR data are included. The proposed biogenesis of madangamines from ammonia, a functionalized three-carbon unit, and saturated or unsaturated linear long-chain dialdehydes, via partially reduced bis-alkylpyridine macrocycles, is discussed. The synthesis of alkaloids of the madangamine group has been little explored, with only one total synthesis reported so far, that of (+)-madangamine D. This review also describes several model synthetic approaches to the diazatricyclic ABC core of these alkaloids, as well as model studies on the construction of the (Z,Z)-unsaturated 11-membered E macrocycle common to madangamines A-E, the 13- and 14-membered D rings of madangamines C-E, and the all-cis-triunsaturated 15-membered D ring of madangamine A. Some members of this group have shown significant in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines.

  16. Molecular imaging of alkaloids in khat (Catha edulis) leaves with MeV-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Vencelj, Matjaž; Kelemen, Mitja; Matsuo, Jiro; Kusakari, Masakazu; Siketić, Zdravko; Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Shaltout, Abdallah; Pelicon, Primož

    2017-08-01

    Imaging Mass Spectroscopy (IMS) is a unique research tool providing localization and identification of a wide range of biomolecules as essential data to understand biochemical processes in living organisms. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with high-energy heavy ions (MeV-SIMS) is emerging as a promising IMS technique for chemical imaging of biological tissue. We measured the molecular mass spatial distributions in leaves of khat (Catha edulis). Khat is a natural drug plant, native to eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In these countries, fresh leaves are being chewed by significant part of population. It was reported that 80% of the adult population in Yemen chew the khat leaves. The main stimulating effects of khat are induced by a monoamine alkaloid called cathinone. During leaf ageing, cathinone is further metabolised to cathine and norephedrine. Earlier studies identified the alkaloids in khat, however little is known on their spatial distribution, reflecting the biosynthesis and accumulation in the tissue. Chemical mapping of alkaloids on cross-sections of khat leaves by MeV-SIMS was done at JSI by a pulsed 5.8 MeV 35Cl6+ beam, focused to a diameter of 15 μm, using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a mass resolution of 500. In addition, measurements of MeV-SIMS mass spectra were performed at Kyoto University by a continuous broad beam of 6 MeV 63Cu4+ ions at an orthogonal TOF spectrometer with a high mass resolution of 11,000. Sections of leaves were analysed and mass spectra obtained at both MeV-SIMS setups were compared. Tissue-level distributions of detected alkaloids are presented and discussed.

  17. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para’ C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

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    Matthew eKilgore

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para’, para-ortho’, or ortho-para’ regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para’ C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR-noroxomaritidine from 4’-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho’ phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1 % of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4’-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  18. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4'-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  19. Studies on quantitative determination of total alkaloids and berberine in five origins of crude medicine "Sankezhen".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luyang; Long, Weifang; Wan, Xiangluan; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Fei; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-02-01

    The roots of Berberis plants are widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine called "Sankezhen", having the activities of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, and the ingredients are alkaloids. This work aims to study and compare the total alkaloids and individual alkaloid (berberine) contents in roots and stems from five origins of Berberis plants (Berberis soulieana Schneid., B. henryana Schneid., B. triacanthophora Fedde, B. gagnepainii Schneid. and B. bergmanniae Schneid.) and provides some references for resource and quality evaluation of the medicine. Acid dye colorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography were used in the determination. The results showed that the contents for the total alkaloids in root and stem samples were in the range of 1.60-4.72% and 0.76-2.70%, while those of the berberine were 0.70-2.92% and 0.23-1.07%. With higher contents of the total alkaloids and berberine, the roots of B. soulieana, B. gagnepainii and B. bergmanniae were good sources of "Sankezhen". Meanwhile, the contents were also high in stems of the three plants, indicating that the stems were likely to be alternative sources of "Sankezhen" after further research. As the results of precision, stability and recovery tests shown, the methods were simple, rapid and reliable, and provided valuable basis for quality evaluation and new resource investigation of "Sankezhen". © Crown copyright 2014.

  20. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

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    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  1. Liriodenine alkaloid in Annona diversifolia during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz Chacón, I; González-Esquinca, A R

    2012-01-01

    Plants of the Annonaceae family produce a series of alkaloids, including liriodenine oxoaporphine. Its distribution in these primitive angiosperms suggests that it plays an important role, but very little is known about which plant organs it accumulates in, or in which developmental stages it is synthesised. Accordingly, liriodenine production was studied during the early stages of germination and seedling development in Annona diversifolia Saff. Liriodenine samples were obtained from the roots and were characterised on the basis of spectroscopic data. Quantification was done by HPLC in the organs and tissues of newly collected seeds, seeds following 1-, 2-, 5- and 10-day imbibitions, upon emergence of the radicle and at the seedling stage. According to our results, liriodenine could not have originated from the parent plant, nor during embryogenesis because it appears for the first time in the endosperm approximately 5 days after the start of imbibition. Therefore, its synthesis does not depend directly on photosynthesis. During the seedling stage it is found in the root and the stem but it is absent from the cotyledonary leaves and the first true leaves. Liriodenine biosynthesis begins during the early stages of development in the endosperm and seed radicles.

  2. Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Gardneria multiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Xia; Chen, Yan-Fang; Yang, Juan; Huang, Tao; Wu, Li-Li; Xiao, Ning; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Yuan-Hu

    2018-01-01

    Six new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, 19(E)-9-demethoxy-16-dehydroxylchitosenine-17-O- β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 19(E)-9,10-didemethoxy-16-dehydroxylchitosenine-17-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (2), 19(E)-9,10-didemethoxy-16-dehydroxyl-11-methoxychitosenine (3), 19(E)-9,10-didemethoxy-16-dehydroxyl-11-methoxychitosenine-17-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), 19(Z)-18-carboxylgardneramine (5), and 19(E)-18-demethoxygardneramine-N (4)-oxide (6), along with four known alkaloids, were isolated from Gardneria multiflora, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 are the first example of Gardneria alkaloids whose glucose units were attached to C-17. None of the compounds were cytotoxic to any of five human cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

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    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique, E-mail: lcpabonb@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  4. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae

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    Ludy Cristina Pabon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae were isolated and characterized as (S-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1, (S-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2, (S-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3 and (S-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4; alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well.

  5. Two New Alkaloids from Narcissus serotinus L.

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    Francesc Viladomat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae family is well known for the presence of an exclusive group of alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. Narcissus serotinus L. is a plant belonging to this family and its geographical distribution is mainly located along the Mediterranean coast. In the present work, specimens collected near Casablanca (Morocco were used to study the alkaloid content of this species. Starting with 350 g of the whole plant we used standard extraction and purification procedures to obtain fractions and compounds for GC-MS and NMR analysis. As well as five known alkaloids, we isolated two new compounds: 1-O-(3´-acetoxybutanoyllycorine and narseronine. The latter has been previously published, but with an erroneous structure.

  6. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  7. Paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates: A molecular overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of water soluble neurotoxic alkaloids produced by two different kingdoms of life, prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates. Owing to the wide distribution of these organisms, these toxic secondary metabolites account for paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. On the other hand, their specific binding to voltage-gated sodium channels makes these toxins potentially useful in pharmacological and toxicological applications. Much effort has been devoted to the biosynthetic mechanism of PSTs, and gene clusters encoding 26 proteins involved in PST biosynthesis have been unveiled in several cyanobacterial species. Functional analysis of toxin genes indicates that PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria is a complex process including biosynthesis, regulation, modification and export. However, less is known about the toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates owing to our poor understanding of the massive genome and unique chromosomal characteristics [1]. So far, few genes involved in PST biosynthesis have been identified from dinoflagellates. Moreover, the proteins involved in PST production are far from being totally explored. Thus, the origin and evolution of PST biosynthesis in these two kingdoms are still controversial. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the characterization of genes and proteins involved in PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, and discuss the standing evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of toxin biosynthesis as well as future perspectives in PST biosynthesis. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxins which specifically block voltage-gated sodium channels in excitable cells and result in paralytic shellfish poisonings (PSPs) around the world. Two different kingdoms of life, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates are able to produce PSTs. However, in contrast with cyanobacteria, our understanding of PST biosynthesis in

  8. Curare Alkaloids: Constituents of a Matis Dart Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malca Garcia, Gonzalo R; Hennig, Lothar; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Bussmann, Rainer W; Tsetlin, Victor I; Giannis, Athanassios

    2015-11-25

    A phytochemical study of dart and arrow poison from the Matis tribe led to the identification of D-(-)-quinic acid, L-malic acid, ethyldimethylamine, magnoflorine, and five new bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids (BBIQAs), 1-5. D-Tubocurarine could not be identified among these products. BBIQA (3) contains a unique linkage at C-8 and C-11'. All structures were characterized by a combination of NMR and HRESIMS data. The effects of Matis poison and individual BBIQAs (1-3) on rat muscle nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes have been investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique.

  9. Antiprotozoal alkaloids from Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Faria, Emiret O.; Ribeiro, Laryssa C.; Carvalho, Brenda G., E-mail: lucilia@quimica.ufg.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus II, Samambaia, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Silva, Cleuza C. da; Santin, Silvana M.O. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Schuque, Ivania T.A.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Britta, Elisandra A.; Miranda, Nathielle [Departamento de Farmacia e Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Iglesias, Amadeu H. [Waters Technologies do Brasil LTDA, Barueri, SP (Brazil); Delprete, Piero G. [VHerbier de Guyane, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), UMR AMAP, French Guiana (France)

    2012-07-01

    The continuity of the phyto chemical study of crude extracts of P. prunifolia's roots and branches led to the isolation of five indole-{beta}-carboline alkaloids. Among them, the 10-hydroxy-iso-deppeaninol and N-oxide-10-hydroxy-antirhine derivatives are described here for the first time. The structures were achieved through 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HRMS analyses. The branches and roots crude extracts and the alkaloids 14-oxoprunifoleine and strictosamide showed selective activity against L. amazonensis, with IC{sub 50} values of 16.0 and 40.7 {mu}g per mL, respectively. (author)

  10. Syntheses of Gliocladin C and Related Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Timothy R; Benjamin, Noah M; Martin, Stephen F

    2017-05-05

    A unique approach to gliocladin C and related alkaloids was developed that features an unprecedented nucleophilic addition of a diketopiperazine to an isatin derivative followed by a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the resultant tertiary alcohol with indole to set the key quaternary center. Chemoselective oxindole reduction and cyclization delivered a pivotal hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole diketopiperazine intermediate that was readily converted into (±)-gliocladin C, (±)-T988C, and (±)-gliocladine C, culminating in the shortest approach to these alkaloids reported to date.

  11. Chemotaxonomy and geographical distribution of tropane alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W J; Lin, G D

    2000-03-01

    This review illustrates the distribution of tropane alkaloids within the families Solanaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Proteaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Convolvulaceae and Cruciferae. Whereas tropane alkaloids are characteristic of the genera Datura, Brugmansia (tree datura) and Duboisia of the Solanaceae, the distribution is more widespread with novel tropane derivatives in families not traditionally associated with these bases. The chemical nature of more recently discovered water-soluble calystegines and the di- and trimeric forms from the Convolvulaceae (e.g. schizanthines from Schizanthus spp.), truxillines from Bolivian coca leaves and moonines of Erythroxylum moonii are highlighted. Where possible and appropriate, links between the phytochemistry and taxonomy are discussed.

  12. Investigations on the isoprenoid biosynthesis in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus by using the {sup 13}C-labelling technique; Untersuchungen zur Biosynthese der Isoprenoide bei der Gruenalge Scenedesmus obliquus mittels {sup 13}C-Isotopenmarkierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwender, J.

    1995-12-31

    The biosynthesis of several prenyllipids (isoprenoid lipids) of the green alga Scendesmus obliquus was investigated. The aim was to verify, whether the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in Scenedesmus proceeds according to the classical acetate mevalonate pathway or to an alternative pathway. An alternative pathway for IPP formation has recently been detected in some eubacteria by the group of Prof. M. Rohmer. Some inhibition tests were performed with mevinolin, a specific inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase which yields mevalonic acid. Mevinolin should block the biosynthesis of such isoprenoids which are formed via the acetate mevalonate pathway. Scenedesmus was grown heterotrophically on {sup 13}C-labelled glucose or acetate. After isolation and purification of {sup 13}C-labelled phytol (side chains of chlorophylls), {beta}-carotene, lutein, plastoquinone-9 and three sterol compounds, the enrichment of {sup 13}C at different carbon-positions of the labelled compounds was determined. This was achieved by the {sup 13}C-NMR technique in cooperation with Miriam Seemann of the group of Prof. M. Rohmer in Mullhouse/France. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Biosynthese verschiedener Isoprenoide und Prenyllipide der Gruenalge Scenedesmus obliquus wurde mittels eines Hemmtests und mittels spezifischen {sup 13}C-Markierungsexperimenten und NMR-Analysen untersucht. Es wurde in Sterilkulturen geprueft, ob der neue bakterielle Biosyntheseweg des Isopentenylpyrosphosphat (IPP), der nach Rohmer et al. bei einigen Eubakterien vorhanden ist und nicht ueber den klassischen Acetal-Mevalonat-Weg verlaeuft, bei Scenedesmus vorhanden ist. Zunaechst wurde mit Mevinolin, einem spezifischer Hemmstoff der HMG-CoA-Reduktase, versucht, das Wachstum oder die Isoprenoidbiosynthese einer autotroph wachsenden Scenedesmus-Kultur zu hemmen. Ausserdem wurden Medien entwickelt, mit denen Scenedesmus auf Glucose und auf Acetat heterotroph und ohne Hefeextrakt wachsen kann, um eine moeglichst effiziente

  13. Main alkaloids of Peganum harmala L. and their different effects on dicot and monocot crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hua; Huang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yuanming; Zhang, Chi

    2013-02-27

    Alkaloids with allelopathic activity are not as well-known as other allelochemicals. Our study revealed that total alkaloids from seeds of the medicinal plant Peganum harmala L. possessed significant growth inhibitory effect on four treated plants, with dicot plants (lettuce and amaranth) being more sensitive than the tested monocot plants (wheat and ryegrass). Further investigation led to the isolation of harmaline and harmine as the main active ingredients in the total alkaloids of P. harmala seeds. Harmaline exerted potent inhibitory effects on seedling growth of treated plants, especially dicots, inhibiting root elongation of lettuce and amaranth by 31% and 47% at a very low concentration (5 µg/mL), whereas harmine exhibited much weaker non-selective inhibitory effect on the plants. Considering the high yield and poor utilization of P. harmala in China, we anticipate that this plant could be exploited as an alternative weed management tool in the future.

  14. Correlations between Antioxidant Activity and Alkaloids and Phenols of Maca (Lepidium meyenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of maca has been considered to be the basis for other bioactivities, and revealing the active antioxidant compounds would help to elucidate a variety of bioactive compounds. In this study, the correlation between the antioxidant activity of maca and secondary metabolites, including ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (HRSA, lipid peroxidation inhibition ability (LPIA, total phenolic contents (TPCs, total alkaloid contents (TACs, and total sterol contents (TSCs, was investigated by measuring. Chloroform was selected to be an efficient extraction solvent for antioxidant compounds in maca by polarity fractions test. The results showed that TPC exhibited significant linear correlations (P<0.05 to FRAP and LPIA, while TAC had significant linear correlations (P<0.05 to FRAP, HRSA, and LPIA. These results suggested that alkaloids and phenols were the most important substances for the antioxidation of maca, of which the antioxidant effect of alkaloids seemed to be higher than that of phenols.

  15. Role of Glycols and Tweens in the Production of Ergot Alkaloids by Claviceps paspali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, A.; Miller, G.

    1969-01-01

    Several glycols and Tweens markedly stimulated the production of ergot alkaloids in submerged cultures of Claviceps paspali. The role of these compounds was investigated in shake flasks and bench-scale fermentors. 2,3-Butanediol was not utilized by the fungus, and 1,2-propanediol-1-14C was not incorporated into the alkaloids. Glycols and Tweens lowered the surface tension of the basal medium and promoted the utilization of metabolites. In the presence of glycols and Tweens, an increased uptake of labeled sorbitol and succinic acid took place, whereas the specific radioactivity of the alkaloids was not affected. These results indicated that glycols and Tweens are not involved directly in the biosynthetic process; they apparently acted as surface-active agents, facilitating transport of metabolites into the cells. PMID:5776521

  16. Two new tropolonic alkaloids from Colchicum speciosum Steven bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tayyeb*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Colchicum belongs to the family Colchicaceae, which comprises of 19 genera, and 225 species worldwide. They have been recognized for more than 2000 years for their noticeable biological properties. The Colchicum species are well known for presence of tropolonic alkaloids, mainly colchicine. Colchicine, is still the drug of choice for treatment of gout, and is used for the treatment of a number of proinflammatory disorders, such as familial Mediterranean fever, and Behcet’s disease. Clinical studies have proved colchicine to posses potent anti-tumor activity. Colchicum speciosum Steven is an indigenous perennial herbaceous plant widely distributed in northern, central and western regions of Iran.  Methods: In the present study, the phytochemical composition of MeOH extract from bulbs of C. speciosum collected fromSavadkouh region, Iranwas investigated by combination of HPLC-PDA-MS spectrometry and NMR specroscopy. The fractionation of MeOH extract was carried out by partitioning on CH2Cl2, EtOAc and water. Results: The isolation and purification of CH2Cl2 portion by combination of reverse and normal phase chromatography resulted in the isolation, purification and identification of two new tropolonic alkaloids, compounds (1 and (2, as well as two known compound colchicine (3 and demecolcine (4. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D (1H NMR and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC. The absolute configurations of isolated compounds were established by aid of circular dichroism. Conclusion: Phytochemical investigation of CH2Cl2 extract of C. speciosum by combination of HPLC, column chromatography and hyphenated spectroscopic techniques led to identification two new alkaloids with potential as lead compounds.

  17. Caavuranamide, a novel steroidal alkaloid from the ripe fruits of Solanum caavurana Vell. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Nelissa Pacheco; Santos, Erica L.; Marques, Francisco A.; Maia, Beatriz H.L.N. Sales, E-mail: noronha@ufpr.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Costa, Emmanoel V. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Mikich, Sandra Bos [Laboratorio de Ecologia, Embrapa Florestas, Colombo, PR (Brazil); Braga, Raquel M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Delarmelina, Camila; Duarte, Marta C.T. [Divisao de Microbiologia, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas Biologicas e Agricolas (CPQBA), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Duarte, Marta C.T.; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Souza, Vanessa H.S.; Carvalho, Joao E. de [Divisa de Farmacologia e Toxicologia, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas Biologicas e Agricolas (CPQBA), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ripe fruits of Solanum caavurana Vell. (Solanaceae) afforded a novel steroidal alkaloid with spirosolane-type skeleton, named as caavuranamide, together with the alkaloids 4-tomatiden-3-one and 5{alpha}-tomatidan-3-one. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities for the ethanolic extract, sub-fractions obtained from partition and acid-base treatment were also evaluated. Caavuranamide showed antibacterial activity similar to the chloramphenicol positive control against Rhodococcus equi. (author)

  18. A model for evolution and regulation of nicotine biosynthesis regulon in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Sierro, Nicolas; Hashimoto, Takashi; Shoji, Tsubasa

    2017-06-03

    In tobacco, the defense alkaloid nicotine is produced in roots and accumulates mainly in leaves. Signaling mediated by jasmonates (JAs) induces the formation of nicotine via a series of structural genes that constitute a regulon and are coordinated by JA-responsive transcription factors of the ethylene response factor (ERF) family. Early steps in the pyrrolidine and pyridine biosynthesis pathways likely arose through duplication of the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthetic pathways, respectively, followed by recruitment of duplicated primary metabolic genes into the nicotine biosynthesis regulon. Transcriptional regulation of nicotine biosynthesis by ERF and cooperatively-acting MYC2 transcription factors is implied by the frequency of cognate cis-regulatory elements for these factors in the promoter regions of the downstream structural genes. Indeed, a mutant tobacco with low nicotine content was found to have a large chromosomal deletion in a cluster of closely related ERF genes at the nicotine-controlling NICOTINE2 (NIC2) locus.

  19. Determination of bitter orange alkaloids in dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials by liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Sander, Lane C

    2007-09-01

    A liquid chromatographic atmospheric-pressure ionization electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-API-ES-MS) method has been developed for the determination of five bitter orange alkaloids (synephrine, octopamine, n-methyltyramine, tyramine, and hordenine) in bitter orange-containing dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs). The materials represent a variety of natural, extracted, and processed sample matrices. Two extraction techniques were evaluated: pressurized-fluid extraction (PFE) and sonication extraction. The influence of different solvents, extraction temperatures, and pH were investigated for a plant material and a processed sample. The LC method uses a new approach for the separation of highly polar alkaloids. A fluorinated, silica-based stationary phase separated the five alkaloids and the internal standard terbutaline in less than 20 min. This method enabled the determination of the dominant alkaloid synephrine and other minor alkaloids in a variety of dietary supplement SRMs.

  20. The Spatial Organization of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nintemann, Sebastian

    between the individual classes of glucosinolates under constitutive and induced conditions and identified the source tissues of these defense compounds. Protein-protein interaction studies were carried out to investigate the subcellular organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis. We identified a family...... resistance and nutritional value and many plant specialized metabolites are of high value due to their health promoting characteristics. Glucosinolates are defense compounds found in many crops from the Brassicaceae family and are of high interest because of their nutritional and antinutritional properties...... cells is an open question. Likewise, it is not known how glucosinolate biosynthesis is orchestrated at the subcellular level. These open questions were addressed with several approaches in this project, with the aim of shedding light on the spatial organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis from...

  1. Isolation and characterization of antineoplastic alkaloids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antineoplastic alkaloids; vinblastine and vincristine, were isolated by the use of vacuum liquid chromatographic column on silica gel : aluminium oxide (1:1) mixed bed vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC), Charcoal column, and finally purified by centrifugally accelerated radial chromatography (Chromatotrone).

  2. Semisynthetic dimers of antiparkinsonic ergot alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Weignerová, Lenka; Kuzma, Marek; Jegorov, A.; Sedmera, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2001), s. 1045-1056 ISSN 0385-5414 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : ergot alkaloids * antiparkinsonic activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.970, year: 2001

  3. heterosis and heritability estimates of purine alkaloids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important allogamous tropical tree crop, whose centre of diversity is considered to be in Central America. Dry cocoa beans from five cocoa clones, and their intercrossed hybrids were analysed based on the variation of alkaloids and polyphenolic compounds contents, in order to gain ...

  4. New indole alkaloid from Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Allana Kellen L; Machado, Luciana L; Bizerra, Ayla Marcia C; Monte, Francisco José Q; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Lemos, Telma L G

    2012-06-01

    A new indole alkaloid of the pyridocarbazole type, named 6N-hydroxy-olivacine, and two known compounds, 2N-oxide-olivacine and olivacine, were isolated from roots of Peschiera affinis. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic {IR and extensive NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBCand NOESY)} and EIMS analysis.

  5. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehyro-pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants compose about 5% of the world’s flowering plants and they commonly poison livestock, wildlife and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of PA toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions and routes of exposure, toxin metab...

  6. Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting Alkaloids from Zephyranthes concolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Arseneau

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The bulbs and aerial parts of Zephyranthes concolor (Lindl. Benth. & Hook. f. (Amaryllidaceae, an endemic species to Mexico, were found to contain the alkaloids chlidanthine, galanthamine, galanthamine N-oxide, lycorine, galwesine, and epinorgalanthamine. Since currently only partial and low resolution 1H-NMR data for chlidanthine acetate are available, and none for chlidanthine, its 1D and 2D high resolution 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded. Unambiguous assignations were achieved with HMBC, and HSQC experiments, and its structure was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. Minimum energy conformation for structures of chlidanthine, and its positional isomer galanthamine, were calculated by molecular modelling. Galanthamine is a well known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; therefore, the isolated alkaloids were tested for this activity. Chlidanthine and galanthamine N-oxide inhibited electric eel acetylcholinesterase (2.4 and 2.6 × 10−5 M, respectively, indicating they are about five times less potent than galanthamine, while galwesine was inactive at 10−3 M. Inhibitory activity of HIV-1 replication, and cytotoxicity of the isolated alkaloids were evaluated in human MT-4 cells; however, the alkaloids showed poor activity as compared with standard anti-HIV drugs, but most of them were not cytotoxic.

  7. Amides and an alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Tetsuo; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2012-08-01

    A total of 16 phenolic compounds, including one new and five known N-cinnamoyl phenylethylamides, one new pyrrole alkaloid named portulacaldehyde, five phenylpropanoid acids and amides, and derivatives of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, were isolated and identified from a polar fraction of an extract of Portulaca oleracea. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic analyses.

  8. antimicrobial diterpenoid alkaloids from erythrophleum suaveolens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 13C NMR spectral data. The compounds showed potent antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts. KEY WORDS: Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan, Norcassaide, Diterpenoid alkaloid, Norerythrosuaveolide, Antimicrobial activities, Bacteria, Yeasts Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2005, 19(2), 221-226.

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  10. Unedoside derivatives in Nuxia and their biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Ravnkilde, Lene; Schripsema, Jan

    1998-01-01

    isolated, while from N. oppositifolia 2 "-acetyl-3 "-benzoyl-nuxioside was obtained. Both plants contained verbascoside. The biosynthesis of unedoside in N. floribunda was investigated and deoxyloganic acid was found to be a precursor, similar to wh;lt was found for the eight-carbon iridoids in Thunbergia...

  11. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  12. In silico Assessment of Drug-like Properties of Alkaloids from Areca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in silico the drug-like properties of alkaloids (arecoline, arecaidine, guvacine, guvacoline, isoguvacine, arecolidine and homoarecoline) obtained from the fruits of Areca catechu L (areca nut). Methods: All chemical structures were re-drawn using Chemdraw Ultra 11.0. Furthermore, software including ...

  13. effects of crude alkaloid extract of garcinia kola seed on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    including diarrhea and menstrual cramps (Dalziel,. 1937). Preliminary investigation of the action of alkaloid fractions of the Garcinia kola seeds indicated marked dose dependent reversible spasmolytic and antispasmogenic effects on smooth muscle activity (Braide, 1989). Orie and. Ekon (1993) showed that ingestion of the ...

  14. Anti-nociceptive effect of total alkaloids isolated from the seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antinociceptive effect of the total alkaloids (TA) isolated from the seeds of. Areca catechu L. (SAC) and to elucidate the probable mechanism of action. Methods: TA extraction conditions including concentration of ethanol, extraction temperature, liquid– solid ratio and designed pH were optimized ...

  15. Root damage and aboveground herbivory change concentration and composition of pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio jacobaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Macel, M.; Van Veen, J.A.; van der Meijden, E.

    2004-01-01

    Thus far not many studies focussed on how herbivory in one plant part affects plant defence in the other. The effects of root damage and a leaf-feeding herbivore (Mamestra brassicae) on pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) levels of Senecio jacobaea were investigated in a controlled environment. Three cloned

  16. Two New Alkaloids from a Marine-derived Fungus Neosartorya fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the fungus Neosartorya fischeri led to the isolation of two novel alkaloids and one known compound with antitumor activity against HL-60 cell lines. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data.

  17. Fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids during processing of milk of cows treated with ragwort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de Monique; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Klijnstra, Mirjam D.; Driehuis, Frank; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) during milk processing, milk of cows treated via rumen fistula with a mixture of 84% (w/w) ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris, syn. Senecio jacobaea) and 16% narrow-leaved ragwort (Senecio inaequidens) was processed using laboratory scale heating

  18. Occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal- and plant-derived food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Castelari, Massimo; Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plant families such as Asteraceae or Boraginaceae and are suspected to be genotoxic carcinogens. Recent investigations revealed their frequent occurrence in honey and particularly in tea. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the PA

  19. C18-COOH Silica: Preparation, Characterisation and Its Application in Purification of Quaternary Ammonium Alkaloids from Coptis chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Long, Yao; Yao, Lin; Ye, Mao; Xu, Li

    2017-07-01

    Traditional methods for isolating and purifying quaternary ammonium alkaloids from Coptis chinensis do not discriminate the target alkaloids from co-extractives. Mixed-mode analytical chromatography has the potential to improve the separation of analytes in more complex extracts and, when used in a solid-phase extraction mode, improve the purity of isolated compounds. To examine the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation capabilities of a mixed-mode, silica-based adsorbent and its application to the purification of quaternary ammonium alkaloids from Coptis chinensis based on solid-phase extraction. The C18-COOH silica was prepared via "thiol-ene" click chemistry. Its chromatographic performance was firstly investigated. It was employed as the solid-phase extraction sorbent to purify quaternary ammonium alkaloids. Hydrophobic, attractive/repulsive electrostatic and ion-exchange interactions were demonstrated to be the possible retention mechanisms of a C18-COOH silica stationary phase, which could separate analytes of various properties. In addition, to purify quaternary ammonium alkaloids from Coptis chinensis, the solid-phase extraction approach based on the C18-COOH silica provided a slightly higher purification efficiency (6.7%) than an alkaloid-salt precipitation protocol (5.3%). The method had satisfactory reproducibility, re-using the same solid-phase extraction column three times, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1.99% to 8.02% for the six target alkaloids. A multi-functionalised silica was synthesised via "click chemistry". As the high-performance liquid chromatographic stationary phase, the C18-COOH silica could be operated in trimodal reversed-phase/weak cation exchange/hydrophilic interaction mode. The C18-COOH silica also exhibited potential as solid-phase extraction sorbent in the purification of quaternary ammonium alkaloids from complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts as a diagnostic and prognostic index in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Ruan, Jianqing Q; Chen, Jie; Li, Na; Ke, Changqiang Q; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge; Wang, Jiyao Y

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is mainly based on clinical investigation. There is currently no prognostic index. This study evaluated the quantitative measurement of blood pyrrole-protein adducts (PPAs) as a diagnostic and prognostic index for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced HSOS. Suspected drug-induced liver injury patients were prospectively recruited. Blood PPAs were quantitatively measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients' age, sex, biochemistry test results, and a detailed drug history were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups, ie, those with HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing drugs and those with liver injury induced by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The relationship between herb administration, clinical outcomes, blood sampling time, and blood PPA concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS patients was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. Forty patients met the entry criteria, among whom 23 had pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS and 17 had liver injury caused by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Among the 23 patients with pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS, ten recovered, four developed chronic disease, eight died, and one underwent liver transplantation within 6 months after onset. Blood PPAs were detectable in 24 of 40 patients with concentrations from 0.05 to 74.4 nM. Sensitivity and specificity of the test for diagnosis of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS were 100% (23/23) and 94.1% (23/24), respectively. The positive predictive value was 95.8% and the negative predictive value was 100%, whereas the positive likelihood ratio was 23.81. The level of blood PPAs in the severe group (died or received liver transplantation) was significantly higher than that in the recovery/chronicity group (P=0.004). Blood PPAs measured by ultra-performance liquid

  1. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using 13 C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the 13 C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of [1,2- 13 C 2 ]-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus

  2. Chemometric approach for development, optimization, and validation of different chromatographic methods for separation of opium alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevska, J; Stefkov, G; Petkovska, R; Kulevanova, S; Dimitrovska, A

    2012-05-01

    The excessive and continuously growing interest in the simultaneous determination of poppy alkaloids imposes the development and optimization of convenient high-throughput methods for the assessment of the qualitative and quantitative profile of alkaloids in poppy straw. Systematic optimization of two chromatographic methods (gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detector (FID)/mass spectrometry (MS) and reversed-phase (RP)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD)) for the separation of alkaloids from Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae) was carried out. The effects of various conditions on the predefined chromatographic descriptors were investigated using chemometrics. A full factorial linear design of experiments for determining the relationship between chromatographic conditions and the retention behavior of the analytes was used. Central composite circumscribed design was utilized for the final method optimization. By conducting the optimization of the methods in very rational manner, a great deal of excessive and unproductive laboratory research work was avoided. The developed chromatographic methods were validated and compared in line with the resolving power, sensitivity, accuracy, speed, cost, ecological aspects, and compatibility with the poppy straw extraction procedure. The separation of the opium alkaloids using the GC/FID/MS method was achieved within 10 min, avoiding any derivatization step. This method has a stronger resolving power, shorter analysis time, better cost/effectiveness factor than the RP-HPLC/DAD method and is in line with the "green trend" of the analysis. The RP-HPLC/DAD method on the other hand displayed better sensitivity for all tested alkaloids. The proposed methods provide both fast screening and an accurate content assessment of the six alkaloids in the poppy samples obtained from the selection program of Papaver strains.

  3. Gas-phase dissociation study of erythrinian alkaloids by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaratini, T; Feitosa, L G P; Silva, D B; Lopes, N P; Lopes, J L C; Vessecchi, R

    2017-09-01

    Alkaloids from plants of the genus Erythrina display important biological activities, including anxiolytic action. Characterization of these alkaloids by mass spectrometry (MS) has contributed to the construction of a spectral library, has improved understanding of their structures and has supported the proposal of fragmentation mechanisms in light of density functional calculations. In this study, we have used low-resolution and high-resolution MS n analyses to investigate the fragmentation patterns of erythrinian alkaloids; we have employed the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) model to obtain their reactive sites. To suggest the fragmentation mechanism of these alkaloids, we have studied their protonation sites by density functional calculation, and we have obtained their molecular electrostatic potential map and their gas-phase basicity values. These analyses have indicated the most basic sites on the basis of the proton affinities of the nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The protonated molecules were generated by two major fragmentations, namely, neutral loss of CH 3 OH followed by elimination of H 2 O. High-resolution analysis confirmed elimination of NH 3 by comparison with the losses of H 2 and •CH 3 . NH 3 was eliminated from compounds that did not bear a substituent on ring C. The benzylic carbocation initiated the dissociation mechanism, and the first reaction involved charge transfer from a lone pair of electrons in the oxygen atoms. The second reaction consisted of ring contraction with loss of a CO molecule. The presence of hydroxy and epoxy groups could change the intensity or the occurrence of the fragmentation pathways. Given that erythrinian alkaloids are applied in therapeutics and are promising leads for the development of new drugs, the present results could aid identification of several analogues of these alkaloids in biological samples and advance pharmacokinetic studies of new plant derivatives based on MS n and MS/MS analyses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  4. Promoting scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic Atropa belladonna plants with pmt and h6h overexpression under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qiaozhuo; Qiang, Wei; Guo, Jianjun; Lan, Xiaozhong; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhihua

    2016-09-01

    Atropa belladonna is one of the most important plant sources for producing pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids (TAs). T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, in which putrescine N-methyltransferase (EC. 2.1.1.53) from Nicotiana tabacum (NtPMT) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (EC. 1.14.11.14) from Hyoscyamus niger (HnH6H) were overexpressed, were established to investigate TA biosynthesis and distribution in ripe fruits, leaves, stems, primary roots and secondary roots under field conditions. Both NtPMT and HnH6H were detected at the transcriptional level in transgenic plants, whereas they were not detected in wild-type plants. The transgenes did not influence the root-specific expression patterns of endogenous TA biosynthetic genes in A. belladonna. All four endogenous TA biosynthetic genes (AbPMT, AbTRI, AbCYP80F1 and AbH6H) had the highest/exclusive expression levels in secondary roots, suggesting that TAs were mainly synthesized in secondary roots. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna showed an impressive scopolamine-rich chemotype that greatly improved the pharmaceutical value of A. belladonna. The higher efficiency of hyoscyamine conversion was found in aerial than in underground parts. In aerial parts of transgenic plants, hyoscyamine was totally converted to downstream alkaloids, especially scopolamine. Hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine were detected in underground parts, but scopolamine and anisodamine were more abundant than hyoscyamine. The exclusively higher levels of anisodamine in roots suggested that it might be difficult for its translocation from root to aerial organs. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, which produces scopolamine at very high levels (2.94-5.13 mg g(-1)) in field conditions, can provide more valuable plant materials for scopolamine production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I 50 concentration of 3.2 μM. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I 50 of 4 μM. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4- 3 H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and 14 C-mevalonic acid. From the 3 H/ 14 C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs

  6. Investigating sesquiterpene biosynthesis in Ginkgo biloba: molecular cloning and functional characterization of (E,E)-farnesol and a-bisabolene synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and has been extensively investigated as a source of bioactive natural compounds, including flavonoids, diterpene lactones, terpenoids and polysaccharides which accumulate in leaf tissues. Relatively few genes associated with biosynthetic pathwa...

  7. Crotalaria medicaginea associated with horse deaths in northern Australia: new pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Mary T; Hayes, Patricia Y; Somerville, Michael J; De Voss, James J

    2011-11-09

    Crotalaria medicaginea has been implicated in horse poisoning in grazing regions of central-west Queensland, which resulted in the deaths of more than 35 horses from hepatotoxicosis in 2010. Liver pathology was suggestive of pyrrolizidine alkaloidosis, and we report here the isolation of two previously uncharacterized pyrrolizidine alkaloids from C. medicaginea plant specimens collected from pastures where the horses died. The first alkaloid was shown by mass spectometric and NMR analyses to be 1β,2β-epoxy-7β-hydroxy-1α-methoxymethyl-8α-pyrrolizidine, which, like other alkaloids previously isolated from C. medicaginea, lacks the requisite functionality for hepatotoxcity. The second alkaloid isolated in this investigation was a new macrocyclic diester of otonecine, which we have named cromedine. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of cromedine were fully assigned by 2D NMR techniques and allowed the constitution of the macrocyclic diester to be assigned unambiguously. C. medicaginea specimens implicated in this investigation do not belong to any of the three recognized Australian varieties (C. medicaginea var. neglecta, C. medicaginea var. medicaginea, and C. medicaginea var. linearis) and appear to be a local variant or form, referred to here as C. medicaginea (chemotype cromedine).

  8. Cytotoxic Alkaloids from the Stem of Xylopia laevigata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leociley R. A. Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xylopia laevigata (Annonaceae, known locally as “meiú” or “pindaíba”, is widely used in folk medicine in Northeastern Brazil. In the present work, we performed phytochemical analyses of the stem of X. laevigata, which led to the isolation of 19 alkaloids: (−-roemerine, (+-anonaine, lanuginosine, (+-glaucine, (+-xylopine, oxoglaucine, (+-norglaucine, asimilobine, (−-xylopinine, (+-norpurpureine, (+-N-methyllaurotetanine, (+-norpredicentrine, (+-discretine, (+-calycinine, (+-laurotetanine, (+-reticuline, (−-corytenchine, (+-discretamine and (+-flavinantine. The in vitro cytotoxic activity toward the tumor cell lines B16-F10 (mouse melanoma, HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma, K562 (human chronic myelocytic leukemia and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia and non-tumor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was tested using the Alamar Blue assay. Lanuginosine, (+-xylopine and (+-norglaucine had the highest cytotoxic activity. Additionally, the pro-apoptotic effects of lanuginosine and (+-xylopine were investigated in HepG2 cells using light and fluorescence microscopies and flow cytometry-based assays. Cell morphology consistent with apoptosis and a marked phosphatidylserine externalization were observed in lanuginosine- and (+-xylopine-treated cells, suggesting induction of apoptotic cell death. In addition, (+-xylopine treatment caused G2/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. These data suggest that X. laevigata is a potential source for cytotoxic alkaloids.

  9. The effects of comfrey derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids on rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, M L; Clark, S P; Waring, J M; Wilson, R D; Wakefield, S J

    1991-01-01

    Three groups of young adult rats were fed pyrrolizidine alkaloids derived from Russian comfrey to study the effects of the herb on the liver. Group I animals received a single dose of 200 mg/kg body wt, Group II 100 mg/kg three times a week for 3 weeks and Group III 50 mg/kg three times a week for 3 weeks. All rats showed light and electron-microscopic evidence of liver damage, the severity of which was dose dependent. There was swelling of hepatocytes and hemorrhagic necrosis of perivenular cells. There was a concomitant loss of sinusoidal lining cells with disruption of sinusoidal wall and the sinusoids were filled with cellular debris, hepatocyte organelles and red blood cells. Extravasation of red blood cells was evident. Terminal hepatic venules were narrowed by intimal proliferation, and in Group II and III, reiculin fibres radiated from these vessels. These appearances have been described in veno-occlusive disease due to pyrrolizidine alkaloids from other plant sources such as Senecio and Crotalaria. The safety of comfrey, a widely used herb, in relation to human consumption requires further investigation.

  10. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Diaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  11. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  12. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jian Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made.

  13. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-12-11

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  14. Total synthesis of the Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphenylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaoyong; Li, Yong; Deng, Jun; Li, Ang

    2013-08-01

    The Daphniphyllum alkaloids are a large class of natural products isolated from a genus of evergreen plants widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. They display a remarkable range of biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and vasorelaxation properties as well as elevation of nerve growth factor. Daphenylline is a structurally unique member among the predominately aliphatic Daphniphyllum alkaloids, and contains a tetrasubstituted arene moiety mounted on a sterically compact hexacyclic scaffold. Herein, we describe the first total synthesis of daphenylline. A gold-catalysed 6-exo-dig cyclization reaction and a subsequent intramolecular Michael addition reaction, inspired by Dixon's seminal work, were exploited to construct the bridged 6,6,5-tricyclic motif of the natural product at an early stage, and the aromatic moiety was forged through a photoinduced olefin isomerization/6π-electrocyclization cascade followed by an oxidative aromatization process.

  15. Modulation of P-glycoprotein by Stemona alkaloids in human multidrug resistance leukemic cells and structural relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umsumarng, Sonthaya; Pitchakarn, Pornsiri; Yodkeeree, Supachai; Punfa, Wanisa; Mapoung, Sariya; Ramli, Rosdayati Alino; Pyne, Stephen G; Limtrakul, Pornngarm

    2017-10-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major reason for the failure of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer patients. P-gp over-expression in MDR cancer cells is a multifactorial phenomenon with biochemical resistance mechanisms. Stemofoline (STF), isolated from Stemona bukillii, has been reported to be an MDR reversing compound. This study investigated whether other Stemona alkaloids that had been purified from Stemonaceae plants exerted MDR modulation activity. MTT assay was performed to determine the MDR reversing property of the alkaloids. Modulation of P-gp function by these compounds was investigated using cell cycle analysis and P-gp fluorescent substrate accumulation assays. P-gp expression was determined by Western blot analysis. We preliminarily examined the safety of these compounds in normal human fibroblasts and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the MTT assay, and in red blood cells (human and rat) through in vitro hemolysis assays. Three of the eight alkaloids tested, isostemofoline (ISTF), 11Z -didehydrostemofoline (11Z-DSTF) and 11E-didehydrostemofoline (11E-DSTF), enhanced the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of MDR leukemic K562/Adr cells, which overexpressed P-gp. The P-gp functional studies showed that these three alkaloids increased the accumulation of P-gp substrates, calcein-AM (C-AM) and rhodamine123 (Rho 123) in K562/Adr cells, while this effect was not seen in drug sensitive parental K562 cells. Whereas, the alkaloids did not alter P-gp expression as was determined by Western blotting analysis. The alkaloids reversed MDR via the inhibition of P-gp function. For pharmaceutical safety testing, the alkaloids were found to be not toxic to normal human fibroblasts and PBMCs. Moreover, the effective compounds did not induce hemolysis in either human or rat erythrocytes. These compounds may be introduced as potential candidate molecules for treating cancers exhibiting P-gp-mediated MDR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  16. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Onosmakaheirei Teppner (Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Maria Orfanou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The new pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA 3΄-O-acetylechinatine N-oxide (7, along with two more known PAs (5, 6, two known flavonoids (3, 4, one known alkannin (1, two known triterpenoids, one known sterol, and allantoin (2 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onosma kaheirei. In addition, the retention indeces of the reduced PAs 6 and 7 were determined in a DB-5 WCOT column, to aid their detection by GC/MS in the future.

  17. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and diterpenes from Villasenoria orcuttii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L.; González, Karina; Vivar, Alfonso Romo de; Reyes-Lezama, Marisol; Villaseñor, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The chemical study of Villasenoria orcuttii, the only species of the genus Villasenoria, afforded three acyclic diterpenes, two of them described for the first time. Two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, florosenine and floridanine, among other known compounds were also isolated. The absolute configuration of floridanine was determined by X-ray analysis using anomalous dispersion with Cu K α radiation, and its 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were corrected. (author)

  18. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and diterpenes from Villasenoria orcuttii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Perez-Castorena, Ana L.; Gonzalez, Karina; Vivar, Alfonso Romo de, E-mail: alperezc@unam.mx [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Reyes-Lezama, Marisol [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Villasenor, Jose Luis [Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, DF, (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    The chemical study of Villasenoria orcuttii, the only species of the genus Villasenoria, afforded three acyclic diterpenes, two of them described for the first time. Two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, florosenine and floridanine, among other known compounds were also isolated. The absolute configuration of floridanine was determined by X-ray analysis using anomalous dispersion with Cu K{sub {alpha}} radiation, and its {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were corrected. (author)

  19. Aporphine alkaloids in Ocotea species (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby; Lordello, Ana Luisa Lacava

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades several aporphinoid alkaloids of the Ocotea species have been isolated. This review describes the occurrence of the fifty four aporphinoids in seventeen different species of Ocotea: thirty nine (39) aporphine sensu stricto, four (4) oxoaporphine, five (5) 6a,7-dehydroaporphine, one (1) didehydroaporphine, one (1) C-3-O-aporphine, one (1) C-4-O-aporphine, two (2) phenanthrene, one (1) proaporphine and their 13 C NMR spectral data. (author)

  20. Synthesis studies on the Melodinus alkaloid meloscine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ken S; Antoline, Joshua F

    2013-02-04

    The pentacyclic Melodinus alkaloid (±)-meloscine was synthesized in 19 chemical steps from 2-bromobenzaldehyde through a route featuring an allenyl azide cyclization cascade to deliver the core azabicyclo[3.3.0]octane substructure. Peripheral functionalization of this core included a Tollens-type aldol condensation to set the quaternary center at C(20) and a diastereoselective ring closing metathesis to forge the tetrahydropyridine ring.

  1. Swainsonine Biosynthesis Genes in Diverse Symbiotic and Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cook

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine—a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug—is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glory symbiont belonging to order Chaetothyriales. Genome sequence analyses revealed that these fungi share orthologous gene clusters, designated “SWN,” which included a multifunctional swnK gene comprising predicted adenylylation and acyltransferase domains with their associated thiolation domains, a β-ketoacyl synthase domain, and two reductase domains. The role of swnK was demonstrated by inactivating it in M. robertsii through homologous gene replacement to give a ∆swnK mutant that produced no detectable swainsonine, then complementing the mutant with the wild-type gene to restore swainsonine biosynthesis. Other SWN cluster genes were predicted to encode two putative hydroxylases and two reductases, as expected to complete biosynthesis of swainsonine from the predicted SwnK product. SWN gene clusters were identified in six out of seven sequenced genomes of Metarhzium species, and in all 15 sequenced genomes of Arthrodermataceae, a family of fungi that cause athlete’s foot and ringworm diseases in humans and other mammals. Representative isolates of all of these species were cultured, and all Metarhizium spp. with SWN clusters, as well as all but one of the Arthrodermataceae, produced swainsonine. These results suggest a new biosynthetic hypothesis for this alkaloid, extending the known taxonomic breadth of swainsonine producers to at least four orders of Ascomycota, and suggest that swainsonine has roles in mutualistic symbioses and diseases of plants and animals.

  2. Alkaloids of family Amaryllidaceae and their analogues as potential drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kavková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology Candidate: Zuzana Kavková Supervisor: doc. Ing. Lucie Cahlíková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Alkaloids of family Amaryllidaceae and their analogues as potential drugs The object of this diploma thesis was to prepare derivatives of alkaloids of Amaryllidaceae family and to deal with their biological activity. These alkaloids are famous for their antibacterial, antiinfectives, a...

  3. Drug development against tuberculosis: Impact of alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shardendu K; Tripathi, Garima; Kishore, Navneet; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Archana; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2017-09-08

    Despite of the advances made in the treatment and management, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of main public health problem. The contrary effects of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs have generated extended research interest in natural products in the hope of devising new antitubercular leads. Interestingly, plethoras of natural products have been discovered to exhibit activity towards various resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Extensive applications of alkaloids in the field of therapeutics is well-established and nowday's researches being pursued to develop new potent drugs from natural sources for tuberculosis. Alkaloids are categorized in quite a few groups according to their structures and isolation from both terrestrial and marine sources. These new drugs might be a watershed in the battle against tuberculosis. This review summarizes alkaloids, which were found active against Mycobacteria since last ten years with special attention on the study of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and mode of action with their impact in drug discovery and development against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Histrionicotoxin alkaloids finally detected in an ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Tappey H.; Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Spande, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Workers of the ant Carebarella bicolor collected in Panama were found to have two major poison-frog alkaloids, cis- and trans-fused decahydroquinolines (DHQs) of the 269AB type, four minor 269AB isomers, two minor 269B isomers, and three isomers of DHQ 271D. For the first time in an ant, however......) sp., were found to have a very similar DHQ complex but failed to show HTXs. Several new DHQ alkaloids of MW 271 (named in the frog as 271G) are reported from the above ants that have both m/z 202 and 204 as major fragment ions, unlike the spectrum seen for the poison-frog alkaloid 271D, which has...... only an m/z 204 base peak. Found also for the first time in skin extracts from the comparison frog Oophaga granulifera of Costa Rica is a trace DHQ of MW 273. It is coded as 273F in the frog; a different isomer is found in the ant....

  5. Ergot Alkaloids (Regenerate New Leads as Antiparasitics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Chan

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is a key therapy for treatment of parasitic flatworm infections of humans and livestock, but the mechanism of action of this drug is unresolved. Resolving PZQ-engaged targets and effectors is important for identifying new druggable pathways that may yield novel antiparasitic agents. Here we use functional, genetic and pharmacological approaches to reveal that serotonergic signals antagonize PZQ action in vivo. Exogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT rescued PZQ-evoked polarity and mobility defects in free-living planarian flatworms. In contrast, knockdown of a prevalently expressed planarian 5-HT receptor potentiated or phenocopied PZQ action in different functional assays. Subsequent screening of serotonergic ligands revealed that several ergot alkaloids possessed broad efficacy at modulating regenerative outcomes and the mobility of both free living and parasitic flatworms. Ergot alkaloids that phenocopied PZQ in regenerative assays to cause bipolar regeneration exhibited structural modifications consistent with serotonergic blockade. These data suggest that serotonergic activation blocks PZQ action in vivo, while serotonergic antagonists phenocopy PZQ action. Importantly these studies identify the ergot alkaloid scaffold as a promising structural framework for designing potent agents targeting parasitic bioaminergic G protein coupled receptors.

  6. Regulatory variability of camalexin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhegger, Regina; Rauhut, Thomas; Glawischnig, Erich

    2007-05-01

    The anthranilate synthase ASA1, CYP79B2 and CYP71B15 (PAD3) are biosynthetic genes of the Arabidopsis phytoalexin camalexin, which are induced after pathogen infection and abiotic treatments like silver nitrate spraying. The natural variation of camalexin biosynthesis in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection was determined in several ecotypes, and differential CYP71B15 regulation as a potential basis for this variation was investigated. The expression of camalexin biosynthetic genes was restricted to the tissue undergoing cell death. After droplet infection with Alternaria alternata, a potent camalexin inducer in the Col-0 ecotype, camalexin formation and the induction of ASA1, CYP79B2 and CYP71B15 were strictly co-localized with the infection site.

  7. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids--genotoxicity, metabolism enzymes, metabolic activation, and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Lin, Ge; Chou, Ming W

    2004-02-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widely distributed in the world and are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Because of their abundance and potent toxicities, the mechanisms by which pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce genotoxicities, particularly carcinogenicity, were extensively studied for several decades but not exclusively elucidated until recently. To date, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced genotoxicities were revealed to be elicited by the hepatic metabolism of these naturally occurring toxins. In this review, we present updated information on the metabolism, metabolizing enzymes, and the mechanisms by which pyrrolizidine alkaloids exert genotoxicity and tumorigenicity.

  8. Effects of combination treatment of 60Co γ-rays irradiation and no on alkaloid production and plbs growth of hybrid dendrobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Qing; Cai Yongping; Lin Yi; Lu Ruihong

    2010-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation, SNP (sodium nitroprusside, used as the donor) alone and their combination treatments on the alkaloids production and protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) growth were investigated in suspension cultures of Hybrid dendrobium. The results showed that either 60 Co γ-rays or SNP, and their combined treatments could enhance the accumulation of alkaloids, but restricted the PLBs growth, especially the combined treatments had the accumulative effect on the alkaloids production. The alkaloids content achieved 0.0676% with the optimum combined treatment of 0.1 mmol/L sodium nitroprusside and 10 Gy 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. The alkaloids production of unit medium was 6.35-fold higher than that in untreated PLBs cultures and was significantly different from the treatment of 60 Co γ-rays or SNP at P < 0.01 level. Both Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methl ester hydrochloride and carboxy 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide inhibitors could inhibit the accumulation of alkaloids. With the combined treatment, the activities of POD, SOD and CAT were changed, which perhaps mediated the alkaloids production and PLBs growth. (authors)

  9. Influence of tryptophan and related compounds on ergot alkaloid formation in Claviceps purpurea (FR.) Tul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erge, D; Schumann, B; Gröger, D

    1984-01-01

    L-Tryptophan did not exert any influence on peptide alkaloid formation in an ergotamine and in an ergosine-accumulating C. purpurea strain. A different picture was observed in a series of related C. purpurea strains. Tryptophan showed a slight stimulatory effect on the ergotoxine producer Pepty 695/S. A blocked mutant of it, designated as Pepty 695/ch which was able to accumulate secoclavines gave similar results. In a high-yielding elymoclavine strain Pepty 695/e, the progeny of the former one, tryptophan up to a concentration of 25 mM stimulated remarkably clavine biosynthesis. Furthermore, tryptophan could overcome the block of synthesis by inorganic phosphate. Increased specific activities of chanoclavine cyclase but not DMAT synthetase were observed in cultures of strain Pepty 695/e supplemented with tryptophan. 5-Methyltryptophan and bioisosteres of tryptophan were ineffective in alkaloid stimulation. These results are compared with those obtained with the grass ergot strain SD 58 and discussed with the relation to other induction phenomena.

  10. Extraction Optimization of Tinospora cordifolia and Assessment of the Anticancer Activity of Its Alkaloid Palmatine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To optimize the conditions for the extraction of alkaloid palmatine from Tinospora cordifolia by using response surface methodology (RSM and study its anticancerous property against 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Methods. The effect of three independent variables, namely, extraction temperature, time, and cycles was investigated by using central composite design. A single topical application of DMBA (100 μg/100 μL of acetone, followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week for 16 weeks, exhibited 100 percent tumor incidence (Group 2. Results. The highest yield of alkaloid from Tinospora cordifolia could be achieved at 16 hours of extraction time under 40°C with 4 extraction cycles. Alkaloid administration significantly decreases tumor size, number, and the activity of serum enzyme when compared with the control (Group 2. In addition, depleted levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase and increased DNA damage were restored in palmatine treated groups. Conclusion. The data of the present study clearly indicate the anticancer potential of palmatine alkaloid in DMBA induced skin cancer model in mice.

  11. [Study on the extraction of the total alkaloids from Caulopyhllum robustum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-ping; Yang, Guang-de; He, Lang-chong

    2007-02-01

    To study the technological parameters of the extraction process of the total alkaloids from Caulopyhllum robstum. Taspine, whiVh is main component of the total alkaloids from Caulopyhllum robustum, was selected as an evaluating marker and determined by HPLC. The orthogonal test was used to optimize extracting conditions in the process of acid water extraction. Then the optimized conditions for purification using cation exchange resin were investigated. The optimized conditions in the process of acid water extraction were 1% hydrochloric acid as much as seven times of the medicine amount for 24hs and three times. Then the extraction of acid water was purified with a column of macroporous cation exchange resin LSD001 at 2 ml/min of flow rate, then eluted with 10BV of 4% aqueous ammonia ethanol. The extraction ratio of the total alkaloids was 1. 35% and the content of taspine of the total alkaloids was 6. 80%. This technology is simply, cheap effective and feasible for manufacture in great scale.

  12. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea: extension of the cluster sequence and intra species evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Thomas; Machado, Caroline; Lübbe, Yvonne; Correia, Telmo; Schardl, Christopher L; Panaccione, Daniel G; Tudzynski, Paul

    2005-06-01

    The genomic region of Claviceps purpurea strain P1 containing the ergot alkaloid gene cluster [Tudzynski, P., Hölter, K., Correia, T., Arntz, C., Grammel, N., Keller, U., 1999. Evidence for an ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea. Mol. Gen. Genet. 261, 133-141] was explored by chromosome walking, and additional genes probably involved in the ergot alkaloid biosynthesis have been identified. The putative cluster sequence (extending over 68.5kb) contains 4 different nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and several putative oxidases. Northern analysis showed that most of the genes were co-regulated (repressed by high phosphate), and identified probable flanking genes by lack of co-regulation. Comparison of the cluster sequences of strain P1, an ergotamine producer, with that of strain ECC93, an ergocristine producer, showed high conservation of most of the cluster genes, but significant variation in the NRPS modules, strongly suggesting that evolution of these chemical races of C. purpurea is determined by evolution of NRPS module specificity.

  13. [Optimization of oxytetracycline biosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, E A; Falkov, N N; Izmaĭlov, N N; Romanchuk, N N

    1988-06-01

    It was shown that rising of temperature up to 30 degrees C at the stage of the oxytetracycline-producing organism growth promoted acceleration of the culture growth rate and increasing of the antibiotic concentration by the 114th hour of the biosynthetic process. For the apparatus used in the study optimal aeration and agitation conditions were developed. To provide optimal parameters during biosynthesis of oxytetracycline, it was recommended to use the aeration rate of 1 v/v.min and the specific mechanical power for mixing of not less than 1 kW/m3.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of β-Carboline and Quinoline Alkaloids Derivatives from the Plants of Genus Peganum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that the main chemical constituents in plants of genus Peganum were a serial of β-carboline and quinoline alkaloids. These alkaloids were quantitatively assessed for selective inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE by in vitro Ellman method. The results indicated that harmane was the most potent selective AChE inhibitor with an IC50 of 7.11 ± 2.00 μM and AChE selectivity index (SI, IC50 of BChE/IC50 of AChE of 10.82. Vasicine was the most potent BChE inhibitor with feature of dual AChE/BChE inhibitory activity, with an IC50 versus AChE/BChE of 13.68 ± 1.25/2.60 ± 1.47 μM and AChE SI of 0.19. By analyzing and comparing the IC50 and SI of those chemicals, it was indicated that the β-carboline alkaloids displayed more potent AChE inhibition but less BChE inhibition than quinoline alkaloids. The substituent at the C7 position of the β-carboline alkaloids and C3 and C9 positions of quinoline alkaloids played a critical role in AChE or BChE inhibition. The potent inhibition suggested that those alkaloids may be used as candidates for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationship of those compounds investigated might provide guidance for the design and synthesis of AChE and BChE inhibitors.

  15. (+)-Germacrene A Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kraker, Jan-Willem; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; de Groot, Aede; König, Wilfried A.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    1998-01-01

    The leaves and especially the roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) contain high concentrations of bitter sesquiterpene lactones such as the guianolides lactupicrin, lactucin, and 8-deoxylactucin. Eudesmanolides and germacranolides are present in smaller amounts. Their postulated biosynthesis through the mevalonate-farnesyl diphosphate-germacradiene pathway has now been confirmed by the isolation of a (+)-germacrene A synthase from chicory roots. This sesquiterpene cyclase was purified 200-fold using a combination of anion-exchange and dye-ligand chromatography. It has a Km value of 6.6 μm, an estimated molecular mass of 54 kD, and a (broad) pH optimum around 6.7. Germacrene A, the enzymatic product, proved to be much more stable than reported in literature. Its heat-induced Cope rearrangement into (−)-β-elemene was utilized to determine its absolute configuration on an enantioselective gas chromatography column. To our knowledge, until now in sesquiterpene biosynthesis, germacrene A has only been reported as an (postulated) enzyme-bound intermediate, which, instead of being released, is subjected to additional cyclization(s) by the same enzyme that generated it from farnesyl diphosphate. However, in chicory germacrene A is released from the sesquiterpene cyclase. Apparently, subsequent oxidations and/or glucosylation of the germacrane skeleton, together with a germacrene cyclase, determine whether guaiane- or eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones are produced. PMID:9701594

  16. Biosynthesis of Antinutritional Alkaloids in Solanaceous Crops Is Mediated by Clustered Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itkin, M.; Heinig, U.; Tzfadia, O.; Bhide, A.J.; Shinde, B.; Cardenas, P.D.; Bocobza, S.E.; Unger, T.; Malitsky, S.; Finkers, H.J.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Chikate, Y.; Singh, P.; Rogachev, I.; Beekwilder, J.; Giri, A.P.; Aharoni, A.

    2013-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) such as a-solanine found in solanaceous food plants—as, for example, potato—are antinutritional factors for humans. Comparative coexpression analysis between tomato and potato coupled with chemical profiling revealed an array of 10 genes that partake in SGA

  17. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. β-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), β-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antitrypanosomal quinoline alkaloids from the roots of Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretton, Sylvian; Breant, Lise; Pourrez, Lucie; Ambuehl, Chiara; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Perozzo, Remo; Karimou, Soumana; Kaiser, Marcel; Cuendet, Muriel; Christen, Philippe

    2014-10-24

    Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane root extract of Waltheria indica led to the isolation and characterization of 10 quinoline alkaloids, namely, 8-deoxoantidesmone (1), waltheriones E-L (2-9), and antidesmone (10). Among these, compounds 2-9 have not yet been described in the literature. Their chemical structures were established by means of spectroscopic data interpretation including (1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY experiments and UV, IR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were established by comparison of experimental and TDDFT-calculated ECD spectra. In addition, the isolated constituents were evaluated for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Compounds 4, 5, and 8 showed potent and selective growth inhibition toward Trypanosoma cruzi with IC50 values between 0.02 and 0.04 μM. Cytotoxicity for mouse skeletal L-6 cells was also determined for these compounds.

  19. Comparative study of the inhibition effects of alkaloid and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Alkaloid and Non- alkaloid fractions of the ethanolic extracts from Costus afer (AECA and NAECA) were comparatively studied for their inhibitive properties on the corrosion of mild steel in 5 M HCl solution using Gravimetric and Gasometric techniques. The results revealed that both extracts inhibited the corrosion of ...

  20. Studies of interaction between two alkaloids and double helix DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yantao; Peng, Tingting; Zhao, Lei; Jiang, Dayu; Cui, Yuncheng

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the study on the interaction of two alkaloids (matrine and evodiamine) and hs-DNA by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), DNA melting and viscosity experiments. The spectroscopic studies suggested that two alkaloids can bind to DNA through an intercalative mode. The viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation also indicated that two alkaloids can intercalate to DNA. The binding constants (K A ) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined. At the same time, some significant thermodynamic parameters of the binding of the alkaloids to DNA were obtained. Competitive binding studies revealed that alkaloids had an effect on ethidium bromide (EB) bound DNA. In addition, it was also proved that the fluorescence quenching was influenced by ionic strength. - Highlights: • Interaction between two alkaloids and DNA is studied by spectral methods. • The binding constant and the binding sites between two alkaloids and DNA are obtained. • There are a classical intercalative mode between alkaloids and DNA. • The binding of matrine with DNA is weaker than that of evodiamine. • It is important for us to understand the alkaloids–DNA interactions at a molecular level

  1. Antimicrobial potential of alkaloids and flavonoids extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alkaloids and flavonoids are secondary metabolites extracted from different medicinal plants. Tamarix aphylla a traditionally valuable medicinal plant; was used for the extraction of alkaloids and flavonoids in order to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methodology: The leaves of the plant were collected from ...

  2. Dietary source for skin alkaloids of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Martin Garraffo, H; Spande, T F; Jaramillo, C; Stanley Rand, A

    1994-04-01

    A wide range of alkaloids, many of which are unknown elsewhere in nature, occur in skin of frogs. Major classes of such alkaloids in dendrobatid frogs are the batrachotoxins, pumiliotoxins, histrionicotoxins, gephyrotoxins, and decahydroquinolines. Such alkaloids are absent in skin of frogs (Dendrobates auratus) raised in Panama on wingless fruit flies in indoor terraria. Raised on leaf-litter arthropods that were collected in a mainland site, such terraria-raised frogs contain tricyclic alkaloids including the beetle alkaloid precoccinelline, 1,4-disubstituted quinolizidines, pyrrolizidine oximes, the millipede alkaloid nitropolyzonamine, a decahydroquinoline, a gephyrotoxin, and histrionicotoxins. The profiles of these alkaloids in the captive-raised frogs are closer to the mainland population ofDendrobates auratus at the leaf-litter site than to the parent population ofDendrobates auratus from a nearby island site. Extracts of a seven-month sampling of leaf-litter insects contained precoccinelline, pyrrolizidine oxime236 (major), and nitropolyzonamine (238). The results indicate a dietary origin for at least some "dendrobatid alkaloids," in particular the pyrrolizidine oximes, the tricyclic coccinellines, and perhaps the histrionicotoxins and gephyrotoxins.

  3. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS THAT PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT OR UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing...

  4. A new indole alkaloid isolated from Tabernaemontana hystrix steud (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnerat, Cecilia Silva; Souza, Jucimar Jorgeane de; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Vieira, Ivo Jose C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: curcino@uenf.br

    2005-11-15

    A new alkaloid, named hystrixnine (1), and five known indole alkaloids, ibogamine (2), olivacine (3), affinine (4), affinisine (5) and Nb-methylaffinisine (6), were isolated from the root bark of Tabernaemontana hystrix. The known triterpenes a-amyrin acetate, b-amyrin acetate and lupeol acetate were also identified. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectopic studies. (author)

  5. Determination of isoquinoline alkaloids contents in two Algerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... Total quinolizidine alkaloid contents were 426 mg/100 g (F. capreolata) and 521 mg/100 g (F. bastardi). The isoquinoline alkaloids, stylopine, protopine, fumaritine, fumaricine, fumarophycine, fumariline and fumarofine were determined by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in aerial parts of.

  6. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  7. alkaloid content of the leaves of three nbigerian datura species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Datura species are sources of the tropane alkaloids employed as sedatives, antispasmodic and mydiatic agents. Three species of Datura grow naturally in Nigeria. These are D. innoxia Mill, D. metel L. and D. stramonium L. TLC analysis of the individual alkaloids in the leaves of these species indicated the presence of ...

  8. Plants producing pyrrolizidine alkaloids: sustainable tools for nematode management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden, T.C.; Boppre, M.

    2010-01-01

    1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (pyrrolizidine alkaloids; PAs) are a class of secondary plant metabolites found in hundreds of plant species. In vitro, PAs are known to affect plant-parasitic nematodes. Thus, PA-producing plants might be used in nematode management. So far, however,

  9. An Acetylenic Alkaloid from the Calcareous Sponge Leucetta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J. de Voogd

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new acetylenic alkaloid was isolated from the sponge Leucetta sp. The structure was established by analyzing spectroscopic data. The alkaloid showed cytotoxicity IC50 2.5 mg/mL against NBT-T2 cells.

  10. Toxicity of Erythrophleum guineense stem-bark: role of alkaloidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical assays revealed that the chemical composition of E. guineense include alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and tannins. The toxicity of the stem-bark of E. guineense could be attributed to the combined toxicity of other constituents such as tannins, saponins and glycosides with the alkaloids as earlier ...

  11. Guanidine Alkaloids from the Marine Sponge Monanchora pulchra Show Cytotoxic Properties and Prevent EGF-Induced Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Tabakmakher, Kseniya M; Hauschild, Jessica; Shchekaleva, Regina K; Otte, Katharina; Guzii, Alla G; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Kudryashova, Ekaterina K; Fedorov, Sergey N; Shubina, Larisa K; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Honecker, Friedemann; Stonik, Valentin A; von Amsberg, Gunhild

    2016-07-15

    Guanidine alkaloids from sponges Monanchora spp. represent diverse bioactive compounds, however, the mechanisms underlying bioactivity are very poorly understood. Here, we report results of studies on cytotoxic action, the ability to inhibit EGF-induced neoplastic transformation, and the effects on MAPK/AP-1 signaling of eight rare guanidine alkaloids, recently isolated from the marine sponge Monanchora pulchra, namely: monanchocidin A (1), monanchocidin B (2), monanchomycalin C (3), ptilomycalin A (4), monanchomycalin B (5), normonanchocidin D (6), urupocidin A (7), and pulchranin A (8). All of the compounds induced cell cycle arrest (apart from 8) and programmed death of cancer cells. Ptilomycalin A-like compounds 1-6 activated JNK1/2 and ERK1/2, following AP-1 activation and caused p53-independent programmed cell death. Compound 7 induced p53-independent cell death without activation of AP-1 or caspase-3/7, and the observed JNK1/2 activation did not contribute to the cytotoxic effect of the compound. Alkaloid 8 induced JNK1/2 (but not ERK1/2) activation leading to p53-independent cell death and strong suppression of AP-1 activity. Alkaloids 1-4, 7, and 8 were able to inhibit the EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P⁺ Cl41 cells. Our results suggest that investigated guanidine marine alkaloids hold potential to eliminate human cancer cells and prevent cancer cell formation and spreading.

  12. Estimation of total alkaloid in Chitrakadivati by UV-Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajanal, Manjunath; Gundkalle, Mahadev B; Nayak, Shradda U

    2012-04-01

    Herbal formulation standardization by adopting newer technique is need of the hour in the field of Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry. As very few reports exist. These kind of studies would certainly widen the herbal research area. Chitrakadivati is one such popular herbal formulation used in Ayurveda. Many of its ingredients are known for presence of alkaloids. Presence of alkaloid was tested qualitatively by Dragondroff's method then subjected to quantitative estimation by UV-Spectrophotometer. This method is based on the reaction between alkaloid and bromocresol green (BCG). Study discloses that out of 16 ingredients, 9 contain alkaloid. Chitrakadivati has shown 0.16% of concentration of alkaloid and which is significantly higher than it's individual ingredients.

  13. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Alkaloids from the Whole Plants of Zephyranthes carinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guanqun; Zhou, Junfei; Liu, Junjun; Huang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Hanqi; Liu, Rong; Yao, Guangmin

    2017-09-22

    Eleven new alkaloids (1-11), classified as the 12-acetylplicamine (1), N-deformyl-seco-plicamine (2), plicamine (3-6), 4a-epi-plicamine (7), seco-plicamine (8), and lycorine (9-11) framework types, along with 15 known alkaloids (12-26) were isolated from the whole plants of Zephyranthes carinata. The structures of the new alkaloids 1-11 were established by extensive spectroscopic data interpretation. The absolute configurations of 9 and 10 were defined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Zephycarinatines A (1), B (2), and G (7) represent the first examples of 12-acetylplicamine, N-deformyl-seco-plicamine, and 4a-epi-plicamine alkaloids, respectively. Alkaloids 6, 11, 17, and 20-23 exhibited AChE inhibitory activities with IC 50 values ranging from 1.21 to 184.05 μM, and a preliminary structure-activity relationship is discussed.

  14. Enabling techniques in the search for new antibiotics: Combinatorial biosynthesis of sugar-containing antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Je Won; Nam, Sang-Jip; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2017-06-15

    Nature has a talent for inventing a vast number of natural products, including hybrids generated by blending different scaffolds, resulting in a myriad of bioactive chemical entities. Herein, we review the highlights and recent trends (2010-2016) in the combinatorial biosynthesis of sugar-containing antibiotics where nature's structural diversification capabilities are exploited to enable the creation of new anti-infective and anti-proliferative drugs. In this review, we describe the modern combinatorial biosynthetic approaches for polyketide synthase-derived complex and aromatic polyketides, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-directed lipo-/glycopeptides, aminoglycosides, nucleoside antibiotics, and alkaloids, along with their therapeutic potential. Finally, we present the feasible nexus between combinatorial biosynthesis, systems biology, and synthetic biology as a toolbox to provide new antibiotics that will be indispensable in the post-antibiotic era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alkaloids from Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, G C L; Lim, C M; Lim, C K; Rahmani, M; Shaari, K; Bong, C F J

    2009-01-01

    Detailed chemical studies on the roots of Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum have resulted in several alkaloids. The roots of P. sarmentosum gave a new aromatic compound, 1-nitrosoimino-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1). Piper nigrum roots gave pellitorine (2), (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (3), 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (4), piperine (5), sylvamide (6), cepharadione A (7), piperolactam D (8) and paprazine (9). Structural elucidation of these compounds was achieved through NMR and MS techniques. Cytotoxic activity screening of the plant extracts indicated some activity.

  16. Alkaloids of root barks of Zanthoxylum spp; Alcaloides das cascas das raizes de Zanthoxylum spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlemwerger, Sandra Virginia Alves; Sales, Edijane Matos; Costa, Rafael dos Santos; Velozo, Eudes da Silva [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Dept. do Medicamento; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva, E-mail: euvelozo@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Herbario Alexandre Leal Costa

    2012-07-01

    In 1959, Gottlieb and Antonaccio published a study reporting the occurrence of lignan sesamin and triterpene lupeol in Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba. In this work we describe the phytochemical study of the root bark of the Z. tingoassuiba which allowed the identification of the lupeol, sesamin, and alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine, chelerythrine, anorttianamide, cis-N-methyl-canadin, predicentine, 2, 3-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxy-tetrahydro protoberberine. The investigation of hexane and methanol extracts of the root bark of Z. rhoifolium and Z. stelligerum also investigated showed the presence of alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine, anorttianamide, cis-N-methyl-canadine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3- methylenedioxybenzophen anthridine and angoline. The occurrence of 2,3-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxy-tetrahydro protoberberine is first described in Z. tingoassuiba and Z. stelligerum. This is also the first report of the presence of hesperidin and neohesperidin in roots of Z. stelligerum (author)

  17. Volatiles, A Glutarimide Alkaloid and Antimicrobial Effects of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourivaldo S. Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae collected in the Brazilian Amazon region was revisited. The chemical composition of the essential oils of leaves and stems was analyzed by GC/MS. It was found that both the oils comprise mainly terpenes, among which linalool was the major one (24.90 and 39.72%, respectively. Phytochemical investigation of the stem methanol extract led to the isolation of a new natural product from the glutarimide alkaloid group named N-[2,6-dioxo-1-(2-phenylethyl-3-piperidinyl]-acetamide, confirming that C. pullei is a rich source of this class of alkaloids. The hexane and methanol extracts of the stems of C. pullei showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and the highest inhibition was observed when the methanol extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus CCMB 262 and CCMB 263.

  18. The first report of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in a gazelle (Gazella Subgutturosa) ? histopathologic diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Khordadmehr, Monireh; Rezazadeh, Fereydoon; Ashrafi-Helan, Javad; Hosseini-Ghomi, Mir Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural phytotoxins found in thousands of plant species around the world. They are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife and humans. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. In the present study, PAs poisoning was investigated in a gazelle with hepatic encephalopathy associated with severe neurologic signs. The main clinical signs included head pressing, progressive...

  19. Determination of opium and strychnos alkaloids by radiometric titrations with potassium thallium(I) iodide reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.; Singh, N.J.; Tandon, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The titrations were carried out by the batch method in test tubes, using 204 Tl-labelled potassium thallium(I) iodide as precipitant for alkaloids such as codeine, morphine, narcotine, papaverine, thebaine, strychnine and brucine. Direct and reverse titrations were investigated including sensitivity and accuracy. Codeine and narcotine were determined in some pharmaceutical preparations such as codeine sulfate tablets, codopyrin tablets and coscopin syrup

  20. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antib...

  1. Bioactive Alkaloids from the Sea: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kuramoto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our ongoing search for bioactive substances from marine organisms, novel alkaloids have been isolated. Pinnatoxins and pinnamine, potent shellfish poisons, were purified from the Okinawan bivalve Pinna muricata. Pinnatoxins activate Ca2+ channels. Halichlorine was isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. This compound inhibits the induction of VCAM-1. Drugs that block VCAM-1 may be useful for treating coronary artery diseases, angina, and noncardiovascular inflammatory diseases. Pinnaic acids, which are cPLA2 inhibitors, were also obtained from P. muricata. Interestingly, the structures of pinnaic acids are closely related to that of halichlorine. Norzoanthamine hydrochloride, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthus sp., suppresses decreases in bone weight and strength in ovariectomized mice, and could be a good candidate for an osteoporotic drug. Ircinamine, purified from the marine sponge Ircinia sp., has a reactive thioester. Aburatubolactams, inhibitors of superoxide anion generation, were isolated from Streptomyces sp. This article covers the bioactive marine alkaloids that have been recently isolated by this research group.

  2. Bioactive Alkaloids from the Sea: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Makoto; Arimoto, Hirokazu; Uemura, Daisuke

    2004-01-01

    In our ongoing search for bioactive substances from marine organisms, novel alkaloids have been isolated. Pinnatoxins and pinnamine, potent shellfish poisons, were purified from the Okinawan bivalve Pinna muricata. Pinnatoxins activate Ca2+ channels. Halichlorine was isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. This compound inhibits the induction of VCAM-1. Drugs that block VCAM-1 may be useful for treating coronary artery diseases, angina, and noncardiovascular inflammatory diseases. Pinnaic acids, which are cPLA2 inhibitors, were also obtained from P. muricata. Interestingly, the structures of pinnaic acids are closely related to that of halichlorine. Norzoanthamine hydrochloride, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthus sp., suppresses decreases in bone weight and strength in ovariectomized mice, and could be a good candidate for an osteoporotic drug. Ircinamine, purified from the marine sponge Ircinia sp., has a reactive thioester. Aburatubolactams, inhibitors of superoxide anion generation, were isolated from Streptomyces sp. This article covers the bioactive marine alkaloids that have been recently isolated by this research group.

  3. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  4. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Spiraea chamaedryfolia: a contribution to the chemotaxonomy of Spiraea genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tivadar; Cank, Kristóf Bence; Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Liktor-Busa, Erika; Zomborszki, Zoltán Péter; Rutkovska, Santa; Pučka, Irēna; Németh, Anikó; Csupor, Dezső

    2017-12-21

    Diterpene alkaloids are secondary plant metabolites and chemotaxonomical markers with a strong biological activity. These compounds are characteristic for the Ranunculaceae family, while their occurrence in other taxa is rare. Several species of the Spiraea genus (Rosaceae) are examples of this rarity. Screening Spiraea species for alkaloid content is a chemotaxonomical approach to clarify the classification and phylogeny of the genus. Novel pharmacological findings make further investigations of Spiraea diterpene alkaloids promising. Seven Spiraea species were screened for diterpene alkaloids. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations were performed on Spiraea chamaedryfolia, the species found to contain diterpene alkaloids. Its alkaloid-rich fractions were found to exert a remarkable xanthine-oxidase inhibitory activity and a moderate antibacterial activity. The alkaloid distribution within the root was clarified by microscopic techniques.

  5. Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscletype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiper...

  6. Analytical chemical study of alkaloid fraction of methanolic extract of Croton baillonianus (AUBL) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes R, Cesar M.; Benavides, Angelyne; Pizza, Cosimo; Napolitano, Asunta; Basarello, Carla; Piacente, Sonia; Carbone Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study has been to extract and isolate the alkaloids from leaves of Croton baillonianus, corresponding to the methanolic extract by exclusion chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 followed by a purification by high performance liquid chromatography, obtaining six alkaloids. Two low polarity alkaloid and two glycoside alkaloids were analyzed by Electronic System impact mass spectrometry; these alkaloids belong to bencylisoquinolinic type; the study has connection to the determination of its antioxidant, antiulcerose and cytotoxic properties. (author).

  7. Cytotoxic Effect and Constituent Profile of Alkaloid Fractions from Ethanolic Extract of Ficus septica Burm. f. Leaves on T47D Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Akbar, Fiki Fatihah; Wiyani, Anggie; Sudarsono

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the profile of alkaloids in two ethyl acetate soluble fractions, namely fractions A and B from an ethanolic extract of Ficus septica leaves and cytotoxic effect on T47D breast cancer cells. Preparation of both fractions involved maceration of leaves with 70% (v/v) ethanol, filtration with Al2O3, precipitation with 0.1 N HCl, Mayer reagent, and 0.1 N NaOH, and also partition with ethyl acetate. Qualitative thin layer chromatography (TLC) was conducted to determine the profile of alkaloids in the two fractions, using alkaloid specific reagents such as Dragendorff, sodium nitrite, and Van Urk-Salkowski. Cytotoxic effects of both fractions on T47D cells were evaluated using MTT assay with a concentration series of 1.56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 and 50 μg/mL. The TLC test showed that fractions A and B contained alkaloids with Rx values of 0.74 and 0.80 for fraction A and 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 for fraction B with regard to yohimbine using the mobile phase of n-buthanol:glacial acetic acid:distilled water (3:1:1 v/v/v). Moreover, an indole alkaloid was detected with Rx values of 0.80 and 0.84, respectively. Fractions A and B exhibited high cytotoxic effects on T47D cells with IC50 values of 2.57 and 2.73 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, overall the results of this study showed that fractions of Ficus septica contain alkaloids including indole alkaloid or its derivatives and possess a cytotoxic effect on T47D cells. This research supports the idea that alkaloids in F. septica have anticancer activity.

  8. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15807.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, M I; Mozzi, F; Font de Valdez, G

    2005-08-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and the activities of the enzymes involved in sugar nucleotide biosynthesis in Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15807 under controlled pH conditions were investigated. Batch fermentations using lactose as energy source showed higher EPS synthesis by L. helveticus ATCC 15807 at pH 4.5 with respect to pH 6.2, the enzyme alpha-phosphoglucomutase (alpha-PGM) being correlated with both total and specific EPS production. When glucose was used as carbon source instead of lactose, the lower EPS synthesis obtained was linked to a decrease in alpha-PGM and galactose 1-phosphate-uridyltransferase (GalT) activities, the reduction of the latter being more pronounced. Higher EPS production by L. helveticus ATCC 15807 at the acidic constant pH of 4.5 requires that both alpha-PGM and GalT activities are high. These enzymes are needed to synthesize UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose for supplying the corresponding monomers for EPS biosynthesis. Although differences are observed in EPS production by this strain regarding the energy source (lactose or glucose), the monomeric composition of the polymers produced is independent of the carbohydrate used. The obtained results contribute to a better understanding of the physiological factors that affect EPS biosynthesis by lactobacilli, which could help in the correct handling of the fermentation parameters within the fermented dairy industry.

  10. Ultraviolet-visible study on acid-base equilibria of aporphine alkaloids with antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities from Alseodaphne corneri and Dehaasia longipedicellata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Azeana; Ablat, Abdulwali; Omer, Noridayu; Nafiah, Mohd Azlan; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Khan, Mohammad Niyaz; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-02-01

    The UV-vis spectra of isocorydine 1, norisocorydine 2 and boldine 3 were studied in 2% v/v acetonitrile, at constant ionic strength (0.1 M NaCl, 35 degree Celsius). The pKa values of isocorydine 1 and norisocorydine 2 were 11.75 and 12.07, respectively. Boldine 3 gave a pKa value of 9.16 and 10.44. All of the alkaloids 1-3 were stable at physiological pH; thereby all of them will not ionize, thus permitting the basic nitrogen to be protonated and accumulated within the acidic food vacuole of Plasmodium via pH trapping. Subsequently, acidic food vacuoles that have been neutralized by alkaloids would result in enhancement of the antiplasmodial activity. The alkaloids showed antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and antioxidant activities; DPPH radical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power. The antioxidant properties of the alkaloids under investigation revealed that in addition to the antiplasmodial activity, the alkaloids can also prevent oxidative damage. It can be prevented by binding free heme and neutralizing the electrons produced during the Plasmodium falciparum mediated haemoglobin destruction in the host. Slightly basic properties of the aforementioned alkaloids, along with their antioxidant activities, are advantageous in improving the suppression of malaria infection that cause less damage to the host.

  11. Oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in proliferating, G0/G1-arrested and bcl-2-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Nicole; Tiefenthaler, Martin; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Ausserlechner, Michael J; Kofler, Reinhard; Konwalinka, Günther

    2006-03-01

    Natural products are still an untapped source of promising lead compounds for the generation of antineoplastic drugs. Here, we investigated for the first time the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of highly purified oxindole alkaloids, namely isopteropodine (A1), pteropodine (A2), isomitraphylline (A3), uncarine F (A4) and mitraphylline (A5) obtained from Uncaria tomentosa, a South American Rubiaceae, on human lymphoblastic leukaemia T cells (CCRF-CEM-C7H2). Four of the five tested alkaloids inhibited proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect of the most potent alkaloids pteropodine (A2) and uncarine F (A4) correlated with induction of apoptosis. After 48 h, 100 micromol/l A2 or A4 increased apoptotic cells by 57%. CEM-C7H2 sublines with tetracycline-regulated expression of bcl-2, p16ink4A or constitutively expressing the cowpox virus protein crm-A were used for further studies of the apoptosis-inducing properties of these alkaloids. Neither overexpression of bcl-2 or crm-A nor cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase by tetracycline-regulated expression of p16INK4A could prevent alkaloid-induced apoptosis. Our results show the strong apoptotic effects of pteropodine and uncarine F on acute leukaemic lymphoblasts and recommend the alkaloids for further studies in xenograft models.

  12. Coumarin and alkaloids of Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae); Cumarinas e alcaloides de Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarici, Tatiane Regina; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da, E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pirani, Jose Rubens [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2010-07-01

    The genus Rauia, that is poorly chemically studied, belongs to the Rutaceae family. This family has been known to contain a large variety of secondary metabolites. Our phytochemical investigation of the stem and leaves of Rauia resinosa has led to the identification of the structurally related coumarins: murralongin (1), murrangatin (2), munomicrolin (3), murrangatin diacetate (4), umbelliferone (5), rauianin (6) and one novel coumarin: 3-ethylrauianin (7); the alkaloids: N-methyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone (8), mirtopsine (9), dictamine (10), g-fagarine (11), skimmianine (12), Z-dimethylrhoifolinate (13), zantodioline (14), zantobungeanine (15), veprissine (16), one novel alkaloid 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine (17) and 8-hydroxy-N-methylflindersine (18) that is described as a natural product for the first time, and a mixture of steroids: as sitosterol and stigmasterol. (author)

  13. Antidepressant effects of total tertiary alkaloid fraction of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Mendonça-Netto

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of total tertiary alkaloid fraction (TTAF of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler (Menispermaceae on two animal models of depression: a forced swim test and b reserpine test. Treatment of mice with TTAF (12.5 mg/kg reduced the total immobility time. It also reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia, demonstrating an antidepressant effect in both models. Additionally, TTAF treatment did not modify the ambulation and rearing evaluated in open field test in order to investigate if the immobility time reduction found in the forced swimming test was caused by locomotive activity stimulation. Since warifteine is one of the main alkaloids present in the TTAF of C. sympodialis, and it has inhibitory activity of the phosphodiesterase enzyme, it may be responsible by the antidepressant effect found in the fraction studied.

  14. Suspected pyrrolizidine alkaloid hepatotoxicosis in wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Lucy; Fletcher, Mary T; Boardman, Wayne S J

    2014-07-30

    Southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) inhabiting degraded habitat in South Australia were recently identified with extensive hair loss and dermatitis and were in thin to emaciated body condition. Pathological and clinicopathological investigations on affected juvenile wombats identified a toxic hepatopathy suggestive of plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, accompanied by photosensitive dermatitis. Hepatic disease was suspected in additional wombats on the basis of serum biochemical analysis. Preliminary toxicological analysis performed on scats and gastrointestinal contents from wombats found in this degraded habitat identified a number of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids consistent with ingestion of Heliotropeum europaeum. Although unpalatable, ingestion may occur by young animals due to decreased availability of preferred forages in degraded habitats and the emergence of weeds around the time of weaning of naive animals. Habitat degradation leading to malnutrition and ingestion of toxic weed species is a significant welfare issue in this species.

  15. Alkaloids from the Tribe Bocconieae (Papaveraceae: A Chemical and Biological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelong Yu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bocconieae tribe, consisting of only the genera Macleaya and Bocconia, possesses significant economic and medicinal value and plays an important role in health management for people in developing countries. During the past decades, research on metabolites and relative pharmacology, including the isolation and identification of a variety of molecules, has shed light on the tribe. Among those molecules, isoquinoline alkaloids, and their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities are especially noteworthy. This paper presents a comprehensive compilation of current research progress, with emphasis on the alkaloids and their distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation, toxicity and side effects, related chemotaxonomy and future use prospects, and hopefully provides a valuable reference as an effort to promote further exploration and application of this tribe.

  16. Chemotaxonomic studies of mesembrine-type alkaloids in Sceletium plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Patnala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary medicines containing the succulent herb Sceletium are being sold without information regarding their phytochemical contents, which is essential for the quality control of medicines. Furthermore, several different Sceletium species exist and little has been reported on the alkaloidal identities and contents of the various species. We therefore conducted phytochemical investigations on six selected Sceletium specimens, identified on the basis of their venation pattern as either ‘emarcidum’ or ‘tortuosum’ type. The tortuosum type consisted of S. tortuosum, S. expansum and S. strictum, whereas the emarcidum type consisted of S. emarcidum, S. exalatum and S. rigidum. Analysis was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and alkaloids were identified by online mass spectroscopy.

  17. Stereoselectivity in Polyphenol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.

    1992-01-01

    Stereoselectivity plays an important role in the late stages of phenyl-propanoid metabolism, affording lignins, lignans, and neolignans. Stereoselectivity is manifested during monolignol (glucoside) synthesis, e.g., where the geometry (E or Z) of the pendant double bond affects the specificity of UDPG:coniferyl alcohol glucosyltransferases in different species. Such findings are viewed to have important ramifications in monolignol transport and storage processes, with roles for both E- and Z-monolignols and their glucosides in lignin/lignan biosynthesis being envisaged. Stereoselectivity is also of great importance in enantiose-lective enzymatic processes affording optically active lignans. Thus, cell-free extracts from Forsythia species were demonstrated to synthesize the enantiomerically pure lignans, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, and (-)-pinoresinol, when NAD(P)H, H2O2 and E-coniferyl alcohol were added. Progress toward elucidating the enzymatic steps involved in such highly stereoselective processes is discussed. Also described are preliminary studies aimed at developing methodologies to determine the subcellular location of late-stage phenylpropanoid metabolites (e.g., coniferyl alcohol) and key enzymes thereof, in intact tissue or cells. This knowledge is essential if questions regarding lignin and lignan tissue specificity and regulation of these processes are to be deciphered.

  18. Glycolipid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The biosynthesis of monogalactosyldiacyl-glycerol (MGDG) was studied in five different cyanobacteria. Previous work has shown Anabaena variabilis to synthesize both MGDG and monoglucosyl-diacylglycerol (MG1cDG) with MG1cDG being the precursor of MGDG. They have examined four other cyanobacteria to determine if a similar relationship exists. The cyanobacteria studied were Anabaena variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis nidulans, and Anacystis marina. Each were grown in liquid culture and lipids were labeled with 14 C]CO 2 for 20 min., 1.0 hr, 1.0 hr + 10 hr chase. Glycolipids were analyzed by initial separation of MGDG and MG1cDG by TLC followed by further analysis by HPLC. Complete separation of molecular species was obtained isocratically on an ODS column. All of the cyanobacteria labeled 16-C and 18-C fatty acids except for A. marina which labeled only 14-C and 16-C fatty acids. Desaturation of the fatty acids could be observed in the 1.0 hr and chase experiments. All were capable of labeling both MG1cDG and MGDG with the precursor-product relationship being observed. There does not appear to be a direct relationship between the epimerization of the sugar moiety and fatty acid desaturation

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Subin; Panda, Tapobrata; Nair, Praseetha P; Théodore, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Metal nanoparticles have unique optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. There exist well-defined physical and chemical processes for their preparation. Those processes often yield small quantities of nanoparticles having undesired morphology, and involve high temperatures for the reaction and the use of hazardous chemicals. Relatively, the older technique of bioremediation of metals uses either microorganisms or their components for the production of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles obtained from bacteria, fungi, algae, plants and their components, etc. appear environment-friendly, as toxic chemicals are not used in the processes. In addition to this, the formation of nanoparticles takes place at almost normal temperature and pressure. Control of the shape and size of the nanoparticles is possible by appropriate selection of the pH and temperature. Three important steps are the bioconversion of Ag+ ions, conversion of desired crystals to nanoparticles, and nanoparticle stability. Generally, nanoparticles are characterized by the UV-visible spectroscopy and use of the electron microscope. Silver nanoparticles are used as antimicrobial agents and they possess antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. This review highlights the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by various organisms, possible mechanisms of their synthesis, their characterization, and applications of silver nanoparticles.

  20. Steroid Alkaloids from Holarrhena africana with Strong Activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Okeke Nnadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In our continued search for natural compounds with activity against Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, “sleeping sickness”, we have investigated extracts from the leaves and bark of the West African Holarrhena africana (syn. Holarrhena floribunda; Apocynaceae. The extracts and their alkaloid-enriched fractions displayed promising in vitro activity against bloodstream forms of T. brucei rhodesiense (Tbr; East African HAT. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the alkaloid-rich fractions resulted in the isolation of 17 steroid alkaloids, one nitrogen-free steroid and one alkaloid-like non-steroid. Impressive activities (IC50 in µM against Tbr were recorded for 3β-holaphyllamine (0.40 ± 0.28, 3α-holaphyllamine (0.37 ± 0.16, 3β-dihydroholaphyllamine (0.67 ± 0.03, N-methylholaphyllamine (0.08 ± 0.01, conessimine (0.17 ± 0.08, conessine (0.42 ± 0.09, isoconessimine (0.17 ± 0.11 and holarrhesine (0.12 ± 0.08 with selectivity indices ranging from 13 to 302. Based on comparison of the structures of this congeneric series of steroid alkaloids and their activities, structure-activity relationships (SARs could be established. It was found that a basic amino group at position C-3 of the pregnane or pregn-5-ene steroid nucleus is required for a significant anti-trypanosomal activity. The mono-methylated amino group at C-3 represents an optimum for activity. ∆5,6 unsaturation slightly increased the activity while hydrolysis of C-12β ester derivatives led to a loss of activity. An additional amino group at C-20 engaged in a pyrrolidine ring closed towards C-18 significantly increased the selectivity index of the compounds. Our findings provide useful empirical data for further development of steroid alkaloids as a novel class of anti-trypanosomal compounds which represent a promising starting point towards new drugs to combat human African trypanosomiasis.

  1. Racemic indole alkaloids from the seeds of Peganum harmala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Bo; Hu, Xu; Li, Sheng-Ge; Li, Xin-Yu; Li, Da-Hong; Bai, Jiao; Pei, Yue-Hu; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Five pairs of new 2-oxoindole alkaloids, (±)-peganumalines A-E (1-5), and a new indole alkaloid, peganumaline F (6), along with two known analogues, were isolated from the seeds of Peganum harmala. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated through spectroscopic analyses and quantum chemistry calculations. Notably, (±)-peganumalines A (1) represent a pair of rare 2-oxoindole dimeric alkaloid enantiomer with the hitherto unknown carbon skeleton. All isolates were tested for antiproliferative and antibacterial activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alkaloid 223A: the first trisubstituted indolizidine from dendrobatid frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, H M; Jain, P; Spande, T F; Daly, J W

    1997-01-01

    The structure of alkaloid 223A (1), the first member of a new class of amphibian alkaloids, purified by HPLC from a skin extract of a Panamanian population of the frog Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt (Dendrobatidae) has been established as (5R,6S,8R,9S)- or (5S,6R,8S,9R)-6,8-diethyl-5-propylindolizidine, based on GC-MS, GC-FTIR, and 1H-NMR spectral studies. Three higher homologs of 223A, namely alkaloids 237L (2), 251M (3), and 267J (4), have been detected in other extracts, and tentative structures are proposed.

  3. A new strain of Claviceps purpurea accumulating tetracyclic clavine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, B; Erge, D; Maier, W; Gröger, D

    1982-05-01

    A new strain of Claviceps was isolated from a blokked mutant of Claviceps purpurea. This strain accumulates substantial amounts of clavine alkaloids (2 g/l). The alkaloid fraction is composed of chanoclavine-I ( approximately 10%) and a mixture of agroclavine/elymoclavine (90%). Most suitable for alkaloid production in submerged culture is an ammoncitrate/sucrose medium. The genealogy of the new strain, designated Pepty 695/ch-I is the following one: Pepty 695/S (ergotoxine producer) --> Pepty 695/ch (secoergoline producer) --> Pepty 695/ch-I (tetracyclic clavine producer).

  4. Qualitative determination of indole alkaloids of Tabernaemontana fuchsiaefolia (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zocoler, Marcos A. [Universidade do Oeste Paulista, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacos e Medicamentos; Oliveira, Arildo J.B. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Sarragiotto, Maria H.; Grzesiuk, Viviane L.; Vidotti, Gentil J. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: gjvidotti@uem.br

    2005-11-15

    This p describes a fast and efficient procedure to separate and identify indole alkaloids from the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana fuchsiaefolia (Apocynaceae). The alkaloidal fractions obtained from ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem barks and root barks were fractioned and analyzed by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The following indole alkaloids were identified: ibogamine, coronaridine, ibogaine pseudoindoxyl, voacangine hydroxyindolenine, voacangine pseudoindoxyl, tabernanthine, catharanthine, voacangine, 19-oxovoacangine, 10-hydroxycoronaridine, affinisine, 16-epi-affinine, voachalotine, ibogaline, and conopharyngine. (author)

  5. POSSIBILITY FOR APPLICATION OF LIQUEFIED GASES FOR PURIFICATION OF BARBERRY ALKALOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko D.V.

    2016-06-01

    . It has been found that at stage of degreasing of raw crude drug the most selective solvent to lipophilic ballast compounds was isobutane and difluorochloromethane, but the latter was more rational for using in industrial scale concerning its fire-safety and economic availability. It has been also found that efficiency of the purification stage of Berberis alkaloids appreciably depends on composition of extracting solvent while obtaining of crude extracts. The best parameters in the finished product have been revealed after purification of the extracts obtained with difluoromethane containing 12% of liquid ammonia: quantity of BAS (alkaloids in the finished product reached 95%, and their losses were insignificant – 3,5%. Increasing of cosolvent (ammonia content in the extracting solvent considerably complicated purification of extractives, and losses of alkaloids raised to 13,2%, obviously as a result of presence of considerable quantity of hydrophylic ballast substances. Reducing of the ammonia content in the extracting solvent down to 1% also caused negative impact on process of obtaining of the alkaloids which yield was the lowest among investigated assays. It’s possible to explain this by lower рН value in extracting medium, change of solvent polarity, therefore middle-polar and hydrophobic compounds preferably passed into composition of crude extracts. Conclusions. Acceptability for use of liquefied gases and their mixtures for purification of the alkaloid sum from barberry roots has been proved. It has been shown that prior to stage of extraction of these BAS it’s expedient to withdraw lipophilic impurities from the crude herbal drug with liquified difluorochloromethane (freon-22. Purification efficiency of the finished product considerably depends on composition of extracting solvent during obtaining of crude extracts. The best parameters were found after purification of the extracts taken with difluoromethane containing 12% of liquid ammonia. It

  6. Unedoside derivatives in Nuxia and their biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Ravnkilde, Lene; Schripsema, Jan

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia showed that this genus is characterized by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2 "-acetyl-3 "-cinnamoyl-nuxioside were...... isolated, while from N. oppositifolia 2 "-acetyl-3 "-benzoyl-nuxioside was obtained. Both plants contained verbascoside. The biosynthesis of unedoside in N. floribunda was investigated and deoxyloganic acid was found to be a precursor, similar to wh;lt was found for the eight-carbon iridoids in Thunbergia...

  7. Cytotoxicity and DNA interaction of brucine and strychnine-Two alkaloids of semen strychni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Xu; Tan, Xiaoxin; Kang, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxicities of the two alkaloids strychnine and brucine from the seed of Strychnos nux-vomica and their interaction with DNA were investigated. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrasolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to examine the growth inhibitory effects of these alkaloids on Vero cells after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation. The cytotoxicities of strychnine and brucine were found to be time- and concentration-dependent. Strychnine was determined to be more toxic to Vero cells than brucine. At the same time, the interactions of strychnine and brucine with DNA were investigated using neutral red (NR) dye as a probe by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and an examination of the ionic strength effect, and the effects of alkaloids on DNA melting were also examined. The results indicated that a DNA-brucine mixture but not a DNA-strychnine mixture could be extracted from Vero cells after treatment with brucine and strychnine, respectively. Brucine competitively intercalated into the DNA double-helix causing fluorescence quenching of the DNA-NR system. UV absorption spectroscopy and the melting temperature (Tm) curve also provided evidence that brucine interacted with DNA through intercalation. Furthermore, the results of the ionic strength effect experiment suggested that electrostatic interactions between brucine and phosphate groups in the DNA backbone might also play an important role in the binding of brucine to DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological evaluation of total alkaloids from nux vomica: effect of reducing strychnine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Qu, Yange; Wang, Dongyue; Peng, Pei; Cai, Hao; Gao, Ying; Chen, Zhipeng; Cai, Baochang

    2014-04-10

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF) extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF). The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP). In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  9. Pharmacological Evaluation of Total Alkaloids from Nux Vomica: Effect of Reducing Strychnine Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF. The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP. In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  10. A novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ying, Zheming; Wei, Wenjuan; Hao, Dong; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Cuiyu; Jiang, Mingyue; Ying, Xixiang; Liu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    A novel alkaloid named oleraciamide C (1), with six known compounds, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), uracil (3), catechol (4), 4-aminophenol (5), vanillic acid (6) as well as 3-hydroxypyridine (7), were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Additionally, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), 4-aminophenol (5), 3-hydroxypyridine (7) were obtained from the plant for the first time. Structure of the new compound was determined using spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Others were elucidated through 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR spectra and comparison with literature data. Notably, Compound 1 possessed an unusual bis-substituted eight-membered ring linked with the β-glucopyranose moiety. The cytotoxicity of compound 1 was evaluated against human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by CCK-8 method.

  11. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Combine experimental and theoretical investigation on an alkaloid-Dimethylisoborreverine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swapnil; Singh, Harshita; Karthick, T.; Agarwal, Parag; Erande, Rohan D.; Dethe, Dattatraya H.; Tandon, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    A combined experimental (FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR) and theoretical approach is used to study the structure and properties of antimalarial drug dimethylisoborreverine (DMIB). Conformational analysis, has been performed by plotting one dimensional potential energy curve that was computed using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-31G method and predicted conformer A1 as the most stable conformer. After full geometry optimization, harmonic wavenumbers were computed for conformer A1 at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,P) level. A complete vibrational assignment of all the vibrational modes have been performed on the bases of the potential energy distribution (PED) and theoretical results were found to be in good agreement with the observed data. To predict the solvent effect, the UV-Vis spectra were calculated in different solvents by polarizable continuum model using TD-DFT method. Molecular docking studies were performed to test the biological activity of the sample using SWISSDOCK web server and Hex 8.0.0 software. The molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) was plotted to identify the reactive sites of the molecule. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to get a deep insight of intramolecular charge transfer. Thermodynamical parameters were calculated to predict the direction of chemical reaction.

  13. Bioactive alkaloids produced by fungi. I. Updates on alkaloids from the species of the genera Boletus, Fusarium and psilocybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zafar Alam; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Azhar, Iqbal; Sualeh, Mohammad; Baig, Mirza Tasawer; Zoha, Sms

    2010-07-01

    Fungi, in particular, are able in common with the higher plants and bacteria, to produce metabolites, including alkaloids. Alkaloids, along with other metabolites are the most important fungal metabolites from pharmaceutical and industrial point of view. Based on this observation, the authors of this review article have tried to provide an information on the alkaloids produced by the species of genera: Boletus, Fusarium and Psilocybef from 1981-2009. Thus the review would be helpful and provides valuable information for the researchers of the same field.

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in pollen and pollen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Michael; Heil, Sandra; Hasslauer, Iris; Schmidt, Lukas; von der Ohe, Katharina; Theuring, Claudine; Reinhard, Annika; Schreier, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2010-02-01

    Recently, 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) ester alkaloids, found predominantly as their N-oxides (PANOs, pyrrolizidine N-oxides), have been reported in both honey and in pollen obtained directly from PA plants and pollen loads collected by bees, raising the possibility of health risks for consumers of these products. We confirm these findings in regard to floral pollen, using pollen collected directly from flowers of the known PA plants Senecio jacobaea, S. vernalis, Echium vulgare and pollinia of Phalaenopsis hybrids, and we extend analyses of 1,2-unsaturated PAs and 1,2-unsaturated PANOs to include bee-pollen products currently being sold in supermarkets and on the Internet as food supplements. PA content of floral pollen ranged from 0.5 to 5 mg/g. The highest values were observed in pollen obtained from Senecio species. Up to 95% of the PAs are found as PANOs. Detailed studies with S. vernalis revealed unique PA patterns in pollen and flowers. While seneciphylline was the most prominent PA in S. vernalis pollen, the flowers were dominated by senecionine. To analyze trace amounts of 1,2-unsaturated PAs in pollen products, our previously elaborated method consisting of strong cation exchange-SPE, two reduction steps followed by silylation and subsequent capillary high-resolution GC-MS using SIM mode was applied. In total, 55 commercially available pollen products were analyzed. Seventeen (31%) samples contained 1,2-unsaturated PAs in the range from 1.08 to 16.35 microg/g, calculated as retronecine equivalents. The 1,2-unsaturated PA content of pollen products is expressed in terms of a single sum parameter and no background information such as foraged plants, pollen analysis, etc. was needed to analyze the samples. The detection limit of overall procedure and the reliable quantitation limit were 0.003 and 0.01 microg/g, respectively.

  15. New zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Xinyu; Si, Xiali; Liang, Hong; Tu, Pengfei; Zhang, Qingying

    2018-01-31

    Four new zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids, rhynchophyllioniums A-D (1-4), together with eight known alkaloids (5-12), were isolated from the hook-bearing stems of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and ECD, and the zwitterionic forms and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the isolates, including the monoterpene indole alkaloids with free C-22 carboxyl group and those with C-22 carboxyl methyl ester, were proved to be naturally coexisting in the herb by LC-MS analysis. This is the first report of monoterpene indole alkaloids that exist in the form of zwitterion. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of all isolates against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines are reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two bromotyrosine alkaloids from the sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.

    The sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea (Order: Verongidae, Family: Aplysinellidae) is a well known source for several bromotyrosine alkaloids of unique structural features and exhibiting promising biological activities such as cytotoxicity...

  17. Synthesis of the Pentacyclic Framework of the Alkaloid Tronocarpine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torres-Ochoa, R. O.; Reyes Gutierrez, Paul Eduardo; Martínez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 1 (2014), s. 48-52 ISSN 1434-193X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : natural products * alkaloids * radicals * nucleophilic addition * cyclization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2014

  18. Bis(indolyl)methane alkaloids: Isolation, bioactivity, and syntheses

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Praveen, P.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Majik, M.S.

    such as antibacterial, neurotoxic, antioxidant, antiviral, etc. A few of these compounds are used as pesticides while some serve as new drug leads for treatment of depression and anxiety.1 Thus, brominated trisindole alkaloids isolated from a new Caledonian sponge...

  19. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the α-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 μM), but it did not inhibit β-glucosidase, α- or β-mannosidase, or α- or β-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc 3 Man 7-9 (GlcNAc) 2 -oligosaccharides

  20. Studies on the Alkaloids of the Calycanthaceae and Their Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Biao Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Calycanthaceae family, which possesses four genera and about 15 species, are mainly distributed in China, North America and Australia. Chemical studies on the Calycanthaceae have led to the discovery of about 14 alkaloids of different skeletons, including dimeric piperidinoquinoline, dimeric pyrrolidinoindoline and/or trimeric pyrrolidinoindolines, which exhibit significant anti-convulsant, anti-fungal, anti-viral analgesic, anti-tumor, and anti-melanogenesis activities. As some of complex tryptamine-derived alkaloids exhibit promising biological activities, the syntheses of these alkaloids have also been a topic of interest in synthetic chemistry during the last decades. This review will focus on the structures and total syntheses of these alkaloids.

  1. Quinolizidines alkaloids: Petrosin and xestospongins from the sponge Oceanapia sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Das, B.; Naik, C.G.

    having di-hetro atom rings, from the ethyl acetate extract of the sponge. The compounds exhibited moderate to high activities against some microorganisms and clinical isolates. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated by NMR and ESIMS spectroscopic...

  2. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in commercial comfrey products (Symphytum sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, J M; Eppley, R M; Taylor, W C; Andrzejewski, D

    1994-05-01

    The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum sp.) and the widespread use of decoctions of this plant as a beverage (herbal tea) are of increasing concern. A method for the extraction and solid-phase concentration and capillary gas chromatographic determination of these alkaloids and their N-oxides in botanical materials has been developed and was applied to eleven comfrey-containing products purchased from retail health-food outlets in the Washington, DC, area during May-June 1989. Nine of the 11 products were found to contain measurable quantities of one or more of the alkaloids, in ranges from 0.1 to 400.0 ppm. Products containing comfrey leaf in combination with one or more other ingredients were found to contain the lowest alkaloid levels. Highest levels were found in bulk comfrey root, followed by bulk comfrey leaf. The species of the bulk material was verified by thin-layer chromatography and other means.

  3. Three new alkaloids from the seeds of Nigella glandulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Hua; Li, Xue-Mei; Huang, Shan-Shan; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Three new alkaloids namely 8-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one (1), 4-aminonigellidine (2), and N-[(4-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl)]phenylurea (3), along with six known ones (4-9), were isolated from the seeds of Nigella glandulifera. The structures of 1-3 were determined through spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, 1D/2D NMR). Compound 1 was a rare isoquinolinone alkaloid with phenyl substituted at C-8.

  4. C18-Diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium anthriscifolium var. majus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji-Fa; Gao, Feng; Huang, Shuai; Zhou, Xian-Li

    2017-06-01

    Five new C 18 -diterpenoid alkaloids, anthriscifoltines C-G (1-5), along with four known diterpenoid alkaloids anthriscifolcines C-F (6-9), were isolated from the extract of Delphinium anthriscifolium var. majus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses (including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS). Compounds 1-5 were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, HepG2, and H460 human cancer cell lines.

  5. Detection and quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in antibacterial medical honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Introduction to the Toxins Special Issue on Ergot Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Schardl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids are among the most relevant natural products in the history of toxins and pharmaceuticals. Until the late 20th century, human and livestock exposure to ergot alkaloids was primarily through ingestion of “ergots,” which are spur-shaped or seed-like resting structures (sclerotia of ergot fungi, the Claviceps species. Because ergots have similar density to grains, traditional threshing techniques generally failed to remove them, and outbreaks of ergot typically led to mass poisonings. [...

  7. Exploiting the borono-Mannich reaction in bioactive alkaloid synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Pyne, Stephen G.; Au, Christopher W. G.; Davis, Andrew S.; Morgan, Ian Rhys; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Yazici, Arife

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the borono-Mannich reaction is a versatile and efficient reaction for the diastereoselective preparation of chiral 1,2-amino alcohols. These Mannich products are valuable starting materials as shown in this report by the synthesis of bioactive polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine and indolizidine alkaloids. Initial studies, directed at the more complex Stemona alkaloids and using the borono-Mannich reaction on cyclic N-acyliminium ions, are encouraging, as demonstrated by ...

  8. Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids and phenols are required antioxidants in glutathione depleted Uncaria tomentosa root cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana eVera-Reyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants cells sense their environment through oxidative signaling responses and make appropriate adjustments to gene expression, physiology and metabolic defense. Root cultures of Uncaria tomentosa, a native plant of the Amazon rainforest, were exposed to stressful conditions by combined addition of the glutathione inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (0.8 mM and 0.2 mM jasmonic acid. This procedure induced a synchronized two-fold increase of hydrogen peroxide and guaiacol peroxidases, while the glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity were reduced. Likewise in elicited cultures, production of the antioxidant secondary metabolites, monoterpenoid oxindole and glucoindole alkaloids, were 2.1 and 5.5-fold stimulated (704.0 ± 14.9 and 845.5 ± 13.0 µg/g DW, respectively after 12 h after, while phenols were three times increased. Upon elicitation, the activities and mRNA transcript levels of two enzymes involved in the alkaloid biosynthesis, strictosidine synthase and strictosidine β-glucosidase, were also enhanced. Differential proteome analysis performed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of elicited and control root cultures showed that, after elicitation, several new protein spots appeared. Two of them were identified as thiol-related enzymes, namely cysteine synthase and methionine synthase. Proteins associated with antioxidant and stress responses, including two strictosidine synthase isoforms, were identified as well, together with others as caffeic acid O-methyltransferase. Our results propose that in U. tomentosa roots a signaling network involving hydrogen peroxide and jasmonate derivatives coordinately regulates the antioxidant response and secondary metabolic defense via transcriptional and protein activation.

  9. Growth and production of tropane alkaloids by cell suspension cutures of hyoscyamus albus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsara, A. M. [احمد محمد كنسارة

    1990-01-01

    Cell suspension of Hyoscyamus albus L. were investigated for growth and production of tropane alkaloids in three different media. The effects of sucrose concentration and initial pH were also studied. 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1% sucrose enhanced the production of tropane alkaloids. The percent of alkaloids (0.75%) was higher than in the cultivated plant (0.352 %). أجرى قحص لنمو وانتاج قلويدات التروبان لمزارع المعلق الخلوي في ثلاث بيئات مختلفة لنبات السكران الأبيض ، وقد درس أيضا ...

  10. The anti-inflammation and pharmacokinetics of a novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yihan; Ying, Zheming; Xiang, Zheng; Hao, Dong; Zhang, Wenjie; Zheng, Yu; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang

    2016-03-01

    This study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of a novel alkaloid, 6-acetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-dihydrocyclohepta[b]pyrrol-8(1H)-one, named oleracone isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and to examine the anti-inflammatory ability with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages. The novel alkaloid, oleracone, was isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and its structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS, 2D NMR spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The activity of anti-inflammation was assayed via the test with RAW 264.7 activated by LPS, and the pharmacokinetics of oleracone in rat plasma after intravenous and oral administration at dose of 2.5 mg/kg was, respectively, investigated by a rapid and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with bergapten as internal standard. Oleracone was a novel alkaloid first isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and possessed unique structure in natural products, whose anti-inflammatory effecting on nitrite oxide production and several pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines was found at the concentration of 50 μm, and the pharmacokinetic results indicated that oleracone was rapidly distributed with Tmax of 15.7 min after oral administration and presented a higher oral absolute bioavailability to be 74.91 ± 10.7%. Oleracone as novel alkaloid presented remarkably anti-inflammatory effect, which was rapid distributed in rat with high bioavailability of 74.91 ± 10.7%. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  11. Tropane alkaloids and calystegines as chemotaxonomic markers in the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto, Aline G S; Blanco, Carolina C; Mentz, Lilian A; Soares, Geraldo L G

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and distribution of tropane alkaloids and calystegines in genera of the family Solanaceae to identify patterns of distribution and make evolutionary inferences. A database of tropane alkaloids and calystegines occurrences was constructed from the results of a search of scientific websites and a hand search of periodicals. The terms "Solanaceae", "tropane alkaloids", and "calystegines" were used as index terms for a full-text article search unrestricted by date of publications. The number of occurrence and chemical diversity indices were calculated and cluster analysis and principal components analysis were performed. Overall, 996 occurrences were reported, 879 of tropane alkaloids (88.3%) and 117 of calystegines (11.7%). The calystegines were significantly more relevant than tropane alkaloids for characterization of distinct groups of genera on both analyses performed here. This corroborates the trend toward a chemical dichotomy observed on database analysis and somewhat reinforces the correlation between geographic distribution and occurrence of secondary metabolites, as the presence of calystegines alone (without tropane alkaloids) was only reported in genera that have South America as their center of diversity.

  12. Anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of quaternary alkaloids from Tinospora crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mashitah; Hamid, Hazrulrizawati; Houghton, Peter

    2014-01-20

    Quaternary alkaloids are the major alkaloids isolated from Tinospora species. A previous study pointed to the necessary presence of quaternary nitrogens for strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in such alkaloids. Repeated column chromatography of the vine of Tinospora crispa extract led to the isolation of one new protoberberine alkaloid, 4,13-dihydroxy-2,8,9-trimethoxydibenzo[a,g]quinolizinium (1), along with six known alkaloids-dihydrodiscretamine (2), columbamine (3), magnoflorine (4), N-formylannonaine (5), N-formylnornuciferine (6), and N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7). The seven compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Two known alkaloids, namely, dihydrodiscretamine and columbamine are reported for the first time for this plant. The compounds were tested for AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's method. In the AChE inhibition assay, only columbamine (3) showed strong activity with IC50 48.1 µM. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results suggest that the quaternary nitrogen in the skeleton has some effect, but that a high degree of methoxylation is more important for acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

  13. Identification, occurrence and activity of quinazoline alkaloids in Peganum harmala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, Tomás; Guillén, Hugo; Arán, Vicente J; Salgado, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Peganum harmala L. is a medicinal plant from the Mediterranean region and Asia currently used for recreative psychoactive purposes (Ayahuasca analogue), and increasingly involved in toxic cases. Its psychopharmacological and toxicological properties are attributed to quinazoline and β-carboline alkaloids. In this work three major quinazoline alkaloids were isolated from P. harmala extracts and characterized as peganine (vasicine), deoxypeganine (deoxyvasicine) and a novel compound identified by HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR as peganine β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (peganine glycoside). Peganine appeared in flowers and leaves in high levels; high amounts of deoxypeganine and peganine were found in immature and green fruits whereas peganine and peganine glycoside accumulated in high amount in dry seeds reaching up to 1 and 3.9% (w/w), respectively. Roots and stems contained low amount of quinazolines. Seeds extracts containing both quinazoline and β-carboline alkaloids potently inhibited human monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A. However, quinazoline alkaloids did not contribute to MAO inhibition that was due to β-carbolines, suggesting that MAO-related psychoactive or toxic actions do not arise from quinazolines. Quinazoline alkaloids were poor radical scavengers in the ABTS assay whereas seed extracts had good activity. Quinazoline alkaloids are known to exert bronchodilator and abortifacient actions, and could contribute to such effects reported in P. harmala. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Aconitum diterpenoid alkaloids as antiproliferative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Ohkoshi, Emika; Zhao, Yu; Goto, Masuo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-04-01

    Little information has been reported on the antitumor effects of the diterpenoid alkaloid constituents of Aconitum plants, used in the herbal drug 'bushi'. This study was aimed at determining the antitumor activities of Aconitum C19-and C20-diterpenoid alkaloids and synthetic derivatives against lung (A549), prostate (DU145), nasopharyngeal (KB), and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KB-VIN) cancer cell lines. Newly synthesized C20-diterpenoid alkaloid derivatives showed substantial suppressive effects against all human tumor cell lines tested. In contrast, natural and derivatized C19-diterpenoid alkaloids showed only a slight or no effect. Most of the active compounds were hetisine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids, specifically kobusine and pseudokobusine analogs with two different substitution patterns, C-11 and C-11,15. Notably, several C20-diterpenoid alkaloids were more potent against multidrug-resistant KB subline KB-VIN cells. Pseudokobusine 11-3'-trifluoromethylbenzoate (94) is a possible promising new lead meriting additional evaluation against multidrug-resistant tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts as a diagnostic and prognostic index in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Gao,1,* Jianqing Q Ruan,2,* Jie Chen,1 Na Li,2 Changqiang Q Ke,3 Yang Ye,3–5 Ge Lin,2,4,5 Jiyao Y Wang1,61Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Joint Research Laboratory for Promoting Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, 5Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 6Center of Evidence-Based Medicine Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: The diagnosis of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is mainly based on clinical investigation. There is currently no prognostic index. This study evaluated the quantitative measurement of blood pyrrole-protein adducts (PPAs as a diagnostic and prognostic index for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced HSOS.Methods: Suspected drug-induced liver injury patients were prospectively recruited. Blood PPAs were quantitatively measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients’ age, sex, biochemistry test results, and a detailed drug history were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups, ie, those with HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing drugs and those with liver injury induced by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The relationship between herb administration, clinical outcomes, blood sampling time, and blood PPA concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS patients was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis.Results: Forty patients met the entry criteria, among whom 23 had pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS and 17 had liver injury caused by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Among the 23

  16. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Lucia C.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development. PMID:23580748

  17. Nuclear and mitochondrial multilocus phylogeny and survey of alkaloid content in true salamanders of the genus Salamandra (Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Sanchez, Eugenia; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Eikelmann, Daniel; Rodríguez, Ariel; Carranza, Salvador; Donaire, David; Gehara, Marcelo; Helfer, Véronique; Lötters, Stefan; Werner, Philine; Schulz, Stefan; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2014-04-01

    The genus Salamandra represents a clade of six species of Palearctic salamanders of either contrasted black-yellow, or uniformly black coloration, known to contain steroidal alkaloid toxins in high concentrations in their skin secretions. This study reconstructs the phylogeny of the genus Salamandra based on DNA sequences of segments of 10 mitochondrial and 13 nuclear genes from 31 individual samples representing all Salamandra species and most of the commonly recognized subspecies. The concatenated analysis of the complete dataset produced a fully resolved tree with most nodes strongly supported, suggesting that a clade composed of the Alpine salamander (S. atra) and the Corsican fire salamander (S. corsica) is the sister taxon to a clade containing the remaining species, among which S. algira and S. salamandra are sister species. Separate analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data partitions disagreed regarding basal nodes and in the position of the root but concordantly recovered the S. atra/S. corsica as well as the S. salamandra/S. algira relationship. A species-tree analysis suggested almost simultaneous temporal splits between these pairs of species, which we hypothesize was caused by vicariance events after the Messinian salinity crisis (from late Miocene to early Pliocene). A survey of toxins with combined gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy confirmed the presence of samandarine and/or samandarone steroidal alkaloids in all species of Salamandra as well as in representatives of their sister group, Lyciasalamandra. Samandarone was also detected in lower concentrations in other salamandrids including Calotriton, Euproctus, Lissotriton, and Triturus, suggesting that the presence and possible biosynthesis of this alkaloid is plesiomorphic within the Salamandridae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Vinegar and Wine Processing on the Alkaloid Content and Composition of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corydalis Rhizoma is the dried tuber of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang which is used in traditional Chinese medicine for pain relief and blood activation. Before being used in the clinics, C. yanhusuo is traditionally processed through dry-frying or frying with vinegar, wine or salt. In this study, eleven alkaloids from Corydalis Rhizoma, namely protopine (1, α-allocryptopine (2, tetrahydrocolumbamine (3, coptisine (4, palmatine (5, berberine (6, dehydrocorydaline (7, d,l-tetrahydropalmatine (8, tetrahydroberberine (9, corydaline (10 and tetrahydrocoptisine (11 were simultaneously quantified using a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD method. The influence of vinegar and wine processing on the content of the main alkaloids of Corydalis Rhizoma was investigated. For this purpose, two common formulations with clinical application, namely the water decoction of Corydalis Rhizoma and its formula Jin Ling Zi San (combination of Corydalis Rhizoma and Toosendan Fructus were studied. In the two water decoctions, wine and vinegar processing increased the amount of tertiary alkaloids. The differences were more pronounced for Jin Ling Zi San, in which case the content of all tertiary alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 was increased by wine processing.

  19. Calcium and phosphate effects on growth and alkaloid production in Coffea arabica: experimental results and mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, J L; Graves, D J; Brodelius, P

    1991-04-15

    Plant, mammalian, and microbial cells are commonly immobilized in calcium alginate gels for the production of valuable secondary metabolites. However, calcium ions are known to inhibit growth in various types of cells, and calcium is an integral part of such gels. Therefore, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of calcium on the growth and alkaloid production of a model cell-line, Coffea arabica, in suspension culture before, attempting to immobilize such cells in alginate. A kinetic model was then developed from the results to describe cell growth and alkaloid production and the mechanism by which calcium influences these variables. In addition, it was observed that there was a characteristic relationship between the concentration of calcium in the external medium and the concentration of extra cellular and intracellular phosphate. The intracellular phosphate level was, in turn, related to the production of alkaloids. Using these results, a dynamic mathematical model of cell growth and alkaloid production was developed based on the proposed roles of calcium and phosphate. The model showed satisfactory agreement with three sets of experiments at different calcium concentrations. A possible linkage between the calcium and phosphate results is postulated based on the limited solubility of calcium phosphate.

  20. Influence of vinegar and wine processing on the alkaloid content and composition of the traditional Chinese medicine Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongwei; Waldbauer, Katharina; Tang, Liying; Xie, Lianwu; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Zehl, Martin; Yang, Hongjun; Xu, Haiyu; Kopp, Brigitte

    2014-08-04

    Corydalis Rhizoma is the dried tuber of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang which is used in traditional Chinese medicine for pain relief and blood activation. Before being used in the clinics, C. yanhusuo is traditionally processed through dry-frying or frying with vinegar, wine or salt. In this study, eleven alkaloids from Corydalis Rhizoma, namely protopine (1), α-allocryptopine (2), tetrahydrocolumbamine (3), coptisine (4), palmatine (5), berberine (6), dehydrocorydaline (7), D,L-tetrahydropalmatine (8), tetrahydroberberine (9), corydaline (10) and tetrahydrocoptisine (11) were simultaneously quantified using a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method. The influence of vinegar and wine processing on the content of the main alkaloids of Corydalis Rhizoma was investigated. For this purpose, two common formulations with clinical application, namely the water decoction of Corydalis Rhizoma and its formula Jin Ling Zi San (combination of Corydalis Rhizoma and Toosendan Fructus) were studied. In the two water decoctions, wine and vinegar processing increased the amount of tertiary alkaloids. The differences were more pronounced for Jin Ling Zi San, in which case the content of all tertiary alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11) was increased by wine processing.

  1. Determination of Cinchona alkaloids and Vitamin B6 by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.; Gioia, M.G.; Cavrini, V.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and specific method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the four major Cinchona alkaloids and their dihydroderivatives and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B 6 ) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (λ em =420 nm with λ ex =330 nm). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Prodigy ODS column (5 μm, 250 mmx3.2 mm i.d.), recommended for basic compounds, under isocratic reversed-phase conditions. The method allowed a good peak shape and an effective resolution of the tested compounds. The extraction of alkaloids from the Cinchona succirubra bark was carried out in mild and fast conditions (ambient temperature, 20 min) by ultrasonication. The procedure showed to be advantageous respect to a reference method, which involved Soxhlet extraction. The results were compared statistically by means of the Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test; no significant difference was found. The method was reproducible (relative standard deviations in the range of 1.0-5.0% for the different alkaloids) and gave quantitative recovery of alkaloids added to bark samples (97.8-105%). For additional informations a photoreactor was arranged between the analytical column and the detector and the online post-column photochemical conversion (irradiation=254 nm) was investigated. Vitamin B 6 was shown to be highly photosensitive, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra with and without UV irradiation. The proposed method was successfully applied to the quality control of Cinchona bark, liquid extract and cosmetics

  2. Monitoring changes in anthocyanin and steroid alkaloid glycoside content in lines of transgenic potato plants using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecki, Maciej; Matysiak-Kata, Iwona; Frański, Rafał; Skała, Jacek; Szopa, Jan

    2003-03-01

    Transgenic potato plants overexpressing and repressing enzymes of flavonoids biosynthesis were created and analyzed. The selected plants clearly showed the expected changes in anthocyanins synthesis level. Overexpression of a DNA encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) in sense orientation resulted in an increase in tuber anthocyanins, a 4-fold increase in petunidin and pelargonidin derivatives. A significant decrease in anthocyanin level was observed when the plant was transformed with a corresponding antisense construct. The transformation of potato plants was also accompanied by significant changes in steroid alkaloid glycosides (SAG) level in transgenic potato tuber. The changes in SAGs content was not dependent on flavonoid composition in transgenic potato. However, in an extreme situation where the highest (DFR11) or the lowest (DFRa3) anthocyanin level was detected the positive correlation with steroid alkaloid content was clearly visible. It is suggested that the changes in SAGs content resulted from chromatin stressed upon transformation. A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) system with electrospray ionization was applied for profiling qualitative and quantitative changes of steroid alkaloid glycosides in tubers of twelve lines of transgenic potato plants. Except alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, in the extracts from dried tuber skin alpha-solamargine and alpha-solasonine, triglycosides of solasonine, were identified in minor amounts, triglycosides of solanidine dehydrodimers were also recognized.

  3. Effect of Alkaloid-Free and Alkaloid-Rich preparations from Uncaria tomentosa bark on mitotic activity and chromosome morphology evaluated by Allium Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraś, Mieczysław; Pilarski, Radosław; Nowakowska, Julita; Zobel, Alicja; Brzost, Krzysztof; Antosiewicz, Justyna; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-12

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. is the most popular Peruvian plant, used in folk medicine for different purposes. It contains thousands of active compounds with great content of alkaloids. Two different fractions of Alkaloid-Rich and Alkaloid-Free were researched on chromosome morphology, mitotic activity and phases indexes. Cells of Allium Test (meristematic cells of root tips) were incubated up to 24h in different concentrations of Alkaloid-Free and Alkaloid-Rich fraction obtained from Uncaria tomentosa bark followed by 48 h of postincubation in water. The chromosome morphology was analyzed and the content of mitotic and phase indexes were done. Individual compounds, oxindole alkaloids, phenolic compounds and sugars were determined. In Alkaloid-Rich and Alkaloid-Free fractions (different in chemical composition) we observed condensation and contraction of chromosomes (more in Alkaloid-Rich) with retardation and/or inhibition of mitoses and changed mitotic phases. Postincubation reversed results in the highest concentration which was lethal (in mostly Alkaloid-Rich fraction). Our studies indicate that different action can depend on different groups of active compounds in a preparation either containing alkaloids or not. Other fraction analysis may be useful in the future.

  4. Alkaloids and athlete immune function: caffeine, theophylline, gingerol, ephedrine, and their congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S; Hallam, Justus E; Kohut, Marian L; Nguyen, Norah A; Perera, M Ann d N

    2014-01-01

    Plant alkaloids are found in foods, beverages, and supplements consumed by athletes for daily nutrition, performance enhancement, and immune function improvement. This paper examined possible immunomodulatory roles of alkaloids in exercise contexts, with a focus on human studies. Four representative groups were scrutinized: (a) caffeine (guaranine, mateine); (b) theophylline and its isomers, theobromine and paraxanthine; (c) ginger alkaloids including gingerols and shogaol; and (d) ephedra alkaloids such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Emerging or prospective alkaloid sources (Goji berry, Noni berry, and bloodroot) were also considered. Human in vitro and in vivo studies on alkaloids and immune function were often conflicting. Caffeine may be immunomodulatory in vivo depending on subject characteristics, exercise characteristics, and immune parameters measured. Caffeine may exhibit antioxidant capacities. Ginger may exert in vivo anti-inflammatory effects in certain populations, but it is unclear whether these effects are due to alkaloids or other biochemicals. Evidence for an immunomodulatory role of alkaloids in energy drinks, cocoa, or ephedra products in vivo is weak to nonexistent. For alkaloid sources derived from plants, variability in the reviewed studies may be due to the presence of unrecognized alkaloids or non-alkaloid compounds (which may themselves be immunomodulatory), and pre-experimental factors such as agricultural or manufacturing differences. Athletes should not look to alkaloids or alkaloid-rich sources as a means of improving immune function given their inconsistent activities, safety concerns, and lack of commercial regulation.

  5. Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kyle J; Seiter, Emily M; Johnson, Erin E; Saporito, Ralph A

    2018-02-10

    Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens. While natural alkaloid mixtures in dendrobatid poison frogs have recently been shown to inhibit growth of non-pathogenic microbes, no studies have examined the effectiveness of alkaloids against microbes that infect these frogs. Herein, we examined how alkaloid defenses in the dendrobatid poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, affect growth of the known anuran pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Frogs were collected from five locations throughout Costa Rica that are known to vary in their alkaloid profiles. Alkaloids were isolated from individual skins, and extracts were assayed against both pathogens. Microbe subcultures were inoculated with extracted alkaloids to create dose-response curves. Subsequent spectrophotometry and cell counting assays were used to assess growth inhibition. GC-MS was used to characterize and quantify alkaloids in frog extracts, and our results suggest that variation in alkaloid defenses lead to differences in inhibition of these pathogens. The present study provides the first evidence that alkaloid variation in a dendrobatid poison frog is associated with differences in inhibition of anuran pathogens, and offers further support that alkaloid defenses in poison frogs confer protection against both pathogens and predators.

  6. Effects of Continuously Feeding Diets Containing Cereal Ergot Alkaloids on Nutrient Digestibility, Alkaloid Recovery in Feces, and Performance Traits of Ram Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Coufal-Majewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Allowable limits for cereal ergot alkaloids in livestock feeds are being re-examined, and the objective of this study was to compare nutrient digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of ram lambs fed a range of alkaloid concentrations, including the maximum currently allowed in Canada (2 to 3 ppm. Four pelleted diets were fed: control, with no added alkaloids; 930; 1402; and 2447 ppb alkaloids based on total R and S epimers. Eight ram lambs (30.0 ± 3.1 kg were used to examine the impacts of dietary treatments on nutrient digestibility and alkaloid recovery from feces. Concentrations of dietary alkaloids evaluated did not affect nutrient digestibility or N metabolism. Excepting ergocornine and ergocryptine, recovery of alkaloids in feces varied among periods, suggesting that individual lambs may differ in their ability to metabolize ergocristine, ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine and their S epimers. In a second experiment, ram lambs (n = 47, 30 ± 8 kg were randomly assigned to a diet and weighed weekly until they achieved a slaughter weight of ≥ 45 kg (average 9 weeks; range 6 to 13 weeks. Intake of DM did not differ (p = 0.91 among diets, although lambs fed 2447 ppb alkaloids had a lower (p < 0.01 ADG than did lambs receiving other treatments. The concentration of serum prolactin linearly declined (p < 0.01 with increasing alkaloids. Feeding 2447 ppb total alkaloids negatively impacted growth, while feeding 1402 ppb did not harm growth performance, but reduced carcass dressing percentage. Due to different concentrations of alkaloids affecting growth and carcass characteristics in the present study, determining allowable limits for total dietary alkaloids will require a better understanding of impacts of alkaloid profiles and interactions among individual alkaloids.

  7. (vitamin B1) biosynthesis genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the gene transcripts of first two enzymes in thiamine biosynthesis pathway, THIC and THI1/THI4 were identified and amplified from oil palm tissues. Primers were designed based on sequence comparison of the genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa and Alnus glutinosa. Oil palm's responses ...

  8. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Falara, Vasiliki; Givanoudi, Stella; Kostas, Stefanos; Kanellis, Angelos

    2014-06-01

    The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales) consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria). Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  9. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra ePapaefthimiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria. Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  10. Total synthesis of the indolizidine alkaloid tashiromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElhinney Alison D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tashiromine 1 is a naturally occurring indolizidine alkaloid. It has been the subject of thirteen successful total syntheses to date. Our own approach centres on the stereoselective construction of the indolizidine core by capture of an electrophilic acyliminium species by a pendant allylsilane. The key cyclisation precursor is constructed using olefin cross-metathesis chemistry, which has the potential to facilitate both racemic and asymmetric approaches, depending upon the choice of the allylsilane metathesis partner. Results The use of the allyltrimethylsilane cross-metathesis approach enables the rapid construction of the key cyclisation precursor 3 (3 steps from commercial materials, which undergoes acid-induced cyclisation to give the desired bicyclic indolizidine skeleton as a 96:4 mixture of diastereomers. Simple functional group interconversions allowed the completion of the total synthesis of racemic tashiromine in six steps (19% overall yield. Three chiral α-alkoxyallylsilanes (12,14 and 15 were prepared in enantioenriched form and their cross-metathesis reactions studied as part of a putative asymmetric approach to tashiromine. In the event, α-hydroxysilane 12 underwent isomerisation under the reaction conditions to acylsilane 17, while silanes 14 and 15 were unreactive towards metathesis. Conclusion A concise, stereoselective total synthesis of racemic tashiromine has been developed. Attempts to translate this into an asymmetric synthesis have thus far been unsuccessful.

  11. Advances in vinca-alkaloids: Navelbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, M; Extra, J M; Espie, M; Leandri, S; Besenval, M; Krikorian, A

    1989-01-01

    Vinorelbine (Navelbine) is a new semisynthetic vinca alkaloid which chemically differs from vinblastine by substitutions on the catharantine moiety of the molecule. It has shown promising experimental antitumor activity against experimental murine tumors as well as continuous cell lines of human neoplastic origin and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. Acute subacute and chronic toxicity extensively studied in rodents, dogs and primate has shown that hematotoxicity was almost the sole side-effect; neurotoxicity appears very limited. Almost exclusive affinity of NVB for mitotic tubulin and tubulin associated protein accounts for this pattern of toxicity. Phase I and II studies have been conducted in humans. Dose limiting side-effect appears to be neutropenia: the drug is slightly emetogenic, induces little alopecia, almost no neurotoxicity, and no other toxicity. Although preliminary, results of phase II studies already suggest significant activity of NVB in non small lung cancer (33% response rate in 78 evaluable patients), advanced breast cancer (53% response rate in 33 pts without significant chemotherapy for the target progression) and Hodgkin's disease (90% response rate after 4 weekly courses in 31 pts). Thus extensive pharmacological studies and ongoing clinical studies confirm that chemical modifications of the catharantine moiety of vinca alcaloid can lead to active agents with broader spectrum of activity and easily manageable side effects.

  12. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Stegelmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health.

  13. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP, at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the

  14. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Fu, Peter P.; Chou, Ming W.

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP), at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i) similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii) the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the tumorigenicity induced by

  15. Effect of Iboga alkaloids on µ-opioid receptor-coupled G protein activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Antonio

    Full Text Available The iboga alkaloids are a class of small molecules defined structurally on the basis of a common ibogamine skeleton, some of which modify opioid withdrawal and drug self-administration in humans and preclinical models. These compounds may represent an innovative approach to neurobiological investigation and development of addiction pharmacotherapy. In particular, the use of the prototypic iboga alkaloid ibogaine for opioid detoxification in humans raises the question of whether its effect is mediated by an opioid agonist action, or if it represents alternative and possibly novel mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to independently replicate and extend evidence regarding the activation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR-related G proteins by iboga alkaloids.Ibogaine, its major metabolite noribogaine, and 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC, a synthetic congener, were evaluated by agonist-stimulated guanosine-5´-O-(γ-thio-triphosphate ([(35S]GTPγS binding in cells overexpressing the recombinant MOR, in rat thalamic membranes, and autoradiography in rat brain slices.In rat thalamic membranes ibogaine, noribogaine and 18-MC were MOR antagonists with functional Ke values ranging from 3 uM (ibogaine to 13 uM (noribogaine and 18MC. Noribogaine and 18-MC did not stimulate [(35S]GTPγS binding in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human or rat MORs, and had only limited partial agonist effects in human embryonic kidney cells expressing mouse MORs. Ibogaine did not did not stimulate [(35S]GTPγS binding in any MOR expressing cells. Noribogaine did not stimulate [(35S]GTPγS binding in brain slices using autoradiography. An MOR agonist action does not appear to account for the effect of these iboga alkaloids on opioid withdrawal. Taken together with existing evidence that their mechanism of action also differs from that of other non-opioids with clinical effects on opioid tolerance and withdrawal, these findings suggest a novel mechanism of action, and

  16. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  17. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present research work, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its activity on bacterial pathogens were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using Urospora sp. and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30 min. The results recorded from UV–vis spectrum, Fourier Transform Infrared ...

  18. [Bromo- and iodo-containing alkaloids from marine microorganisms and sponges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, V M

    2002-01-01

    The taxonomic distribution, structure, and biological activity of halogenated alkaloids isolated from marine microorganisms and sponges are reviewed. The structures of nearly 140 natural bromo- and iodo-containing alkaloids are shown.

  19. A novel glucosyltransferase involved in steroid saponin biosynthesis in Solanum aculeatissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Atsuko; Nakajima, Chiharu; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Ikenaga, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2005-01-01

    Steroidal saponins are widely distributed in many plant species. Their diverse structures have resulted in a wide range of applications, including drug and medicine production. It has been suggested that the nature of the non-saccharide and oligosaccharide portions of the saponin molecule both contribute to the properties of individual saponins. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence, chemical structure, and varying pharmaceutical activities of steroidal saponins, their biosynthesis pathway is poorly understood. Glycosylation is thought to be the final step in steroidal saponin biosynthesis and it is thought to be involved in regulating the biological activities of saponins. Isolation of the glycosyltransferases that catalyze the transfer of sugar molecules to steroidal compounds will help to clarify the mechanisms that produce diverse saponins and control their activities in plants. In this study, we obtained three cDNAs encoding putative glycosyltransferases from Solanum aculeatissimum. One of the three, SaGT4A showed UDP-glucosyltransferase activity. This is the first cloned glucosyltransferase involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis. SaGT4A catalyzes the 3-O-glucosylation of steroidal sapogenins, such as diosgenin, nuatigenin, and tigogenin. This enzyme also glucosylates steroidal alkaloids, such as solanidine, solasodine, and tomatidine. Gene expression analysis revealed that the accumulation of SaGT4A transcripts showed a unique response to wounding stress indicating the involvement of SaGT4A in plant defense system.

  20. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin. [Aspergillus ustus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using /sup 13/C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding (1-/sup 14/C)-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the /sup 13/C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in (1-/sup 14/C)-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of (1,2-/sup 13/C/sub 2/)-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus.

  1. Biosistematik species Annona muricata Annona squamosa dan Annona reticulata dengan pendekatan alkaloid

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidah Hamidah; Santoso Santoso; Rina Kasiamdari

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to explore kinship Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata on the basis alkaloid content. Study phenotype Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata based alkaloid content. Data alkaloid obtained are thenprocessed by a computer program SPSS version 14. The results of this study indicate that the presence of variations in the characterof the three types of Annona of species alkaloid. From the data analysis it can be seen that there are differences...

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2013-09-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  3. Steroidal glyco alkaloids and molluscicidal activity of Solanum asperum Rich. fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tania M.S.; Camara, Celso A.; Freire, Kristerson R.L.; Silva, Thiago G. da; Agra, Maria de F.; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the alkaloidal extract of the green fruits of Solanum asperum afforded a new compound, solanandaine along with solasonine and solamargine. The total crude alkaloids as well as the isolated pure alkaloids exhibited significant molluscicidal activity. (author)

  4. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  5. Alkaloid content of South African lupins (L luteus, L albus and L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    process. Methods are described in detail by Bran & Luebbe (1994). Results and Discussion. The alkaloid contents of the different South African lupin types and cultivars are presented in Table 1. Table 1 Alkaloid content of South African lupin types and cultivars. Alkaloid content (ppm)+. Lupin type and cultivar. Number of.

  6. Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Anne; Fischer, Juliane; Sichhart, Yvonne; Brandt, Wolfgang; Dräger, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs), which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDSs use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in D. stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom. PMID:23908659

  7. Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eJunker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs, which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDS use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in Datura stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom.

  8. GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 is required for steroidal alkaloid glycosylation and prevention of phytotoxicity in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Maxim; Rogachev, Ilana; Alkan, Noam; Rosenberg, Tally; Malitsky, Sergey; Masini, Laura; Meir, Sagit; Iijima, Yoko; Aoki, Koh; de Vos, Ric; Prusky, Dov; Burdman, Saul; Beekwilder, Jules; Aharoni, Asaph

    2011-12-01

    Steroidal alkaloids (SAs) are triterpene-derived specialized metabolites found in members of the Solanaceae family that provide plants with a chemical barrier against a broad range of pathogens. Their biosynthesis involves the action of glycosyltransferases to form steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). To elucidate the metabolism of SGAs in the Solanaceae family, we examined the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 (GAME1) gene. Our findings imply that GAME1 is a galactosyltransferase, largely performing glycosylation of the aglycone tomatidine, resulting in SGA production in green tissues. Downregulation of GAME1 resulted in an almost 50% reduction in α-tomatine levels (the major SGA in tomato) and a large increase in its precursors (i.e., tomatidenol and tomatidine). Surprisingly, GAME1-silenced plants displayed growth retardation and severe morphological phenotypes that we suggest occur as a result of altered membrane sterol levels caused by the accumulation of the aglycone tomatidine. Together, these findings highlight the role of GAME1 in the glycosylation of SAs and in reducing the toxicity of SA metabolites to the plant cell.

  9. Three new alkaloids from Xylopia vielana and their antiinflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Gong; Ding, Yun-He; Wu, Guo-Jing; Zhu, Sheng-Lan; Sun, Yuan-Fang; Yan, Shi-Kai; Qian, Feng; Jin, Hui-Zi; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2018-02-05

    Three new aporphine alkaloids, xylopialoids A-C (1-3), along with three known aporphine alkioids (4-6) and three other known compounds (7-9) were isolated from the roots of Xylopia vielana. Among these three new aporphine alkaloids, xylopialoid C (3) showed a special carbamido group directly connected to the nitrogen. The chemical structures of these nine compounds were determined by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, MS, CD spectrum and Cu Kα X-ray crystallographic analyses. All these six alkaloids were firstly tested for the inhibitory activities against the production of NO in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Among these compounds, 4 showed a potential inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide with IC 50 value of 1.39 μM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schriemer David C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a

  11. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Cram, Dustin; Nowak, Jacek; Facchini, Peter J

    2010-11-18

    Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a system with a well-defined metabolite profile facilitates

  12. 13C-NMR assignments and cytotoxicity assessment of zoanthoxanthin alkaloids from zoanthid corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, C; Crews, P

    1993-01-01

    Zoanthoxanthin alkaloids can vary among skeletal types A, B, and C. Three type C zoanthoxanthins were examined, including a new compound 1, previously reported paragracine [2], and zoanthoxanthin 3. Their nmr and cytotoxic properties are reported. We have used 2D nmr data to complete the assignments for 1 and suggest that these benchmark nmr assignments will allow future investigators to establish new metabolites of this class as a member of families A, B, or C with only a 13C APT and a 1H-1H nmr spectra.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase from opium poppy, a key enzyme in sanguinarine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-02-15

    Sanguinarine is a benzo[c]phenenthridine alkaloid with potent antimicrobial properties found commonly in plants of the Papaveraceae, including the roots of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Sanguinarine is formed from the central 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediate (S)-reticuline via the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, which undergoes five enzymatic oxidations and an N-methylation. The first four oxidations from (S)-scoulerine are catalyzed by cytochromes P450, whereas the final conversion involves a flavoprotein oxidase. All but one gene in the biosynthetic pathway from (S)-reticuline to sanguinarine has been identified. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase (MSH) from opium poppy based on the transcriptional induction in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures and root-specific expression of the corresponding gene. Along with protopine 6-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the subsequent and penultimate step in sanguinarine biosynthesis, MSH is a member of the CYP82N subfamily of cytochromes P450. The full-length MSH cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the recombinant microsomal protein was tested for enzymatic activity using 25 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids representing a wide range of structural subgroups. The only enzymatic substrates were the N-methylated protoberberine alkaloids N-methylstylopine and N-methylcanadine, which were converted to protopine and allocryptopine, respectively. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Variation of the alkaloid content of Peumus boldus (boldo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Barros, Gonzalo; Castro-Saavedra, Sebastián; Liberona, Leonel; Acevedo-Fuentes, Williams; Tirapegui, Cristian; Mattar, César; Cassels, Bruce K

    2018-02-14

    Eighteen alkaloids were detected in the bark, leaves, wood and roots of Peumus boldus, including traces of secoboldine, N-methylsecoboldine (boldine methine), glaucine and norreticuline, not reported previously as constituents of this species. Using appropriate standards, we quantified thirteen of them by UHPLC-MS/MS. Boldine was dominant in the bark, and laurolitsine in wood and roots. The alkaloid composition of the leaves, determined for 130 individually identified trees, classified by age and sex, was highly variable, where N-methyllaurotetanine, laurotetanine, coclaurine and in some cases isocorydine predominated, but not boldine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant Potential of Cyclopeptyide Alkaloids Isolated from Zizyphus Oxphylla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleem, W.A.; Muhammad, N.; Khan, H.; Rauf, A.; Haq, M.Z.U.; Qayum, M.; Khan, A.Z.; Nisar, M.; Obaidullah, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the antioxidant potential of five cyclopeptide alkaloids isolated from Zizyphus oxyphylla including Oxyphylline-D 1, Nummularin-C 2, Nummularin-R 3, Oxyphylline-B 4, Oxyphylline C 5 using DPPH free radical assay, nitric oxide radical assay and reducing power assay. The isolated alkaloids demonstrated marked antioxidant potential in a concentration dependent manner. Among the tested molecules, the compounds, 2 was most potent with IC50 values of 27.23, 32.03 and 22.45 μg/ml in DPPH free radical assay, nitric oxide radical assay and reducing power assay respectively. (author)

  16. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  17. Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Janet S W; Poon, W T; Ma, C K; Chen, M L; Pang, K S; Mak, Tony W L; Chan, H B

    2013-12-01

    In this report, we describe a case of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related Budd-Chiari syndrome in Hong Kong. A 10-month-old boy presented with ascites, right pleural effusion, and hepatomegaly after consumption of herbal drinks for 3 months. His clinical (including imaging) features were compatible with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disease entity in paediatric patients. In our case, extensive workup performed to look for the underlying cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome was unrevealing, except for toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure in his herbal drinks.

  18. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  19. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor ANAC032 Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Response to High Sucrose and Oxidative and Abiotic Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Kashif; Xu, Zhenhua; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Casaretto, Jos? A.; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous su...

  20. Characterization of a Flavoprotein Oxidase from Opium Poppy Catalyzing the Final Steps in Sanguinarine and Papaverine Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Beaudoin, Guillaume A. W.; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J. J.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The Km values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism. PMID:23118227

  1. Characterization of a flavoprotein oxidase from opium poppy catalyzing the final steps in sanguinarine and papaverine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M; Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J J; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-12-14

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The K(m) values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism.

  2. Effect of processing on the alkaloids in Aconitum tubers by HPLC-TOF/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015, only processed Aconitum tubers can be clinically applied, and the effect of processing is unclear. This research aimed to explore the effect of processing on cardiac efficacy of alkaloids in Aconitum tubers. First, the chemical ingredients in unprocessed and processed Aconitum tubers were identified and compared by using high performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS and multivariate pattern recognition methods. Then the representative alkaloids in Aconitum tubers, aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine, which belong to diester-diterpenoid alkaloids, monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids, respectively, were selected for further validation of attenuated mechanism. Subsequent pharmacological experiments with aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine in SD rats were used for validate the effect of processing on cardiac functions. After processing the Aconitum tubers, it was found that the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were reduced, and those of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids were increased, suggesting that diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were transformed into monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids. Through further decocting the aconitine in boiling water, it was confirmed that the three alkaloids could be progressively transformed. Pharmacological experiments with aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine in SD rats showed that aconitine at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg and aconine at a dose of 10 mg/kg enhanced the cardiac function, while benzoylaconine at a dose of 2 mg/kg weakened the cardiac function. The effect of processing is attributed to the transformation of the most toxic diester-diterpenoid alkaloids into less toxic monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids.

  3. Effects of Supplementation of Alkaloid and Non Alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus Leaves on Egg Production and Lipid Profil in Layer Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus leaves on productive performance and the contents of lipid fractions in layer chickens. Forty two layer chickens aged 30 weeks were distributed to seven treatment groups. Each treatment group contained six layer chickens maintained in an individual cage, respectively. The present experiment used completely randomized experimental design. The seven treatment groups were as follows: 1 Control, layer chickens were fed diet without supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid extracted from Sauropus androgynus (P0; 2 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 30 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P1; 3 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 60 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P2; 4 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 90 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P3; 5 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 30 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P4; 6 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 60 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P5; 7 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 90 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P6. Layer chickens were fed experimental diet with 2,750 kcal/kg Metabolizable Energy (ME and 16.0% protein. Diet and drinking water were fed ad libitum. Experimental results showed that supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus leaves significantly affected productive performance in layer chickens. It appear that non alkaloid supplementation had no advantage in improving productive performance, whereas supplementation of 30 mg alkaloid/kg diet might have advantages in improving productive performance as indicated by better egg production and lower feed conversion ratio. Treatment had no effect on glucose and triglyceride concentration in serum, but it affected total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL+VLDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index in serum. Cholesterol concentration in serum was significantly increased in P4 and P6, whereas HDL-cholesterol concentration was

  4. Final Report on Regulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monolignol Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent L. Chiang

    2006-03-09

    The focus of this research is to understand syringyl monolignol biosynthesis that leads to the formation of syringyl lignin, a type of lignin that can be easily removed during biomass conversion. We have achieved the three originally proposed goals for this project. (1) SAD and CAD genes (enzyme catalytic and kinetic properties) and their functional relevance to CAld5H/AldOMT pathway, (2) spatiotemporal expression patterns of Cald5H, AldOMT, SAD and CAD genes, and (3) functions of CAld5H, AldOMT, and SAD genes in vivo using transgenic aspen. Furthermore, we also found that microRNA might be involved in the upstream regulatory network of lignin biosynthesis and wood formation. The achievements are as below. (1) Based on biochemical and molecular studies, we discovered a novel syringyl-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) involved in monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperm trees. Through CAld5H/OMT/SAD mediation, syringyl monolignol biosynthesis branches out from guaiacyl pathway at coniferaldehyde; (2) The function of CAld5H gene in this syringyl monolignol biosynthesis pathway also was confirmed in vivo in transgenic Populus; (3) The proposed major monolignol biosynthesis pathways were further supported by the involving biochemical functions of CCR based on a detailed kinetic study; (4) Gene promoter activity analysis also supported the cell-type specific expression of SAD and CAD genes in xylem tissue, consistent with the cell-specific locations of SAD and CAD proteins and with the proposed pathways; (5) We have developed a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated stable gene-silencing system in transgenic plants; (6) Using the siRNA and P. trichocarpa transformation/regeneration systems we are currently producing transgenic P. trichocarpa to investigate the interactive functions of CAD and SAD in regulating guaiacyl and syringyl lignin biosynthesis; (7) We have cloned for the first time from a tree species, P. trichocarpa, small regulatory RNAs termed micro

  5. Determination of tropane alkaloids atropine and scopolamine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in plant organs of Datura species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakabová, Silvia; Vincze, Lajos; Farkas, Agnes; Kilár, Ferenc; Boros, Borbála; Felinger, Attila

    2012-04-06

    Hyoscyamine (atropine) and scopolamine are the predominant tropane alkaloids in the Datura genus, occurring in all plant organs. The assessment of the alkaloid content of various plant parts is essential from the viewpoint of medical use, but also as a potential risk of toxicity for humans and animals. Therefore, a reliable method for the determination of tropane alkaloid content is of high importance. The present work aimed at the elaboration of a rapid method for determination of the most abundant Datura alkaloids by LC-MS technique using a new generation of core-shell particle packed column. Tropane alkaloid content was investigated in various plant organs of four Datura taxa (D. innoxia, D. metel, D. stramonium, and D. stramonium var. tatula), grown under the same conditions, in two developmental stages. We have developed a rapid LC-MS method for the quantitative determination of atropine and scopolamine, which was successfully applied to quantify the alkaloids in different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, seeds) of thorn apples after a simple sample preparation step. Elaboration and validation of the method and analysis of plant extracts were done by UFLC-MS technique, employing an Ascentis Express C18 column. Detection was done in positive ionization mode (ESI+) and the method suitability was evaluated by several validation characteristics. Quantitation limits are 333 and 167 pgmL(-1) for scopolamine and atropine, respectively, and the method shows very good repeatability. The analysis of Datura extracts revealed significant differences depending on the species, the organ and the sampling period. Atropine was found to be dominant over scopolamine in three out of the four taxa investigated. D. innoxia showed the highest concentrations of scopolamine in all organs examined, whereas D. metel accumulated the lowest scopolamine levels. Hyoscyamine, measured as atropine, was the highest in D. stramonium var. tatula, and the lowest in D. innoxia. Samples

  6. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  7. Alkaloids in the human food chain--natural occurrence and possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates. Several quinolizidine alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, ergot alkaloids and steroid alkaloids are active without bioactivation and mostly act as neurotoxins. Regulatory agencies are aware of the risks and have taken or are considering appropriate regulatory actions for most alkaloids. These vary from setting limits for the presence of a compound in feed, foods and beverages, trying to define safe upper limits, advising on a strategy aiming at restrictions in use, informing the public to be cautious or taking specific plant varieties from the market. For some alkaloids known to be present in the modern food chain, e.g., piperine, nicotine, theobromine, theophylline and tropane alkaloids risks coming from the human food chain are considered to be low if not negligible. Remarkably, for many alkaloids that are known constituents of the modern food chain and of possible concern, tolerable daily intake values have so far not been defined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Accelerating the semisynthesis of alkaloid-based drugs through metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenworth, Amy M; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela

    2017-02-15

    Alkaloid-derived pharmaceuticals are commonly semisynthesized from plant-extracted starting materials, which often limits their availability and final price. Recent advances in synthetic biology have enabled the introduction of complete plant pathways into microbes for the production of plant alkaloids. Microbial production of modified alkaloids has the potential to accelerate the semisynthesis of alkaloid-derived drugs by providing advanced intermediates that are structurally closer to the final pharmaceuticals and could be used as advanced intermediates for the synthesis of novel drugs. Here, we analyze the scientific and engineering challenges that must be overcome to generate microbes to produce modified plant alkaloids that can provide more suitable intermediates to US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmaceuticals. We highlight modified alkaloids that currently could be produced by leveraging existing alkaloid microbial platforms with minor variations to accelerate the semisynthesis of seven pharmaceuticals on the market.

  9. Oral toxicity study of certain plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeremet, Oana Cristina; Bărbuceanu, Florica; Ionică, Floriana Elvira; Margină, Denisa Marilena; GuŢu, Claudia Maria; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Gonciar, Veaceslav; Negreş, Simona; ChiriŢă, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of toxic compounds which are found in plants. Poisoning caused by these toxins is associated with acute and chronic liver damage. Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), Petasites hybridus (common butterbur), Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel) and Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are traditional phytotherapic species, which beside the therapeutic bioactive compounds contain PAs. The aim of the paper was to assess the safety of some dry extracts obtained from these species. For the determination of acute toxicity, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline No. 423 was used. For the determination of repeated dose oral toxicity, Senecionis vernalis herba and Symphyti radix extracts (250 mg÷kg) were administrated, by gavage, for 28 days, and their effects on animal weight, liver and biliary functions, hepatic tissue and oxidative stress were investigated. After the acute toxicity testing, the dry extracts were placed in the GHS Category V (LD50>5000 mg÷kg, p.o.). For the subacute toxicity testing, no death or any signs of toxicity were observed. Also, no significant differences in biochemical parameters were observed between control and treated groups. The observed histopathological lesions were non-specific and were not consistent with the data reported in the literature for PAs exposure. In conclusion, the administration for 28 days, of the tested extracts, in a dose which correspond to a PAs concentration over the limits imposed in some countries, produced no hepatic and biliary toxic effects. Further studies, extended over a longer period of time, are needed in order to determine the safety of plant extracts containing PAs.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from Three Lycoris Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The major active constituents from Amaryllidaceae family were reported to be Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs, which exhibited a wide spectrum of biological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-viral, and acetyl-cholinesterase-inhibitory activities. In order to better understand their potential as a source of bioactive AAs and the phytochemical variations among three different species of Lycoris herbs, the HPLC fingerprint profiles of Lycoris aurea (L. aurea, L. radiata, and L. guangxiensis were firstly determined and compared using LC-UV and LC-MS/MS. As a result, 39 peaks were resolved and identified as AAs, of which nine peaks were found in common for all these three species, while the other 30 peaks could be revealed as characteristic AAs for L. aurea, L. radiata and L. guangxiensis, respectively. Thus, these AAs can be used as chemical markers for the identification and quality control of these plant species. To further reveal correlations between chemical components and their pharmaceutical activities of these species at the molecular level, the bioactivities of the total AAs from the three plant species were also tested against HepG2 cells with the inhibitory rate at 78.02%, 84.91% and 66.81% for L. aurea, L. radiata and L. guangxiensis, respectively. This study firstly revealed that the three species under investigation were different not only in the types of AAs, but also in their contents, and both contributed to their pharmacological distinctions. To the best of our knowledge, the current research provides the most detailed phytochemical profiles of AAs in these species, and offers valuable information for future valuation and exploitation of these medicinal plants.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from Three Lycoris Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Chunyun; Guo, Mingquan

    2015-12-07

    The major active constituents from Amaryllidaceae family were reported to be Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs), which exhibited a wide spectrum of biological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-viral, and acetyl-cholinesterase-inhibitory activities. In order to better understand their potential as a source of bioactive AAs and the phytochemical variations among three different species of Lycoris herbs, the HPLC fingerprint profiles of Lycoris aurea (L. aurea), L. radiata, and L. guangxiensis were firstly determined and compared using LC-UV and LC-MS/MS. As a result, 39 peaks were resolved and identified as AAs, of which nine peaks were found in common for all these three species, while the other 30 peaks could be revealed as characteristic AAs for L. aurea, L. radiata and L. guangxiensis, respectively. Thus, these AAs can be used as chemical markers for the identification and quality control of these plant species. To further reveal correlations between chemical components and their pharmaceutical activities of these species at the molecular level, the bioactivities of the total AAs from the three plant species were also tested against HepG2 cells with the inhibitory rate at 78.02%, 84.91% and 66.81% for L. aurea, L. radiata and L. guangxiensis, respectively. This study firstly revealed that the three species under investigation were different not only in the types of AAs, but also in their contents, and both contributed to their pharmacological distinctions. To the best of our knowledge, the current research provides the most detailed phytochemical profiles of AAs in these species, and offers valuable information for future valuation and exploitation of these medicinal plants.

  12. Cytotoxicity of alkaloid fraction from Sphaeranthus amaranthoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaloids was found to have the highest toxicity towards A549 lung cancer cell lines (IC50= 29.57 µg). The morphology of the lung cancer cells after treatment showed evidence of apoptosis that included blebbing and chromatin condensation. Dual staining showed the evidence of the early apoptosis induced after treatment.

  13. Mechanistic Insights to the Cytotoxicity of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nair, J. J.; Rárová, L.; Strnad, Miroslav; Bastida, J.; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 171-182 ISSN 1934-578X Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Alkaloid * Amaryllidaceae * Apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.884, year: 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920242

  14. Synthesis of the Benzo-fused Indolizidine Alkaloid Mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi Kazuhiro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A general synthesis of various benzo-fused indolizidine alkaloid mimics has been developed. The indolizidine derivatives 8 were prepared via heteroaryl Grignard addition to N-acylpyridinium salts followed by an intramolecular Heck cyclization. Further substitution reactions were developed to demonstrate that heterocycles 8 are good scaffolds for chemical library preparation.

  15. The role of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrittwieser, J.H.; Resch, V.

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are not only one of the most intensively studied classes of natural products, their wide spectrum of pharmacological activities also makes them indispensable drug ingredients in both traditional and modern medicine. Among the methods for their production, biotechnological approaches are

  16. First total synthesis of a guanidine alkaloid Nitensidine D using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient first total synthesis of a naturally occurring guanidine alkaloid, Nitensidine D isolated from ethanol extract of Pterogyne nitens has been described. Geraniol has been used as the starting material. N-alkylation of phthalimide has been achieved using immobilized ionic liquid and formamidinesulfinic acid acts as ...

  17. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster: Functional analyses and evolutionary aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, N.; Haarmann, T.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Jung, M.; Tudzynski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 70, 15-16 (2009), s. 1822-1832 ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Claviceps purpurea * Ergot fungus * Ergot alkaloid gene cluster Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2009

  18. Extraction And Isolation Of Alkaloids Of Sophora Alopecuroides And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides have good biological activity, and are widely used in clinical settings, which not only have pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, cancer suppression, as well as the inhibition, and killing of various microorganisms; but also possess extensive pharmacological effects on ...

  19. Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    natural compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, were isolated from it. They were ... [Ignacimuthu S and Shanmugam N 2010 Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, isolated from Indian shrub ..... of natural products for antimycobacterial activity by using.

  20. Clustered Ergot Alkaloids Modulate Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Fišerová, Anna; Weignerová, Lenka; Stibor, I.; Halada, Petr; Přikrylová, Věra; Sedmera, Petr; Pospíšil, Miloslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2002), s. 415-424 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020901; GA ČR GA310/98/0347 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : clustered * ergot * alkaloids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.043, year: 2002

  1. Repellence and attraction of Apis mellifera foragers by nectar alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hroncová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites present naturally in nectar, such as alkaloids, may change the behavioural responses of floral visitors and affect pollination. Some studies have shown that nectar containing low concentrations of these secondary metabolites is preferred by honey bee foragers over pure nectar. However, it remains unclear whether this is caused by dependence or addictive behaviour, a simple taste preference, or by other conditions such as self-medication. In our choice experiment, free-flying bees were presented with artificial flowers holding 20% sucrose containing 0.5−50 μg ml−1 of one of the naturally occurring nectar alkaloids - caffeine, nicotine, senecionine, and gelsemine. Nectar uptake was determined by weighing each flower and comparing the weight to that of the control flower. Our experimental design minimized memorizing and marking; despite this, caffeine was significantly preferred at concentrations 0.5−2 μg ml−1 over control nectar; this preference was not observed for other alkaloids. All of the compounds tested were repellent at concentrations above 5 μg ml−1. We confirmed previous reports that bees exhibit a preference for caffeine, and hypothesize that this is not due only to addictive behaviour but is at least partially mediated by taste preference. We observed no significant preference for nicotine or any other alkaloid.

  2. Dendrimery námelových alkaloidů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Sedmera, Petr; Halada, Petr; Přikrylová, Věra; Jegorov, A.; Křen, Vladimír

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 11 (1999), s. 751-752 ISSN 0009-2770. [Konference Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /34./. 15.11.1999-17.11.1999, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020901 Keywords : alkaloids * enzymes * microbial Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Brine Shrimp Lethality of Alkaloids from Croton sylvaticus Hoechst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbiaceae) and evaluated for their brine shrimp lethality. Julocrotine, a glutarimide alkaloid, was very toxic in vitro with a LC50 (95% confidence interval) value of 0.074 (0.052-0.105) μg/ml. Lupeol and penduliflaworosin were not toxic. The structures ...

  4. Quantification of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelochemicals in leaves, stems and roots of sunflower (cv Hysun 38) were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for alkaloids and spectrophotometry for phenols and flavonoids. In the TLC, the highest Rf value was recorded in leaves, followed by roots and stems, a sequence that held true also for the quantity ...

  5. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  6. Claviceps nigricans and Claviceps grohii: their alkaloids and phylogenetic placement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Olšovská, Jana; Šulc, Miroslav; Chudíčková, Milada; Flieger, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2008), s. 1085-1088 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Grant - others:US(US) Sorghum, Millet and Other Grains CRSP ( USAID ) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ergot fungi * alkaloid * uplc Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.187, year: 2008

  7. Heterosis and heritability estimates of purine alkaloids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important allogamous tropical tree crop, whose centre of diversity is considered to be in Central America. Dry cocoa beans from five cocoa clones, and their intercrossed hybrids were analysed based on the variation of alkaloids and polyphenolic compounds contents, in order to gain ...

  8. Novel approach to quinazoline alkaloids - total synthesis of ardeemin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmela, Václav; Amatov, Tynchtyk; Jahn, Ullrich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 11 ISSN 2336-7202. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /17./. 30.05.2017-01.06.2017, Milovy] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : quinazoline alkaloids * ardeemin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Two new alkaloids from Xestospongia sp., a New Caledonian sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, J C; Sevenet, T; Husson, H P; Weniger, B; Debitus, C

    1992-10-01

    Five alkaloids have been isolated from a New Caledonian sponge Xestospongia sp. These include three known xestospongin derivatives, the new demethylxestospongin B (1) and a tetrahydrocarboline derivative 5. The structures of the new compounds 1 and 5 have been established by nmr studies and comparison with previously described products.

  10. Ergovaline, an endophytic alkaloid. 1. Animal physiology and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid found in some endophyte-infected ryegrasses and has been implicated in the expression of ergotism-like symptoms of grazing livestock, as well as in the protection of the plant against invertebrate predation and abiotic stresses. These selection pressures have resulted...

  11. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal tea of Ageratum conyzoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Bosi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely-recognized that the view that herbal remedies have no adverse effects and/or toxicity is incorrect; some traditionally-used plants can present toxicity. The well-established popular use of Ageratum conyzoides has led to its inclusion in a category of medicinal crude drugs created by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Ageratum belongs to the Eupatorieae tribe, Asteraceae, and is described as containing toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aqueous extracts of Ageratum conyzoides L. harvested in Brazil (commercial, flowering and non-flowering samples were prepared according to the prescribed method and analyzed by HPLC-HRMS. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine, dihydrolycopsamine, and acetyl-lycopsamine and their N-oxides, were detected in the analyzed extracts, lycopsamine and its N-oxide being known hepatotoxins and tumorigens. Together with the pyrrolizidine alkaloids identified by HPLC-HRMS, thirteen phenolic compounds were identified, notably, methoxylated flavonoids and chromenes. Toxicological studies on A. conyzoides are necessary, as is monitoring of its clinical use. To date, there are no established safety guidelines on pyrrolizidine alkaloids-containing plants, and their use in Brazil.

  13. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1989-03-07

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the {alpha}-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 {mu}M), but it did not inhibit {beta}-glucosidase, {alpha}- or {beta}-mannosidase, or {alpha}- or {beta}-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 7-9}(GlcNAc){sub 2}-oligosaccharides.

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal tea of Ageratum conyzoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Bosi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely-recognized that the view that herbal remedies have no adverse effects and/or toxicity is incorrect; some traditionally-used plants can present toxicity. The well-established popular use of Ageratum conyzoides has led to its inclusion in a category of medicinal crude drugs created by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Ageratum belongs to the Eupatorieae tribe, Asteraceae, and is described as containing toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aqueous extracts of Ageratum conyzoides L. harvested in Brazil (commercial, flowering and non-flowering samples were prepared according to the prescribed method and analyzed by HPLC-HRMS. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine, dihydrolycopsamine, and acetyl-lycopsamine and their N-oxides, were detected in the analyzed extracts, lycopsamine and its N-oxide being known hepatotoxins and tumorigens. Together with the pyrrolizidine alkaloids identified by HPLC-HRMS, thirteen phenolic compounds were identified, notably, methoxylated flavonoids and chromenes. Toxicological studies on A. conyzoides are necessary, as is monitoring of its clinical use. To date, there are no established safety guidelines on pyrrolizidine alkaloids-containing plants, and their use in Brazil.

  15. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: A spectrum of potential health consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of grain with 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs) and their N-oxides is responsible for large incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning, with high morbidity and mortality, in Africa and in central and south Asia. Herbal medicines and teas containing dehydroPAs ha...

  16. Activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against biofilm formation and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Negreiros Neto, Themístocles; Gardner, Dale; Hallwass, Fernando; Leite, Ana Jéssica Matias; de Almeida, Camila Guimarães; Silva, Laura Nunes; de Araújo Roque, Alan; de Bitencourt, Fernanda Gobbi; Barbosa, Euzébio Guimarães; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira; Giordani, Raquel Brandt

    2016-10-01

    Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were utilized as strains to test some activities of this alkaloid, such as antibiofilm and antibacterial. Meanwhile, monocrotaline obtained from Crotalaria retusa seeds, was used as the starting material for synthesis of necine base derivatives with anti-Trichomonas vaginalis potential. Alkaloids were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and GC-MS analysis. Usaramine demonstrated a highlighted antibiofilm activity against S. epidermidis by reducing more than 50% of biofilm formation without killing the bacteria, thus it could be assumed as a prototype for the development of new antibiofilm molecules for pharmaceutical and industrial purposes. Monocrotaline activity against T. vaginalis was evaluated and results indicated inhibition of 80% on parasite growth at 1mg/mL, in addition, neither cytotoxicity against vaginal epithelial cells nor hemolytic activity were observed. On the other hand, retronecine showed no anti-T. vaginalis activity while azido-retronecine was more active than monocrotaline killing 85% of the parasites at 1mg/mL. In conclusion, pyrrolizidine alkaloids are suggested as promising prototypes for new drugs especially for topical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Alkaloid profiling and anticholinesterase activity of South American Lycopodiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Eduardo Luis; Ortega, María Gabriela; de Loreto Bordignon, Sérgio; Apel, Miriam Anders; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Cabrera, José Luis

    2013-02-01

    The alkaloid extracts of four Huperzia and one Lycopodiella species, from Brazilian habitats, were tested for their in vitro anticholinesterase activities. IC(50) values showed a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibition for H. reflexa (0.11 ± 0.05 μg/mL), followed by H. quadrifariata (2.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL), H. acerosa (5.5 ± 0.9 μg/mL), H. heterocarpon (25.6 ± 2.7 μg/mL) and L. cernua (42.6 ± 1.5 μg/mL). A lower inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was observed for all species with the exception of H. heterocarpon (8.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL), whose alkaloid extract presented a selectivity for pseudocholinesterase. Moreover, the chemical study of the bioactive extracts performed by GC-MS, revealed the presence of a number of Lycopodium alkaloids belonging to the lycopodane, flabellidane and cernuane groups. Surprisingly, the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors huperzines A and B were not detected in the extracts, suggesting that other alkaloids may be responsible for such an effect.

  18. Effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Mingsan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne. The rats that were administered high, medium, and low doses of motherwort alkaloids, tanshinone capsules, a model and a control group. Each group of rats was subjected to gavage once daily for 14 consecutive days. On the first day of testing, the control and model groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of sterilized saline solution and the remaining groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of Staphylococcus epidermidis in addition to the gavage. The thicknesses of the rats’ auricles were measured for five consecutive days following the injections. Anticoagulated blood was used for erythrocyte rheology index measurement. In addition, the entire ear of each rat was removed for morphological examination. Compared to the model group, the group administered motherwort alkaloids exhibited significantly reduced swelling, improved localized auricle proliferation, and reduced blood viscosity. This result suggests motherwort alkaloids are effective in rat ear acne.

  19. New Diterpenoid Alkaloids from the Roots of Delphinium tiantaishanense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Peng Wang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new diterpenoid alkaloids: tiantaishansine (1, tiantaishannine (2, tiantaishanmine (3, and tiantaishandine (4 have been isolated from the roots of Delphinium tiantaishan. Their structures were elucidated by chemical evidence andspectral analyses, including ESI-MS, HR-EI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR.

  20. (Benzophenanthridine alkaloid) from the barks of Fagara chalybea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Fagara chalybea is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Rutaceae. The plant is well known for its anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-cancerous activity, which has been attributed to the presence of benzophenanthridine alkaloid nitidine in the plants. The present work aims to develop a method of ...

  1. Determination of alkaloids and oxalates in some selected food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... S.A. Adeniyi1, C.L. Orjiekwe1* and J.E. Ehiagbonare2. 1Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Science, Igbinedion University Okada, P.M.B. 0006,. Benin City .... The high value of alkaloid content in S. tuberosum and Amarathus sp. is in agreement with previous literature report ...

  2. Effect Of CARICAPRYL-99 Seed Alkaloid Extract On The Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl–99 seeds (Carica papaya Linn seeds) on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percectage toxicity (10, 50 and 150 mg/kg) were separately administered orally, daily for three days to ...

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity of crude alkaloidal extracts of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytotoxicity of crude alkaloid extracts obtained from the leaves and rhizomes of all the South African members of the family Menispermaceae (seven genera and 13 species) was tested against MCF7 (breast), UACC62 (melanoma) and TK10 (renal) cancer cell lines. Extracts of ten of the thirteen species showed positive ...

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity of various dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) are plant-derived hepato-, pneumo- and geno-toxins that are carcinogenic in several species. Because of the difficulty in isolating sufficient DHPA for toxicological studies, there are few direct comparisons of toxicity. The objectives of this study was to de...

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity of crude alkaloidal extracts of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... The cytotoxicity of crude alkaloid extracts obtained from the leaves and rhizomes of all the South. African members of the family Menispermaceae (seven genera and 13 species) was tested against. MCF7 (breast), UACC62 (melanoma) and TK10 (renal) cancer cell lines. Extracts of ten of the thirteen.

  6. Peculiarities of tropane alkaloids determination in Datura Stramonium L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Анатолійович Міщенко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the search, pharmacological activity and standardization of natural extracts are appropriate and important for national pharmaceutical science and practice. Since 2000, one of the key points of the Action Plan to ensure the integration of Ukraine into the European Union is development of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine harmonized with the European Pharmacopoeia (PhEur.Aim: A comparative analysis of herbal material according to the methods for tropane group alkaloids determination, as described in the PhEur and in the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia Monographs «Stramonium leaf».Methods: Datura leaves samples have been harvested during 2010-2012 in different regions of Ukraine for experimental research. Identification of tropane group alkaloids was carried out by the method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC and by Vitali-Morin colour reaction. According to the PhEur method, firstly Dragendorff reagent and then Sodium nitrite solutions were used for the TLC plates spraying. Alkaloids assay was carried out by alkalimetry method with indicator determination of equivalence point.Results: Datura leaves qualitative features, defined by PhEur and the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia Monographs «Stramonium leaf», as well as their rationing have been analyzed. Certain differences concerning regulated quality parameters of herbal material have been determined. A comparative analysis of the natural extracts by described in the given normative documents methods for determination of tropane group alkaloids content has been done. After spraying the TLC plates with Sodium nitrite solution, red-brown zones corresponding Hyoscyamine were determined. Hyoscine zones were characterized by less intense color. As a result of quantitative determination it was determined that the alkaloids content in analyzed Datura leaves samples was within the limits regulated by the PhEur and the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia – more than 0

  7. Theacrine, a special purine alkaloid with sedative and hypnotic properties from Cammelia assamica var. kucha in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie-Kun; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Zhao, Liang; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system activities of theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), a purine alkaloid which is abundantly present in Camellia assamica var. kucha, were investigated in ambulatory activity, pentobarbital-induced sleep and forced swimming test in mice, compared with two other purine alkaloids, caffeine and theobromine. Caffeine treatment led to a marked increase in the ambulatory activity accompanied with decreasing of the immobility time in forced swimming test at both 10 and 30 mg/kg. Under the same conditions, neither theacrine nor theobromine showed obvious excited efficacy. Both doses of theacrine could significantly prolong the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital, while caffeine and theobromine exhibited an inverted effect. These results indicated that theacrine possessed potent sedative and hypnotic properties and its central nervous system effects were different from those of caffeine and theobromine.

  8. [Advances and prospects of taxol biosynthesis by endophytic fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Yu, Lu; Jin, Yuyan; Ma, Xueling; Liu, Dan; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xin

    2016-08-25

    Taxol is one of the most important chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer. Taxol has been mainly extracted from the bark of yews for a long time. However, methods for the extraction of taxol from the bark of Taxus species were inefficient and environmentally costly. As a result of the high ecological toll exacted on trees with the potential for Pacific yew extinction, investigators began to look for other methods of taxol production. Recently, increasing efforts have been made to develop alternative means of taxol production, such as using complete chemical synthesis, semi-synthesis, Taxus spp. plant cell culture and microbe fermentation. Using microbe fermentation in the production of taxol would be a very prospective method for obtaining a large amount of taxol. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis and genetic regulation mechanisms of taxol biosynthesis by endophytic fungi, which may be helpful to construct the genetic engineering strain with high taxol output. In this paper, the taxol biosynthesis pathway from Taxus cells and the advantages of taxol biosynthesis by endophytic fungi were discussed. The study on the isolation and biodiversity of taxol-producing endophytic fungi and the taxol biosynthesis related genes are also discussed.

  9. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Zomorodian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity.

  10. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity. PMID:27652264

  11. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms Differentially Regulate Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingbo; Man, Cong; Li, Danning; Tan, Huijuan; Xie, Ye; Huang, Jirong

    2016-12-05

    Anthocyanins, a group of L-phenylalanine (Phe)-derived flavonoids, have been demonstrated to play important roles in plant stress resistance and interactions between plants and insects. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory mechanisms have been extensively studied, it remains unclear whether the level of Phe supply affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the roles of arogenate dehydratases (ADTs), the key enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arogenate into Phe, in sucrose-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Genetic analysis showed that all six ADT isoforms function redundantly in anthocyanin biosynthesis but have differential contributions. ADT2 contributes the most to anthocyanin accumulation, followed by ADT1 and ADT3, and ADT4-ADT6. We found that anthocyanin content is positively correlated with the levels of Phe and sucrose-induced ADT transcripts in seedlings. Consistently, addition of Phe to the medium could dramatically increase anthocyanin content in the wild-type plants and rescue the phenotype of the adt1 adt3 double mutant regarding the anthocyanin accumulation. Moreover, transgenic plants overexpressing ADT4, which appears to be less sensitive to Phe than overexpression of ADT2, hyperaccumulate Phe and produce elevated level of anthocyanins. Taken together, our results suggest that the level of Phe is an important regulatory factor for sustaining anthocyanin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Sadatsharifi, Arman; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity.

  13. Antiparasitic activities of acridone alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rattray, Lauren; Croft, Simon L. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

    2009-07-01

    Eleven acridone alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. were examined for in vitro activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 and Leishmania donovani L82. An assay with KB cells was developed in order to compare in vitro toxicity of alkaloids with the selective action on the parasites. Nine of the compounds had IC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.3 to 11.6 {mu}M against P. falciparum. In contrast, a small number of compounds showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and none had activity against L. donovani. Among the alkaloids three had IC{sub 50} < 1.0 {mu}M against P. falciparum, whereas against T. b. rhodesiense five had IC{sub 50} < 10 {mu}M. The characterization of the acridone alkaloids, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-10-methyl-2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)acridin-9 (10H)-one (1), 2,3-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-11-methoxy-10-methylfuro [3,2-b] acridin-5(10H)-one (2) and 3,4-dihydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-2Hpyrano[ 2,3-a]acridin-12(7H)-one (3), is discussed, as well as the structure-activity relationship of all compounds assayed. Isolation and spectral data of alkaloids 1-3 are described for the first time although their cytotoxicities to cancer cells have been described before. (author)

  14. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  15. Variations in alkaloidal constituents of plant tissue cultures. [Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana rustica, Datura stramonium and Hyoscyamus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    The accumulation of tobacco and Solanaceae-tropane alkaloids in calluses and suspensions of Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana rustica, Datura stramonium and Hyoscyamus niger was the main concern of this work. Nicotine, anabasine and anatabine had regularly been found in tobacco callus tissues grown for several passages. For the first time, N. tabacum suspensions were shown able to accumulate anabasine, anatabine, anatalline, myosmine and nicotelline whereas N. rustica calluses, N-methyl-, N,N-dimethyl- and N-methyl-N-nitroso anilines. The aim of these experiments was an attempt to affect the yields and types of alkaloids produced. The interrelationship between nicotine and protein contents in N. tabacum and N. rustica calluses was investigated. The possible role of urea and sodium propionate as precursors of nicotine in tobacco suspensions was checked by feeding the latter with carbon-14 radioactive substrates. The scope and quantum of the principle alkaloidal components present in the source N. tabacum plants and D. stramonium and H. niger seeds were investigated to stand as references against in vitro production. Identification of the products found was made by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and/or MS.

  16. Vitamin B biosynthesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roje, Sanja

    2007-07-01

    The vitamin B complex comprises water-soluble enzyme cofactors and their derivatives that are essential contributors to diverse metabolic processes in plants as well as in animals and microorganisms. Seven vitamins form this complex: B1 (thiamin (1)), B2 (riboflavin (2)), B3 (niacin (3)), B5 (pantothenic acid (4)), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal (5), and pyridoxamine), B8 (biotin (6)), and B9 (folate (7)). All seven B vitamins are required in the human diet for proper nutrition because humans lack enzymes to synthesize these compounds de novo. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge of vitamin B biosynthesis in plants.

  17. Electrospray[+] tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in the elucidation of ergot alkaloids chromatographed by HPLC: screening of grass or forage samples for novel toxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Andreas F; Craig, Morrie; Fannin, Neil; Bush, Lowell; Tobin, Tom

    2005-11-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins generated by grass and grain pathogens such as Claviceps, for example. Ergot alkaloid-poisoning syndromes, such as tall fescue toxicosis from endophyte-infected tall fescue grass, are important veterinary problems for cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and chickens, with consequent impact on food, meat and dairy industries. Damage to livestock is of the order of a billion dollars a year in the United States alone. HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection are the predominant means of ergot alkaloid determination, with focus on quantitation of the marker compound ergovaline, although ELISA methods are undergoing investigation. These techniques are excellent for rapid detection, but of poor specificity in defining new or poorly characterized ergot alkaloids and related compounds. This paper demonstrates the facility of using electrospray(+) mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection during chromatographic examination of ergot alkaloid standards of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergovaline, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine and ergocrystine by HPLC. Ergoline-8 position epimers could be separated on the gradient HPLC system for ergocornine, ergocrystine and ergonovine and appeared as shoulders for ergotamine and ergovaline; epimers generally showed different patterns of relative intensity for specific MRM transitions. There was reasonable correspondence between retention of standards on the 2-mm ESI(+)MS phenyl-hexyl-based reverse phase column and those on the 4-mm C18-based column. Since up to 10% of clinical cases involving toxin exposure display unidentified chromatographic peaks, 11 samples of feed components associated with such cases were studied with developed MRM methods to attempt elucidation of crucial components if possible. Ergotamine appeared in all, ergovaline appeared in five and ergocornine appeared in six; ergonovine, ergocryptine, ergocrystine and lysergol also appeared in several. In addition

  18. Semi-automated separation of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine: preparation of their N-oxides and NMR comparison with diastereoisomeric rinderine and echinatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Betz, Joseph M; Panter, Kip E

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of structure and, particularly, stereochemical variation of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids can present challenges for analysis and the isolation of pure compounds for the preparation of analytical standards and for toxicology studies. To investigate methods for the separation of gram-scale quantities of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine and to compare their NMR spectroscopic data with those of their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine. Lycopsamine and intermedine were extracted, predominantly as their N-oxides and along with their acetylated derivatives, from commercial samples of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) root. Alkaloid enrichment involved liquid-liquid partitioning of the crude methanol extract between dilute aqueous acid and n-butanol, reduction of N-oxides and subsequent continuous liquid-liquid extraction of free base alkaloids into CHCl3 . The alkaloid-rich fraction was further subjected to semi-automated flash chromatography using boronated soda glass beads or boronated quartz sand. Boronated soda glass beads (or quartz sand) chromatography adapted to a Biotage Isolera Flash Chromatography System enabled large-scale separation (at least up to 1-2 g quantities) of lycopsamine and intermedine. The structures were confirmed using one- and two-dimensional (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectroscopy. Examination of the NMR data for lycopsamine, intermedine and their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine allowed for some amendments of literature data and provided useful comparisons for determining relative configurations in monoester dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. A similar NMR comparison of lycopsamine and intermedine with their N-oxides showed the effects of N-oxidation on some key chemical shifts. A levorotatory shift in specific rotation from +3.29° to -1.5° was observed for lycopsamine when dissolved in ethanol or methanol respectively. A semi-automated flash

  19. Ergot Alkaloids Produced by Endophytic Fungi of the Genus Epichloë

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Guerre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grasses results in the production of different groups of alkaloids, whose mechanism and biological spectrum of toxicity can differ considerably. Ergot alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected tall fescue, are responsible for “fescue toxicosis” in livestock, whereas indole-diterpene alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected ryegrass, are responsible for “ryegrass staggers”. In contrast, peramine and loline alkaloids are deterrent and/or toxic to insects. Other toxic effects in livestock associated with the consumption of endophyte-infected grass that contain ergot alkaloids include the “sleepy grass” and “drunken horse grass” diseases. Although ergovaline is the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in endophyte-infected tall fescue and is recognized as responsible for fescue toxicosis, a number of questions still exist concerning the profile of alkaloid production in tall fescue and the worldwide distribution of tall fescue toxicosis. The purpose of this review is to present ergot alkaloids produced in endophyte-infected grass, the factors of variation of their level in plants, and the diseases observed in the mammalian species as relate to the profiles of alkaloid production. In the final section, interactions between ergot alkaloids and drug-metabolizing enzymes are presented as mechanisms that could contribute to toxicity.

  20. Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, Ralph A; Garraffo, H Martin; Donnelly, Maureen A; Edwards, Adam L; Longino, John T; Daly, John W

    2004-05-25

    A remarkable diversity of bioactive lipophilic alkaloids is present in the skin of poison frogs and toads worldwide. Originally discovered in neotropical dendrobatid frogs, these alkaloids are now known from mantellid frogs of Madagascar, certain myobatrachid frogs of Australia, and certain bufonid toads of South America. Presumably serving as a passive chemical defense, these alkaloids appear to be sequestered from a variety of alkaloid-containing arthropods. The pumiliotoxins represent a major, widespread, group of alkaloids that are found in virtually all anurans that are chemically defended by the presence of lipophilic alkaloids. Identifying an arthropod source for these alkaloids has been a considerable challenge for chemical ecologists. However, an extensive collection of neotropical forest arthropods has now revealed a putative arthropod source of the pumiliotoxins. Here we report on the presence of pumiliotoxins in formicine ants of the genera Brachymyrmex and Paratrechina, as well as the presence of these ants in the stomach contents of the microsympatric pumiliotoxin-containing dendrobatid frog, Dendrobates pumilio. These pumiliotoxins are major alkaloids in D. pumilio, and Brachymyrmex and Paratrechina ants now represent the only known dietary sources of these toxic alkaloids. These findings further support the significance of ant-specialization and alkaloid sequestration in the evolution of bright warning coloration in poison frogs and toads.