Sample records for inverted colloidal crystal

  1. An overview of inverted colloidal crystal systems for tissue engineering. (United States)

    João, Carlos Filipe C; Vasconcelos, Joana Marta; Silva, Jorge Carvalho; Borges, João Paulo


    Scaffolding is at the heart of tissue engineering but the number of techniques available for turning biomaterials into scaffolds displaying the features required for a tissue engineering application is somewhat limited. Inverted colloidal crystals (ICCs) are inverse replicas of an ordered array of monodisperse colloidal particles, which organize themselves in packed long-range crystals. The literature on ICC systems has grown enormously in the past 20 years, driven by the need to find organized macroporous structures. Although replicating the structure of packed colloidal crystals (CCs) into solid structures has produced a wide range of advanced materials (e.g., photonic crystals, catalysts, and membranes) only in recent years have ICCs been evaluated as devices for medical/pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications. The geometry, size, pore density, and interconnectivity are features of the scaffold that strongly affect the cell environment with consequences on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. ICC scaffolds are highly geometrically ordered structures with increased porosity and connectivity, which enhances oxygen and nutrient diffusion, providing optimum cellular development. In comparison to other types of scaffolds, ICCs have three major unique features: the isotropic three-dimensional environment, comprising highly uniform and size-controllable pores, and the presence of windows connecting adjacent pores. Thus far, this is the only technique that guarantees these features with a long-range order, between a few nanometers and thousands of micrometers. In this review, we present the current development status of ICC scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

  2. In vitro analog of human bone marrow from 3D scaffolds with biomimetic inverted colloidal crystal geometry. (United States)

    Nichols, Joan E; Cortiella, Joaquin; Lee, Jungwoo; Niles, Jean A; Cuddihy, Meghan; Wang, Shaopeng; Bielitzki, Joseph; Cantu, Andrea; Mlcak, Ron; Valdivia, Esther; Yancy, Ryan; McClure, Matthew L; Kotov, Nicholas A


    In vitro replicas of bone marrow can potentially provide a continuous source of blood cells for transplantation and serve as a laboratory model to examine human immune system dysfunctions and drug toxicology. Here we report the development of an in vitro artificial bone marrow based on a 3D scaffold with inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) geometry mimicking the structural topology of actual bone marrow matrix. To facilitate adhesion of cells, scaffolds were coated with a layer of transparent nanocomposite. After seeding with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), ICC scaffolds were capable of supporting expansion of CD34+ HSCs with B-lymphocyte differentiation. Three-dimensional organization was shown to be critical for production of B cells and antigen-specific antibodies. Functionality of bone marrow constructs was confirmed by implantation of matrices containing human CD34+ cells onto the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with subsequent generation of human immune cells.

  3. Accelerated nerve regeneration using induced pluripotent stem cells in chitin-chitosan-gelatin scaffolds with inverted colloidal crystal geometry. (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Lin, Ching-Chun


    Polymeric biomaterials with regular pore structure can generate distinctive properties in various biomedical applications. This study presents scaffolds comprising chitin, chitosan, and gelatin with pore geometry of inverted colloidal crystals (ICC) for guiding differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells toward neurons. Chitin-chitosan-gelatin ICC scaffolds were fabricated by self-assembly, crosslinking, infiltration, dehydration, and particle leaching. The results revealed that ethanol as a dispersion medium yielded a higher regularity of colloidal template than ethylene glycol. For the adhesion of iPS cells, freeform constructs were more efficient than ICC constructs. The reverse was true for the viability of iPS cells. The quantity of stage-specific embryonic surface antigen-1 in cultured freeform construct was larger than that in cultured ICC construct, indicating that the former preserved more phenotypic characteristics of iPS cells than the latter. Moreover, β III tubulin-identified region in ICC construct was larger than that in freeform construct, demonstrating that the differentiation of iPS cells toward neurons in ICC construct was faster than that in freeform construct. ICC topography in chitin-chitosan-gelatin scaffolds can accelerate neuronal differentiation of iPS cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inverted colloidal crystal scaffolds with laminin-derived peptides for neuronal differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells. (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Chiu, Keng-Hsien


    This study presents the effect of pore regularity on the preservation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Scaffolds with interconnected pores of inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) geometry were prepared by infiltrating chitosan-gelatin gels into the interstices of self-assembled microspheres, which were later dissolved with a solvent. In addition, the pore surfaces were grafted with two laminin-derived peptides (LDP). The experimental results revealed that the number of BMSCs in ICC scaffolds could increase 2.7-fold after cultivation over 7 days. Moreover, the distribution of cultured BMSCs in ICC scaffolds was quite uniform as compared with freeform scaffolds. ICC scaffolds could preserve 63% phenotypic BMSCs in average and freeform scaffolds 56%. The grafted LDP enhanced the adhesion efficiency of BMSCs in ICC scaffolds (about 70-75%) and produced NeuN-positive cells. A further induction with neuron growth factor could guide the differentiation of BMSCs toward mature neurons in LDP-grafted ICC scaffolds. The controlled topography of ICC structure and surface LDP can be promising in the cultivation of BMSCs and neural regeneration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.


    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal

  6. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor


    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  7. Nematic Liquid-Crystal Colloids. (United States)

    Muševič, Igor


    This article provides a concise review of a new state of colloidal matter called nematic liquid-crystal colloids. These colloids are obtained by dispersing microparticles of different shapes in a nematic liquid crystal that acts as a solvent for the dispersed particles. The microparticles induce a local deformation of the liquid crystal, which then generates topological defects and long-range forces between the neighboring particles. The colloidal forces in nematic colloids are much stronger than the forces in ordinary colloids in isotropic solvents, exceeding thousands of k B T per micrometer-sized particle. Of special interest are the topological defects in nematic colloids, which appear in many fascinating forms, such as singular points, closed loops, multitudes of interlinked and knotted loops or soliton-like structures. The richness of the topological phenomena and the possibility to design and control topological defects with laser tweezers make colloids in nematic liquid crystals an excellent playground for testing the basic theorems of topology.

  8. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals. (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin


    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nematic Liquid-Crystal Colloids (United States)

    Muševič, Igor


    This article provides a concise review of a new state of colloidal matter called nematic liquid-crystal colloids. These colloids are obtained by dispersing microparticles of different shapes in a nematic liquid crystal that acts as a solvent for the dispersed particles. The microparticles induce a local deformation of the liquid crystal, which then generates topological defects and long-range forces between the neighboring particles. The colloidal forces in nematic colloids are much stronger than the forces in ordinary colloids in isotropic solvents, exceeding thousands of kBT per micrometer-sized particle. Of special interest are the topological defects in nematic colloids, which appear in many fascinating forms, such as singular points, closed loops, multitudes of interlinked and knotted loops or soliton-like structures. The richness of the topological phenomena and the possibility to design and control topological defects with laser tweezers make colloids in nematic liquid crystals an excellent playground for testing the basic theorems of topology. PMID:29295574

  10. Nematic Liquid-Crystal Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Muševič


    Full Text Available This article provides a concise review of a new state of colloidal matter called nematic liquid-crystal colloids. These colloids are obtained by dispersing microparticles of different shapes in a nematic liquid crystal that acts as a solvent for the dispersed particles. The microparticles induce a local deformation of the liquid crystal, which then generates topological defects and long-range forces between the neighboring particles. The colloidal forces in nematic colloids are much stronger than the forces in ordinary colloids in isotropic solvents, exceeding thousands of kBT per micrometer-sized particle. Of special interest are the topological defects in nematic colloids, which appear in many fascinating forms, such as singular points, closed loops, multitudes of interlinked and knotted loops or soliton-like structures. The richness of the topological phenomena and the possibility to design and control topological defects with laser tweezers make colloids in nematic liquid crystals an excellent playground for testing the basic theorems of topology.

  11. Liquid crystal boojum-colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasinkevych, M; Silvestre, N M; Telo da Gama, M M


    Colloidal particles dispersed in a liquid crystal (LC) lead to distortions of the director field. The distortions are responsible for long-range effective colloidal interactions whose asymptotic behaviour is well understood. The short-distance behaviour depends on the structure and dynamics of the topological defects nucleated near the colloidal particles and a full nonlinear theory is required to describe it. Spherical colloidal particles with strong planar degenerate anchoring nucleate a pair of antipodal surface topological defects, known as boojums. We use the Landau-de Gennes theory to resolve the mesoscopic structure of the boojum cores and to determine the pairwise colloidal interactions. We compare the results in three (3D) and two (2D) spatial dimensions for spherical and disc-like colloidal particles, respectively. The corresponding free energy functionals are minimized numerically using finite elements with adaptive meshes. Boojums are always point-like in 2D, but acquire a rather complex structure in 3D, which depends on the combination of the anchoring potential, the radius of the colloid, the temperature and the LC elastic anisotropy. We identify three types of defect cores in 3D that we call single, double and split-core boojums, and investigate the associated structural transitions. The split-core structure is favoured by low temperatures, strong anchoring and small twist to splay or bend ratios. For sufficiently strong anchoring potentials characterized by a well-defined uniaxial minimum, the split-core boojums are the only stable configuration. In the presence of two colloidal particles, we observe substantial re-arrangements of the inner defects in both 3D and 2D. These re-arrangements lead to qualitative changes in the force-distance profile when compared to the asymptotic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. In line with the experimental results, the presence of the defects prevents coalescence of the colloidal particles in 2D, but not in 3D

  12. Colloidal discs in nematic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, N M; Patricio, P; Tasinkevych, M; Andrienko, D; Gama, M M Telo da


    We use adaptive finite elements methods to investigate a variety of structures in inverted nematic emulsions numerically. In particular, we study dipolar and quadrupolar interactions between colloidal discs in two-dimensional nematics. The behaviour of colloidal particles near a substrate and at a nematic-isotropic interface are also considered

  13. Colloidal Mineral Liquid Crystals. Formation & Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink op Reinink, A.B.G.M.


    The central topic of this thesis is the formation, manipulation and characterization of colloidal mineral liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are liquids containing ordered anisometric particles. A range of liquid crystalline phases exists, from solely orientationally ordered nematic phases to

  14. Fabricating colloidal crystals and construction of ordered nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhiqiang


    Full Text Available AbstractColloidal crystals of polymeric or inorganic microspheres are of extensive interest due to their potential applications in such as sensing, optics, photonic bandgap and surface patterning. The article highlights a set of approaches developed in our group, which are efficient to prepare colloidal crystals with ordered voids, patterned colloidal crystals on non-planar surfaces, heterogeneous colloidal crystals of different building blocks, colloidal crystals composed of non-spherical polyhedrons, and colloidal crystals of non-close-packed colloidal microspheres in particular. The use of these colloidal crystals as templates for different microstructures range from nanoscale to micron-scale is also summarized.

  15. Hybrid colloidal plasmonic-photonic crystals. (United States)

    Romanov, Sergei G; Korovin, Alexander V; Regensburger, Alois; Peschel, Ulf


    We review the recently emerged class of hybrid metal-dielectric colloidal photonic crystals. The hybrid approach is understood as the combination of a dielectric photonic crystal with a continuous metal film. It allows to achieve a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering at electronic excitations in the metal component into moulding of the light flow in series to the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystal. We consider different realizations of hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals based on two- and three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals in association with flat and corrugated metal films. In agreement with model calculations, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tuneable functionality of these crystals. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Crystal nucleation of colloidal hard dumbbells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, R.; Dijkstra, M.


    Using computer simulations, we investigate the homogeneous crystal nucleation in suspensions of colloidal hard dumbbells. The free energy barriers are determined by Monte Carlo simulations using the umbrella sampling technique. We calculate the nucleation rates for the plastic crystal and the

  17. Colloidal photonic crystals: from lasing to microfluidics (United States)

    Clays, Koen; Zhong, Kuo; Song, Kai


    Colloidal photonic crystals are photonic crystals made by bottom-up physical chemistry strategies from monodisperse colloidal particles. The self-assembly process is automatically leading to inherently three-dimensional structures with their optical properties determined by the periodicity, induced by this ordering process, in the dielectric properties of the colloidal material. The best-known optical effect is the photonic band gap, the range of energies, or wavelengths, that is forbidden for photons to exist in the structure. This photonic band gap is similar to the electronic band gap of electronic semiconductor crystals. We have previously shown how with the proper photonic band gap engineering, we can insert allowed pass band defect modes and use the suppressing band gap in combination with the transmitting pass band to induce spectral narrowing of emission. We show now how with a high-quality narrow pass band in a broad stop band, it is possible to achieve photonic crystal lasing in self-assembled colloidal photonic crystals with a planar defect. In addition, with proper surface treatment in combination with patterning, we prepare for addressable integrated photonics. Finally, by incorporating a water in- and outlet, we can create optomicrofluidic structures on a photonic crystal allowing the optical probing of microreactors or micro-stopped-flow in the lab-on-an-optical-chip.

  18. Laser diffraction analysis of colloidal crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.; Shinohara, Tadatomi; Yoshiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kyoto Sangyo Univ., Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan)


    Laser diffraction analysis is made on crystallization in salt-free aqueous suspensions of highly-charged colloidal particles for semi-dilute specimens of concentration 0.1-10.0 vol%. Kossel diffraction patterns which represent faithfully accurate information on lattice symmetries in the suspensions enable us to investigate the time evolution of colloidal crystals. The results show that the crystallization proceeds by way of the following intermediate phase transitions: two-dimensional hcp structure {yields} random layer structure {yields} layer structure with one sliding degree of freedom {yields} stacking disorder structure {yields} stacking structure with multivariant periodicity {yields} fcc twin structure with twin plane (111) {yields} normal fcc structure {yields} bcc twin structure with twin plane (11-bar2) or (1-bar12) {yields} normal bcc structure. For concentrated suspensions (>2 vol %), the phase transition ceases to proceed at the normal fcc structure. (author)

  19. Crystal nucleation of colloidal hard dumbbells. (United States)

    Ni, Ran; Dijkstra, Marjolein


    Using computer simulations, we investigate the homogeneous crystal nucleation in suspensions of colloidal hard dumbbells. The free energy barriers are determined by Monte Carlo simulations using the umbrella sampling technique. We calculate the nucleation rates for the plastic crystal and the aperiodic crystal phase using the kinetic prefactor as determined from event driven molecular dynamics simulations. We find good agreement with the nucleation rates determined from spontaneous nucleation events observed in event driven molecular dynamics simulations within error bars of one order of magnitude. We study the effect of aspect ratio of the dumbbells on the nucleation of plastic and aperiodic crystal phases, and we also determine the structure of the critical nuclei. Moreover, we find that the nucleation of the aligned close-packed crystal structure is strongly suppressed by a high free energy barrier at low supersaturations and slow dynamics at high supersaturations.

  20. Towards true 3-dimensional BCC colloidal crystals with controlled lattice orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziomkina, N.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.


    A fabrication method of colloidal crystals possessing the BCC crystal structure is described. BCC colloidal crystals with a thickness of up to seven colloidal layers were grown in the direction of the (100) crystal plane. Defect free colloidal crystals with a homogeneous surface coverage were

  1. Programming Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Patchy Particles into Colloidal Crystals via Colloidal Molecules. (United States)

    Morphew, Daniel; Shaw, James; Avins, Christopher; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan


    Colloidal self-assembly is a promising bottom-up route to a wide variety of three-dimensional structures, from clusters to crystals. Programming hierarchical self-assembly of colloidal building blocks, which can give rise to structures ordered at multiple levels to rival biological complexity, poses a multiscale design problem. Here we explore a generic design principle that exploits a hierarchy of interaction strengths and employ this design principle in computer simulations to demonstrate the hierarchical self-assembly of triblock patchy colloidal particles into two distinct colloidal crystals. We obtain cubic diamond and body-centered cubic crystals via distinct clusters of uniform size and shape, namely, tetrahedra and octahedra, respectively. Such a conceptual design framework has the potential to reliably encode hierarchical self-assembly of colloidal particles into a high level of sophistication. Moreover, the design framework underpins a bottom-up route to cubic diamond colloidal crystals, which have remained elusive despite being much sought after for their attractive photonic applications.

  2. Cholesteric colloidal liquid crystals from phytosterol rod-like particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.; Sacanna, S.; Velikov, K.P.


    We report the first observation of chiral colloidal liquid crystals of rod-like particles from a low molecular weight organic compound— phytosterols. Based on the particles shape and crystal structure, we attribute this phenomenon to chiral distribution of surface charge on the surface of

  3. Nucleation of colloidal crystals on configurable seed structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, M; Vermolen, E.C.M.; Leunissen, M.E.; Vossen, D.L.J.; van Oostrum, P.D.J.; Dijkstra, M.; van Blaaderen, A.


    Nucleation is an important stage in the growth of crystals. During this stage, the structure and orientation of a crystal are determined. However, short time- and length-scales make nucleation poorly understood. Micrometer-sized colloidal particles form an ideal model system to study nucleation due

  4. Fabrication of Phase-Change Polymer Colloidal Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper presents the preparation of phase-change polymer colloidal photonic crystals (PCs by assembling hollow latex spheres encapsulated with dodecanol for the first time. The monodispersed hollow latex spheres were obtained by phase reversion of monodispersed core-shell latex spheres in the n-hexane, which dissolves the PS core and retains the PMMA/PAA shell. The as-prepared phase-change colloidal PCs show stable phase-change behavior. This fabrication of phase-change colloidal PCs would be significant for PC’s applications in functional coatings and various optic devices.

  5. Patterning symmetry in the rational design of colloidal crystals (United States)

    Romano, Flavio; Sciortino, Francesco


    Colloidal particles have the right size to form ordered structures with periodicities comparable to the wavelength of visible light. The tantalizing colours of precious opals and the colour of some species of birds are examples of polycrystalline colloidal structures found in nature. Driven by the demands of several emergent technologies, efforts have been made to develop efficient, self-assembly-based methodologies for generating colloidal single crystals with well-defined morphologies. Somewhat unfortunately, these efforts are often frustrated by the formation of structures lacking long-range order. Here we show that the rational design of patch shape and symmetry can drive patchy colloids to crystallize in a single, selected morphology by structurally eliminating undesired polymorphs. We provide a proof of this concept through the numerical investigation of triblock Janus colloids. One particular choice of patch symmetry yields, via spontaneous crystallization, a pure tetrastack lattice, a structure with attractive photonic properties, whereas another one results in a colloidal clathrate-like structure, in both cases without any interfering polymorphs.

  6. Fabrication of size-controllable hexagonal non-close-packed colloidal crystals and binary colloidal crystals by pyrolysis combined with plasma-electron co-irradiation of polystyrene colloidal monolaye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Joon


    We present an unprecedented and systematic route to controllably fabricate hexagonal non-close-packed (HNCP) monolayer colloidal crystals and binary colloidal crystals (BCCs) based on plasma-electron co-irradiation of polystyrene colloidal monolayers followed by thermal decomposition. HNCP colloidal crystals with tunable particle sizes and periods could be fabricated by changing the pristine colloidal particle size and the thermal decomposition time. In addition, BCCs and trimodal colloidal crystals that are composed of different-sized colloidal particles can also be fabricated by adding small particles on the prepared HNCP colloidal crystals. Both the particle size ratio and the volume fraction of the BCCs can be widely tuned. These HNCP colloidal crystals and BCCs have various potential applications as optical and photonic materials as well as in catalysis and sensors

  7. Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikov, K.P.; Moroz, A.; Blaaderen, A. van


    We report on the fabrication and optical transmission studies of thin three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals of high-dielectric ZnS-core and low-dielectric SiO2-shell colloidal particles. These samples were fabricated using a vertical controlled drying method. The spectral position and width of a

  8. Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals. (United States)

    Lazarev, Sergey; Besedin, Ilya; Zozulya, Alexey V; Meijer, Janne-Mieke; Dzhigaev, Dmitry; Gorobtsov, Oleg Yu; Kurta, Ruslan P; Rose, Max; Shabalin, Anatoly G; Sulyanova, Elena A; Zaluzhnyy, IvanA; Menushenkov, Alexey P; Sprung, Michael; Petukhov, Andrei V; Vartanyants, Ivan A


    Ptychographic coherent X-ray imaging is applied to obtain a projection of the electron density of colloidal crystals, which are promising nanoscale materials for optoelectronic applications and important model systems. Using the incident X-ray wavefield reconstructed by mixed states approach, a high resolution and high contrast image of the colloidal crystal structure is obtained by ptychography. The reconstructed colloidal crystal reveals domain structure with an average domain size of about 2 µm. Comparison of the domains formed by the basic close-packed structures, allows us to conclude on the absence of pure hexagonal close-packed domains and confirms the presence of random hexagonal close-packed layers with predominantly face-centered cubic structure within the analyzed part of the colloidal crystal film. The ptychography reconstruction shows that the final structure is complicated and may contain partial dislocations leading to a variation of the stacking sequence in the lateral direction. As such in this work, X-ray ptychography is extended to high resolution imaging of crystalline samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Colloid-probe AFM studies of the interaction forces of proteins adsorbed on colloidal crystals. (United States)

    Singh, Gurvinder; Bremmell, Kristen E; Griesser, Hans J; Kingshott, Peter


    In recent years, colloid-probe AFM has been used to measure the direct interaction forces between colloidal particles of different size or surface functionality in aqueous media, as one can study different forces in symmerical systems (i.e., sphere-sphere geometry). The present study investigates the interaction between protein coatings on colloid probes and hydrophilic surfaces decorated with hexagonally close packed single particle layers that are either uncoated or coated with proteins. Controlled solvent evaporation from aqueous suspensions of colloidal particles (coated with or without lysozyme and albumin) produces single layers of close-packed colloidal crystals over large areas on a solid support. The measurements have been carried out in an aqueous medium at different salt concentrations and pH values. The results show changes in the interaction forces as the surface charge of the unmodified or modified particles, and ionic strength or pH of the solution is altered. At high ionic strength or pH, electrostatic interactions are screened, and a strong repulsive force at short separation below 5 nm dominates, suggesting structural changes in the absorbed protein layer on the particles. We also study the force of adhesion, which decreases with an increment in the salt concentration, and the interaction between two different proteins indicating a repulsive interaction on approach and adhesion on retraction.

  10. Deformation and failure of curved colloidal crystal shells. (United States)

    Negri, Carlotta; Sellerio, Alessandro L; Zapperi, Stefano; Miguel, M Carmen


    Designing and controlling particle self-assembly into robust and reliable high-performance smart materials often involves crystalline ordering in curved spaces. Examples include carbon allotropes like graphene, synthetic materials such as colloidosomes, or biological systems like lipid membranes, solid domains on vesicles, or viral capsids. Despite the relevance of these structures, the irreversible deformation and failure of curved crystals is still mostly unexplored. Here, we report simulation results of the mechanical deformation of colloidal crystalline shells that illustrate the subtle role played by geometrically necessary topological defects in controlling plastic yielding and failure. We observe plastic deformation attributable to the migration and reorientation of grain boundary scars, a collective process assisted by the intermittent proliferation of disclination pairs or abrupt structural failure induced by crack nucleating at defects. Our results provide general guiding principles to optimize the structural and mechanical stability of curved colloidal crystals.

  11. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. (United States)

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo


    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hanging colloidal drop: A new photonic crystal synthesis route (United States)

    Sandu, Ion; Dumitru, Marius; Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Dumitrache, Florian


    High-quality photonic crystals (hundreds of micrometres in thickness) were grown by the free evaporation of a colloidal drop consisting of silica and polystyrene nanospheres with dimensions of 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1000 nm. The essence of experimental findings is that the drop has to hang on a pillar. This leads to the inhibition of the droplet spreading, the minimisation of the convective force, and the zeroing of the static frictional force between nanospheres and the liquid/air interface, where the first layer is formed. The theoretical essence is the continuous adjustment of nanospheres positions during the growth of photonic crystal, a key condition of the self-assembling phenomenon.

  13. Ethanol vapor-induced fabrication of colloidal crystals with controllable layers and photonic properties. (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanqiang; Gong, Xiangxiang; Han, Jie; Guo, Rong


    A novel fabrication method for colloidal crystals has been proposed for the first time in this research. In this method, a suspension droplet containing colloidal particles was first spread onto a glass substrate placed in an ethanol vapor environment, and then the droplet was extracted from its center. In that case, the contact angle of the droplet reduced and the contact line receded toward the center, during which the colloidal particles self-assembled and immobilized forming a 2D colloidal crystal film on the substrate upon drying the liquid film. Alternately spreading and drying of suspension films could construct fine multi-layers of colloidal crystals, while the ethanol fraction in the suspension would be used to control roughly but rapidly the layer numbers of colloidal crystals. It was also found that the photonic properties of resultant colloidal crystal films were elevated by increasing their thickness.

  14. Preparation of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals of Zirconia by Electrodeposition in a Colloidal Crystals Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional photonic crystals of zirconia were prepared by electrodeposition in a colloidal crystals template following calcination at 500 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and reflectance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the photonic crystals of zirconia. It was found that hydrated zirconium ions could penetrate the colloidal crystals template and reach the substrate easily by electrodeposition, which resulted in stronger bonding between the substrate and the as-deposited membrane. Moreover, the electrodeposited membrane had low water content, leading to a low amount of shrinkage during calcination. Both these properties could suppress detachment from the substrate upon removal of the colloidal crystals template. Therefore, the three-dimensional photonic crystals of zirconia synthesized in this study exhibited very good preservation of the ordered structures of the colloidal crystals template with a high density. A peak of reflection higher than 70% was formed in the reflectance spectrum because of the strong diffraction of the ordered structures.

  15. Entropy Stabilizes Floppy Crystals of Mobile DNA-Coated Colloids (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Ruiz, Pablo Sampedro; Ni, Ran


    Grafting linkers with open ends of complementary single-stranded DNA makes a flexible tool to tune interactions between colloids, which facilitates the design of complex self-assembly structures. Recently, it has been proposed to coat colloids with mobile DNA linkers, which alleviates kinetic barriers without high-density grafting, and also allows the design of valency without patches. However, the self-assembly mechanism of this novel system is poorly understood. Using a combination of theory and simulation, we obtain phase diagrams for the system in both two and three dimensional spaces, and find stable floppy square and CsCl crystals when the binding strength is strong, even in the infinite binding strength limit. We demonstrate that these floppy phases are stabilized by vibrational entropy, and "floppy" modes play an important role in stabilizing the floppy phases for the infinite binding strength limit. This special entropic effect in the self-assembly of mobile DNA-coated colloids is very different from conventional molecular self-assembly, and it offers a new axis to help design novel functional materials using mobile DNA-coated colloids.

  16. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson Roberto


    Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to  nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials.  Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale  materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientati...

  17. Molecular engineering of chiral colloidal liquid crystals using DNA origami (United States)

    Siavashpouri, Mahsa; Wachauf, Christian H.; Zakhary, Mark J.; Praetorius, Florian; Dietz, Hendrik; Dogic, Zvonimir


    Establishing precise control over the shape and the interactions of the microscopic building blocks is essential for design of macroscopic soft materials with novel structural, optical and mechanical properties. Here, we demonstrate robust assembly of DNA origami filaments into cholesteric liquid crystals, one-dimensional supramolecular twisted ribbons and two-dimensional colloidal membranes. The exquisite control afforded by the DNA origami technology establishes a quantitative relationship between the microscopic filament structure and the macroscopic cholesteric pitch. Furthermore, it also enables robust assembly of one-dimensional twisted ribbons, which behave as effective supramolecular polymers whose structure and elastic properties can be precisely tuned by controlling the geometry of the elemental building blocks. Our results demonstrate the potential synergy between DNA origami technology and colloidal science, in which the former allows for rapid and robust synthesis of complex particles, and the latter can be used to assemble such particles into bulk materials.

  18. Stability of orientationally disordered crystal structures of colloidal hard dumbbells. (United States)

    Marechal, Matthieu; Dijkstra, Marjolein


    We study the stability of orientationally disordered crystal phases in a suspension of colloidal hard dumbbells using Monte Carlo simulations. For dumbbell bond length L/sigmadumbbell and sigma the diameter of the spheres, we determine the difference in Helmholtz free energy of a plastic crystal with a hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) and a face-centered-cubic (fcc) structure using thermodynamic integration and the lattice-switch Monte Carlo method. We find that the plastic crystal with the hcp structure is more stable than the one with the fcc structure for a large part of the stable plastic crystal regime. In addition, we study the stability of an orientationally disordered aperiodic crystal structure in which the spheres of the dumbbells are on a random-hexagonal-close-packed lattice, and the dumbbells are formed by taking random pairs of neighboring spheres. Using free-energy calculations, we determine the fluid-aperiodic crystal and periodic-aperiodic crystal coexistence regions for L/sigma>0.88 .

  19. Densification and crystallization behaviour of colloidal cordierite-type gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Three cordierite-type gels were prepared from an aqueous solution of Mg(NO32, a boehmite sol and silica sols of very small particle sizes. The effect of varying the silica particle size on the crystallization and densification behaviour was studied. Phase development was examined by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction, while the densification behaviour was characterized by measuring the linear shrinkage of pellets. The activation energy of densification by viscous flow was determined using the Franckel model for non-isothermal conditions and a constant heating rate. The results show that spinel crystallizes from the colloidal gels prior to cristobalite, and their reaction gives a-cordierite, which is specific for three-phase gels. Decreasing the silica particles size lowers the cristobalite crystallization temperature and the a-cordierite formation temperature. The activation energy of densification by viscous flow is lower and the densification more efficient, the smaller the silica particles are.

  20. Dimeric and dipolar ground state orders in colloidal molecular crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Trizac


    Full Text Available A two dimensional colloidal suspension subject to a periodic substrate evolves into a colloidal molecular crystal under situationsofstrongconfinement. Wefocusonthelongrangeorientationalordertherebyemerging, inthegroundstate. We study by simulations the situations where in each trap lies a pair of identical colloids, or alternatively a pair of oppositelychargedmacroions. We consider square or triangular geometries for the periodic confinement, together with less symmetric distorted lattices.Uma suspensão bidimensional coloidal sujeita a um substrato periódico evolui para um cristal coloidal molecular em situações de forte confinamento. Nós focamos na ordem de orientação emergindo a partir do estado fundamental. Fazendo uso de simulações, estudamos as situações onde em cada armadilha reside um par de colóides idênticos ou, alternativamente, um par de macro-íons de cargas opostas. Consideramos geometrias quadradas ou triangulares para o confinamento periódico com arranjos simétricos com menor distorção.

  1. Growth of high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility lithium sulphate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P., E-mail:; Ramasamy, P. [Center for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603110 (India)


    The paper summarizes the processes of growing large lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals. We have established a procedure to grow high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility LSMH by a newly developed unidirectional crystallization technique called the Sankeranarayenan - Ramasamy (SR) method. The convective flow of crystal growth processes from solution and the conditions of growing crystals of various aspects were discussed. Good quality LSMH single crystal is grown of the size 20 mmX80 mm without cracks, localized-defects and inclusions. The as-grown crystals are suitable for piezoelectric and nonlinear optical applications.

  2. Fullerene (C60) nano-colloids in nematic liquid crystal (United States)

    Visco, Angelo; Sobczak, Kevin; Mahmood, Rizwan


    We report high resolution homodyne light scattering studies to probe director fluctuations in bend/splay mode in bulk nematic liquid crystal and as a function of fullerene (C60) nanoparticles concentration. The preliminary analysis shows that the relaxation time of these fluctuations is fairly constant with in the experimental uncertainty despite the constraints imposed on the director fluctuations due to the insertion of nano colloids. The relaxation time extracted from the data found to be in nano seconds range and the diffusion constant (D) found to be, D = 4.29 x 106 cm/sec. The authors acknowledge the financial support from grants office, Dean, college of Health, Environment & Science and the physics department.

  3. Photonic Crystal Fibre SERS Sensors Based on Silver Nanoparticle Colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Guo, Xie; Yong-Hua, Lu; Pei, Wang; Kai-Qun, Lin; Jie, Yan; Hai, Ming


    A photonic crystal fibre (PCF) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is developed based on silver nanoparticle colloid. Analyte solution and silver nanoparticles are injected into the air holes of PCF by a simple modified syringe to overcome mass-transport constraints, allowing more silver nanoparticles involved in SERS activity. This sensor offers significant benefit over the conventional SERS sensor with high flexibility, easy manufacture. We demonstrate the detection of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) molecules with the injecting way and the common dipping measurement. The injecting way shows obviously better results than the dipping one. Theoretical analysis indicates that this PCF SERS substrate offers enhancement of about 7 orders of magnitude in SERS active area

  4. Modeling of monolayer charge-stabilized colloidal crystals with static hexagonal crystal lattice (United States)

    Nagatkin, A. N.; Dyshlovenko, P. E.


    The mathematical model of monolayer colloidal crystals of charged hard spheres in liquid electrolyte is proposed. The particles in the monolayer are arranged into the two-dimensional hexagonal crystal lattice. The model enables finding elastic constants of the crystals from the stress-strain dependencies. The model is based on the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann differential equation. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved numerically by the finite element method for any spatial configuration. The model has five geometrical and electrical parameters. The model is used to study the crystal with particles comparable in size with the Debye length of the electrolyte. The first- and second-order elastic constants are found for a broad range of densities. The model crystal turns out to be stable relative to small uniform stretching and shearing. It is also demonstrated that the Cauchy relation is not fulfilled in the crystal. This means that the pair effective interaction of any kind is not sufficient to proper model the elasticity of colloids within the one-component approach.

  5. A Navier-Stokes phase-field crystal model for colloidal suspensions. (United States)

    Praetorius, Simon; Voigt, Axel


    We develop a fully continuous model for colloidal suspensions with hydrodynamic interactions. The Navier-Stokes Phase-Field Crystal model combines ideas of dynamic density functional theory with particulate flow approaches and is derived in detail and related to other dynamic density functional theory approaches with hydrodynamic interactions. The derived system is numerically solved using adaptive finite elements and is used to analyze colloidal crystallization in flowing environments demonstrating a strong coupling in both directions between the crystal shape and the flow field. We further validate the model against other computational approaches for particulate flow systems for various colloidal sedimentation problems.

  6. Multiple Colors Output on Voile through 3D Colloidal Crystals with Robust Mechanical Properties. (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Tang, Bingtao; Ju, Benzhi; Wu, Suli; Zhang, Shufen


    Distinguished from the chromatic mechanism of dyes and pigments, structural color is derived from physical interactions of visible light with structures that are periodic at the scale of the wavelength of light. Using colloidal crystals with coloring functions for fabrics has resulted in significant improvements compared with chemical colors because the structural color from colloidal crystals bears many unique and fascinating optical properties, such as vivid iridescence and nonphotobleaching. However, the poor mechanical performance of the structural color films cannot meet actual requirements because of the weak point contact of colloidal crystal particles. Herein, we demonstrate in this study the patterning on voile fabrics with high mechanical strength on account of the periodic array lock effect of polymers, and multiple structural color output was simultaneously achieved by a simple two-phase self-assembly method for printing voile fabrics with 3D colloidal crystals. The colored voile fabrics exhibit high color saturation, good mechanical stability, and multiple-color patterns printable. In addition, colloidal crystals are promising potential substitutes for organic dyes and pigments because colloidal crystals are environmentally friendly.

  7. Optimizing the concentration of colloidal suspensions in convective assembly of centimeter-sized uniform monolayer colloidal crystals (United States)

    Bayat, Farzaneh; Chaghamirzaei, Pouria; Nikniazi, Arash; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza; Tajalli, Habib


    In this paper, it is shown that the concentration of the colloidal suspension has a significant role in the assembly of a uniform centimeter-sized monolayer colloidal crystal (MCC) and the optimized range of the concentrations for fabricating MCCs made of polystyrene (PS) microspheres with the diameter of 508 nm is obtained. The gravity assisted convective assembly method is used to fabricate MCCs. It has been shown that not only the size of the MCC but also its uniformity and quality is highly dependent on the concentration of the colloidal suspension. Having used different methods to analyze the samples such as taking the transmission spectra, optical microscopy imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, and studying the diffraction patterns of the samples, it is deduced that the optimized range of the concentration is from 1.7 wt% to 1.85 wt%.

  8. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo


    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  9. On the crystal structure of colloidally prepared CsPbBr3 quantum dots. (United States)

    Cottingham, Patrick; Brutchey, Richard L


    Colloidally synthesized quantum dots of CsPbBr3 are highly promising for light-emitting applications. Previous reports based on benchtop diffraction conflict as to the crystal structure of CsPbBr3 quantum dots. We present X-ray diffraction and PDF analysis of X-ray total scattering data that indicate that the crystal structure is unequivocally orthorhombic (Pnma).

  10. Tunable photonic crystals with partial bandgaps from blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric-doped blue phases. (United States)

    Stimulak, Mitja; Ravnik, Miha


    Blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are demonstrated to combine multiple components with different symmetries in one photonic material, creating a photonic crystal with variable and micro-controllable photonic band structure. In this composite photonic material, one contribution to the band structure is determined by the 3D periodic birefringent orientational profile of the blue phases, whereas the second contribution emerges from the regular array of the colloidal particles or from the dielectric/nanoparticle-doped defect network. Using the planewave expansion method, optical photonic bands of the blue phase I and II colloidal crystals and related nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are calculated, and then compared to blue phases with no particles and to face-centred-cubic and body-centred-cubic colloidal crystals in isotropic background. We find opening of local band gaps at particular points of Brillouin zone for blue phase colloidal crystals, where there were none in blue phases without particles or dopants. Particle size and filling fraction of the blue phase defect network are demonstrated as parameters that can directly tune the optical bands and local band gaps. In the blue phase I colloidal crystal with an additionally doped defect network, interestingly, we find an indirect total band gap (with the exception of one point) at the entire edge of SC irreducible zone. Finally, this work demonstrates the role of combining multiple - by symmetry - differently organised components in one photonic crystal material, which offers a novel approach towards tunable soft matter photonic materials.

  11. Imitation of variable structural color in Paracheirodon innesi using colloidal crystal films. (United States)

    Cong, Hailin; Yu, Bing; Zhao, Xiu Song


    Spacing variation of adjoining reflecting thin films in iridophore is responsible for the variable interference color in the paracheirodon innesi. On the basis of this phenomenon, colloidal crystal thin films with different structures are fabricated from monodisperse poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (PSMA) colloids. The relationship between the colors and structures of the films is investigated and discussed according to the principle of light interference. A two-layer colloidal film having uniform color is researched and it displays diverse colors before and after swelling by styrene (St), which can be used to mimic the variable structural color of the paracheirodon innesi.

  12. Temperature-modified photonic bandgap in colloidal photonic crystals fabricated by vinyl functionalized silica spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Tiansong; Zhang Junyan; Zhu Kongtao; Zhang Qifeng; Wu Jinlei


    Graphical abstract: A thermal annealing procedure was described for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals, which were self-assembled from vinyl-functionalized silica spheres by a gravity sedimentation process. Highlights: → We described a thermal annealing procedure for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals. → The position of its stop band had more than 25% blue shift by annealing the sample from 60 to 600 deg. C. → The annealing temperature and the Bragg peak values have a linear relationship in the 120-440 deg. C range. → The effects provide a simple and controllable method for modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals. - Abstract: A thermal annealing procedure for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals was described. The colloidal photonic crystals were assembled from monodisperse vinyl functionalized silica spheres by a gravity sedimentation process. The samples diffract light following Bragg's law combined with Snell's law. By annealing the sample at temperatures in the range of 60-600 deg. C, the position of its stop band shifted from 943 to 706 nm. It had more than 25% blue shift. In addition, the annealing temperature and the Bragg peak values have a linear relationship in the 120-440 deg. C range. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) curves of vinyl functionalized silica spheres confirmed the above results. The effects provide a simple and controllable method for modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals.

  13. Structural deformations in liquid crystals with dispersed magnetic nano-colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shoarinejad


    Full Text Available  The stable colloidal dispersions of magnetic nano-particles in nematic liquid crystals are called ferronematics. Their behaviour in magnetic fields depends on various parameters such as anchoring energy, magnetic anisotropy, and shape and volume fraction of the particles. In the present paper, the threshold field is obtained for these colloidal nematics. Then, the influence of magnetic anisotropy, cell thickness, magnetic moment, and volume fraction of the particles are discussed . It is found that due to the influence of some effective parameters, the threshold field changes when compared to pure nematic liquid crystals. The obtained results are consistent with the reported experimental results.

  14. Surface-modified silica colloidal crystals: nanoporous films and membranes with controlled ionic and molecular transport. (United States)

    Zharov, Ilya; Khabibullin, Amir


    Nanoporous membranes are important for the study of the transport of small molecules and macromolecules through confined spaces and in applications ranging from separation of biomacromolecules and pharmaceuticals to sensing and controlled release of drugs. For many of these applications, chemists need to gate the ionic and molecular flux through the nanopores, which in turn depends on the ability to control the nanopore geometry and surface chemistry. Most commonly used nanoporous membrane materials are based on polymers. However, the nanostructure of polymeric membranes is not well-defined, and their surface is hard to modify. Inorganic nanoporous materials are attractive alternatives for polymers in the preparation of nanoporous membranes. In this Account, we describe the preparation and surface modification of inorganic nanoporous films and membranes self-assembled from silica colloidal spheres. These spheres form colloidal crystals with close-packed face centered cubic lattices upon vertical deposition from colloidal solutions. Silica colloidal crystals contain ordered arrays of interconnected three dimensional voids, which function as nanopores. We can prepare silica colloidal crystals as supported thin films on various flat solid surfaces or obtain free-standing silica colloidal membranes by sintering the colloidal crystals above 1000 °C. Unmodified silica colloidal membranes are capable of size-selective separation of macromolecules, and we can surface-modify them in a well-defined and controlled manner with small molecules and polymers. For the surface modification with small molecules, we use silanol chemistry. We grow polymer brushes with narrow molecular weight distribution and controlled length on the colloidal nanopore surface using atom transfer radical polymerization or ring-opening polymerization. We can control the flux in the resulting surface-modified nanoporous films and membranes by pH and ionic strength, temperature, light, and small molecule

  15. Fabrication of colloidal crystals composed of pore-expanded mesoporous silica nanoparticles prepared by a controlled growth method. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Eisuke; Mori, Seiya; Shimojima, Atsushi; Wada, Hiroaki; Kuroda, Kazuyuki


    Colloidal crystals composed of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are expected to have various applications because of their unique hierarchical structures and tunable functions. The expansion of the mesopore size is important for introducing guest species which cannot be accommodated by using conventional colloidal crystals of MSNs; however, the preparation of MSNs with a controllable pore size, suitable for the fabrication of colloidal crystals, still remains a challenge. In this study, we fabricated colloidal crystals composed of pore-expanded MSNs using a sophisticated particle growth method to control the pore size of colloidal MSNs while retaining their monodispersity high enough to form colloidal crystals. By adding triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) only during the growth process with the stepwise addition of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS), the particle size can be tuned from 60 nm to 100 nm, while the pore size can be tuned from 3 nm to ten plus several nm which is the largest size among the previous MSNs capable of forming colloidal crystals. These novel colloidal crystals should contribute to the expansion of nanomaterials science.

  16. Self-Assembly of Ternary Particles for Tough Colloidal Crystals with Vivid Structure Colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binfu Bao


    Full Text Available Self-assembly of colloidal spheres is the most frequently used method for structural colors, but the chroma of the structural colors is usually so low that people cannot observe it under natural conditions. This paper presents a facile method for fabrications of vivid structural colors by doping carbon black into the self-assembly of colloidal polymer spheres and nanosilica particles. This approach can generate very gorgeous structural colors which can be very easily seen under natural conditions. The fabrication conditions for the self-assembly of composite dispersions of polymer/silica/carbon black were optimized to obtain colloidal crystals with vivid colors. Thus, robust mechanical properties, large-scale, and brilliant structural colors can guarantee the obtained crystal films to find practical applications, which are demonstrated by the fact that the successful applications of structural colors beautify the original simple and tedious surface of bamboo strand board (BSB.

  17. Finite particle size drives defect-mediated domain structures in strongly confined colloidal liquid crystals. (United States)

    Gârlea, Ioana C; Mulder, Pieter; Alvarado, José; Dammone, Oliver; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Lettinga, M Pavlik; Koenderink, Gijsje H; Mulder, Bela M


    When liquid crystals are confined to finite volumes, the competition between the surface anchoring imposed by the boundaries and the intrinsic orientational symmetry-breaking of these materials gives rise to a host of intriguing phenomena involving topological defect structures. For synthetic molecular mesogens, like the ones used in liquid-crystal displays, these defect structures are independent of the size of the molecules and well described by continuum theories. In contrast, colloidal systems such as carbon nanotubes and biopolymers have micron-sized lengths, so continuum descriptions are expected to break down under strong confinement conditions. Here, we show, by a combination of computer simulations and experiments with virus particles in tailor-made disk- and annulus-shaped microchambers, that strong confinement of colloidal liquid crystals leads to novel defect-stabilized symmetrical domain structures. These finite-size effects point to a potential for designing optically active microstructures, exploiting the as yet unexplored regime of highly confined liquid crystals.

  18. Unidirectional Wave Propagation in Low-Symmetric Colloidal Photonic-Crystal Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Yannopapas


    Full Text Available We show theoretically that photonic crystals consisting of colloidal spheres exhibit unidirectional wave propagation and one-way frequency band gaps without breaking time-reversal symmetry via, e.g., the application of an external magnetic field or the use of nonlinear materials. Namely, photonic crystals with low symmetry such as the monoclinic crystal type considered here as well as with unit cells formed by the heterostructure of different photonic crystals show significant unidirectional electromagnetic response. In particular, we show that the use of scatterers with low refractive-index contrast favors the formation of unidirectional frequency gaps which is the optimal route for achieving unidirectional wave propagation.

  19. Role of order during Ogston sieving of DNA in colloidal crystals. (United States)

    King, Scott B; Dorfman, Kevin D


    We combine in situ Bragg diffraction, laser diffraction, high speed fluorescence scanning, and large-scale data processing to arrive at statistically significant conclusions about the role of order during the microchip electrophoresis separation of short DNA molecules (86 base pairs and 709 base pairs) in colloidal crystals. This experimental approach directly connects the presence of long-range order (obtained by laser diffraction) to the DNA transport (obtained by fluorescence detection) in hundreds of "mini-columns" composed of 500 μm-long regions of the devices. To within statistical significance, the electrophoretic mobility is the same in regions of the chip with long-range order and those with short-range order, independent of the electric field and molecular weight. Moreover, the relative mobilities of the DNA agree well with a recent estimate for the Ogston sieving mobility in a colloidal crystal. Similar to previous work, the band broadening during the transit through the colloidal crystal is negligible. These features imply that colloidal crystals for DNA separation in the Ogston sieving regime do not require exquisite control over the microstructure to maximize the separation resolution, simplifying their assembly for routine use.

  20. A simple model for dynamic small-angle X-ray diffraction in colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, A.G.F.; Petukhov, A.V.


    A simple model is presented that allows calculation of the small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns of perfect colloidal crystals. The model is based on the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation and permits a straightforward evaluation of multibeam interactions. Results are illustrated by several

  1. Direct current electric field assembly of colloidal crystals displaying reversible structural color. (United States)

    Shah, Aayush A; Ganesan, Mahesh; Jocz, Jennifer; Solomon, Michael J


    We report the application of low-voltage direct current (dc) electric fields to self-assemble close-packed colloidal crystals in nonaqueous solvents from colloidal spheres that vary in size from as large as 1.2 μm to as small as 0.1 μm. The assemblies are created rapidly (∼2 min) from an initially low volume fraction colloidal particle suspension using a simple capacitor-like electric field device that applies a steady dc electric voltage. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the ordering that is produced by the assembly method. This spatial evidence for ordering is consistent with the 6-fold diffraction patterns identified by light scattering. Red, green, and blue structural color is observed for the ordered assemblies of colloids with diameters of 0.50, 0.40, and 0.29 μm, respectively, consistent with spectroscopic measurements of reflectance. The diffraction and spectrophotometry results were found to be consistent with the theoretical Bragg's scattering expected for closed-packed crystals. By switching the dc electric field from on to off, we demonstrate reversibility of the structural color response on times scales ∼60 s. The dc electric field assembly method therefore represents a simple method to produce reversible structural color in colloidal soft matter.

  2. Two studies of colloidal interactions: electric polarizability and protein crystallization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraden, Seth; Hu, Yue


    (I)Electric polarizability. During this grant period, the focus was on five topics concerning electric field effects on colloids. The first topic focuses on electric interactions between charged colloids in the absence of external fields, and the remaining four deal with colloids in the presence of external fields. The topics are (1) calculation of the effect of confinement on the pair-potential between like-charged colloids, (2) experimental determination of the interparticle potential under the conditions of dielectric polarization, (3) measurement of the evolution of structure of ER fluids, (4) synthesis of novel colloids designed for ER studies, and (5) computer modeling of polarization of surface charge. (II) Protein crystallization. Studies of the phase behavior of mixtures of proteins and polymers were initiated. The motivation was to test recent theories that suggested that optimal conditions for protein crystallization could be obtained using such mixtures. Combined light scattering measurements of the virial coefficients and determination of the phase diagram of protein/polymer mixtures revealed that the theoretical picture needs to be substantially modified.

  3. Colloidal hard dumbbells under gravity: structure and crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marechal, M.A.T.; Dijkstra, M.


    We study the structure and phase behavior of hard dumbbells under gravity. The fluid shows layering near the wall, where subsequent layers of dumbbells align alternatingly parallel or perpendicular to the wall. We observe coexistence of a fluid with a plastic crystal (PC) and an aligned crystal

  4. A polycrystalline SiO2 colloidal crystal film with ultra-narrow reflections. (United States)

    Fu, Qianqian; Chen, Ang; Shi, Lei; Ge, Jianping


    This work reported a high quality photonic crystal film with an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap obtained via a chemical synthetic route. The bandgap is much narrower than that of traditional colloidal crystals, which makes the film qualified for use in optical devices. The narrow PBG originates from not only the high crystallinity and uniform orientations of microcrystals within the film but also the very close refractive indices between the silica and the polymer matrix. Due to the matching of the refractive index, the amorphous contents of the film are optically transparent and do not interfere with the reflection, so that the photonic crystal film is tolerant of the existence of disordered contents.

  5. Modes of surface premelting in colloidal crystals composed of attractive particles. (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Di; Peng, Yi; Ni, Ran; Han, Yilong


    Crystal surfaces typically melt into a thin liquid layer at temperatures slightly below the melting point of the crystal. Such surface premelting is prevalent in all classes of solids and is important in a variety of metallurgical, geological and meteorological phenomena. Premelting has been studied using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, but the lack of single-particle resolution makes it hard to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Colloids are good model systems for studying phase transitions because the thermal motions of individual micrometre-sized particles can be tracked directly using optical microscopy. Here we use colloidal spheres with tunable attractions to form equilibrium crystal-vapour interfaces, and study their surface premelting behaviour at the single-particle level. We find that monolayer colloidal crystals exhibit incomplete premelting at their perimeter, with a constant liquid-layer thickness. In contrast, two- and three-layer crystals exhibit conventional complete melting, with the thickness of the surface liquid diverging as the melting point is approached. The microstructures of the surface liquids differ in certain aspects from what would be predicted by conventional premelting theories. Incomplete premelting in the monolayer crystals is triggered by a bulk isostructural solid-solid transition and truncated by a mechanical instability that separately induces homogeneous melting within the bulk. This finding is in contrast to the conventional assumption that two-dimensional crystals melt heterogeneously from their free surfaces (that is, at the solid-vapour interface). The unexpected bulk melting that we observe for the monolayer crystals is accompanied by the formation of grain boundaries, which supports a previously proposed grain-boundary-mediated two-dimensional melting theory. The observed interplay between surface premelting, bulk melting and solid-solid transitions challenges existing theories of surface

  6. Colloidal membranes: The rich confluence of geometry and liquid crystals (United States)

    Kaplan, Cihan Nadir

    A simple and experimentally realizable model system of chiral symmetry breaking is liquid-crystalline monolayers of aligned, identical hard rods. In these materials, tuning the chirality at the molecular level affects the geometry at systems level, thereby inducing a myriad of morphological transitions. This thesis presents theoretical studies motivated by the rich phenomenology of these colloidal monolayers. High molecular chirality leads to assemblages of rods exhibiting macroscopic handedness. In the first part we consider one such geometry, twisted ribbons, which are minimal surfaces to a double helix. By employing a theoretical approach that combines liquid-crystalline order with the preferred shape, we focus on the phase transition from simple flat monolayers to these twisted structures. In these monolayers, regions of broken chiral symmetry nucleate at the interfaces, as in a chiral smectic A sample. The second part particularly focuses on the detailed structure and thermodynamic stability of two types of observed interfaces, the monolayer edge and domain walls in simple flat monolayers. Both the edge and "twist-walls" are quasi-one-dimensional bands of molecular twist deformations dictated by local chiral interactions and surface energy considerations. We develop a unified theory of these interfaces by utilizing the de Gennes framework accompanied by appropriate surface energy terms. The last part turns to colloidal "cookies", which form in mixtures of rods with opposite handedness. These elegant structures are essentially flat monolayers surrounded by an array of local, three dimensional cusp defects. We reveal the thermodynamic and structural characteristics of cookies. Furthermore, cookies provide us with a simple relation to determine the intrinsic curvature modulus of our model system, an important constant associated with topological properties of membranes. Our results may have impacts on a broader class of soft thin films.

  7. Simultaneous three-dimensional imaging and manipulation of grain boundaries in colloidal crystals (United States)

    Edmond, Kazem V.; Liu, Yanyan; Curran, Arran; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.; Sacanna, Stefano; Dullens, Roel P. A.

    Characterizing the properties of grains and grain boundaries is critical for understanding and controlling material properties. We investigate the dynamics of grain boundaries in crystalline materials using concentrated colloidal suspensions of microspheres. The micron-sized particles are suspended in a mixture of solvents whose refractive index and density nearly match those of the particles, enabling three-dimensional visualization and negating gravitational effects. Throughout the sample we disperse specially designed core-shell particles whose cores have a higher refractive index that can be optically trapped. Via optical tweezing, these core-shell particles enable us to directly interact with and probe grain boundaries in 3D within the colloidal crystal. We use a uniquely developed optical microscopy system that combines confocal imaging with holographic trapping, enabling quantitative imaging and precise manipulation simultaneously in three dimensions. Our experiments provide direct insight into the properties of grain boundaries in crystals.

  8. Using Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals to Understand Crystallography (United States)

    Bosse, Stephanie A.; Loening, Nikolaus M.


    X-ray crystallography is an essential technique for modern chemistry and biochemistry, but it is infrequently encountered by undergraduate students owing to lack of access to equipment, the time-scale for generating diffraction-quality molecular crystals, and the level of mathematics involved in analyzing the resulting diffraction patterns.…

  9. Colloidal Crystals as Templates for Light Harvesting Structures in Solar Cells


    Haugan, Einar


    Monolayer colloidal crystals are formed using silica- and polystyrene beads and used as templates in nanosphere lithography for creating various hexagonal periodic structures intended for light harvesting in crystalline silicon solar cells. Specifically, arrays of silver islands for plasmonic scattering, dimples for use as seeds in electrochemical etching, and silicon cylinders diffraction gratings are fabricated and investigated. Where suitable, optical measurements are done to complement th...

  10. Rapid Facial Fabrication of Silica Colloidal Crystal Film at the Air/Water Interface. (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Wang, Yun; Chen, Qiming


    A rapid and facial strategy has been developed to self-assemble 2D or 3D silica colloidal crystals at the air/water interface. The surface hydrophilicity of monodisperse silica microspheres were prepared by the Stöber method and modified by physical adsorption of a cationic surfactant (CTAB). The surface-modified silica microspheres were dispersed into an organic solvent and readily self-assemble at the air/water interface to form 2D monolayer film. The surface potential (ζ ) of silica microspheres could be changed with different concentration of CTAB aqueous solution. When the surface potential of silica particles was of -36.67 mV, a 2D monolayer film with close-packed and high-ordered structure could be easily obtained and may further be transferred onto a solid substrate layer by layer to develop a 3D multilayer film. UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to analyze the orderliness of colloidal crystal film, the Bragg diffraction positions and silica diameters were in good agreement with those were theoretically calculated. In addition, Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe the arrangement of colloidal crystals.

  11. Stretched inverse opal colloid crystal substrates-induced orientation of fibroblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y C; Tang, Z M; Feng, Z Q; Xie, Z Y; Gu, Z Z


    Recently, there has been increasing interest in studying the interaction between mammalian cells and nanometer-sized structures. However, the effect of nanostructures on cell behavior, such as cell morphology and alignment, is still largely unknown. Inverse opal colloid crystal substrates, which can be stretched to produce nano-scale pore structures of different degrees of orientation, serve as a convenient model system to study the effect of nanotopography on cell morphology and cell alignment. In this work, we fabricated inverse opal colloidal crystal films that were either unstretched or stretched to three, four or six times their original length, producing pore structures of increasing degree of orientation. Human dermal fibroblast-fetal (HDF-f) cells were seeded and cultured on these four types of substrates. The results from fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that cells showed the highest degree of alignment when cultured on inverse opal colloid crystal films that were stretched the most (six times original length). The results also demonstrated that the orientation of nanostructures could affect both the morphology and growth direction of fibroblasts. The ability to control the direction of cell growth through the engineering of nanostructures could have important applications in tissue engineering, especially for tissues with anisotropic structures, such as cardiac muscle, blood vessel, tendon and ligament.

  12. Diffuse scattering in random-stacking hexagonal close-packed crystals of colloidal hard spheres (United States)

    Byelov, Dmytro V.; Hilhorst, Jan; Reinink, Anke B. G. M. Leferink op; Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly; Vaughan, Gavin B. M.; Portale, Giuseppe; Petukhov, Andrei V.


    Microradian X-ray diffraction from sedimentary colloidal crystals is studied using synchrotron radiation with photon energies of 12.4, 27, and 38 keV. Stacking disorder in these hard-sphere crystals leads to diffuse X-ray scattering along the Bragg scattering rods normal to the randomly stacked layers. We observed the appearance of diffuse scattering, shown to be induced by multiple scattering, along the secondary Bragg rods in between the stacking-independent true Bragg reflections. This effect can be reduced by measuring at higher X-ray energies.

  13. Rapid electrostatics-assisted layer-by-layer assembly of near-infrared-active colloidal photonic crystals. (United States)

    Askar, Khalid; Leo, Sin-Yen; Xu, Can; Liu, Danielle; Jiang, Peng


    Here we report a rapid and scalable bottom-up technique for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembling near-infrared-active colloidal photonic crystals consisting of large (⩾1μm) silica microspheres. By combining a new electrostatics-assisted colloidal transferring approach with spontaneous colloidal crystallization at an air/water interface, we have demonstrated that the crystal transfer speed of traditional Langmuir-Blodgett-based colloidal assembly technologies can be enhanced by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Importantly, the crystalline quality of the resultant photonic crystals is not compromised by this rapid colloidal assembly approach. They exhibit thickness-dependent near-infrared stop bands and well-defined Fabry-Perot fringes in the specular transmission and reflection spectra, which match well with the theoretical calculations using a scalar-wave approximation model and Fabry-Perot analysis. This simple yet scalable bottom-up technology can significantly improve the throughput in assembling large-area, multilayer colloidal crystals, which are of great technological importance in a variety of optical and non-optical applications ranging from all-optical integrated circuits to tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Graphene and Other 2D Colloids: Liquid Crystals and Macroscopic Fibers. (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Weiwei; Cheng, Zhengdong; Gao, Chao


    Two-dimensional colloidal nanomaterials are running into renaissance after the enlightening researches of graphene. Macroscopic one-dimensional fiber is an optimal ordered structural form to express the in-plane merits of 2D nanomaterials, and the formation of liquid crystals (LCs) allows the creation of continuous fibers. In the correlated system from LCs to fibers, understanding their macroscopic organizing behavior and transforming them into new solid fibers is greatly significant for applications. Herein, we retrospect the history of 2D colloids and discuss about the concept of 2D nanomaterial fibers in the context of LCs, elaborating the motivation, principle and possible strategies of fabrication. Then we highlight the creation, development and typical applications of graphene fibers. Additionally, the latest advances of other 2D nanomaterial fibers are also summarized. Finally, conclusions, challenges and perspectives are provided to show great expectations of better and more fibrous materials of 2D nanomaterials. This review gives a comprehensive retrospect of the past century-long effort about the whole development of 2D colloids, and plots a clear roadmap - "lamellar solid - LCs - macroscopic fibers - flexible devices", which will certainly open a new era of structural-multifunctional application for the conventional 2D colloids. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Role of Repulsion in Colloidal Crystal Engineering with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Soyoung E. [Department; Li, Tao [X-ray; Senesi, Andrew J. [X-ray; Mirkin, Chad A. [Department; Lee, Byeongdu [X-ray


    Hybridization interactions between DNA-functionalized nanoparticles (DNA-NPs) can be used to program the crystallization behavior of superlattices, yielding access to complex three-dimensional structures with more than 30 different lattice symmetries. The first superlattice structures using DNA-NPs as building blocks were identified almost two decades ago, yet the role of repulsive interactions in guiding structure formation is still largely unexplored. Here, a com-prehensive approach is taken to study the role of repulsion in the assembly behavior of DNA-NPs, enabling the calculation of interparticle interaction potentials based on experimental results. In this work, we used two different means to assemble DNA-NPs—Watson-Crick base pairing interactions and depletion interactions—and systematically varied the salt concen-tration to study the effective interactions in DNA-NP superlattices. A comparison between the two systems allows us to decouple the repulsive forces from the attractive hybridization interactions that are sensitive to the ionic environment. We find that the gap distance between adjacent DNA-NPs follows a simple power law dependence on solution ionic strength regardless of the type of attractive forces present. This result suggests that the observed trend is driven by repulsive inter-actions. To better understand such behavior, we propose a mean-field model that provides a mathematical description for the observed trend. This model shows that the trend is due to the variation in the effective cross-sectional diameter of DNA duplex and the thickness of DNA shell.

  16. Large scale structures in liquid crystal/clay colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijneveldt, Jeroen S van; Klein, Susanne; Leach, Edward; Pizzey, Claire; Richardson, Robert M


    Suspensions of three different clays in K15, a thermotropic liquid crystal, have been studied by optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. The three clays were claytone AF, a surface treated natural montmorillonite, laponite RD, a synthetic hectorite, and mined sepiolite. The claytone and laponite were sterically stabilized whereas sepiolite formed a relatively stable suspension in K15 without any surface treatment. Micrographs of the different suspensions revealed that all three suspensions contained large scale structures. The nature of these aggregates was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering. For the clays with sheet-like particles, claytone and laponite, the flocs contain a mixture of stacked and single platelets. The basal spacing in the stacks was independent of particle concentration in the suspension and the phase of the solvent. The number of platelets in the stack and their percentage in the suspension varied with concentration and the aspect ratio of the platelets. The lath shaped sepiolite did not show any tendency to organize into ordered structures. Here the aggregates are networks of randomly oriented single rods

  17. Spontaneous emission modulation of colloidal quantum dots via efficient coupling with hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal. (United States)

    Yuan, X W; Shi, L; Wang, Qi; Chen, C Q; Liu, X H; Sun, L X; Zhang, Bo; Zi, J; Lu, Wei


    The spontaneous emission of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (CQDs) modified by the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal is reported in this paper. By using a spin coater, the spatial overlap between CQDs and the surface resonance modes in this quasi-2D crystal slab is achieved. In this case, the coupling efficiency of them is enhanced greatly and most excited CQDs radiate through the surface modes. Consequently, despite the low refractive index contrast of our hybrid structure, the directionality of spontaneous emission, increased radiative probability and narrowed full width at half maximum of emission peak are all clearly observed by our home-made microscopic angle-resolved spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence system. Our results manifest that the quasi-2D hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal is an ideal candidate to tailor the radiative properties of CdSe/ZnS CQDs, which might be significant for the applications of light emitting devices.

  18. Post-Synthetic Anisotropic Wet-Chemical Etching of Colloidal Sodalite ZIF Crystals. (United States)

    Avci, Civan; Ariñez-Soriano, Javier; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Guillerm, Vincent; Carbonell, Carlos; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel


    Controlling the shape of metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals is important for understanding their crystallization and useful for myriad applications. However, despite the many advances in shaping of inorganic nanoparticles, post-synthetic shape control of MOFs and, in general, molecular crystals remains embryonic. Herein, we report using a simple wet-chemistry process at room temperature to control the anisotropic etching of colloidal ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 crystals. Our work enables uniform reshaping of these porous materials into unprecedented morphologies, including cubic and tetrahedral crystals, and even hollow boxes, by an acid-base reaction and subsequent sequestration of leached metal ions. Etching tests on these ZIFs reveal that etching occurs preferentially in the crystallographic directions richer in metal-ligand bonds; that, along these directions, the etching rate tends to be faster on the crystal surfaces of higher dimensionality; and that the etching can be modulated by adjusting the pH of the etchant solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Theory of two-dimensional self-assembly of Janus colloids: crystallization and orientational ordering. (United States)

    Shin, Homin; Schweizer, Kenneth S


    We study the rich crystalline phase behavior of amphiphilic spherical Janus colloids using a new formulation of self-consistent phonon theory that includes coupled translational and rotational entropic and enthalpic contributions to the free energy. In contrast to homogeneous spheres, broken rotational symmetry can result in more exotic crystals that possess distinct orientational patterns, and also plastic crystals. Ground states are identified based on the compatibility between the patch geometry of particles (e.g., patch coverage, number, shape) and lattice symmetry. We derive the explicit coupled self-consistent equations for translational and rotational localization parameters for effectively 2-dimensional dense monolayers of Janus crystals. The equations are numerically solved for a given crystal symmetry, thermodynamic state, and patch orientational order, and the thermodynamic stability of different phases is determined. For hexagonal packing, we predict with increasing temperature or decreasing attraction strength the possibility of a phase sequence of maximally bonded zigzag stripe, trimer, and rotationally disordered plastic crystal phases (or a phase sequence of trimer, dimer, and plastic crystal), which depends sensitively on particle chemical composition (Janus balance) and pressure. The role of rotational entropy in stabilizing the intermediate trimer (or dimer) phase at intermediate temperatures and high pressures is discussed in detail. Evolution of the center-of-mass vibrational and rotational amplitudes with thermodynamic state and Janus balance is also determined.

  20. Self-assembly of gold nanoparticles as colloidal crystals induced by polymerization of amphiphilic monomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zucchi, I. A.; Hoppe, C. E.; Galante, M. J.; Williams, R. J. J.; López-Quintela, M. A.; Matějka, Libor; Šlouf, Miroslav; Pleštil, Josef


    Roč. 41, č. 13 (2008), s. 4895-4903 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Grant - others:National Agency for the Promotion of Science and Technology(AR) PICT03-14738; Ministry of Science and Technology(ES) MAT2005-07554-C02-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : self -assembly * gold nanoparticles * hierarchical structure * colloidal crystals Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.407, year: 2008

  1. Novel colloidal system: Magnetite-polymer particles/lyotropic liquid crystal under magnetic field (United States)

    Mănăilă-Maximean, D.; Cîrtoaje, C.; Dănilă, O.; Donescu, D.


    We obtained a new highly ordered colloidal composite using specially manufactured magnetite-polymer nanoparticles and lyotropic liquid crystal. A good compatibility between the components was ensured by the functionalization of the particles during their synthesis. We studied the laser light transmission for the mixtures filled in sandwich-glass cells with homeotropic and planar treatment of the surfaces under external magnetic field. The Fréedericksz transition critical field was estimated, and its' behavior was compared to our new theoretical model based on the Brochard-de Gennes one.

  2. Altering DNA-Programmable Colloidal Crystallization Paths by Modulating Particle Repulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mary X.; Brodin, Jeffrey D.; Millan, Jaime A.; Seo, Soyoung E.; Girard, Martin; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Lee, Byeongdu [X-Ray; Mirkin, Chad A.


    Colloidal crystal engineering with DNA can be used to realize precise control over nanoparticle (NP) arrangement. Here, we investigate a case of DNA-based assembly where the properties of DNA as a polyelectrolyte brush are employed to alter a hybridization-driven NP crystallization pathway. Using the co-assembly of DNA-conjugated proteins and spherical gold 2 nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model system, we explore how steric repulsion between non-complementary, neighboring DNA-NPs due to overlapping DNA shells can influence their ligand-directed behavior. Specifically, our experimental data coupled with coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations reveal that by changing factors related to NP repulsion, two structurally distinct outcomes can be achieved. When steric repulsion between DNA-AuNPs is significantly greater than that between DNA-proteins, a lower packing density crystal lattice is favored over the structure that is predicted by design rules based on DNA-hybridization considerations alone. This is enabled by the large difference in DNA density on AuNPs versus proteins and can be tuned by modulating the flexibility, and thus conformational entropy, of the DNA on the constituent particles. At intermediate ligand flexibility, the crystallization pathways are energetically similar and the structural outcome can be adjusted using the density of DNA duplexes on DNA-AuNPs and by screening the Coulomb potential between them. Such lattices are shown to undergo dynamic reorganization upon changing salt concentration. These data help elucidate the structural considerations necessary for understanding repulsive forces in DNA-assembly and lay the groundwork for using them to increase architectural diversity in engineering colloidal crystals.

  3. Micropatterning of Multiple Photonic Colloidal Crystal Gels for Flexible Structural Color Films. (United States)

    Suzuki, Noriyuki; Iwase, Eiji; Onoe, Hiroaki


    We herein report the micropatterning of flexible multiple photonic colloidal crystal gels (PCCGs) using single-layered microchannels. These patterned PCCGs exhibit structural colors that can be tuned by adjustment of the diameter and concentration of the colloidal particles in precursor solutions of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) or polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). The precursor solutions containing dispersed colloidal particles were selectively injected into single-layered microchannels where they polymerized rapidly. The shape, density, and height of the patterned PCCG pixels were determined by the microchannels, which in turn determined the optical properties of the PCCG arrays. Furthermore, the preparation of three different types of PCCGs exhibiting three different structural colors at a high pixel density was demonstrated successfully using the single-layered polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels. Finally, the optical reflective properties and the mechanical flexibility of the patterned multiple PCCG arrays were evaluated. We expect that our method for the preparation of such patterned PCCG arrays will contribute to the development of flexible optical devices.

  4. Active shape-morphing elastomeric colloids in short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals. (United States)

    Evans, Julian S; Sun, Yaoran; Senyuk, Bohdan; Keller, Patrick; Pergamenshchik, Victor M; Lee, Taewoo; Smalyukh, Ivan I


    Active elastomeric liquid crystal particles with initial cylindrical shapes are obtained by means of soft lithography and polymerization in a strong magnetic field. Gold nanocrystals infiltrated into these particles mediate energy transfer from laser light to heat, so that the inherent coupling between the temperature-dependent order and shape allows for dynamic morphing of these particles and well-controlled stable shapes. Continuous changes of particle shapes are followed by their spontaneous realignment and transformations of director structures in the surrounding cholesteric host, as well as locomotion in the case of a nonreciprocal shape morphing. These findings bridge the fields of liquid crystal solids and active colloids, may enable shape-controlled self-assembly of adaptive composites and light-driven micromachines, and can be understood by employing simple symmetry considerations along with electrostatic analogies.

  5. Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyukh, I.I.; Kuzmin, A.N.; Kachynski, A.V.; Prasad, P.N.; Lavrentovich, O.D.


    We demonstrate optical trapping and manipulation of transparent microparticles suspended in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal with low birefringence. We employ the particle manipulation to measure line tension of a topologically stable disclination line and to determine colloidal interaction of particles with perpendicular surface anchoring of the director. The three-dimensional director fields and positions of the particles manipulated by laser tweezers are visualized by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

  6. Assembly, Elasticity, and Structure of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals and Disordered Colloids (United States)

    Davidson, Zoey S.

    This dissertation describes experiments which explore the structure and dynamics in two classes of soft materials: lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals and colloidal glasses and super-cooled liquids. The first experiments found that the achiral LCLCs, sunset yellow FCF (SSY) and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) both exhibit spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in the nematic phase driven by a giant elastic anisotropy of their twist modulus compared to their splay and bend moduli. Resulting structures of the confined LCLCs display interesting director configurations due to interplay of topologically required defects and twisted director fields. At higher concentrations, the LCLC compounds form columnar phases. We studied the columnar phase confined within spherical drops and discovered and understood configurations of the LC that sometimes led to non-spherical droplet shapes. The second experiments with SSY LCLCs confined in hollow cylinders uncovered director configurations which were driven in large measure by an exotic elastic modulus known as saddle-splay. We measured this saddle-splay modulus in a LCLC for the first time and found it to be more than 50 times greater than the twist elastic modulus. This large relative value of the saddle-splay modulus violates a theoretical result/assumption known as the Ericksen inequality. A third group of experiments on LCLCs explored the drying process of sessile drops containing SSY solutions, including evaporation dynamics, morphology, and deposition patterns. These drops differ from typical, well-studied evaporating colloidal drops primarily due to the LCLC's concentration-dependent isotropic, nematic, and columnar phases. Phase separation occurs during evaporation, creating surface tension gradients and significant density and viscosity variation within the droplet. Thus, the drying multiphase drops exhibit new convective currents, drop morphologies, deposition patterns, as well as a novel ordered crystalline phase. Finally

  7. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Asher, Sanford A., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Meng, Zihui, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Zequn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Xue, Min, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Qiu, Lili, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yi, Da [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT with color changing from green to red. And molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) were evaluated for the adsorption capacity and the imprinting efficiency. The MICA had excellent flexibility, reversibility and stability. It promised high potential for the visual semi-quantitative detection of other explosives. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was used to visually detect TNT. • The relationship of particle size, diffracted wavelength and color was discussed. • The adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of MICs were calculated. • MICA had short response time, high selectivity, good reversibility and stability. • MICA had high potential to be used in other customed visual explosive detection. - Abstract: We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210 nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64 mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.0, 30 mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03 μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84 nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20 mM. The sensor response time was 3 min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol

  8. Photonic properties of hybrid colloidal crystals fabricated by a rapid dip-coating process. (United States)

    Deleuze, C; Sarrat, B; Ehrenfeld, F; Perquis, S; Derail, C; Billon, L


    The enhancement of the capillarity fabrication of well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) opal photonic crystal is described herein. The quality enhancement and the reduction of the fabrication time are improved by using core@soft adhesive shell (Silica@PolyButylAcrylate) particles dispersed in an organic solvent with a high boiling point. The hybridization by an elastomeric corona polymer, grafted from the SiO(2) surface, has offered adhesive properties naturally tunable by changing the polymer state from a solvated to a dry one. Such properties involve drastic changes of the self-assembly behavior and qualities. Their use, as elementary building blocks, for colloidal crystal fabrication have required a high withdrawal rate (up to 4000 μm s(-1)), i.e. involving a three order of magnitude reduction in time compared to a classic vertical deposition method (1 to 10 μm s(-1)) and a good control/prediction of the coating thickness can be tuned by varying the withdrawal rate and the particle concentration. In addition, an analysis of the 2D synthetic iridescence of the hybrid photonic crystal was performed under white light, revealing the adhesive shell bridge influence on the dissipation energy of cracks linked to the crystal quality and the photonic properties. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  9. Colloidal Crystallization in 2D for Short-Ranged Attractions: A Descriptive Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín E. González


    Full Text Available With the aid of 2D computer simulations, the whole colloidal crystallization process for particles interacting with a short-ranged attractive potential is described, emphazising the visualization of the different subprocesses at the particle level. Starting with a supercooled homogeneous fluid, the system undergoes a metastable fluid-fluid phase separation. Afterwards, crystallite nucleation is observed and we describe the obtainment of the critical crystallite size and other relevant quantities for nucleation. After the crystal formation, we notice the shrinking and eventual disappearance of the smaller crystals, which are close to larger ones; a manifestation of Ostwald ripening. When two growing crystal grains impinge on each other, the formation of grain boundaries is found; it is appreciated how a grain boundary moves, back and forth, not only on a perpendicular direction to the boundary, but with a rotation and a deformation. Subsequently, after the healing of the two extremes of the boundary, the two grains end up as a single imperfect grain that contains a number of complex dislocations. If these dislocations are close to the boundary with the fluid, they leave the crystal to make it more perfect. Otherwise, they migrate randomly inside the grain until they get close enough to the boundary to leave the grain. This last process of healing, trapping and getting rid of complex dislocations occurs preferentially for low-angle grain boundaries. If the angle between the symmetry axes of the two grains is not low, we end up with a polycrystal made of several touching crystal grains.

  10. Yolk/Shell Colloidal Crystals Incorporating Movable Cores with Their Motion Controlled by an External Electric Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K., Watanabe,; H., Ishii,; Konno, M.; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.; Nagao, D.


    Yolk/shell particles composed of a submicrometer-sized movable core and a silica shell are promising building blocks for novel optical colloidal crystals, because the locations of cores in the shell compartment can be reversibly changed by using external stimuli. Two dimensional arrays of yolk/shell

  11. Glassy dynamics of 2D colloid crystals in a random pinning potential (United States)

    Kim, Sungcheol; Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Ling, Xinsheng


    Recently, we have demonstrated that a monolayer charged colloidal crystal confined to a rough charged surface provides a realization of the Larkin-Ovchinnikov random-pinning model in two dimensions. The statics of the system is found to agree with Larkin's prediction of balkanization into small ordered domains. However, the dynamics are in disagreement with the collective creep model. Detailed analysis of the particle trajectories suggest that collective creep is preempted by channel flow. We also find that the velocity response to a step-like driving force shows a stretched exponential behavior similar to that found in structural glasses. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of this process. This research was supported by the NFS-DMR.

  12. Stamping colloidal photonic crystals: a facile way towards complex pixel colour patterns for sensing and displays. (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Baumberg, Jeremy J


    Patterning of colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) has been strongly investigated in recent years for sensing and image displays. Rather than using traditional template-directed approaches, here microimprint lithography along with convective self-assembly is applied to generate complex CPC patterns that can be adjusted to show single- or dual-colour patterns or composite CPC patterns possessing two different colours. These composite CPC patterns show different wettability with water because of the surface chemistry of the polymers and silica used. This dramatically transforms the structural colours upon liquid infiltration. By mixing different ethanol concentrations with water, the infiltration efficiency can be further improved and easily read out from changes in reflection intensity and spectral peak shifts. Integrating these nano-architectures into devices can thus yield function as image displays and as sensors for solvents.

  13. Directed self-assembly into low-density colloidal liquid crystal phases (United States)

    Gao, Yongxiang; Romano, Flavio; Dullens, Roel P. A.; Doye, Jonathan K.; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.


    Alignment of anisometric particles into liquid crystals (LCs) often results from an entropic competition between their rotational and translational degrees of freedom at dense packings. Here we show that by selectively functionalizing the heads of colloidal rods with magnetic nanoparticles this tendency can be broken to direct the particles into novel, low-density LC phases. Under an external magnetic field, the magnetic heads line up in columns whereas the nonmagnetic tails point out randomly in a plane perpendicular to the columns, forming bottle-brush-like objects; laterally, the bottle brushes are entropically stabilized against coalescence. Experiments and simulations show that upon increasing the particle density the system goes from a dilute gas to a dense two-dimensional liquid of bottle brushes with a density well below the zero-field nematic phase. Our findings offer a strategy for self-assembly into three-dimensional open phases that may find applications in switchable photonics, filtration, and light-weight materials.

  14. Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals (United States)

    Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ju-Hee; Jung, Duk-Young; Park, Jong Bae; Lee, Hae Seong


    A new constructive method of fabricating a nanoparticle self-assembly on the patterned surface of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) relief nanostructure was demonstrated. Patterned PDMS templates with close-packed microwells were fabricated by molding against a self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene spheres. Alkanethiol-functionalized gold nanoparticles with an average particle size of 2.5 nm were selectively deposited onto a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer printed on the substrate by the micro-contact printing (μCP) of the prepared PDMS microwell, in which the patterned gold nanoparticles consisted of close-packed hexagons with an average diameter of 370 nm. In addition, two-dimensional colloidal crystals derived from PMMA microspheres with a diameter of 380 nm and a negative surface charge were successfully formed on the hemispherical microwells by electrostatic force using positively charged PAH-coated PDMS as a template to produce multidimensional nanostructures.

  15. Structural origin of dynamic heterogeneity in three-dimensional colloidal glass formers and its link to crystal nucleation. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hajime


    The physical understanding of glass transition remains a major challenge of physics and materials science. Among various glass-forming liquids, a colloidal liquid interacting with hard-core repulsion is now regarded as one of the most ideal model systems. Here we study the structure and dynamics of three-dimensional polydisperse colloidal liquids by Brownian dynamics simulations. We reveal that medium-range crystalline bond orientational order of the hexagonal close packed structure grows in size and lifetime with increasing packing fraction. We show that dynamic heterogeneity may be a direct consequence of this transient structural ordering, which suggests its origin is thermodynamic rather than kinetic. We also reveal that nucleation of crystals preferentially occurs in regions of high medium-range order, reflecting the low crystal-liquid interfacial energy there. These findings may shed new light not only on the fundamental nature of the glass transition, but also the mechanism of crystal nucleation.

  16. Template-Free Supracolloidal Self-Assembly of Atomically Precise Gold Nanoclusters: From 2D Colloidal Crystals to Spherical Capsids. (United States)

    Nonappa; Lahtinen, Tanja; Haataja, Johannes S; Tero, Tiia-Riikka; Häkkinen, Hannu; Ikkala, Olli


    We report supracolloidal self-assembly of atomically precise and strictly monodisperse gold nanoclusters involving p-mercaptobenzoic acid ligands (Au 102 -pMBA 44 ) under aqueous conditions into hexagonally packed monolayer-thick two-dimensional facetted colloidal crystals (thickness 2.7 nm) and their bending to closed shells leading to spherical capsids (d ca. 200 nm), as controlled by solvent conditions. The 2D colloidal assembly is driven in template-free manner by the spontaneous patchiness of the pMBA ligands around the Au 102 -pMBA 44 nanoclusters preferably towards equatorial plane, thus promoting inter-nanocluster hydrogen bonds and high packing to planar sheets. More generally, the findings encourage to explore atomically precise nanoclusters towards highly controlled colloidal self-assemblies. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Angle- and strain-independent coloured free-standing films incorporating non-spherical colloidal photonic crystals. (United States)

    Yeo, Seon Ju; Tu, Fuquan; Kim, Seung-hyun; Yi, Gi-Ra; Yoo, Pil J; Lee, Daeyeon


    Colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) provide a convenient way to generate structural colour with high stability against degradation under environmental factors. For a number of applications including flexible electronic and energy devices, it is important to generate flexible structural colour that maintains its colour regardless of the angle of observation and the extent of mechanical deformation. However, it is challenging to simultaneously achieve these goals because anisotropy in typical CPC structures (e.g., CPC films) tends to lead to angle-dependent photonic properties and also changes in the lattice constant due to mechanical deformation lead to changes in the photonic properties of CPCs. To overcome these challenges, we present a means of fabricating large-area free-standing films of CPC structures that exhibit angle- and strain-independent photonic characteristics. First, monodisperse double emulsions encapsulating colloidal crystal arrays are prepared using a microfluidic device. By inducing crystallization of highly charged polystyrene particles in the core of double emulsions using osmotic annealing, we generate angle independent colloidal photonic crystal (CPC) supraparticles. Moreover, the shape and crystallinity of the CPC supraparticles can be tuned by changing the concentration of salt in the solution used for osmotic annealing. Subsequently, an array of CPC supraparticles is embedded inside an elastomeric matrix to form a flexible free-standing film, which exhibits structural colours that are independent of viewing angles and externally applied strain.

  18. Synthesis of tailored core-brush polymer particles via a living radical polymerization and architecture of colloidal crystals. (United States)

    Ishizu, Koji; Amir, Isamu; Okamoto, Nobuyuki; Uchida, Satoshi; Ozawa, Masaaki; Chen, Hui


    Narrow disperse core-brush polymer nanoparticles (BP) were synthesized by grafting from photo-induced atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) from N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DC) groups of core-shell particle surface. We constructed colloidal crystals of these particles by depositing on glass substrate. By variation of the particle size, the brilliant color could be varied throughout the visible spectrum. We locked also permanently such colloidal crystals by cross-linking of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brush phases with glutaraldehyde. The peak wavelength (λ(max)) in the reflection spectra agreed well with the bandgap position for light incident on the (1 1 1) face of face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice according to Bragg's law. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anisotropic lattice expansion of three-dimensional colloidal crystals and its impact on hypersonic phonon band gaps. (United States)

    Wu, Songtao; Zhu, Gaohua; Zhang, Jin S; Banerjee, Debasish; Bass, Jay D; Ling, Chen; Yano, Kazuhisa


    We report anisotropic expansion of self-assembled colloidal polystyrene-poly(dimethylsiloxane) crystals and its impact on the phonon band structure at hypersonic frequencies. The structural expansion was achieved by a multistep infiltration-polymerization process. Such a process expands the interplanar lattice distance 17% after 8 cycles whereas the in-plane distance remains unaffected. The variation of hypersonic phonon band structure induced by the anisotropic lattice expansion was recorded by Brillouin measurements. In the sample before expansion, a phononic band gap between 3.7 and 4.4 GHz is observed; after 17% structural expansion, the gap is shifted to a lower frequency between 3.5 and 4.0 GHz. This study offers a facile approach to control the macroscopic structure of colloidal crystals with great potential in designing tunable phononic devices.

  20. A smart thermo- and pH-responsive microfiltration membrane based on three-dimensional inverse colloidal crystals. (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Song, Qianqian; Cong, Hailin; Xu, Xiaodan; Han, Dongwei; Geng, Zhongmin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Usman, Muhammad


    In this paper, a thermo- and pH-responsive microfiltration membrane was prepared based on three-dimensional (3D) inverse colloidal crystals (ICC). To manufacture the smart ICC membrane, the typical thermo-responsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and pH-responsive methacrylic acid (MAA) were polymerized inside silica colloidal crystals. The smart ICC membranes were characterized by SEM, IR and contact angle measurements. Moreover, the permeability of smart microfiltration membrane was carried out by the KCl diffusion tests. The result showed that effective diameter of the polymer ICC membrane can be reversible tuned by temperature and pH. Besides, the functional ICC membrane showed outstanding temperature- and pH-responsive gating property, which was applied to separate particles of different sizes. The savvy environment-responsive gating membranes have potential uses in filtration, separation, purification, sensor and other applications.

  1. Synthesis of magnetic mesoporous titania colloidal crystals through evaporation induced self-assembly in emulsion as effective and recyclable photocatalysts. (United States)

    Chen, Jeffrey E; Lian, Hong-Yuan; Dutta, Saikat; Alshehri, Saad M; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Wu, Kevin C-W


    This study illustrates the directed self-assembly of mesoporous TiO2 with magnetic properties due to its colloidal crystal structure with Fe3O4. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation techniques to a size of 28.2 nm and a magnetic saturation of 66.9 emu g(-1). Meanwhile, mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTNs) with a particle diameter of 373 nm, a specific surface area of 236.3 m(2) g(-1), and a pore size of 2.8 nm were prepared by controlling the rate of hydrolysis. Magnetic colloidal crystals (a diameter of 10.2 μm) were formed by the aggregation of Fe3O4 and MTNs caused by the interface phenomena during solvent evaporation in emulsion. Even the anatase octahedrite produced from the colloidal crystal after a hydrothermal reaction retained a magnetic saturation of 2.8 emu g(-1). This study also investigates the photodegradation activity of our synthesized material as a photocatalyst, while utilizing its capability for magnetic separation to prove its usefulness in catalyst recycling.

  2. Large area porous gold films deposited by evaporation-induced colloidal crystal growth. (United States)

    Zhang, Renyun; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan


    Films that are nanostructured in two- or three-dimensions, such as porous ones, are made by several methods including templated growth and self-assembly. Here, we report on a new method that is based on evaporation-induced growth of nanoparticle gold films on a water surface. The film growth was done in a similar way to the well-known evaporation-induced colloidal crystal growth method, but in contrast, we did not directly deposit the film on a solid substrate. The films were instead created on top of a water surface. After the growth process, the films were deposited directly on substrates by a simple pick-up procedure. The deposited porous gold films were uniform with a thickness of 100 nm and had a sheet resistance of 100 Omega/sq. There are several advantages with our method, including simplicity of the protocol, large film area, flexibility in the choice of substrate to be coated, and the ability for multilayer coatings. The latter points to opportunities for fabrication of multilayer 3D porous structure, which may have wide applications in sensors and electrochemical determinations.

  3. Encapsulation of Polymer Colloids in a Sol-Gel Matrix. Direct-Writing of Coassembling Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Photonic Crystals. (United States)

    Mikosch, Annabel; Kuehne, Alexander J C


    The spontaneous self-assembly of polymer colloids into ordered arrangements provides a facile strategy for the creation of photonic crystals. However, these structures often suffer from defects and insufficient cohesion, which result in flaking and delamination from the substrate. A coassembly process has been developed for convective assembly, resulting in large-area encapsulated colloidal crystals. However, to generate patterns or discrete deposits in designated places, convective assembly is not suitable. Here we experimentally develop conditions for direct-writing of coassembling monodisperse dye-doped polystyrene particles with a sol-gel precursor to form solid encapsulated photonic crystals. In a simple procedure the colloids are formulated in a sol-gel precursor solution, drop-cast on a flat substrate, and dried. We here establish the optimal parameters to form reproducible highly ordered photonic crystals with good optical performance. The obtained photonic crystals interact with light in the visible spectrum with a narrow optical stop-gap.

  4. Self-Assembly Kinetics of Colloidal Particles inside Monodispersed Micro-Droplet and Fabrication of Anisotropic Photonic Crystal Micro-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available A new microfluidic approach to preparing anisotropic colloidal photonic crystal microparticles is developed and the self-assembly kinetics of colloidal nanoparticles is discussed. Based on the “coffee ring” effect in the self-assembly process of colloidal silica particle in strong solvent extraction environment, we successfully prepared anisotropic photonic crystal microparticles with different shapes and improved optical properties. The shapes and optical properties of photonic crystal microparticles can be controlled by adjusting the droplet size and extraction rate. We studied the self-assembly mechanism of colloidal silica particles in strong solvent extraction environment, which has potential applications in a variety of fields including optical communication technology, environmental response, photo-catalysis and chromic material.

  5. Facile fabrication of a superhydrophobic cage by laser direct writing for site-specific colloidal self-assembled photonic crystal. (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Paeng, Dongwoo; Yeo, Junyeob; Elhadj, Selim; Grigoropoulos, Costas P


    Micron-sized ablated surface structures with nano-sized 'bumpy' structures were produced by femtosecond (fs) laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film under ambient conditions. Upon just a single step, the processed surface exhibited hierarchical micro/nano morphology. In addition, due to the tribological properties of PTFE, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) could be replicated from the laser-ablated PTFE surface without anti-adhesive surface treatment. By controlling the design of the ablated patterns, tunable wettability and superhydrophobicity were achieved on both PTFE and PDMS replica surfaces. Furthermore, using fs laser ablation direct writing, a flexible superhydrophobic PDMS cage formed by superhydrophobic patterns encompassing the unmodified region was demonstrated for aqueous droplet positioning and trapping. Through evaporation-driven colloidal self-assembly in this superhydrophobic cage, a colloidal droplet containing polystyrene (PS) particles dried into a self-assembled photonic crystal, whose optical band gap could be manipulated by the particle size.

  6. Theory of elastic interaction between arbitrary colloidal particles in confined nematic liquid crystals. (United States)

    Tovkach, O M; Chernyshuk, S B; Lev, B I


    We develop the method proposed by Chernyshuk and Lev [Phys. Rev. E 81, 041701 (2010)] for theoretical investigation of elastic interactions between colloidal particles of arbitrary shape and chirality (polar as well as azimuthal anchoring) in the confined nematic liquid crystal (NLC). General expressions for six different types of multipole elastic interactions are obtained in the confined NLC: monopole-monopole (Coulomb type), monopole-dipole, monopole-quadrupole, dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole, and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. The obtained formulas remain valid in the presence of the external electric or magnetic fields. The exact equations are found for all multipole coefficients for the weak anchoring case. For the strong anchoring coupling, the connection between the symmetry of the shape or director and multipole coefficients is obtained, which enables us to predict which multipole coefficients vanish and which remain nonzero. The particles with azimuthal helicoid anchoring are considered as an example. Dipole-dipole interactions between helicoid cylinders and cones are found in the confined NLC. In addition, the banana-shaped particles in homeotropic and planar nematic cells are considered. It is found that the dipole-dipole interaction between banana-shaped particles differs greatly from the dipole-dipole interaction between the axially symmetrical particles in the nematic cell. There is a crossover from attraction to repulsion between banana particles along some directions in nematic cells. It is shown that monopoles do not "feel" the type of nematic cell: monopole-monopole interaction turns out to be the same in homeotropic and planar nematic cells and converges to the Coulomb law as thickness increases, L→∞.

  7. Size-Controlled 3D Colloidal Crystals Formed in an Aqueous Suspension of Polystyrene/Polyglycidol Microspheres with Covalently Bound l-DOPA. (United States)

    Gosecka, Monika; Slomkowski, Stanislaw; Basinska, Teresa; Chehimi, Mohamed M


    Stable three-dimensional colloidal crystals were fabricated in an aqueous suspension of Tris buffer at pH > 8. The basic building blocks of the crystals were submicron-sized polystyrene-polyglycidol core-shell particles (D n(SEM) = 270 ± 18 nm) with covalently bound 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA). The growth of the crystals was triggered by a thermodynamically favorable arrangement of particles leading to their close packing and by the formation of covalent cross-links between the individual particles. Under alkaline conditions, molecules of l-DOPA are oxidized, which allows their participation in cross-linking, necessary for the stabilization of the formed colloidal crystals. The average size of the fabricated colloidal crystals is determined by their weight, density of the suspending medium, and the energy of their Brownian motion. Crystals generated during the suspension of particles fall down after reaching the critical weight. Therefore, crystals of similar dimensions are deposited at the bottom of the vessel. The described system is the first example of the formation of stable colloidal crystals in a suspension.

  8. Magnetic and optical holonomic manipulation of colloids, structures and topological defects in liquid crystals for characterization of mesoscale self-assembly and dynamics (United States)

    Varney, Michael C. M.

    Colloidal systems find important applications ranging from fabrication of photonic crystals to direct probing of phenomena encountered in atomic crystals and glasses; topics of great interest for physicists exploring a broad range of scientific, industrial and biomedical fields. The ability to accurately control particles of mesoscale size in various liquid host media is usually accomplished through optical trapping methods, which suffer limitations intrinsic to trap laser intensity and force generation. Other limitations are due to colloid properties, such as optical absorptivity, and host properties, such as viscosity, opacity and structure. Therefore, alternative and/or novel methods of colloidal manipulation are of utmost importance in order to advance the state of the art in technical applications and fundamental science. In this thesis, I demonstrate a magnetic-optical holonomic control system to manipulate magnetic and optical colloids in liquid crystals and show that the elastic structure inherent to nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals may be used to assist in tweezing of particles in a manner impossible in other media. Furthermore, I demonstrate the utility of this manipulation in characterizing the structure and microrheology of liquid crystals, and elucidating the energetics and dynamics of colloids interacting with these structures. I also demonstrate the utility of liquid crystal systems as a table top model system to probe topological defects in a manner that may lead to insights into topologically related phenomena in other fields, such as early universe cosmology, sub-atomic and high energy systems, or Skrymionic structures. I explore the interaction of colloid surface anchoring with the structure inherent in cholesteric liquid crystals, and how this affects the periodic dynamics and localization metastability of spherical colloids undergoing a "falling" motion within the sample. These so called "metastable states" cause colloidal dynamics to

  9. Role of Precursor-Conversion Chemistry in the Crystal-Phase Control of Catalytically Grown Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Wires. (United States)

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E


    Crystal-phase control is one of the most challenging problems in nanowire growth. We demonstrate that, in the solution-phase catalyzed growth of colloidal cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum wires (QWs), the crystal phase can be controlled by manipulating the reaction chemistry of the Cd precursors and tri-n-octylphosphine telluride (TOPTe) to favor the production of either a CdTe solute or Te, which consequently determines the composition and (liquid or solid) state of the Bi x Cd y Te z catalyst nanoparticles. Growth of single-phase (e.g., wurtzite) QWs is achieved only from solid catalysts (y ≪ z) that enable the solution-solid-solid growth of the QWs, whereas the liquid catalysts (y ≈ z) fulfill the solution-liquid-solid growth of the polytypic QWs. Factors that affect the precursor-conversion chemistry are systematically accounted for, which are correlated with a kinetic study of the composition and state of the catalyst nanoparticles to understand the mechanism. This work reveals the role of the precursor-reaction chemistry in the crystal-phase control of catalytically grown colloidal QWs, opening the possibility of growing phase-pure QWs of other compositions.

  10. Dye-sensitized nanoarrays with discotic liquid crystals as interlayer for high-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells. (United States)

    Shi, Yueqin; Tan, Licheng; Chen, Yiwang


    The well-aligned and highly uniform one-dimensional ZnO with organic dyes core/shell (ZNs) and ZnO with dyes and liquid crystals core/double-shells nanoarrays (ZNLs) with controllable lengths were fabricated as electron transport layers (ETLs) in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ditetrabutylammonium cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II) dye (N719) was presented to reduce the surface defects of ZnO nanoarrays (NAs). In addition, the shell modification could decrease the electron injection barrier between ZnO and active layer, thereby facilitating electron injection effectively and forming a direct electron transport channel into the cathode. Due to the orientation of nanoarrays and the self-organization of 3,6,7,10,11-pentakis(hexyloxy)-2-hydroxytriphenylene liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystalline mesophase and isotropic phase transition, the components of active layer would be driven rearrange and infiltrate among the interspaces of nanoarrays more orderly. The increased interfacial contact between cathode and active layer would benefit charge generation, transportation and collection. On the basis of these advantages, it was found the N719 shell and N719/LCs double-shells modifications of ZnO NAs could boost the photovoltaic performance of PSCs with the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.3% and 8.0%, respectively.

  11. Depinning and heterogeneous dynamics of colloidal crystal layers under shear flow (United States)

    Gerloff, Sascha; Klapp, Sabine H. L.


    Using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations and an analytical approach we investigate the shear-induced, nonequilibrium dynamics of dense colloidal suspensions confined to a narrow slit-pore. Focusing on situations where the colloids arrange in well-defined layers with solidlike in-plane structure, the confined films display complex, nonlinear behavior such as collective depinning and local transport via density excitations. These phenomena are reminiscent of colloidal monolayers driven over a periodic substrate potential. In order to deepen this connection, we present an effective model that maps the dynamics of the shear-driven colloidal layers to the motion of a single particle driven over an effective substrate potential. This model allows us to estimate the critical shear rate of the depinning transition based on the equilibrium configuration, revealing the impact of important parameters, such as the slit-pore width and the interaction strength. We then turn to heterogeneous systems where a layer of small colloids is sheared with respect to bottom layers of large particles. For these incommensurate systems we find that the particle transport is dominated by density excitations resembling the so-called "kink" solutions of the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. In contrast to the FK model, however, the corresponding "antikinks" do not move.

  12. Dynamical heterogeneities and defects in two-dimensional soft colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Van Der B.; Qi, W.; Sprakel, J.; Filion, L.; Dijkstra, M.


    In this paper we study a two-dimensional system of charged colloidal particles using Brownian dynamics simulations. We determine the phase diagram and investigate the dynamics of this system in the density regime where hexatic and solid phases are stable. We find that the dynamics in these phases

  13. Formation of nematic liquid crystals in suspensions of hard colloidal platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, F.M. van der; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.


    A novel model system of hard colloidal platelets was observed to phase-separate into an isotropic and a liquid crystalline phase. Polarization microscopy revealed that the liquid crystalline phase was of nematic origin. With such orientational ordering in suspensions of platelike particles already

  14. Enhanced Power-Conversion Efficiency in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells using Liquid-Crystal-Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayer. (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Tan, Yun; Li, Chunquan; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang


    Two novel liquid-crystal-conjugated polyelectrolytes (LCCPEs) poly[9,9-bis[6-(4-cyanobiphenyloxy)-hexyl]-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(6-(N,N-diethylamino)-hexyl)-fluorene] (PF6Ncbp) and poly[9,9-bis[6-(4-cyanobiphenyloxy)-hexyl]-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(6-(N-methylimidazole)-hexyl]-fluorene] (PF6lmicbp) are obtained by covalent linkage of the cyanobiphenyl mesogen polar groups onto conjugated polyelectrolytes. After deposition a layer of LCCPEs on ZnO interlayer, the spontaneous orientation of liquid-crystal groups can induce a rearrangement of dipole moments at the interface, subsequently leading to the better energy-level alignment. Moreover, LCCPEs favors intimate interfacial contact between ZnO and the photon harvesting layer and induce active layer to form the nanofibers morphology for the enhancement of charge extraction, transportation and collection. The water/alcohol solubility of the LCCPEs also enables them to be environment-accepted solvent processability. On the basis of these advantages, the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM)-based inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) combined with ZnO/PF6Ncbp and ZnO/PF6lmicbp bilayers boost the power conversion efficiency (PCE) to 3.9% and 4.2%, respectively. Incorporation of the ZnO/PF6lmicbp into the devices based on a blend of a narrow band gap polymer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7) with [6,6]-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) affords a notable efficiency of 7.6%.

  15. An Experimental Study on Fabricating an Inverted Mesa-Type Quartz Crystal Resonator Using a Cheap Wet Etching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Li


    Full Text Available In this study, a miniaturized high fundamental frequency quartz crystal microbalance (QCM is fabricated for sensor applications using a wet etching technique. The vibration area is reduced in the fabrication of the high frequency QCM with an inverted mesa structure. To reduce the complexity of the side wall profile that results from anisotropic quartz etching, a rectangular vibration area is used instead of the conventional circular structure. QCMs with high Q values exceeding 25,000 at 47 MHz, 27,000 at 60 MHz, 24,000 at 73 MHz and 25,000 at 84 MHz are fabricated on 4 × 4 mm2 chips with small vibration areas of 1.2 × 1.4 mm2. A PMMA-based flow cell is designed and manufactured to characterize the behavior of the fabricated QCM chip in a liquid. Q values as high as 1,006 at 47 MHz, 904 at 62 MHz, 867 at 71 MHz and 747 at 84 MHz are obtained when one side of the chip is exposed to pure water. These results show that fabricated QCM chips can be used for bio- and chemical sensor applications in liquids.

  16. Controlled interfacial assembly of 2D curved colloidal crystals and jammed shells


    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A.


    Assembly of colloidal particles on fluid interfaces is a promising technique for synthesizing two-dimensional micro-crystalline materials useful in fields as diverse as biomedicine1, materials science2, mineral flotation3 and food processing4. Current approaches rely on bulk emulsification methods, require further chemical and thermal treatments, and are restrictive with respect to the materials employed5-9. The development of methods that exploit the great potential of interfacial assembly f...

  17. Large Area 2D and 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals Fabricated by a Roll-to-Roll Langmuir-Blodgett Method. (United States)

    Parchine, Mikhail; McGrath, Joe; Bardosova, Maria; Pemble, Martyn E


    We present our results on the fabrication of large area colloidal photonic crystals on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using a roll-to-roll Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) colloidal photonic crystals from silica nanospheres (250 and 550 nm diameter) with a total area of up to 340 cm(2) have been fabricated in a continuous manner compatible with high volume manufacturing. In addition, the antireflective properties and structural integrity of the films have been enhanced via the use of a second roll-to-roll process, employing a slot-die coating of an optical adhesive over the photonic crystal films. Scanning electron microscopy images, atomic force microscopy images, and UV-vis optical transmission and reflection spectra of the fabricated photonic crystals are analyzed. This analysis confirms the high quality of the 2D and 3D photonic crystals fabricated by the roll-to-roll LB technique. Potential device applications of the large area 2D and 3D colloidal photonic crystals on flexible PET film are briefly reviewed.

  18. The infrared transmission through gold films on ordered two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Jing; Zhou Yuqin; Dong Gangqiang


    We studied the infrared transmission properties of gold films on ordered two-dimensional non-close-packed polystyrene (PS) colloidal crystal. The gold films consist of gold half-shells on the PS spheres and gold film with 2D arrays of holes on the glass substrate. An extraordinary optical transmission phenomenon could be found in such a structure. Simulations with the finite-difference time-domain method were also employed to get the transmission spectra and electric field distribution. The transmission response of the samples can be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the gold films. Angle-resolved measurements were performed using polarized light to obtain more information about the surface plasmon polariton resonances of the gold films. As the angle changes, the transmission spectra change a lot. The transmission spectra of p-polarized light have quite different properties compared to those of s-polarized light. (semiconductor physics)

  19. Homogeneous Crystallization of Micro-DispensedTIPS-Pentacene Using a Two-Solvent System toEnable Printed Inverters on Foil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Bose


    Full Text Available We report on a micro-dispensing system for 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene to enable homogenous crystallization and uniform filmmorphology of the dispensed droplets using a two-solvent mixture along with the use of aninsulating binder. This solution composition results in a controlled evaporation of the dropletin ambient air such that the Marangoni flow counteracts the outward convective flow toenable uniform radial crystal growth from the edge towards the center of the drops.The consequence of this process is the high degree of uniformity in the crystallization of thedrops, which results in a reduction in the performance spread of the organic field effecttransistors (OFET created using this process. The addition of the insulating binder furtherimproves the reduction in the spread of the results as a trade-off to the reduction in mobilityof the transistors. The transfer curves of the OFETs show a tight grouping due to thecontrolled self-alignment of the TIPS-pentacene crystals; this repeatability was furtherhighlighted by fabricating p-type inverters with driver to load ratios of 8:1, wherein theoutput inverter curves were also grouped tightly while exhibiting a gain of greater than 4 inthe switching region. Therefore, the reliability and repeatability of this process justifies itsuse to enable large area solution-processed printed circuits at the cost of reduced mobility.

  20. Anomalous Fluorescence Enhancement from Double Heterostructure 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals--A Multifunctional Fluorescence-Based Sensor Platform. (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Kim, Tak H; Gan, Zongsong; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Kielpinski, Dave; Gu, Min; Li, Qin


    Augmenting fluorescence intensity is of vital importance to the development of chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and miniature light sources. Here we report an unprecedented fluorescence enhancement with a novel architecture of multilayer three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals self-assembled from polystyrene spheres. The new technique uses a double heterostructure, which comprises a top and a bottom layer with a periodicity overlapping the excitation wavelength (E) of the emitters, and a middle layer with a periodicity matching the fluorescence wavelength (F) and a thickness that supports constructive interference for the excitation wavelength. This E-F-E double heterostructure displays direction-dependent light trapping for both excitation and fluorescence, coupling the modes of photonic crystal with multiple-beam interference. The E-F-E double heterostructure renders an additional 5-fold enhancement to the extraordinary FL amplification of Rhodamine B in monolithic E CPhCs, and 4.3-fold acceleration of emission dynamics. Such a self-assembled double heterostructure CPhCs may find significant applications in illumination, laser, chemical/biochemical sensing, and solar energy harvesting. We further demonstrate the multi-functionality of the E-F-E double heterostructure CPhCs in Hg (II) sensing.

  1. Synthesis and Exfoliation of Discotic Zirconium Phosphates to Obtain Colloidal Liquid Crystals. (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Hsien; Wang, Xuezhen; Shinde, Abhijeet; Cheng, Zhengdong


    Due to their abundance in natural clay and potential applications in advanced materials, discotic nanoparticles are of interest to scientists and engineers. Growth of such anisotropic nanocrystals through a simple chemical method is a challenging task. In this study, we fabricate discotic nanodisks of zirconium phosphate [Zr(HPO4)2·H2O] as a model material using hydrothermal, reflux and microwave-assisted methods. Growth of crystals is controlled by duration time, temperature, and concentration of reacting species. The novelty of the adopted methods is that discotic crystals of size ranging from hundred nanometers to few micrometers can be obtained while keeping the polydispersity well within control. The layered discotic crystals are converted to monolayers by exfoliation with tetra-(n)-butyl ammonium hydroxide [(C4H9)4NOH, TBAOH]. Exfoliated disks show isotropic and nematic liquid crystal phases. Size and polydispersity of disk suspensions is highly important in deciding their phase behavior.

  2. Elastic and viscous bond components in the adhesion of colloidal particles and fibrillated streptococci to QCM-D crystal surfaces with different hydrophobicities using Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Westen, Rebecca; Sharma, Prashant K; De Raedt, Hans; Vermue, Ijsbrand; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J


    A quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) can measure molecular mass adsorption as well as register adhesion of colloidal particles. However, analysis of the QCM-D output to quantitatively analyze adhesion of (bio) colloids to obtain viscoelastic bond properties is still a subject of

  3. A new class of tunable hypersonic phononic crystals based on polymer-tethered colloids. (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, E; Schmitt, M; Urbach, Z; Hui, C M; Sainidou, R; Rembert, P; Matyjaszewski, K; Bockstaller, M R; Fytas, G


    The design and engineering of hybrid materials exhibiting tailored phononic band gaps are fundamentally relevant to innovative material technologies in areas ranging from acoustics to thermo-optic devices. Phononic hybridization gaps, originating from the anti-crossing between local resonant and propagating modes, have attracted particular interest because of their relative robustness to structural disorder and the associated benefit to 'manufacturability'. Although hybridization gap materials are well known, their economic fabrication and efficient control of the gap frequency have remained elusive because of the limited property variability and expensive fabrication methodologies. Here we report a new strategy to realize hybridization gap materials by harnessing the 'anisotropic elasticity' across the particle-polymer interface in densely polymer-tethered colloidal particles. Theoretical and Brillouin scattering analysis confirm both the robustness to disorder and the tunability of the resulting hybridization gap and provide guidelines for the economic synthesis of new materials with deliberately controlled gap position and width frequencies.

  4. Kinetics of nucleation and coarsening of colloids and voids in crystals under irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den


    The kinetics of nucleation and coarsening of vacancy clusters in irradiated crystals are considered with account of their elastic interaction with point defects resulting in the biased absorption of vacancies and interstitial atoms. It is shown that in the technologically important range of high

  5. Crystallization kinetics and morphology in phase separating and sedimenting mixtures of colloidal spheres and rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Oversteegen, S.M.; Wijnhoven, J.E.G.J.; Vonk, C.


    The crystallization of sedimentating silica spheres in the presence of silica-coated boehmite rods in low-salt dimethylformamide is studied by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy. As expected, addition of rods gives rise to a net attraction due to the depletion effect. Upon increasing rod

  6. Direct and inverted nematic dispersions for soft matter photonics. (United States)

    Muševič, I; Skarabot, M; Humar, M


    General properties and recent developments in the field of nematic colloids and emulsions are discussed. The origin and nature of pair colloidal interactions in the nematic colloids are explained and an overview of the stable colloidal 2D crystalline structures and superstructures discovered so far is given. The nature and role of topological defects in the nematic colloids is discussed, with an emphasis on recently discovered entangled colloidal structures. Applications of inverted nematic emulsions and binding force mechanisms in nematic colloids for soft matter photonic devices are discussed.

  7. Orientational transitions in ferromagnetic liquid crystals with bistable coupling between colloidal particles and the matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhlevnykh, A. N., E-mail:; Petrov, D. A. [Perm State National Research University (Russian Federation)


    We study the orientational response of a ferromagnetic liquid crystal that is induced by magnetic and electric fields. A modified form of the energy of the orientational interaction between magnetic impurity particles and the liquid crystal matrix that leads to bistable coupling is considered. It is shown that apart from magnetic impurity segregation, first-order orientational transitions can be due to the bistability of the potential of the orientational coupling between the director and the magnetization. The ranges of material parameters that lead to optical bistability are determined. The possibility of first-order orientational transitions is analyzed for the optical phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary light rays transmitted through a ferronematic cell. It is shown that an electric field applied in the given geometry considerably enhances the magneto-orientational response of the ferronematic.

  8. Entropic chiral symmetry breaking in self-organized two-dimensional colloidal crystals. (United States)

    Mayoral, Kenny; Mason, Thomas G


    Long-range chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) has been recently observed in 2D self-organized rhombic crystals of hard, achiral, 72 degree rhombic microparticles. However, purely entropic selection of a CSB crystal in an idealized system of hard achiral shapes, in which attractions are entirely absent and the shape does not dictate a chiral tiling, has not yet been quantitatively predicted. Overcoming limitations of a purely rotational cage model, we investigate a translational-rotational cage model (TRCM) of dense systems of hard achiral rhombs and quantitatively demonstrate that entropy can spontaneously drive the preferential self-organization of a chiral crystal composed of achiral shapes that also tile into an achiral crystal. At different particle area fractions, ϕA, we calculate the number of accessible translational-rotational microstates, Ω, of a mobile central rhomb in a static cage of neighboring rhombs, which can have different orientation angles, γ, relative to the bisector of the crystalline axes. As we raise ϕA, two maxima emerge in Ω(γ) at non-zero cage orientation angles, ±γmax. These maxima correspond to additional translational microstates that become accessible in the CSB crystalline polymorph through reduced translational tip-tip interference. Thus, entropy, often associated with structural disorder, can drive CSB in condensed phase systems of non-attractive achiral objects that do not tile into chiral structures. The success of the TRCM in explaining the entropic origin of CSB in systems of hard rhombs indicates that the TRCM will have significant utility in predicting the self-organized behavior of dense systems of other hard shapes in 2D.

  9. Controlling statics and dynamics of colloids by photo-patterned liquid crystals (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Peng, Chenhui; Guo, Yubing; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Wei, Qi-Huo


    Transport of fluids and particles at the microscale is an important theme both in fundamental and applied science. We demonstrate how an advanced approach to photo-induced alignment of liquid crystals can be used to generate nonlinear electrokinetics. The photoalignment technique is based on irradiation of a photosensitive substrate with light through nanoaperture arrays in metal films. The resulting pattern of surface alignment induces predesigned 2D and 3D distortions of local molecular orientation. In presence of a static electric field, these distortions generate spatial charge and drive electrokinetic flows of the new type, in which the velocities depend on the square of the applied electric field. The patterned liquid crystal electrolyte converts the electric energy into the flows and transport of embedded particles of any type (fluid, solid, gaseous) along a predesigned trajectory, posing no limitation on the electric nature (charge, polarizability) of these particles and interfaces. The patterned liquid crystal electrolyte induces persistent vortices of controllable rotation speed and direction that are quintessential for micro- and nanoscale mixing applications.

  10. Self-Assembly of Colloidal Photonic Crystals of PS@PNIPAM Nanoparticles and Temperature-Responsive Tunable Fluorescence. (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Ge, Fengyan; Yang, Xue; Guang, Shanyi


    A strategy for significantly enhancing fluorescence is developed based on the coupling of optical properties of colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) with responsive microgel. In this paper, thermoresponsive microgel PNIPAM was employed for the fabrication of core-shell structure. The core-shell PS@PNIPAM nanoparticles (NPs) are then assembled to CPCs by a vertical deposition method. Subsequently, the novel functional material (RhB/CPCs) can be prepared by depositing fluorescent dye molecules (RhB) on the top of PS@PNIPAM CPCs. We obtained an increase in the fluorescent intensity up to 15-fold and 22-fold compared with RhB on the glass slid and the uneven film. Due to the unique responsive shrinking properties of PNIPAM shell, the amplifying fluorescence behavior of CPCs can be well tuned by varying the temperature. In contrast to RhB on the glass slid, a 15-fold and 12-fold fluorescence enhancement can be observed when the temperature of RhB/CPCs was 20 °C and 50 °C, respectively. The mechanism on enhancement fluorescence of tunable CPCs can be achieved by measurements of thermoresponsive properties. The results indicate that the responsive fluorescence-amplifying method based on CPCs made with responsive core-shell NPs has a potential application for the development of efficient fluorescence sensors.

  11. Colloidal crystal templated molecular imprinted polymer for the detection of 2-butoxyethanol in water contaminated by hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Vu, Danh; Nagel, Susan; Lin, Chung-Ho; Fidalgo de Cortalezzi, Maria


    The authors describe a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) that enables detection of 2-butoxyethanol (2BE), a pollutant associated with hydraulic fracturing contamination. Detection is based on a combination of a colloidal crystal templating and a molecular imprinting. The MIPs are shown to display higher binding capacity for 2BE compared to non-imprinted films (NIPs), with imprinting efficiencies of ∼ 2. The tests rely on the optical effects that are displayed by the uniformly ordered porous structure of the material. The reflectance spectra of the polymer films have characteristic Bragg peaks whose location varies with the concentration of 2BE. Peaks undergo longwave red shifts up to 50 nm on exposure of the MIP to 2BE in concentrations in the range from 1 ppb to 100 ppm. This allows for quantitative estimates of the 2BE concentrations present in aqueous solutions. The material is intended for use in the early detection of contamination at hydraulic fracturing sites. Graphical abstract Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) sensor with the sensing ability on reflectance spectra responding to the presence of 2-butoxyethanol (2BE) for early detection of hydraulic fracking contamination.

  12. Effect of N-Sulfonation on the Colloidal and Liquid Crystal Behavior of Chitin Crystallites (United States)

    Li; Revol; Marchessault


    Chitin crystallites were heterogeneously N-sulfonated in an aqueous medium using triethylamine/sulfur trioxide (TEA/SO3) or pyridine/sulfur trioxide. The extent of N-sulfonation of the crystallites has been controlled by the amount of TEA/SO3 added in the reaction. The concentration of sulfur in the crystallites after N-sulfonation was quantified using conductimetric titration and elemental analysis. The ratio of N-sulfonated amino groups to amino groups (S/N) was calculated based on the titration data. The presence of N-S bonds assumed to be at crystallite surfaces was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After N-sulfonation, the crystallites have two ionizable groups at their surface: -NH3+ and -NHSO3H(Na). The former is pH dependent. The colloidal properties of the N-sulfonated crystallites having different S/N were investigated by plotting the zeta potential as a function of the pH of the suspension. The isoelectric point was found to change with the level of N-sulfonation. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the aggregation of crystallites depends strongly on the extent of N-sulfonation. Above a certain concentration, the original chitin crystallites form tactoids (chiral nematic domains) in an aqueous medium. This phenomenon was not observed for the crystallites with a low extent of surface N-sulfonation (below 70%). At about 80% N-sulfonation, the formation of tactoids was once again observed. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  13. Fabrication of 3-D Photonic Band Gap Crystals Via Colloidal Self-Assembly (United States)

    Subramaniam, Girija; Blank, Shannon


    The behavior of photons in a Photonic Crystals, PCs, is like that of electrons in a semiconductor in that, it prohibits light propagation over a band of frequencies, called Photonic Band Gap, PBG. Photons cannot exist in these band gaps like the forbidden bands of electrons. Thus, PCs lend themselves as potential candidates for devices based on the gap phenomenon. The popular research on PCs stem from their ability to confine light with minimal losses. Large scale 3-D PCs with a PBG in the visible or near infra red region will make optical transistors and sharp bent optical fibers. Efforts are directed to use PCs for information processing and it is not long before we can have optical integrated circuits in the place of electronic ones.

  14. Anisotropic stokes drag and dynamic lift on cylindrical colloids in a nematic liquid crystal. (United States)

    Rovner, Joel B; Lapointe, Clayton P; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L


    We have measured the Stokes drag on magnetic nanowires suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB). The effective drag viscosity for wires moving perpendicular to the nematic director differs from that for motion parallel to the director by factors of 0.88 to 2.4, depending on the orientation of the wires and their surface anchoring. When the force on the wires is applied at an oblique angle to the director, the wires move at an angle to the force, demonstrating the existence of a lift force on particles moving in a nematic. This dynamic lift is significantly larger for wires with homeotropic anchoring than with longitudinal anchoring in the experiments, suggesting the lift force as a mechanism for sorting particles according to their surface properties.

  15. Adsorption, Desorption, Surface Diffusion, Lattice Defect Formation, and Kink Incorporation Processes of Particles on Growth Interfaces of Colloidal Crystals with Attractive Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Suzuki


    Full Text Available Good model systems are required in order to understand crystal growth processes because, in many cases, precise incorporation processes of atoms or molecules cannot be visualized easily at the atomic or molecular level. Using a transmission-type optical microscope, we have successfully observed in situ adsorption, desorption, surface diffusion, lattice defect formation, and kink incorporation of particles on growth interfaces of colloidal crystals of polystyrene particles in aqueous sodium polyacrylate solutions. Precise surface transportation and kink incorporation processes of the particles into the colloidal crystals with attractive interactions were observed in situ at the particle level. In particular, contrary to the conventional expectations, the diffusion of particles along steps around a two-dimensional island of the growth interface was not the main route for kink incorporation. This is probably due to the number of bonds between adsorbed particles and particles in a crystal; the number exceeds the limit at which a particle easily exchanges its position to the adjacent one along the step. We also found novel desorption processes of particles from steps to terraces, attributing them to the assistance of attractive forces from additionally adsorbing particles to the particles on the steps.

  16. Great Disparity in Photoluminesence Quantum Yields of Colloidal CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Varied Shape: The Effect of Crystal Lattice Strain. (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangtao; Liu, Mei; Fang, Li; Jiang, Shenlong; Zhou, Jingtian; Ding, Huaiyi; Huang, Hongwen; Wen, Wen; Luo, Zhenlin; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Xiaoping; Gao, Chen


    Understanding the big discrepancy in the photoluminesence quantum yields (PLQYs) of nanoscale colloidal materials with varied morphologies is of great significance to its property optimization and functional application. Using different shaped CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with the same fabrication processes as model, quantitative synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the increasing trend in lattice strain values of the nanocrystals: nanocube, nanoplate, nanowire. Furthermore, transient spectroscopic measurements reveal the same trend in the defect quantities of these nanocrystals. These experimental results unambiguously point out that large lattice strain existing in CsPbBr 3 nanoparticles induces more crystal defects and thus decreases the PLQY, implying that lattice strain is a key factor other than the surface defect to dominate the PLQY of colloidal photoluminesence materials.

  17. Crystal structure of the enzyme-product complex reveals sugar ring distortion during catalysis by family 63 inverting α-glycosidase. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi


    Glycoside hydrolases are divided into two groups, known as inverting and retaining enzymes, based on their hydrolytic mechanisms. Glycoside hydrolase family 63 (GH63) is composed of inverting α-glycosidases, which act mainly on α-glucosides. We previously found that Escherichia coli GH63 enzyme, YgjK, can hydrolyze 2-O-α-d-glucosyl-d-galactose. Two constructed glycosynthase mutants, D324N and E727A, which catalyze the transfer of a β-glucosyl fluoride donor to galactose, lactose, and melibiose. Here, we determined the crystal structures of D324N and E727A soaked with a mixture of glucose and lactose at 1.8- and 2.1-Å resolutions, respectively. Because glucose and lactose molecules are found at the active sites in both structures, it is possible that these structures mimic the enzyme-product complex of YgjK. A glucose molecule found at subsite -1 in both structures adopts an unusual 1 S 3 skew-boat conformation. Comparison between these structures and the previously determined enzyme-substrate complex structure reveals that the glucose pyranose ring might be distorted immediately after nucleophilic attack by a water molecule. These structures represent the first enzyme-product complex for the GH63 family, as well as the structurally-related glycosidases, and it may provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elaboration of hybrid materials by templating with mineral liquid crystals stabilization of a mixed sol of YSZ nanoparticles and V2O5 ribbon-like colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiot, C.


    The purpose of this PhD was to investigate innovative soft chemistry ways to prepare hybrid materials with ordered nano-structures. Concretely, research were conducted on the development of a hybrid material made of an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix templated by a mineral liquid crystal, namely V 2 O 5 . In aqueous solutions, vanadium oxide exhibits ribbon-like colloids of typical dimensions 1 nm x 25 nm x 500 nm, stabilized by a strong negative surface charge. Above a critical concentration, the anisotropic colloids assemble into a nematic liquid crystal, whose domains can be oriented within the same direction over a macroscopic range under a weak magnetic field. The idea is to use V 2 O 5 anisotropic colloids as a template for a hybrid material, taking advantage of their ordering behavior. Preliminary experiments revealed a strong reactivity between molecular compounds of zirconium and vanadium oxide. Therefore, the studies were directed toward the preparation of a mixed colloidal sol containing YSZ nanoparticles and vanadium oxide ribbon-like colloids, as a precursor sol for the intended hybrid material. The YSZ nanoparticles are obtained through an outstanding hydrothermal synthesis leading to a stable suspension of nanocrystalline particles of ca. 5 nm, in pure water. Providing a mixed sol of YSZ and V 2 O 5 is a key challenge for it implies the co-stabilization of two types of colloids having different shape, size and surface properties. Besides, the existence of V 2 O 5 in its ribbon-like form requires acidic conditions and very low ionic strength. The first part of this work was then dedicated to the study of electro-steric stabilization of zirconia suspension by addition of acidic poly-electrolytes. Different polymers with carboxylic and/or sulfonic acidic functions were investigated. Based on zeta potential measurements and adsorption isotherms, the influence of molecular weight and polymer charge were discussed. Among the studied polymers, poly

  19. Magnetic switching of optical reflectivity in nanomagnet/micromirror suspensions: colloid displays as a potential alternative to liquid crystal displays. (United States)

    Bubenhofer, S B; Athanassiou, E K; Grass, R N; Koehler, F M; Rossier, M; Stark, W J


    Two-particle colloids containing nanomagnets and microscale mirrors can be prepared from iron oxide nanoparticles, microscale metal flakes and high-density liquids stabilizing the mirror suspension against sedimentation by matching the constituent's density. The free Brownian rotation of the micromirrors can be magnetically controlled through an anisotropic change in impulse transport arising from impacts of the magnetic nanoparticles onto the anisotropic flakes. The resulting rapid mirror orientation allows large changes in light transmission and switchable optical reflectivity. The preparation of a passive display was conceptually demonstrated through colloid confinement in a planar cavity over an array of individually addressable solenoids and resulted in 4 x 4 digit displays with a reaction time of less than 100 ms.

  20. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen


    fluid-fluid interface [2]. Together with Remco Tuinier, Henk has recently completed a book in this area which is to appear later this year. A major theme in Henk's research is that of phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals. Henk, together with Daan Frenkel and Alain Stroobants, realized in the 1980s that a smectic phase in dispersions of rod-like particles can be stable without the presence of attractive interactions, similar to nematic ordering as predicted earlier by Onsager [3]. Together with Gert-Jan Vroege he wrote a seminal review in this area [4]. Henk once said that 'one can only truly develop one colloidal model system in one's career' and in his case this must be that of gibbsite platelets. Initially Henk's group pursued another polymorph of aluminium hydroxide, boehmite, which forms rod-like particles [5], which already displayed nematic liquid crystal phases. The real breakthrough came when the same precursors treated the produced gibbsite platelets slightly differently. These reliably form a discotic nematic phase [6] and, despite the polydispersity in their diameter, a columnar phase [7]. A theme encompassing a wide range of soft matter systems is that of colloidal dynamics and phase transition kinetics. Many colloidal systems have a tendency to get stuck in metastable states, such as gels or glasses. This is a nuisance if one wishes to study phase transitions, but it is of great practical significance. Such issues feature in many of Henk's publications, and with Valerie Anderson he wrote a highly cited review in this area [8]. Henk Lekkerkerker has also invested significant effort into the promotion of synchrotron radiation studies of colloidal suspensions. He was one of the great supporters of the Dutch-Belgian beamline 'DUBBLE' project at the ESRF [9]. He attended one of the very first experiments in Grenoble in 1999, which led to a Nature publication [7]. He was strongly involved in many other experiments which followed and also has been a

  1. Crystallization and Colloidal Stabilization of Ca(OH)2in the Presence of Nopal Juice (Opuntia ficus indica): Implications in Architectural Heritage Conservation. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Elert, Kerstin; Hansen, Eric F


    Hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2 ) is a vernacular art and building material produced following slaking of CaO in water. If excess water is used, a slurry, called lime putty, forms, which has been the preferred craftsman selection for formulating lime mortars since Roman times. A variety of natural additives were traditionally added to the lime putty to improve its quality. The mucilaginous juice extracted from nopal cladodes has been and still is used as additive incorporated in the slaking water for formulation of lime mortars and plasters, both in ancient Mesoamerica and in the USA Southwest. Little is known on the ultimate effects of this additive on the crystallization and microstructure of hydrated lime. Here, we show that significant changes in habit and size of portlandite crystals occur following slaking in the presence of nopal juice as well as compositionally similar citrus pectin. Both additives contain polysaccharides made up of galacturonic acid and neutral sugar residues. The carboxyl (and hydroxyl) functional groups present in these residues and in their alkaline degradation byproducts, which are deprotonated at the high pH (12.4) produced during lime slaking, strongly interact with newly formed Ca(OH) 2 crystals acting in two ways: (a) as nucleation inhibitors, promoting the formation of nanosized crystals, and (b) as habit modifiers, favoring the development of planar habit following their adsorption onto positively charged (0001) Ca(OH) 2 faces. Adsorption of polysaccharides on Ca(OH) 2 crystals prevents the development of large particles, resulting in a very reactive, nanosized portlandite slurry. It also promotes steric stabilization, which limits aggregation, thus enhancing the colloidal nature of the lime putty. Overall, these effects are very favorable for the preparation of highly plastic lime mortars with enhanced properties.

  2. Real-Time Fluorescence Detection in Aqueous Systems by Combined and Enhanced Photonic and Surface Effects in Patterned Hollow Sphere Colloidal Photonic Crystals. (United States)

    Zhong, Kuo; Wang, Ling; Li, Jiaqi; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Bartic, Carmen; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen


    Hollow sphere colloidal photonic crystals (HSCPCs) exhibit the ability to maintain a high refractive index contrast after infiltration of water, leading to extremely high-quality photonic band gap effects, even in an aqueous (physiological) environment. Superhydrophilic pinning centers in a superhydrophobic environment can be used to strongly confine and concentrate water-soluble analytes. We report a strategy to realize real-time ultrasensitive fluorescence detection in patterned HSCPCs based on strongly enhanced fluorescence due to the photonic band-edge effect combined with wettability differentiation in the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic pattern. The orthogonal nature of the two strategies allows for a multiplicative effect, resulting in an increase of two orders of magnitude in fluorescence.

  3. Colloidal Synthesis of Quantum Confined Single Crystal CsPbBr3 Nanosheets with Lateral Size Control up to the Micrometer Range. (United States)

    Shamsi, Javad; Dang, Zhiya; Bianchini, Paolo; Canale, Claudio; Stasio, Francesco Di; Brescia, Rosaria; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato


    We report the nontemplated colloidal synthesis of single crystal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanosheets with lateral sizes up to a few micrometers and with thickness of just a few unit cells (i.e., below 5 nm), hence in the strong quantum confinement regime, by introducing short ligands (octanoic acid and octylamine) in the synthesis together with longer ones (oleic acid and oleylamine). The lateral size is tunable by varying the ratio of shorter ligands over longer ligands, while the thickness is mainly unaffected by this parameter and stays practically constant at 3 nm in all the syntheses conducted at short-to-long ligands volumetric ratio below 0.67. Beyond this ratio, control over the thickness is lost and a multimodal thickness distribution is observed.

  4. [Inverted nipples]. (United States)

    Saltvig, Iselin; Sjøstrand, Helle; Oldenburg, Mette Holmqvist; Matzen, Steen Henrik


    Inverted nipples is an anatomical variation which can be uni- or bilateral, congenital or acquired. The degree of inversion can vary from slight to severe. Treatment can be surgical or non-surgical and should depend on the degree of functional problems. Non-surgical treatment can be beneficial, does not risk affecting sensibility, spares the lactiferous ducts, and therefore does not risk any interference with breast-feeding. Surgical options should only be considered when non-surgical treatment is insufficient.

  5. The efficient n-doping of [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester by leuco-crystal violet to enhance the performance of inverted organic solar cells (United States)

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Wei; Cao, Huan; Shi, Zhihua; Zhang, Jidong; Qin, Dashan


    Inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) have been fabricated using the photoactive blend thin films based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and leuco-crystal violet (LCV). It was found that the LCV as an efficient n-dopant could significantly increase intrinsic electron concentration of PCBM zone. The electron mobility of P3HT:PCBM:LCV blend thin film was measured 1.75 times as high as that of P3HT:PCBM blend thin film, as a result of LCV-induced trap filling in the bandgap of PCBM. The power conversion efficiency for the inverted device using the photoactive layer of P3HT:PCBM:LCV could be 1.22 times as high as that for the inverted device using the conventional photoactive layer of P3HT:PCBM, mostly because (1) the higher electron mobility could enhance the exciton dissociation and thereby short-circuit current density in the former relative to the latter; (2) the increase in the electron concentration of PCBM zone in P3HT:PCBM:LCV blend thin film may help blocking holes diffusion towards cathode, improving the hole collection efficiency and thereby fill factor of device. We provide a new insight on optimizing the electron-conducting property of bulk-heterojunction photoactive thin film, useful for pushing forward inverted OSCs towards the cost-effective commercialization.

  6. Colloidal glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Colloidal glasses. Glassy state is attained when system fails to reach equilibrium due to crowding of constituent particles. In molecular glasses, glassy state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Recent results in theory and simulation of star-polymer--colloid mixtures are reviewed. We present the effective interaction between hard, colloidal particles and star polymers in a good solvent derived by monomer-resolved Molecular Dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments. The relevant parameters are the size ratio q between the stars and the colloids, as well as the number of polymeric arms f (functionality attached to the common center of the star. By covering a wide range of q's ranging from zero (star against a flat wall up to about 0.5, we establish analytical forms for the star-colloid interaction which are in excellent agreement with simulation results. By employing this cross interaction and the effective interactions between stars and colloids themselves, a demixing transition in the fluid phase is observed and systematically investigated for different arm numbers and size ratios. The demixing binodals are compared with experimental observations and found to be consistent. Furthermore, we map the full two-component system on an effective one-component description for the colloids, by inverting the two-component Ornstein-Zernike equations. Some recent results for the depletion interaction and freezing transitions are shown.

  8. Glass/Jamming Transition in Colloidal Aggregation (United States)

    Segre, Philip N.; Prasad, Vikram; Weitz, David A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)


    We have studied colloidal aggregation in a model colloid plus polymer system with short-range attractive interactions. By varying the colloid concentration and the strength of the attraction, we explored regions where the equilibrium phase is expected to consist of colloidal crystallites in coexistance with colloidal gas (i.e. monomers). This occurs for moderate values of the potential depth, U approximately equal to 2-5 kT. Crystallization was not always observed. Rather, over an extended sub-region two new metastable phases appear, one fluid-like and one solid-like. These were examined in detail with light scattering and microscopy techniques. Both phases consist of a near uniform distribution of small irregular shaped clusters of colloidal particles. The dynamical and structural characteristics of the ergodic-nonergodic transition between the two phases share much in common with the colloidal hard sphere glass transition.

  9. Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama


    This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

  10. Colloidal Stability and Magnetic Field-Induced Ordering of Magnetorheological Fluids Studied with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. (United States)

    Rodriguez-López, Jaime; Castro, Pedro; de Vicente, Juan; Johannsmann, Diethelm; Elvira, Luis; Morillas, Jose R; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco


    This work proposes the use of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) as a method to analyze and characterize magnetorheological (MR) fluids. QCM devices are sensitive to changes in mass, surface interactions, and viscoelastic properties of the medium contacting its surface. These features make the QCM suitable to study MR fluids and their response to variable environmental conditions. MR fluids change their structure and viscoelastic properties under the action of an external magnetic field, this change being determined by the particle volume fraction, the magnetic field strength, and the presence of thixotropic agents among other factors. In this work, the measurement of the resonance parameters (resonance frequency and dissipation factor) of a QCM are used to analyze the behavior of MR fluids in static conditions (that is, in the absence of external mechanical stresses). The influence of sedimentation under gravity and the application of magnetic fields on the shifts of resonance frequency and dissipation factor were measured and discussed in the frame of the coupled resonance produced by particles touching the QCM surface. Furthermore, the MR-fluid/QCM system has a great potential for the study of high-frequency contact mechanics because the translational and rotational stiffness of the link between the surface and the particles can be tuned by the magnetic field.

  11. Colloidal Stability and Magnetic Field-Induced Ordering of Magnetorheological Fluids Studied with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rodriguez-López


    Full Text Available This work proposes the use of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs as a method to analyze and characterize magnetorheological (MR fluids. QCM devices are sensitive to changes in mass, surface interactions, and viscoelastic properties of the medium contacting its surface. These features make the QCM suitable to study MR fluids and their response to variable environmental conditions. MR fluids change their structure and viscoelastic properties under the action of an external magnetic field, this change being determined by the particle volume fraction, the magnetic field strength, and the presence of thixotropic agents among other factors. In this work, the measurement of the resonance parameters (resonance frequency and dissipation factor of a QCM are used to analyze the behavior of MR fluids in static conditions (that is, in the absence of external mechanical stresses. The influence of sedimentation under gravity and the application of magnetic fields on the shifts of resonance frequency and dissipation factor were measured and discussed in the frame of the coupled resonance produced by particles touching the QCM surface. Furthermore, the MR-fluid/QCM system has a great potential for the study of high-frequency contact mechanics because the translational and rotational stiffness of the link between the surface and the particles can be tuned by the magnetic field.

  12. Bonding assembled colloids without loss of colloidal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vutukuri, H.R.; Stiefelhagen, J.C.P.; Vissers, T; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.


    In recent years the diversity of self-assembled colloidal structures has strongly increased, as it is fueled by a wide range of applications in materials science and also in soft condensed-matter physics.[1–4] Some potential applications include photonic bandgap (PBG) crystals, materials for

  13. Producing colloids with microfluidics (United States)

    Pannacci, Nicolas; Willaime, Herve; Tabeling, Patrick


    Submicronic emulsions are commonly used in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and material industries. Standard microfluidic tool is particularly convenient to produce in a very controlled way either droplets of typical diameter ranging from 10 to 300 microns with a perfect monodispersity (nanodrops in a way that is slightly dependent on the fluids used. The control on such a flow authorizes the adjustment of the diameter of the colloids formed. We will show brownian particles from 860 nm to 1.3 μm in diameter obtained in such way and their clustering into crystals thanks to their high monodispersity. These first experimental results are very promising and make evident the great potential of micro and nano-fluidics to produce nano-emulsions or colloids with very controlled size that metamaterials can require.

  14. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, L.


    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  15. Colloidal nematostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Pergamenshchik


    Full Text Available We give a review of the theory of large distance colloidal interaction via the nematic director field. The new area of nematic colloidal systems (or nematic emulsions has been guided by the analogy between the colloidal nematostatics and electrostatics. The elastic charge density representation of the colloidal nematostatics [V.M. Pergamenshchik, V.O. Uzunova, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2007, 23, 161; Phys. Rev. E, 2007, 76, 011707] develops this analogy at the level of charge density and Coulomb interaction. The analogy is shown to lie in common mathematics based on the solutions of Laplace equation. However, the 3d colloidal nematostatics substantially differs from electrostatics both in its mathematical structure and physical implications. The elastic charge is a vector fully determined by the torque exerted upon colloid, the role of Gauss' theorem is played by conservation of the torque components. Elastic multipoles consist of two tensors (dyads. Formulas for the elastic multipoles, the Coulomb-like, dipole-dipole, and quadrupole-quadrupole pair interaction potentials are derived and illustrated by particular examples. Based on the tensorial structure, we list possible types of elastic dipoles and quadrupoles. An elastic dipole is characterized by its isotropic strength, anisotropy, chirality, and its longitudinal component. An elastic quadrupole can be uniaxial and biaxial. Relation between the multipole type and its symmetry is discussed, sketches of some types of multipoles are given. Using the mirror image method of electrostatics as a guiding idea, we develop the mirror image method in nematostatics for arbitrary director tilt at the wall. The method is applied to the charge-wall and dipole-wall interaction.

  16. Solid microparticles in nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Muševič, Igor

    A brief historic overview of colloidal experiments in the 1990's is given in the introduction. These experiments have later inspired research on nematic colloids, after the technique of laser tweezers manipulation of particles was introduced to this field. Basic topological properties of colloidal inclusions in the nematic liquid crystals are discussed and the nematic-mediated forces between dipolar and quadrupolar colloidal particles in bulk nematic are explained. Structural and topological properties of 2D and 3D colloidal crystals and superstructures made of colloidal particles of different size and symmetry in bulk nematic liquid crystal are described. Laser-tweezer manipulation and rewiring of topological defect loops around colloidal particles is introduced. This results in the colloidal entanglement, as well as knotting and linking of defect loops of the order parameter field. Shape and size-dependent colloidal interactions in the nematic liquid crystals are reviewed. The chapter concludes with the discussion of bulk chiral nematic and blue phase colloids.

  17. Colloidal superballs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.


    This thesis is organized in four parts as follows. Part 1 focuses on the synthetic aspects of the colloidal model systems that will be used throughout the work described in this thesis. In Chapter 2 we describe synthetic procedures for the preparation of polycrystalline hematite superballs and

  18. Colloidal polyaniline (United States)

    Armes, Steven P.; Aldissi, Mahmoud


    Processable electrically conductive latex polymer compositions including colloidal particles of an oxidized, polymerized amino-substituted aromatic monomer, a stabilizing effective amount of a random copolymer containing amino-benzene type moieties as side chain constituents, and dopant anions, and a method of preparing such polymer compositions are provided.

  19. Elastic and viscous bond components in the adhesion of colloidal particles and fibrillated streptococci to QCM-D crystal surfaces with different hydrophobicities using Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell models. (United States)

    van der Westen, Rebecca; Sharma, Prashant K; De Raedt, Hans; Vermue, Ijsbrand; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J


    A quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) can measure molecular mass adsorption as well as register adhesion of colloidal particles. However, analysis of the QCM-D output to quantitatively analyze adhesion of (bio)colloids to obtain viscoelastic bond properties is still a subject of debate. Here, we analyze the QCM-D output to analyze the bond between two hydrophilic streptococcal strains 91 nm long and without fibrillar surface appendages and micron-sized hydrophobic polystyrene particles on QCM-D crystal surfaces with different hydrophobicities, using the Kelvin-Voigt model and the Maxwell model. A Poisson distribution was implemented in order to determine the possible virtues of including polydispersity when fitting model parameters to the data. The quality of the fits did not indicate whether the Kelvin-Voigt or the Maxwell model is preferable and only polydispersity in spring-constants improved the fit for polystyrene particles. The Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell models both yielded higher spring-constants for the bald streptococcus than for the fibrillated one. In both models, the drag coefficients increased for the bald streptococcus with the ratio of electron-donating over electron-accepting parameters of the crystal surface, while for the fibrillated strain the drag coefficient was similar on all crystal surfaces. Combined with the propensity of fibrillated streptococci to bind to the sensor crystal as a coupled-resonator above the crystal surface, this suggests that the drag experienced by resonator-coupled, hydrophilic particles is more influenced by the viscosity of the bulk water than by interfacial water adjacent to the crystal surface. Hydrophilic particles that lack a surface tether are mass-coupled just above the crystal surface and accordingly probe the drag due to the thin layer of interfacial water that is differently structured on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Hydrophobic particles without a surface tether are also mass

  20. Statics and dynamics of colloidal particles on optical tray arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We examine the statics and dynamics of charged colloids interacting with periodic optical trap arrays. In particular we study the regime where more than one colloid is confined in each trap, creating effective dimer, trimer, and higher order states called colloidal molecular crystals. The n-mer states have all effective orientational degree of freedom which can be controlled with an external driving field. In general, the external field causes a polarization effect where the orientation of the n-mers aligns with the external field, similar to liquid crystal systems. Additionally, under a rotating external drive the n-mers can rotate with the drive. In some cases a series of structural transitions in the colloidal crystal states occur in the rotating field due to a competition between the ordering of the colloidal molecular crystals and the polarization effect which orients the n-mers in the direction of the drive. We also show that for some parameters, the n-mers continuously rotate with the drive without witching, that depinning transitions can occur where the colloids jump from well to well, and that there are a number of distinct dynamical transitions between the phases. Finally, we illustrate colloidal orderings at fillings of more than four colloids per trap, indicating that it is possible to create higher order colloidal crystal cluster phases.

  1. Next Generation Inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zilai [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Gough, Charles [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)


    The goal of this Cooperative Agreement was the development of a Next Generation Inverter for General Motors’ electrified vehicles, including battery electric vehicles, range extended electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The inverter is a critical electronics component that converts battery power (DC) to and from the electric power for the motor (AC).

  2. Y-source inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Town, Graham; Loh, Poh Chiang


    This paper introduces a new 3-phase Y-source inverter whose gain is presently not matched by classical impedance-network-based inverters operating at the same duty ratio. The proposed network uses a tightly coupled transformer with three windings. By squeezing the shoot-through range while keeping...

  3. Modular inverter system (United States)

    Ma, Mingyao; Hu, Haibing; Kutkut, Nasser; Batarseh, Issa; Shen, John; , Bkayrat, Raed


    A system connected to an AC power grid having an AC phase signal includes an inverter module including a first inverter coupled to a DC voltage, actuated based on the AC phase signal. The first inverter provides a first voltage signal having predetermined harmonic components. A second inverter includes second switch elements coupled to the DC voltage and actuated by a second set of control signals phase delayed with respect to the first control signals. A transformer module has first and second primary windings coupled to the first and second inverters. The transformer module further includes a secondary winding coupled to first primary winding, the second primary winding, and the AC power grid. The secondary winding is configured to provide a secondary output voltage to the AC power grid by combining the first voltage signal and the second voltage signal such that the predetermined harmonic components are substantially cancelled.

  4. Anisotropic Model Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kats, C.M.


    The driving forces for fundamental research in colloid science are the ability to manage the material properties of colloids and to unravel the forces that play a role between colloids to be able to control and understand the processes where colloids play an important role. Therefore we are

  5. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These were reported to lead to a variety of novel self-organized colloidal structures, such as linear chains [5,6], periodic lattices [7], anisotropic clusters [3], and cellular structures [8] that are stabilized, in general, by topological defects. More recently, two-dimensional (2D) inverted nematic emulsions were also stud- ied and ...

  6. crystal (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu


    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  7. Multilevel DC link inverter (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia


    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  8. Colloids with continuously tunable surface charge. (United States)

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Kegel, Willem K


    In this paper, we present a robust way to tune the surface potential of polystyrene colloids without changing the pH, ionic strength, etc. The colloids are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene core and a cross-linked vinylbenzyl chloride layer. Besides the chlorine groups, the particle surface contains sulfate/sulfonate groups (arising from the polymerization initiators) that provide a negative surface potential. Performing a Menschutkin reaction on the surface chlorine groups with tertiary amines allows us to introduce quaternary, positively charged amines. The overall charge on the particles is then determined by the ratio between the sulfate/sulfonate moieties and the quaternary amines. Using this process, we were able to invert the charge in a continuous manner without losing colloidal stability upon passing the isoelectric point. The straightforward reaction mechanism together with the fact that the reaction could be quenched rapidly resulted in a colloidal system in which the ζ potential can be tuned between -80 and 45 mV. As proof of principle, the positively charged particles were used in heterocoagulation experiments with nanometer- and micrometer-sized negatively charged silica particles to create geometrically well-defined colloidal (nano) clusters.

  9. Reliable inverter systems (United States)

    Nagano, S.


    Base driver with common-load-current feedback protects paralleled inverter systems from open or short circuits. Circuit eliminates total system oscillation that can occur in conventional inverters because of open circuit in primary transformer winding. Common feedback signal produced by functioning modules forces operating frequency of failed module to coincide with clock drive so module resumes normal operating frequency in spite of open circuit.

  10. Colloid Transport and Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander


    Book Description: Colloidal science and technology is one of the fastest growing research and technology areas. This book explores the cutting edge research in colloidal science and technology that will be usefull in almost every aspect of modern society. This book has a depth of information...... related to historical prospective, synthesis, characterization, theoretical modeling and application of unique class of colloidal materials starting from colloidal gold to coated silica colloid and platinum, titania colloids. This book is unique in its design, content, providing depth of science about...... different colloidal materials and their applications in chemistry, physics, biological, medical sciences and environment. Graduate students, academic and industrial researchers and medical professionals will discover recently developed colloidal materials and their applications in many areas of human...

  11. Colloid and surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, Yun Hwan; Lee, Jeong Jung; Cho, Sun Chae; Ryeo, Su Dong


    This book consists of two parts about colloid and surfactant. The first parts has explanations colloid and surface science, which deal with creation and properties of colloidal particles, surfactant and micelle colloid, property of surfactant, membranes, absorption of surface science, electrokinetic phenomenon, emulsion, foam and rheology. The second part mentions surfactant on anionic surfactant with five types, amphoteric surface active agent, non-ionic surface active agent and use of surfactant.

  12. Resonant snubber inverter (United States)

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Chen, D.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; McKeever, J.W.


    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 14 figs.

  13. Resonant snubber inverter (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Chen, Daoshen; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Ott, Jr., George W.; White, Clifford P.; McKeever, John W.


    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski


    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a), a conceptual model for water entering the drift and reacting with the invert materials is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction, and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This AMR also seeks to: (1) Develop a logical conceptual model for physical/chemical interactions between seepage and the invert materials; (2) screen potential processes and reactions that may occur between seepage and invert to evaluate the potential consequences of the interactions; and (3) outline how seepage/invert processes may be quantified. This document provides the conceptual framework for screening out insignificant processes and for identifying and evaluating those seepage/invert interactions that have the potential to be important to subsequent PAO analyses including the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. Additionally, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to certain near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts. The seepage/invert interactions will not directly affect any principal factors

  15. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Viswanathan; P. Reimus


    Colloid retardation is influenced by the attachment and detachment of colloids from immobile surfaces. This analysis demonstrates the development of parameters necessary to estimate attachment and detachment of colloids and, hence, retardation in both fractured tuff and porous alluvium. Field and experimental data specific to fractured tuff are used for the analysis of colloid retardation in fractured tuff. Experimental data specific to colloid transport in alluvial material from Yucca Mountain as well as bacteriophage field studies in alluvial material, which are thought to be good analogs for colloid transport, are used to estimate attachment and detachment of colloids in the alluvial material. There are no alternative scientific approaches or technical methods for calculating these retardation factors.

  16. Inventions Utilizing Microfluidics and Colloidal Particles (United States)

    Marr, David W.; Gong, Tieying; Oakey, John; Terray, Alexander V.; Wu, David T.


    Several related inventions pertain to families of devices that utilize microfluidics and/or colloidal particles to obtain useful physical effects. The families of devices can be summarized as follows: (1) Microfluidic pumps and/or valves wherein colloidal-size particles driven by electrical, magnetic, or optical fields serve as the principal moving parts that propel and/or direct the affected flows. (2) Devices that are similar to the aforementioned pumps and/or valves except that they are used to manipulate light instead of fluids. The colloidal particles in these devices are substantially constrained to move in a plane and are driven to spatially order them into arrays that function, variously, as waveguides, filters, or switches for optical signals. (3) Devices wherein the ultra-laminar nature of microfluidic flows is exploited to effect separation, sorting, or filtering of colloidal particles or biological cells in suspension. (4) Devices wherein a combination of confinement and applied electrical and/or optical fields forces the colloidal particles to become arranged into three-dimensional crystal lattices. Control of the colloidal crystalline structures could be exploited to control diffraction of light. (5) Microfluidic devices, incorporating fluid waveguides, wherein switching of flows among different paths would be accompanied by switching of optical signals.

  17. Controlled assembly of jammed colloidal shells on fluid droplets (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A.


    Assembly of colloidal particles on fluid interfaces is a promising technique for synthesizing two-dimensional microcrystalline materials useful in fields as diverse as biomedicine, materials science, mineral flotation and food processing. Current approaches rely on bulk emulsification methods, require further chemical and thermal treatments, and are restrictive with respect to the materials used. The development of methods that exploit the great potential of interfacial assembly for producing tailored materials have been hampered by the lack of understanding of the assembly process. Here we report a microfluidic method that allows direct visualization and understanding of the dynamics of colloidal crystal growth on curved interfaces. The crystals are periodically ejected to form stable jammed shells, which we refer to as colloidal armour. We propose that the energetic barriers to interfacial crystal growth and organization can be overcome by targeted delivery of colloidal particles through hydrodynamic flows. Our method allows an unprecedented degree of control over armour composition, size and stability.

  18. Synthesis of colloidal silica dumbbells. (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick M; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons


    We describe the synthesis and characterization of stable suspensions of monodisperse fluorescently labeled silica dumbbell particles. Pure dispersions of silica dumbbells with center-to-center lengths from 174 nm to 2.3 microm were produced with a variety of aspect ratios. Individual particles in concentrated dispersions of these particles could be imaged with confocal microscopy. These particles can be used as a colloidal model system for addressing fundamental questions about crystal and glass formation of low-aspect-ratio anisotropic particles. They also have potential in photonic applications and electro-optical devices.

  19. Energy-Saving Inverter (United States)

    Rippel, W. E.; Edwards, D. B.


    Commutation by field-effect transistor allows more efficient operation. High voltage field-effect transistor (FET) controls silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). Circuit requires only one capacitor and one inductor in commutation circuit: simpler, more efficient, and more economical than conventional inverters. Adaptable to dc-to-dc converters.

  20. Inverter communications using output signal (United States)

    Chapman, Patrick L.


    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  1. Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom (United States)

    Talbert, Robert


    The inverted classroom is a course design model in which students' initial contact with new information takes place outside of class meetings, and students spend class time on high-level sense-making activities. The inverted classroom model is so called because it inverts or "flips" the usual classroom design where typically class…

  2. Quasi-Y-source inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang


    This paper introduces a new inverter topology called a “quasi-Y-source inverter”. The proposed inverter inherits all the advantages of the original Y-source inverter. In addition, the new topology draws continuous current from the source which is required for many renewable sources. It also has dc...

  3. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W.


    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  4. Molecular Recognition in the Colloidal World. (United States)

    Elacqua, Elizabeth; Zheng, Xiaolong; Shillingford, Cicely; Liu, Mingzhu; Weck, Marcus


    ) and can engage in tunable high-fidelity interactions. Examples include metal coordination and host-guest interactions as well as hydrogen bonding and DNA hybridization. On the colloidal scale, these interactions can be used to drive the reversible formation of open structures. Key to the design is the ability to covalently conjugate supramolecular motifs onto the particle surface and/or noncovalently associate with small molecules that can mediate and direct assembly. Efforts exploiting the binding strength inherent to DNA hybridization for the preparation of reversible open-packed structures are then detailed. We describe strategies that led to the introduction of dual-responsive DNA-mediated orthogonal assembly as well as colloidal clusters that afford distinct DNA-ligated close-packed lattices. Further focus is placed on two essential and related efforts: the engineering of complex superstructures that undergo phase transitions and colloidal crystals featuring a high density of functional anchors that aid in crystallization. The design principles discussed in this Account highlight the synergy stemming from coupling well-established noncovalent interactions common on the molecular and polymeric length scales with colloidal platforms to engineer reconfigurable functional architectures by design. Directional strategies and methods such as those illustrated herein feature molecular control and dynamic assembly that afford both open-packed 1D and 2D lattices and are amenable to 3D colloidal frameworks. Multiple methods to direct colloidal assembly have been reported, yet few are capable of crystallizing 2D and 3D architectures of interest for optical data storage, electronics, and photonics. Indeed, early implications are that [supra]molecular control over colloidal assembly can fabricate rationally structured designer materials from simple fundamental building blocks.

  5. Infrared colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals: synthesis, properties, and photovoltaic applications. (United States)

    Fu, Huiying; Tsang, Sai-Wing


    Simple solution phase, catalyst-free synthetic approaches that offer monodispersed, well passivated, and non-aggregated colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have presented many research opportunities not only for fundamental science but also for technological applications. The ability to tune the electrical and optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals by manipulating the size and shape of the crystals during the colloidal synthesis provides potential benefits to a variety of applications including photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, biological imaging/labeling, and more. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals and the achievements in colloidal PbS or PbSe nanocrystals solar cells have demonstrated the promising application of infrared-emitting colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals in photovoltaic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the synthesis and optical properties of colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals. We focus in particular upon the size- and shape-controlled synthesis of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe nanocrystals by using different precursors and various stabilizing surfactants for the growth of the colloidal nanocrystals. We also summarize recent advancements in the field of colloidal nanocrystals solar cells based on colloidal PbS and PbSe nanocrystals. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Infrared colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals: Synthesis, properties, and photovoltaic applications (United States)

    Fu, Huiying; Tsang, Sai-Wing


    Simple solution phase, catalyst-free synthetic approaches that offer monodispersed, well passivated, and non-aggregated colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have presented many research opportunities not only for fundamental science but also for technological applications. The ability to tune the electrical and optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals by manipulating the size and shape of the crystals during the colloidal synthesis provides potential benefits to a variety of applications including photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, biological imaging/labeling, and more. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals and the achievements in colloidal PbS or PbSe nanocrystals solar cells have demonstrated the promising application of infrared-emitting colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals in photovoltaic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the synthesis and optical properties of colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals. We focus in particular upon the size- and shape-controlled synthesis of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe nanocrystals by using different precursors and various stabilizing surfactants for the growth of the colloidal nanocrystals. We also summarize recent advancements in the field of colloidal nanocrystals solar cells based on colloidal PbS and PbSe nanocrystals.

  7. Inverter ratio failure detector (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)


    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  8. Liquid Crystalline Behavior and Related Properties of Colloidal Systems of Inorganic Oxide Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Miyamoto


    Full Text Available Inorganic layered crystals exemplified by clay minerals can be exfoliated in solvents to form colloidal dispersions of extremely thin inorganic layers that are called nanosheets. The obtained “nanosheet colloids” form lyotropic liquid crystals because of the highly anisotropic shape of the nanosheets. This system is a rare example of liquid crystals consisting of inorganic crystalline mesogens. Nanosheet colloids of photocatalytically active semiconducting oxides can exhibit unusual photoresponses that are not observed for organic liquid crystals. This review summarizes experimental work on the phase behavior of the nanosheet colloids as well as photochemical reactions observed in the clay and semiconducting nanosheets system.

  9. Analysis of colloid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.J.; Nuttall, H.E.


    The population balance methodology is described and applied to the transport and capture of polydispersed colloids in packed columns. The transient model includes particle growth, capture, convective transport, and dispersion. We also follow the dynamic accumulation of captured colloids on the solids. The multidimensional parabolic partial differential equation was solved by a recently enhanced method of characteristics technique. This computational technique minimized numerical dispersion and is computationally very fast. The FORTRAN 77 code ran on a VAX-780 in less than a minute and also runs on an IBM-AT using the Professional FORTRAN compiler. The code was extensively tested against various simplified cases and against analytical models. The packed column experiments by Saltelli et al. were re-analyzed incorporating the experimentally reported size distribution of the colloid feed material. Colloid capture was modeled using a linear size dependent filtration function. The effects of a colloid size dependent filtration factor and various initial colloid size distributions on colloid migration and capture were investigated. Also, we followed the changing colloid size distribution as a function of position in the column. Some simple arguments are made to assess the likelihood of colloid migration at a potential NTS Yucca Mountain waste disposal site. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.


    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  11. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike


    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  12. Colloid-templated multisectional porous polymeric fibers. (United States)

    Song, Jung Hun; Kretzschmar, Ilona


    A fabrication method for porous polymeric fibers (PPFs) is reported. We show that a multisectional colloidal crystal can be assembled within a microcapillary by alternating dipping into colloidal solutions of varying size. Subsequent infiltration with curable polymer and washing with suitable solvents results in porous fibers with a cylindrical cross section. Along the length of the fiber, alternating sections of controlled length, pore size, and pore size distribution exist. These fibers present interesting materials for neural scaffolding, catalysis, and possibly photonics if produced with a high degree of crystallinity. The surface pores and bulk porosity of the fibers are characterized by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (vp-SEM). Careful analysis shows that the surface pores vary with the colloidal template diameter and polymer infiltration time.

  13. Biaxial phases in mineral liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroege, G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074293001


    A review is given of liquid crystals formed in colloidal dispersions, in particular those consisting of mineral particles. Starting with the historical development and early theory, the characteristic properties related to the colloidal nature of this type of liquid crystals are discussed. The

  14. Sorption behavior of cesium onto bentonite colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Kazuki; Masuda, Tsuguya; Tomura, Tsutomu


    It is considered that bentonite colloid might be generated from bentonite which will be used as buffer material in geological disposal system, and can facilitate the migration of radionuclides by means of sorption. In order to examine this characteristic, sorption and desorption experiments of Cs onto bentonite colloid were carried out to obtain its distribution coefficient (Kd) and information on the reversibility of its sorption. In addition, particle size distribution and shape of colloid were investigated and their effect on the sorption behavior was discussed. Kds for Cs were around 20 m 3 /kg for sorption and 30 m 3 /kg for desorption, in which sorbed Cs was desorbed by 8.4x10 -4 mol/l of NaCl solution. These values did not show any dependencies on Cs concentration and duration of sorption and desorption. The first 20% of sorbed Cs was desorbed reversibly at least. Most of colloidal particles were larger than 200 nm and TEM micrographs showed they had only several sheets of the clay crystal. Obtained Kds for colloidal bentonite were larger than those for powdered bentonite. This can be caused by difference of competing ions in the solution, characteristics of contained smectite, or sorption site density. (author)

  15. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy


    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  16. Synergistic effect of non-covalent interaction in colloidal nematic liquid crystal doped with magnetic functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Dalir, Nima; Javadian, Soheila


    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), CNT@Fe3O4, and Fe3O4 nanocomposites were doped to eutectic uniaxial nematic liquid crystal (NLC's) (E5CN7) to improve physiochemical properties such as phase transition temperature, activation energy (Ea), dielectric anisotropy, and electro-optical properties. The thermal study of nematic phase shows a decrease in the nematic to isotropic phase transition temperature as CNT is doped. However, higher doping concentration of CNTs leads to the further increase in transition temperature. The anchoring effect or π-π interaction plays a key role in N-I phase transition. The functionalization of SWCNTs with Fe3O4 diminishes the CNT aggregation while the magnetic susceptibility is increased. The functionalized CNT doping to NLC's decrease significantly the phase transition temperature compared to doping of non-functionalized CNTs. Attractive interaction between guest and host molecules by magnetic and geometry effect increased the enthalpy and entropy of phase transition in the SWCNT@Fe3O4 sample compared to non-functionalized CNT doped system. Also, the Ea values are decreased as SWCNT@Fe3O4 is doped to pure E5CN7. The difference of N-I phase transition temperature was observed in Fe3O4 and CNT@Fe3O4 compared to SWCNT doped systems. Finally, dielectric anisotropy was increased in the doped system compared to pure NLC.

  17. Embedded EZ-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang Loh, Poh; Gao, Feng; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Z-source inverters are recent topological options proposed for buck–boost energy conversion with a number of possible voltage- and current-type circuitries already reported in the literature. Comparing them, a common feature noted is their inclusion of an LC impedance network, placed between the dc...... input source and inverter bridge. This impedance network allows the output end of a voltage-type Z-source inverter to be shorted for voltage boosting without causing a large current flow and the terminal current of a current-type inverter to be interrupted for current boosting without introducing...... overvoltage oscillations to the system. Therefore, Z-source inverters are, in effect, safer and less complex and can be implemented using only passive elements with no additional active semiconductor needed. Believing in the prospects of Z-source inverters, this paper contributes by introducing a new family...

  18. Embedded EZ-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, F.


    Z-source inverters are recent topological options proposed for buck-boost energy conversion with a number of possible voltage and current-type circuitries already reported in the literature. Comparing them, a common feature noted is their inclusion of a LC impedance network, placed between the dc...... input source and inverter bridge. This impedance network allows the output end of a voltage-type Z-source inverter to be shorted for voltage-boosting without causing a large current flow, and the terminal current of a current-type inverter to be interrupted for current boosting without introducing over......-voltage oscillations to the system. Therefore, Z-source inverters are in effect safer and less complex, and can be implemented using only passive elements with no additional active semiconductor needed. Believing in the prospects of Z-source inverters, this paper contributes by introducing a new family of embedded EZ-source...

  19. Efficient Parameter Searches for Colloidal Materials Design with Digital Alchemy (United States)

    Dodd, Paul, M.; Geng, Yina; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    Optimal colloidal materials design is challenging, even for high-throughput or genomic approaches, because the design space provided by modern colloid synthesis techniques can easily have dozens of dimensions. In this talk we present the methodology of an inverse approach we term ''digital alchemy'' to perform rapid searches of design-paramenter spaces with up to 188 dimensions that yield thermodynamically optimal colloid parameters for target crystal structures with up to 20 particles in a unit cell. The method relies only on fundamental principles of statistical mechanics and Metropolis Monte Carlo techniques, and yields particle attribute tolerances via analogues of familiar stress-strain relationships.

  20. Advances in PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander

    and preferably low complexity leads to new research demands. This is especially true in the field of low cost residential PV inverters where efficiencies are used as major selling arguments. Traditional converter topologies equipped with conventional Silicon based semiconductors to date reach their limitations......, a replacement of only two switching devices per phase leg can greatly reduce the semiconductor losses. The Hybrid-NPC converter can be seen as an attractive and cost competitive alternative to the Silicon Carbide based converter, also allowing to overcome the major drawbacks with the conventional Silicon IGBT...

  1. Gas cooled traction drive inverter (United States)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan


    The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

  2. Colloidal attraction induced by a temperature gradient. (United States)

    Di Leonardo, R; Ianni, F; Ruocco, G


    Colloidal crystals are of extreme importance for applied research and for fundamental studies in statistical mechanics. Long-range attractive interactions, such as capillary forces, can drive the spontaneous assembly of such mesoscopic ordered structures. However, long-range attractive forces are very rare in the colloidal realm. Here we report a novel strong, long-ranged attraction induced by a thermal gradient in the presence of a wall. By switching the thermal gradient on and off, we can rapidly and reversibly form stable hexagonal 2D crystals. We show that the observed attraction is hydrodynamic in nature and arises from thermally induced slip flow on particle surfaces. We used optical tweezers to measure the force law directly and compare it to an analytical prediction based on Stokes flow driven by Marangoni-like forces.

  3. Γ-Z-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Li, Ding; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Voltage-type Γ-Z-source inverters are proposed in this letter. They use a unique Γ-shaped impedance network for boosting their output voltage in addition to their usual voltage-buck behavior. Comparing them with other topologies, the proposed inverters use lesser components and a coupled transfor......Voltage-type Γ-Z-source inverters are proposed in this letter. They use a unique Γ-shaped impedance network for boosting their output voltage in addition to their usual voltage-buck behavior. Comparing them with other topologies, the proposed inverters use lesser components and a coupled...

  4. Colloidal Plasmas: Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various ...

  5. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan


    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  6. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer


    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  7. High-speed all-optical logic inverter based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal. (United States)

    Sen, Mrinal; Das, Mukul K


    In this paper, we propose a new device architecture for an all-optical logic inverter (NOT gate), which is cascadable with a similar device. The inverter is based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal waveguides, which are embedded in a silicon photonic crystal structure. The Raman response function of silicon nanocrystal is evaluated to explore the transfer characteristic of the inverter. A maximum product criterion for the noise margin is taken to analyze the cascadability of the inverter. The time domain response of the inverter, which explores successful inversion operation at 100 Gb/s, is analyzed. Propagation delay of the inverter is on the order of 5 ps, which is less than the delay in most of the electronic logic families as of today. Overall dimension of the device is around 755  μm ×15  μm, which ensures integration compatibility with the matured silicon industry.

  8. Simplified High-Power Inverter (United States)

    Edwards, D. B.; Rippel, W. E.


    Solid-state inverter simplified by use of single gate-turnoff device (GTO) to commutate multiple silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). By eliminating conventional commutation circuitry, GTO reduces cost, size and weight. GTO commutation applicable to inverters of greater than 1-kilowatt capacity. Applications include emergency power, load leveling, drives for traction and stationary polyphase motors, and photovoltaic-power conditioning.

  9. (SPWM) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quest to achieve less-distorted dc-ac power conversion has resulted in the proliferation of many multilevel inverter configurations. This paper presents an experimental report of a simplified topology for single-phase, SPWM, three-level voltage source inverter wit R-L load. To keep the power circuit component count to a ...

  10. Oppositely charged colloids out of equilibrium (United States)

    Vissers, T.


    Colloids are particles with a size in the range of a few nanometers up to several micrometers. Similar to atomic and molecular systems, they can form gases, liquids, solids, gels and glasses. Colloids can be used as model systems because, unlike molecules, they are sufficiently large to be studied directly with light microscopy and move sufficiently slow to study their dynamics. In this thesis, we study binary systems of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) colloidal particles suspended in low-polar solvent mixtures. Since the ions can still partially dissociate, a surface charge builds up which causes electrostatic interactions between the colloids. By carefully tuning the conditions inside the suspension, we make two kinds of particles oppositely charged. To study our samples, we use Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The positively and negatively charged particles can be distinguished by a different fluorescent dye. Colloids constantly experience a random motion resulting from random kicks of surrounding solvent molecules. When the attractions between the oppositely charged particles are weak, the particles can attach and detach many times and explore a lot of possible configurations and the system can reach thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, colloidal ‘ionic’ crystals consisting of thousands to millions of particles can form under the right conditions. When the attractions are strong, the system can become kinetically trapped inside a gel-like state. We observe that when the interactions change again, crystals can even emerge again from this gel-like phase. By using local order parameters, we quantitatively study the crystallization of colloidal particles and identify growth defects inside the crystals. We also study the effect of gravity on the growth of ionic crystals by using a rotating stage. We find that sedimentation can completely inhibit crystal growth and plays an important role in crystallization from the gel-like state. The surface

  11. Colloids or artefacts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Vuorinen, U.; Allard, B.; Pettersson, C.; Hinkkanen, H.


    TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Finland) initiated a co-operative task with SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) to critically evaluate colloid sampling methods at the test site in Olkiluoto, SW Finland. Three different colloid sampling methods were compared when sampling at 613-618 m depth. The colloid sampling consisted of ordinary filtering (cross-flow filtering, 20-450 nm) in open air, inert filtering (cross-flow filtering, prefilter=2500 nm, separate filtration to three fractions 50,200 and 400 nm) by using N 2 and ultrafiltration (tangential filtering, prefilter=1000 nm concentration to a single fraction 2-1000 nm) using N 2 . Two samples per method were taken with an interval of three weeks. For organic determination one sample was collected. Care was taken to avoid possible known artefacts in connection with the colloid sampling. (27 refs., 31 figs., 13 tabs.)

  12. Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy using inverted visible pulses. (United States)

    Weeraman, Champika; Mitchell, Steven A; Lausten, Rune; Johnston, Linda J; Stolow, Albert


    We present a broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (BB-VSFG) scheme using a novel ps visible pulse shape. We generate the fs IR pulse via standard procedures and simultaneously generate an 'inverted' time-asymmetric narrowband ps visible pulse via second harmonic generation in the pump depletion regime using a very long nonlinear crystal which has high group velocity mismatch (LiNbO3). The 'inverted' ps pulse shape minimally samples the instantaneous nonresonant response but maximally samples the resonant response, maintaining high spectral resolution. We experimentally demonstrate this scheme, presenting SFG spectra of canonical organic monolayer systems in the C-H stretch region (2800-3000 cm(-1)).

  13. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.


    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  14. Waveguides in colloidal nanosuspensions (United States)

    López-Peña, Luis A.; Salazar-Romero, Yadira; Terborg, Roland A.; Hernández-Cordero, Juan; Torres, Juan P.; Volke-Sepúlveda, K.


    We present and discuss a set of experiments based on the application of the nonlinear properties of colloidal nanosuspensions to induce waveguides with a high-power CW laser beam (wavelength 532nm) and its use for controlling an additional probe beam. The probe is a CW laser of a different wavelength (632nm), whose power is well below the critical value to induce nonlinear effects in the colloidal medium. We also discuss a technique for the characterization of the induced waveguides.

  15. Analisis Harmonisa Inverter PWM Satu Fasa


    Rejeki Simanjorang


    Pada tesis ini dianalisis harmonisa inverter PWM satu fasa. Inverter PWM satu fasa yang akan ditinjau adalah inverter satu fasa jembatan penuh (konvensional) dan inverter komposit. Analisis difokuskan pada penentuan pola penyaklaran yang optimum agar pembangkitan harmonisa dan switching losses inverter rendah. Untuk menentukan pola penyaklaran optimum maka dilakukan analisis yang berbasis pada rangkaian ekivalen harmonisa inverter satu fasa. Dengan menggunakan pola penyaklaran optimum, kedua ...

  16. Order-to-Disorder Transition in Ring-Shaped Colloidal Stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez Marin, Alvaro; Gelderblom, Hanneke; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus


    A colloidal dispersion droplet evaporating from a surface, such as a drying coffee drop, leaves a distinct ring-shaped stain. Although this mechanism is frequently used for particle self-assembly, the conditions for crystallization have remained unclear. Our experiments with monodisperse colloidal

  17. Directed self-assembly of colloidal dumbbells with an electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Johnson, P.M.; van Kats, C.M.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.


    We demonstrate the assembly of colloidal particles with the shape of diatomic molecules (“dumbbells”) into crystals that we study with confocal microscopy. The literature on the preparation of nonspherical colloidal particles has grown steadily. Assembly of these particles into regular

  18. Transformerless PV inverters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, U.


    Since the start of the project the market for grid connected PV inverters have developed further. When the project started three - phase inverter were only available in high power systems. The technology developed within this project will enable three phase technology also to be implemented in string inverters for system down to 10 kW. We expect this to be very attractive due to the increased demand for symmetrical feed-in to the grid. The project relevance is therefore high and the sector continues to develop very much driven by technology. Especially the inverter technology is getting a lot of focus. The inverter systems are expected to take a much larger role in supporting the electrical grid in the future. The technology platform developed within the project is prepared to be extended with these utility functionalities. The main results of the project were: 1) A new technology concept for transformer-less inverters has been demonstrated with a number of prototypes. 2) Efficiency above 97,7% has been proven. 3) Efficiency and Maximum power point tracking has been optimized to ensure that almost all energy produced of the panels is transferred to the grid. 4) The platform is developed with a very fast control board, which enables extended functionality as demanding grid supporting functions in the future. Details about cost price and details about the control loop implementation is excluded from the report due to the competitive situation for Danfoss Solar Inverters A/S. (LN)

  19. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.


    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwaters is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudocolloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC project MIRAGE II, particularly, to research area: complexation and colloids. (orig.)

  20. Structure and stability of charged colloid-nanoparticle mixtures (United States)

    Weight, Braden M.; Denton, Alan R.


    Physical properties of colloidal materials can be modified by addition of nanoparticles. Within a model of like-charged mixtures of particles governed by effective electrostatic interactions, we explore the influence of charged nanoparticles on the structure and thermodynamic phase stability of charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions. Focusing on salt-free mixtures of particles of high size and charge asymmetry, interacting via repulsive Yukawa effective pair potentials, we perform molecular dynamics simulations and compute radial distribution functions and static structure factors. Analysis of these structural properties indicates that increasing the charge and concentration of nanoparticles progressively weakens correlations between charged colloids. We show that addition of charged nanoparticles to a suspension of like-charged colloids can induce a colloidal crystal to melt and can facilitate aggregation of a fluid suspension due to attractive van der Waals interactions. We attribute the destabilizing influence of charged nanoparticles to enhanced screening of electrostatic interactions, which weakens repulsion between charged colloids. This interpretation is consistent with recent predictions of an effective interaction theory of charged colloid-nanoparticle mixtures.

  1. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  2. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization. (United States)

    Hashim, Yasir


    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.

  3. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)


    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  4. Static and dynamic friction in sliding colloidal monolayers. (United States)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio


    In a pioneer experiment, Bohlein et al. realized the controlled sliding of two-dimensional colloidal crystals over laser-generated periodic or quasi-periodic potentials. Here we present realistic simulations and arguments that besides reproducing the main experimentally observed features give a first theoretical demonstration of the potential impact of colloid sliding in nanotribology. The free motion of solitons and antisolitons in the sliding of hard incommensurate crystals is contrasted with the soliton-antisoliton pair nucleation at the large static friction threshold F(s) when the two lattices are commensurate and pinned. The frictional work directly extracted from particles' velocities can be analyzed as a function of classic tribological parameters, including speed, spacing, and amplitude of the periodic potential (representing, respectively, the mismatch of the sliding interface and the corrugation, or "load"). These and other features suggestive of further experiments and insights promote colloid sliding to a unique friction study instrument.

  5. Viscoelasticity of colloidal polycrystals doped with impurities (United States)

    Louhichi, Ameur; Tamborini, Elisa; Oberdisse, Julian; Cipelletti, Luca; Ramos, Laurence


    We investigate how the microstructure of a colloidal polycrystal influences its linear visco-elasticity. We use thermosensitive copolymer micelles that arrange in water in a cubic crystalline lattice, yielding a colloidal polycrystal. The polycrystal is doped with a small amount of nanoparticles, of size comparable to that of the micelles, which behave as impurities and thus partially segregate in the grain boundaries. We show that the shear elastic modulus only depends on the packing of the micelles and varies neither with the presence of nanoparticles nor with the crystal microstructure. By contrast, we find that the loss modulus is strongly affected by the presence of nanoparticles. A comparison between rheology data and small-angle neutron-scattering data suggests that the loss modulus is dictated by the total amount of nanoparticles in the grain boundaries, which in turn depends on the sample microstructure.

  6. Invertibility in L-Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaly Jose


    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend the concept of invertibility to L-topological spaces and delineate its properties. Then, we study further completely invertible L-topological spaces and introduce two types of invertible L-topologies based on the inverting maps, studying their sums, subspaces and simple extensions.

  7. Colloidal Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles: Properties and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Suslov, Sergey; Kildishev, Alexander V.


    Optical properties of colloidal plasmonic titanium nitride nanoparticles are examined with an eye on their photothermal and photocatalytic applications via transmission electron microscopy and optical transmittance measurements. Single crystal titanium nitride cubic nanoparticles with an average...... degree of freedom for surface functionalization. The titanium oxide shell surrounding the plasmonic core can create new opportunities for photocatalytic applications....

  8. Logic control of microfluidics with smart colloid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Limu


    We report the successful realization of a microfluidic chip with switching and corresponding inverting functionalities. The chips are identical logic control components incorporating a type of smart colloid, giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which possesses reversible characteristics via a liquid-solid phase transition under external electric field. Two pairs of electrodes embedded on the sides of two microfluidic channels serve as signal input and output, respectively. One, located in the GERF micro-channel is used to control the flow status of GERF, while another one in the ither micro-fluidic channel is used to detect the signal generated with a passing-by droplet (defined as a signal droplet). Switching of the GERF from the suspended state (off-state) to the flowing state (on-state) or vice versa in the micro-channel is controlled by the appearance of signal droplets whenever they pass through the detection electrode. The output on-off signals can be easily demonstrated, clearly matching with GERF flow status. Our results show that such a logic switch is also a logic IF gate, while its inverter functions as a NOT gate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  9. In situ monitoring of structural changes during colloidal self-assembly. (United States)

    Koh, Yaw Koon; Wong, Chee Cheong


    Reflectance spectroscopy is utilized to monitor structural changes during the self-assembly of a monodisperse colloidal system at the meniscus of a sessile drop on an inert substrate. Treating the ordered colloidal structure as a photonic crystal is equivalent to monitoring the changes in the photonic band gap (PBG) as the colloidal system self-assembles heterogeneously into a crystal through solvent evaporation in ambient conditions. Using a modified Bragg's law model of the photonic crystal, we can trace the structural evolution of the self-assembling colloidal system. After a certain induction period, a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure emerges, albeit with a lattice parameter larger than that of a true close-packed structure. This FCC structure is maintained while the lattice parameter shrinks continuously with further increase in the colloidal concentration due to drying. When the structure reaches a lattice parameter 1.09 times the size of that of a true close-packed structure, it undergoes an abrupt decrease in lattice spacing, apparently similar to those reported for lattice-distortive martensitic transformations. This abrupt final lattice shrinkage agrees well with the estimated Debye screening length of the electric double layer of charged colloids and could be the fundamental reason behind the cracking commonly seen in colloidal crystals.

  10. Medical applications of colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Matijevic, Egon


    The first book of its type on the medical and biomedical applications of colloids, although there are some related titles on different topicsDiscusses the effects of uniform particles in drug formulations and releaseEvaluates particle transport and deposition in the human body.

  11. Preparation of ThO2 sols having colloid-size distributions suitable for gelation into microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Shiba, Koreyuki


    Production conditions of ThO 2 sols suitable for gelling into crackfree microspheres in an external gelation process were studied. The sols were prepared under pH control and colloid size distributions of the resulting sols were determined. The gelation was carried out by using hexone as a drop formation medium and ammonia as a gelling agent. The crackfree gelation was achieved by the use of ThO 2 sols produced under favorable pH, which were large in colloid size and high in colloid fraction. ''Preneutralization'' preceding the pH control is also important for the good sols. Analyzing the colloid fraction, colloid size and crystallite size of sol, it was found that, under the favorable pH, colloid nuclei generating at early stages grow in the form of single-crystals with their number kept constant and, after cooling, they exist as polycrystalline colloids. The mechanism of cracking is also discussed. (author)

  12. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin


    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  13. Enhanced transport of ferrihydrite colloid by chain-shaped humic acid colloid in saturated porous media. (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Guo, Huaming; Lei, Mei; Li, Yongtao; Weng, Liping; Chen, Yali; Ma, Yuling; Deng, Yingxuan; Feng, Xiaojuan; Xiu, Wei


    Both humic acid and colloid particle size effectively regulate colloid transport. However, little is known about effect of particle size and configuration of humic acid colloid (HA colloid ) on enhanced-transport of ferrihydrite colloid (FH colloid ) in porous media. Co-transport of HA colloid and FH colloid at different pH was systematically investigated by monitoring breakthrough curves (BTCs) in saturated sand columns. The colloid transport model and the (X)DLVO theory were used to reveal the mechanism of HA colloid -enhanced FH colloid transport in the columns. Results showed that HA colloid enhanced FH colloid transport in neutral and alkaline conditions. In neutral conditions, small HA colloid (F-HA colloid ) with chain-shaped structure enhanced FH colloid transport more prominently than pristine granular HA colloid . The chain-shaped F-HA colloid caused osmotic repulsion and elastic-steric repulsion between colloids and sand, leading to enhanced transport. However, the granular HA colloid readily occurred as deposition due to attachment and straining, which decreased the enhanced transport of FH colloid . In alkaline conditions, both HA colloid and F-HA colloid were chain-shaped, with longer chains of HA colloid than F-HA colloid . Ferrihydrite colloid transport was enhanced by HA colloid more significantly than F-HA colloid due to stronger repulsion between mixed HA colloid -FH colloid and sand. It suggested that regulation of particle size and morphology of HA colloid would enhance FH colloid transport and further help in understanding FH colloid -facilitated contaminants transport in porous media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inverter design for high frequency power distribution (United States)

    King, R. J.


    A class of simple resonantly commutated inverters are investigated for use in a high power (100 KW - 1000 KW) high frequency (10 KHz - 20 KHz) AC power distribution system. The Mapham inverter is found to provide a unique combination of large thyristor turn-off angle and good utilization factor, much better than an alternate 'current-fed' inverter. The effects of loading the Mapham inverter entirely with rectifier loads are investigated by simulation and with an experimental 3 KW 20 KHz inverter. This inverter is found to be well suited to a power system with heavy rectifier loading.

  15. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Szczepanek


    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. ( a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. ( and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (, as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main

  16. Fractal nematic colloids (United States)

    Hashemi, S. M.; Jagodič, U.; Mozaffari, M. R.; Ejtehadi, M. R.; Muševič, I.; Ravnik, M.


    Fractals are remarkable examples of self-similarity where a structure or dynamic pattern is repeated over multiple spatial or time scales. However, little is known about how fractal stimuli such as fractal surfaces interact with their local environment if it exhibits order. Here we show geometry-induced formation of fractal defect states in Koch nematic colloids, exhibiting fractal self-similarity better than 90% over three orders of magnitude in the length scales, from micrometers to nanometres. We produce polymer Koch-shaped hollow colloidal prisms of three successive fractal iterations by direct laser writing, and characterize their coupling with the nematic by polarization microscopy and numerical modelling. Explicit generation of topological defect pairs is found, with the number of defects following exponential-law dependence and reaching few 100 already at fractal iteration four. This work demonstrates a route for generation of fractal topological defect states in responsive soft matter. PMID:28117325

  17. Colloidal capsules: nano- and microcapsules with colloidal particle shells. (United States)

    Bollhorst, Tobias; Rezwan, Kurosch; Maas, Michael


    Utilizing colloidal particles for the assembly of the shell of nano- and microcapsules holds great promise for the tailor-made design of new functional materials. Increasing research efforts are devoted to the synthesis of such colloidal capsules, by which the integration of modular building blocks with distinct physical, chemical, or morphological characteristics in a capsule's shell can result in novel properties, not present in previous encapsulation structures. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the synthesis strategies and the progress made so far of bringing nano- and microcapsules with shells of densely packed colloidal particles closer to application in fields such as chemical engineering, materials science, or pharmaceutical and life science. The synthesis routes are categorized into the four major themes for colloidal capsule formation, i.e. the Pickering-emulsion based formation of colloidal capsules, the colloidal particle deposition on (sacrificial) templates, the amphiphilicity driven self-assembly of nanoparticle vesicles from polymer-grafted colloids, and the closely related field of nanoparticle membrane-loading of liposomes and polymersomes. The varying fields of colloidal capsule research are then further categorized and discussed for micro- and nano-scaled structures. Finally, a special section is dedicated to colloidal capsules for biological applications, as a diverse range of reports from this field aim at pharmaceutical agent encapsulation, targeted drug-delivery, and theranostics.

  18. Invertible extensions and growth conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badea, C.; Müller, Vladimír


    Roč. 339, - (2004), s. 21-26 ISSN 1631-073X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0041; GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : invertible extensions * growth conditions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2004

  19. Inverting an Introductory Statistics Classroom (United States)

    Kraut, Gertrud L.


    The inverted classroom allows more in-class time for inquiry-based learning and for working through more advanced problem-solving activities than does the traditional lecture class. The skills acquired in this learning environment offer benefits far beyond the statistics classroom. This paper discusses four ways that can make the inverted…

  20. Flocking ferromagnetic colloids. (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S


    Assemblages of microscopic colloidal particles exhibit fascinating collective motion when energized by electric or magnetic fields. The behaviors range from coherent vortical motion to phase separation and dynamic self-assembly. Although colloidal systems are relatively simple, understanding their collective response, especially under out-of-equilibrium conditions, remains elusive. We report on the emergence of flocking and global rotation in the system of rolling ferromagnetic microparticles energized by a vertical alternating magnetic field. By combing experiments and discrete particle simulations, we have identified primary physical mechanisms, leading to the emergence of large-scale collective motion: spontaneous symmetry breaking of the clockwise/counterclockwise particle rotation, collisional alignment of particle velocities, and random particle reorientations due to shape imperfections. We have also shown that hydrodynamic interactions between the particles do not have a qualitative effect on the collective dynamics. Our findings shed light on the onset of spatial and temporal coherence in a large class of active systems, both synthetic (colloids, swarms of robots, and biopolymers) and living (suspensions of bacteria, cell colonies, and bird flocks).

  1. Colloid migration in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, J.R. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)


    Field studies at the Nevada Test Site by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have demonstrated that radionuclides are being transported by colloidal material suspended in groundwater. This observation is counter to most predictions from contaminant transport models because the models assume adsorbed species are immobile. The purpose of this research is to quantify the transport processes for colloidal materials and develop the mechanistic understanding necessary to predict radionuclide transport in fractured media. There were three areas of investigation during this year that have addressed these issues: chemical control of colloid deposition on clean mineral surfaces, colloid accumulation on fracture surfaces, and the influence of deposited colloids on colloid and tracer migration. 7 refs.

  2. Overload protection system for power inverter (United States)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)


    An overload protection system for a power inverter utilized a first circuit for monitoring current to the load from the power inverter to detect an overload and a control circuit to shut off the power inverter, when an overload condition was detected. At the same time, a monitoring current inverter was turned on to deliver current to the load at a very low power level. A second circuit monitored current to the load, from the monitoring current inverter, to hold the power inverter off through the control circuit, until the overload condition was cleared so that the control circuit may be deactivated in order for the power inverter to be restored after the monitoring current inverter is turned off completely.

  3. Site-specific functionalization of anisotropic nanoparticles: from colloidal atoms to colloidal molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Yoo, Won Cheol; Beernink, Molly B


    Multipodal nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled tethers are promising principal building blocks, useful for constructing more complex materials, much like atoms are connected into more complex molecules. Here we report colloidal sphere templating as a viable means to create tetrapodal NPs with site......-specific tethers. Amorphous sol-gel materials were molded by the template into shaped NPs that mimic tetravalent atoms but on the length scale of colloids. Synthetic methods were developed to modify only the tips of the tetrapods with a range of possible functional groups to generate anisotropic NPs capable...... are applicable to many compositions regardless of crystal structure, therefore lending themselves to the fabrication of complex assemblies, analogous to those found in the molecular regime....

  4. Inverter for Installations with Intermittent Electricity Production


    Ermuraki Iu.; Berzan V.


    A new architecture of the inverter used in the convertion of electric energy generated by renewable energy sources is studied in this paper. The distinctive features of this inverter is the special block which compensates pulsing of the current with double frequency, characteristic for these inverters. The switching of electronic keys is realized using the method TCM In this block, like in the inverter, which assures the switching at the voltages near to zero (ZVC). The proposed algorithm of ...

  5. Improved Performance via the Inverted Classroom (United States)

    Weinstein, Randy D.


    This study examined student performance in an inverted thermodynamics course (lectures provided by video outside of class) compared to a traditional lecture class. Students in the inverted class performed better on their exams. Students in the bottom third of the inverted course showed the greatest improvement. These bottom third students had a C…

  6. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  7. Γ-source Neutral Point Clamped Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    Transformer based Z-source inverters are recently proposed to achieve promising buck-boost capability. They have improved higher buck-boost capability, smaller size and less components count over Z-source inverters. On the other hand, neutral point clamped inverters have less switching stress...

  8. Multilevel Inverter by Cascading Industrial VSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim


    -source inverter that uses three IGBT triphase inverter modules along with an output transformer to obtain a 3 p.u. multilevel output voltage is introduced. The system yields in high-quality multistep voltage with up to 4 levels and low dv/dt, balanced operation of the inverter modules, each supplying a third...

  9. Large-scale assembly of colloidal particles (United States)

    Yang, Hongta

    This study reports a simple, roll-to-roll compatible coating technology for producing three-dimensional highly ordered colloidal crystal-polymer composites, colloidal crystals, and macroporous polymer membranes. A vertically beveled doctor blade is utilized to shear align silica microsphere-monomer suspensions to form large-area composites in a single step. The polymer matrix and the silica microspheres can be selectively removed to create colloidal crystals and self-standing macroporous polymer membranes. The thickness of the shear-aligned crystal is correlated with the viscosity of the colloidal suspension and the coating speed, and the correlations can be qualitatively explained by adapting the mechanisms developed for conventional doctor blade coating. Five important research topics related to the application of large-scale three-dimensional highly ordered macroporous films by doctor blade coating are covered in this study. The first topic describes the invention in large area and low cost color reflective displays. This invention is inspired by the heat pipe technology. The self-standing macroporous polymer films exhibit brilliant colors which originate from the Bragg diffractive of visible light form the three-dimensional highly ordered air cavities. The colors can be easily changed by tuning the size of the air cavities to cover the whole visible spectrum. When the air cavities are filled with a solvent which has the same refractive index as that of the polymer, the macroporous polymer films become completely transparent due to the index matching. When the solvent trapped in the cavities is evaporated by in-situ heating, the sample color changes back to brilliant color. This process is highly reversible and reproducible for thousands of cycles. The second topic reports the achievement of rapid and reversible vapor detection by using 3-D macroporous photonic crystals. Capillary condensation of a condensable vapor in the interconnected macropores leads to the

  10. Fault-tolerant three-level inverter (United States)

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.


    A method for driving a neutral point clamped three-level inverter is provided. In one exemplary embodiment, DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped three-level inverter. The inverter has a plurality of nodes including first, second and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. Faults are checked for in the inverter and predetermined switches are automatically activated responsive to a detected fault such that three-phase electrical power is provided at the output nodes.

  11. Neutral Point Clamped Npc Type Multilevel Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purohit Sadanand Chandrashekhar


    Full Text Available Concept of the multilevel inverter is same as the other inverter which is to converts Direct current DC to Alternating current AC .The inverted current can be at any vital voltage and frequency with the use of pertinent transformers switching and control circuits. From the source like batteries solar panel wind turbine or fuel cell the inverter will convert the DC electricity to AC electricity. In this modern technology Power electronics is very important where it used in a great variety of product. With the high potential in high power for industry multilevel inverter will become most popular for so many applications.

  12. Anomalous Brownian motion of colloidal particle in a nematic environment: effect of the director fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Turiv


    Full Text Available As recently reported [Turiv T. et al., Science, 2013, Vol. 342, 1351], fluctuations in the orientation of the liquid crystal (LC director can transfer momentum from the LC to a colloid, such that the diffusion of the colloid becomes anomalous on a short time scale. Using video microscopy and single particle tracking, we investigate random thermal motion of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal for the time scales shorter than the expected time of director fluctuations. At long times, compared to the characteristic time of the nematic director relaxation we observe typical anisotropic Brownian motion with the mean square displacement (MSD linear in time τ and inversly proportional to the effective viscosity of the nematic medium. At shorter times, however, the dynamics is markedly nonlinear with MSD growing more slowly (subdiffusion or faster (superdiffusion than τ. These results are discussed in the context of coupling of colloidal particle's dynamics to the director fluctuation dynamics.

  13. Polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurtenberger, P. [ETH Zurich, Inst. fuer Polymere, Zurich (Switzerland)


    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  14. Neutron scattering from colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.; Thomas, R.K.; Harris, N.M.; Tabony, J.; White, J.W.


    This paper appraises the usefulness of neutron diffraction and small angle scattering for determining the structure of dilute and concentrated sols. For monodisperse polystyrene latex, the particle size and density can be readily determined and an upper limit to density fluctuations within the colloid particle set. For the polystyrene latex peptized by the adsorption of laurate, the physical dimensions and packing density of the adsorbed phase can be determined. The effects of polydispersity for unpeptized and peptized graphite sols, and the effects of extreme particle anisotropy using sols of montmorillonite clay minerals have been studied. (author)

  15. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.


    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  16. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Peng, Fang Z.


    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Colloid-facilitated Plutonium Reactive Transport in Fractured Tuffaceous Rocks (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Wolfsberg, A. V.; Zhu, L.; Reimus, P. W.


    Colloids have the potential to enhance mobility of strongly sorbing radionuclide contaminants in fractured rocks at underground nuclear test sites. This study presents an experimental and numerical investigation of colloid-facilitated plutonium reactive transport in fractured porous media for identifying plutonium sorption/filtration processes. The transport parameters for dispersion, diffusion, sorption, and filtration are estimated with inverse modeling for minimizing the least squares objective function of multicomponent concentration data from multiple transport experiments with the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM). Capitalizing on an unplanned experimental artifact that led to colloid formation and migration, we adopt a stepwise strategy to first interpret the data from each experiment separately and then to incorporate multiple experiments simultaneously to identify a suite of plutonium-colloid transport processes. Nonequilibrium or kinetic attachment and detachment of plutonium-colloid in fractures was clearly demonstrated and captured in the inverted modeling parameters along with estimates of the source plutonium fraction that formed plutonium-colloids. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding the transport mechanisms and environmental impacts of plutonium in fractured formations and groundwater aquifers.

  18. Analytical description of the Saturn-ring defect in nematic colloids. (United States)

    Alama, Stan; Bronsard, Lia; Lamy, Xavier


    We derive an analytical formula for the Saturn-ring configuration around a small colloidal particle suspended in nematic liquid crystal. In particular we obtain an explicit expression for the ring radius and its dependence on the anchoring energy. We work within Landau-de Gennes theory: Nematic alignment is described by a tensorial order parameter. For nematic colloids this model had previously been used exclusively to perform numerical computations. Our method demonstrates that the tensorial theory can also be used to obtain analytical results, suggesting a different approach to the understanding of nematic colloidal interactions.

  19. Controlled Clustering in Binary Charged Colloids by Adsorption of Ionic Surfactants. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Okachi, Manami; Toyotama, Akiko; Okuzono, Tohru; Yamanaka, Junpei


    We report on the controlled clustering of oppositely charged colloidal particles by the adsorption of ionic surfactants, which tunes charge numbers Z of particles. In particular, we studied the heteroclustering of submicron-sized polystyrene (PS) and silica particles, both of which are negatively charged, in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant. The surfactant concentration Csurf was selected below the critical micelle concentration. As CPC molecules were adsorbed, Z values of the PS and silica particles decreased, inverting to positive when Csurf exceeded the isoelectric point Ciep. Hydrophobic PS particles exhibited much lower Ciep than hydrophilic silica particles. At Csurf valuess between their Ciep values, the particles were oppositely charged, and clustering was enabled. To explain the clustering behavior, we investigated adsorption isotherms of the CPC and screened-Coulomb-type pair potential. Expected applications of the present findings are the control of colloidal associations and construction of various particle types into heterogeneous colloidal clusters.

  20. Strong collective attraction in colloidal clusters on a liquid-air interface. (United States)

    Pergamenshchik, V M


    It is shown that in a cluster of many colloids, trapped at a liquid-air interface, the well-known vertical-force-induced pairwise logarithmic attraction changes to a strongly enhanced power-law attraction. In large two-dimensional clusters, the attraction energy scales as the inverse square of the distance between colloids. The enhancement is given by the ratio eta = (square of the capillary length) / (interface surface area per colloid) and can be as large as 10;{5} . This explains why a very small vertical force on colloids, which is too weak to bring two of them together, can stabilize many-body structures on a liquid-air interface. The profile of a cluster is shown to consist of a large slow collective envelope modulated by a fast low-amplitude perturbation due to individual colloids. A closed equation for the slow envelope, which incorporates an arbitrary power-law repulsion between colloids, is derived. For example, this equation is solved for a large circular cluster with the hard-core colloid repulsion. It is suggested that the predicted effect is responsible for mysterious stabilization of colloidal structures observed in experiments on a surface of isotropic liquid and nematic liquid crystal.

  1. Synthesis of zirconia colloidal dispersions by forced hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Different zirconia colloidal dispersions (sols were prepared from zirconyl oxynitrate and zirconyl oxychloride solutions by forced hydrolysis. Vigorously stirred acidic solutions of these salts were refluxed at 102 oC for 24 h. Characterization of the obtained sols (pH, solid phase content, crystal structure was performed by potentiometric, XRD, TGA/DTA and SEM measurements. The prepared sols contained almost spherical monoclinic hydrated zirconia particles 7–10 nm in diameter.

  2. Microrheology of colloidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, A M; Voigtmann, T


    Microrheology was proposed almost twenty years ago as a technique to obtain rheological properties in soft matter from the microscopic motion of colloidal tracers used as probes, either freely diffusing in the host medium, or subjected to external forces. The former case is known as passive microrheology, and is based on generalizations of the Stokes–Einstein relation between the friction experienced by the probe and the host-fluid viscosity. The latter is termed active microrheology, and extends the measurement of the friction coefficient to the nonlinear-response regime of strongly driven probes. In this review article, we discuss theoretical models available in the literature for both passive and active microrheology, focusing on the case of single-probe motion in model colloidal host media. A brief overview of the theory of passive microrheology is given, starting from the work of Mason and Weitz. Further developments include refined models of the host suspension beyond that of a Newtonian-fluid continuum, and the investigation of probe-size effects. Active microrheology is described starting from microscopic equations of motion for the whole system including both the host-fluid particles and the tracer; the many-body Smoluchowski equation for the case of colloidal suspensions. At low fluid densities, this can be simplified to a two-particle equation that allows the calculation of the friction coefficient with the input of the density distribution around the tracer, as shown by Brady and coworkers. The results need to be upscaled to agree with simulations at moderate density, in both the case of pulling the tracer with a constant force or dragging it at a constant velocity. The full many-particle equation has been tackled by Fuchs and coworkers, using a mode-coupling approximation and the scheme of integration through transients, valid at high densities. A localization transition is predicted for a probe embedded in a glass-forming host suspension. The

  3. Optical signal inverter of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with red shift of laser diodes. (United States)

    Maeda, Y


    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated in a simple structure that combined a laser diode with Er-doped YAG crystal. The optical signal inversion occurred at a response time of 7 ns and was caused by the decrease of transmission of Er:YAG against the red shift of the wavelength of the laser diode.

  4. Cascaded Multicell Trans-Z-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Chiang Loh, Poh; Zhu, Miao


    Inverters with high-output voltage gain usually face the problem of high-input current flowing through their components. The problem might further be exaggerated if the inverters use high-frequency magnetic devices like transformers or coupled inductors. Leakage inductances of these devices must...... strictly be small to prevent overvoltages caused by switching of their winding currents. To avoid these related problems, cascaded trans-Z-source inverters are proposed. They use multiple magnetic cells in an alternately cascading pattern rather than a single magnetic cell with large turns ratio....... Simulation and experimental results have shown that the multicell inverters can produce the same high-voltage gain, while keeping currents and voltages of the components low. The inverters can also step down their output voltages like a traditional voltage-source inverter without compromising waveform...

  5. Inverter design for four-wire microgrids


    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Pagès Giménez, Marc; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel


    This paper presents a PQ four quadrant four-wire three-phase inverter for microgrids integration. The inverter is based in two full-bridge IGBT modules connected in a three-phase configuration plus a threephase parallelized neutral branch. This topology is galvanically isolated through a single-phase transformer bank. The converter operates as a non-ideal voltage-controlled voltage source inverter under AC droop strategy with hot-swap capability based on a dynamic virtual impedance.

  6. Photoelastic colloidal gel for a high-sensitivity strain sensor (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Zhu, Shenmin; Jiang, Chun; Zhang, Di


    Nanoparticles, having the ability to self-assemble into an ordered structure in their suspensions, analogous to liquid crystals, have attracted extensive attention. Herein, we report a new type of colloidal gel with an ordered crystal structure assembled from 1D and 2D nanoparticles. The material has high elasticity and, more interestingly, it shows significant photoelasticity. Its refractive index can be tuned under external stress and exhibits an ultra-wide dynamic range (Δn) of the order of 10‑2. Due to the large Δn, the material shows an extremely high strain sensibility of 720 nm/ε, an order of magnitude higher than the reported ones.

  7. Characterization of colloids in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.


    Natural colloids in the Gorleben aquifer systems have been investigated as for their chemical composition, quantification and size distribution. Humic substances appear to be the major organic materials in these groundwaters, generating humic colloids which are analysed to be humic acid (and fulvic acid) loaded with a large number of trace heavy metal ions. These metal ions include natural homologues of actinides and some fission products in trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent state. Concentrations of trivalent and tetravalent heavy metal ions are linearly correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DDC) concentration in different groundwaters. The DOC is found to be present as humic colloids. The Am 3+ ions introduced in such a groundwater readily undergo the generation of its pseudocolloids through sorption or ion exchange reactions with humic colloids. The chemical behaviour of Am(III), being similar to the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe 3+ , REE etc. found in natural colloids, has been investigated by laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). Groundwaters from Ispra, Markham Clinton and Felslabor Grimsel. Bidistilled water and one of Gorleben groundwaters, Gohy 1011, are taken for the purpose of comparison. This groundwater contains the least amount of natural colloids of all Gorleben groundwaters hitherto investigated. An indirect quantification is made by comparison of the LPAS results with experiment from Latex solution. (orig./IRB)

  8. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.


    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  9. Improvements in ANIS and inverted sputter sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwol, N.A. van; Vermeer, A.; Strasters, B.A.


    In this article two sputter sources, i.e. an ANIS and an inverted sputter source are described. The ANIS has been changed into a SNICS-like configuration and measurements of the output current for different sputter target geometries are presented. In the inverted sputter source an immersion lens was

  10. Microgels: Novel Colloidal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Nieves, A.


    Full Text Available Microgels are novel colloidal gels widely used because of the swelling or de-swelling exhibited under specific external conditions. In this work, the swelling and de-swelling of microgel particles is experimentally described. The medium pH, salt concentration and osmotic stress, are the three variables with which the change of phase has been realised. All transitions are found to occur well above the critical point of the system. Additionally, the basic applications in which the given transition is employed are described.

    Los microgeles son geles coloidales que se emplean por el inflado y/o desinflado que manifiestan ante ciertas condiciones externas. En este trabajo, se describe experimentalmente el inflado y el desinflado de partículas de gel. El pH del medio, su concentración iónica y el esfuerzo osmótico externo son las variables externas que se emplean para provocar el cambio de fase en las partículas. Todas las transiciones ocurren por encima del punto crítico del sistema. Adicionalmente, se presentan algunas de las aplicaciones en donde se emplea la transición provocada por la variable externa concreta.

  11. Leakage current measurement in transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo


    Photovoltaic (PV) installations have seen a huge increase during the last couple of years. Transformerless PV inverters are gaining more share of the total inverter market, due to their high conversion efficiency, small weight and size. Nevertheless safety should have an important role in case...... of these tranformerless systems, due to the missing galvanic isolation. Leakage and fault current measurement is a key issue for these inverter topologies to be able to comply with the required safety standards. This article presents the test results of two different current measurement sensors that were suggested...... to be used in commercial PV inverters for the measurement of leakage and fault ground currents. The German VDE0126–1–1 standard gives the limit for fault and leakage ground currents and all grid connected PV inverters have to comply with these limits and disconnect from the grid in case of a fault....

  12. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios


    Inverted base pavements involve a well-compacted granular aggregate base built between a thin asphalt concrete layer and a cement-treated base. Inverted base pavements can be constructed using conventional equipment and procedures but require proper quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost. Inverted base pavements rely on the complementary interaction between layers. The cement-treated base provides a stiff foundation for efficient compaction and constrains the deformation of the stress-sensitive granular aggregate base. The thin asphalt surface layer deforms as a membrane and develops low tensile stress. Additional large-scale field tests should be conducted to assess the performance of inverted base pavement designs in a wide range of conditions relevant to the USA.

  13. Surface roughness directed self-assembly of patchy particles into colloidal micelles. (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; Ni, Ran; Smallenburg, Frank; Hermes, Michiel; Yoon, Kisun; Weitz, David A; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Groenewold, Jan; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Kegel, Willem K


    Colloidal particles with site-specific directional interactions, so called "patchy particles", are promising candidates for bottom-up assembly routes towards complex structures with rationally designed properties. Here we present an experimental realization of patchy colloidal particles based on material independent depletion interaction and surface roughness. Curved, smooth patches on rough colloids are shown to be exclusively attractive due to their different overlap volumes. We discuss in detail the case of colloids with one patch that serves as a model for molecular surfactants both with respect to their geometry and their interactions. These one-patch particles assemble into clusters that resemble surfactant micelles with the smooth and attractive sides of the colloids located at the interior. We term these clusters "colloidal micelles". Direct Monte Carlo simulations starting from a homogeneous state give rise to cluster size distributions that are in good agreement with those found in experiments. Important differences with surfactant micelles originate from the colloidal character of our model system and are investigated by simulations and addressed theoretically. Our new "patchy" model system opens up the possibility for self-assembly studies into finite-sized superstructures as well as crystals with as of yet inaccessible structures.

  14. Interaction of Myoglobin colloids with BSA in solution: Insights into complex formation and elastic compliance. (United States)

    Madhumitha, D; Dhathathreyan, Aruna


    This work focusses on the supramolecular complex formed between Myoglobin (Mb) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) at colloids/solution interface at pH 4.0 and pH 7.5. Electrostatic interactions between Mb as colloids and BSA solution (pH=7.5 and 4.0) have been confirmed by Zeta potential that suggest that while Mb has a narrow interaction range, BSA has a wider interaction space. The organization of Mb colloids in BSA characterized using dilational rheological parameters show that the Mb colloids are elastic and the strong adsorbed water layers on the surface restrict the deformation, regulated by the viscoelastic surface layer. Stability of the complexes analyzed using UV-vis, Fluorescence and Circular dichroic spectroscopy indicate that there is a 1:1 interaction between Mb and BSA with a binding constant of about 10 5 M -1 . Quartz Crystal microbalance with dissipation has been used to evaluate the elastic compliance of the complexes of Mb colloids dispersed in very dilute BSA solution. The higher elastic compliance at pH=4.0 (than at pH=7.5) and the complex sizes correlate with changes in zeta potential suggesting that the mechanical properties of the protein in colloids are dependent on both the electrostatic interaction as well as the degree of hydration of the colloids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave-Assisted Size Control of Colloidal Nickel Nanocrystals for Colloidal Nanocrystals-Based Non-volatile Memory Devices (United States)

    Yadav, Manoj; Velampati, Ravi Shankar R.; Mandal, D.; Sharma, Rohit


    Colloidal synthesis and size control of nickel (Ni) nanocrystals (NCs) below 10 nm are reported using a microwave synthesis method. The synthesised colloidal NCs have been characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). XRD analysis highlights the face centred cubic crystal structure of synthesised NCs. The size of NCs observed using TEM and DLS have a distribution between 2.6 nm and 10 nm. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy analysis of spin-coated NCs over a silicon dioxide surface has been carried out to identify an optimum spin condition that can be used for the fabrication of a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) non-volatile memory (NVM) capacitor. Subsequently, the fabrication of a MOS NVM capacitor is reported to demonstrate the potential application of colloidal synthesized Ni NCs in NVM devices. We also report the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and capacitance-time (C-t) response of the fabricated MOS NVM capacitor. The C-V and C-t characteristics depict a large flat band voltage shift (V FB) and high retention time, respectively, which indicate that colloidal Ni NCs are excellent candidates for applications in next-generation NVM devices.

  16. N -Sm A -Sm C phase transitions probed by a pair of elastically bound colloids (United States)

    M, Muhammed Rasi; Zuhail, K. P.; Roy, Arun; Dhara, Surajit


    The competing effect of surface anchoring of dispersed microparticles and elasticity of nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals has been shown to stabilize a variety of topological defects. Here we study a pair of colloidal microparticles with homeotropic and planar surface anchoring across N -Sm A -Sm C phase transitions. We show that below the Sm A -Sm C phase transition the temperature dependence of interparticle separation (D ) of colloids with homeotropic anchoring shows a power-law behavior; D ˜(1-T /TA C) α , with an exponent α ≈0.5 . For colloids with planar surface anchoring the angle between the joining line of the centers of the two colloids and the far field director shows characteristic variation elucidating the phase transitions.

  17. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY


    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  18. Superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays fabricated by a scalable colloidal lithography approach. (United States)

    Kothary, Pratik; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Gu, Zhuxiao; Leo, Sin-Yen; Jiang, Peng


    Here we report an unconventional colloidal lithography approach for fabricating a variety of periodic polymer nanostructures with tunable geometries and hydrophobic properties. Wafer-sized, double-layer, non-close-packed silica colloidal crystal embedded in a polymer matrix is first assembled by a scalable spin-coating technology. The unusual non-close-packed crystal structure combined with a thin polymer film separating the top and the bottom colloidal layers render great versatility in templating periodic nanostructures, including arrays of nanovoids, nanorings, and hierarchical nanovoids. These different geometries result in varied fractions of entrapped air in between the templated nanostructures, which in turn lead to different apparent water contact angles. Superhydrophobic surfaces with >150° water contact angles and <5° contact angle hysteresis are achieved on fluorosilane-modified polymer hierarchical nanovoid arrays with large fractions of entrapped air. The experimental contact angle measurements are complemented with theoretical predictions using the Cassie's model to gain insights into the fundamental microstructure-dewetting property relationships. The experimental and theoretical contact angles follow the same trends as determined by the unique hierarchical structures of the templated periodic arrays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The radiation chemistry of colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, R.M.


    One of the most important problems associated with water cooled reactors is the accumulation on the pipework of radio-active deposits. These are formed from corrosion products which become activated during their passage through the reactor core. The first step of the activation process involves the deposition of the corrosion products, which are present as either colloidal or particulate matter, onto surfaces in the reactor core, i.e. within the radiation zone. A review of the literature on the effect of radiation on colloids is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the dependence of colloidal parameters such as particle size, turbidity and electrophoretic mobility on radiation dose. Most of the data available is of a qualitative nature only. Evidence is presented that colloids of iron are affected (in some cases precipitated) by radiation, and it is suggested that this process plays a part in the deposition of corrosion products in nuclear reactor cores. The bulk of the information available can be rationalized in terms of the radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions, and the interaction of the radicals produced with the atoms or molecules at the surface of the colloidal particles. This approach is very successful in explaining the variation of the mean particle size of monodisperse sulphur hydrosols with dose, for which quantitative experimental data are available. (author)

  20. Colloid Thrusters, Physics, Fabrication and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Akinwande, Akintunde I


    ... discovered pure ionic mode, the microfabrication in Silicon of two types of arrays of colloid or electrospray emitters, and the development of a quantitative theory for the colloidal regime (no ions...

  1. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook


    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  2. Light-induced rewiring and winding of Saturn ring defects in photosensitive chiral nematic colloids. (United States)

    Gvozdovskyy, I; Jampani, V S R; Skarabot, M; Muševič, I


    We study the winding and unwinding of Saturn ring defects around silica microspheres with homeotropic surface anchoring in a cholesteric liquid crystal with a variable pitch. We use mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal 5CB and various photoresponsive chiral dopants to vary the helical pitch and sense of the helical winding by illuminating the mixtures with UV or visible light. Upon illumination, we observe motion of the Grandjean-Cano disclination lines in wedge-like cells. When the line touches the colloidal particle, we observe topological reconstruction of the Grandjean-Cano line and the Saturn ring. The result of this topological reconstruction is either an increase or decrease of the degree of winding of the Saturn ring around the colloidal particle. This phenomenon is similar to topological rewiring of -1/2 disclination lines, observed recently in chiral nematic colloids.

  3. Morphology of Colloidal Particles Dispersed in Nematic Solvent (United States)

    Kumar, Anupam; Mandal, Biplab Kumar; Mishra, Pankaj


    We have studied a system of spherical colloidal particles suspended in nematic liquid crystal confined to a two-dimensional plane. The dispersed colloidal particles pervert the uniform orientation of nematic resulting in topological defects. This small change in director field induces elastic interaction in the system. Considering the system exhibiting octopolar symmetry, the interaction of the particles can be described by octopole-octopole interaction potential which on some suitable scaling has the form, βu(r) ≈ Γ/r7, where Γ is dimensionless interaction strength parameter. We have calculated the pair correlation function and radial distribution function of the system by employing Roger-Young's integral equation theory, where the mixing parameter a, is obtained by demanding the consistency in pressure via virial and compressibility routs. With the increase in interaction strength, the system is found to become more ordered.

  4. Morphology of Colloidal Particles Dispersed in Nematic Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Anupam; Kumar Mandal, Biplab; Mishra, Pankaj


    We have studied a system of spherical colloidal particles suspended in nematic liquid crystal confined to a two-dimensional plane. The dispersed colloidal particles pervert the uniform orientation of nematic resulting in topological defects. This small change in director field induces elastic interaction in the system. Considering the system exhibiting octopolar symmetry, the interaction of the particles can be described by octopole-octopole interaction potential which on some suitable scaling has the form, βu(r) ≈ Γ/r 7 , where Γ is dimensionless interaction strength parameter. We have calculated the pair correlation function and radial distribution function of the system by employing Roger-Young's integral equation theory, where the mixing parameter a, is obtained by demanding the consistency in pressure via virial and compressibility routs. With the increase in interaction strength, the system is found to become more ordered. (paper)

  5. Nonequilibrium structure of colloidal dumbbells under oscillatory shear. (United States)

    Heptner, Nils; Chu, Fangfang; Lu, Yan; Lindner, Peter; Ballauff, Matthias; Dzubiella, Joachim


    We investigate the nonequilibrium behavior of dense, plastic-crystalline suspensions of mildly anisotropic colloidal hard dumbbells under the action of an oscillatory shear field by employing Brownian dynamics computer simulations. In particular, we extend previous investigations, where we uncovered nonequilibrium phase transitions, to other aspect ratios and to a larger nonequilibrium parameter space, that is, a wider range of strains and shear frequencies. We compare and discuss selected results in the context of scattering and rheological experiments. Both simulations and experiments demonstrate that the previously found transitions from the plastic crystal phase with increasing shear strain also occur at other aspect ratios. We explore the transition behavior in the strain-frequency phase and summarize it in a nonequilibrium phase diagram. Additionally, the experimental rheology results hint at a slowing down of the colloidal dynamics with higher aspect ratio.

  6. Colloid release from soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per


    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  7. Colloidal transport by active filaments. (United States)

    Manna, Raj Kumar; Kumar, P B Sunil; Adhikari, R


    Enhanced colloidal transport beyond the limit imposed by diffusion is usually achieved through external fields. Here, we demonstrate the ballistic transport of a colloidal sphere using internal sources of energy provided by an attached active filament. The latter is modeled as a chain of chemo-mechanically active beads connected by potentials that enforce semi-flexibility and self-avoidance. The fluid flow produced by the active beads and the forces they mediate are explicitly taken into account in the overdamped equations of motion describing the colloid-filament assembly. The speed and efficiency of transport depend on the dynamical conformational states of the filament. We characterize these states using filament writhe as an order parameter and identify ones yielding maxima in speed and efficiency of transport. The transport mechanism reported here has a remarkable resemblance to the flagellar propulsion of microorganisms which suggests its utility in biomimetic systems.

  8. Colloidal transport by active filaments (United States)

    Manna, Raj Kumar; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Adhikari, R.


    Enhanced colloidal transport beyond the limit imposed by diffusion is usually achieved through external fields. Here, we demonstrate the ballistic transport of a colloidal sphere using internal sources of energy provided by an attached active filament. The latter is modeled as a chain of chemo-mechanically active beads connected by potentials that enforce semi-flexibility and self-avoidance. The fluid flow produced by the active beads and the forces they mediate are explicitly taken into account in the overdamped equations of motion describing the colloid-filament assembly. The speed and efficiency of transport depend on the dynamical conformational states of the filament. We characterize these states using filament writhe as an order parameter and identify ones yielding maxima in speed and efficiency of transport. The transport mechanism reported here has a remarkable resemblance to the flagellar propulsion of microorganisms which suggests its utility in biomimetic systems.

  9. Spontaneous emission enhancement of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals (United States)

    Yang, Zhili; Waks, Edo

    Halide perovskite semiconductors have emerged as prominent photovoltaic materials since their high conversion efficiency and promising light emitting materials in optoelectronics. In particular, easy-to-fabricated colloidal perovskite nanocrystals based on CsPbX3 quantum dots has been intensively investigated recently. Their luminescent wavelength could be tuned precisely by their chemical composition and size of growth. This opens new applications including light-emitting diodes, optical amplifiers and lasing since their promising performance as emitters. However, this potentially high-efficient emitter and gain material has not been fully investigated and realized in integrated photonic structures. Here we demonstrate Purcell enhancement effect of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals by coupling to an optimized photonic crystal nanobeam cavity as a first crucial step towards realization of integrated on-chip coherent light source with low energy consumption. We show clearly highly-enhanced photoluminescent spectrum and an averaged Purcell enhancement factor of 2.9 is achieved when they are coupled to nanobeam photonic crystal cavities compared to the ones on unpatterned surface in our lifetime measurement. Our success in enhancement of emission from CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals paves the way towards the realization of efficient light sources for integrated optoelectronic devices with low energy consumption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen


    Full Text Available Naturally occurring clay colloidal particles are heavily involved in sediment processes in the subsurface soil. Due to the import ance of these processes in the subsurface environment, the transport of clay colloidal particles has been studied in several disciplines, including soil sciences, petr ology, hydrology, etc. Specifically, in environmental engineering, clay colloid re lease and transport in the sediments have been extensively investigated, which are motiv ated by environmental concerns such as colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in groundwater and the subsurface soil. Clay colloid release is resulted from physical alteration of subsurface sediments. Despite the potential importance of clay colloid activiti es, the detailed mechanisms of release and transport of clay colloidal particles with in natural sediments are poorly understood. Pore medium structure, properties and flow dynamics, etc. are factors that affect clay colloid generation, mobilization, and subse quent transport. Possible mechanisms of clay colloid generation in the sediments in clude precipitation, erosion and mobilization by changes in pore water chemistry and clay colloid release depends on a balance of applied hydrodynamic and resisting adhesive torques and forces. The coupled role of pore water chemistry and fluid hydrodynamics thus play key roles in controlling clay colloid release and transport in the sediment s. This paper investigated clay colloidal particle release and transport, especially th e colloidal particle release mechanisms as well as the process modeling in the sediments. In this research, colloidal particle release from intact sediment columns with variable length was examined and colloidal particle release curves were simulated using an im plicit, finite-difference scheme. Colloidal particle release rate coefficient was found to be an exponential function of the sediment depth. The simulated results demonstrated that transport parameters were

  11. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter (United States)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.


    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  12. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters (United States)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.


    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  13. Effect of three-body forces on the phase behavior of charged colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J. Z.; Bratko, D.; Blanch, H. W.; Prausnitz, J. M.


    Statistical-thermodynamic theory for predicting the phase behavior of a colloidal solution requires the pair interaction potential between colloidal particles in solution. In practice, it is necessary to assume pairwise additivity for the potential of mean force between colloidal particles, but little is known concerning the validity of this assumption. This paper concerns interaction between small charged colloids, such as surfactant micelles or globular proteins, in electrolyte solutions and the multibody effect on phase behavior. Monte Carlo simulations for isolated colloidal triplets in equilateral configurations show that, while the three-body force is repulsive when the three particles are near contact, it becomes short-ranged attractive at further separations, contrary to a previous study where the triplet force is attractive at all separations. The three-body force arises mainly from hard-sphere collisions between colloids and small ions; it is most significant in solutions of monovalent salt at low concentration where charged colloids experience strong electrostatic interactions. To illustrate the effect of three-body forces on the phase behavior of charged colloids, we calculated the densities of coexisting phases using van der Waals-type theories for colloidal solutions and for crystals. For the conditions investigated in this work, even though the magnitude of the three-body force may be as large as 10% of the total force at small separations, three-body forces do not have a major effect on the densities of binary coexisting phases. However, coexisting densities calculated using Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory are much different from those calculated using our simulated potential of mean force. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  14. Colloidal phytosterols: synthesis, characterization and bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.; Seijen ten Hoorn, J.W.M.; Melnikov, S.M.; Velikov, K.P.


    We demonstrate the synthesis of phytosterol colloidal particles using a simple food grade method based on antisolvent precipitation in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant. The resulting colloidal particles have a rod-like shape with some degree of crystallinity. The colloidal dispersions display

  15. Self-Assembly of Faceted Colloidal Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantapara, A.P.


    A colloidal dispersion consists of insoluble microscopic particles that are suspended in a solvent. Typically, a colloid is a particle for which at least one of its dimension is within the size range of a nanometer to a micron. Due to collisions with much smaller solvent molecules, colloids perform

  16. Colloid formation during waste glass corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, C.J.; Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.


    The long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass in a geologic repository may require a technical consideration of the role of colloids in the release and transport of radionuclides. The neglect of colloidal properties in assessing the near- and far-field migration behavior of actinides may lead to significant underestimates and poor predictions of biosphere exposure from high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Existing data on colloid-facilitated transport suggests that radionuclide migration may be enhanced, but the importance of colloids is not adequately assessed. Indeed, the occurrence of radionuclide transport, attributed to colloidal species, has been reported at Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos and at the Nevada Test Site; both unsaturated regions are similar to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain. Although some developments have been made on understanding the transport characteristics of colloids, the characterization of colloids generated from the corrosion of the waste form has been limited. Colloids are known to incorporate radionuclides either from hydrolysis of dissolved species (real colloids) or from adsorption of dissolved species onto existing groundwater colloids (pseudocolloids); however, these colloids may be considered secondary and solubility limited when compared to the colloids generated during glass alteration.

  17. Inverted CERN School of Computing

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department


      The 5th edition of the Inverted CERN School of Computing (iCSC, “Where students turn into teachers”) will take place next Thursday and Friday (3 and 4 of March) at CERN, Building 31 - IT Amphitheatre - Third Floor. Attendance is free and open to everyone. The programme is designed so that you can attend the lectures that interest you. This year highlights: Cloud Computing, Software Engineering, Cryptography Registration is not mandatory, but will allow you to obtain a copy of the full booklet (first registered, first served). Programme overview: Thursday 3 March 2011 10:00 - 10:15 Introduction School opening 10:15 - 11:10 Lecture 1 Virtualization: what it is, how it works – Luigi Gallerani 11:20 - 12:15 Lecture 2 Server Virtualization at work – Carlos Garcia Fernandez 14:00 - 14:55 Lecture 3 Unweaving Clouds: Principles and Practice – Belmiro Moreira 15:30 - 16:25 Lecture 4 Understanding Cryptography: From Caesar to Public-Key – Nicola...

  18. Shape control of colloidal Cu2-xS polyhedral nanocrystals by tuning the nucleation rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Stam, Ward; Gradmann, Sabine; Altantzis, Thomas; Ke, Xiaoxing; Baldus, Marc; Bals, Sara; De Mello Donega, Celso


    Synthesis protocols for colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with narrow size and shape distributions are of particular interest for the successful implementation of these nanocrystals into devices. Moreover, the preparation of NCs with well-defined crystal phases is of key importance. In this work, we show

  19. The self-assembly of particles with isotropic interactions: Using DNA coated colloids to create designer nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R. B.; Dion, S.; Konigslow, K. von


    Self-consistent field theory equations are presented that are suitable for use as a coarse-grained model for DNA coated colloids, polymer-grafted nanoparticles and other systems with approximately isotropic interactions. The equations are generalized for arbitrary numbers of chemically distinct colloids. The advantages and limitations of such a coarse-grained approach for DNA coated colloids are discussed, as are similarities with block copolymer self-assembly. In particular, preliminary results for three species self-assembly are presented that parallel results from a two dimensional ABC triblock copolymer phase. The possibility of incorporating crystallization, dynamics, inverse statistical mechanics and multiscale modelling techniques are discussed

  20. Cascaded impedance networks for NPC inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang


    Multilevel inverters are getting more and more attracted because they have better output waveform quality and lower semiconductor voltage stress. The Z-source NPC is a kind of single stage multilevel inverter which has the ability of voltage boost. But the boost capability is relatively low when...... they are subject to the renewable sources. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing a hybrid source impedance network, which can in principle be combined and cascaded before connected to a NPC inverter by proposed two ways. The resulting cascaded impedance network NPC...... would have a higher output voltage gain. It is anticipated that it would help the formed inverters find applications in photovoltaic and other renewable systems, where a high voltage gain is usually requested. Experimental testing has already been conducted and verifies the theory....

  1. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN


    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  2. Performance analysis of new type grid-tied inverter-Aalborg Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Wang, Zhen; Ji, Junhao


    Aalborg Inverter is a grid-tied DC/AC inverter. In order to optimize the design, its power losses are analyzed in detail, combined with a description of the single-phase operating principle and the modulation strategy. A 2 kW / 220 V experimental prototype is constructed to verify the theoretical...... analysis. It is concluded that a minimize inductance in the power loop does help the inverter to achieve the high efficiency with the good dynamic performance....

  3. Colloid properties in groundwaters from crystalline formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.A.


    Colloids are present in all groundwaters. The role they may play in the migration of safety-relevant radionuclides in the geosphere therefore must be studied. Colloid sampling and characterisation campaigns have been carried out in Switzerland. On the bases of the results from studies in the Grimsel area, Northern Switzerland and the Black Forest, as well as those obtained by other groups concerned with crystalline waters, a consistent picture is emerging. The groundwater colloids in crystalline formations are predominantly comprised of phyllosilicates and silica originating from the aquifer rock. Under constant hydrogeochemical conditions, the colloid concentration is not expected to exceed 100 -1 when the calcium concentration is greater than 10 -4 . However, under transient chemical or physical conditions, such as geothermal or tectonic activity, colloid generation may be enhanced and the colloid concentration may reach 10 μ -1 or more, if both the calcium and sodium concentrations are low. In the Nagra Crystalline Reference Water the expected colloid concentration is -1 . This can be compared, for example, to a colloid concentration of about 10 -1 found in Zurzach water. The small colloid concentration in the reference water is a consequence of an attachment factor for clay colloids (monmorillonite) close to 1. A model indicates that at pH 8, the nuclide partition coefficients between water and colloid (K p ) must be smaller than 10 7 ml.g -1 if sorption takes place by surface complexation on colloids, = AIOH active groups forming the dominant sorption sites. This pragmatic model is based on the competition between the formation of nuclide hydroxo complexes in solution and their sorption on colloids. Experimental nuclide sorption data on colloids are compared with those obtained by applying this model. For a low colloid concentration, a sorption capacity of the order of 10 -9 M and reversible surface complexation, their presence in the

  4. Improvements in ANIS and inverted sputter sources (United States)

    Strasters, B. A.; Vermeer, A.; van Zwol, N. A.


    In this article two sputter sources, i.e. an ANIS and an inverted sputter source are described. The ANIS has been changed into a SNICS-like configuration and measurements of the output current for different sputter target geometries are presented. In the inverted sputter source an immersion lens was placed between the ionizer and the sputter target. This source is provided with a modified revolving target head with eight targets.

  5. Inverted mesiodens--a case report. (United States)

    Nikhil, S; Vineeta; Gupta, P


    A nine and a half years old female school child was examined in a during routine dental examination. The patient had swelling over maxillary midline area just near the labial frenum. Both the central incisors were in position. Radiographic examination revealed presence of an inverted supernumerary tooth between the roots of the central incisors. Surgical extraction of the supernumerary was planned. A unique case of inverted (upside down) mesiodens is presented.

  6. Automatic load sharing in inverter modules (United States)

    Nagano, S.


    Active feedback loads transistor equally with little power loss. Circuit is suitable for balancing modular inverters in spacecraft, computer power supplies, solar-electric power generators, and electric vehicles. Current-balancing circuit senses differences between collector current for power transistor and average value of load currents for all power transistors. Principle is effective not only in fixed duty-cycle inverters but also in converters operating at variable duty cycles.

  7. Base drive for paralleled inverter systems (United States)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)


    In a paralleled inverter system, a positive feedback current derived from the total current from all of the modules of the inverter system is applied to the base drive of each of the power transistors of all modules, thereby to provide all modules protection against open or short circuit faults occurring in any of the modules, and force equal current sharing among the modules during turn on of the power transistors.

  8. Colloid characterization and quantification in groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Stephen Kung


    This report describes the work conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for studying the groundwater colloids for the Yucca Mountain Project in conjunction with the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Colloidal particle size distributions and total particle concentration in groundwater samples are quantified and characterized. Colloid materials from cavity waters collected near underground nuclear explosion sites by HRMP field sampling personnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were quantified. Selected colloid samples were further characterized by electron microscope to evaluate the colloid shapes, elemental compositions, and mineral phases. The authors have evaluated the colloid size and concentration in the natural groundwater sample that was collected from the ER-20-5 well and stored in a 50-gallon (about 200-liter) barrel for several months. This groundwater sample was studied because HRMP personnel have identified trace levels of radionuclides in the water sample. Colloid results show that even though the water sample had filtered through a series of Millipore filters, high-colloid concentrations were identified in all unfiltered and filtered samples. They had studied the samples that were diluted with distilled water and found that diluted samples contained more colloids than the undiluted ones. These results imply that colloids are probably not stable during the storage conditions. Furthermore, results demonstrate that undesired colloids have been introduced into the samples during the storage, filtration, and dilution processes. They have evaluated possible sources of colloid contamination associated with sample collection, filtrating, storage, and analyses of natural groundwaters. The effects of container types and sample storage time on colloid size distribution and total concentration were studied to evaluate colloid stability by using J13 groundwater. The data suggests that groundwater samples

  9. Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres. (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao


    Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals. To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored. As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention. However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method. Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations. Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance. The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles.

  10. Multilayer Photonic Crystal for Spectral Narrowing of Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang LIU


    Full Text Available Multilayer colloidal crystal has been prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition of silica microspheres on a glass slide. Each layer is a slab consisting of a fcc close-packed colloidal arrays. By properly choosing the sizes of spheres, the whole spectral feature of multilayer colloidal crystal can be tuned. Here, we engineered a multilayer superlattice structure with an effective passband between two stop bands. This gives a strong narrowing effect on emission spectrum. With the stop bands at the shortwave and longwave edges of emission spectrum, the passband in the central wavelength region can be regarded as a strong decrease of suppression effect and enhancement of a narrow wavelength region of emission. The spectral narrowing modification effect of suitably engineered colloidal crystals shows up their importance in potential application as optical filters and lasing devices.DOI:

  11. Inner Phases of Colloidal Hexagonal Spin Ice (United States)

    Libál, A.; Nisoli, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. O.; Reichhardt, C.


    Using numerical simulations that mimic recent experiments on hexagonal colloidal ice, we show that colloidal hexagonal artificial spin ice exhibits an inner phase within its ice state that has not been observed previously. Under increasing colloid-colloid repulsion, the initially paramagnetic system crosses into a disordered ice regime, then forms a topologically charge ordered state with disordered colloids, and finally reaches a threefold degenerate, ordered ferromagnetic state. This is reminiscent of, yet distinct from, the inner phases of the magnetic kagome spin ice analog. The difference in the inner phases of the two systems is explained by their difference in energetics and frustration.

  12. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B


    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  13. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, L.


    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs

  14. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.


    The perception of complex textures in food is strongly related to the way food is processed during eating, and is modulated by other basic characteristics, such as taste and aroma. An understanding at the colloidal level of the basic processes in the mouth is essential in order to link the

  15. Characterization of Complex Colloidal Suspensions (United States)

    Seaman, J. C.; Guerin, M.; Jackson, B. P.; Ranville, J. M.


    Surface chemical reactions play a major role in controlling contaminant fate and transport in the subsurface environment. Recent field and laboratory evidence suggests that mobile soil and groundwater colloids may facilitate the migration of sparingly soluble groundwater contaminants. Colloidal suspensions collected in the field or generated in laboratory column experiments tend to be fairly dilute in nature and comprised of relatively small particulates (reserved for studying ideal systems to the characterization of mobile colloids. However, many of these analytical techniques, including total/selective dissolution methods, dynamic light scattering, micro-electrophoresis, streaming potential, and even scanning electron microscopy (SEM), can be biased in of larger size fractions, and therefore, extremely sensitive to sampling, storage, and fractionation artifacts. In addition, surface modifiers such as sorbed oxides or organics can alter particulate appearance, composition, and behavior when compared to synthetic analogues or mineral standards. The current presentation will discuss the limitations and inherent biases associated with a number of analytical characterization techniques that are commonly applied to the study of mobile soil and groundwater colloids, including field flow fractionation (FFF) and acoustic based methods that have only recently become available.

  16. Patterning hierarchy in direct and inverse opal crystals. (United States)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Kolle, Mathias; Aizenberg, Joanna


    Biological strategies for bottom-up synthesis of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials within topographic templates have recently become an attractive approach for fabricating complex synthetic structures. Inspired by these strategies, herein the synthesis of multi-layered, hierarchical inverse colloidal crystal films formed directly on topographically patterned substrates via evaporative deposition, or "co-assembly", of polymeric spheres with a silicate sol-gel precursor solution and subsequent removal of the colloidal template, is described. The response of this growing composite colloid-silica system to artificially imposed 3D spatial constraints of various geometries is systematically studied, and compared with that of direct colloidal crystal assembly on the same template. Substrates designed with arrays of rectangular, triangular, and hexagonal prisms and cylinders are shown to control crystallographic domain nucleation and orientation of the direct and inverse opals. With this bottom-up topographical approach, it is demonstrated that the system can be manipulated to either form large patterned single crystals, or crystals with a fine-tuned extent of disorder, and to nucleate distinct colloidal domains of a defined size, location, and orientation in a wide range of length-scales. The resulting ordered, quasi-ordered, and disordered colloidal crystal films show distinct optical properties. Therefore, this method provides a means of controlling bottom-up synthesis of complex, hierarchical direct and inverse opal structures designed for altering optical properties and increased functionality. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. An All-Solution-Based Hybrid CMOS-Like Quantum Dot/Carbon Nanotube Inverter. (United States)

    Shulga, Artem G; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Salazar-Rios, Jorge Mario; Dirin, Dmitry N; Fritsch, Martin; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Scherf, Ullrich; Loi, Maria A


    The development of low-cost, flexible electronic devices is subordinated to the advancement in solution-based and low-temperature-processable semiconducting materials, such as colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Here, excellent compatibility of QDs and SWCNTs as a complementary pair of semiconducting materials for fabrication of high-performance complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-like inverters is demonstrated. The n-type field effect transistors (FETs) based on I - capped PbS QDs (V th = 0.2 V, on/off = 10 5 , S S-th = 114 mV dec -1 , µ e = 0.22 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) and the p-type FETs with tailored parameters based on low-density random network of SWCNTs (V th = -0.2 V, on/off > 10 5 , S S-th = 63 mV dec -1 , µ h = 0.04 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) are integrated on the same substrate in order to obtain high-performance hybrid inverters. The inverters operate in the sub-1 V range (0.9 V) and have high gain (76 V/V), large maximum-equal-criteria noise margins (80%), and peak power consumption of 3 nW, in combination with low hysteresis (10 mV). © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Purification technologies for colloidal nanocrystals. (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Gee, Megan Y; Greytak, A B


    Almost all applications of colloidal nanocrystals require some type of purification or surface modification process following nanocrystal growth. Nanocrystal purification - the separation of nanocrystals from undesired solution components - can perturb the surface chemistry and thereby the physical properties of colloidal nanocrystals due to changes in solvent, solute concentrations, and exposure of the nanocrystal surface to oxidation or hydrolysis. For example, nanocrystal quantum dots frequently exhibit decreased photoluminescence brightness after precipitation from the growth solvent and subsequent redissolution. Consequently, purification is an integral part of the synthetic chemistry of colloidal nanocrystals, and the effect of purification methods must be considered in order to accurately compare and predict the behavior of otherwise similar nanocrystal samples. In this Feature Article we examine established and emerging approaches to the purification of colloidal nanoparticles from a nanocrystal surface chemistry viewpoint. Purification is generally achieved by exploiting differences in properties between the impurities and the nanoparticles. Three distinct properties are typically manipulated: polarity (relative solubility), electrophoretic mobility, and size. We discuss precipitation, extraction, electrophoretic methods, and size-based methods including ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, diafiltration, and size-exclusion chromatography. The susceptibility of quantum dots to changes in surface chemistry, with changes in photoluminescence decay associated with surface chemical changes, extends even into the case of core/shell structures. Accordingly, the goal of a more complete description of quantum dot surface chemistry has been a driver of innovation in colloidal nanocrystal purification methods. We specifically examine the effect of purification on surface chemistry and photoluminescence in quantum dots as an example of the challenges associated with

  19. Initiating fibro-proliferation through interfacial interactions of myoglobin colloids with collagen in solution. (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Madhumitha; Dhathathreyan, Aruna


    This work examines fibro-proliferation through interaction of myoglobin (Mb), a globular protein with collagen, an extracellular matrix fibrous protein. Designed colloids of Mb at pH 4.5 and 7.5 have been mixed with collagen solution at pH 7.5 and 4.5 in different concentrations altering their surface charges. For the Mb colloids, 100-200nm sizes have been measured from Transmission electron micrographs and zeta sizer. CD spectra shows a shift to beta sheet like structure for the protein in the colloids. Interaction at Mb/Collagen interface studied using Dilational rheology, Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and Differential Scanning calorimetry show that the perturbation is not only by the charge compensation arising from the difference in pH of the colloids and collagen, but also by the organized assembly of collagen at that particular pH. Results demonstrate that positive Mb colloids at pH 4.5, having more% of entrained water stabilize the collagen fibrils (pH 7.5) around them. Ensuing dehydration leads to effective cross-linking and inherently anisotropic growth of fibrils/fibres of collagen. In the case of Mb colloids at pH 7.5, the fibril formation seems to supersede the clustering of Mb suggesting that the fibro-proliferation is both pH and hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance dependent at the interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The attachment of colloidal particles to environmentally relevant surfaces and the effect of particle shape. (United States)

    McNew, Coy P; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; LeBoeuf, Eugene J


    Despite the prevalence of nonspherical colloidal particles, the role of particle shape in the transport of colloids is largely understudied. This study investigates the attachment of colloidal particles onto environmentally relevant surfaces while varying particle shape and ionic strength. Using quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy measurements, the role of particle shape was elucidated and possible mechanisms discussed. The attachment of both spherical and stretched polystyrene colloidal particles onto a smooth alginate-coated silica surface showed qualitative agreement with DLVO theory. Attachment onto a Harpeth humic acid (HHA) surface, however, significantly deviated from DLVO theory due to its high surface heterogeneity and extended confirmation from the silica surface. This extended confirmation provided increased potential for spherical particle entanglement, while the enlarged major axis of the stretched particles hindered their ability to attach. As ionic strength increased, the HHA layer condensed and provided less potential for spherical particle entanglement and therefore the selectivity for spherical particle attachment vanished. The findings presented in this study suggest that colloidal particle shape may play a complex and important role in predicting the transport of colloidal particles, especially in the presence of natural organic matter-coated surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Colloidal Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles: Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guler Urcan


    Full Text Available Optical properties of colloidal plasmonic titanium nitride nanoparticles are examined with an eye on their photothermal and photocatalytic applications via transmission electron microscopy and optical transmittance measurements. Single crystal titanium nitride cubic nanoparticles with an average size of 50 nm, which was found to be the optimum size for cellular uptake with gold nanoparticles [1], exhibit plasmon resonance in the biological transparency window and demonstrate a high absorption efficiency. A self-passivating native oxide at the surface of the nanoparticles provides an additional degree of freedom for surface functionalization. The titanium oxide shell surrounding the plasmonic core can create new opportunities for photocatalytic applications.

  2. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  3. Fabrication of large area homogeneous metallic nanostructures for optical sensing using colloidal lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes


    We propose a simple and reproducible method for fabricating large area metal films with inter-connected nanostructures using a combination of colloidal lithography, metal deposition and a template stripping technique. The method is generic in the sense that it is possible to produce a variety...... of nanostructures and the corresponding inverted nanostructure in a metal film. Within plasmonics this feature opens up obvious possibilities to design and fabricate substrates with specific and tailored optical properties applicable in optical sensing platforms. In this report the method has been employed...... to fabricate metal films with inter-connected nanostructures consisting of either partial spherical shells or the inverted structures: spherical cavities. The substrates are characterized by optical reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy. We demonstrate, in the case of partial spherical shells...

  4. Influence of aging and dilution on the crystallization of silicalite-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, P.P.E.A. de; Beelen, T.P.M.; Santen, R.A. van


    The correlation between the formation of colloidal aggregates and the crystallization of silicalite-1 from a clear solution has been investigated with in situ combined small-angle X-ray scattering and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and in situ ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation. Increasing the aging time at room temperature of the synthesis mixture prior to heating to the reaction temperature reduced the induction period and increased the crystal growth rate without affecting the formation of colloidal aggregates. Dilution of the synthesis mixtures did not influence the nucleation and crystal growth rate, and did not affect the formation of colloidal aggregates. (orig.)

  5. Interaction of chiral rafts in self-assembled colloidal membranes (United States)

    Xie, Sheng; Hagan, Michael F.; Pelcovits, Robert A.


    Colloidal membranes are monolayer assemblies of rodlike particles that capture the long-wavelength properties of lipid bilayer membranes on the colloidal scale. Recent experiments on colloidal membranes formed by chiral rodlike viruses showed that introducing a second species of virus with different length and opposite chirality leads to the formation of rafts—micron-sized domains of one virus species floating in a background of the other viruses [Sharma et al., Nature (London) 513, 77 (2014), 10.1038/nature13694]. In this article we study the interaction of such rafts using liquid crystal elasticity theory. By numerically minimizing the director elastic free energy, we predict the tilt angle profile for both a single raft and two rafts in a background membrane, and the interaction between two rafts as a function of their separation. We find that the chiral penetration depth in the background membrane sets the scale for the range of the interaction. We compare our results with the experimental data and find good agreement for the strength and range of the interaction. Unlike the experiments, however, we do not observe a complete collapse of the data when rescaled by the tilt angle at the raft edge.

  6. Diverse assembly behavior in colloidal Platonic polyhedral sphere clusters (United States)

    Marson, Ryan; Teich, Erin; Dshemuchadse, Julia; Glotzer, Sharon; Larson, Ronald

    We simulate the self-assembly of colloidal ``polyhedral sphere clusters (PSCs)'', which consist of equal-sized spheres placed at the vertices of a polyhedron such that they just touch along each edge. These colloidal building blocks have recently been experimentally fabricated; here we predict crystal structures that would appear in the phase diagram of resulting particle assemblies. We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of rigid body clusters performed in the open-source GPU-based HOOMD-Blue particle simulation package to show the assembly behavior of the 5 Platonic PSCs. The simulations contain as many as 4096 individual polyhedra, across over 30 different densities per cluster geometry, with some ordered phases possessing unit cells with 20 or more particles. We observe the formation of not only traditional cubic structures such as BCC and FCC, but also more complex phases having structure symmetries with Pearson symbols - hP7, cP20, cI2, mP6, and hR3. The observations reported here will serve as a guide for future colloidal assembly experiments using an expanded library of PSCs, consisting of other regular and irregular polyhedra, allowing researchers to target specific arrangements of ``halo'' and ``core'' particles for technologically relevant applications including photonics and structural color.

  7. Effects of multiple scattering on structural color in disordered colloids (United States)

    Hwang, Victoria; Stephenson, Anna; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    Disordered packings of colloidal spheres can show structural colors that are independent of the angle between light source and observer (E.R. Dufresne et al, Adv. Mater. 2010, XX, 1-6). This phenomenon arises from constructive interference of scattered light, but the disordered structure produces homogeneous colors, in contrast to the angle-dependent, or iridescent, colors of colloidal crystals. Although the color can be understood qualitatively through single-scattering models, these systems also show weak multiple scattering where neither single scattering nor diffusive transport assumptions are valid. To understand the effect of multiple scattering on the color, we perform polarization experiments to characterize multiple scattering in structurally-colored samples. We find that multiple scattering dominates at short wavelengths. In the observed reflection spectrum, this contribution adds to the single scattering from individual particles and from interference between scattered waves. Because multiple scattering reduces the saturation of color, we seek to minimize its effects for applications. To do this, we calculate the transport length of disordered colloids using Mie theory and use microfluidics to find the regimes of sample thickness that lead to optimal color saturation. Xerox University Affairs Committee, NSF GRFP 2015200426.

  8. Statistical Physics of Colloidal Dispersions. (United States)

    Canessa, E.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis is concerned with the equilibrium statistical mechanics of colloidal dispersions which represent useful model systems for the study of condensed matter physics; namely, charge stabilized colloidal dispersions and polymer stabilized colloidal dispersions. A one-component macroparticle approach is adopted in order to treat the macroscopic and microscopic properties of these systems in a simple and comprehensive manner. The thesis opens with the description of the nature of the colloidal state before reviewing some basic definitions and theory in Chapter II. In Chapter III a variational theory of phase equilibria based on the Gibbs-Bogolyobov inequality is applied to sterically stabilized colloidal dispersions. Hard spheres are chosen as the reference system for the disordered phases while an Einstein model is used for the ordered phases. The new choice of pair potential, taken for mathematical convenience, is a superposition of two Yukawa functions. By matching a double Yukawa potential to the van der Waals attractive potential at different temperatures and introducing a purely temperature dependent coefficient to the repulsive part, a rich variety of observed phase separation phenomena is qualitatively described. The behaviour of the potential is found to be consistent with a small decrease of the polymer layer thickness with increasing temperature. Using the same concept of a collapse transition the non-monotonic second virial coefficient is also explained and quantified. It is shown that a reduction of the effective macroparticle diameter with increasing temperature can only be partially examined from the point of view of a (binary-) polymer solution theory. This chapter concludes with the description of the observed, reversible, depletion flocculation behaviour. This is accomplished by using the variational formalism and by invoking the double Yukawa potential to allow

  9. What happens when pharmaceuticals meet colloids. (United States)

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin


    Pharmaceuticals (PCs) have been widely detected in natural environment due to agricultural application of reclaimed water, sludge and animal wastes. Their potential risks to various ecosystems and even to human health have caused great concern; however, little was known about their environmental behaviors. Colloids (such as clays, metal oxides, and particulate organics) are kind of substances that are active and widespread in the environment. When PCs meet colloids, their interaction may influence the fate, transport, and toxicity of PCs. This review summarizes the progress of studies on the role of colloids in mediating the environmental behaviors of PCs. Synthesized results showed that colloids can adsorb PCs mainly through ion exchange, complexation and non-electrostatic interactions. During this process the structure of colloids and the stability of PCs may be changed. The adsorbed PCs may have higher risks to induce antibiotic resistance; besides, their transport may also be altered considering they have great chance to move with colloids. Solution conditions (such as pH, ionic strength, and cations) could influence these interactions between PCs and colloids, as they can change the forms of PCs and alter the primary forces between PCs and colloids in the solution. It could be concluded that PCs in natural soils could bind with colloids and then co-transport during the processes of irrigation, leaching, and erosion. Therefore, colloid-PC interactions need to be understood for risk assessment of PCs and the best management practices of various ecosystems (such as agricultural and wetland systems).

  10. Inverter for Installations with Intermittent Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuraki Iu.


    Full Text Available A new architecture of the inverter used in the convertion of electric energy generated by renewable energy sources is studied in this paper. The distinctive features of this inverter is the special block which compensates pulsing of the current with double frequency, characteristic for these inverters. The switching of electronic keys is realized using the method TCM In this block, like in the inverter, which assures the switching at the voltages near to zero (ZVC. The proposed algorithm of controlling the electronic keys permits to increase the work frequency up to hundreds of kHz. Electronic keys operate at variable frequency, which changes during the work cycle both slowly and by jump. The assurance of admissible heat regime is performed using forced cooling air flux and by convection. The increase of releasing process of the heat is assured by original construction of radiators which forms the turbulent mode of cooling air flux. These changes of the architecture of the inverter have allowed the minimization of mass, sizes and price indicators. It has been manufactured a functional laboratory sample with output power of 2kW the voltage of direct current of 450V or 48 V and output alternating voltage of 230V, with sizes 175mmX35mmX30mm.

  11. Radiation damage studies on synthetic NaCl crystals and natural rock salt for waste disposal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaffky, R.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Levy, P.W.


    Radiation damage studies are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals from various localities, including potential repository sites. Measurements are being made with equipment for recording the radiation induced F-center and colloid particle absorption bands during irradiation with 1.5 MeV electrons at various temperatures. A technique has been developed to resolve the overlapping F-center and colloid bands. The resulting spectra and curves of absorption vs. dose provide information on colloid particle size and concentration, activation energies for processes occurring during colloid formation, and additional data suggesting that both strain and radiation induced dislocations contribute to the colloid formation process


    Hitchcock, David I.


    1. It has been shown by titration experiments that the globulin edestin behaves like an amphoteric electrolyte, reacting stoichiometrically with acids and bases. 2. The potential difference developed between a solution of edestin chloride or acetate separated by a collodion membrane from an acid solution free from protein was found to be influenced by salt concentration and hydrogen ion concentration in the way predicted by Donnan's theory of membrane equilibrium. 3. The osmotic pressure of such edestin-acid salt solutions was found to be influenced by salt concentration and by hydrogen ion concentration in the same way as is the potential difference. 4. The colloidal behavior of edestin is thus completely analogous to that observed by Loeb with gelatin, casein, and egg albumin, and may be explained by Loeb's theory of colloidal behavior, which is based on the idea that proteins react stoichiometrically as amphoteric electrolytes and on Donnan's theory of membrane equilibrium. PMID:19871959

  13. Addressable inverter matrix for process and device characterization (United States)

    Buehler, M. G.; Sayah, H. R.


    The addressable inverter matrix consists of 222 inverters each accessible with the aid of a shift register. The structure has proven useful in characterizing the variability of inverter transfer curves and in diagnosing processing faults. For good 3-micron CMOS bulk inverters investigated, the percent standard deviation of the inverter threshold voltage was less than one percent and the inverter gain (the slope of the inverter transfer curve at the inverter threshold vltage) was less than 3 percent. The average noise margin for the inverters was near 2 volts for a power supply voltage of 5 volts. The specific faults studied included undersize pull-down transistor widths and various open contacts in the matrix.

  14. Power inverter implementing phase skipping control (United States)

    Somani, Utsav; Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Jourdan, Charles; Batarseh, Issa


    A power inverter includes a DC/AC inverter having first, second and third phase circuitry coupled to receive power from a power source. A controller is coupled to a driver for each of the first, second and third phase circuitry (control input drivers). The controller includes an associated memory storing a phase skipping control algorithm, wherein the controller is coupled to receive updating information including a power level generated by the power source. The drivers are coupled to control inputs of the first, second and third phase circuitry, where the drivers are configured for receiving phase skipping control signals from the controller and outputting mode selection signals configured to dynamically select an operating mode for the DC/AC inverter from a Normal Control operation and a Phase Skipping Control operation which have different power injection patterns through the first, second and third phase circuitry depending upon the power level.

  15. Radiological follow-up of inverted papilloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, P.; Vivarrat-Perrin, L.; Champsaur, P.; Juhan, V.; Chagnaud, C.; Vidal, V.; Gaubert, J.Y.; Bartoli, J.M.; Moulin, G. [Department of Radiology, Groupe Hospitalier de la Timone, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Marseille, F-13385 Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Dessi, P.; Zanaret, M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Groupe Hospitalier de la Timone, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Marseille, F-13385 Marseille Cedex 5 (France)


    The aim of this study was to describe cross-sectional imaging features of recurrent papilloma of the nasal fossa and paranasal sinuses and to evaluate the role of MR and CT in the postoperative follow-up of this lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT of ten patients who presented recurrence of inverted papilloma were reviewed and correlated to initial imaging, endoscopy, and surgical reports. Imaging patterns of recurrent inverted papilloma are identical to those of initial tumors and recurrence location is closely related to the site of the former lesion. Magnetic resonance is more efficient than CT for the diagnosis and evaluation of extensions. Magnetic resonance supplies the deficiencies of endoscopy in case of extensions to the frontal sinus or the lateral recess of the antrum, especially if mucosal hyperplasia or sinusitis is associated. Magnetic resonance imaging is the first imaging modality to perform in the follow-up after removal of inverted papilloma. (orig.)

  16. An SCR inverter for electric vehicles (United States)

    Latos, T.; Bosack, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Jahns, T.; Mezera, J.; Thimmesch, D.


    An inverter for an electric vehicle propulsion application has been designed and constructed to excite a polyphase induction motor from a fixed propulsion battery source. The inverter, rated at 35kW peak power, is fully regenerative and permits vehicle operation in both the forward and reverse directions. Thyristors are employed as the power switching devices arranged in a dc bus commutated topology. This paper describes the major role the controller plays in generating the motor excitation voltage and frequency to deliver performance similar to dc systems. Motoring efficiency test data for the controller are presented. It is concluded that an SCR inverter in conjunction with an ac induction motor is a viable alternative to present dc vehicle propulsion systems on the basis of performance and size criteria.

  17. Glass transition of soft colloids (United States)

    Philippe, Adrian-Marie; Truzzolillo, Domenico; Galvan-Myoshi, Julian; Dieudonné-George, Philippe; Trappe, Véronique; Berthier, Ludovic; Cipelletti, Luca


    We explore the glassy dynamics of soft colloids using microgels and charged particles interacting by steric and screened Coulomb interactions, respectively. In the supercooled regime, the structural relaxation time τα of both systems grows steeply with volume fraction, reminiscent of the behavior of colloidal hard spheres. Computer simulations confirm that the growth of τα on approaching the glass transition is independent of particle softness. By contrast, softness becomes relevant at very large packing fractions when the system falls out of equilibrium. In this nonequilibrium regime, τα depends surprisingly weakly on packing fraction, and time correlation functions exhibit a compressed exponential decay consistent with stress-driven relaxation. The transition to this novel regime coincides with the onset of an anomalous decrease in local order with increasing density typical of ultrasoft systems. We propose that these peculiar dynamics results from the combination of the nonequilibrium aging dynamics expected in the glassy state and the tendency of colloids interacting through soft potentials to refluidize at high packing fractions.

  18. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  19. Crystal nucleation in simple and complex fluids. (United States)

    Oxtoby, David W


    The application of density-functional methods from statistical mechanics to the nucleation of crystals from the melt is described. Simple fluids such as metals, with sizes comparable with the range of their attractive forces, are compared with complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions and proteins dissolved in solution. A different mechanism for crystal nucleation is proposed in the latter case, in which density (concentration) changes before periodic crystalline order appears. This leads to a theoretical foundation for empirical observations on the 'crystallization window' in protein crystallization. Comparisons are made with the results of computer simulation via molecular dynamics.

  20. Preparation of radioactive colloidal gold 198Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarosano, S.A.


    The preparation with simple equipment of radioactive colloidal gold of particle size about approximately 300 A from seed colloid stabilized by gelatine is described. Some physico-chemical parameters which can affect the process of formation of these colloidal particles are analysed; particle size has been meassured with an electron microscope. The colloid stability has been studied as a function of dilution, age and pH. Nucleation and growth of radioactive colloidal gold have been studied using spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of the two ones are presented and compared. Quality control of the production process is verified through measurement of parameters, such as radioactive and radiochemical purity and biological distribution in laboratorial animals. This distribution was evalusted for rats injected endovenously with the gold colloidal solution.(Author) [pt

  1. Does colloid shape affect detachment of colloids by a moving air-water interface? (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L; Davis, Howard P


    Air-water interfaces interact strongly with colloidal particles by capillary forces. The magnitude of the interaction force depends on, among other things, the particle shape. Here, we investigate the effects of particle shape on colloid detachment by a moving air-water interface. We used hydrophilic polystyrene colloids with four different shapes (spheres, barrels, rods, and oblong disks), but otherwise identical surface properties. The nonspherical shapes were created by stretching spherical microspheres on a film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The colloids were then deposited onto the inner surface of a glass channel. An air bubble was introduced into the channel and passed through, thereby generating a receding followed by an advancing air-water interface. The detachment of colloids by the air-water interfaces was visualized with a confocal microscope, quantified by image analysis, and analyzed statistically to determine significant differences. For all colloid shapes, the advancing air-water interface caused pronounced colloid detachment (>63%), whereas the receding interface was ineffective in colloid detachment (colloid shapes, the barrels were most readily removed (94%) by the advancing interface, followed by the spheres and oblong disks (80%) and the rods (63%). Colloid detachment was significantly affected by colloid shape. The presence of an edge, as it occurs in a barrel-shaped colloid, promoted colloid detachment because the air-water interface is being pinned at the edge of the colloid. This suggests that the magnitude of colloid mobilization and transport in porous media is underestimated for edged particles and overestimated for rodlike particles when a sphere is used as a model colloid.

  2. Smart Inverters for Utility and Industry Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Yaosuo; Guerrero, Josep M.


    Smart inverters are emerging with increasing renewable energy and smart grid development. While the recent work reviewed mostly focuses on defining standardized control functionalities and smart grid communication protocols, we take a holistic approach in this paper and propose a holon-type smart...... inverter concept, which features autonomous, adaptive, cooperative and plug-and-play functions. Self-awareness is also continually driven by power electronics inherently. These features can be favorable in a complex environment with more and more small-scale power electronics-based devices, and can reduce...

  3. Asymmetrical transformer-based embedded Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Z-source inverters are inverters with buck-boost capability that traditional inverters cannot match. Despite this ability, present Z-source topologies are burdened by some limitations such as chopping input current, high-voltage stress and poor spectral performance at high gain. To improve...... their performances, a number of asymmetrical transformer-based embedded Z-source inverters are proposed. Through theoretical derivation and experiments, the proposed inverters have been shown to draw a smooth input current and produce a high gain by varying the transformer turns ratio n. The range of variation for n...... depends on the inverter topology chosen, which in turn depends on the application under consideration....

  4. Characteristics Comparison of High-Frequency Multi-Level Inverter Connected with Filter Inverters (United States)

    Iwaya, Kazuki; Noguchi, Toshihiko

    This paper presents characteristics comparison of a high-frequency multi-level inverter connected with small capacity filter inverters. In general, PWM inverters require a low-pass filter in order to reduce switching harmonics. However, in the high-frequency systems such as class D power amplifiers, the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter must set at high frequency. Thus, harmonic distortion of the output voltage harmfully enlarges. Increasing the number of output voltage levels is effective to reduce the harmonic distortion of the output voltage and the low-pass filter size. The proposed systems consist of a 5-level inverter and several cascade-connected low-voltage full bridge inverters without any external DC power sources for filtering the output voltage. The 5-level inverter generates a stepwise waveform with 5-level voltage, and the low voltage filter inverter superimposes harmonic components to compensate for the voltage waveform distortion. Therefore, the proposed system can reduce its total switching loss and can increase the number of the output voltage levels. In this paper, effectiveness of the proposed systems is verified through several experiments.

  5. Fabrication and Analysis of Photonic Crystals (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Korte, Kylee E.; Xia, Younan


    These laboratory experiments are designed to explore aspects of nanoscale chemistry by constructing and spectroscopically analyzing thin films of photonic crystals. Films comprised of colloidal spheres and polydimethylsiloxane exhibit diffraction-based stop bands that shift reversibly upon exposure to some common solvents. Topics covered in these…

  6. Colloid Titration--A Rapid Method for the Determination of Charged Colloid. (United States)

    Ueno, Keihei; Kina, Ken'yu


    "Colloid titration" is a volumetric method for determining charged polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions. The principle of colloid titration, reagents used in the procedure, methods of endpoint detection, preparation of reagent solutions, general procedure used, results obtained, and pH profile of colloid titration are considered. (JN)

  7. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng


    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  8. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S


    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  9. Nonequilibrium forces between dragged ultrasoft colloids. (United States)

    Singh, Sunil P; Winkler, Roland G; Gompper, Gerhard


    The dynamical deformation of ultrasoft colloids as well as their dynamic frictional forces are numerically investigated, when one colloid is dragged past another at constant velocity. Hydrodynamic interactions are captured by a particle-based mesoscopic simulation method. At vanishing relative velocity, the equilibrium repulsive force-distance curve is obtained. At large drag velocities, in contrast, we find an apparent attractive force for departing colloids along the dragging direction. The deformation, in the close encounter of colloids, and the energy dissipation are examined as a function of the drag velocity and their separation.

  10. Dynamic colloidal assembly pathways via low dimensional models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuguang; Bevan, Michael A., E-mail: [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Thyagarajan, Raghuram; Ford, David M. [Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)


    Here we construct a low-dimensional Smoluchowski model for electric field mediated colloidal crystallization using Brownian dynamic simulations, which were previously matched to experiments. Diffusion mapping is used to infer dimensionality and confirm the use of two order parameters, one for degree of condensation and one for global crystallinity. Free energy and diffusivity landscapes are obtained as the coefficients of a low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation to capture the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure evolution. The resulting low-dimensional model quantitatively captures the dynamics of different assembly pathways between fluid, polycrystal, and single crystals states, in agreement with the full N-dimensional data as characterized by first passage time distributions. Numerical solution of the low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation reveals statistical properties of the dynamic evolution of states vs. applied field amplitude and system size. The low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation and associated landscapes calculated here can serve as models for predictive control of electric field mediated assembly of colloidal ensembles into two-dimensional crystalline objects.

  11. Pressure-induced melting of micellar crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.; Schwahn, D.; Janssen, S.


    that pressure improves the solvent quality of water, thus resulting in decomposition of the micelles and consequent melting of the micellar crystal. The combined pressure and temperature dependence reveals that in spite of the apparent increase of order on the 100 angstrom length scale upon increasing......Aqueous solutions of triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) aggregate at elevated temperatures into micelles which for polymer concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 20% make a hard sphere crystallization to a cubic micellar crystal. Structural studies show...... temperature (decreasing pressure) the overall entropy increases through the inverted micellar crystallization characteristic....

  12. Live Imaging of Shoot Meristems on an Inverted Confocal Microscope Using an Objective Lens Inverter Attachment. (United States)

    Nimchuk, Zachary L; Perdue, Tony D


    Live imaging of above ground meristems can lead to new insights in plant development not possible from static imaging of fixed tissue. The use of an upright confocal microscope offers several technical and biological advantages for live imaging floral or shoot meristems. However, many departments and core facilities possess only inverted confocal microscopes and lack the funding for an additional upright confocal microscope. Here we show that imaging of living apical meristems can be performed on existing inverted confocal microscopes with the use of an affordable and detachable InverterScope accessory.

  13. High voltage series resonant inverter ion engine screen supply. [SCR series resonant inverter for space applications (United States)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Shank, J. H.


    A high-voltage, high-power LC series resonant inverter using SCRs has been developed for an Ion Engine Power Processor. The inverter operates within 200-400Vdc with a maximum output power of 2.5kW. The inverter control logic, the screen supply electrical and mechanical characteristics, the efficiency and losses in power components, regulation on the dual feedback principle, the SCR waveforms and the component weight are analyzed. Efficiency of 90.5% and weight density of 4.1kg/kW are obtained.

  14. Direct Measurements of Island Growth and Step-Edge Barriers in Colloidal Epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Ganapathy, R.


    Epitaxial growth, a bottom-up self-assembly process for creating surface nano- and microstructures, has been extensively studied in the context of atoms. This process, however, is also a promising route to self-assembly of nanometer- and micrometer-scale particles into microstructures that have numerous technological applications. To determine whether atomic epitaxial growth laws are applicable to the epitaxy of larger particles with attractive interactions, we investigated the nucleation and growth dynamics of colloidal crystal films with single-particle resolution. We show quantitatively that colloidal epitaxy obeys the same two-dimensional island nucleation and growth laws that govern atomic epitaxy. However, we found that in colloidal epitaxy, step-edge and corner barriers that are responsible for film morphology have a diffusive origin. This diffusive mechanism suggests new routes toward controlling film morphology during epitaxy.

  15. New Colloidal Lithographic Nanopatterns Fabricated by Combining Pre-Heating and Reactive Ion Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Chunxiao


    Full Text Available Abstract We report a low-cost and simple method for fabrication of nonspherical colloidal lithographic nanopatterns with a long-range order by preheating and oxygen reactive ion etching of monolayer and double-layer polystyrene spheres. This strategy allows excellent control of size and morphology of the colloidal particles and expands the applications of the colloidal patterns as templates for preparing ordered functional nanostructure arrays. For the first time, various unique nanostructures with long-range order, including network structures with tunable neck length and width, hexagonal-shaped, and rectangular-shaped arrays as well as size tunable nanohole arrays, were fabricated by this route. Promising potentials of such unique periodic nanostructures in various fields, such as photonic crystals, catalysts, templates for deposition, and masks for etching, are naturally expected.

  16. Inverted Pedagogy in Second Semester Calculus (United States)

    Kennedy, Ellie; Beaudrie, Brian; Ernst, Dana C.; St. Laurent, Roy


    This study investigates the effects of applying an inverted classroom model in a second-semester calculus course at a large regional university in the southwest during the Spring of 2013. The sample consisted of four class sections with the same instructor, with a total of 173 students; two class sections were in the experimental group, whereas…

  17. Inverting the Transition-to-Proof Classroom (United States)

    Talbert, Robert


    In this paper, we examine the benefits of employing an inverted or "flipped" class design in a Transition-to-Proof course for second-year mathematics majors. The issues concomitant with such courses, particularly student acquisition of "sociomathematical norms" and self-regulated learning strategies, are discussed along with…

  18. MPPT algorithm for voltage controlled PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco


    This paper presents a novel concept for an MPPT that can be used in case of a voltage controlled grid connected PV inverters. In case of single-phase systems, the 100 Hz ripple in the AC power is also present on the DC side. Depending on the DC link capacitor, this power fluctuation can be used...

  19. The Internet and the Inverted Classroom. (United States)

    Lage, Maureen J.; Platt, Glenn


    Describes a Web site that is for an undergraduate principles of microeconomics course and a main component of "The Inverted Classroom" in which lectures take place outside of class. Explains that the Web site is divided into four sections: (1) the classroom; (2) the desk; (3) the coffee shop; and (4) the library. (CMK)

  20. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer


    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  1. Subintegrality, invertible modules and Laurent polynomial extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 125, No. 2, May 2015, pp. 149–160. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Subintegrality, invertible modules and Laurent polynomial extensions. VIVEK SADHU. Department of Mathematics ...... comments which have improved the exposition. Further, he would like to thank CSIR,. India for financial ...

  2. Two-Stage Series-Resonant Inverter (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A.


    Two-stage inverter includes variable-frequency, voltage-regulating first stage and fixed-frequency second stage. Lightweight circuit provides regulated power and is invulnerable to output short circuits. Does not require large capacitor across ac bus, like parallel resonant designs. Particularly suitable for use in ac-power-distribution system of aircraft.

  3. Inverter Matrix for the Clementine Mission (United States)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Tardio, G.; Soli, G. A.


    An inverter matrix test circuit was designed for the Clementine space mission and is built into the RRELAX (Radiation and Reliability Assurance Experiment). The objective is to develop a circuit that will allow the evaluation of the CMOS FETs using a lean data set in the noisy spacecraft environment.

  4. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger (United States)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)


    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  5. The invertible double of elliptic operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Lesch, Matthias; Zhu, Chaofeng

    We construct a canonical invertible double for general first order elliptic differential operators over smooth compact manifolds with boundary and derive a natural formula for the Calderon projector which yields a generalization of the famous Cobordism Theorem. Assuming symmetric principal symbol...

  6. Light scattering studies of lower dimensional colloidal particle and critical fluid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, W.J.; Mockler, R.C.


    The authors have studied the response to compression of colloidal particle crystals in monolayers on the surface of water. The crystals deform elastically as the crystals are compressed in a Langmuir trough from a lattice spacing of ten microns to spacings less than two microns. A phase transition to a close packed triangular lattice phase occurs at very high densities, when the attractive van der Waals/steric interations between particles dominate. The authors have found that the aggregates formed, when a colloidal particle monolayer coagulates following switching off of the repulsive electric dipole-dipole interactions, show scale invariance with a fractal dimension consistent with the prediction of a theory of diffusion limited aggregation in two dimensions. The authors have made progress toward the development of a computer processed array detector-spectrometer to be used in studies of melting and crystallization of two dimensional colloidal particle films. Stable black bilipid membranes have been produced, both spherical and planar, with and without embedded microparticles. We have modified our heterodyne autocorrelation spectrometer, used for studies of the dynamic response of critical fluid films, to enable us to measure the intensity autocorrelation of light scattered at forward angles. Rayleigh linewidth data has been gathered from a 1.9 micron film of a 2,6-lutidine+water critical mixture, taken at a scattering angle of ten degrees. The preliminary results indicate that the film dynamical response remains that of an equivalent three dimensional system, in apparent disgreement with recent theoretical predictions of Calvo and Ferrell

  7. Colloid transport in dual-permeability media. (United States)

    Leij, Feike J; Bradford, Scott A


    It has been widely reported that colloids can travel faster and over longer distances in natural structured porous media than in uniform structureless media used in laboratory studies. The presence of preferential pathways for colloids in the subsurface environment is of concern because of the increased risks for disease caused by microorganisms and colloid-associated contaminants. This study presents a model for colloid transport in dual-permeability media that includes reversible and irreversible retention of colloids and first-order exchange between the aqueous phases of the two regions. The model may also be used to describe transport of other reactive solutes in dual-permeability media. Analytical solutions for colloid concentrations in aqueous and solid phases were obtained using Laplace transformation and matrix decomposition. The solutions proved convenient to assess the effect of model parameters on the colloid distribution. The analytical model was used to describe effluent concentrations for a bromide tracer and 3.2- or 1-μm-colloids that were observed after transport through a composite 10-cm long porous medium made up of a cylindrical lens or core of sand and a surrounding matrix with sand of a different grain size. The tracer data were described very well and realistic estimates were obtained for the pore-water velocity in the two flow domains. An accurate description was also achieved for most colloid breakthrough curves. Dispersivity and retention parameters were typically greater for the larger 3.2-μm-colloids while both reversible and irreversible retention rates tended to be higher for the finer sands than the coarser sand. The relatively small sample size and the complex flow pattern in the composite medium made it difficult to reach definitive conclusions regarding transport parameters for colloid transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. FPGA Based Compensation Method for Correcting Distortion in Voltage Inverters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Kenya D


    ...) voltage source inverters. Blanking time distortion is caused by the delay inserted to prevent the short circuit that would occur if the two transistors in the same inverter leg are both on at the same time...

  9. Photonic crystal waveguides in artificial opals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Kiyan, Roman; Neumeister, Andrei


    3D photonic crystals based on Si inverted-opals are numerically explored as hosts for effective air-channel waveguides, which can serve as parts of photonic circuits. Two basic shapes of straight waveguides are considered: cylindrical and a chain of spheres. Modelling shows that transmission is h...

  10. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy


    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  11. Phase behaviour of charged colloidal sphere dispersions with added polymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, Andrea; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Tuinier, Remco


    We study the stability of mixtures of highly screened repulsive charged spheres and non-adsorbing ideal polymer chains in a common solvent using free volume theory. The effective interaction between charged colloids in an aqueous salt solution is described by a screened Coulomb pair potential, which supplements the pure hard-sphere interaction. The ideal polymer chains are treated as spheres that are excluded from the colloids by a hard-core interaction, whereas the interaction between two ideal chains is set to zero. In addition, we investigate the phase behaviour of charged colloid-polymer mixtures in computer simulations, using the two-body (Asakura-Oosawa pair potential) approximation to the effective one-component Hamiltonian of the charged colloids. Both our results obtained from simulations and from free volume theory show similar trends. We find that the screened Coulomb repulsion counteracts the effect of the effective polymer-mediated attraction. For mixtures of small polymers and relatively large charged colloidal spheres, the fluid-crystal transition shifts to significantly larger polymer concentrations with increasing range of the screened Coulomb repulsion. For relatively large polymers, the effect of the screened Coulomb repulsion is weaker. The resulting fluid-fluid binodal is only slightly shifted towards larger polymer concentrations upon increasing the range of the screened Coulomb repulsion. In conclusion, our results show that the miscibility of dispersions containing charged colloids and neutral non-adsorbing polymers increases upon increasing the range of the screened Coulomb repulsion, or upon lowering the salt concentration, especially when the polymers are small compared to the colloids

  12. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RENAL LITHIASIS—Increasing the Protective Urinary Colloids with Hyaluronidase (United States)

    Butt, Arthur J.; Hauser, Ernst A.; Seifter, Joseph


    Urine is a highly saturated solution due to the presence of certain colloids. The protective action of urinary colloids is of major importance in preventing precipitation, agglomeration and conglomeration of crystalloids from a super-saturated solution. If the concentration of such protective colloids is insufficient, stone formation begins or is accelerated. In 680 human subjects, the incidence of stone was found to be almost inversely proportional to the degree of protective urinary colloids present. Urine specimens were subjected to ultramicroscopic examination, determination of electric charge carried by the colloidal particles, determination of the surface tension, and photo-ultramicrographic studies. Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronidase mixed with physiologic saline solution greatly increases the content of protective colloids in the urine. The colloids are caused to set up to a gel, thereby preventing electrolytes present from crystallizing. They act as excellent dispersing agents and prevent the formation of stone. Hyaluronidase therapy, using 150 turbidity reducing units every 24 to 72 hours, was effective in preventing calculous formation or reformation during a period of 11 to 14 months in 18 of 20 patients in whom, previously, stones formed rapidly. In a second series of ten patients in whom stones formed rapidly, larger doses of hyaluronidase, averaging 300 turbidity reducing units every 24 to 48 hours, were given. The period of observation at the time of report was from six to ten months. In this group, there was no new stone formation or enlargement of existing stones as evidenced by x-ray studies at 30- to 60-day intervals. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14905291

  13. Structural color from colloidal glasses (United States)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia

    When a material has inhomogeneities at a lengthscale comparable to the wavelength of light, interference can give rise to structural colors: colors that originate from the interaction of the material's microstructure with light and do not require absorbing dyes. In this thesis we study a class of these materials, called photonic glasses, where the inhomogeneities form a dense and random arrangement. Photonic glasses have angle-independent structural colors that look like those of conventional dyes. However, when this work started, there was only a handful of colors accessible with photonic glasses, mostly hues of blue. We use various types of colloidal particles to make photonic glasses, and we study, both theoretically and experimentally, how the optical properties of these glasses relate to their structure and constituent particles. Based on our observations from glasses of conventional particles, we construct a theoretical model that explains the scarcity of yellow, orange, and red photonic glasses. Guided by this model, we develop novel colloidal systems that allow a higher degree of control over structural color. We assemble glasses of soft, core-shell particles with scattering cores and transparent shells, where the resonant wavelength can be tuned independently of the reflectivity. We then encapsulate glasses of these core-shell particles into emulsion droplets of tunable size; in this system, we observe, for the first time, angle-independent structural colors that cover the entire visible spectrum. To enhance color saturation, we begin experimenting with inverse glasses, where the refractive index of the particles is lower than the refractive index of the medium, with promising results. Finally, based on our theoretical model for scattering from colloidal glasses, we begin an exploration of the color gamut that could be achieved with this technique, and we find that photonic glasses are a promising approach to a new type of long-lasting, non-toxic, and

  14. A colloid-facilitated transport model with variable colloid transport properties (United States)

    Robinson, Bruce A.; Wolfsberg, Andrew V.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Reimus, Paul W.


    Anomalous contaminant transport velocities in groundwater for species generally considered to be immobile are often attributed to the mechanism of colloid-facilitated transport. In some of the field observations attributed to colloid facilitation, an extremely small fraction of the total contaminant mass introduced to the groundwater is detected downstream. In this study, a new model of colloid-facilitated contaminant transport is proposed that explains this phenomenon as the variability of mobility of individual colloids in the population. The process of retardation via attachment and detachment of colloids on immobile surfaces is often modeled with time and space invariant parameters; here it is modeled assuming a diverse population of transport properties that account for the inherent variability of colloid size, surface charge and chemical properties, mineralogy, and the concomitant impact on colloid mobility. When the contaminant is assumed to irreversibly attach to or form colloids, the migration of the contaminant plume exhibits extremely non-Fickian behavior. The plume's center of mass travels with a velocity governed by the groundwater velocity divided by the mean colloid retardation factor. However, small quantities of contaminant attached to a few highly mobile colloids travel at velocities up to the groundwater velocity, far exceeding the velocity of the centroid of the plume. This paper introduces the colloid diversity model, presents some sensitivity calculations for an idealized case, and discusses the implications of such a model on data needs, simulation of field observations, and model scaling.

  15. Non-iridescent structural colors from uniform-sized SiO2 colloids (United States)

    Topçu, Gökhan; Güner, Tuğrul; Demir, Mustafa M.


    Structural colors have recently attracted interest from diverse fields of research due to their ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. These types of colors are, in principle, achieved by periodically arranged submicron-diameter colloidal particles. The interaction of light with a structure containing long-range ordered colloidal particles leads to coloration; this usually varies depending on the angle of observation (iridescence). However, the majority of the applications demand constant color that is independent of the viewing angle (non-iridescence). In this work, silica colloids were obtained using the Stöber method at different sizes from 150 to 300 nm in an alcoholic dispersion. The casting of the dispersion on a substrate leaves behind a photonic crystal showing a colorful iridescent film. However, centrifugation and redispersion of the SiO2 particles into fresh solvent may cause the formation of small, aggregated silica domains in the new dispersion. The casting of this dispersion allows for the development of photonic glass, presumably due to the accumulation of aggregates showing stable colloidal film independent of viewing angle. Moreover, depending on the size of the silica colloids, non-iridescent photonic glasses with various colors (violet, blue, green, and orange) are obtained.

  16. Structural Color Patterns by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printed Photonic Crystals. (United States)

    Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Tian, Lei; Liu, Cihui; Fu, Guangbin; Shang, Luoran; Gu, Zhongze


    In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal patterns with controllable morphologies and structural colors utilizing electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing with colloidal crystal inks. The final shape of photonic crystal units is controlled by the applied voltage signal and wettability of the substrate. Optical properties of the structural color patterns are tuned by the self-assembly of the silica nanoparticle building blocks. Using this direct printing technique, it is feasible to print customized functional patterns composed of photonic crystal dots or photonic crystal lines according to relevant printing mode and predesigned tracks. This is the first report for E-jet printing with colloidal crystal inks. Our results exhibit promising applications in displays, biosensors, and other functional devices.

  17. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen


    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates to accommodate the ice lenses, and a heave regime during which liquid is sucked into the consolidated soil from an external reservoir, and the added volume causes the soil to heave. The ice fraction is found to vary inversely with thefreezing velocity V , while the rate of heave is independent of V , consistent with field and laboratoryobservations. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. Efficient/reliable dc-to-dc inverter circuit (United States)

    Pasciutti, E. R.


    Feedback loop, which contains an inductor in series with a saturable reactor, is added to a standard inverter circuit to permit the inverter power transistors to be switched in a controlled and efficient manner. This inverter is applicable where the power source has either high or low impedance properties.

  19. Do pregnant women know how to correct inverted nipples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inverted nipples occur in an estimated 9 to 10 percent of women globally, contributing to the number of women who are not exclusively breastfeeding their infants. Women with inverted nipples may want to breastfeed, but infants may be unable to latch to the breast. Inverted nipples can be corrected, but it is unclear if women ...

  20. Pulsewidth-modulated 2-source neutral-point-clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chang; Gao, Feng


    This paper presents the careful integration of a newly proposed Z-source topological concept to the basic neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter topology for designing a three-level inverter with both voltage-buck and voltage-boost capabilities. The designed Z-source NPC inverter uses two unique X-...

  1. Mobile Inverted Constructivism: Education of Interaction Technology in Social Media (United States)

    Chai, Jia-Xiang; Fan, Kuo-Kuang


    The combination of social media and invert teaching is a new path to inverting interation technology education and reconstructing the curriculum of context. In this paper, based on the theory of constructivism learning, a model named Mobile Inverted Constructivism (MIC) is provided. Moreover, in view of the functional quality of social media in…

  2. Power Inverter Topologies for Photovoltaic Modules - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This review-paper focuses on the latest development of inverters for photovoltaic AC-Modules. The power range for these inverters is usually within 90 Watt to 500 Watt, which covers the most commercial photovoltaic-modules. Self-commutated inverters have replaced the grid-commutated ones. The same...

  3. Diode-Assisted Buck-Boost Current Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, F.; Cai, Liang; Loh, P.C.


    This paper presents a couple of novel current source inverters (CSIs) with the enhanced current buckboost capability. With the unique diode-inductor network added between current source inverter circuitry and current boost elements, the proposed buck-boost current source inverters demonstrate...

  4. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    during light load condition the excess energy generated from the PV inverter is fed to the grid and; during an overload condition or in case of unfavorable atmospheric conditions the load demand is met by both PV inverter and the grid. In order to synchronize the PV inverter with the grid a dual transport delay based phase ...

  5. Online Variable Topology-Type Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Fengjiang; Sun, Bo; Duan, Jiandong


    and H-bridge inverter under the conditions of variable output voltage and power of the PV array. It is proved that, compared with the H-bridge inverter, the operation range of the cascaded inverter is wider, whereas the total loss is larger. Furthermore, a novel online variable topology-type grid...

  6. DC-to-AC inverter ratio failure detector (United States)

    Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E.


    Failure detection technique is based upon input-output ratios, which is independent of inverter loading. Since inverter has fixed relationship between V-in/V-out and I-in/I-out, failure detection criteria are based on this ratio, which is simply inverter transformer turns ratio, K, equal to primary turns divided by secondary turns.

  7. Colloidal Electrolytes and the Critical Micelle Concentration (United States)

    Knowlton, L. G.


    Describes methods for determining the Critical Micelle Concentration of Colloidal Electrolytes; methods described are: (1) methods based on Colligative Properties, (2) methods based on the Electrical Conductivity of Colloidal Electrolytic Solutions, (3) Dye Method, (4) Dye Solubilization Method, and (5) Surface Tension Method. (BR)

  8. Manipulating colloids with charges and electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, M.E.


    This thesis presents the results of experimental investigations on a variety of colloidal suspensions. Colloidal particles are at least a hundred times larger than atoms or molecules, but suspended in a liquid they display the same phase behavior, including fluid and crystalline phases. Due to their

  9. Optical and structural properties of colloidal zirconia nanoparticles prepared by arc discharge in liquid (United States)

    Peymani forooshani, Reza; Poursalehi, Reza; Yourdkhani, Amin


    Zirconia is one of the important ceramic materials with unique properties such as high melting point, high ionic conductivity, high mechanical properties and low thermal conductivity. Therefore, zirconia is one of the useful materials in refractories, thermal barriers, cutting tools, oxygen sensors electrolytes, catalysis, catalyst supports and solid oxide fuel cells. Recently, direct current (DC) arc discharge is extensively employed to synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures in liquid environments. The aim of this work is the synthesis of colloidal zirconia nanoparticles by DC arc discharge method in water as a medium. Arc discharge was ignited between two pure zirconium electrodes in water. Optical and structural properties of prepared colloidal nanoparticles were investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy, were employed for characterization of particle size, morphology, crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. SEM images demonstrate that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average size lower than 38 nm. The XRD patterns of the nanoparticles were consistent with tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia crystal structures. The optical transmission spectra of the colloidal solution show optical characteristic of zirconia nanoparticles as a wide band gap semiconductor with no absorption peak in visible wavelength with the considerable amount of oxygen deficiency. Oxidation of colloidal nanoparticles in water could be explained via reaction with either dissociated oxygen from water in hot plasma region or with dissolved oxygen in water. The results provide a simple and flexible method for preparation of zirconia nanoparticles with a capability of mass production without environmental footprints.

  10. Colloid transport in saturated porous media: Elimination of attachment efficiency in a new colloid transport model (United States)

    Landkamer, Lee L.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Ryan, Joseph N.


    A colloid transport model is introduced that is conceptually simple yet captures the essential features of colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media when colloid retention is dominated by the secondary minimum because an electrostatic barrier inhibits substantial deposition in the primary minimum. This model is based on conventional colloid filtration theory (CFT) but eliminates the empirical concept of attachment efficiency. The colloid deposition rate is computed directly from CFT by assuming all predicted interceptions of colloids by collectors result in at least temporary deposition in the secondary minimum. Also, a new paradigm for colloid re-entrainment based on colloid population heterogeneity is introduced. To accomplish this, the initial colloid population is divided into two fractions. One fraction, by virtue of physiochemical characteristics (e.g., size and charge), will always be re-entrained after capture in a secondary minimum. The remaining fraction of colloids, again as a result of physiochemical characteristics, will be retained “irreversibly” when captured by a secondary minimum. Assuming the dispersion coefficient can be estimated from tracer behavior, this model has only two fitting parameters: (1) the fraction of the initial colloid population that will be retained “irreversibly” upon interception by a secondary minimum, and (2) the rate at which reversibly retained colloids leave the secondary minimum. These two parameters were correlated to the depth of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) secondary energy minimum and pore-water velocity, two physical forces that influence colloid transport. Given this correlation, the model serves as a heuristic tool for exploring the influence of physical parameters such as surface potential and fluid velocity on colloid transport.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Mesostructures Using Colloidal Crystal Templating (United States)


    spacing and refractive index during redox cycling. Inverse opal hydrogels were templated using free radical photopolymerization. By copolymerizing ...Finally, the flow cell geometry facilitates the infiltration of dried CCs with acrylated monomers and their subsequent polymerization to CC templated...valves. Through UV polymerization of mixtures of pH-sensitive monomers such as acrylic acid and structural monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl

  12. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.


    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  13. Stochastic p-Bits for Invertible Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Yunus Camsari


    Full Text Available Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40–60  kT. In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call “p-bits,” can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p-bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p-bits, showing that p-bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM with a symmetric connection matrix [J] (J_{ij}=J_{ji} that implements a given truth table with p-bits. The [J] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (J_{ij}≠J_{ji} to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p-bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 2^{33} (≈8×10^{9} possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect

  14. Stochastic p -Bits for Invertible Logic (United States)

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Faria, Rafatul; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo


    Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40 - 60 kT . In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call "p -bits," can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p -bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p -bits, showing that p -bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM) with a symmetric connection matrix [J ] (Ji j=Jj i) that implements a given truth table with p -bits. The [J ] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (Ji j≠Jj i) to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p -bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 233 (≈8 ×1 09) possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect directivity (Jj i=0 ) a small

  15. Nonlinear rheology of colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brader, J M


    Colloidal dispersions are commonly encountered in everyday life and represent an important class of complex fluid. Of particular significance for many commercial products and industrial processes is the ability to control and manipulate the macroscopic flow response of a dispersion by tuning the microscopic interactions between the constituents. An important step towards attaining this goal is the development of robust theoretical methods for predicting from first-principles the rheology and nonequilibrium microstructure of well defined model systems subject to external flow. In this review we give an overview of some promising theoretical approaches and the phenomena they seek to describe, focusing, for simplicity, on systems for which the colloidal particles interact via strongly repulsive, spherically symmetric interactions. In presenting the various theories, we will consider first low volume fraction systems, for which a number of exact results may be derived, before moving on to consider the intermediate and high volume fraction states which present both the most interesting physics and the most demanding technical challenges. In the high volume fraction regime particular emphasis will be given to the rheology of dynamically arrested states. (topical review)

  16. Colloid centrifugation of boar semen. (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Wallgren, M


    Colloid centrifugation of boar semen has been reported sporadically for at least the last two decades, beginning with density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and progressing more recently to single layer centrifugation (SLC). Single layer centrifugation through a species-specific colloid has been shown to be effective in selecting the best spermatozoa (spermatozoa with good motility and normal morphology) from boar sperm samples. The method is easier to use and less time-consuming than DGC and has been scaled-up to allow whole ejaculates from other species, e.g. stallions, to be processed in a practical manner. The SLC technique is described, and various scale-up versions are presented. The potential applications for SLC in boar semen preservation are as follows: to improve sperm quality in artificial insemination (AI) doses for 'problem' boars; to increase the shelf-life of normal stored sperm samples, either by processing the fresh semen before preparing AI doses or by processing the stored semen dose to extract the best spermatozoa; to remove pathogens (viruses, bacteria), thus improving biosecurity of semen doses and potentially reducing the use of antibiotics; to improve cryosurvival by removing dead and dying spermatozoa prior to cryopreservation; to select spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization. These applications are discussed and practical examples are provided. Finally, a few thoughts about the economic value of the technique to the boar semen industry are presented. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Transistor Clamped Five-Level Inverter using Non-Inverting Double Reference Single Carrier PWM Technique for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Fedák, Viliam


    supplies or capacitor banks. To design the proposed five level inverter five numbers of power control switches and eight diodes are required. The proposed inverter circuitry is investigated by using Non-Inverting Double Reference Single Carrier PWM (NIDRSC PWM) Technique in terms of harmonics content...

  18. Directed self-assembly of colloidal dumbbells with an electric field. (United States)

    Demirörs, Ahmet Faik; Johnson, Patrick M; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout


    We demonstrate the assembly of colloidal particles with the shape of diatomic molecules ("dumbbells") into crystals that we study with confocal microscopy. The literature on the preparation of nonspherical colloidal particles has grown steadily. Assembly of these particles into regular three-dimensional crystalline lattices, however, is rarely, if ever, achieved and has not yet been studied quantitatively in 3D real space. We find that, by application of an electric field, such particles assemble quite readily. By varying the particle aspect ratio, range of interactions, and electric field strength, we find several different crystal structures of which three have never before been observed. Moreover, the electric field can be used to switch between different structures and manipulate/switch the photonic properties. Moreover, our work sheds light on fundamental questions related to the self-assembly of nonspherical particles.

  19. A Transformer-less Single Phase Inverter For photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Qu, Ying


    A single phase transformer-less inverter is introduced in this paper. The negative polarities of the input voltage and output terminal have common ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem that is common in PV systems is eliminated naturally. In addition, the proposed inverter has fewer...... components compared with its counterparts and only one switch conducts during the active states which enhance the inverter efficiency. The proposed inverter is analyzed in details and compared with some existing topologies. The performance of the proposed inverter is validated using the simulation results....

  20. Acoustic separation of oil droplets, colloidal particles and their mixtures in a microfluidic cell

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    Here we report direct macroscopic and microscopic observations of acoustic driven separation of dodecane oil droplets in water in the presence and absence of colloidal silica particles suspended in the water phase. The experiments were conducted in a simple rectangular channel glass microfluidic cell in which an ultrasound standing wave pattern was generated at 300 KHz frequency. The separation process of both oil droplets and colloidal particles inside the cell was recorded using a high-speed video camera equipped with a macro-objective lens for macroscopic observation or with a high-speed camera attached to an inverted optical microscope for a higher resolution microscopic observation. We characterize the clustering process in the case of emulsion droplets or solid colloidal particles and ultimately demonstrate the emulsion droplets separation from the solid particles in the mixtures based on their different acoustic contrast factors. Finally, we conduct proof of concept experiment to show that the same approach can be used in a continuous fluid flow process.

  1. SnS thin films realized from colloidal nanocrystal inks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kergommeaux, Antoine de, E-mail: [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1), Laboratoire d' Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); INES, CEA-DRT/LITEN/DTS/LMPV, Institut National de l' Energie Solaire, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Faure-Vincent, Jérôme [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1), Laboratoire d' Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Pron, Adam [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1), Laboratoire d' Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, Warsaw (Poland); Bettignies, Rémi de [INES, CEA-DRT/LITEN/DTS/LMPV, Institut National de l' Energie Solaire, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Reiss, Peter, E-mail: [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1), Laboratoire d' Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)


    Tin sulfide (SnS), having a direct band gap of 1.3 eV, is a promising absorber material for solar energy conversion. We synthesized colloidal SnS nanocrystals with a size tuneable from 5 to 20 nm and low size dispersion. These nanocrystals can be processed as thin films using low-cost solution phase methods. They also offer the possibility of controlling the crystalline phase before deposition. With the goal to obtain dense and crack-free films of high conductivity, we used a layer-by-layer deposition technique. In the first step, the substrate was dipped in the nanocrystal colloidal solution (“ink”). Next, exchange of the nanocrystal surface ligands (oleylamine, trioctylphosphine, oleic acid) was carried out by dipping the substrate into a solution of small cross-linking molecules (1,4-benzenedithiol). This exchange enhances the electronic coupling and charge carrier mobilities by reducing the interparticle distance. At the same time it assures the immobilization of the nanocrystals to avoid their removal during subsequent depositions. The thickness of the nanocrystal thin films was controlled in a range of 100–250 nm by varying the number of the alternating nanocrystal deposition and ligand exchange steps. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations show that the obtained films are dense and homogeneous with a surface roughness as low as 3 to 4 nm root mean square. Using an inverted structure, the heterojunction of a SnS nanocrystals film with n-type ZnO nanocrystals shows a strongly increased current density under white light irradiation with respect to the dark. - Highlights: ► We synthesized 5–20 nm diameter SnS colloidal nanocrystals. ► Thin films of 100–250 nm can be obtained with layer-by-layer deposition method. ► Ligand exchange procedure is performed to enhance the conductivity. ► Electrical measurements under light exhibit an increase of the current density.

  2. Polymer-Induced Depletion Interaction and Its Effect on Colloidal Sedimentation in Colloid-Polymer Mixtures (United States)

    Tong, Penger


    In this paper we focus on the polymer-induced depletion attraction and its effect on colloidal sedimentation in colloid-polymer mixtures. We first report a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of the depletion effect in a mixture of hard-sphere-like colloid and non-adsorbing polymer. Then we present results of our recent sedimentation measurements in the same colloid-polymer mixture. A key parameter in controlling the sedimentation of heavy colloidal particles is the interparticle potential U(tau), which is the work required to bring two colloidal particles from infinity to a distance tau under a give solvent condition. This potential is known to affect the average settling velocity of the particles and experimentally one needs to have a way to continuously vary U(tau) in order to test the theory. The interaction potential U(tau) can be altered by adding polymer molecules into the colloidal suspension. In a mixture of colloid and non-adsorbing polymer, the potential U(tau) can develop an attractive well because of the depletion effect, in that the polymer chains are expelled from the region between two colloidal particles when their surface separation becomes smaller than the size of the polymer chains. The exclusion of polymer molecules from the space between the colloidal particles leads to an unbalanced osmotic pressure difference pushing the colloidal particles together, which results in an effective attraction between the two colloidal particles. The polymer-induced depletion attraction controls the phase stability of many colloid-polymer mixtures, which are directly of interest to industry.

  3. Colloid transport and retention in unsaturated porous media: effect of colloid input concentration. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Cakmak, M Ekrem; Salvucci, Anthony E; Geohring, Larry D; Hay, Anthony G; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Steenhuis, Tammo S


    Colloids play an important role in facilitating transport of adsorbed contaminants in soils. Recent studies showed that under saturated conditions colloid retention was a function of its concentration. It is unknown if this is the case under unsaturated conditions. In this study, the effect of colloid concentration on colloid retention was investigated in unsaturated columns by increasing concentrations of colloid influents with varying ionic strength. Colloid retention was observed in situ by bright field microscopy and quantified by measuring colloid breakthrough curves. In our unsaturated experiments, greater input concentrations resulted in increased colloid retention at ionic strength above 0.1 mM, but not in deionized water (i.e., 0 mM ionic strength). Bright field microscope images showed that colloid retention mainly occurred at the solid-water interface and wedge-shaped air-water-solid interfaces, whereas the retention at the grain-grain contacts was minor. Some colloids at the air-water-solid interfaces were rotating and oscillating and thus trapped. Computational hydrodynamic simulation confirmed that the wedge-shaped air-water-solid interface could form a "hydrodynamic trap" by retaining colloids in its low velocity vortices. Direct visualization also revealed that colloids once retained acted as new retention sites for other suspended colloids at ionic strength greater than 0.1 mM and thereby could explain the greater retention with increased input concentrations. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) energy calculations support this concept. Finally, the results of unsaturated experiments were in agreement with limited saturated experiments under otherwise the same conditions.

  4. Advanced Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Fan, Liping


    Advanced Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems is an orderly presentation of recent ideas for overcoming the complications inherent in the control of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) systems, in the presence of uncertain dynamics, nonholonomic kinematic constraints as well as underactuated configurations. The text leads the reader in a theoretical exploration of problems in kinematics,dynamics modeling, advanced control design techniques,and trajectory generation for WIPs. An important concern is how to deal with various uncertainties associated with the nominal model, WIPs being characterized by unstable balance and unmodelled dynamics and being subject to time-varying external disturbances for which accurate models are hard to come by.   The book is self-contained, supplying the reader with everything from mathematical preliminaries and the basic Lagrange-Euler-based derivation of dynamics equations to various advanced motion control and force control approaches as well as trajectory generation met...

  5. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting (United States)

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles


    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  6. Design of High Efficient MPPT Solar Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha K. A.


    Full Text Available This work aims to design a High Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Solar Inverter. A boost converter is designed in the system to boost the power from the photovoltaic panel. By this experimental setup a room consisting of 500 Watts load (eight fluorescent tubes is completely controlled. It is aimed to decrease the maintenance cost. A microcontroller is introduced for tracking the P&O (Perturb and Observe algorithm used for tracking the maximum power point. The duty cycle for the operation of the boost convertor is optimally adjusted by using MPPT controller. There is a MPPT charge controller to charge the battery as well as fed to inverter which runs the load. Both the P&O scheme with the fixed variation for the reference current and the intelligent MPPT algorithm were able to identify the global Maximum power point, however the performance of the MPPT algorithm was better.

  7. Design And Implementation Of Cost Effective Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Morshedul Haque


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design and construct of a 100 Watt 220 Volt and 50 Hz Inverter. The system is designed without any microcontroller and it has a cost-effective design architecture. The elementary purpose of this device is to transmute 12 V DC to 220 V AC. Snubber technology is used to diminish the reverse potential transients and excessive heat of transformer winding and transistor switches. Switching pulse generated by NE 555 timer circuit and comparator circuit was used to take signal strength input from its rear as well as from both sides for triggering the MOSFET switches. Another switch is used to invert pulse between two switching circuitries. A 5 volts regulator IC 7805 was used to supply fixed 5V for biasing the switching and amplifying circuitry.

  8. Electronic Document Management Using Inverted Files System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartono Derwin


    Full Text Available The amount of documents increases so fast. Those documents exist not only in a paper based but also in an electronic based. It can be seen from the data sample taken by the SpringerLink publisher in 2010, which showed an increase in the number of digital document collections from 2003 to mid of 2010. Then, how to manage them well becomes an important need. This paper describes a new method in managing documents called as inverted files system. Related with the electronic based document, the inverted files system will closely used in term of its usage to document so that it can be searched over the Internet using the Search Engine. It can improve document search mechanism and document save mechanism.

  9. Electron Cloud with Inverted Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H


    We report the results of computer simulations studying the effect of wrongly oriented LHC beam screens on the local electron-cloud heat load and density. At 3.5 or 7-TeV energy and for maximum secondary emission-yield values below 1.5, with the inverted sawtooth orientation about ten times higher heat load is expected than for the standard orientation, and the wrongly oriented sawtooth chambers could lead to a local heat-load bottleneck during the process of surface conditioning at 25-ns bunch spacing. The available cooling margin can be significantly increased by correcting the sawtooth orientations at least for two dipole magnets in LHC arc cells 26 and 32 R3, in order that there be no half-cell cooling loop containing more than one inverted screen.

  10. Electron Cloud with Inverted Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    We report the results of computer simulations studying the effect of wrongly oriented LHC beam screens on the local electron-cloud heat load and density. At 3.5 or 7-TeV energy and for maximum secondary emission-yield values below 1.5, with the inverted sawtooth orientation about ten times higher heat load is expected than for the standard orientation, and the wrongly oriented sawtooth chambers could lead to a local heatload bottleneck during the process of surface conditioning at 25-ns bunch spacing. The available cooling margin can be significantly increased by correcting the sawtooth orientations at least for two dipole magnets in LHC arc cells 26 and 32 R3, in order that there be no half-cell cooling loop containing more than one inverted screen.

  11. Stability Analysis Method of Parallel Inverter


    Li, Jun; Chen, Jie; Xue, Yaru; Qiu, Ruichang; Liu, Zhigang


    In order to further provide theoretical support for the stability of an auxiliary inverter parallel system, a new model which covers most of control parameters needs to be established. However, the ability of the small-signal model established by the traditional method is extremely limited, so this paper proposes a new small-signal modeling method for the parallel system. The new small-signal model not only can analyze the influence of the droop parameters on the system performance, but also ...

  12. Numerical Analysis of Colloid Transport in Volcanic Ash Soil (United States)

    Saito, H.; Kawamoto, K.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.; Simunek, J.


    Many studies have been conducted to investigate colloid-facilitated transport of organic or inorganic contaminants in soils. Because many contaminants, even non-soluble contaminants, can sorb onto colloids, failure to account for colloid-facilitated transport may lead to significant errors in predicting movement of contaminants in soils. Volcanic ash soils usually contain a considerable amount of soil particles smaller than 1 micrometer that are considered to have colloidal properties. This study investigated experimentally and numerically the transport of such colloidal particles in a volcanic ash soil called Tachikawa loam under simulated rainfall conditions. Disturbed soil columns were irrigated by controlled rainfall events using artificial rain water (ARW) and colloid solution extracted from Tachikawa loam soil (soil particles smaller than 1 micrometer). There was a continuous leaching of natural colloids with an initial increase in concentrations followed by a long tailing even when irrigated only by ARW. When colloid solution was applied, the breakthrough curve of the applied colloid showed no tailing and least time lag. HYDRUS-1D was used to obtain transport parameters of natural and applied colloids from breakthrough curves using a standard colloid transport model with the first-order deposition and entrainment coefficients (i.e., attachment and detachment terms) to account for kinetic sorption. The estimated distribution coefficient of natural colloids was an order of magnitude larger than that of applied colloids. While the estimated attachment coefficient of natural colloids was negligible, that of applied colloids led to a high retention of applied colloids in soils. The estimated detachment coefficient of natural colloids was three to four orders of magnitude greater than that of applied colloids. One possible explanation is that the estimated attachment coefficient for applied colloids may account for so-called straining that is a physical filtration

  13. Phosphate binding by natural iron-rich colloids in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baken, S.; Moens, C.; Griffioen, J.J.; Smolders, E.


    Phosphorus (P) in natural waters may be bound to iron (Fe) bearing colloids. However, the natural variation in composition and P binding strength of these colloids remain unclear. We related the composition of "coarse colloids" (colloids in the 0.1-1.2 μm size range) in 47 Belgian streams to the

  14. Synthesis and Analytical Centrifugation of Magnetic Model Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luigjes, B.


    This thesis is a study of the preparation and thermodynamic properties of magnetic colloids. First, two types of magnetic model colloids are investigated: composite colloids and single-domain nanoparticles. Thermodynamics of magnetic colloids is studied using analytical centrifugation, including a

  15. FET commutated current-FED inverter (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)


    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  16. Stability Analysis Method of Parallel Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li


    Full Text Available In order to further provide theoretical support for the stability of an auxiliary inverter parallel system, a new model which covers most of control parameters needs to be established. However, the ability of the small-signal model established by the traditional method is extremely limited, so this paper proposes a new small-signal modeling method for the parallel system. The new small-signal model not only can analyze the influence of the droop parameters on the system performance, but also can analyze the influence of the output impedance of the inverter, the unbalanced and nonlinear loads, and the power calculation method and cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter on the system performance and stability. Based on this method, this paper carries out a comprehensive analysis on the performance of a parallel inverter system. And the correctness of the modeling method and analysis process of the system performance and stability are verified by the consistency of the simulation and experimental results.

  17. Towards conducting inks: Polypyrrole–silver colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omastová, Mária; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Peřinka, Nikola; Kaplanová, Marie; Syrový, Tomáš; Hromádková, Jiřina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Composite colloidal particles combining conducting polymer and metal have been prepared. • Conducting colloids are suitable for printing applications. • Polypyrrole/silver colloids are prepared in a single reaction step. • The conductivity control is discussed and still needs improvement. - Abstract: The oxidation of pyrrole with silver nitrate in the presence of suitable water-soluble polymers yields composite polypyrrole–silver colloids. The polypyrrole–silver nanoparticles stabilized with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) have a typical size around 350 nm and polydispersity index 0.20, i.e. a moderate polydispersity in size. Similar results have been obtained with poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizer. The effect of stabilizer concentration on the particle size is marginal. In the present study, several types of stabilizers have been tested in addition to currently used poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). Transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed the gemini morphology of polypyrrole and silver colloidal nanoparticles and confirmed their size and size-distribution determined by dynamic light scattering. The use of colloidal dispersions provides an efficient tool for the UV–vis and FT Raman spectroscopic characterization of polypyrrole, including the transition between polypyrrole salt and corresponding polypyrrole base. The dispersions were used for the preparation of coatings on polyethylene terephthalate foils, and the properties for polypyrrole–silver composites have been compared with those produced from polypyrrole colloids alone

  18. The physics of the colloidal glass transition. (United States)

    Hunter, Gary L; Weeks, Eric R


    As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Beyond a certain concentration, the system is said to be a colloidal glass; structurally, the system resembles a liquid, yet motions within the suspension are slow enough that it can be considered essentially frozen. For several decades, colloids have served as a valuable model system for understanding the glass transition in molecular systems. The spatial and temporal scales involved allow these systems to be studied by a wide variety of experimental techniques. The focus of this review is the current state of understanding of the colloidal glass transition, with an emphasis on experimental observations. A brief introduction is given to important experimental techniques used to study the glass transition in colloids. We describe features of colloidal systems near and in glassy states, including increases in viscosity and relaxation times, dynamical heterogeneity and ageing, among others. We also compare and contrast the glass transition in colloids to that in molecular liquids. Other glassy systems are briefly discussed, as well as recently developed synthesis techniques that will keep these systems rich with interesting physics for years to come.

  19. The physics of the colloidal glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Gary L; Weeks, Eric R


    As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Beyond a certain concentration, the system is said to be a colloidal glass; structurally, the system resembles a liquid, yet motions within the suspension are slow enough that it can be considered essentially frozen. For several decades, colloids have served as a valuable model system for understanding the glass transition in molecular systems. The spatial and temporal scales involved allow these systems to be studied by a wide variety of experimental techniques. The focus of this review is the current state of understanding of the colloidal glass transition, with an emphasis on experimental observations. A brief introduction is given to important experimental techniques used to study the glass transition in colloids. We describe features of colloidal systems near and in glassy states, including increases in viscosity and relaxation times, dynamical heterogeneity and ageing, among others. We also compare and contrast the glass transition in colloids to that in molecular liquids. Other glassy systems are briefly discussed, as well as recently developed synthesis techniques that will keep these systems rich with interesting physics for years to come. (review article)

  20. Direct visualization of colloidal liquids (United States)

    Durand, Richard Vernon

    We have investigated various colloidal systems consisting of aqueous suspensions of micron sized polystyrene particles. These systems are appealing because they provide a fertile testing ground for theories of both the liquid and solid states, as well as for theories describing hydrodynamic interactions. Our first study of colloidal systems was motivated by some interesting observations we made while looking at a suspension under a light microscope. We, as well as other workers, noticed that particles undergoing Brownian motion can appear to linger around each other for long periods of time. The question arose as to whether this lingering was a product of interparticle interactions, or was an artifact due to random thermal motion and projection onto a two dimensional image plane. We found that the latter was true, which drove home the idea that we must be wary of our own biases when making scientific observations. During the course of the research on this lingering behavior, we developed a mathematical technique for generating successively more accurate approximate analytical solutions to initial value linear partial differential equations which are first order in time and have no mixing of spatial and time derivatives. This formalism is especially useful for diffusion problems, since the analytical approximation conserves probability at each order of approximation. Our next experimental effort involved colloidal systems in which the suspending medium was carefully prepared to promote long ranged electrostatic interactions between the particles. The interaction potential in such a suspension has been the topic of much research recently. Using digital video microscopy, as well as techniques we developed allowing the proper analysis of two dimensional data, we found that the interaction length in our samples was surprisingly short ranged compared to what we expected based on our water purification experiments. The problems with projection effects associated with two

  1. Characterization of Metal Ion ­ Colloid Interaction: Impact On Colloid-facilitated Transport (United States)

    Specht, C. H.; Schmitt, D.; Kaulisch, E.-M.; Frimmel, F. H.

    It is generally accepted, that metal transport in natural aquatic systems strongly de- pends on the metal binding form. Besides complex formation with well defined inor- ganic and organic ligands, the interaction with colloidal particles and soil material is one of the most important reactions of metal ions in aquatic systems. Mobile colloids compete with the stationary soil matrix for binding of metal ions and might facili- tate their transport. Important representatives for mineral and organic colloids are clay minerals and natural organic matter (NOM), respectively. In this work, the interaction of metal ions with clay minerals and NOM is characterized by coupling of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation AF4 to inductively coupled plasma ­ mass spectrometry (ICPMS). A method for separating mineral from organic colloids is presented, which allows to quantify the amount of metals being bound to either colloid. For different metal ions (Cu, Zn, Pb, Pt) and a metalloid (As) a different extent of binding to either colloid was found.The information obtained from the AF4-ICPMS measurements was useful for the understanding of the observations from column experiments which were conducted to quantify the colloid-facilitated metal transport. In column experiments, the transport of the mineral colloids itself and the influence of NOM onto the colloid transport were investigated. Furthermore, the dependance of colloid transport from the ionic strength and the pH value was elucidated. In order to get information about the co-transport of metal ions by organic and mineral colloids, metal ions were adsorbed onto the colloidal material and a distribution coef- ficient of the metal ions between the colloidal phase and the solution was determined. The colloidal suspension containing both, "free" and adsorbed metal ions were then injected onto the column. The direct metal breakthrough caused by colloidal trans- port was detected at the column outlet. The results clearly

  2. Assembly of open clusters of colloidal dumbbells via droplet evaporation. (United States)

    Pham Van, Hai; Fortini, Andrea; Schmidt, Matthias


    We investigate the behavior of a mixture of asymmetric colloidal dumbbells and emulsion droplets by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The evaporation of the droplets and the competition between droplet-colloid attraction and colloid-colloid interactions lead to the formation of clusters built up of colloid aggregates with both closed and open structures. We find that stable packings and hence complex colloidal structures can be obtained by changing the relative size of the colloidal spheres and/or their interfacial tension with the droplets.

  3. Colloid-facilitated metal transport in peat filters. (United States)

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rauch, Sebastien; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Morrison, Greg; Stolpe, Björn; Hasselliöv, Martin


    The effect of colloids on metal retention in peat columns was studied, with the focus on colloids from two sources-organic matter leached from peat, and introduced organic and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) colloids. A significant fraction of metals was found to be associated with peat-produced organic colloids; however the concentrations of organic colloids leached are low (trace concentrations) and temporal and have a limited effect on the efficiency of peat filters. In contrast, the presence of organic and HFO colloids in the input water causes a significant decrease in the performance of peat filters. Organic colloids were identified as the main vector of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, while lead is transported by both organic and HFO colloids. The colloidal distribution of metals obtained in this study has important implications for the mobility of trace metals in porous media. The occurrence of colloids in the input waters and their characteristics must be considered when designing water treatment facilities.

  4. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun


    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maas


    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  6. Colloidal QDs-polymer nanocomposites (United States)

    Gordillo, H.; Suárez, I.; Rodríguez-Cantó, P.; Abargues, R.; García-Calzada, R.; Chyrvony, V.; Albert, S.; Martínez-Pastor, J.


    Nanometer-size colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or Quantum Dots (NQD), are very prospective active centers because their light emission is highly efficient and temperature-independent. Nanocomposites based on the incorporation of QDs inside a polymer matrix are very promising materials for application in future photonic devices because they combine the properties of QDs with the technological feasibility of polymers. In the present work some basic applications of these new materials have been studied. Firstly, the fabrication of planar and linear waveguides based on the incorporation of CdS, CdSe and CdTe in PMMA and SU-8 are demonstrated. As a result, photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs are coupled to a waveguide mode, being it able to obtain multicolor waveguiding. Secondly, nanocomposite films have been evaluated as photon energy down-shifting converters to improve the efficiency of solar cells.

  7. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.


    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  8. Formation of superlattice with aligned plane orientation of colloidal PbS quantum dots (United States)

    Mukai, Kohki; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Suetsugu, Fumimasa


    We investigated a method of forming a perfect quantum dot (QD) superlattice, in which each QD has the same plane orientation, by depositing colloidal PbS QDs with clear facets in solution. QD facets were controlled by adjusting the synthesis temperature. X-ray evaluation showed that the crystal orientations of the film with QDs having clear facets were aligned. The slow deposition promoted this crystal alignment. The red shift of photoluminescence wavelength caused by the film formation was larger with QDs having facets than with spherical QDs, suggesting that the connection of the wave function between QDs was better so that the quantum size effect was further reduced.

  9. Facile organization of colloidal particles into large, perfect one- and two-dimensional arrays by dry manual assembly on patterned substrates. (United States)

    Khanh, Nguyen Nguyen; Yoon, Kyung Byung


    The ability to rapidly and reproducibly assemble colloidal particles into large (>mm) one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) single crystals with perfect control of the particle networking pattern would open a new world rich with high quality novel materials, technologies, and sciences. However, current methods rely on self-assembly of colloidal particles in solution (wet self-assembly), which intrinsically makes the assembly of the colloidal particles into defect-free large 1D and 2D single crystals difficult. We now demonstrate a new paradigm of colloidal particle organization into 1D and 2D single crystals, a process we call 'dry manual assembly on nanolithographically patterned substrates', which enables facile and rapid organization of colloidal particles in dry states into 1D and 2D single crystals in the centimeter or larger scales with a well-defined particle networking pattern. We believe that this novel methodology will serve as a key to open a new era of particle organization.

  10. Pulsed-Laser-Induced Simple Synthetic Route for Tb3Al5O12:Ce3+Colloidal Nanocrystals and Their Luminescent Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Takeshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Cerium-doped Tb3Al5O12(TAG:Ce3+ colloidal nanocrystals were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA in de-ionized water and lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid betain (LDA aqueous solution for luminescent bio-labeling application. The influence of LDA molecules on the crystallinity, crystal morphology, crystallite size, and luminescent properties of the prepared TAG:Ce3+colloidal nanocrystals was investigated in detail. When the LDA solution was used, smaller average crystallite size, narrower size distribution, and enhanced luminescence were observed. These characteristics were explained by the effective role of occupying the oxygen defects on the surface of TAG:Ce3+colloidal nanocrystal because the amphoteric LDA molecules were attached by positively charged TAG:Ce3+colloidal nanocrystals. The blue-shifted phenomena found in luminescent spectra of the TAG:Ce3+colloidal nanocrystals could not be explained by previous crystal field theory. We discuss the 5d energy level of Ce3+with decreased crystal size with a phenomenological model that explains the relationship between bond distance with 5d energy level of Ce3+based on the concept of crystal field theory modified by covalency contribution.

  11. Optimizing colloidal nanocrystals for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sytnyk, M.


    In the scientific literature colloidal nanocrystals are presented as promising materials for multiple applications, in areas covering optoelectronics, photovoltaics, spintronics, catalysis, and bio-medicine. On the marked are, however, only a very limited number of examples found, indeed implementing colloidal nanocrystals. Thus the scope of this thesis was to modify nanocrystals and to tune their properties to fulfill specific demands. While some modifications could be achieved by post synthetic treatments, one key problem of colloidal nanocrystals, hampering there widespread application is the toxicity of their constituents. To develop nanocrystals from non-toxic materials has been a major goal of this thesis as well. Roughly, the results in this thesis could be subdivided into three parts: (i) the development of ion exchange methods to tailor the properties of metallic and metal-oxide based nanocrystal heterostructures, (ii), the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals from non-toxic materials, and (iii) the characterization of the nanocrystals by measurements of their morphology, chemical composition, magnetic-, optical-, and electronic properties. In detail, the thesis is subdivided into an introductory chapter, 4 chapters reporting on scientific results, a chapter reporting the used methods, and the conclusions. The 4 chapters devoted to the scientific results correspond to manuscripts, which are either currently in preparation, or have been published in highly ranked scientific journals such as NanoLetters (chapter 2), ACS Nano (chapter 4), or JACS (chapter 5). Thus, these chapters provide also an extra introduction and conclusion section, as well as separate reference lists. Chapter 2 describes a cation exchange process which is used to tune and improve the magnetic properties of different iron-oxide based colloidal nanocrystal-heterostructures. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature, magnetic remanence, and coercivity is tuned by replacing Fe2+ by Co2

  12. Comparing the aerodynamic forces produced by dragonfly forewings during inverted and non-inverted flight (United States)

    Shumway, Nathan; Gabryszuk, Mateusz; Laurence, Stuart


    Experiments were conducted with live dragonflies to determine their wing kinematics during free flight. The motion of one forewing in two different tests, one where the dragonfly is inverted, is described using piecewise functions and simulated using the OVERTURNS Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver that has been used in previous work to determine trim conditions for a fruit fly model. For the inverted dragonfly the upstrokes were significantly longer than the downstrokes, pitching amplitude is lower than that for the right-side up flight and the flap amplitude is larger. Simulations of dragonfly kinematics of a single forewing are presented to determine how the forces differ for a dragonfly flying inverted and a dragonfly flying right-side up. This work was supported by the United States Army Research Laboratory's Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology Collaborative Technology Alliance Project MCE-16-17 1.2.

  13. Results From the Physics of Colloids Experiment on ISS (United States)

    Weitz, David; Bailey, Arthur; Manley, Suliana; Prasad, Vikram; Christianson, Rebecca; Sankaran, Subramanian; Doherty, Michael; Jankovsky, Amy; Lorik, Tibor; Shiley, William


    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was accommodated within International Space Station (ISS) EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack 2 and was remotely operated from early June 2001 until February 2002 from NASA Glenn Research Center's Telescience Support Center (TSC) in Cleveland, Ohio, and from the remote site at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. PCS was launched on 4/19/2001 on Space Shuttle STS-100. The experiment was activated on 5/31/2001. The entire experimental setup performed remarkably well, and accomplished 2400 hours of science operations on-orbit. The sophisticated instrumentation in PCS is capable of dynamic and static light scattering from 11 to 169 degrees, Bragg scattering over the range from 10 to 60 degrees, dynamic and static light scattering at low angles from 0.3 to 6.0 degrees, and color imaging. The long duration microgravity environment on the ISS facilitated extended studies on the growth and coarsening characteristics of binary crystals. The de-mixing of the colloid-polymer critical-point sample was also studied as it phase-separated into two phases. Further, aging studies on a col-pol gel, gelation rate studies in extremely low concentration fractal gels over several days, and studies on a glass sample, all provided valuable information. Several exciting and unique aspects of these results are discussed here.

  14. Rediscovering Red: Full-Spectrum Structural Color in Colloidal Glasses (United States)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia; Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Seok; Yi, Gi-Ra; Manoharan, Vinothan N.


    We use colloidal glasses to develop pigments with structural color: color that arises from interference rather than absorption. This pigmentation mechanism is common in blue birds, whose feather barbs often contain glassy microstructures. When a glass is illuminated, the spatial correlations between neighboring particles can give rise to constructive interference for a small range of wavelengths. Unlike the colors arising from Bragg diffraction in crystals, the colors of these ``photonic glasses'' are independent of angle due to the disordered, isotropic structure. However, there are no known examples of photonic glasses with pure structural red color, either in nature or in the lab. We present both experimental evidence and a model showing that the absence of red is due to the wavelength-dependence of the single-particle scattering cross-section. We show that this problem can be solved in ``inverse glasses,'' namely glasses composed of particles with refractive index lower than that of their medium. Although these systems are similar to those in birds, no known species uses this mechanism to create red. We use inverse glasses to make full-spectrum, angle-independent structural colors. This will enable the use of colloidal glasses as a new type of long-lasting, non-bleaching pigment.

  15. Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients. (United States)

    Dickinson, Eric


    The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effect of desorption kinetics on colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants: Cesium, strontium, and illite colloids (United States)

    Turner, Ned B.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Saiers, James E.


    To examine the importance of desorption kinetics to colloid-facilitated transport, we conducted column experiments comparing the transport of cesium and strontium through a saturated quartz sand porous medium in the absence and presence of illite colloids at two ionic strengths. Because cesium desorption from illite was anticipated to be slower than that of strontium, we expected to see a contrast in the colloid-facilitated transport of the cations. A model of colloid-facilitated transport accounting for second-order cation adsorption to and desorption from the quartz, second-order cation adsorption to and desorption from fast and slow sites on the illite colloids, and second-order colloid deposition to and release from the quartz accurately simulated the cation transport in the absence and presence of the illite colloids. The column results and model simulations revealed that cesium desorption was indeed slower than strontium desorption and that this contrast in desorption kinetics resulted in greater colloid-facilitated transport of the cesium. The desorption of both cations was slow relative to the rate of advection. The fast and slow sites on the illite colloids behaved like planar and frayed edge sites typically identified for cesium adsorption to illite. The amount of cesium adsorbed to the slow, or frayed edge, sites was similar to the frayed edge site density of illite estimated by other researchers.

  17. Fabrication of robust crystal balls from the electrospray of soft polymer spheres/silica dispersion. (United States)

    Shen, Zhehong; Zhu, Yue; Wu, Limin; You, Bo; Zi, Jian


    This paper presents a novel and facile approach to fabricate robust crystal balls directly through the self-assembly of soft colloidal polymer spheres by the aid of nano silica using an electrospraying technique. In this approach, soft colloidal polymer spheres are synthesized by emulsion polymerization and then blended with colloidal silica to obtain nanocomposite dispersion. When this dispersion is loaded into an injector and forced to flow through the nozzle under direct electric field, the detached droplets are collected by an oil solvent. As water and solvent evaporate, the colloidal polymer spheres and silica beads can directly self-assemble into robust crystal balls. Neither soft matrix nor post-treatment is needed. The obtained crystal balls have not only excellent mechanical properties to withstand external forces such as cutting, puckering, and bending, but also reversible deformation.

  18. Dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions as a model system for bacterial cytoplasm. (United States)

    Hwang, Jiye; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June


    There are various kinds of macromolecules in bacterial cell cytoplasm. The size polydispersity of the macromolecules is so significant that the crystallization and the phase separation could be suppressed, thus stabilizing the liquid state of bacterial cytoplasm. On the other hand, recent experiments suggested that the macromolecules in bacterial cytoplasm should exhibit glassy dynamics, which should be also affected significantly by the size polydispersity of the macromolecules. In this work, we investigate the anomalous and slow dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions, of which size distribution is chosen to mimic Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We find from our Langevin dynamics simulations that the diffusion coefficient (D_{tot}) and the displacement distribution functions (P(r,t)) averaged over all colloids of different sizes do not show anomalous and glassy dynamic behaviors until the system volume fraction ϕ is increased up to 0.82. This indicates that the intrinsic polydispersity of bacterial cytoplasm should suppress the glass transition and help maintain the liquid state of the cytoplasm. On the other hand, colloids of each kind show totally different dynamic behaviors depending on their size. The dynamics of colloids of different size becomes non-Gaussian at a different range of ϕ, which suggests that a multistep glass transition should occur. The largest colloids undergo the glass transition at ϕ=0.65, while the glass transition does not occur for smaller colloids in our simulations even at the highest value of ϕ. We also investigate the distribution (P(θ,t)) of the relative angles of displacement for macromolecules and find that macromolecules undergo directionally correlated motions in a sufficiently dense system.

  19. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA


    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI:

  20. Hemorrhagic Colloid Cyst Presenting with Acute Hydrocephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akhavan


    Full Text Available Colloid cysts are benign slow-growing cystic lesions located on the roof of the third ventricle that usually present with symptoms related to gradual rise of intracranial pressure. They mostly remain asymptomatic and sometimes grow progressively and cause diverse symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure such as headache, diplopia, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Here we report a 47-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute severe headache and nausea/vomiting. On MRI examination acute hydrocephaly due to hemorrhagic colloid cyst was detected. Acute hemorrhage in colloid cysts is extremely rare and may present with symptoms of acute increase in the intracranial pressure. Intracystic hemorrhage is very rarely reported as a complication of colloid cyst presenting with paroxysmal symptoms of acute hydrocephaly.

  1. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank


    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  2. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank


    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate ...

  3. Optofluidic taming of a colloidal dimer with a silicon nanocavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, C.; Renaut, C. [Groupe d' Optique de Champ Proche - LRC CEA n°DSM-08-36, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS n°6303- Université de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); University Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M-SINAPS, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, INAC-SP2M-SINAPS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA-Leti Minatec, LTM, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cluzel, B., E-mail:; Fornel, F. de [Groupe d' Optique de Champ Proche - LRC CEA n°DSM-08-36, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS n°6303- Université de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Peyrade, D. [University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA-Leti Minatec, LTM, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Picard, E.; Hadji, E. [University Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M-SINAPS, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, INAC-SP2M-SINAPS, F-38000 Grenoble (France)


    We report here the optical trapping of a heterogeneous colloidal dimer above a photonic crystal nanocavity used as an on-chip optical tweezer. The trapped dimer consists of a cluster of two dielectric microbeads of different sizes linked by van der Waals forces. The smallest bead, 1 μm in diameter, is observed to be preferentially trapped by the nanotweezer, leaving the second bead untrapped. The rotational nature of the trapped dimer Brownian motion is first evidenced. Then, in the presence of a fluid flow, control of its orientation and rotation is achieved. The whole system is found to show high rotational degrees of freedom, thereby acting as an effective flow-sensitive microscopic optical ball joint.

  4. Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M; Harrison, C; Austin, R H; Megens, M; Hollingsworth, A; Russel, W B; Cheng Zhen; Mason, T; Chaikin, P M


    We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.

  5. Transformative Colloidal Nanomaterials for Mid- Infrared Devices (United States)


    conductivity in monodispersed colloidal nanocrystal films was observed first nearly a decade ago, 7 field-effect transistors achieve ever increasing...mobilities,8 there are reports of high sensitivity photoconduction,9 and photovoltaic performance is improving with already ~100% quantum efficiency.2 The...446 (2005) [2] Hillhouse, H.W., Beard, M.C., “Solar cells from colloidal nanocrystals: Fundamentals, materials, devices, and economics,” Curr. Op

  6. Tunable Time-Dependent Colloidal Interactions (United States)

    Bergman, Andrew M.; Rogers, W. Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    Self-assembly of colloidal particles can be driven by changes in temperature, density, or the concentration of solutes, and it is even possible to program the thermal response and equilibrium phase transitions of such systems. It is still difficult, however, to tune how the self-assembly process varies in time. We demonstrate control over the time-dependence of colloidal interactions, using DNA-functionalized colloidal particles with binding energies that are set by the concentration of a free linker strand in solution. We control the rate at which this free strand is consumed using a catalytic DNA reaction, whose rate is governed by the concentration of a catalyst strand. Varying the concentration of the linker, its competitor, and the catalyst at a fixed temperature, we can tune the rate and degree of the formation of colloidal aggregates and their following disassembly. Close to the colloidal melting point, the timescales of these out-of-equilibrium assembly and disassembly processes are determined by the rate of the catalytic reaction. Far below the colloidal melting point, however, the effects from varying our linker and competitor concentrations dominate.

  7. Design of inverters for the PHOTONERGY project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The PHOTONERGY project (the former SolcelleInverter project) was initiated on the 1st of September 2001, with a state-of-the-art analysis, which concluded into specifications. Based on this 23 topologies were analyzed in for efficiencies. The results from this analysis was five candidates which all showed a somewhat good efficiency. These five topologies were in further investigated by means of an initial design-iteration and simulations. Two different solutions were picked up in due to their high efficiency and low cost. 1. The standard full-bridge phase shifted DC/DC converter together with a standard DC/AC inverter, 2. A modified version of the novel Shimizu topology. A patent is pending on this modified version. These two inverters are in this document developed and made ready for prototyping. This includes design and selection of reactive- and switching-components, e.g. filter- and bulk-capacitors, low- and high-frequency inductors, high frequency transformers, MOSFETs and diodes. The design of auxiliary circuits is also included, e.g. gate drivers for the MOSFETs, measuring circuits for the grid-current and -voltage, PV-module-current and voltage, protection circuits, hardware near controllers and finally a switch mode power supply. However, the design of the various controllers, except the hardware near PV-current controller for the full bridge phase shifted converter, is not documented in this report but will come later on. This includes all controllers, e.g. maximum power point tracking for the PV-module, utility grid current controller, DC-link voltage controller, phase locked loops, and detection of islanding operation. All of these control loops are to be implemented in a micro-controller. (au)

  8. Multilayer control for inverters in parallel operation without signal interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Ming; Hu, Haibing; Xing, Yan


    A multilayer control is proposed for inverters with wireless parallel operation in this paper. The control is embedded in every inverter respectively and consists of three layers. The first layer is based on an improved droop method, which shares the active and reactive power in each module...... by adjusting the phase and amplitude of the output voltage respectively. The second layer is to compensate the droop voltage caused by the droop control and thus improve the load regulation performance of the inverter. The third layer limits the phase deviation between the inverter and the shared ac bus...... in order to ensure all the paralleled inverters keeping in phase. The operational principle and implementation are analyzed in details. A prototype, configured by two paralleled inverters, is set up. Experimental results verify the validity of the proposed control....

  9. The mirror map for invertible LG models


    Kreuzer, M


    Calculating the (a,c) ring of the maximal phase orbifold for `invertible' Landau--Ginzburg models, we show that the Berglund--H"ubsch construction works for all potentials of the relevant type. The map that sends a monomial in the original model to a twisted state in the orbifold representation of the mirror is constructed explicitly. Via this map, the OP selection rules of the chiral ring exactly correspond to the twist selection rules for the orbifold. This shows that we indeed arrive at th...

  10. On the invertibility of elementary operators


    Boudi, Nadia; Bračič, Janko


    Let $\\mathscr{X}$ be a complex Banach space and $\\mathcal{L}(\\mathscr{X})$ be the algebra of all bounded linear operators on $\\mathscr{X}$. For a given elementary operator $\\Phi$ of length $2$ on $\\mathcal{L}(\\mathscr{X})$, we determine necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution of the equation ${\\rm X} \\Phi=0$ in the algebra of all elementary operators on $\\mathcal{L}(\\mathscr{X})$. Our approach allows us to characterize some invertible elementary operators of length...

  11. Magnetically Coupled Impedance-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede


    input-to-output gain and the presence of an impedance network. The former means a high dc-link voltage, which can stress the semiconductor switches unnecessarily. The latter leads to increases in cost and size, which similarly are undesirable. To lessen these concerns, an interesting approach is to use...... magnetically coupled transformers or inductors to raise the gain and modulation ratio simultaneously, while reducing the number of passive components needed. A study of the approach is now presented to show how various existing magnetically coupled inverters can be derived by applying a generic methodology...

  12. Using Inverted Indices for Accelerating LINGO Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Greve; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm


    queries. The previous best method for rapidly calculating the LINGOsim similarity matrix required specialised hardware to yield a significant speedup over existing methods. By representing LINGO multisets in the verbose representation and using inverted indices it is possible to calculate LINGOsim......The ever growing size of chemical data bases calls for the development of novel methods for representing and comparing molecules. One such method called LINGO is based on fragmenting the SMILES string representation of molecules. Comparison of molecules can then be performed by calculating...

  13. Color from hierarchy: Diverse optical properties of micron-sized spherical colloidal assemblies. (United States)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Utech, Stefanie; England, Grant T; Shirman, Tanya; Phillips, Katherine R; Koay, Natalie; Burgess, Ian B; Kolle, Mathias; Weitz, David A; Aizenberg, Joanna


    Materials in nature are characterized by structural order over multiple length scales have evolved for maximum performance and multifunctionality, and are often produced by self-assembly processes. A striking example of this design principle is structural coloration, where interference, diffraction, and absorption effects result in vivid colors. Mimicking this emergence of complex effects from simple building blocks is a key challenge for man-made materials. Here, we show that a simple confined self-assembly process leads to a complex hierarchical geometry that displays a variety of optical effects. Colloidal crystallization in an emulsion droplet creates micron-sized superstructures, termed photonic balls. The curvature imposed by the emulsion droplet leads to frustrated crystallization. We observe spherical colloidal crystals with ordered, crystalline layers and a disordered core. This geometry produces multiple optical effects. The ordered layers give rise to structural color from Bragg diffraction with limited angular dependence and unusual transmission due to the curved nature of the individual crystals. The disordered core contributes nonresonant scattering that induces a macroscopically whitish appearance, which we mitigate by incorporating absorbing gold nanoparticles that suppress scattering and macroscopically purify the color. With increasing size of the constituent colloidal particles, grating diffraction effects dominate, which result from order along the crystal's curved surface and induce a vivid polychromatic appearance. The control of multiple optical effects induced by the hierarchical morphology in photonic balls paves the way to use them as building blocks for complex optical assemblies--potentially as more efficient mimics of structural color as it occurs in nature.

  14. Nonlinear Feedback Control of the Rotary Inverted Pendulum (United States)


    pendulum include wheeled mobile robots, which can be useful for personal mobility . C. PRIOR WORK There are nonlinear control techniques that have...results. Among the applications of the inverted pendulum is a two wheeled robot. One mobile inverted pendulum robot was created by Grasser, D’Arrigo... pendulum which could shift the weight of the load to keep the pendulum straight up when on a slope [10]. The work in mobile inverted pendulums can

  15. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Test Plan - Result Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Anderson; Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh


    This presentation is intended to share the results of lab testing of five PV inverters with the Hawaiian Electric Companies and other stakeholders and interested parties. The tests included baseline testing of advanced inverter grid support functions, as well as distribution circuit-level tests to examine the impact of the PV inverters on simulated distribution feeders using power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques. hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques.

  16. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides Through The Vadose Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy' Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara


    The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for in situ mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment

  17. Preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A.; Aneman, A.; Guttormsen, A.B.


    trials of ICU patients showing changes in mortality or renal function, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most Scandinavian ICUs use both synthetic and natural colloids, but HES 130/0.4 is by far the preferred colloid. Few units have protocols for colloid use, but most use them for hypovolaemia, and the majority......BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is a frequent intervention in intensive care. Colloids are widely used, but recent data suggest harm by some of these solutions. This calls for more clinical studies on this matter, but the current preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units...... the questionnaire. Most ICUs used both synthetic and natural colloids, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 was the preferred colloid in 59 units. Eleven ICUs had protocols for colloid use. The most frequent indication was second-line fluid for hypovolaemia, but one in three ICUs used colloids as first-line fluid...

  18. Integral inverter/battery charger for use in electric vehicles (United States)

    Thimmesch, D.


    The design and test results of a thyristor based inverter/charger are discussed. A battery charger is included integral to the inverter by using a subset of the inverter power circuit components. The resulting charger provides electrical isolation between the vehicle propulsion battery and ac line and is capable of charging a 25 kWh propulsion battery in 8 hours from a 220 volt ac line. The integral charger employs the inverter commutation components at a resonant ac/dc isolated converter rated at 3.6 kW. Charger efficiency and power factor at an output power of 3.6 kW are 86% and 95% respectively. The inverter, when operated with a matching polyphase ac induction motor and nominal 132 volt propulsion battery, can provide a peak shaft power of 34 kW (45 ph) during motoring operation and 45 kW (60 hp) during regeneration. Thyristors are employed for the inverter power switching devices and are arranged in an input-commutated topology. This configuration requires only two thyristors to commutate the six main inverter thyristors. Inverter efficiency during motoring operation at motor shaft speeds above 450 rad/sec (4300 rpm) is 92-94% for output power levels above 11 KW (15 hp). The combined ac inverter/charger package weighs 47 kg (103 lbs).

  19. A new Zero Voltage Switching three-level NPC inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ning; Chen, Yenan; Xu, Dehong


    A novel Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) three-level NPC inverter topology using a new ZVS Space Vector Modulation (SVM) scheme is proposed. A detailed operation analysis of ZVS three-level NPC inverter is given. The ZVS condition of the proposed ZVS inverter is derived and it can be achieved of all...... switches in the proposed inverter, which include both the main switches and the auxiliary switches. The design of resonant circuits parameters is also provided. Finally the proposed circuit and ZVS SVM scheme are verified by experimental results and demonstrate a superior performance....

  20. Advanced DC/AC inverters applications in renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin


    DC/AC inversion technology is of vital importance for industrial applications, including electrical vehicles and renewable energy systems, which require a large number of inverters. In recent years, inversion technology has developed rapidly, with new topologies improving the power factor and increasing power efficiency. Proposing many novel approaches, Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy describes advanced DC/AC inverters that can be used for renewable energy systems. The book introduces more than 100 topologies of advanced inverters originally developed by the authors,

  1. Optimized Pulse Width Modulation for transformerless active-NPC inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achilladelis, Nikolaos; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede


    The transformerless DC/AC inverter topologies are employed in Photovoltaic systems in order to improve the power conversion efficiency, power density and cost. The Active-Neutral Point Clamped (Active-NPC) transformerless inverters have the advantage of achieving better thermal balance among...... their power semiconductors. In this paper, a new modulation technique is proposed for optimally controlling the power switches employed in transformerless Active-NPC inverters. The design results demonstrate that compared to the existing PWM strategies, using the proposed method results in lower total power...... losses and significantly better distribution of the power losses among the semiconductors of the Active-NPC inverter....

  2. Colloidal Gelation-2 and Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition-2 Investigations Conducted on STS-95 (United States)

    Hoffmann, Monica T.


    The Colloidal Gelation-2 (CGEL 2) and Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition-2 (CDOT 2) investigations flew on Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-95 (also known as the John Glenn Mission). These investigations were part of a series of colloid experiments designed to help scientists answer fundamental science questions and reduce the trial and error involved in developing new and better materials. Industries dealing with semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. The goal of the CGEL 2 investigation was to study the fundamental properties of colloids to help scientists better understand their nature and make them more useful for technology. Colloids consist of very small (submicron) particles suspended in a fluid. They play a critical role in the technology of this country, finding uses in materials ranging from paints and coatings to drugs, cosmetics, food, and drink. Although these products are routinely produced and used, there are still many aspects of their behavior about which scientists know little. Understanding their structures may allow scientists to manipulate the physical properties of colloids (a process called "colloidal engineering") to produce new materials and products. Colloid research may even improve the processing of known products to enhance their desirable properties.

  3. Inverted face processing in body dysmorphic disorder. (United States)

    Feusner, Jamie D; Moller, Hayley; Altstein, Lily; Sugar, Catherine; Bookheimer, Susan; Yoon, Joanne; Hembacher, Emily


    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are preoccupied with perceived defects in appearance. Preliminary evidence suggests abnormalities in global and local visual information processing. The objective of this study was to compare global and local processing in BDD subjects and healthy controls by testing the face inversion effect, in which inverted (upside-down) faces are recognized more slowly and less accurately relative to upright faces. Eighteen medication-free subjects with BDD and 17 matched, healthy controls performed a recognition task with sets of upright and inverted faces on a computer screen that were either presented for short duration (500 ms) or long duration (5000 ms). Response time and accuracy rates were analyzed using linear and logistic mixed effects models, respectively. Results indicated that the inversion effect for response time was smaller in BDD subjects than controls during the long duration stimuli, but was not significantly different during the short duration stimuli. Inversion effect on accuracy rates did not differ significantly between groups during either of the two durations. Lesser inversion effect in BDD subjects may be due to greater detail-oriented and piecemeal processing for long duration stimuli. Similar results between groups for short duration stimuli suggest that they may be normally engaging configural and holistic processing for brief presentations. Abnormal visual information processing in BDD may contribute to distorted perception of appearance; this may not be limited to their own faces, but to others' faces as well. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perepechay


    Full Text Available During orthotopic ileocystoplasty, the short mesentery causes an increase in the risk of incompetence of anastomosis of the reservoir with the urethra. Inverting orthotopic ileocystoplasty ensures a free reservoir pull-through into the small pelvis and eliminates tissue tension in the anastomosis. The proposed procedure differs from the Studer operation in that the reservoir is sutured lengthwise, after which it is inverted between the mesenteric leaves. The posterior reservoir wall is anteverted and freely brought out into the small pelvis. This reduces the distance to the urethral stump by 3-4 cm. This procedure was used in 19 patients to be operated on. There were no cases of reservoir or reservoir-urethral anastomotic incompetence. The mean neocystic capacity was 110, 350, and 490 ml 0, 3, and 12 months, respectively, after urethral catheter removal. The maximum reservoir pressure does not exceed 40 (mean 30 cm H2O. Daytime urinary retention was 94.7%; nocturnal urinary retention during forced nocturnal miction was 79%. The obtained functional results compare well with those achieved during the similar procedures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perepechay


    Full Text Available During orthotopic ileocystoplasty, the short mesentery causes an increase in the risk of incompetence of anastomosis of the reservoir with the urethra. Inverting orthotopic ileocystoplasty ensures a free reservoir pull-through into the small pelvis and eliminates tissue tension in the anastomosis. The proposed procedure differs from the Studer operation in that the reservoir is sutured lengthwise, after which it is inverted between the mesenteric leaves. The posterior reservoir wall is anteverted and freely brought out into the small pelvis. This reduces the distance to the urethral stump by 3-4 cm. This procedure was used in 19 patients to be operated on. There were no cases of reservoir or reservoir-urethral anastomotic incompetence. The mean neocystic capacity was 110, 350, and 490 ml 0, 3, and 12 months, respectively, after urethral catheter removal. The maximum reservoir pressure does not exceed 40 (mean 30 cm H2O. Daytime urinary retention was 94.7%; nocturnal urinary retention during forced nocturnal miction was 79%. The obtained functional results compare well with those achieved during the similar procedures.

  6. Inverting dedevelopment: geometric singularity theory in embryology (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Smith, Bradley R.


    The diffeomorphism model so useful in the biomathematics of normal morphological variability and disease is inappropriate for applications in embryogenesis, where whole coordinate patches are created out of single points. For this application we need a suitable algebra for the creation of something from nothing in a carefully organized geometry: a formalism for parameterizing discrete nondifferentiabilities of invertible functions on Rk, k $GTR 1. One easy way to begin is via the inverse of the development map - call it the dedevelopment map, the deformation backwards in time. Extrapolated, this map will inevitably have singularities at which its derivative is zero. When the dedevelopment map is inverted to face forward in time, the singularities become appropriately isolated infinities of derivative. We have recently introduced growth visualizations via extrapolations to the isolated singularities at which only one directional derivative is zero. Maps inverse to these create new coordinate patches directionally rather than radically. The most generic singularity that suits this purpose is the crease f(x,y) equals (x,x2y+y3), which has already been applied in morphometrics for the description of focal morphogenetic phenomena. We apply it to embryogenesis in the form of its analytic inverse, and demonstrate its power using a priceless new data set of mouse embryos imaged in 3D by micro-MR with voxels smaller than 100micrometers 3.

  7. Dynamic of Faceted Colloidal Clusters (United States)

    Sindoro, Melinda; Jee, Ah-Young; Yu, Changqian; Granick, Steve


    We study the emulsion induced clustering of faceted metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and their dynamics. Our approach to anisotropic building block is through the rational synthesis of water stable and highly uniform MOFs. This generates colloidal-sized MOFs of defined polyhedral shape with tunable size in micrometer range that are suitable for in situ imaging. The 3D clusters formations are promoted by hydrophilic MOFs particles confined in aqueous droplets of binary water-lutidine mixture at transition temperature. Below this temperature, the water droplet decreases in volume due to one phase mixing with lutidine which forces the N-mers of faceted particles to aggregate in close contact. We compare the faceted clusters formed to those made of spherical particles in term of the building block sphericity. Other focus of our study involves the dynamic of the clusters. We found that, unlike spherical clusters, these faceted N-mers are highly stable on large scale of temperature due to their dominant capillary force on their facet-to-facet contact.

  8. Microscopy and Chemical Inversing Techniques to Determine the Photonic Crystal Structure of Iridescent Beetle Scales in the Cerambycidae Family (United States)

    Richey, Lauren; Gardner, John; Standing, Michael; Jorgensen, Matthew; Bartl, Michael


    Photonic crystals (PCs) are periodic structures that manipulate electromagnetic waves by defining allowed and forbidden frequency bands known as photonic band gaps. Despite production of PC structures operating at infrared wavelengths, visible counterparts are difficult to fabricate because periodicities must satisfy the diffraction criteria. As part of an ongoing search for naturally occurring PCs [1], a three-dimensional array of nanoscopic spheres in the iridescent scales of the Cerambycidae insects A. elegans and G. celestis has been found. Such arrays are similar to opal gemstones and self-assembled colloidal spheres which can be chemically inverted to create a lattice-like PC. Through a chemical replication process [2], scanning electron microscopy analysis, sequential focused ion beam slicing and three-dimensional modeling, we analyzed the structural arrangement of the nanoscopic spheres. The study of naturally occurring structures and their inversing techniques into PCs allows for diversity in optical PC fabrication. [1] J.W. Galusha et al., Phys. Rev. E 77 (2008) 050904. [2] J.W. Galusha et al., J. Mater. Chem. 20 (2010) 1277.

  9. Cooperative dynamics in ultrasoft 2D crystals (United States)

    Sprakel, Joris; van der Meer, Berend; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van der Gucht, Jasper


    The creation, annihilation, and diffusion of defects in crystal lattices play an important role during crystal melting and deformation. Although it is well understood how defects form and react when crystals are subjected to external stresses, it remains unclear how crystals cope with internal stresses. We report a study in which we create a highly localized internal stress, by means of optical tweezing, in a crystal formed from micrometer-sized colloidal spheres and directly observe how the solid reacts using microscopy. We find that, even though the excitation is highly localized, a collective dance of colloidal particles results; these collective modes take the form of closed rings or open-ended strings, depending on the sequence of events which nucleate the rearrangements. Surprisingly, we find from Brownian Dynamics simulations that these cooperative dynamics are thermally-activated modes inherent to the crystal, and can even occur through a single, sufficiently large thermal fluctuation, resulting in the irreversible displacement of 100s of particles from their lattice sites.

  10. Review on subsurface colloids and colloid-associated contaminant transport in saturated porous media. (United States)

    Kanti Sen, Tushar; Khilar, Kartic C


    In this review article, the authors present up-to-date developments on experimental, modeling and field studies on the role of subsurface colloidal fines on contaminant transport in saturated porous media. It is a complex phenomenon in porous media involving several basic processes such as colloidal fines release, dispersion stabilization, migration and fines entrapment/plugging at the pore constrictions and adsorption at solid/liquid interface. The effects of these basic processes on the contaminant transport have been compiled. Here the authors first present the compilation on in situ colloidal fines sources, release, stabilization of colloidal dispersion and migration which are a function of physical and chemical conditions of subsurface environment and finally their role in inorganic and organic contaminants transport in porous media. The important aspects of this article are as follows: (i) it gives not only complete compilation on colloidal fines-facilitated contaminant transport but also reviews the new role of colloidal fines in contaminant retardation due to plugging of pore constrictions. This plugging phenomenon also depends on various factors such as concentration of colloidal fines, superficial velocity and bead-to-particle size ratio. This plugging-based contaminant transport can be used to develop containment technique in soil and groundwater remediation. (ii) It also presents the importance of critical salt concentration (CSC), critical ionic strength for mixed salt, critical shear stressor critical particle concentration (CPC) on in situ colloidal fines release and migration and consequently their role on contaminant transport in porous media. (iii) It also reviews another class of colloidal fines called biocolloids and their transport in porous media. Finally, the authors highlight the future research based on their critical review on colloid-associated contaminant transport in saturated porous media.

  11. Aalborg Inverter - A New Type of “Buck in Buck, Boost in Boost” Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Ji, Junhao; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This paper presents a new family of high efficiency dc/ac grid-tied inverter with a wide variation of input dc voltage. It is a “boost in boost, buck in buck” inverter, meaning that only one power stage works at high frequency in order to achieve minimum switching loss. The minimum voltage drop...... is larger than the magnitude of the ac voltage, it is a voltage-source inverter, and on the contrary it is current-source inverter in the other mode. A 220 V/50 Hz/ 2000 W prototype has been constructed. Simulations and experiments show that it has a good control and system performance....

  12. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.


    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  13. Cluster Crystals Stabilized by Hydrophobic and Electrostatic Interactions. (United States)

    Baumketner, A; Stelmakh, A; Cai, W


    Cluster crystals are crystalline materials in which each site is occupied by multiple identical particles, atoms, colloids, or polymers. There are two classes of systems that make cluster crystals. One is composed of particles that interact via potentials that are bound at the origin and thus are able to penetrate each other. The other consists of non-interpenetrating particles whose interaction potential diverges at the origin. The goal of this work is to find which systems of the second class can make cluster crystals that are stable at room temperature. First, the general properties of the required potentials are established using an analytical model and Monte Carlo simulations. Next, we ask how such potentials can be constructed by combining hydrophobic attraction and electrostatic repulsion. A colloid model with a hard-sphere core and a repulsive wall is introduced to mimic the hydrophobic interaction. Charge is added to create long-range repulsion. A search in the parameter space of the colloid size, counterion type, and charge configuration uncovers several models for which effective colloid-colloid interaction, determined in explicit solvent as a potential of mean force, has the necessary shape. For the effective potential, cluster crystals are confirmed as low free-energy configurations in replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations, which also generate the respective transition temperature. The model that exhibits a transition above room temperature is further studied in explicit solvent. Simulations on a 10 ns time scale show that crystalline conformations are stable below the target temperature but disintegrate rapidly above it, supporting the idea that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are sufficient to induce an assembly of cluster crystals. Finally, we discuss which physical systems are good candidates for experimental observations of cluster crystals.

  14. Current trends in protein crystallization. (United States)

    Gavira, José A


    Proteins belong to the most complex colloidal system in terms of their physicochemical properties, size and conformational-flexibility. This complexity contributes to their great sensitivity to any external change and dictate the uncertainty of crystallization. The need of 3D models to understand their functionality and interaction mechanisms with other neighbouring (macro)molecules has driven the tremendous effort put into the field of crystallography that has also permeated other fields trying to shed some light into reluctant-to-crystallize proteins. This review is aimed at revising protein crystallization from a regular-laboratory point of view. It is also devoted to highlight the latest developments and achievements to produce, identify and deliver high-quality protein crystals for XFEL, Micro-ED or neutron diffraction. The low likelihood of protein crystallization is rationalized by considering the intrinsic polypeptide nature (folded state, surface charge, etc) followed by a description of the standard crystallization methods (batch, vapour diffusion and counter-diffusion), including high throughput advances. Other methodologies aimed at determining protein features in solution (NMR, SAS, DLS) or to gather structural information from single particles such as Cryo-EM are also discussed. Finally, current approaches showing the convergence of different structural biology techniques and the cross-methodologies adaptation to tackle the most difficult problems, are presented. Current advances in biomacromolecules crystallization, from nano crystals for XFEL and Micro-ED to large crystals for neutron diffraction, are covered with special emphasis in methodologies applicable at laboratory scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of Tartrate Crystallization in Wine by Hydrocolloids : The Mechanism Studied by Dynamic Light Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhorst, Peter P.; Voogt, Benjamin; Tuinier, Remco; Lefol, Blandine; Pellerin, Patrice; Virone, Cristiana


    Young wines are supersaturated in potassium bitartrate, which induces rather uncontrolled crystallization processes. Delayed crystallization may occur even after bottling of the young wines, which is undesirable because it gives rise to a visual defect in the wine. Colloids such as mannoproteins,

  16. Mn3O4 nano-sized crystals: Rapid synthesis and extension to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to preparation of nanosized LiMn2O4 materials. XIAO-LING CUI ... applications such as magnetic storage media, catalysis, electrodes, ion .... of ethanol. After similar processes with the rapid prepa- ration of nano-sized Mn3O4 crystals, a black colloidal solution containing nano-sized Mn3O4 crystals and the preferred lithium ...

  17. Electrokinetics and behavior near the interface of colloidal particles in non-polar dispersions. (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj; Strubbe, Filip; Beunis, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan


    The electrokinetics and charging of nonpolar colloidal dispersions subjected to a voltage are investigated by electric current and optical measurements. From electric current measurements in response to an alternating triangular voltage with a peak value of a few hundred volts, we find that polystyrene toner particles are compacted near the electrodes and their charge increases by more than a factor of 20. The important increase of charge is interpreted by a mechanism in which counter charges, which are originally at the particle surface, are desorbed. Optical measurements performed under a dc voltage of the order of a few hundred volts demonstrate that the charge of the particles can again decrease or even be inverted. These phenomena are attributed to the movement of counter charged species from the interface layers onto the surface of the particles. The findings of this study are relevant for electrophoretic displays and liquid toner printing.

  18. Size Segregation in Sheared Jammed Colloids (United States)

    Mbi, Armstrong; Blair, Daniel


    It is well known that granular materials can spontaneously size segregate when continuously driven. However, in jammed colloidal suspensions, this phenomenon is not well understood. Colloidal dispersions provide a unique system to study the structure and dynamics of jammed matter. In this talk, we present results of size segregation of a continuously sheared binary colloidal suspension well above point J. Our colloidal system is comprised of indexed-matched bi-disperse silica particles with diameters a = { 2 . 3 μm and 3 . 2 μm } and at ϕ 61 % , well above the colloidal glass transition. We apply a highly controlled shear at a constant shear rate through the use of a rheometer. By coupling our rheometer with a high-speed laser scanning confocal microscope, we directly image the structure and flow profiles of the suspension as it un-jams. We observe migration of the small and large species; large particles move to the top while the small particles move toward the bottom conserving the total volume fraction in all regions. Moreover, we find that an associating feature of segregation is a sustained shear band. Our results are consistent with a recently proposed void filling and squeeze expulsion mechanism. Funding is provided by NSF DMR #0847490.

  19. Sine-wave three phase resonance inverter for operation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    conventional and simple solution to this requirement are in the following [8]. Using conventional H-bridge inverter beside of a step-up transformer. Using a renewable energy source with sufficiently large output voltage, which may be realized by a string of series connected modules followed by an H-bridge inverter [12], [13].

  20. Human Mobile Inverted Pendulum Transporter - a Mechatronic System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Michael Møller; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    , which nevertheless illustrates the potentials of unifying classical engineering technologies (mechanics, electronics, control systems) with modern high-efficient inverter-fed permanent magnet AC motors and the latest MEMS sensor technology. A full-scale fully operational prototype of a two-wheel mobile...... inverted pendulum has been built based on the presented design....

  1. Modified impedance source inverter for power conditioning system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... generalized discussion and design of impedance network elements are presented. Comparison with the classical impedance source inverter is presented. Using simulation, analytical results are presented that ensure stability. The proposed voltage type inverter has reduced inrush current at startup, less capacitor voltage ...

  2. Multiple-load series resonant inverter for induction cooking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sharath Kumar

    In addition, it can achieve efficient and stable zero voltage switching operation in the whole load range. The proposed control scheme is simulated and experimentally verified with two-load inverter configuration. Keywords. Induction cooking; multiple load; series resonant inverter; ZVS; pulse density modulation control. 1.

  3. Requirements of inverted roofs with a drainage layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimer, Hans-Peter; Rode, Carsten; Künzel, Hartwig


    This contribution illustrates the application of the standard EN ISO 6946 regarding the heat loss of an inverted roof for different regions of Europe. An addendum to the standard (EN ISO 6946:1996/A1, 2003) introduces a correction to the thermal transmittance of inverted roofs due to rain water f...

  4. Power system services provided by inverter connected distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For the last few years there has been a significant increase of DER units in Denmark, of those units more and more are connected to the power system using inverters. These inverter connected units have the potential to support the electrical power system with various power system services. One...

  5. Three-phase inverter for small high speed motors (United States)

    Mccormick, John A.; Valenzuela, Javier A.


    A high-frequency three-phase inverter is being developed to drive a miniature centrifugal compressor which is a key component in a long-life space-borne cryocooler. The inverter is a unique transformer-coupled design, tailored to the low-voltage high-current characteristic of the compressor's induction motor. The design and performance demonstration of a breadboard model of the inverter are described. The cryocooler uses a reverse-Brayton cycle with turbomachines to provide 5 watt of cooling at 70 K. The design target for input power to the compressor motor is 175 watts. Line-to-neutral phase voltage waveforms to be supplied by the inverter have an amplitude of 15 volt-rms at a frequency of 8 kHz. DC power at 28 volt is supplied to the inverter. The breadboard inverter was tested with a preliminary development model of the compressor. It drove the compressor over a range of operating conditions encompassing frequencies of 5 to 9 kHz at powers of 56 to 437 watt. Inverter efficiencies, calculated from experimentally verified loss models, ranged from 89 to 95 percent over the tests. The design target on efficiency is 90 percent. The inverter was demonstrated to supply starting current adequate to overcome the starting friction of the compressor's self-acting gas bearings by a safe margin.

  6. Three Phase Soft Commutation Auxilary Resonant Pole Inverter


    Vaclav Sladecek


    This paper covers the circuit modification of the power part of the inverter with auxiliary resonant poles utilising configuration of switches realised with routinely produced IGBT modules. Covered is also the control optimisation which goal is the minimisation of switching of the auxiliary resonant pole. Presented results were gained on a prototype of an inverter laboratory sample.

  7. Trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P. C.; Li, D.


    for buck-boost energy conversion with all the favourable advantages of multi-level switching retained. This paper presents three-level trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter topology, which achieves both the advantages of trans-Z-source and three-level NPC inverter configuration. With proper...

  8. Five-level Z-source diode-clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, F.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This study proposes a five-level Z-source diode-clamped inverter designed with two intermediate Z-source networks connected between the dc input sources and rear-end inverter circuitry. By partially shorting the Z-source networks, new operating states not previously reported for two-level Z...

  9. A precursor-limited nanoparticle coalescence pathway for tuning the thickness of laterally-uniform colloidal nanosheets: the case of SnSe. (United States)

    Vaughn, Dimitri D; In, Su-Il; Schaak, Raymond E


    The availability of high-quality colloidal nanosheets underpins a diverse range of applications and investigations into dimension-dependent physical properties. To facilitate this, synthetic methods that yield single-crystal colloidal nanosheets with regular shapes, uniform lateral dimensions, and tunable thicknesses are critically important. Most strategies that yield colloidal nanosheets achieve some, but not all, of these morphological characteristics. Here, we describe a synthetic pathway that generates colloidal nanosheets of SnSe with uniform lateral dimensions and tunable thicknesses. SnSe represents an excellent prototype system for studying the formation of colloidal nanosheets because of its layered crystal structure and the growing interest in its potential application as an absorption layer in low-cost photovoltaic devices. Freestanding colloidal SnSe nanosheets were synthesized by slowly heating a one-pot reaction mixture of SnCl(2), oleylamine, trioctylphosphine selenide (TOP-Se), and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) to 240 °C. The SnSe nanostructures adopt a uniform square-like morphology with lateral dimensions of approximately 500 nm × 500 nm, and the average nanosheet thicknesses can be tuned from approximately 10 to 40 nm by adjusting the concentrations of the SnCl(2) and TOP-Se reagents. Aliquot studies reveal fundamental insights into how the nanosheets form: they first "grow out" laterally via coalescence of individual nanoparticle building blocks to yield a single-crystal nanosheet template and then "grow up" vertically (through nanoparticle attachment to the nanosheet template) in a pseudo layer-by-layer fashion. Vertical growth is therefore limited, and can be controlled, by reagent concentration. Drop-cast films of the SnSe nanosheets are photoactive and have a bandgap of approximately 1 eV. These studies, demonstrated for SnSe but potentially applicable to other systems, establish a straightforward pathway for tuning the thicknesses of

  10. Color from hierarchy: Diverse optical properties of micron-sized spherical colloidal assemblies (United States)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Utech, Stefanie; England, Grant T.; Shirman, Tanya; Phillips, Katherine R.; Koay, Natalie; Burgess, Ian B.; Kolle, Mathias; Weitz, David A.; Aizenberg, Joanna


    Materials in nature are characterized by structural order over multiple length scales have evolved for maximum performance and multifunctionality, and are often produced by self-assembly processes. A striking example of this design principle is structural coloration, where interference, diffraction, and absorption effects result in vivid colors. Mimicking this emergence of complex effects from simple building blocks is a key challenge for man-made materials. Here, we show that a simple confined self-assembly process leads to a complex hierarchical geometry that displays a variety of optical effects. Colloidal crystallization in an emulsion droplet creates micron-sized superstructures, termed photonic balls. The curvature imposed by the emulsion droplet leads to frustrated crystallization. We observe spherical colloidal crystals with ordered, crystalline layers and a disordered core. This geometry produces multiple optical effects. The ordered layers give rise to structural color from Bragg diffraction with limited angular dependence and unusual transmission due to the curved nature of the individual crystals. The disordered core contributes nonresonant scattering that induces a macroscopically whitish appearance, which we mitigate by incorporating absorbing gold nanoparticles that suppress scattering and macroscopically purify the color. With increasing size of the constituent colloidal particles, grating diffraction effects dominate, which result from order along the crystal’s curved surface and induce a vivid polychromatic appearance. The control of multiple optical effects induced by the hierarchical morphology in photonic balls paves the way to use them as building blocks for complex optical assemblies—potentially as more efficient mimics of structural color as it occurs in nature. PMID:26290583

  11. Influence of heteroaggregation processes between intrinsic colloids and carrier colloids on cerium(III) mobility through fractured carbonate rocks. (United States)

    Tran, Emily; Klein Ben-David, Ofra; Teutch, Nadya; Weisbrod, Noam


    Colloid facilitated transport of radionuclides has been implicated as a major transport vector for leaked nuclear waste in the subsurface. Sorption of radionuclides onto mobile carrier colloids such as bentonite and humic acid often accelerates their transport through saturated rock fractures. Here, we employ column studies to investigate the impact of intrinsic, bentonite and humic acid colloids on the transport and recovery of Ce(III) through a fractured chalk core. Ce(III) recovery where either bentonite or humic colloids were added was 7.7-26.9% Ce for all experiments. Greater Ce(III) recovery was observed when both types of carrier colloids were present (25.4-37.4%). When only bentonite colloids were present, Ce(III) appeared to be fractionated between chemical sorption to the bentonite colloid surfaces and heteroaggregation of bentonite colloids with intrinsic carbonate colloids, precipitated naturally in solution. However, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and colloid stability experiments reveal that in suspensions of humic acid colloids, colloid-facilitated Ce(III) migration results only from the latter attachment mechanism rather than from chemical sorption. This observed heteroaggregation of different colloid types may be an important factor to consider when predicting potential mobility of leaked radionuclides from geological repositories for spent fuel located in carbonate rocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483176X; Imhof, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145641600


    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  13. Inorganic passivation and doping control in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Hoogland, Sjoerd H.


    We discuss strategies to reduce midgap trap state densities in colloidal quantum dot films and requirements to control doping type and magnitude. We demonstrate that these improvements result in colloidal quantum dot solar cells with certified 7.0% efficiency.

  14. Improving generalized inverted index lock wait times (United States)

    Borodin, A.; Mirvoda, S.; Porshnev, S.; Ponomareva, O.


    Concurrent operations on tree like data structures is a cornerstone of any database system. Concurrent operations intended for improving read\\write performance and usually implemented via some way of locking. Deadlock-free methods of concurrency control are known as tree locking protocols. These protocols provide basic operations(verbs) and algorithm (ways of operation invocations) for applying it to any tree-like data structure. These algorithms operate on data, managed by storage engine which are very different among RDBMS implementations. In this paper, we discuss tree locking protocol implementation for General inverted index (Gin) applied to multiversion concurrency control (MVCC) storage engine inside PostgreSQL RDBMS. After that we introduce improvements to locking protocol and provide usage statistics about evaluation of our improvement in very high load environment in one of the world’s largest IT company.

  15. Modifications to Battery chargers and inverters Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, Florent


    Over-exceeding the seismic specifications of the nuclear industry has always been the top priority of AEG Power Solutions. Since the Forsmark event, and especially since the Fukushima Daichi accident, utilities have reviewed their specifications. As a consequence, safety related battery chargers and inverters have to withstand higher acceleration levels. Simulation, design and test procedures are key drivers of the battery charger and inverter industry. Forces analysis through simulation is the first step of the product design process. The CAD drawings of our equipment, including the mechanical frame of the cabinet and the internal components, are used for the simulation of vibration. In the frame of 10 Hz, most new specifications show higher values, with higher constraints on our equipment. Our nuclear product range has been adapted to these new requirements. PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards), as key components in charge of the regulation and monitoring of the load, are first separately tested during the design phase, as a specific component. They are subjected to the following tests: Critical load analysis, Thermal imaging, Climatic test, Vibration and shock test. Then the complete equipment will follow a complete test program, including: Type test, EMC test, Seismic test, Aging test. Technology is key in achieving goals in terms of robustness and reliability of battery chargers and inverters. AEG Power Solutions renewed its entire range of products in 2011-2013 and made relevant choices. By updating its complete range of nuclear products, AEG Power Solutions is now offering a new range of solutions to the nuclear industry which minimize the risk of component obsolescence, in case of product replacement on existing nuclear power plants, or of new construction. In order to increase the product reliability and to facilitate the qualification programs of the products, the decision was made to offer 100% analogue technology (Software free). The different regulation and

  16. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  17. On Invertible Sampling and Adaptive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishai, Yuval; Kumarasubramanian, Abishek; Orlandi, Claudio


    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) is one of the most general and well studied problems in cryptography. We focus on MPC protocols that are required to be secure even when the adversary can adaptively corrupt parties during the protocol, and under the assumption that honest parties cannot reliably...... erase their secrets prior to corruption. Previous feasibility results for adaptively secure MPC in this setting applied either to deterministic functionalities or to randomized functionalities which satisfy a certain technical requirement. The question whether adaptive security is possible for all...... functionalities was left open. We provide the first convincing evidence that the answer to this question is negative, namely that some (randomized) functionalities cannot be realized with adaptive security. We obtain this result by studying the following related invertible sampling problem: given an efficient...

  18. Scalar field cosmologies with inverted potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, B.; Giacomini, H.; Polarski, D.


    Regular bouncing solutions in the framework of a scalar-tensor gravity model were found in a recent work. We reconsider the problem in the Einstein frame (EF) in the present work. Singularities arising at the limit of physical viability of the model in the Jordan frame (JF) are either of the Big Bang or of the Big Crunch type in the EF. As a result we obtain integrable scalar field cosmological models in general relativity (GR) with inverted double-well potentials unbounded from below which possess solutions regular in the future, tending to a de Sitter space, and starting with a Big Bang. The existence of the two fixed points for the field dynamics at late times found earlier in the JF becomes transparent in the EF

  19. Scalar field cosmologies with inverted potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisseau, B.; Giacomini, H. [Université de Tours, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, CNRS/UMR 7350, 37200 Tours (France); Polarski, D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Université Montpellier and CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France)


    Regular bouncing solutions in the framework of a scalar-tensor gravity model were found in a recent work. We reconsider the problem in the Einstein frame (EF) in the present work. Singularities arising at the limit of physical viability of the model in the Jordan frame (JF) are either of the Big Bang or of the Big Crunch type in the EF. As a result we obtain integrable scalar field cosmological models in general relativity (GR) with inverted double-well potentials unbounded from below which possess solutions regular in the future, tending to a de Sitter space, and starting with a Big Bang. The existence of the two fixed points for the field dynamics at late times found earlier in the JF becomes transparent in the EF.

  20. Analytical modeling of inverted annular film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.T.; Yadigaroglu, G.


    By employing a two-fluid formulation similar to the one used in the most recent LWR accident analysis codes, a model for the Inverted Annular Film Boiling region is developed. The conservation equations, together with appropriate closure relations are solved numerically. Successful comparisons are made between model predictions and heat transfer coefficient distributions measured in a series of single-tube reflooding experiments. Generally, the model predicts correctly the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on liquid subcooling and flow rate; for some cases, however, heat transfer is still under-predicted, and an enhancement of the heat exchange from the liquid-vapour interface to the bulk of the liquid is required. The importance of the initial conditions at the quench front is also discussed. (orig.)